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Sample records for short-lived bromine nuclides

  1. Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of short-lived nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics.

  2. Very-short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) and inorganic bromine (Bry) in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Schauffler, Sue; Donets, Valeria; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.

    2017-04-01

    Organic very-short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) and inorganic bromine species (Bry) play an important role in the chemistry of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. Their distribution, vertical structure, and variability provide information about sources and transport. In addition, an accurate quantification of the reactive and reservoirs species defines the halogen budget and assists in the assessment of the ozone depletion potential for brominated trace gases. In the last decade, there have been efforts to better understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL), including convection, dehydration, and heterogeneous recycling reactions, which influence the partitioning of the trace gas species that enter the stratosphere. However, uncertainties in the estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere still persist. Based on the measurements of samples collected by the Global Hawk Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) during the NASA-Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and chemistry climate simulations (using CAM-Chem along ATTREX flight tracks), we will examine the vertical distribution of selected organic species in the UT/LS of the Eastern and Western Pacific. We also will describe the budget and partitioning of bromine at the tropical tropopause and evaluate the contribution of bromine to ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere.

  3. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles

  4. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J.; Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

  5. Spatial distribution of brominated very short-lived substances in the eastern Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yina; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Campbell, Lisa; Bianchi, Thomas S.

    2013-05-01

    Seawater concentrations and distributions of brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), including bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), were measured in the upper water column (5-750 m) in the eastern Pacific. Inorganic nutrient, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton cell counts were measured to determine biogeochemical factors that affect the production and distribution of these BrVSLS. Elevated concentrations of BrVSLS were observed in coastal and tropical seawater. Concentration maxima for CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHClBr2 were observed below the mixed layer, near the subsurface chlorophyll a maxima, which suggest BrVSLS production may be related to photosynthetic biomass production. Our results also suggest that heterotrophic bacteria may also contribute to CH2Br2 and CHBrCl2 production in the water column. The maximum CHBrCl2 concentration was observed at a depth much deeper than the euphotic zone, which suggests sources other than photosynthetic biomass. Elevated CHBrCl2 concentrations in deeper waters were coincident with elevated CHCl3 concentrations, which may be an evidence for successive chlorine substitution of CHBr3 in deeper and older water masses.

  6. Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very short-lived substances.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A

    2015-03-17

    Brominated very short-lived substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean.

  7. A Reevaluation of the Contribution of Very Short Lived Bromocarbons to Stratospheric Bromine Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Mount, G. H.; Spinei, E.; Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Choi, S.; Joiner, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has provided global measurements of total column BrO over the past decade. Interpreting the distribution of total column BrO between the stratosphere and troposphere depends strongly on the contribution of very short lived (VSL) bromocarbons to stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry). Salawitch et al. (2010) suggested 7 to 12 ppt of Bry must be supplied to the lower stratosphere from the decomposition of VSL bromocarbons to accurately represent the variation of total column OMI BrO with total column O3. Here we will re-evaluate this recommendation in light of ground-based total column BrO measurements obtained over Fairbanks, Alaska using a multifunction differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument during the spring of 2011. Additionally, we will assess how modifications to kinetics regulating the partitioning between BrO and BrONO2 proposed by Kreycy et al. (2013) affect the VSL Bry estimate as well as the modeled diurnal variation in BrO. ReferencesKreycy, S. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 6263-6274, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6263-2013. Salawitch, R.J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2010, 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798.

  8. Neutron Stars as a Source of the Short-Lived Nuclides in Ap-star Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vera F.; Andrievsky, Sergey M.; Ulyanov, Oleg M.

    2008-05-21

    We propose a new explanation of some magnetic chemically peculiar (MCP) star anomalies, which is based on an assumption that such stars be the close binary systems with a secondary component being a neutron star. Within this hypothesis one can naturally explain the main anomalous features of MCP stars: first of all, an existence of the short-lived radioactive isotopes detected in some stars (like Przybylski's star (PS) and HR465), and some others peculiarities. Also we can assume the presence of the electron-positron annihilation emission lines (0.511 MeV) in the gamma spectrum of some MCP stars.

  9. Precision Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides at The Heavy-Ion Storage Ring in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuhu; Xu, Hushan; Litvinov, Yuri A.

    Recent commissioning of the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou enabled us to conduct high-precision mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou (IMP). In the past few years, mass measurements were performed using the CSRe-based isochronous mass spectrometry employing the fragmentation of the energetic beams of 58Ni, 78Kr, 86Kr, and 112Sn projectiles. Masses of short-lived nuclides of on both sides of the stability valley were addressed. Relative mass precision of down to 10-6-10-7 is routinely achieved. The mass values were used as an input for dedicated nuclear structure and astrophysics studies, providing for instance new insights into the rp-process of nucleosynthesis in X-ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly review the so far conducted experiments and the main achieved results, as well as outline the plans for future experiments.

  10. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.

  11. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Rafael Pedro; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14% when natural VSLBr are considered, in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affect the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by year 2070, and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.

  12. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    DOE PAGES

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean -Francois; ...

    2017-02-03

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960–2100 coupled chemistry–climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ~5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recentlymore » estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. As a result, this work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.« less

  13. First results using a new technology for measuring masses of very short-lived nuclides with very high accuracy: The MISTRAL program at ISOLDE

    SciTech Connect

    Monsanglant, C.; Audi, G.; Conreur, G.; Cousin, R.; Doubre, H.; Jacotin, M.; Henry, S.; Kepinski, J.-F.; Lunney, D.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Toader, C.; Bollen, G.; Lebee, G.; Scheidenberger, C.; Borcea, C.; Duma, M.; Kluge, H.-J.; Le Scornet, G.

    1999-11-16

    MISTRAL is an experimental program to measure masses of very short-lived nuclides (T{sub 1/2} down to a few ms), with a very high accuracy (a few 10{sup -7}). There were three data taking periods with radioactive beams and 22 masses of isotopes of Ne, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Ti were measured. The systematic errors are now under control at the level of 8x10{sup -7}, allowing to come close to the expected accuracy. Even for the very weakly produced {sup 30}Na (1 ion at the detector per proton burst), the final accuracy is 7x10{sup -7}.

  14. Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

  15. [Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

    2009-05-20

    A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect.

  16. First Results Using a New Technology for Measuring Masses of Very Short-Lived Nuclides with Very High Accuracy: the MISTRAL Program at ISOLDE

    SciTech Connect

    C. Monsanglant; C. Toader; G. Audi; G. Bollen; C. Borcea; G. Conreur; R. Cousin; H. Doubre; M. Duma; M. Jacotin; S. Henry; J.-F. Kepinski; H.-J. Kluge; G. Lebee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; M. de Saint Simon; C. Scheidenberger; C. Thibault

    1999-12-31

    MISTRAL is an experimental program to measure masses of very short-lived nuclides (T{sub 1/2} down to a few ms), with a very high accuracy (a few 10{sup -7}). There were three data taking periods with radioactive beams and 22 masses of isotopes of Ne, Na{clubsuit}, Mg, Al{clubsuit}, K, Ca, and Ti were measured. The systematic errors are now under control at the level of 8x10{sup -7}, allowing to come close to the expected accuracy. Even for the very weakly produced {sup 30}Na (1 ion at the detector per proton burst), the final accuracy is 7x10{sup -7}.

  17. On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and Short-Lived Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1997-01-01

    Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these short-lived source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the

  18. On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and Short-Lived Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1997-01-01

    Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these short-lived source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the

  19. Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussidon, Marc; Robert, François; McKeegan, Kevin D.

    2006-01-01

    distributions occurred. Li and Be concentrations measured in different analytical spots are compared with those predicted by using experimentally determined partition coefficients according to a model of closed-system crystallization of the CAI melt. These criteria show that 56% of the spots in melilite, 38% in anorthite, and 8% in fassaite suffered post-crystallization perturbations of Li and/or Be distributions. In the remaining spots, which do not show obvious indication of redistribution of Li or Be, the 7Li/ 6Li isotopic variations (corrected for GCR exposure) are positively correlated with 9Be/ 6Li suggesting the in situ decay of now-extinct 7Be. The derived isochron implies that at the time of its formation, the CAI melt had a 7Be/ 9Be ratio of 0.0061 ± 0.0013 and a 7Li/ 6Li ratio of 11.49 ± 0.13. In contrast, all the spots in 3529-41, which do show evidence for post-magmatic redistribution of Li and Be, have relatively constant 7Li/ 6Li, averaging 11.72 ± 0.56, which is consistent with mass balance calculations for Li isotopic homogenization in the CAI after the decay of 7Be. The incorporation of live 7Be in 3529-41 requires, because of the very short half-life of this nuclide (53 days), that it be produced essentially contemporaneously with the formation of the CAI. Therefore, the irradiation processes responsible for production of 7Be must have occurred within the solar accretion disk. Calculations developed in the framework of the x-wind model [Gounelle, M., Shu, F.H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A.E., Rehm, E.K., Lee, T., 2004. The origin of short-lived radionuclides and early Solar System irradiation (abstract). Lunar Planet. Sci.35, 1829] reproduce the 7Be and 10Be abundances observed in 3529-41. The correlated presence of 7Be and 10Be in 3529-41 is thus a strong argument that 10Be, which is observed rather ubiquitously in CAIs, is also a product of irradiation in the early solar system, as might be a significant fraction of other short-lived radionuclides observed

  20. Fe-Ni and Al-Mg isotope records in UOC chondrules: Plausible stellar source of 60Fe and other short-lived nuclides in the early Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Goswami, J. N.

    2014-05-01

    The short-lived now-extinct nuclide 60Fe, present in the early Solar System, is a unique product of stellar nucleosynthesis. Even though the first hint for its presence in the early Solar System was obtained more than two decades back, a robust value for Solar System initial (SSI) 60Fe/56Fe is yet to be established. A combined study of 26Al-26Mg and 60Fe-60Ni isotope systematics in chondrules from unequilibrated ordinary chondrites of low petrologic type, Semarkona (LL3.0), LEW 86134 (L3.0), and Y 791324 (L3.1), has been conducted to infer the value of SSI 60Fe/56Fe. Seven of the analysed chondrules host resolved radiogenic excess in both 60Ni and 26Mg resulting from in situ decay of the short-lived nuclides 60Fe and 26Al, respectively. The initial 26Al/27Al values for these chondrules range from (6.9 ± 5.8) × 10-6 to (3.01 ± 1.78) × 10-5 that suggest their formation between 2.1 and 0.6 Ma after CAIs. The initial 60Fe/56Fe at the time of formation of these chondrules ranges from (3.2 ± 1.3) × 10-7 to (1.12 ± 0.39) × 10-6 and show a good correlation with their initial 26Al/27Al values suggesting co-injection of the two short-lived nuclides, 60Fe and 26Al, into the protosolar cloud from the same stellar source. Considering 26Al as a reliable early Solar System chronometer, this data set yield a SSI 60Fe/56Fe value of (7.0 ± 1.2) × 10-7, if we adopt a half-life value of 2.6 Ma for 60Fe reported in a recent study. Model stellar nucleosynthesis yields suggest that both a high mass (5-6.5 M⊙) Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) star or a supernova (SN) could be the source of 60Fe and 26Al present in the early Solar System. A high mass (˜25 M⊙) SN appears more plausible because of the much higher probability of its close association with the protosolar molecular cloud than a high mass AGB star. Such a SN can also account for SSI abundance of 26Al and its correlated presence with 60Fe in chondrules.

  1. Comment on “Li and Be isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system,” by M. Chaussidon, F. Robert, and K.D. McKeegan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desch, S. J.; Ouellette, N.

    2006-11-01

    Recently Chaussidon et al. reported isotopic measurements of the Allende meteorite Ca, Al-rich inclusion (CAI) 3529-41 that they claim as evidence that live 7Be was incorporated into this CAI at the time of its formation [Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., McKeegan, K.D., 2006. Li and Be isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: evidence for the in situ decay of short-lived 10Be and for the possible presence of the short-lived nuclide 7Be in the early solar system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70, 224-245]. They claim their data show excesses of 7Li/ 6Li above the chondritic value, and that the 7Li/ 6Li excesses correlate linearly with 9Be/ 6Li, implying that the excess 7Li arose from the decay of 7Be ( t1/2 = 53 days). In this Comment we dispute this claim. We show that the authors did not statistically analyze their data correctly, and that a linear correlation between 7Li/ 6Li and 9Be/ 6Li can in fact be ruled out. We show that the authors over-corrected for the effects of spallogenic Li, and in fact no statistically significant excesses of 7Li above chondritic ratios exist. Finally, we show that many of the spots in Allende 3529-41 that the authors counted as isotopically undisturbed show evidence of isotopic disturbance. We demonstrate that while their data support the late addition of isotopically light Li in spots with low Be/Li, their data are otherwise consistent with constant 7Li/ 6Li at near-chondritic levels. The data do not provide support for live 7Be in the early Solar System.

  2. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2011-01-01

    All U.S. production of bromine in 2010 came from underground brines in Arkansas. It was the leading mineral commodity produced in the state in terms of value. Albemarle Corp. and Chemtura Corp. recovered bromine.

  3. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The element bromine is found principally as a dissolved species in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. Seawater contains about 65 parts per million of bromine or an estimated 907 Gt (100 trillion st). In the Middle East, the highly saline waters of the Dead Sea are estimated to contain 907 Mt (1 billion st) of bromine. Bromine also may be recovered from seawater as a coproduct during evaporation to produce salt.

  4. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2012-01-01

    The element bromine is found principally as a dissolved species in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. Seawater contains about 65 parts per million of bromine or an estimated 100 Tt (110 trillion st). In the Middle East, the highly saline waters of the Dead Sea are estimated to contain 1 Gt (1.1billion st) of bromine. Bromine is also recovered from seawater as a coproduct during evaporation to produce salt.

  5. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    The entire U.S. production of bromine in 2009 came from underground brines in Arkansas, where it was the leading mineral commodity produced in terms of value. Two companies, Albermarle Corp. and Chemtura Corp., were responsible for bromine recovery. Worldwide, the United States is still the leading producer. However, U.S. dominance has decreased, as countries like China, Israel, Japan and Jordan have strengthened their positions as world producers of elemental bromine.

  6. A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (TransCom-VSLS): linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Patra, P. K.; Leeson, A. A.; Krysztofiak, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Andrews, S. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Aschmann, J.; Atlas, E. L.; Belikov, D. A.; Bönisch, H.; Carpenter, L. J.; Dhomse, S.; Dorf, M.; Engel, A.; Feng, W.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Griffiths, P. T.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hommel, R.; Keber, T.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Maksyutov, S.; Mantle, H.; Mills, G. P.; Miller, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Moore, F.; Navarro, M. A.; Oram, D. E.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Pyle, J. A.; Quack, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Saikawa, E.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Sala, S.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Taguchi, S.; Tegtmeier, S.; Lidster, R. T.; Wilson, C.; Ziska, F.

    2016-07-01

    The first concerted multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) has been performed, within the framework of the ongoing Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom). Eleven global models or model variants participated (nine chemical transport models and two chemistry-climate models) by simulating the major natural bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), over a 20-year period (1993-2012). Except for three model simulations, all others were driven offline by (or nudged to) reanalysed meteorology. The overarching goal of TransCom-VSLS was to provide a reconciled model estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) of bromine from these gases, to constrain the current measurement-derived range, and to investigate inter-model differences due to emissions and transport processes. Models ran with standardised idealised chemistry, to isolate differences due to transport, and we investigated the sensitivity of results to a range of VSLS emission inventories. Models were tested in their ability to reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial distribution of VSLS at the surface, using measurements from NOAA's long-term global monitoring network, and in the tropical troposphere, using recent aircraft measurements - including high-altitude observations from the NASA Global Hawk platform. The models generally capture the observed seasonal cycle of surface CHBr3 and CH2Br2 well, with a strong model-measurement correlation (r ≥ 0.7) at most sites. In a given model, the absolute model-measurement agreement at the surface is highly sensitive to the choice of emissions. Large inter-model differences are apparent when using the same emission inventory, highlighting the challenges faced in evaluating such inventories at the global scale. Across the ensemble, most consistency is found within the tropics where most of the models (8 out of 11) achieve best agreement to surface CHBr3 observations

  7. Direct mass measurements of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.

    PubMed

    Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L

    2011-03-18

    Mass excesses of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)  keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)  keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point.

  8. Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-06-01

    We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

  9. Efficiency of short-lived halogens at influencing climate through depletion of stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Rap, A.; Dhomse, S.; Feng, W.

    2015-03-01

    Halogens released from long-lived anthropogenic substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons, are the principal cause of recent depletion of stratospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas. Recent observations show that very short-lived substances, with lifetimes generally under six months, are also an important source of stratospheric halogens. Short-lived bromine substances are produced naturally by seaweed and phytoplankton, whereas short-lived chlorine substances are primarily anthropogenic. Here we used a chemical transport model to quantify the depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere from short-lived halogen substances, and a radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effects of that ozone depletion. According to our simulations, ozone loss from short-lived substances had a radiative effect nearly half that from long-lived halocarbons in 2011 and, since pre-industrial times, has contributed a total of about -0.02 W m-2 to global radiative forcing. We find natural short-lived bromine substances exert a 3.6 times larger ozone radiative effect than long-lived halocarbons, normalized by halogen content, and show atmospheric levels of dichloromethane, a short-lived chlorine substance not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, are rapidly increasing. We conclude that potential further significant increases in the atmospheric abundance of short-lived halogen substances, through changing natural processes or continued anthropogenic emissions, could be important for future climate.

  10. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  11. Inter-laboratory comparisons of short-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.

    PubMed

    Klemola, S K

    2008-01-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-lives shorter than 1h. The total number of short-lived nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful.

  12. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, P; Buitenhuis, H J T; Diblen, F; Heeres, P N; Biegun, A K; Fiedler, F; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; Brandenburg, S

    2015-12-07

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of (10)C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: (12)N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of (11)C), (29)P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of (30)P) and (38m)K (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of (38g)K). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, (12)N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, (12)N dominates over (15)O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of (12)N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, (12)N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of (12)N PET imaging is discussed.

  13. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.

  14. Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

  15. Convective transport of very-short-lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ∼8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, ∼150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (∼7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total ∼8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at ∼150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute ∼7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a ∼2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt).

  16. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  17. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  18. Nuclides Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-07-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  19. Workshop on Cosmogenic Nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C. (Editor); Englert, P. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the Workshop on Cosmogenic Nuclides are compiled. The major topic areas covered include: new techniques for measuring nuclides such as tandem accelerator and resonance mass spectrometry; solar modulation of cosmic rays; pre-irradiation histories of extraterrestrial materials; terrestrial studies; simulations and cross sections; nuclide production rate calculations; and meteoritic nuclides.

  20. Have we underestimated the role of short-lived chlorine compounds in ozone depletion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, David; Laube, Johannes; Sturges, Bill; Gooch, Lauren; Leedham, Emma; Ashfold, Matthew; Pyle, John; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    In recent years much attention has been focussed on the potential of bromine-containing VSLS (very short lived substances) to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is primarily due to the large observed discrepancy between the measured inorganic bromine in the stratosphere and the amount of bromine available from known, longer lived sources gases (halons and CH3Br). In contrast, the role of very short-lived chlorine compounds (VSLS-CL) has been considered trivial because they contribute only a few percent to the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, the majority of which is supplied by long-lived compounds such as the CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. However recent evidence shows that one VSLS-Cl, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) has increased by 60% over the past decade (WMO, 2014) and has already begun to offset the long-term decline in stratospheric chlorine loading caused by the reduction in emissions of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. We will present new VSLS-Cl measurements from recent ground-based and aircraft campaigns in SE Asia where we have observed dramatic enhancements in a number of VSLS-Cl, including CH2Cl2. Furthermore we will demonstrate how pollution from China and the surrounding region can rapidly, and regularly, be transported across the South China Sea and subsequently uplifted to altitudes of 11-12 km, the region close to the lower TTL. This process occurs frequently during the winter monsoon season and could represent a fast and efficient mechanism for transporting short-lived compounds, and other pollutants, to the lower stratosphere.

  1. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  2. SU-C-204-07: The Production of Short-Lived Positron Emitters in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Buitenhuis, H J T; Dendooven, P; Biegun, A K; Goethem, M-J van; Graaf, E R van der; Brandenburg, S; Diblen, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the production and effect of short-lived positron emitters when using PET for in-vivo range verification during a proton therapy irradiation. Methods: The integrated production of short-lived positron emitters in the stopping of 55 MeV protons was measured in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium targets. The experimental production rates are used to calculate the production on PMMA and a representative set of 4 tissue materials. The number of decays integrated over an irradiation in these materials is calculated as function of the duration of the irradiation, considering irradiations with the same total number of protons. Results: The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12-N (T1/2 = 11 ms) on carbon (9.5% of the 11-C production), 29-P (T1/2 = 4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of the 30-P production) and 38m-K (T1/2 = 0.92 s) on calcium (113% of the 38g-K production). No short-lived nuclides are produced on water. The most noticeable Result is that for an irradiation in (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12-N will dominate the PET image up to an irradiation duration of 70 s. On bone tissue, 15-O dominates over 12-N after 7–15 s (depending on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio). Conclusions: The presence of 12-N needs to be considered in PET imaging during proton beam irradiations as, depending on tissue composition and PET scanning protocol, it may noticeably deteriorate image quality due to the large positron range blurring. The results presented warrant investigations into the energy-dependent production of 12-N, 29-P and 38m-K and their effect on PET imaging during proton irradiations.

  3. Nuclide production by primary cosmic-ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in the solar system and in interstellar space were calculated for the primary protons in the galactic and solar cosmic rays. At 1 AU, the long-term average fluxes of solar protons usually produce many more atoms of a cosmogenic nuclide than the primary protons in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR), the exceptions being nuclides made only by high-energy reactions (like /sup 10/Be). Because the particle fluxes inside meteorites and other large objects in space include many secondary neutrons, the production rates are much higher and ratios inside large objects are often very different from those by just the primary GCR protons in small objects. The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides are calculated to vary by about factors of 2.5 during at typical 11-year solar cycle, in agreement with measurements of short-lived radionuclides in recently fallen meteorites. The production of cosmogenic nuclides by the GCR particles outside the heliosphere is higher than that by the modulated GCR primaries normally in the solar system. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the fluxes of interstellar protons and, therefore, in the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in interstellar space. Production rates and ratios for cosmogenic nuclides would be able to identify particles that were small in space or that were exposed to an unmodulated spectrum of GCR particles. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Variation of short-lived beta radionuclide (radon progeny) concentrations and the mixing processes in the atmospheric boundary layer.

    PubMed

    Veleva, B; Valkov, N; Batchvarova, E; Kolarova, M

    2010-07-01

    Radon is emitted to the atmosphere with quasi constant emission rates depending on the radium concentration in the earth's crust and soil physical properties. In this way, the 222Rn and 220Rn concentration in air reflects significantly the thickness of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The aerosol-associated, beta-emitting progeny nuclides of 222Rn were measured daily in the framework of the atmospheric radioactivity monitoring program of NIMH at Sofia. The 214Pb concentration was estimated from the measured short-lived beta activity of 24-h filter samples, changed daily at 6:00 GMT. The impact of some meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind velocity, humidity, and temperature on short-lived beta radionuclides is estimated, and the results show no simple statistical relationship. A seasonal pattern was observed with winter minima and late summer-early autumn maxima. High variability in daily morning concentrations and mean monthly values was observed. There were well pronounced differences between years. The height of the convective ABL was estimated from daily radio-soundings at 12:00 GMT for the period 2001-2006 and from seven soundings per day during the experimental campaign in Sofia in October 2003. In general, concentrations of short-lived 222Rn progeny nuclides decreased with increased convective ABL height. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beam-on imaging of short-lived positron emitters during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Brzezinski, K. W.; Brandenburg, S.; Dendooven, P.

    2017-06-01

    In vivo dose delivery verification in proton therapy can be performed by positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron-emitting nuclei produced by the proton beam in the patient. A PET scanner installed in the treatment position of a proton therapy facility that takes data with the beam on will see very short-lived nuclides as well as longer-lived nuclides. The most important short-lived nuclide for proton therapy is 12N (Dendooven et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8923-47), which has a half-life of 11 ms. The results of a proof-of-principle experiment of beam-on PET imaging of short-lived 12N nuclei are presented. The Philips Digital Photon Counting Module TEK PET system was used, which is based on LYSO scintillators mounted on digital SiPM photosensors. A 90 MeV proton beam from the cyclotron at KVI-CART was used to investigate the energy and time spectra of PET coincidences during beam-on. Events coinciding with proton bunches, such as prompt gamma rays, were removed from the data via an anti-coincidence filter with the cyclotron RF. The resulting energy spectrum allowed good identification of the 511 keV PET counts during beam-on. A method was developed to subtract the long-lived background from the 12N image by introducing a beam-off period into the cyclotron beam time structure. We measured 2D images and 1D profiles of the 12N distribution. A range shift of 5 mm was measured as 6  ±  3 mm using the 12N profile. A larger, more efficient, PET system with a higher data throughput capability will allow beam-on 12N PET imaging of single spots in the distal layer of an irradiation with an increased signal-to-background ratio and thus better accuracy. A simulation shows that a large dual panel scanner, which images a single spot directly after it is delivered, can measure a 5 mm range shift with millimeter accuracy: 5.5  ±  1.1 mm for 1  ×  108 protons and 5.2  ±  0.5 mm for 5  ×  108 protons. This makes

  6. Very Short-lived Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.

  7. Impact of Very Short-live Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of short-lived bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.

  8. Studies of images of short lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The program to study short-lived events with the ERTS-1 satellite has evaluated 97 events reported by the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. Forty-eight of these events were listed as candidates for ERTS-1 coverage and 8 of these were considered significant enough to immediately alert the ERTS operation staff by telephone. Studies of the images received from six events indicate that useful data on short-lived events can be obtained from ERTS-1 that would be difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods.

  9. Bayes’ Theorem and Early Solar Short-lived Radionuclides: The Case for an Unexceptional Origin for the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Edward D.

    2016-08-01

    The presence of excesses of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system evidenced in meteorites has been taken as testament to close encounters with exotic nucleosynthetic sources, including supernovae or AGB stars. An analysis of the likelihoods associated with different sources of these extinct nuclides in the early solar system indicates that, rather than being exotic, their abundances were typical of star-forming regions like those observed today in the Galaxy. The radiochemistry of the early solar system is therefore unexceptional, being the consequence of extensive averaging of solids from molecular clouds.

  10. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Chemistry of Very Short Lived Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

    2014-05-01

    Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important short-lived gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.

  12. Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from Short-Lived Halogens and Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu

    2014-05-01

    Halogens released from very short-lived substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.

  13. Cosmogenic nuclides in football-sized rocks.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wahlen, M.; Honda, M.; Imamura, M.; Fruchter, J. S.; Finkel, R. C.; Kohl, C. P.; Arnold, J. R.; Reedy, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    The activity of long- and short-lived isotopes in a series of samples from a vertical column through the center of rock 14321 was measured. Rock 14321 is a 9 kg fragmental rock whose orientation was photographically documented on the lunar surface. Also investigated was a sample from the lower portion of rock 14310, where, in order to study target effects, two different density fractions (mineral separates) were analyzed. A few nuclides in a sample from the comprehensive fines 14259 were measured. This material has been collected largely from the top centimeter of the lunar soil. The study of the deep samples of 14321 and 14310 provided values for the activity of isotopes at points where only effects produced by galactic cosmic rays are significant.

  14. (Development of Bromine-77 from the LAMPF facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the work was to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of bromine-77 labeled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. This report presents progress on the following tasks: An initial investigation concentrating on the radiobromination at carbon-6 or carbon-7 in selected simple steroids utilizing the nuclides, bromine-82 and bromine-77, analytical spectroscopy of radiolabeled compounds, and investigating the biodistribution, toxicology and tumor affinity of labeled agents.

  15. Rubberized, Brominated Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W.; Kourtides, D.; Parker, J.; Nir, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy composite materials made with resins containing bromine and rubber additives. New composites tougher and more resistant to fire. Flame resistance increased by introducing bromine via commercial brominated flame-retartant polymeric additives.

  16. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria

    2015-11-10

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions.

  17. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Donets, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry−climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4−9) parts per thousand] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212

  18. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the

  19. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  20. How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short-lived bromocarbons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly

  1. How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short lived bromocarbons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.

  2. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  3. Short-lived Be and Be In Refractory Inclusions From 7 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Meteorite, The

    The source of 26Al [1] and other short-lived radioactive nuclides (e.g. 41Ca or 53Mn) found in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) of chondritic meteorites is still controversial between the tenants of an external seeding of the protosolar nebula (e.g. by supernova produced Al) and the tenants of an internal source of 26 26Al within the solar system (e.g. by irradiation processes occurring in the vicinity of the young Sun). The resolution of this issue is of importance for (i) early solar system chronology and for (ii) models of the formation of the solar system. Recently we showed that 10Be, which decays to B with a half-life of 1.5 My, was 10 also incorporated in CAIs during their formation [2]. The incorporation of 10 Be in CAIs is a strong hint for the existence of irradiation processes that may have occurred in the early solar system, producing 10Be and a fraction (or all) of other extinct radioactive nuclides. However, because of its long half life, 10Be could have been produced by spallation reactions taking place in supernovae envelopes and transported into the protosolar nebula. To progress in this debate we have looked for traces of another short-lived isotope of Be, Be which decays to Li 7 7 with a half life of 53 days. Large Li isotopic variations have been found in a few Allende CAIs, with 7Li excesses positively correlated to Be/Li concentration ratios. These observations are best explained by the incorporation of lived Be in 7 CAIs during their formation. The Be/10Be ratio which is deduced for CAIs is of 7 220+/-130, i.e. close within errors to the production ratio modelled for irradiation processes at low energy around the young Sun. Because of its very short half life of 53 days, the presence of Be in CAIs demonstrates that Be (and 7 7 10Be) were produced within the solar system. It is also a strong indication that the formation of CAIs was likely linked in space and time to these irradiation processes. [1] T. Lee, D. Papanastassiou and G. J

  4. Short-lived chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode

    2005-02-01

    Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of short-lived chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are approximately 5 x 10(-6). Different from other short-lived radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > or = 1.6 x 10(-4) at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of short-lived nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189-L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475-1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051-1070]. Furthermore, the short-lived 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes.

  5. Short-lived chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode

    2005-01-01

    Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of short-lived chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are ≈5 × 10-6. Different from other short-lived radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > 1.6 × 10-4 at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of short-lived nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189–L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475–1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051–1070]. Furthermore, the short-lived 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes. PMID:15671168

  6. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  7. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  8. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  9. Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.

    PubMed

    Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

    2003-01-01

    Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping.

  10. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

  11. Nuclide Guide and International Chart of Nuclides - 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golashvili, T.

    2009-08-01

    New versions of Nuclide Guide and Chart of the Nuclides were developed as a result of Russian-Chinese collaboration. The Nuclide Guide contains the basic information on more than 3000 radioactive and stable nuclides. The characteristics of isomers with half-lives more than 1 ms are included. For each nuclide spin, parity, mass of nuclide, magnetic moment (if available), mass excess, half-life or abundance, decay modes, branching ratios, emitted particles, energies of most intense gamma-rays and their intensities, decay energies and mean values of radiation energy per decay are given. For stable and natural long-lived nuclides cross-sections of thermal neutron induced activation are indicated. The information presented in the Guide was compiled from 5 sources: 1) ENSDF-2008, 2) atomic mass evaluation-2005 by Audi and Wapstra, 3) interactive data bases at web-sites , , 4) original evaluations of authors, 5) recent publications. The International Chart ot Nuclides was developed on the basis of information presented in Nuclide Guide.

  12. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  13. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  14. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  15. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  16. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  17. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "short-lived radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.

  18. A micropump driven by electrochemically produced short-lived bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Lemekhov, S. S.; Melenev, A. E.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new working principle for electrochemical micropump with the gas termination time as short as 100 microseconds is presented. It is based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity. A simple electrochemical micropump is designed to demonstrate this pumping principle. The device consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes, inlet and outlet diffusers, and channels for liquid. The chamber and the channels are filled with the electrolyte that plays a role of the pumped liquid. The pump was tested in different regimes. One of these regimes related to formation and termination of short-lived microbubbles is especially promising. Long time stability of the electrodes is demonstrated.

  19. Measures Urged to Cut Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    To produce significant near-term climate benefits, the Obama administration should take a series of actions under existing authorities to reduce greenhouse gases that have relatively short atmospheric lifetimes of weeks to a few decades, according to a 12 March study by the nonprofit Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). The report, "Domestic Policies to Reduce the Near-Term Risks of Climate Change," notes that recent estimates suggest that about 30-40% of warming experienced to date can be attributed to these short-lived pollutants, which include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  20. Chart of the Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Enrico

    1999-03-23

    Nucleus is an interactive PC-based graphical viewer of NUBASE nuclear property data. NUBASE contains experimentally known nuclear properties, together with some values that have been estimated from extrapolation of experimental data for 3010 nuclides. NUBASE also contains data on those isomeric states that have half-lives greater than 1 millisecond; there are 669 such nuclides of which 58 have more than one isomeric state. The latest version of NUCLEUS-CHART has been corrected to include the names and the chemical symbols of the elements 104 to 109 that have been finally adopted by the Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (CNIC) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). They differ from those recommended by the same commission a few years before and that were widely used in the evaluations AME''95 and NUBASE''97. It results in some shuffling of the names and symbols, that may cause confusion in the near future. At AMDC we''ll be as careful as possible to try to avoid such confusion. In advance we apologize if any will occur in the future and recommend the user to always double check these few names.

  1. Inferring neutron capture rates of short-lived isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddick, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on short-lived nuclei play an important role in astrophysical processes such as the rapid neutron capture process. However, these cross sections are difficult to measure in the laboratory. The so-called beta-Oslo technique has been developed for constraining the neutron capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei by combining beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy and the Oslo method to extract nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions. The two quantities are used within the framework of a Hauser-Feshbach model to constrain the neutron capture cross section. The technique will be described and the inferred neutron capture cross sections for a preliminary set of nuclei presented. The experimental reach of the technique at current facilities and eventually at the upcoming Facility for Radioactive Ion Beams (FRIB) as well as the overlap with astrophysical processes will be discussed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. PHY 102511, No. PHY 0822648, No. PHY 1350234 and by the Research Council of Norway, Project Grant No. 205528.

  2. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

  3. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; ...

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less

  4. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  5. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  6. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

  7. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  8. Stratospheric Inorganic Bromine Loading Inferred from CONTRAST BrO and Organic Bromine Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Wales, P.; Nicely, J. M.; Anderson, D. C.; Canty, T. P.; Atlas, E. L.; Schauffler, S.; Donets, V.; Lueb, R.; Navarro, M. A.; Apel, E. C.; Blake, N. J.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Riemer, D. D.; Chen, D.; Huey, L. G.; Tanner, D.; Volkamer, R. M.; Koenig, T. K.; Baidar, S.; Dix, B. K.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Wolfe, G.; Hanisco, T. F.; Hall, S. R.; Ullmann, K.; Fernandez, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Honomichl, S.; Pan, L.

    2016-12-01

    The CONvective TRansport of Active Species in the Tropics (CONTRAST) and Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) aircraft campaigns sampled the tropical Western Pacific in the winter of 2014. In this region, strong convection provides an efficient pathway to transport very short lived (VSL) biogenic bromocarbons and their degradation products from the marine boundary layer to the stratosphere, where they contribute to ozone depletion. A stratospheric tracer-tracer relation will be developed based on CONTRAST and ATTREX whole air sampler observations of CFC-11, a commonly measured stratospheric tracer, and bromocarbons. This relation will be used to calculate the release of inorganic bromine both from VSL source gas injection and from long-lived bromocarbons as a function of CFC-11. Additionally, a photochemical box model will be used to infer inorganic bromine loading using CONTRAST BrO observations taken in the lower stratosphere using CIMS and DOAS instruments. The inferred inorganic bromine loading will be combined with the tracer-tracer relation to provide an estimate of VSL product gas injection. This work will provide an observations-based method for calculating stratospheric inorganic bromine loading from CFC-11 to be used in future modelling studies.

  9. Unconventional Nuclides for Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jason P.; Williamson, Matthew J.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and widespread growth in the use of nuclear medicine for both diagnosis and therapy of disease has been the driving force behind burgeoning research interests in the design of novel radiopharmaceuticals. Until recently, the majority of clinical and basic science research has focused on the development of 11C-, 13N-, 15O-, and 18F-radiopharmaceuticals for use with positron emission tomography (PET) and 99mTc-labeled agents for use with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With the increased availability of small, low-energy cyclotrons and improvements in both cyclotron targetry and purification chemistries, the use of “nonstandard” radionuclides is becoming more prevalent. This brief review describes the physical characteristics of 60 radionuclides, including β+, β−, γ-ray, and α-particle emitters, which have the potential for use in the design and synthesis of the next generation of diagnostic and/or radiotherapeutic drugs. As the decay processes of many of the radionuclides described herein involve emission of high-energy γ-rays, relevant shielding and radiation safety issues are also considered. In particular, the properties and safety considerations associated with the increasingly prevalent PET nuclides 64Cu, 68Ga, 86Y, 89Zr, and 124I are discussed. PMID:20128994

  10. Bloch-Sensitive Nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Talbot A.

    2005-03-01

    Documented condensed matter nuclear science includes Fleischmann and Pons radiationless dd fusion reactions, Iwamura alpha-addition transmutations, and Oriani MeV particle showers. All require partitioned coherent matter in which fractions of each single ``wave like" particle are entangledootnotetextT. A. Chubb, ``Bloch Nuclides, Iwamura Transmutations, and Oriani Showers", ICCF11 Abstract. If the work required to bring side-by-side deuterons into contact is somehow reduced enough, an energy-minimizing 2-body anti-correlation form of wave function replaces the "molecule" configuration, allowing cold fusion. In the Iwamura process, a second fusion step fuses 2 spin-zero ^4He^2^+Bloch ions to form ^8Be^4^+Bloch. The nuclear ground state energy of the product nucleus is a function of the number of fragments into which it is partitioned. It is ``Bloch sensitive", i.e., its energy level is a function of Nwell, the number of potential wells into which the ^8Be^4^+Bloch is partitioned. The dependence of energy on lattice parameter Nwell strongly couples nuclear and electromagnetic forces at the boundary of the coherently ordered volume, causing energy transfer to the lattice.

  11. Brominated VSLS and their influence on ozone under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Stefanie; Sinnhuber, Björn-Martin; Krysztofiak, Gisèle; Jöckel, Patrick; Graf, Phoebe; Lennartz, Sinikka T.

    2017-09-01

    Very short-lived substances (VSLS) contribute as source gases significantly to the tropospheric and stratospheric bromine loading. At present, an estimated 25 % of stratospheric bromine is of oceanic origin. In this study, we investigate how climate change may impact the ocean-atmosphere flux of brominated VSLS, their atmospheric transport, and chemical transformations and evaluate how these changes will affect stratospheric ozone over the 21st century. Under the assumption of fixed ocean water concentrations and RCP6.0 scenario, we find an increase of the ocean-atmosphere flux of brominated VSLS of about 8-10 % by the end of the 21st century compared to present day. A decrease in the tropospheric mixing ratios of VSLS and an increase in the lower stratosphere are attributed to changes in atmospheric chemistry and transport. Our model simulations reveal that this increase is counteracted by a corresponding reduction of inorganic bromine. Therefore the total amount of bromine from VSLS in the stratosphere will not be changed by an increase in upwelling. Part of the increase of VSLS in the tropical lower stratosphere results from an increase in the corresponding tropopause height. As the depletion of stratospheric ozone due to bromine depends also on the availability of chlorine, we find the impact of bromine on stratospheric ozone at the end of the 21st century reduced compared to present day. Thus, these studies highlight the different factors influencing the role of brominated VSLS in a future climate.

  12. Probing the tropical tropopause layer for organic and inorganic bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Atlas, Elliot; Cheung, Ross; Chipperfield, Martyn; Colosimo, Fedele; Deutschmann, Tim; Elkins, Jim; Fahey, David; Feng, Wu; Festa, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hossaini, Ryan; Navarro, Maria; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Spolaor, Max; Thornberry, Troy; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the photochemistry and budget of bromine in the tropical upper troposphere, tropopause layer and lowermost stratosphere (UT/TTL/LS). These regions are also known to serve as a gateway for delivery of ozone depleting gases to the stratosphere. CH3Br, halons, short-lived organic bromine precursors (VSLS), such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and possibly inorganic product gases have been identified as the main bromine gases delivered to the stratosphere. However, many important details of the transport and delivery of VSLS and inorganic bromine compounds through the TTL are still uncertain. Moreover, a number of chemical processes, including the transformation of the source gases and cycling of inorganic bromine species at low ambient temperature and on ice particles are also poorly understood. The presentation reports measurements of CH4, O3, NO2, and BrO performed by different instruments and techniques during the 2013 NASA-ATTREX flights in the TTL and LS. The interpretation of our measurements is supported by chemical transport model (SLIMCAT) simulations. SLIMCAT results, in conjunction with extensive radiative transfer calculations using the Monte Carlo model McArtim, also are used to improve retrieval of O3, NO2, and BrO concentrations from limb scattered sunlight measurements made with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during ATTREX. The chemical transport model also allows us to attribute observed concentration variations to transport and to photochemical processes. When properly accounting for the transport-related concentration variations in methane and ozone, we find that measured BrO mostly agrees with model simulations. An exception are regions where the contribution of the short-lived CH2Br2 or the

  13. Beta Decay Studies of Short Lived Barium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendall, Charles Skipwith

    The half-lives and relative intensities of several short lived neutron rich isotopes, with atomic numbers between 54 and 57, produced in the spontaneous fission of californium-252 were determined. This was accomplished from the study of the time variation of the K X-ray yields of these isotopes. A transport system which allowed us to study isotopes with half-lives less than 10 seconds was developed. Mass assignments were made by comparing the experimental values of the half-lives with known values. A beta K X-ray coincidence technique was used to obtain the barium beta spectrum in coincidence with lanthanum K X -rays. A Kurie plot was performed on the spectrum to determine the beta groups. The probable origin of each beta group was determined through a comparison of the relative intensities of the isotopes and beta groups. Four beta groups probably from the decay of Ba-145 were revealed. The end point energies of these beta groups are 3870 (+OR-) 432 keV, 2772 (+OR-) 112 keV, 1894 (+OR-) 58 keV, and 746 (+OR-) 38 keV. The three lowest energy groups have not been observed before.

  14. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    PubMed

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  15. Shunt detection with the short-lived radioactive gases.

    PubMed

    Watson, D D

    1980-01-01

    Conventional radionuclide techniques are limited by their inability to deliver noninvasively a compact bolus of radionuclide indicator into the left heart. This can be accomplished by the inhalation of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide. The inhaled carbon dioxide passes freely across the alveolar membrane and enters the carbonate cycle, which, under the accelerating influence of carbonic anhydrase, transfers the oxygen-15 tracer onto water in the pulmonary venous blood. The result is an abrupt tracer delivery to the pulmonary venous system with subsequent tracer input to the left heart at a rate limited only by the pulmonary blood flow. These properties of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide have been used to develop a specialized indicator-dilution method for quantitation of left-to-right cardiac shunt flow. The results agree well with those obtained by oxymetry at cardiac catheterization. In clinical application, the ease and reliability of this technique are remarkable. Its use is presently limited to clinical facilities with the capability for on-line production of the short-lived gases. The techniques provide a good example of the utilization of biologically active radiopharmaceuticals and are a potentially useful source of information about the hemodynamic properties of the central circulatory system.

  16. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  17. Novel biogenic iodine-containing trihalomethanes and other short-lived halocarbons in the coastal East Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, L. J.; Malin, G.; Liss, P. S.; Küpper, F. C.

    2000-12-01

    Reactive halogen photochemistry and its impact on tropospheric oxidant levels have recently attracted intense research interest following the observation of the iodine oxide radical at midlatitudes. During September 1998, short-lived organoiodines including CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2, and the hitherto undetected CHIBr2, as well as the organobromines CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CH3Br, and C2H5Br, were measured in air and seawater at and around Mace Head, on the west coast of Ireland. The release rates of organic bromines and iodines from seaweeds were determined from incubations of 10 species of brown, red, and green macroalgae collected in the intertidal or subtidal zones of the rocky shore. For all the brown algae studied, iodine was released mainly as CH2I2. However, for several seaweeds, the novel iodine-containing trihalomethanes CHIBr2 and CHI2Cl represented a significant fraction of the released organic iodine. The macroalgae incubation experiments as well as monitoring of the in situ concentrations in a rock pool indicated that natural halocarbon production by seaweeds was stimulated by incident light. The halocarbon fluxes derived from the seaweed incubations, coupled with published detailed biomass surveys, enabled coastal organohalogen seawater concentrations to be estimated. The CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHBr2Cl concentrations calculated by this method compared well with coastal surface seawater measurements, implying that macroalgae were the major sources of the polybromomethanes. Measured CH3Br, CH3I, and CH2ICl levels were higher than calculated, which may be due to the existence of additional sources. CH3Br production by macroalgae accounted for less than 10% of measured levels in coastal waters. Short-lived iodocarbons such as CH2I2 and CHIBr2 were depleted in surface seawater compared to calculated levels, implying their photolytic loss within the upper water column.

  18. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  19. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  20. Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration, but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far, only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. Aims: (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus, explore its dynamical past, and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. Methods: Our analysis is based on the results of N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations by the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycenter of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit, more stable trajectories are possible and we present 2010 EU65 as a long-term horseshoe librator candidate in urgent need of follow-up observations. Available data indicate that the candidate 2000 SN331 is not a Uranus' co-orbital. Conclusions: Our calculations confirm that (83982) Crantor is currently trapped in the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus but it is unlikely to be a primordial 1:1 librator. Although this object follows a chaotic, short-lived horseshoe orbit, longer term horseshoe stability appears to be possible. We also confirm that high-order resonances with Saturn play a major role in destabilizing the orbits of Uranus co-orbitals. Figures 2 and 6 (animations) are available in

  1. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

  2. Short-lived halocarbons efficient at influencing climate through ozone loss in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Steven; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu

    2015-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are a significant source of atmospheric bromine, chlorine and iodine. Due to relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months), VSLS breakdown in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), where ozone perturbations drive a disproportionately large climate impact compared to other altitudes. Here we present chemical transport model simulations that quantify VSLS-driven ozone loss in the UTLS and infer the climate relevance of these ozone perturbations using a radiative transfer model. Our results indicate that through their impact on UTLS ozone, VSLS are efficient at influencing climate. We calculate a whole atmosphere global mean radiative effect (RE) of -0.20 (-0.16 to -0.23) Wm-2 from natural and anthropogenic VSLS-driven ozone loss, including a tropospheric contribution of -0.12 Wm-2. In the stratosphere, the RE due to ozone loss from natural bromine-containing VSLS (e.g. CHBr3, CH2Br2) is almost half of that from long-lived anthropogenic compounds (e.g. CFCs) and normalized by equivalent chlorine is ~4 times larger. We show that the anthropogenic chlorine-containing VSLS, not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, also contribute to ozone loss in the UTLS and that the atmospheric concentration of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), the most abundant of these, is increasing rapidly. Finally, we present evidence that VSLS have made a small yet previously unrecognized contribution to the ozone-driven radiative forcing of climate since pre-industrial times of -0.02 (-0.01 to -0.03) Wm-2. Given the climate leverage that VSLS possess, future increases to their emissions, either through continued industrial or altered natural processes, may be important for future climate forcing.

  3. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  4. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  5. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  6. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  7. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D

    2005-10-24

    The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.

  8. Yields of short-lived fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)

    SciTech Connect

    Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; England, T.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic bromine using airborne in-situ measurements of brominated hydrocarbons in the Western Pacific during SHIVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Stephan; Bönisch, Harald; Keber, Timo; Oram, Dave; Mills, Graham; Engel, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbons play a major role as precursors for stratospheric ozone depletion. Released from the surface in the troposphere, the halocarbons reach the stratosphere via transport through the tropical tropopause layer. The contribution of the so called very short lived species (VSLS), having atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year as sources gases for stratospheric bromine is significant. Source gas observations of long-lived bromine compounds and VSLS have so far not been able to explain the amount of bromine derived in the stratosphere from observations of BrO and modeling of the ratio of BrO to total bromine. Due to the short lifetimes and the high atmospheric variability, the representativeness of the available observations of VSLS source gases remains unclear, as these may vary with region and display seasonal variability. During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset with over 700 samples of ambient air of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic bromine (long lived halocarbons: H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402 and CH3Br, very short lived substances: CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CHBrCl) have been collected from onboard the FALCON aircraft in the West Pacific region. Measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia. We will present the datasets, compare these to other observation, derive a bromine budget for the West Pacific and derive an estimate of the amount of bromine from VSLS reaching the stratosphere. Using the mean mixing ratios in the upper troposphere of the halocarbons mentioned above, the calculated budget of the total organic

  10. 247Cm as a Short-lived r-Process Chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J. B.; Schramm, D. N.

    1973-06-01

    Nucleocosmochronological studies1-3 have used two short-lived isotopes (relative to the age of the Solar System), 129I(τ1/2 = 1.7 × 107 yr) and 244Pu(τ1/2 = 8.2 × 107 yr). Short-lived isotopes provide valuable information about the early history of the Solar System and, in particular, about meteorite parent bodies. Additional short-lived chronometers, particularly if created by different nucleosynthetic processes, would be very useful. The two isotopes 129I and 244Pu are believed to be produced (essentially) entirely by the r-process.

  11. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Festa, James; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Fedele; Cheung, Ross; Deutschmann, Tim; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Navarro, Maria; Atlas, Elliot; Chipperfield, Martyn; Hossaini, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Bromine plays an important role for the chemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was deployed onboard NASA's UAV Global Hawk during the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) during a series of flights into the eastern and western Pacific tropopause layer (flight altitudes up to 18 km), which is a gateway to the stratosphere. The measurement methodology to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. Observations of BrO, NO2 and O3 and of other trace species, in particular of brominated hydrocarbons are compared with simulations of the SLIMCAT CTM and interpreted with respect to photochemistry and the budget of bromine within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

  12. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Of significance are the continued detection and analysis of such short-lived events as forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes.

  13. Production of a short-lived filament by a surge. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1976-01-01

    An unusual solar event is investigated in which a short-lived cloud, very much like a filament, was formed by ejecta from a large surge. The temporal evolution of this surge is described, and evidence is presented which indicates that the short-lived cloud was a bona fide filament. The energetics of this event and the mass of the surge are estimated from radio and X-ray data obtained at the onset.

  14. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  15. The very short-lived ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2014-05-01

    CHBr3 (bromoform) is a short-lived atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of short-lived brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (Λ) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, σ(Λ,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being

  16. Solid bromine complexers

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.

    1987-01-20

    The cell of the invention comprises a housing, a zinc or cadmium anode, a chemically non-reactive counterelectrode and cathodic halogen. The cathodic halogen is selected from chlorine and bromine, and preferably is bromine. The cell also is provided with an aqueous metal halide containing electrolyte in which the metal ions are of the same metal as the metal of the anode and halide anions are of the same halogen as the cathodic halogen material. Importantly, in the present invention, anion exchange resins provide a convenient means for storing the halogen generated during charging of the cell and providing a source of halogen to be used in the discharge of the cell.

  17. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, J.; Spolaor, M.; Festa, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Colosimo, S. F.; Cheung, R.; Werner, B.; Deutschmann, T.; Scalone, L.; Raecke, R.; Tricoli, U.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Navarro, M. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors, such as CHBr3, CH2Br2 and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A number of chemical processes, including the role of ice particles for the transformation and cycling of inorganic bromine species are also poorly understood. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument was deployed on-board NASA's unmanned high-altitude Global Hawk aircraft during the 2011, 2013, and 2014 NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX). Flights in the eastern and western Pacific were performed to study, among other topics, the chemistry of bromine and ozone in the subtropical and tropical UTLS. Here we will present observations of BrO, NO2 and other trace species made by this instrument at altitudes between 15 - 20 km. The measurement methodology as well as the procedure to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. The combination of those observations with the measurements of organic bromine species from the University of Miami's Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) will be used to determine and interpret the bromine budget in the UTLS.

  18. Vehicle emissions of short-lived and long-lived climate forcers: trends and tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morgan R; Klemun, Magdalena M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Winkler, Sandra L; Tamor, Michael A; Trancik, Jessika E

    2017-08-24

    Evaluating technology options to mitigate the climate impacts of road transportation can be challenging, particularly when they involve a tradeoff between long-lived emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived emissions (e.g., methane or black carbon). Here we present trends in short- and long-lived emissions for light- and heavy-duty transport globally and in the U.S., EU, and China over the period 2000-2030, and we discuss past and future changes to vehicle technologies to reduce these emissions. We model the tradeoffs between short- and long-lived emission reductions across a range of technology options, life cycle emission intensities, and equivalency metrics. While short-lived vehicle emissions have decreased globally over the past two decades, significant reductions in CO2 will be required by mid-century to meet climate change mitigation targets. This is true regardless of the time horizon used to compare long- and short-lived emissions. The short-lived emission intensities of some low-CO2 technologies are higher than others, and thus their suitability for meeting climate targets depends sensitively on the evaluation time horizon. Other technologies offer low intensities of both short-lived emissions and CO2.

  19. Spatio-temporal characterisation of short-lived surface-groundwater interactions using streambed thermal signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Gabriel; Halloran, Landon; Cuthbert, Mark; Andersen, Martin; Acworth, Ian; Tellam, John

    2017-04-01

    Streamflow cessation and drying occurs in the majority of the world's river networks, yet the spatio-temporal dynamics of short-lived surface-groundwater interactions are poorly understood. We develop a new method to characterise water flow in variably saturated dryland streambeds based on the depth propagation of the diurnal temperature amplitude ratio. A contrast in thermal signatures between dry or saturated conditions can be used to detect and characterise short-lived stream flow and surface-groundwater interactions. We deployed 10 streambed arrays to measure temperature and pressure time series along a 12 km stretch of a dryland channel where the groundwater is monitored at 4 locations by piezometers located in the alluvium. Analyses of the thermal signatures in conjunction with the pressure records illustrate that short-lived surface-groundwater interactions are complicated and highly variable in space and time. Thermal signatures were used to categorise short-lived surface-groundwater interactions into distinct hydrological regimes: (1) dry channel, (2) surface runoff, (3) pool-riffle sequences, (4) drying pools. Our analyses demonstrates that the rate of redistribution of infiltrated water controls the duration of the pool-riffle sequences regime, which either leads to ephemeral or intermittent stream flow behaviour. This subsurface water redistribution is determined by the hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium, i.e. the heterogeneity of sediments along the channel. Our new approach can be used to investigate how short-lived flow underpins dryland ecology, influences water quality and leads to groundwater recharge.

  20. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  1. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  2. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  3. Impact of Reducing Short-Lived Air Pollutants on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Fiore, A. M.; Levy, H.

    2010-12-01

    Most studies to date have quantified the impact of short-lived air pollutants on climate in terms of radiative forcing, where radiative forcing is calculated based on changes in forcing agent distributions induced by emission perturbations simulated in a chemistry-transport model (CTM). Here, we employ the GFDL AM3 model to investigate the impact of a change in the emissions of short-lived air pollutants on the coupled chemistry-climate system (including stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and cloud-aerosol interactions). We present results from two simulations conducted in support of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The base case simulation uses prescribed mean 1981-2000 sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover taken from the historical simulations conducted for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) in support of the IPCC-AR5. Concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of short-lived pollutants are for the year 2000. The perturbation simulation uses the same configuration except the short-lived pollutant emissions are reduced to 1860 values (77% decrease for NOx, 54% decrease for CO, 70% NMVOCs, 95% SO2, 58% BC and 35% OC). Our initial analysis indicates that the troposphere and stratosphere respond in opposite ways to the reduction in short-lived pollutants. While tropospheric ozone burden decreases (by 18% or 64 Tg on an annual average), stratospheric ozone increases, particularly over the poles. This pre-industrial to present change in tropospheric ozone is somewhat smaller than prior CTM estimates, suggesting an important influence from stratosphere-troposphere interactions. We will examine the differences in atmospheric circulation, temperature and precipitation, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, oxidizing capacity and aerosol distributions in the two simulations, with the goal of advancing our understanding of the role of short-lived pollutants

  4. 2016 Update of the discoveries of nuclides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoennessen, M.

    The 2016 update of the discovery of nuclide project is presented. Only 12 new nuclides were observed for the first time in 2016. A large number of isotopes are still only published in conference proceedings or internal reports. No changes to earlier assignments were made.

  5. Sensitivity of Ozone to Bromine in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Kovalenko, L. J.; Sioris, C. E.; Wennberg, P. O.; Chance, K.; Ko, M. K. W.; McLinden, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of BrO suggest that inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)) at and above the tropopause is 4 to 8 ppt greater than assumed in models used in past ozone trend assessment studies. This additional bromine is likely carried to the stratosphere by short-lived biogenic compounds and their decomposition products, including tropospheric BrO. Including this additional bromine in an ozone trend simulation increases the computed ozone depletion over the past approx.25 years, leading to better agreement between measured and modeled ozone trends. This additional Br(sub y) (assumed constant over time) causes more ozone depletion because associated BrO provides a reaction partner for ClO, which increases due to anthropogenic sources. Enhanced Br(sub y) causes photochemical loss of ozone below approx.14 km to change from being controlled by HO(sub x) catalytic cycles (primarily HO2+O3) to a situation where loss by the BrO+HO2 cycle is also important.

  6. Sensitivity of Ozone to Bromine in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Kovalenko, L. J.; Sioris, C. E.; Wennberg, P. O.; Chance, K.; Ko, M. K. W.; McLinden, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of BrO suggest that inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)) at and above the tropopause is 4 to 8 ppt greater than assumed in models used in past ozone trend assessment studies. This additional bromine is likely carried to the stratosphere by short-lived biogenic compounds and their decomposition products, including tropospheric BrO. Including this additional bromine in an ozone trend simulation increases the computed ozone depletion over the past approx.25 years, leading to better agreement between measured and modeled ozone trends. This additional Br(sub y) (assumed constant over time) causes more ozone depletion because associated BrO provides a reaction partner for ClO, which increases due to anthropogenic sources. Enhanced Br(sub y) causes photochemical loss of ozone below approx.14 km to change from being controlled by HO(sub x) catalytic cycles (primarily HO2+O3) to a situation where loss by the BrO+HO2 cycle is also important.

  7. Bromine accumulations in pine trees growing around bromine production plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tainter, F.H.; Bailey, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    Soil and pine foliage samples were collected from 92 plots located around five bromine production plants in union and Columbia Counties, Arkansas, during January-February 1977. Analysis of pine tissues for the major salt components of brine showed that bromine was the only component accumulating in these tissues and that the amount of bromine decreases exponentially with the distance from the emission sources. Bromine content in plots closest to the sources ranged from 170-550 ppM in 1-year-old needles and from 140-1000 ppM in 2-year-old needles. Some visible injury was evident in trees growing closer than 0.48 km from the sources, but tissues with bromine contents of 800 to 1000 ppM from the closest plots exhibited no visible injury. Bromine did not accumulate in organic litter or in the soil.

  8. New nuclide sup 263 Ha

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, J.V.; Gober, M.K.; Zimmermann, H.P. ); Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Schimpf, E. ); Gregorich, K.E.; Tuerler, A.; Hannink, N.J.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. ); Gaeggeler, H.; Jost, D.; Kovacs, J.; Scherer, U.W.; Weber, A. )

    1992-03-01

    A new nuclide {sup 263}Ha was produced in the bombardment of a {sup 249}Bk target with 93-MeV {sup 18}O ions. It was detected via spontaneous fission counting and was shown to have a half-life of about 0.5 min. This activity was also separated from the reaction products by automated rapid chemical separations using cation-exchange chromatography in 0.05{ital M} {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid. After chemical separation, {sup 263}Ha was found to decay by spontaneous fission (57{sub {minus}15}{sup +13}%) and by {alpha} emission ({ital E}{sub {alpha}}=8.35 MeV, 43%) with a half-life of 27{sub {minus}7}{sup +10} s. The spontaneous fission fragment energy spectrum is compatible with an average total kinetic energy of about 200 MeV.

  9. Cosmogenic Nuclides Study of Large Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutzler, A.; Smith, T.; Rochette, P.; Bourles, D. L.; Leya, I.; Gattacceca, J.

    2014-09-01

    Six large iron meteorites were selected (Saint-Aubin, Mont-Dieu, Caille, Morasko, Agoudal, and Gebel Kamil). We measured stable and radiogenic cosmogenic nuclides, to study pre-atmospheric size, cosmic-ray exposure ages and terrestrial ages.

  10. Bromine and thyroid hormone activity.

    PubMed Central

    Allain, P; Berre, S; Krari, N; Laine, P; Barbot, N; Rohmer, V; Bigorgne, J C

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To examine the possible consequences of high plasma concentrations of bromine on thyroid hormone. METHODS--Bromine was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the plasma of 799 patients consulting for thyroid disorders. Because the mean (SD) bromine concentration in the plasma of healthy subjects is 4 (1) mg/l, concentrations above 6 mg/l were regarded as outside the normal range. Bromine, free thyroxine (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) values were compared. RESULTS--The percentage of patients with normal, low, and high FT4 and TSH plasma activities, measured separately, did not differ between patients with low and high bromine concentrations. The percentage of patients with high TSH but normal FT4 values was significantly higher in the group with bromine values of more than 6 mg/l than in the group with bromine concentrations below this (p < 0.02). CONCLUSION--An increase in plasma bromine could potentiate an increase in plasma TSH concentration, probably as a consequence of a minor inhibitory effect on thyroid activity. PMID:8320326

  11. A Simulation of Bromoform's Contribution to Stratospheric Bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, J. Eric; Douglass, Anne R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many chlorinated and brominated compounds that are inert in the troposphere are destroyed in the stratosphere and act as an in-situ source of stratospheric reactive chlorine and bromine. Other halogenated compounds that are reactive in the troposphere might contribute to the stratosphere's halogen budget in two ways. First, like their unreactive companions, rapid convective transport might carry them to the upper troposphere and make them available for subsequent advection by the mean circulation into the stratosphere before they are oxidized or photolyzed. Second, it is more likely that they are destroyed in the troposphere, and the chlorine and bromine that is released might then be transported to the stratosphere. We evaluate the relative influence of these processes on stratospheric bromine in a three-dimensional chemistry and transport model which simulates the distribution of bromoform (CHBr3). CHBr3 is parameterized as a short-lived, ocean-surface source gas whose destruction by photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl (OH) in the troposphere and stratosphere yields inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Many of the observed features of CHBr3 are simulated well, and comparisons with observations are used to show that the model represents aspects of transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that are critical to the evaluation. In particular, the model maintains the observed troposphere-stratosphere distinctness in transport pathways and reproduces the observed seasonal dependence of the mixture of air in the middle- and high-latitude lowermost stratosphere. We estimate that adding CHBr3 to models which already include the long-lived organic brominated compounds (halons and methyl bromide) will increase the simulated stratospheric mass of Br(sub y) by about 15 percent. In-situ stratospheric destruction of CHBr3 produces Br(sub y) in amounts which are comparable to that transported into the stratosphere after photolysis and oxidation of CHBr3 in the

  12. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  13. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  14. Correction factors for the determination of bromine with NAA through the activation of {sup 79}Br

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S.R.; Landsberger, S.

    1994-12-31

    The study of environmental aerosol samples often includes analysis of the element bromine. This element is found in most environments and has both anthropogenic and natural sources. Bromine is a trace element in the uncontrolled particulate emissions of oil combustion at utilities, industrial processes with iron and steel, and also a by-product of gypsum production. A major source for bromine in urban areas has been auto emissions. In rural and remote areas, bromine quite often emanates from marine origin. In fact Bottenheim et al. have examined the depletion of ozone during the Arctic sunrise and its correlation to the increase of bromine. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been used as an elemental detection method in aerosol and other environmental samples for many elements including bromine. However, Tobler et al. indicated that corrections must be made in calculations of bromine concentrations due to the {sup 79}Br(n, {gamma}){sup 80m}Br {yields} {sup 80}Br reaction. The {sup 80m}Br has a half-life of 4.2 h, while {sup 80}Br has a half-life of 17.7 min. Since for short-lived NAA, the irradiation, decay, and counting times vary, it is desirable to have an equation that will account for the additional {sup 80}Br resulting from {sup 80m}Br. This equation may then be used in any NAA irradiation/decay/counting scheme. The derivation of such an equation, discussion of errors, and validation using experimental results are discussed in this paper.

  15. M-Track: detecting short-lived protein-protein interactions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zuzuarregui, Aurora; Kupka, Thomas; Bhatt, Bhumika; Dohnal, Ilse; Mudrak, Ingrid; Friedmann, Christina; Schüchner, Stefan; Frohner, Ingrid E.; Ammerer, Gustav; Ogris, Egon

    2012-01-01

    We developed a protein-proximity assay in yeast based on fusing a histone lysine methyltransferase onto a bait and its substrate onto a prey. Upon binding, the prey is stably methylated and detected by methylation-specific antibodies. We applied this approach to detect varying interaction affinities among proteins in a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to detect short-lived interactions between protein phosphatase 2A and its substrates that have so far escaped direct detection. PMID:22581371

  16. Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily; Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2015-02-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the strength of selection for resistance increases with longevity. In a single locus model of innate resistance to a frequency-dependent, sterilizing disease, longer lived hosts evolved resistance more rapidly than short-lived hosts. Moreover, resistance in long-lived hosts could only be polymorphic for more costly and more extreme resistance levels than short-lived hosts. The increased rate of evolution occurred in spite of longer generation times because longer-lived hosts had both a longer period of exposure to disease as well as higher disease prevalence. Qualitatively similar results were found when the model was extended to mortality-inducing diseases, or to density-dependent transmission modes. Our study shows that the evolutionary dynamics of host resistance is determined by more than just levels of resistance and cost, but is highly sensitive to the life-history traits of the host.

  17. Subpopulations of long-lived and short-lived T cells in advanced HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, Marc K.; Hoh, Rebecca A.; Hanley, Mary Beth; Cesar, Denise; Lee, Daniel; Neese, Richard A.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Antigenic stimulation of T cells gives rise to short-lived effector cells and long-lived memory cells. We used two stable isotope-labeling techniques to identify kinetically distinct subpopulations of T cells and to determine the effect of advanced infection with HIV-1. Long-term deuterated water (2H2O) incorporation into DNA demonstrated biphasic accrual of total and of memory/effector (m/e)–phenotype but not naive-phenotype T cells, consistent with the presence of short-lived and longer-lived subpopulations within the m/e-phenotype T cell pool. These results were mirrored by biphasic die-away kinetics in m/e- but not naive-phenotype T cells after short-term 2H-glucose labeling. Persistent label retention was observed in a subset of m/e-phenotype T cells (presumably memory T cells), confirming the presence of T cells with very different life spans in humans. In advanced HIV-1 infection, much higher proportions of T cells were short-lived, compared to healthy controls. Effective long-term anti-retroviral therapy restored values to normal. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that long-lived and quiescent T cells do indeed predominate in the T cell pool in humans and determine T cell pool size, as in rodents. The greatest impact of advanced HIV-1 infection is to reduce the generation of long-lived, potential progenitor T cells. PMID:12975480

  18. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  19. Bromine function in halite geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Billo, S.M. )

    1991-06-01

    Of the halogens or salt formers, bromine is the only nonmetal which occurs naturally as a poisonous liquid much denser than water. The power of its atoms, expressed by a valence of 1 and 5, makes it unite directly with a large number of metallic elements to form salts. As a rare and strongly electronegative element of group VII in the periodic table, bromine exists in seawater and evaporitic brines as bromide with a ratio to chlorinity of 0.00348. Most water detains only about 1 ppm bromide for each 300 ppm of chloride. The most abundant source of bromine is ocean water (65 ppm Br), but richer peps occur in salt deposits and primarily in mineral brines. Atomic absorption spectrophotometric resolutions of Permian Castile halites exposed low values of bromine compared with its higher quantities in modern oceans like the Mediterranean. Bromine analyses of the two petrographically distinct forms of halite that characterize many ancient evaporite deposits, as in the Elk Point basin fields of Alberta, imply they crystallized from brines of noticeably different concentrations. Bromine in halite has been used as a paleosalinity indicator and a stratigraphic marker. Bromine liquid, with an atomic weight of 79.904 and atomic number 35, is used in producing gasoline antiknock mixtures, fumigants, photographic chemicals, drilling fluids, and fire retardants. It is also highly toxic and corrosive as bromine gas. Bromine contents greater than 1 ppm may be unsafe in the atmosphere, and a dose of 500 ppm can lead to death in less than an hour.

  20. Surficial Studies of Mars Using Cosmogenic Nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) are produced by cosmic-ray nuclear interactions with target nuclei in rocks, soils, ice, and the atmosphere. Cosmogenic nuclides have been widely used for investigation of solar system matter for several decades. Stable nuclides, such as He-3, Ne-21, and Ar-38, are built up over time as the surface is exposed to cosmic rays. The concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides, such as Be-10, Al-26, and C-14 also build up with exposure time but reach saturation values after several half-lives. Especially since the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), CNs in terrestrial samples have been routinely used for geomorphic studies such as glaciation, surface erosion, and tectonics, and studies of atmospheric and ocean circulation. Cosmogenic nuclides on Mars will be able to answer questions of exposure ages, erosion rates, tectonic events, and deposition rates of sediments and/or volatiles. The concentrations of cosmogenic stable nuclides give the integrated exposure time of the rock/mineral, and the activities of radionuclides give recent records for times back as long as a few half-lives.

  1. Surficial Studies of Mars Using Cosmogenic Nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) are produced by cosmic-ray nuclear interactions with target nuclei in rocks, soils, ice, and the atmosphere. Cosmogenic nuclides have been widely used for investigation of solar system matter for several decades. Stable nuclides, such as He-3, Ne-21, and Ar-38, are built up over time as the surface is exposed to cosmic rays. The concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides, such as Be-10, Al-26, and C-14 also build up with exposure time but reach saturation values after several half-lives. Especially since the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), CNs in terrestrial samples have been routinely used for geomorphic studies such as glaciation, surface erosion, and tectonics, and studies of atmospheric and ocean circulation. Cosmogenic nuclides on Mars will be able to answer questions of exposure ages, erosion rates, tectonic events, and deposition rates of sediments and/or volatiles. The concentrations of cosmogenic stable nuclides give the integrated exposure time of the rock/mineral, and the activities of radionuclides give recent records for times back as long as a few half-lives.

  2. Production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The high-energy particles in the galactic cosmic rays, (GCR) can produce nuclides deep in any object exposed to them. These cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides have been extensively studied during the last four decades, mainly in meteorites and lunar samples (e.g., 1,2). In extraterrestrial matter, several approaches have been used to determine the production systematics of these cosmogenic nuclides. Production rates of most cosmogenic nuclides in the Earth axe much lower, especially those nuclides made ``in situ`` in the Earth`s surface. Many of these @trial cosmogenic nuclides are only now being measured because of improved techniques, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). There have been very few determinations of the production rates of nuclides made in the Earth by cosmic rays. The work being done for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides is following the approaches used for, studying the production of extraterrestrial nuclides.

  3. The effect of representing bromine from VSLS on the simulation and evolution of Antarctic ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 World Meteorological Organization Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric bromine (Bry) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as bromine from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Bry are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite. In addition, the near-zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Bry source from VSLS.

  4. Modeling the formation of tropical rings of atomic bromine and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Gomez Martin, Juan Carlos; Salawitch, Ross; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone

    2015-04-01

    Very short-lived (VSL) bromo- and iodocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we investigate the partitioning and loading of reactive inorganic halogens within the TTL. The specific low ozone and low temperature conditions of this region of the atmosphere changes the steady-state between halogen atoms and oxides, making the atoms the dominant species. We suggest that this leads to the formation of two daytime "tropical rings" of both atomic bromine and iodine that circle the tropics with the sun. In addition to a description of this photochemical phenomenon, this communication the partitioning of inorganic halogen reservoirs within the TTL and assess its relevance for the injection of bromine to stratosphere.

  5. Modeling the Formation of Tropical Rings of Atomic Bromine and Iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz-Lopez, A.; Fernandez, R.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J. F.; Ordoñez, C.; Gomez Martin, J. C.; Tilmes, S.

    2014-12-01

    Very short-lived (VSL) bromo- and iodocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we investigate the partitioning and loading of reactive inorganic halogens within the TTL. The specific low ozone and low temperature conditions of this region of the atmosphere changes the steady-state between halogen atoms and oxides, making the atoms the dominant species. We suggest that this leads to the formation of two daytime "tropical rings" of both atomic bromine and iodine that circle the tropics with the sun. In addition to a description of this photochemical phenomenon, this communication the partitioning of inorganic halogen reservoirs within the TTL and assess its relevance for the injection of bromine to stratosphere.

  6. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  7. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Brenham pallasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Caffee, M. W.; Miura, Y. N.; Nagai, H.; Nagao, K.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2002-12-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides were studied in fragments of the Brenham pallasite, a large stony iron meteorite. The contents of light noble gases (He, Ne, and Ar) and long-lived radionuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 53Mn), produced by nuclear reactions with cosmic rays, were measured in the separated metal and olivine phases from numerous samples representing a wide range of shielding conditions in the meteoroid. The distribution of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the metal follows patterns similar to that observed in large iron meteorites. Shielding effects were estimated from the relative proportions of low- and high-energy reaction products. The production rates varied, from surface to interior, by a factor of more than several hundred. The 36Cl-36Ar cosmic-ray exposure age of Brenham is 156 +/- 8 Myr. This determination is based on a multiple nuclide approach that utilizes cosmogenic nuclide pairs. This approach not only yields a "shielding independent" exposure age but also demonstrates that the production of cosmogenic nuclides occurred in a single stage. The depth profiles of 10Be in the stone phase and 53Mn in the metal phase are shown superimposed on corresponding profiles from the Apollo 15 long drill core. Surprisingly low abundances of lithophile elements, such as K, U, and Th, provided a unique opportunity to examine the production systematics of those nuclides whose inventories typically have significant contributions from non-cosmogenic sources, particularly radiogenic contributions. The U and Th contents of the olivine samples are extremely low, allowing detection of cosmogenic 4He production from oxygen, magnesium, silicon, and iron.

  8. Cosmogenic nuclides in early solar system materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, Glynn Edward

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess early solar system processes, particularly ancient proto-solar activity. This goal was addressed on two fronts. First, a model was developed to explain the provenance of now extinct radionuclides in early solar system materials, namely the refractory inclusions termed CAIs (Calcium-Aluminum-Inclusion) found in carbonaceous chondrites. As CAIs are believed to be the first solids to condense in the solar system and are also believed to have formed close to the proto-Sun, a model which explains the now extinct radionuclides found in CAIs constrains early solar system processes. Secondly, a series of measurements were performed on samples of the early solar system, namely chrondritic meteorites and the inclusions called chondrules, often contained within these meteorites. Chondrules, which are often a chief constituent of these meteorites, are believed to have originated close to the proto-Sun. As such, these materials should contain clues about solar processes at the beginning of the solar system. We propose a model for the incorporation of SLRs (short lived radionuclide) within CAIs in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model SLRs are produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by proton fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. These SLRs are entrained in the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system and is responsible for implantation of 10 Be, 14 C and other nuclides in lunar materials. We utilize contemporary experimental solar wind production rates for 10Be and 14 C and theoretical ancient production rates for 7 Be, 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, and 53 Mn. Using a ~ 10 5 enhancement in SEPs (solar energetic particles) and hence production rates in conjunction with an accepted refractory mass inflow rates close to the proto-Sun, we model

  9. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  10. Short-Lived Radionuclides in Meteorites: Constraints on Nebular Timescales for the Production of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Robert H., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Variations in the abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al (τ1/2 ≈ 0.74 Ma) and 53Mn (τ1/2 ≈ 3.7 Ma) in meteoritic solids may be used to infer relative formation intervals of these solids in the nebula at precisions of less than 1 Ma. In a strict chronometric interpretation of the isotopic variations, whereby criteria such as spatial and temporal isotopic homogeneity and closed system isotopic evolution are met, solid formation occurred in the nebula for at least several million years. This is longer than some theoretical and astronomical estimates for the duration of the active nebula. The evidence for live 41Ca (τ1/2 ≈ 0.10 Ma) in meteoritic inclusions further indicates that the onset of solid formation occurred quite early, perhaps within a few hundred thousand years after the onset of the collapse of the sun's parent molecular cloud. Failure of the chronometric interpretation may arise for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, the late, inhomogeneous injection of material from a nearby stellar source or the local production of short-lived radionuclides by an energetic particle irradiation, e. g., from T Tauri (X-wind) or galactic cosmic ray sources. Although some isotopic evidence exists that the criteria required for a strict chronometric interpretation are not met by each of the short-lived chronometers, there is no compelling reason to shorten the interval of solid formation in the nebula to less than 1 Ma.

  11. Experiments on mixing in pyroclastic density currents generated from short-lived volcanic explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Diana; Woods, Andrew W.

    2017-06-01

    During short lived volcanic eruptions, dilute, turbulent pyroclastic density currents are often observed to spread laterally from a collapsing fountain. These flows entrain and heat air while also sedimenting particles. Both processes lead to a reduction in the bulk density and since these flows often become vertically stratified, the upper part of the flow may then exhibit a reversal in buoyancy and lift off. The relative importance of entrainment and sedimentation in controlling the lift-off and the associated run-out distance of short-lived flows is not well-understood. We report a series of novel analogue laboratory experiments in which a suspension of dense particles and salt powder is released into a flume filled with CO2-laden water. A strong circulation develops in the head of the current: as current fluid reaches the front of the flow, it rises and mixes with ambient fluid which is displaced upwards over the advancing head. As the salt powder in the current mixes with the ambient fluid, small CO2 bubbles are released, decreasing the bulk density below the ambient and the mixture then rises off the current. As it advances, progressively more of the material in the flow circulates through the head, becomes buoyant and rises from the flow. Within a distance of order 9-12 times the initial size of the flow, all the original fluid has cycled through the head of the flow, mixed with ambient and lifted off. This suggests that dilute turbulent pyroclastic density currents produced by short-lived explosions, of initial length-scale L, will only propagate distances of order 9-12L. Currents with larger particles sediment more of their particles before the flow has fully mixed with the ambient, and this leads to a reduction in the mass which lifts off from the flow.

  12. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. ); Audi, G. ); Moore, R.B. ); The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1990-12-17

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  13. An analysis of a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramchurn, S K; Moheeput, K; Goorah, S S

    2009-08-27

    During the month of June 2009, Mauritius experienced a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever localised in its capital city Port Louis. Aedes albopictus, a secondary vector of dengue viruses, was the probable vector. We introduce a method which combines Google Earth images, stochastic cellular automata and scale free network ideas to map this outbreak. The method could complement other techniques to forecast the evolution of potential localised mosquito-borne viral outbreaks in Mauritius and in at-risk locations elsewhere for public health planning purposes.

  14. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-12-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox.

  15. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  16. Cosmogenic nuclide budgeting of floodplain sediment transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, H.; von Blanckenburg, F.

    2009-08-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides produced in quartz may either decay or accumulate while sediment is moved through a river basin. A change in nuclide concentration resulting from storage in a floodplain is potentially important in large drainage basins in which sediment is prone to repeated burial and remobilization as a river migrates through its floodplain. We have modeled depth- and time-dependent cosmogenic nuclide concentration changes for 10Be, 26Al, and 14C during sediment storage and mixing in various active floodplain settings ranging from confined, shallow rivers with small floodplains to foreland-basin scale floodplains traversed by deep rivers. Floodplain storage time, estimated from channel migration rates, ranges from 0.4 kyr for the Beni River basin (Bolivia) to 7 kyr for the Amazon River basin, while floodplain storage depth, estimated from channel depth, ranges from 1 to 25 m. For all modeled active floodplain settings, the long-lived nuclides 10Be and 26Al show neither significant increase in nuclide concentration from irradiation nor decrease from decay. We predict a hypothetical response time after which changes in 10Be or 26Al concentrations become analytically resolvable. This interval ranges from 0.07 to 2 Myr and exceeds in all cases the typical residence time of sediment in a floodplain. Due to the much shorter half life of 14C, nuclide concentrations modeled for the in situ-produced variety of this nuclide are, however, sensitive to floodplain storage on residence times of < 20 kyr. The cosmogenic nuclide composition of old deposits in currently inactive floodplains that have been isolated for periods of millions of years from the river that once deposited them is predicted to either increase or decrease in 10Be and 26Al concentration, depending on the depositional depth. These conditions can be evaluated using the 26Al/ 10Be ratio that readily discloses the depth and duration of storage. We illustrate these models with examples from the Amazon basin

  17. Bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer: implications for stratospheric injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2014-07-01

    Very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their degradation inorganic products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we calculate annual average stratospheric injection of total bromine due to VSL sources to be 5 pptv, with ~3 pptv entering the stratosphere as PGVSL and ~2 pptv as SGVSL. The geographic distribution and partitioning of VSL bromine within the TTL, and its consequent stratospheric injection, is highly dependent on the oceanic flux, the strength of convection and the occurrence of heterogeneous recycling reactions. Our calculations indicate atomic Br should be the dominant inorganic species in large regions of the TTL during daytime, due to the low ozone and cold conditions of this region. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic bromine" located approximately between 15 and 19 km and 30° N to 30° S. Daytime Br / BrO ratios of up to ~4 are predicted within the Br ring in regions of highly convective transport, such as the tropical Western Pacific. Then, we suggest experimental programs designed to quantify the bromine budget of the TTL and the stratospheric injection of VSL biogenic bromocarbons should include a strategy for the measurement of atomic Br during daytime and HOBr or BrCl during nighttime.

  18. Bromine partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer: implications for stratospheric injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, R. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Lamarque, J.-F.; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2014-12-01

    Very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons are produced at a prodigious rate by ocean biology and these source compounds (SGVSL), together with their inorganic degradation products (PGVSL), are lofted by vigorous convection to the tropical tropopause layer (TTL). Using a state-of-the-art photochemical mechanism within a global model, we calculate annual average stratospheric injection of total bromine due to VSL sources to be 5 pptv (parts per trillion by volume), with ~ 3 pptv entering the stratosphere as PGVSL and ~ 2 pptv as SGVSL. The geographic distribution and partitioning of VSL bromine within the TTL, and its consequent stratospheric injection, is highly dependent on the oceanic flux, the strength of convection and the occurrence of heterogeneous recycling reactions. Our calculations indicate atomic Br should be the dominant inorganic species in large regions of the TTL during daytime, due to the low ozone and cold conditions of this region. We propose the existence of a "tropical ring of atomic bromine" located approximately between 15 and 19 km and between 30° N and 30° S. Daytime Br / BrO ratios of up to ~ 4 are predicted within this inhomogeneous ring in regions of highly convective transport, such as the tropical Western Pacific. Therefore, we suggest that experimental programs designed to quantify the bromine budget of the TTL and the stratospheric injection of VSL biogenic bromocarbons should include a strategy for the measurement of atomic Br during daytime as well as HOBr and BrCl during nighttime.

  19. Short-lived organic trace gases in the UT/LS: Results from recent field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Pan, L.; Bowman, K. P.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.

    2008-12-01

    The chemistry of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere can be impacted by delivery of reactive trace gases that are variable in composition and depend on source emissions and transport pathway and time. Because surface emissions include gases with a range of chemical lifetimes, and because different source emissions (e.g. marine boundary layer, anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning) can have different chemical signatures, the composition of the organic trace gases that are found in the UT/LS region have the potential to provide diagnostic information on air mass sources and transport time scales. Further, the role of short-lived organic halogen gases in the UT/LS has been highlighted as a major uncertainty for defining the reactive halogen budget and the chemical boundary conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. Recent campaigns in the tropics (TC-4 and AVE missions) and in the extra-tropics (START08) have included the measurement of trace gases from whole air sampling and analysis on the NASA WB-57 or NSF Gulfstream V aircraft. Measurements of a range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, organic nitrates, and sulfur species were made to examine the role of short-lived organic gases in the UT/LS. This presentation will highlight different aspects of these measurements that deal with transport pathways, transport rates, and halogen budgets.

  20. The paradox of great longevity in a short-lived tree species.

    PubMed

    Larson, D W

    2001-04-01

    Thuja occidentalis is a tree species that was once thought to be relatively short-lived (80 years). Up until 10 years ago maximum ages were considered to be near 400 years, but such trees were thought to be rare. Research along the cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment has altered this view. Exceptionally slow-growing trees of this species have been found with ring counts to 1653 years and estimated ages to 1890 years. Senescence is slow or absent. Injury and death is due to rockfall and sporadic severe drought that kills small sectors of the trees by exposing and killing the roots. Experiments in which colored dyes are infused into roots show that each tree is composed of hydraulically independent units that allow mortality in one part of the 'individual' with little negative effect on the remaining parts of the tree. The trees are small, so environmental loadings of ice, snow, and wind are low. Slow growth of the trees results in a much greater mechanical strength in the wood. Together these properties increase the ability of the cedars to persist on cliffs for long periods of time. The paradox of great longevity in this 'short-lived' tree species is explained by slow growth that minimizes maintenance and repair costs while maximizing durability and strength, combined with an internal architecture that creates functionally independent units within each tree.

  1. Radioisotope generators for short-lived positron emitters applicable to positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Y.

    1989-04-01

    Radioisotope generators provide short-lived positron emitters for positron emission tomography (PET) without the need for an on-site cyclotron. These generators consist of a long-lived parent radionuclide, generally produced on an accelerator, from which the short-lived daughter radionuclide is separated and used as needed. Generators developed and applied to PET studies include 288 d 68Ge for 68 min 68Ga, 25 d 82Sr for 76 s 82Rb and 20.1 h 122Xe for 3.6 min 122I. These radiotracers have been used for the assessment of myocardial and brain blood flow in patient studies. Additionally, 82Rb has been used to determine the breakdown in the blood brain barrier in brain tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy. When used in conjunction with 18F-fluorodeoxylucose produced on a regional cyclotron for the measurement of glucose utilization in brain tumors, differential diagnosis can be made between tumor regrowth and radiation therapy necrosis. Other possible applications include the detection of vascular lesions with 68Ga labeled platelets or porphyrins.

  2. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  3. Accurate mass measurements of short-lived isotopes with the MISTRAL* rf spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Toader, C.; Audi, G.; Doubre, H.; Jacotin, M.; Henry, S.; Kepinski, J.-F.; Le Scornet, G.; Lunney, D.; Monsanglant, C.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Borcea, C.; Duma, M.; Lebee, G.

    1999-01-15

    The MISTRAL* experiment has measured its first masses at ISOLDE. Installed in May 1997, this radiofrequency transmission spectrometer is to concentrate on nuclides with particularly short half-lives. MISTRAL received its first stable beam in October and first radioactive beam in November 1997. These first tests, with a plasma ion source, resulted in excellent isobaric separation and reasonable transmission. Further testing and development enabled first data taking in July 1998 on neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms.

  4. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  5. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  6. Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

    The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

  7. Cosmic-ray-produced stable nuclides: various production rates and their implications

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1981-06-15

    The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable nuclides, such as /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with bromine usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The /sup 130/Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of /sup 130/Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of /sup 15/N, /sup 13/C, and /sup 2/H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of /sup 86/Kr, /sup 134/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles.

  8. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-07-01

    Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  9. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from Observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  10. Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite

    PubMed

    Mora; Riciputi; Cole

    1999-12-17

    Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite.

  11. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  12. New Short-Lived Isotope 221U and the Mass Surface Near N =126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Cox, D. M.; Even, J.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hoffmann, J.; Hübner, A.; Jäger, E.; Jeppsson, J.; Kindler, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Minami, S.; Mistry, A. K.; Mrosek, Ch. M.; Pysmenetska, I.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schaffner, H.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Steiner, J.; De Heidenreich, T. Torres; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.; Yakusheva, V.

    2015-12-01

    Two short-lived isotopes 221U and 222U were produced as evaporation residues in the fusion reaction 50Ti + 176Yb at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. An α decay with an energy of Eα=9.31 (5 ) MeV and half-life T1 /2=4.7 (7 ) μ s was attributed to 222U. The new isotope 221U was identified in α -decay chains starting with Eα=9.71 (5 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.66 (14 ) μ s leading to known daughters. Synthesis and detection of these unstable heavy nuclei and their descendants were achieved thanks to a fast data readout system. The evolution of the N =126 shell closure and its influence on the stability of uranium isotopes are discussed within the framework of α -decay reduced width.

  13. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  14. Regulation of life span by the gut microbiota in the short-lived African turquoise killifish

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick; Willemsen, David; Popkes, Miriam; Metge, Franziska; Gandiwa, Edson; Reichard, Martin; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Gut bacteria occupy the interface between the organism and the external environment, contributing to homeostasis and disease. Yet, the causal role of the gut microbiota during host aging is largely unexplored. Here, using the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), a naturally short-lived vertebrate, we show that the gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating vertebrate life span. Recolonizing the gut of middle-age individuals with bacteria from young donors resulted in life span extension and delayed behavioral decline. This intervention prevented the decrease in microbial diversity associated with host aging and maintained a young-like gut bacterial community, characterized by overrepresentation of the key genera Exiguobacterium, Planococcus, Propionigenium and Psychrobacter. Our findings demonstrate that the natural microbial gut community of young individuals can causally induce long-lasting beneficial systemic effects that lead to life span extension in a vertebrate model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27014.001 PMID:28826469

  15. Regulation of life span by the gut microbiota in the short-lived African turquoise killifish.

    PubMed

    Smith, Patrick; Willemsen, David; Popkes, Miriam; Metge, Franziska; Gandiwa, Edson; Reichard, Martin; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2017-08-22

    Gut bacteria occupy the interface between the organism and the external environment, contributing to homeostasis and disease. Yet, the causal role of the gut microbiota during host aging is largely unexplored. Here, using the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), a naturally short-lived vertebrate, we show that the gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating vertebrate life span. Recolonizing the gut of middle-age individuals with bacteria from young donors resulted in life span extension and delayed behavioral decline. This intervention prevented the decrease in microbial diversity associated with host aging and maintained a young-like gut bacterial community, characterized by overrepresentation of the key genera Exiguobacterium, Planococcus, Propionigenium and Psychrobacter. Our findings demonstrate that the natural microbial gut community of young individuals can causally induce long-lasting beneficial systemic effects that lead to life span extension in a vertebrate model.

  16. Jahn-Teller effect for short-lived states: Study of the complex potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2004-07-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect for bound electronic states has been investigated for many decades. In contrast, nothing is known regarding its occurrence for short-lived electronic states. Here we investigate the linear and the quadratic E⊗e Jahn-Teller effect for degenerate resonance states with special regard to the complex potential energy surfaces. We find many new phenomena for both the real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces including additional minima and intersections. Possible simplifications of the equations describing the adiabatic potential energy surfaces are discussed. We also briefly investigate other Jahn-Teller effects in linear approximation. The theoretical concepts are exemplified by calculating ab initio data for the degenerate Π*-type resonance states of the tris(boramethyl)amin anion along two different doubly degenerate vibrational modes.

  17. Isotope shift calculations for D lines of stable and short-lived lithium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Geng-Hua; Zhao, Peng-Yi; Xu, Bing-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The isotope shifts (ISs) for the 2s2S1/2 to 2p2P J (J = 1/2, 3/2) transitions of the lithium nuclei including the stable and short-lived isotopes are calculated based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic configuration interaction approach. The results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results within a deviation less than 0.05%. The methods used here could be applied to the IS calculations for other heavier Li-like ions and few-electron systems. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304093), the Fund of the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZB0386), and the Fund of the 1315 Project of Chengdu University, China (Grant No. 2081915041).

  18. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. PMID:26839399

  19. Short-lived particle search procedure in the OPERA experiment. Application to charm decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Amo Sánchez, Pablo; OPERA Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The OPERA experiment has recently provided evidence of νμ →ντ neutrino oscillations in appearance mode through the detection of tau leptons produced in ντ Charged Current interactions. The OPERA detector collected data from 2008 to 2012, when it was exposed to the CNGS muon neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso, 730 km away from the source. We report on the search procedure for short-lived particles and on its validation with charmed hadron decays. The latter, produced in about 4% of the neutrino interactions in OPERA, are an important background to the νμ →ντ channel and an ideal control sample as their decay exhibits topological and kinematical features strongly resembling the tau's decay.

  20. The role of short-lived climate pollutants in meeting temperature goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowerman, Niel H. A.; Frame, David J.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-12-01

    Some recent high-profile publications have suggested that immediately reducing emissions of methane, black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) may contribute substantially towards the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Although this literature acknowledges that action on long-lived climate pollutants (LLCPs) such as CO2 is also required, it is not always appreciated that SLCP emissions in any given decade only have a significant impact on peak temperature under circumstances in which CO2 emissions are falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially 'buy time' for adaptation by reducing near-term warming; however early SLCP reductions, compared with reductions in a future decade, do not buy time to delay reductions in CO2.

  1. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model.

  2. Prolonged Marital Stress is Associated with Short-Lived Responses to Positive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, Regina C.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Norris, Catherine J.; Bachhuber, David R.W.; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N=116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957

  3. Prolonged marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lapate, Regina C; van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Greischar, Lawrence L; Norris, Catherine J; Bachhuber, David R W; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion-responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N = 116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral, and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Mineral Resource of the Month: Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnebele, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Bromine, along with mercury, is one of only two elements that are liquid at room temperature. Bromine is a highly volatile and corrosive reddish-brown liquid that evaporates easily and converts to a metal at extreme pressures — above about 540,000 times atmospheric pressure. Bromine occurs in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. 

  5. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  6. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  7. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  8. 49 CFR 173.249 - Bromine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bromine. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 Bromine. When... bromine service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...

  9. Cohort variation, climate effects and population dynamics in a short-lived lizard.

    PubMed

    Le Galliard, Jean François; Marquis, Olivier; Massot, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    1. Demographic theory and empirical studies indicate that cohort variation in demographic traits has substantial effects on population dynamics of long-lived vertebrates but cohort effects have been poorly investigated in short-lived species. 2. Cohort effects were quantified in the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacquin 1787), a short-lived ectothermic vertebrate, for body size, reproductive traits and age-specific survival with mark-recapture data collected from 1989 to 2005 in two wetlands. We assessed cohort variation and covariation in demographic traits, tested the immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions (temperature and rainfall), and predicted consequences for population growth. 3. Most demographic traits exhibited cohort variation, but this variation was stronger for juvenile growth and survival, sub-adult survival and breeding phenology than for other traits. 4. Cohort variation was partly explained by a web of immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions. Rainfall and temperature influenced distinct life-history traits and the periods of gestation and early juvenile life were critical stages for climate effects. 5. Cohort covariation between demographic traits was usually weak, apart from a negative correlation between juvenile and sub-adult body growth suggesting compensatory responses. An age-structured population model shows that cohort variation influences population growth mainly through direct numerical effects of survival variation early in life. 6. An understanding of cohort effects is necessary to predict critical life stages and climatic determinants of population dynamics, and therefore demographic responses to future climate warming. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  10. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  11. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and season variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from South and South-East Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the Western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with also non-negligible values extending into northern mid-latitudes particularly in the summer. These first estimates, which include some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODP values than previous studies, particularly over Southern Asia, suggesting that emissions of short-lived halogen source gases in certain geographical regions could have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion.

  12. Bromine and carbon isotope effects during photolysis of brominated phenols.

    PubMed

    Zakon, Yevgeni; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina

    2013-12-17

    In the present study, carbon and bromine isotope effects during UV-photodegradation of bromophenols in aqueous and ethanolic solutions were determined. An anomalous relatively high inverse bromine isotope fractionation (εreactive position up to +5.1‰) along with normal carbon isotope effect (εreactive position of -12.6‰ to -23.4‰) observed in our study may be attributed to coexistence of both mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope fractionation of C-Br bond cleavage. Isotope effects of a similar scale were observed for all the studied reactions in ethanol, and for 4-bromophenol in aqueous solution. This may point out related radical mechanism for these processes. The lack of any carbon and bromine isotope effects during photodegradation of 2-bromophenol in aqueous solution possibly indicates that C-Br bond cleavage is not a rate-limiting step in the reaction. The bromine isotope fractionation, without any detectable carbon isotope effect, that was observed for 3-bromophenol photolysis in aqueous solution probably originates from mass-independent fractionation.

  13. Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium nuclides, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment = ..sigma..nuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No).

  14. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable. PMID:28321175

  15. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) appears questionable.

  16. Evaluation of sediment dynamics in coastal systems via short-lived radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Dan; Corbett, D. Reide

    2003-08-01

    The Neuse and Pamlico River Estuaries are shallow, dynamic systems that have been plagued with symptoms of eutrophication over the past two decades. Extensive research has been conducted over the last 5-10 years to better understand the complex nutrient dynamics of these systems. However, most of these studies have concentrated on nutrient cycling in the water column. Only recently have studies focused on the benthic environment, and most sediment studies have neglected the dynamic nature of the benthos, focusing instead on diffusion as the dominant transport process delivering nutrients to the water column. Although diffusion of nutrients across the sediment-water interface may be important during quiescent periods of sediment deposition and short-term storage, wind events associated with storms throughout the year will resuspend newly deposited sediments resulting in the advective transport of sediment porewater, rich with nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon, into the water column. Sediment resuspension may increase water column nutrient concentrations, and therefore present estimates of nutrient and carbon inputs from the sediments may be too low. This study evaluated short-term sediment dynamics of natural resuspension events and deposition rates in these two estuaries with the use of short-lived radioisotopes, 7Be, 137Cs, and 234Th. Sediment cores at nine sites in the estuaries have been collected at least bimonthly since May 2001. In general, tracers indicate a depositional environment with minimal episodes of removal. The largest sediment removal occurred in August 2001 in the Neuse River where an estimated 2.2 cm of sediment were removed over the previous 6-week period. This removal mechanism essentially advects porewater nutrients into the water column. Calculated advective fluxes of ammonium and phosphate based on this resuspension event were approximately six times greater than the average diffusive flux measured in the same general area of the river. Longer

  17. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  18. The impacts of short-lived ozone precursors on climate and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Meridith McGee

    Human emissions of short-lived ozone precursors not only degrade air quality and health, but indirectly affect climate via chemical effects on ozone, methane, and aerosols. Some have advocated for short-lived air pollutants in near-term climate mitigation strategies, in addition to national air quality programs, but their radiative forcing (RF) impacts are uncertain and vary based on emission location. In this work, global chemical transport modeling is combined with radiative transfer modeling to study the impacts of regional ozone precursor emissions (NOx, CO, and NMVOCs) on climate, via changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate, and on regional and global air quality. The first study evaluates NOx, CO, and NMVOC emission reductions from four regions across an ensemble of models, finding that NMVOC and CO reductions from all four regions cool climate (negative RF) by decreasing ozone and methane, while improving air quality. NOx and NMVOC global warming potentials (GWPs), a measure of the relative radiative effects of individual climate forcers, vary strongly among regions, while CO GWPs show less variability. The second and third studies investigate further the RF and air quality impacts of CO and NMVOC emission reductions from 10 world regions. The greatest benefits to RF and air quality (per unit emissions) are achieved by CO reductions from the tropics, due to more active photochemistry and convection. CO GWPs are fairly independent of the reduction region (GWP20: 3.71 to 4.37; GWP100: 1.26 to 1.44), while NMVOC GWPs are more variable (GWP 20: -1.13 to 18.9; GWP100: 0.079 to 6.05). Accounting for additional forcings from CO and NMVOC emissions would likely change RF and GWP estimates. Regionally-specific GWPs for NOx and NMVOCs and a globally-uniform GWP for CO may allow these gases to be included in a multi-gas emissions trading framework, and enable comprehensive strategies for meeting climate and air quality goals simultaneously. Future research could

  19. AGB stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some short-lived nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key short-lived nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.

  20. Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

    1986-10-01

    This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived.

  1. Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692"><span>Establishing equivalence for activity standards of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, M J; Baker, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/806134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/806134"><span>Electronic properties of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-doped carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.</p> <p>2002-07-15</p> <p>Intercalation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules (Br2) into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes is studied using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method. Electronic and vibrational properties of the SWNT and Br2 are studied for various <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations. A drastic change in the charge transfer, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> stretching-mode, and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> bond-length is observed when the <span class="hlt">bromine-bromine</span> distance decreases. Calculated electronic structures show that, at high <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ppsigma level broadens due to the interbromine interaction. These states overlap with the electronic bands of the SWNT near the Fermi level which results in a substantial charge transfer from carbon to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R; Chipperfield, M P; Saiz-Lopez, A; Harrison, J J; von Glasow, R; Sommariva, R; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Montzka, S A; Feng, W; Dhomse, S; Harth, C; Mühle, J; Lunder, C; O'Doherty, S; Young, D; Reimann, S; Vollmer, M K; Krummel, P B; Bernath, P F</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2-the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Hyewook Genevieve; Christensen, Kate; Drolet, Aimee</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This research investigated the influence of trait indecisiveness on variety-seeking behavior. Study 1 revealed that chronic indecisiveness was associated with increased variety-seeking behavior. Study 2A showed that the incidence of not choosing to make a choice was much lower among chronically indecisive people when a variety-pack option was available, and Study 2B showed that chronically indecisive people chose the variety pack even if it included their least preferred option. Study 3 demonstrated that chronically indecisive people contended with the negative emotion they experienced during choice making by choosing a mix of options. Study 4 revealed that the emotional benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. Chronically indecisive people felt more satisfied and less anxious after choosing a mix of options. However, having chosen a mix, chronically indecisive people then faced more choices, specifically the choices of which specific option to consume on each specific occasion. In this way, variety seeking is a maladaptive long-term emotional coping strategy for the chronically indecisive. The results of this research have important theoretical implications for understanding the causes of variety-seeking behavior as well as practical implications for increasing (a) the incidence of choice making among chronically indecisive people and (b) satisfaction with the choices they do make. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M"><span>Developments in precison mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> r-process nuclei with CARIBU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marley, S. T.; Aprahamian, A.; Mumpower, M.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S.; Surman, R.; Clark, J. A.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The confluence of new radioactive beam facilities and modern precision mass spectrometry techniques now make it possible to measure masses of many neutron-rich nuclei important to nuclear structure and astrophysics. A recent mass sensitivity study (S. Brett et al., Eur. Phys. J., A 48, 184 (2012)) identified the nuclear masses that are the most influential to the final rapid-neutron capture process abundance distributions under various astrophysical scenarios. This work motivated a campaign of precision mass measurements using the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) installed at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. In order to measure the weakest and most <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t1/2 < 150 ms) of these influential nuclei, a series of upgrades to the CARIBU and CPT systems have been developed. The implementation of these upgrades, the r-process mass measurements, and the status of CARIBU facilty will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of NSERC, Canada, appl. # 216974, the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357, DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-98ER41086, & DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NSF Grants PHY08-22648 and PHY-106819.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Cages Restrict Protein Diffusion in the Plasma Membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goiko, Maria; de Bruyn, John R.; Heit, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The plasma membrane is a heterogeneous environment characterized by anomalous diffusion and the presence of microdomains that are molecularly distinct from the bulk membrane. Using single particle tracking of the C-type lectin CD93, we have identified for the first time the transient trapping of transmembrane proteins in cage-like microdomains which restrict protein diffusion. These cages are stabilized by actin-dependent confinement regions, but are separate structures with sizes and lifespans uncorrelated to those of the underlying actin corral. These membrane cages require cholesterol for their strength and stability, with cholesterol depletion decreasing both. Despite this, cages are much larger in size and are longer lived than lipid rafts, suggesting instead that cholesterol-dependent effects on membrane fluidity or molecular packing play a role in cage formation. This diffusional compartment in the plasma membrane has characteristics of both a diffusional barrier and a membrane microdomain, with a size and lifespan intermediate between <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> microdomains such as lipid rafts and long-lasting diffusional barriers created by the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27725698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244530"><span>Seasonal assemblages and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> blooms in coastal north-west Atlantic Ocean bacterioplankton.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Swais, Heba; Dunn, Katherine A; Bielawski, Joseph P; Li, William K W; Walsh, David A</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Temperate oceans are inhabited by diverse and temporally dynamic bacterioplankton communities. However, the role of the environment, resources and phytoplankton dynamics in shaping marine bacterioplankton communities at different time scales remains poorly constrained. Here, we combined time series observations (time scales of weeks to years) with molecular analysis of formalin-fixed samples from a coastal inlet of the north-west Atlantic Ocean to show that a combination of temperature, nitrate, small phytoplankton and Synechococcus abundances are best predictors for annual bacterioplankton community variability, explaining 38% of the variation. Using Bayesian mixed modelling, we identified assemblages of co-occurring bacteria associated with different seasonal periods, including the spring bloom (e.g. Polaribacter, Ulvibacter, Alteromonadales and ARCTIC96B-16) and the autumn bloom (e.g. OM42, OM25, OM38 and Arctic96A-1 clades of Alphaproteobacteria, and SAR86, OM60 and SAR92 clades of Gammaproteobacteria). Community variability over spring bloom development was best explained by silicate (32%)--an indication of rapid succession of bacterial taxa in response to diatom biomass--while nanophytoplankton as well as picophytoplankton abundance explained community variability (16-27%) over the transition into and out of the autumn bloom. Moreover, the seasonal structure was punctuated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> blooms of rare bacteria including the KSA-1 clade of Sphingobacteria related to aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578"><span>The long non-coding RNA Morrbid regulates Bim and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCright, Sam J.; Kumar, Dinesh B. Uthaya; Collet, Magalie A.; Mowel, Walter K.; Elliott, Ellen N.; Uyar, Asli; Makiya, Michelle A.; Dunagin, Margaret C.; Harman, Christian C.D.; Virtue, Anthony T.; Zhu, Stella; Bailis, Will; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Raj, Arjun; Wherry, E. John; Goff, Loyal A.; Klion, Amy D.; Rinn, John L.; Williams, Adam; Flavell, Richard A.; Henao-Mejia, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes collectively account for ~70% of human blood leukocytes and are among the shortest-lived cells in the body1,2. Precise regulation of the lifespan of these myeloid cells is critical to maintain protective immune responses while minimizing the deleterious consequences of prolonged inflammation1,2. However, how the lifespan of these cells is strictly controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we identify a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we termed Morrbid, which tightly controls the survival of neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes in response to pro-survival cytokines. To control the lifespan of these cells, Morrbid regulates the transcription of its neighboring pro-apoptotic gene, Bcl2l11 (Bim), by promoting the enrichment of the PRC2 complex at the Bcl2l11 promoter to maintain this gene in a poised state. Notably, Morrbid regulates this process in cis, enabling allele-specific control of Bcl2l11 transcription. Thus, in these highly inflammatory cells, changes in Morrbid levels provide a locus-specific regulatory mechanism that allows for rapid control of apoptosis in response to extracellular pro-survival signals. As MORRBID is present in humans and dysregulated in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome, this lncRNA may represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders characterized by aberrant <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan. PMID:27525555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684364"><span>A platform for rapid exploration of aging and diseases in a naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Machado, Ben; Singh, Param Priya; Hu, Chi-Kuo; Pech, Matthew F; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Zhang, Elisa; Sharp, Sabrina C; Artandi, Steven E; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2015-02-26</p> <p>Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here, we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de-novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We mutate many genes encompassing the hallmarks of aging, and for a subset, we produce stable lines within 2-3 months. As a proof of principle, we show that fish deficient for the protein subunit of telomerase exhibit the fastest onset of telomere-related pathologies among vertebrates. We further demonstrate the feasibility of creating specific genetic variants. This genome-to-phenotype platform represents a unique resource for studying vertebrate aging and disease in a high-throughput manner and for investigating candidates arising from human genome-wide studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A13G0369P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A13G0369P"><span>Convective Influence on <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Species in the Tropical Upper Troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, M.; Randel, W. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Kinnison, D. E.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Santee, M. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Atlas, E. L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of atmospheric methanol (CH3OH) obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) together with in-situ measurements from the SEAC4RS (2013) field campaign conducted over North America are used to better understand their variability in the tropical upper troposphere. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of surface biogenic emissions and convective transport on distributions of methanol and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species over different regions and season. Simulations of methanol from the CAM-chem global chemistry model are also used to evaluate the model with a focus on Asian vs. North American summer monsoon regions. The results show overall agreement in the large-scale variabilities from the measurements and the model, reflecting the transport of directly emitted methanol to the upper troposphere. Differences in the magnitudes of the modeled and satellite mixing ratios are due to an underestimate of emissions, as supported by model evaluation with the aircraft observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K"><span>Large-Scale, <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Subduction of the Western Gneiss Region Ultrahigh-Pressure Terrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Corfu, F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway includes one of Earth's giant ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes. Understanding the subduction and exhumation of this >60,000 km2 area is relevant to a range of processes, including collisional orogenesis, reworking of the continents, and the global geochemical cycle. Important aspects that remain unanswered include the spatial and temporal style of subduction. Was the crust subducted as smaller slivers one at a time, or as one larger unit, all at the same time? The WGR exhibits consistent ages of ~415-400 Ma, 100+ km along strike, but no ages have been identified at an equivalent distance across strike. To address this issue we have determined the age of one of the easternmost eclogites identified in the WGR, a retrogressed eclogite from Lesja. Seven fractions of this sample were analyzed; six of them yield identical U/Pb ages, however, they are slightly discordant. The seventh fraction is anomalously young and interpreted to have suffered lead loss. A weighted-mean 206Pb/238U age of 408.0 ± 1.7 Ma is obtained from the six older fractions; an age that is within the range of U/Pb, Sm/Nd, and Lu/Hf ages from the western portion of the WGR. The similarity in ages from 100+ km north to south and 100+ km east to west indicate that large portions of the continental crust were subducted in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> event, if not en masse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653410"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> effects of a visual inducer during egocentric space perception and manual behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wenxun; Matin, Ethel; Matin, Leonard</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>A pitched visual inducer has a strong effect on the visually perceived elevation of a target in extrapersonal space, and also on the elevation of the arm when a subject points with an unseen arm to the target's elevation. The manual effect is a systematic function of hand-to-body distance (Li and Matin Vision Research 45:533-550, 2005): When the arm is fully extended, manual responses to perceptually mislocalized luminous targets are veridical; when the arm is close to the body, gross matching errors occur. In the present experiments, we measured this hand-to-body distance effect during the presence of a pitched visual inducer and after inducer offset, using three values of hand-to-body distance (0, 40, and 70 cm) and two open-loop tasks (pointing to the perceived elevation of a target at true eye level and setting the height of the arm to match the elevation). We also measured manual behavior when subjects were instructed to point horizontally under induction and after inducer offset (no visual target at any time). In all cases, the hand-to-body distance effect disappeared shortly after inducer offset. We suggest that the rapid disappearance of the distance effect is a manifestation of processes in the dorsal visual stream that are involved in updating <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> representations of the arm in egocentric visual perception and manual behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A"><span>New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13I0777S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13I0777S"><span>Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samset, B. H.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Shine, K. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. How could global society prepare for, and react to, such emergencies? One possibility is deliberate, coordinated emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases, along a pathway designed to match the climate responses to the eruption. We estimate such an emission pathway, countering a hypothetical eruption three times the size of Mt Pinatubo in 1991. Using a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counter emissions, we show that it may be possible to counteract its climate effects, significantly dampening the abrupt impact of the eruption. We then raise practical, financial and ethical aspects related to such a strategy. Designed emissions to counter temporary global cooling would not have the disadvantages associated with more commonly discussed geoengineering to avoid long-term warming. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344913','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344913"><span>A platform for rapid exploration of aging and diseases in a naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Machado, Ben; Singh, Param Priya; Hu, Chi-Kuo; Pech, Matthew F.; Valenzano, Dario R.; Zhang, Elisa; Sharp, Sabrina C.; Artandi, Steven E.; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We mutate many genes encompassing the hallmarks of aging, and for a subset, we produce stable lines within 2–3 months. As a proof-of-principle, we show that fish deficient for the protein subunit of telomerase exhibit the fastest onset of telomere-related pathologies among vertebrates. We further demonstrate the feasibility of creating specific genetic variants. This genome-to-phenotype platform represents a unique resource for studying vertebrate aging and disease in a high throughput manner and for investigating candidates arising from human genome-wide studies. PMID:25684364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers - The Connections Between Emissions, Forcing, and Mitigation Potential (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to the impact of ozone and aerosols on health and ecosystems. These climate forcing agents are linked both though common emissions sources and atmospheric chemical processes. The magnitude and regional distribution of these forcings have changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing. Overall, reductions in aerosol emissions lead to a net warming due to the net negative aerosol forcing, although some mitigation benefits may be possible in specific sub-sectors. While the emissions leading to enhanced tropospheric ozone levels are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, mitigation has proved to be difficult due to the ubiquity of major emission sources, particularly surface transportation vehicles. From a mitigation standpoint, therefore, tropospheric ozone might be considered as more of a long-term pollutant. This presentation will review these links using historical data and future projections and discuss the implications for mitigation. The implications of these links for atmospheric chemistry analysis, and the potential for using ACC-MIP results to improve integrated assessment modeling and analysis, will be discussed.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish. PMID:26121607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q"><span>A new approach for fluid dynamics simulation: The <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Changjian; Li, Jiansong; Tian, Zongshun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There are many researches to simulate the fluid which adopt the traditional particle-based approach and the grid-based approach. However, it needs massive storage in the traditional particle-based approach and it is very complicated to design the grid-based approach with the Navier-Stokes Equations or the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) because of the difficulty of solving equations. This paper presents a new model called the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model. It updates the fluid properties (mass and momentum) recorded in the fixed Cartesian grids by computing the weighted sum of the water cuboid particles with a time step life. Thus it is a two-type-based approach essentially, which not only owns efficient computation and manageable memory like the grid-based approach, but also deals with the discontinuous water surface (wet/dry fronts, boundary conditions, etc.) with high accuracy as well as the particle-based approach. The proposed model has been found capable to simulate the fluid excellently for three laboratory experimental cases and for the field case study of the Malpasset dam-break event occurred in France in 1959. The obtained results show that the model is proved to be an alternative approach to simulate the fluid dynamics with a fair accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015"><span>Efficient genome engineering approaches for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A central challenge in experimental aging research is the lack of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate models for genetic studies. Here we present a comprehensive protocol for efficient genome engineering in the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), which is the shortest-lived vertebrate in captivity with a median life span of 4-6 months. By taking advantage of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system and the turquoise killifish genome, this platform enables the generation of knockout alleles via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and knock-in alleles via homology-directed repair (HDR). We include guidelines for guide RNA (gRNA) target design, embryo injection and hatching, germ-line transmission and for minimizing off-target effects. We also provide strategies for Tol2-based transgenesis and large-scale husbandry conditions that are critical for success. Because of the fast life cycle of the turquoise killifish, stable lines can be generated as rapidly as 2-3 months, which is much faster than other fish models. This protocol provides powerful genetic tools for studying vertebrate aging and aging-related diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Aixue; Xu, Yangyang; Tebaldi, Claudia; Washington, Warren M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Under present growth rates of greenhouse gas and black carbon aerosol emissions, global mean temperatures can warm by as much as 2°C from pre-industrial temperatures by about 2050. Mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), methane, tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon, has been shown to reduce the warming trend by about 50% (refs , ) by 2050. Here we focus on the potential impact of this SLCP mitigation on global sea-level rise (SLR). The temperature projections under various SLCP scenarios simulated by an energy-balance climate model are integrated with a semi-empirical SLR model, derived from past trends in temperatures and SLR, to simulate future trends in SLR. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model is also used to estimate SLR trends due to just the ocean thermal expansion. Our results show that SLCP mitigation can have significant effects on SLR. It can decrease the SLR rate by 24-50% and reduce the cumulative SLR by 22-42% by 2100. If the SLCP mitigation is delayed by 25 years, the warming from pre-industrial temperature exceeds 2°C by 2050 and the impact of mitigation actions on SLR is reduced by about a third.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H51E0815B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H51E0815B"><span>Dating Fluvial Floodplains and Quantifying Channel Migration Rates Using <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Black, E. E.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kaste, J. M.; Magilligan, F. J.; Dade, W. B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A variety of methods, including dendrochronolgy and aerial photography, have been used previously to quantify fluvial channel geometry changes and lateral migration rates on time scales of tens to hundreds of years. However, no universally satisfactory technique has emerged due to various limitations of each method. We explore the novel technique of using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides to date fluvial surfaces with the goal of determining lateral migration rates. In particular, we use 210Pb (t(1/2) ~ 22.3 years) in floodplain sediment to determine the lateral migration rates of regulated reaches on the Genesee River, NY, and unregulated reaches on the Winooski River, VT and the upper Connecticut River, NH. Surface ages and lateral migration rates are compared to those determined using historical aerial photography. Preliminary analyses of sediment cores are consistent with the general trend of surface ages recorded in the aerial photography, but the absolute ages of the surfaces indicate that inheritance of 210Pb within the deposited sediment affects the surface ages. Furthermore, the temporal resolution of the method is much greater in areas with rapid migration over the past 50 years than in those areas with similarly rapid migration occurring in years prior to 1960.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077258','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077258"><span>Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> is a software product that allows users to search and plot nuclear structure and nuclear decay data interactively. The Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> was developed by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). It provides an interface between web users and several databases containing nuclear structure, nuclear decay and some neutron-induced nuclear reaction information. Using the Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>, it is possible to search for nuclear level properties (energy, half-life, spin-parity), gamma-ray information (energy, intensity, multipolarity, coincidences),radiation information following nuclear decay (energy, intensity, dose), and neutron-induced reaction data from the BNL-325 book (thermal cross section and resonance integral). The information provided by the Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> can be seen in tables, level schemes and an interactive chart of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. (From the Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> Description at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/help/index.jsp?product=chart)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086949','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22086949"><span>Application of different <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in retrospective dosimetry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Konheiser, J.; Mittag, S.; Viehrig, H.W.; Gleisberg, B.</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>The activities of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> produced via the neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel are used to validate respective fluence calculations. Niobium, nickel, and technetium isotopes from RPV trepans of the decommissioned NPP Greifswald (VVER-440) have been analyzed. The activities were determined by TRAMO (Monte-Carlo) fluence calculations, newly applying 640 neutron-energy groups and ENDF/B7 data. Relative to earlier results, fluences up to 20% higher have been computed, leading to somewhat better agreement between measurement and calculation, particularly in the case of Tc-99. (authors)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21061827','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21061827"><span>Mass measurements of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> at SHIPTRAP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Mukherjee, M.; Quint, W.; Rahaman, S.; Rauth, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Weber, C.</p> <p>2007-05-22</p> <p>The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP is installed behind the velocity-filter SHIP at GSI for high-precision mass measurements of fusion-evaporation residues. To facilitate an efficient stopping of the reaction products a buffer gas stopping cell is utilized. In an investigation of neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the terbium-to-thulium region around A {approx_equal} 146, 18 new or improved mass values have been obtained, resulting in a more accurate determination of the proton drip line for holmium and thulium. With the present performance of SHIPTRAP, a first direct mass measurement of transuranium elements in the nobelium region is within reach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22003889','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22003889"><span>Mass Evaluation for Proton Rich <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Wang, M.; Audi, G.; Xu, X.; Pfeiffer, B.; Kondev, F. G.</p> <p>2011-11-30</p> <p>The Atomic mass evaluation (AME) provides the reliable resource for the values related to atomic masses. Since the publication of the latest version of AME in 2003, many developments for atomic mass determination have been done and important results changed significantly our knowledge. A preliminary version of AME was released in April 2011, and an official version is foreseen to be published in early 2013. The general status of AME is presented and some specific features of AME for proton-rich <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848"><span>Sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, D.A.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L"><span>Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gobies face demographic bottlenecks?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The majority of coral reef goby species are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, with some highly abundant species living less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally short life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.9917N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.9917N"><span>Modeling the inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> partitioning in the tropical tropopause layer over the eastern and western Pacific Ocean</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navarro, Maria A.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Atlas, Elliot; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Moore, Fred L.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The stratospheric inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) burden arising from the degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic substances (VSLorg) and its partitioning between reactive and reservoir species is needed for a comprehensive assessment of the ozone depletion potential of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trace gases. Here we present modeled inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> abundances over the Pacific tropical tropopause based on aircraft observations of VSLorg from two campaigns of the Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX 2013, carried out over the eastern Pacific, and ATTREX 2014, carried out over the western Pacific) and chemistry-climate simulations (along ATTREX flight tracks) using the specific meteorology prevailing. Using the Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry (CAM-Chem) we model that BrO and Br are the daytime dominant species. Integrated across all ATTREX flights, BrO represents ˜ 43 and 48 % of daytime Bry abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The results also show zones where Br / BrO > 1 depending on the solar zenith angle (SZA), ozone concentration, and temperature. On the other hand, BrCl and BrONO2 were found to be the dominant nighttime species with ˜ 61 and 56 % of abundance at 17 km over the western and eastern Pacific, respectively. The western-to-eastern differences in the partitioning of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are explained by different abundances of ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), total inorganic chlorine (Cly), and the efficiency of heterogeneous reactions of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> reservoirs (mostly BrONO2 and HBr) occurring on ice crystals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L"><span>Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760011553','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19760011553"><span>Hydrogen-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Secondary Battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>England, C. (Inventor)</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A secondary battery is described utilizing hydrogen and halogen as primary reactants. It comprises inert anode and cathode initially contacting an aqueous solution of an acid and an alkali metal bromide. The hydrogen generated during charging of the cell is stored as gas, while the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> becomes dissolved predominantly in the lower layers of the acid electrolyte. Preferred components are phosphoric acid and lithium bromide.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A"><span>Treatment of solid tumors by interstitial release of recoiling <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arazi, L.; Cooks, T.; Schmidt, M.; Keisari, Y.; Kelson, I.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A new method utilizing alpha particles to treat solid tumors is presented. Tumors are treated with interstitial radioactive sources which continually release <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitting atoms from their surface. The atoms disperse inside the tumor, delivering a high dose through their alpha decays. We implement this scheme using thin wire sources impregnated with 224Ra, which release by recoil 220Rn, 216Po and 212Pb atoms. This work aims to demonstrate the feasibility of our method by measuring the activity patterns of the released radionuclides in experimental tumors. Sources carrying 224Ra activities in the range 10-130 kBq were used in experiments on murine squamous cell carcinoma tumors. These included gamma spectroscopy of the dissected tumors and major organs, Fuji-plate autoradiography of histological tumor sections and tissue damage detection by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The measurements focused on 212Pb and 212Bi. The 220Rn/216Po distribution was treated theoretically using a simple diffusion model. A simplified scheme was used to convert measured 212Pb activities to absorbed dose estimates. Both physical and histological measurements confirmed the formation of a 5-7 mm diameter necrotic region receiving a therapeutic alpha-particle dose around the source. The necrotic regions shape closely corresponded to the measured activity patterns. 212Pb was found to leave the tumor through the blood at a rate which decreased with tumor mass. Our results suggest that the proposed method, termed DART (diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy), may potentially be useful for the treatment of human patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.; Samset, B. H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealised, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all three models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the northern hemisphere high latitudes, and a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation and run-off. Changes in precipitation and run-off patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ, consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker forcing signal, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are free-running means that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P"><span>Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T.; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S"><span>Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T. K.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M. G.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased at twice the global rate, largely as a result of ice-albedo and temperature feedbacks. Although deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs; refs ,). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly than for mitigation of CO2 and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This Letter is one of the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCFs emissions, taking into account black carbon (BC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone (O3), and their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. This study extends the scope of previous works by including more detailed calculations of Arctic radiative forcing and quantifying the Arctic temperature response. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations owing to the large absolute amount of emissions. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible mitigation scenario for SLCFs, phased in from 2015 to 2030, could cut warming by 0.2 (+/-0.17) K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"><span>Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24D..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24D..05F"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Climate Forcers in a 1.5 Degree World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Samset, B. H.; Sand, M.; Smith, C. J.; Forster, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> climate forcers, such as aerosol species black carbon (BC) and sulphate (SO4), make up a significant - but poorly constrained - portion of the present anthropogenic climate perturbation. Measures to improve air quality and curb environmental impacts are likely to lead to strong reductions in aerosol emissions over the coming decades. While the resulting global mean changes to temperature and precipitation may be modest, regionally the impacts may be significant. Should we also manage to strongly mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and thus limit global warming to 1.5 degrees above the preindustrial level, both the local and global climate impacts of simultaneous reductions in aerosol emissions may be severe. Within the present uncertainties on aerosol radiative forcing, there is a strong possibility that removing aerosol emissions alone perturbs the climate beyond natural variability in certain areas. In this talk, we map out and quantify the possible climate impacts from removing anthropogenic aerosol emissions, when combined with greenhouse gas concentrations consistent with 1.5 degrees of global warming. Simulations using three global climate models indicate that fully removing the present emissions of SO4, and BC from fossil fuel and biofuel sources, yields an additional 0.5 degrees of global mean surface temperature increase. Regionally, this additional warming becomes stronger with latitude, due to a combination of the geographical distribution of aerosol emissions and Arctic amplification. The precipitation change is more variable, but significant relative to natural variability in several industrial regions. Distributions of climate extremes are also affected. To be policy relevant, we should be able to model regional consequences of ambitious, multi-component emission reduction scenarios. The results in this talk allow us to better constrain the climate consequences of reducing aerosol emissions in a 1.5 degree world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850001880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850001880"><span>Stability of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Intercalated Graphite Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, J. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Previous evidence suggested that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation compounds of crystalline graphite spontaneously deintercalate when the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atmosphere is removed. However, results show that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated P-100 graphite fibers are stable for long periods of time. They are stable under vacuum conditions, high humidity, and current densities up to 24,000 A/sq cm. They are thermally stable to 200 C, and at temperatures as high as 400 C still retain 80 percent of the conductivity gained by intercalation. At temperatures greater than 300 C, there is significant oxidative degradation of the fibers. The environmental stability shown by the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compound makes it a promising candidate for practical applications in aerospace technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005812"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol/mol (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4 %. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...77B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38...77B"><span>Balloon observations of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and aerosols in the 2009 summer polar stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Berthet, Gwenael; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Brogniez, Colette; Chartier, Michel; Gaubicher, Bertrand; Auriol, Frederique; Balois, Jean-Yves; Francois, Philippe; Verwaerde, Christian</p> <p></p> <p>In the frame of the International Polar Year STRAPOLETE project, a balloon campaign op-erated by the French National Space Agency (CNES) was conducted in August 2009 from Kiruna (Sweden) to explore the rather poorly-documented summertime stratosphere. A set of various in situ and remote-sensing instruments was launched to derive the chemical and dy-namical characteristics inherent in the summer 2009 arctic stratosphere through observations of long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds and of aerosols. Here we firstly focus on the study of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from remote-sensing UV-visible spectrometry. The total inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content computed by a 3-dimensional Chemistry-Transport Model is assessed using the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content derived from the observations of BrO. These observations will be useful to continue the stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> trend as shown in the last World Meteorological Organization assessment. We also present observations of the stratospheric aerosol content which, to our knowledge, has not been reported yet in the summer arctic stratosphere. Aerosol counting/sizing data, photo-polarimetry observations and measurements of the aerosol extinc-tion in the visible spectral domain are used jointly to try to distinguish between the various natures of aerosols and to determine the spatial variability of their size distributions. The most striking feature is the strong spatial variability of the stratospheric aerosol content in particular around an altitude of 30 km from the 8 flights of the aerosol counter/sizer. We will give an estimation of the liquid sulfate aerosol content which is of importance in chemistry models and will estimate the vertical distribution of solid particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.9665P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.9665P"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6723P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6723P"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A"><span>Regional emission metrics for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Bellouin, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry-climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs), which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature change potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation policy package is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M⊙. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-isotope composition in the range Δ17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O isotopic ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1526089A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1526089A"><span>Multimodel emission metrics for regional emissions of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, B.; Berntsen, T. K.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shine, K. P.; Bellouin, N.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemistry-transport or coupled-chemistry climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter season (November-April) for emissions from Europe, East Asia, as well as the global shipping sector. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosols precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), and ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOC), which also influence aerosols, to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated relative to CO2, using Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature change Potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramp up period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies. For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOC. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of a mitigation policy package is robust even when accounting for correlations. For</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5559210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5559210"><span>Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>: /sup 241/Am, /sup 242/Am, /sup 242/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 247/Cm, /sup 248/Cm, /sup 250/Cm, /sup 245/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 246/Cf, /sup 249/Cf, /sup 250/Cf, /sup 252/Cf, /sup 254/Cf, /sup 251/Cf, /sup 253/Es, /sup 254/Es, /sup 244/Fm, /sup 246/Fm, /sup 255/Fm, /sup 252/No, /sup 254/Fm, /sup 256/Fm, /sup 257/Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022877','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022877"><span><span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> production in (very) small meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, J. R.; Nishiizumi, K.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>One of the most interesting open questions in the study of cosmic-ray effects in meteorites is the expected behavior of objects which are very small compared to the mean interaction length of primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. A reasonable limit might be a pre-atmospheric radius of 5 gram/cm(2), or 1.5 cm for chondrites. These are interesting for at least three reasons: (1) this is a limiting case for large objects, and can help us make better models; (2) this size is intermediate between usual meteorites and irradiated grams (spherules); and (3) these are the most likely objects to show solar cosmic ray (SCR) effects. Reedy (1984) has recently proposed a model for production by GCR of radioactive and stable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in spherical meteorites. Very small objects are expected to deviate from this model in the direction of fewer secondary particles (larger spectral shape parameter), at all depths. The net effect will be significantly lower production of such low-energy products as Mn-53 and Al-26. The SCR production of these and other <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> will be lower, too, because meteorite orbits extend typically out into the asteroid belt, and the mean SCR flux must fall off approximately as r(-2) with distance from the Sun. Kepler's laws insure that for such orbits most of the exposure time is spent near aphelion. None the less the equivalent mean exposure distance, R(exp), is slightly less than the semimajor axis A because of the weighting by R(-2). For the three meteorite orbits we have, R(exp) has a narrow range, from about 1.6 to 2.1 a.u. This is probably true for the great majority of meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs: methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for Northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20 year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C11B0449B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C11B0449B"><span>Constraining the Time-Scale of Interaction of Sea Ice Sediments and Surface Sea Water in the Arctic Ocean Using <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radionuclide Tracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baskaran, M.; Andersson, P. S.; Jweda, J.; Dahlqvist, R.; Ketterer, M. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We measured the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (Th-234, Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Cs-137, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228) and concentrations of several elements (Be, Pb, Fe, Al, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on a suite of ice-rafted sediments (IRS) collected during BERINGIA-2005 in the Western Arctic Ocean. A suite of water samples were also collected and analyzed for particulate and dissolved Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228. The activities of Be-7 and Pb-210 in the IRS are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the source sediments. Presence of excess Th-234 in the IRS indicates that the removal of Th-234 from surface seawater took place on time scales comparable to the mean-life of Th-234. While the Po-210/Pb-210 activity ratios in the source sediments (1.0) and the atmospheric depositional input (~0.1) are known, varying ratios of 0.78 to 1.0 were found in the IRS. This ratio can be utilized to obtain the residence time of the IRS in sea ice. The activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in all the IRS is nearly constant (within a factor of 1.6) and are comparable to the benthic sediments in the source region. The activities of atmospherically-delivered radionuclides, Be-7 and Pb-210, in IRS varied by factors of ~4.5 and 9, respectively, and this variation is attributed to differences in the extent of interaction of surface water with IRS and differences in the mean-lives of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. While significant enrichment of Be-7 and Pb-210 has been found, there is no enrichment of stable Pb or Be. The Al-normalized enrichment factor for elements measured (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Be) indicate that there is no significant enrichment of these elements, with Al-normalized enrichment factors less than 1.3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045923','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045923"><span>Mineral resource of the month: <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The article offers information on <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, a natural element considered as a dissolved species in seawater, saltwater lakes and underground brines linked with petroleum deposits. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> belongs to the halogen group of elements and is characterized with brownish-red color and beach-like odor. It is commonly used in flame retardants, agriculture and drilling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311375"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> carbon black: An EDXD study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carbone, Marilena; Gontrani, Lorenzo</p> <p>2014-06-19</p> <p>An energy dispersive X-Ray study of pure and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> carbon black was carried out. The analysis of the diffraction patterns reveals that the low <span class="hlt">bromine</span> load (ca.1% mol) is trapped into the structure, without significantly modifying it. This allows the application of the difference methods, widely tested for electrolyte solutions, inorganic matrices containing metals and isomorphic substitutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738925"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of olefins with HBr and DMSO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karki, Megha; Magolan, Jakob</p> <p>2015-04-03</p> <p>A simple and inexpensive methodology is reported for the conversion of alkenes to 1,2-dibromo alkanes via oxidative <span class="hlt">bromination</span> using HBr paired with dimethyl sulfoxide, which serves as the oxidant as well as cosolvent. The substrate scope includes 21 olefins <span class="hlt">brominated</span> in good to excellent yields. Three of six styrene derivatives yielded bromohydrins under the reaction conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27978732','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27978732"><span>Interrupting the Nazarov Cyclization with <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schatz, Devon J; Kwon, Yonghoon; Scully, Thomas W; West, F G</p> <p>2016-12-16</p> <p>The generation of dibrominated cyclopentenones via an interrupted Nazarov cyclization is reported. The installation of two <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms occurs at the α and α' positions of the cyclopentenyl scaffold via successive nucleophilic and electrophilic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the 2-oxidocyclopentenyl cation and its resulting enolate. Notably, the reaction proceeds with good diastereoselectivity, favoring the symmetrical product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007307','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007307"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in cometary materials: Implications for rate of mass loss and exposure history</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Herzog, G. F.; Englert, P. A. J.; Reedy, R. C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>As planned, the Rosetta mission will return to earth with a 10-kg core and a 1-kg surface sample from a comet. The selection of a comet with low current activity will maximize the chance of obtaining material altered as little as possible. Current temperature and level of activity, however, may not reliably indicate previous values. Fortunately, from measurements of the cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> contents of cometary material, one may estimate a rate of mass loss in the past and perhaps learn something about the exposure history of the comet. Perhaps the simplest way to estimate the rate of mass loss is to compare the total inventories of several long-lived cosmogenic radionuclides with the values expected on the basis of model calculations. Although model calculations have become steadily more reliable, application to bodies with the composition of comets will require some extension beyond the normal range of use. In particular, the influence of light elements on the secondary particle cascade will need study, in part through laboratory irradiations of volatile-rich materials. In the analysis of cometary data, it would be valuable to test calculations against measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6999753','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6999753"><span>Enhanced water management using <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Sergent, R.H.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>This paper focuses on <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry and some of its unique properties, with regard to providing solutions to new and changing problems. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry offers many unique properties for enhancing a water management program. Regardless of the method used to generate a residual, hypobromous acid delivers faster kill rates than an equimolar concentration of hypochlorous acid at an elevated pH or in the presence of ammonia or nitrogenous materials. In addition, the faster degradation of most <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds relative to their chlorinated analogs increases the environmental acceptability of most <span class="hlt">brominated</span> effluents relative to chlorination. Based on these advantages, the application of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry to water treatment requirements has moved out of the speculative research phase and has moved into the sphere of a practical, commercial reality.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3741H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3741H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> brine infiltration during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the continental collision zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higashino, Fumiko; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Grantham, Geoffrey; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> conditions, and the different chemical profiles would represent differences in diffusion coefficients for each element. In addition, we estimated trace element concentrations of the brine and duration of the microstructural development, using elemental partition coefficients between fluids and minerals and diffusion equations. The duration, which was estimated to be 4 Myr, suggests <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brine infiltration in an otherwise long-lived continental collision scenario (e.g., Elburg et al., 2016). References Elburg, M.A., Andersen, T., Jacobs, J., Läufer, A., Ruppel, A., Krohne, N., Damaske, D. (2016) Journal of Geology 124, 1-26. Higashino, F., Kawakami, T., Tsuchiya, N., Satish-Kumar, M., Ishikawa, M., Grantham, G.H., Sakata, S., Hattori, K., Hirata, T. (2015) Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 110, 166-178. Higashino, F., Kawakami, T., Tsuchiya, N., Satish-Kumar, M., Ishikawa, M., Grantham, G.H., Sakata, S., Hirata, T. Journal of Petrology, under review. Newton, R.C., Manning, C.E. (2010) Geofluids 10, 58-72. Ruiz-Agudo, E., Putnis, C.V., Putnis, A. (2014) Chemical Geology 383, 132-146.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q"><span>Multi-model evaluation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p> is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S"><span>Global Modeling and Projection of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In predicting and mitigating future global warming, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p> plumes cannot explain the intraplate volcanism of the South Pacific region. We argue that the observed <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism has been produced by another type of hot spot-related volcanism, as opposed to the strong and continuous Hawaiian-type hot spots. Our results also indicate that other geological processes (plate tension, hotlines, faulting, wetspots, self-propagating volcanoes) may act in conjunction with hot spot volcanism in the South Pacific. In all these scenarios, intraplate volcanism has to be controlled by "broad-scale" events giving rise to multiple closely-spaced mantle plumelets, each with a distinct isotopic signature, but only briefly active and stable over geological time. It seems most likely that these plumelets originate and dissipate at very shallow mantle depths, where they may shoot off as thin plumes from the top of a "superplume" that is present in the South Pacific mantle. The absence of clear age progressions in most seamount trails and periodic flare-ups of massive intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific (such as the one in the Cretaceous and one starting 30 Myr ago) show that regional extension (caused by changes in the global plate circuit and/or the rise-and-fall of an oscillating superplume) may be driving the waxing and waning of intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984NIMPR.223..493P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984NIMPR.223..493P"><span>Alpha-emitting <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the marine environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pentreath, R. J.</p> <p>1984-06-01</p> <p>The occurrence of alpha-emitting <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and their daughter products in the marine environment continues to be a subject of study for many reasons. Those <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> which occur naturally, in the uranium, thorium and actinium series, are of interest because of their value in determining the rates of geological and geochemical processes in the oceans. Studies of them address such problems as the determination of rates of transfer of particulate matter, deposition rates, bioturbation rates, and so on. Two of the natural alpha-series <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in which a different interest has been expressed are 210Po and 226Ra, because their concentrations in marine organisms are such that they contribute to a significant fraction of the background dose rates sustained both by the organisms themselves and by consumers of marine fish and shellfish. To this pool of naturally-occurring <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, human activities have added the transuranium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, both from the atmospheric testing of nuclear devices and from the authorized discharges of radioactive wastes into coastal waters and the deep sea. Studies have therefore been made to understand the chemistry of these radionuclides in sea water, their association with sedimentary materials, and their accumulation by marine organisms, the last of these being of particular interest because the transuranics are essentially "novel" elements to the marine fauna and flora. The need to predict the long-term behaviour of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> has, in turn, stimulated research on those naturally-occurring <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> which may behave in a similar manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=493297','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=493297"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and selenium in human aorta.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cross, J D; Raie, R M; Smith, H</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and selenium concentrations of healthy and atheromatous human aorta and of other organs are reported. No relation between age and concentration in the aorta is found. The selenium levels of the aorta are similar to those of other internal organs; the content of the three layers show no significant differences. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations of the media are higher than those of the other layers, which are similar to those of the internal organs. A possibly greater concentration of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in atheromatous medial tissue is indicated. PMID:7240426</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5180787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5180787"><span>(The fate of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in natural water systems)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turekian, K.K. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Our research at Yale on the fate of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21860855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21860855"><span>Penetration of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs through the activated carbon columns during total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiangru; Krasner, Stuart W; Shang, Chii; Zhai, Hongyan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Mengting</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (TOBr) is a collective parameter representing all the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water samples. TOBr can be measured using the adsorption-pyrolysis method according to Standard Method 5320B. This method involves that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic DBPs are separated from inorganic halides and concentrated from aqueous solution by adsorption onto the activated carbon (AC). Previous studies have reported that some commonly known <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs can partially penetrate through the AC during this adsorption step. In this work, the penetration of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs through AC and ozone-modified AC was explored with two simulated drinking water samples and one chlorinated wastewater effluent sample. Polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs were selectively detected with a novel precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results show that 3.4% and 10.4% of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs (in terms of total ion intensity) in the chlorinated Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid samples, respectively, penetrated through the AC, and 19.6% of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs in the chlorinated secondary wastewater effluent sample penetrated through the AC. The ozone-modification of AC minimized the penetration of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs during the TOBr analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M</p> <p>2017-01-24</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5278445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5278445"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the “world avoided” by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing. PMID:28069937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000LPICo.997...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000LPICo.997...69R"><span>Solar-Cosmic-Ray-Produced <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Extraterrestrial Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reedy, Robert C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>There are two main types of cosmic rays that have sufficient energy to induce nuclear reactions -- the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (also called solar energetic particles). Both types of particles can have production rates and production ratios in the small objects often found in cold and hot deserts that are different from those seen for most meteorites, which typically have radii of approx.10-100 centimeters. GCR production rates are often lower than those for most meteorites. GCR production ratios, such as Ne-22/Ne-21, are also often different in small objects. Smaller meteoroids also are more likely to have <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made by solar-cosmic-ray (SCR) particles than typically-sized meteorites. The very small meteorite Salem had large amounts of SCR-produced radionuclides. Meteorites recovered in Antarctica are more likely to contain SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> than other meteorites. Martian and lunar meteorites are also likely to have SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Production rates and profiles for SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteoroids have been calculated previously. However, the cross sections for the nuclear reactions making many SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, such as Be-10, were not well measured then. New rates and profiles are calculated here using good cross sections for the reactions making these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1268021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1268021"><span>Nuclear Properties and Decay Data Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>OSORIO, V. B.</p> <p>2008-04-04</p> <p>Version 00 NUCHART displays nuclear decay data graphically on a PC and, includes a search routine for assigning gamma-ray energies to radionuclides. The numerical data included in NUCHART were taken from the online database "NUDAT" Version of March 1994. The following information is presented: (1) <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> information: for each <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>, abundance, mass excess, (main) decay mode, half-life and uncertainty, branching ratio, decay Q; (2) decay radiation: for each <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>, tables of radiation energy, intensity and equivalent dose for the 5 most intense decay radiations of beta+, beta-, conversion electrons, gammas, alphas and x-rays, including electron Augers; (3) adopted gammas: for each <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>, table containing energy, relative intensity, energy level of the main gamma lines and year of publication in Nuclear Data Sheets; (4) search gamma energies: for a specified interval of gamma energies all know gamma lines and their <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are displayed; the database contains 132,000 gamma lines; (5) a search mode by specific <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> is also available. For the latest data and online tools for viewing the data, see NuDat 2.4 on the NNDC and IAEA NDS websites: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/ and http://www-nds.iaea.org/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confc0120Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confc0120Y"><span>Design Study for a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph for Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Jin Woo; Park, Young-Ho; Im, Kang-Bin; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun</p> <p></p> <p>The multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been designed for the high precision mass measurement system in RAON accelerator facility, which will be constructed in Korea. Mirror-electrode potentials were numerically optimized by Nelder-Mead algorithm. The temporal spread and the mass-resolving power were calculated for the 132Sn+ ions with an energy spread of 20 eV and an emittance of 3 π mm mrad; the mass resolving power over 105 was achieved. MR-TOF-MS will be used for the isobar separation and the mass measurement for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126380"><span>Extended longevity mechanisms in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeroid mice: identification of a preservative stress response associated with successful aging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van de Ven, Marieke; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Holcomb, Valerie B; Hasty, Paul; Suh, Yousin; van Steeg, Harry; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mitchell, James R</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Semantic distinctions between "normal" aging, "pathological" aging (or age-related disease) and "premature" aging (otherwise known as segmental progeria) potentially confound important insights into the nature of each of the complex processes. Here we review a recent, unexpected discovery: the presence of longevity-associated characteristics typical of long-lived endocrine-mutant and dietary-restricted animals in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeroid mice. These data suggest that a subset of symptoms observed in premature aging, and possibly normal aging as well, may be indirect manifestations of a beneficial adaptive stress response to endogenous oxidative damage, rather than a detrimental result of the damage itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"><span>Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170289"><span>Algorithm Improvement Program <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> Identification Algorithm Scoring Criteria And Scoring Application - DNDO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Enghauser, Michael</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> weighting factors, <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1366784','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1366784"><span>Algorithm improvement program <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm scoring criteria and scoring application.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Enghauser, Michael</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> weighting factors, <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283728&keyword=atoms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283728&keyword=atoms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>PCBs, PBBs and <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235237&keyword=Veterinary&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736277&CFTOKEN=19268812','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235237&keyword=Veterinary&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736277&CFTOKEN=19268812"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235237&keyword=veterinary+AND+research&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235237&keyword=veterinary+AND+research&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283728&keyword=Atoms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78823636&CFTOKEN=94475238','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283728&keyword=Atoms&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78823636&CFTOKEN=94475238"><span>PCBs, PBBs and <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015InJPh..89.1109L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015InJPh..89.1109L"><span>Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/784251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/784251"><span>PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET <span class="hlt">NUCLIDES</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.</p> <p>2001-06-25</p> <p>Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23638835','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23638835"><span>Stability and metastability of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> clathrate polymorphs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nguyen, Andrew H; Molinero, Valeria</p> <p>2013-05-23</p> <p>Clathrate hydrates are crystals in which water forms a network of fully hydrogen-bonded polyhedral cages that contain small guests. Clathrate hydrates occur mostly in two cubic crystal polymorphs, sI and sII. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is one of two guests that yield a hydrate with the tetragonal structure (TS), the topological dual of the Frank-Kasper σ phase. There has been a long-standing disagreement on whether <span class="hlt">bromine</span> hydrate also forms metastable sI and sII crystals. To date there are no data on the thermodynamic range of stability (e.g., the melting temperatures) of the metastable polymorphs. Here we use molecular dynamics simulations with the coarse-grained model of water mW to (i) investigate the thermodynamic stability of the empty and guest-filled the sI, sII, TS, and HS-I hydrate polymorphs, (ii) develop a coarse-grained model of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compatible with mW water, and (iii) evaluate the stability of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> hydrate polymorphs. The mW model predicts the same relative energy of the empty clathrate polymorphs and the same phase diagram as a function of water-guest interaction than the fully atomistic TIP4P water model. There is a narrow region in water-guest parameter space for which TS is marginally more stable than sI or sII. We parametrize a coarse-grained model of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compatible with mW water and use it to determine the order of stability of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> hydrate polymorphs. The melting temperatures of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> hydrate polymorphs predicted by the coarse-grained model are 281 ± 1 K for TS, 279 ± 1 K for sII, and 276 ± 1 K for sI. The closeness of the melting temperatures supports the plausibility of formation of metastable sII and sI <span class="hlt">bromine</span> hydrates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943"><span>Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716"><span>Alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic events in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-lived mice testes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matzkin, María Eugenia; Miquet, Johanna Gabriela; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal Monique; Turyn, Daniel; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Bartke, Andrzej; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, although the expression of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged in testes of long-lived mice, the remainder of the parameters assessed showed a significant reduction. This study provides novel evidence that longevity confers anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities to the adult testis. Oppositely, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice suffer testicular inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes. PMID:26805572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G"><span>Overview of the methods for the measurement and interpretation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes and their limits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghaleb, B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The daughter products of the uranium and thorium series consist of several radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from less than a second to 105 years. Combining their half-live with their geochemical behaviour some of these radioisotopes could be used as tracers and/or chronometers of sedimentary processes. For example, thorium isotopes, and to a lesser extent polonium isotopes are characterized by very low solubility and very high affinity for the surface of particles. Consequently, thorium isotopes can be used to document scavenging and adsorption processes. On the other hand, radium isotopes tend to remain in solution and can be used to document diffusion processes. In the following, we present the analytical methods for the measurement and analysis of the most common <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes and throughout their utility in studying sedimentary processes will be illustrated by a few examples of applications. These examples will focus essentially on the applications of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> thorium isotopes (notably 234Th) and the use of 210Pb as chronometer for recent sedimentary accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DMP..HP60M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998APS..DMP..HP60M"><span>Application of the Non-Adiabatic Phase Matrix Method to Vibrational Excitation Near a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Resonance</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Morrison, Michael A.; Mazevet, S.; Nesbet, R. K.</p> <p>1998-05-01</p> <p>Non-adiabatic effects arising from energy exchange between the kinetic energy of the projectile and the nuclear degrees of freedom play a vital role in resonance vibrational excitation of molecules for sufficiently long-lived resonances. The importance of these effects for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> resonances is less clear, and the suitability of approximate theories for incorporating these effects to such resonances has been heretofore unknown. We have applied one such approach, the non-adiabatic phase (NADP) matrix method,(R. K. Nesbet, Phys. Rev. A 54), 2899 (1996) to the very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> resonance in e--H2 vibrational excitation. Even in this problematic case, the NADP method provides a systematic treatment of the (fixed-nuclei) ^2Σ_u^+ resonance that is consistent for all internuclear separations. We shall compare NADP scattering quantities for excitation of low-lying vibrational states of H2 to benchmark results from body-fixed vibrational close-coupling calculations.(S. J. Buckman, M. J. Brunger, D. S. Newman, G. Snitchler, S. Alston, D. W. Norcross, M. A. Morrison, B. C. Saha, G. Danby, and W. K. Trail, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65), 3253 (1990)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239377"><span>Electron ionization of different large perfluoroethers embedded in ultracold helium droplets: effective freezing of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decomposition intermediates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bartl, P; Tanzer, K; Mitterdorfer, C; Karolczak, S; Illenberger, E; Denifl, S; Scheier, P</p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>Electron ionization of three perfluoroethers (PFEs), C(6)F(14)O(3), C(8)F(18)O(4), and C(10)F(20)O(5), is studied in the gas phase and when the molecules are embedded in ultracold helium (He) droplets. The molecules investigated are model compounds for perfluoropolyethers used as lubricants in technical applications. The present study gives insight into possible radiolysis pathways upon radiation exposure. The experiments utilized a crossed electron/droplet beam apparatus consisting of a He droplet source and pick-up chamber combined with a commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The doped droplets were ionized by electron ionization at 70 eV. The He environment strongly affects the ionization patterns in the way that both the molecular ion M(+) and high-mass fragment ions formed by the loss of light neutral species such as F([M-F](+)), or CF(3)OCF(2) ([M-CF(3)OCF(2)](+)), etc., became strong signals in the mass spectrum. These signals were not or only barely visible in the gas-phase experiment and were identified as <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> (< µs) dissociation intermediates which in the gas phase immediately decomposed into lower-mass fragment ions. Ionic fragmentation intermediates are frozen and subsequently stabilized in the He environment. Helium droplets can hence be viewed as a cryogenic laboratory transforming <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decomposition intermediates into stable fragment ions appearing as strong signals in the mass spectrum. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395083-equilibrium-ultrafast-kinetic-studies-manipulating-electron-transfer-short-lived-flavin-semiquinone-sufficient-electron-bifurcation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395083-equilibrium-ultrafast-kinetic-studies-manipulating-electron-transfer-short-lived-flavin-semiquinone-sufficient-electron-bifurcation"><span>Equilibrium and ultrafast kinetic studies manipulating electron transfer: A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> flavin semiquinone is not sufficient for electron bifurcation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Hoben, John P.; Lubner, Carolyn E.; Ratzloff, Michael W.; ...</p> <p>2017-06-14</p> <p>Flavin-based electron transfer bifurcation is emerging as a fundamental and powerful mechanism for conservation and deployment of electrochemical energy in enzymatic systems. In this process, a pair of electrons is acquired at intermediate reduction potential (i.e. intermediate reducing power) and each electron is passed to a different acceptor, one with lower and the other with higher reducing power, leading to 'bifurcation'. It is believed that a strongly reducing semiquinone species is essential for this process, and it is expected that this species should be kinetically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. We now demonstrate that presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anionic flavin semiquinone (ASQ) is notmore » sufficient to infer existence of bifurcating activity, although such a species may be necessary for the process. We have used transient absorption spectroscopy to compare the rates and mechanisms of decay of ASQ generated photochemically in bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase and the non-bifurcating flavoproteins nitroreductase, NADH oxidase and flavodoxin. We found that different mechanisms dominate ASQ decay in the different protein environments, producing lifetimes ranging over two orders of magnitude. Capacity for electron transfer among redox cofactors vs. charge recombination with nearby donors can explain the range of ASQ lifetimes we observe. In conclusion, our results support a model wherein efficient electron propagation can explain the short lifetime of the ASQ of bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase I, and can be an indication of capacity for electron bifurcation.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A22D..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A22D..01A"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic trace gases in the UT/LS: Results from recent field campaigns. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atlas, E. L.; Pan, L.; Schauffler, S.; Bowman, K. P.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Stone, D.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Recent research campaigns in the tropics (TC-4 and AVE missions) and in the extra-tropics (START08) have included the measurement of trace gases from whole air sampling on the NASA WB-57 or NSF Gulfstream V aircraft. Measurements of a range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, organic nitrates, and sulfur species were made during these missions to examine the role of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic gases in the UT/LS. The trace gas composition of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region depends on emission sources, transport pathways, mixing rates and photochemical processing time. Because surface emissions include gases with a range of chemical lifetimes, and because different source emissions (e.g. marine boundary layer, anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning) can have different chemical signatures, the composition of the organic trace gases that are found in the UT/LS region have the potential to provide diagnostic information on air mass sources and transport time scales. Also, measurement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic halogen gases in the UT/LS during these missions provides data to define the reactive halogen budget and the chemical boundary conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. This presentation will highlight different aspects of these measurements that deal with transport pathways, transport rates, and halogen budgets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K"><span>Production cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Production cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag → 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842500"><span>Temperature affects longevity and age-related locomotor and cognitive decay in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenzano, Dario R; Terzibasi, Eva; Cattaneo, Antonino; Domenici, Luciano; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Temperature variations are known to modulate aging and life-history traits in poikilotherms as different as worms, flies and fish. In invertebrates, temperature affects lifespan by modulating the slope of age-dependent acceleration in death rate, which is thought to reflect the rate of age-related damage accumulation. Here, we studied the effects of temperature on aging kinetics, aging-related behavioural deficits, and age-associated histological markers of senescence in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri. This species shows a maximum captive lifespan of only 3 months, which is tied with acceleration in growth and expression of aging biomarkers. These biological peculiarities make it a very convenient animal model for testing the effects of experimental manipulations on life-history traits in vertebrates. Here, we show that (i) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C increases both median and maximum lifespan; (ii) life extension is due to reduction in the slope of the age-dependent acceleration in death rate; (iii) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C retards the onset of age-related locomotor and learning deficits; and (iv) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C reduces the accumulation of the age-related marker lipofuscin. We conclude that lowering water temperature is a simple experimental manipulation which retards the rate of age-related damage accumulation in this <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615449"><span>Equilibrium and ultrafast kinetic studies manipulating electron transfer: A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> flavin semiquinone is not sufficient for electron bifurcation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoben, John P; Lubner, Carolyn E; Ratzloff, Michael W; Schut, Gerrit J; Nguyen, Diep M N; Hempel, Karl W; Adams, Michael W W; King, Paul W; Miller, Anne-Frances</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>Flavin-based electron transfer bifurcation is emerging as a fundamental and powerful mechanism for conservation and deployment of electrochemical energy in enzymatic systems. In this process, a pair of electrons is acquired at intermediate reduction potential (i.e. intermediate reducing power), and each electron is passed to a different acceptor, one with lower and the other with higher reducing power, leading to "bifurcation." It is believed that a strongly reducing semiquinone species is essential for this process, and it is expected that this species should be kinetically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. We now demonstrate that the presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anionic flavin semiquinone (ASQ) is not sufficient to infer the existence of bifurcating activity, although such a species may be necessary for the process. We have used transient absorption spectroscopy to compare the rates and mechanisms of decay of ASQ generated photochemically in bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase and the non-bifurcating flavoproteins nitroreductase, NADH oxidase, and flavodoxin. We found that different mechanisms dominate ASQ decay in the different protein environments, producing lifetimes ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Capacity for electron transfer among redox cofactors versus charge recombination with nearby donors can explain the range of ASQ lifetimes that we observe. Our results support a model wherein efficient electron propagation can explain the short lifetime of the ASQ of bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase I and can be an indication of capacity for electron bifurcation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L"><span>Sediment Dating With <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes In Monterey Canyon, California Imply Episodes Of Rapid Deposition And Erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenson, T. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Maier, K. L.; Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E.; Symons, W. O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Submarine canyons are a major conduit for terrestrial material to the deep sea. To better constrain the timing and rates in which sediment is transported down-canyon, we collected a series of sediment cores along the axis of Monterey Canyon, and quantified mass accumulation rates using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes. A suite of sediment cores were carefully collected perpendicular to the canyon thalweg in water depths of approximately 300m, 500m, 800m, and 1500m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We choose cores that were between 60m and 75m above the canyon thalweg on canyon side bench features for correlation with moored instrument deployments. The sediment cores reveal a complex stratigraphy that includes copious bioturbation features, sand lenses, subtle erosional surfaces, subtle graded bedding, and abrupt changes sediment texture and color. Downcore excess 210Pb and 137Cs profiles imply episodic deposition and remobilization cycles on the canyon benches. Excess 210Pb activities in cores reach depths of up to 1m, implying very rapid sedimentation. Sedimentation rates vary with water depth, generally with the highest sedimentation rate in closest to land, but vary substantially on adjacent canyon benches. Preliminary results demonstrate that sediment movement within Monterey Canyon is both dynamic and episodic on human time-scales and can be reconstructed used <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP53A3641M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP53A3641M"><span>Initial Test Determination of Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Magnetite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsumura, H.; Caffee, M. W.; Nagao, K.; Nishiizumi, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Long-lived radionuclides, such as 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl, are produced by cosmic rays in surficial materials on Earth, and used for determinations of cosmic-ray exposure ages and erosion rates. Quartz and limestone are routinely used as the target minerals for these geomorphological studies. Magnetite also contains target elements that produce abundant cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> when exposed to the cosmic rays. Magnetite has several notable merits that enable the measurement of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>: (1) the target elements for production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in magnetite comprise the dominant mineral form of magnetite, Fe3O4; (2) magnetite can be easily isolated, using a magnet, after rock milling; (3) multiple cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are produced by exposure of magnetite to cosmic-ray secondaries; and (4) cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> produced in the rock containing the magnetite, but not within the magnetite itself, can be separated using nitric acid and sodium hydroxide leaches. As part of this initial study, magnetite was separated from a basaltic sample collected from the Atacama Desert in Chili (2,995 m). Then Be, Al, Cl, Ca, and Mn were separated from ~2 g of the purified magnetite. We measured cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl concentrations in the magnetite by accelerator mass spectrometry at PRIME Lab, Purdue University. Cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne concentrations of aliquot of the magnetite were measured by mass spectrometry at the University of Tokyo. We also measured the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentrations from magnetite collected from a mine at Ishpeming, Michigan as a blank. The 10Be and 36Cl concentrations as well as 3He concentration produce concordant cosmic ray exposure ages of ~0.4 Myr for the Atacama basalt. However, observed high 26Al and 21Ne concentrations attribute to those <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> incorporation from silicate impurity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-31/pdf/2010-7045.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-31/pdf/2010-7045.pdf"><span>75 FR 16104 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>... AGENCY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... registration review decision for the pesticide <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, case 4015. Registration review is EPA's periodic review... registration review decision for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, case 4015. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is a bromide releasing antimicrobial...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6542744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6542744"><span>Predicting the production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in extraterrestrial matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The production rates of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made by the galactic and solar cosmic rays are important in the interpretations of measurements made with lunar samples, meteorites, and cosmic spherules. Production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> have been predicted by a variety of methods that are reviewed in this paper, ranging from systematic studies of one or a group of meteorites to purely theoretical calculations. Production rates can vary with the chemical composition and the preatmospheric depth of the sample and with the size and shape of the object. While the production systematics for cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are fairly well known, our ability to predict their production rates can be improved, with a corresponding increase in the scientific return. Additional detailed studies of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in extraterrestrial objects are needed, especially for fairly small and very large objects. <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> made in simulation experiments and cross sections for many major nuclear reactions should be measured. Such studies are especially needed for the long-lived radionuclides that have only recently become readily measurable by accelerator mass spectrometry. 34 refs., 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.174..143C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.174..143C"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Recent investigations showed that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A43A0175H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A43A0175H"><span>Growth in the Stratospheric Loading of Chlorinated Very <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Substances: Recent Trends and Implications for Future Ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Leeson, A.; Dhomse, S.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species (VSLS) are an important source of stratospheric halogens and contribute to ozone loss, particularly in the lower stratosphere, where ozone perturbations are most climate-relevant (Hossaini et al., 2015a,b). Chlorine VSLS, such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), are primarily anthropogenic and their production is not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Long-term surface measurements of CH2Cl2, the most abundant chlorine VSLS, show its atmospheric concentration has more than doubled in the last decade. Here, we used the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT chemical transport model to quantify (i) recent trends in the emission and stratospheric input of CH2Cl2, (ii) the impact of CH2Cl2 on present day ozone & (iii) the impact of continued CH2Cl2 growth on future ozone. Constrained by time-dependent surface CH2Cl2 measurements, our model shows the contribution of CH2Cl2 to stratospheric Cl doubled between 2005 (36 ppt Cl) and 2016 (72 ppt Cl). The model reproduces well high-altitude CH2Cl2 measurements from recent NASA ATTREX missions. Increases in the stratospheric input of CH2Cl2 are attributed to increasing industrial emissions. We estimate a 1 Tg CH2Cl2/yr source is required to sustain observed present day CH2Cl2 concentrations. By comparing a simulation with CH2Cl2 considered to one without, we show that CH2Cl2 presently accounts for up to 10% of lower stratospheric Cly. Inclusion of CH2Cl2 leads to a modest reduction of the model springtime Antarctic ozone column of up to 3%. Assuming CH2Cl2 concentrations continue to increase at their present rate, our forward simulations show CH2Cl2 could account for 20-30% of lower stratospheric Cly by 2050, as the contribution from long-lived chlorocarbons declines. We find that continued CH2Cl2 growth could significantly delay the return of Antarctic ozone to pre-1980 levels by more than a decade. In conclusion, sustained future CH2Cl2 growth could significantly offset some of the future benefits of the Montreal Protocol and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.6723F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.6723F"><span>Delivery of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances from the west Indian Ocean to the stratosphere during the Asian summer monsoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiehn, Alina; Quack, Birgit; Hepach, Helmke; Fuhlbrügge, Steffen; Tegtmeier, Susann; Toohey, Matthew; Atlas, Elliot; Krüger, Kirstin</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>Halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLSs) are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. When transported to the stratosphere, these compounds can have a significant influence on the ozone layer and climate. During a research cruise on RV Sonne in the subtropical and tropical west Indian Ocean in July and August 2014, we measured the VSLSs, methyl iodide (CH3I) and for the first time bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), in surface seawater and the marine atmosphere to derive their emission strengths. Using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART with ERA-Interim meteorological fields, we calculated the direct contribution of observed VSLS emissions to the stratospheric halogen burden during the Asian summer monsoon. Furthermore, we compare the in situ calculations with the interannual variability of transport from a larger area of the west Indian Ocean surface to the stratosphere for July 2000-2015. We found that the west Indian Ocean is a strong source for CHBr3 (910 pmol m-2 h-1), very strong source for CH2Br2 (930 pmol m-2 h-1), and an average source for CH3I (460 pmol m-2 h-1). The atmospheric transport from the tropical west Indian Ocean surface to the stratosphere experiences two main pathways. On very short timescales, especially relevant for the shortest-lived compound CH3I (3.5 days lifetime), convection above the Indian Ocean lifts oceanic air masses and VSLSs towards the tropopause. On a longer timescale, the Asian summer monsoon circulation transports oceanic VSLSs towards India and the Bay of Bengal, where they are lifted with the monsoon convection and reach stratospheric levels in the southeastern part of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This transport pathway is more important for the longer-lived <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds (17 and 150 days lifetime for CHBr3 and CH2Br2). The entrainment of CHBr3 and CH3I from the west Indian Ocean to the stratosphere during the Asian summer monsoon is lower than from previous</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A"><span>A comparison of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbon (VSLS) and DMS aircraft measurements in the tropical west Pacific from CAST, ATTREX and CONTRAST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, Stephen J.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Apel, Eric C.; Atlas, Elliot; Donets, Valeria; Hopkins, James R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lidster, Richard T.; Lueb, Richard; Minaeian, Jamie; Navarro, Maria; Punjabi, Shalini; Riemer, Daniel; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present a comparison of aircraft measurements of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS, C2H6S) from a co-ordinated campaign in January-February 2014 in the tropical west Pacific. Measurements were made on the NASA Global Hawk, NCAR Gulfstream-V High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (GV HIAPER) and UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 (see Sect. 2.2) using four separate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instruments: one operated by the University of Miami (UoM), one from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and two from the University of York (UoY). DMS was measured on the BAe-146 and GV. The instruments were inter-calibrated for halocarbons during the campaign period using two gas standards on separate scales: a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) SX-3581 standard representative of clean low-hydrocarbon air, and an Essex canister prepared by UoM, representative of coastal air, which was higher in VSLS and hydrocarbon content. UoY and NCAR use the NOAA scale/standard for VSLS calibration, and UoM uses a scale based on dilutions of primary standards calibrated by GC with FID (flame ionisation detector) and AED (atomic emission detector). Analysis of the NOAA SX-3581 standard resulted in good agreement for CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, CH3I, CH2ICl and CH2I2 (average relative standard deviation (RSD) < 10 %). Agreement was in general slightly poorer for the UoM Essex canister with an RSD of < 13 %. Analyses of CHBrCl2 and CHBr3 in this standard however showed significant variability, most likely due to co-eluting contaminant peaks, and a high concentration of CHBr3, respectively. These issues highlight the importance of calibration at atmospherically relevant concentrations ( ˜ 0.5-5 ppt for VSLSs; see Fig. 5 for individual ranges). The UoY in situ GC-MS measurements on board the BAe-146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5508100','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5508100"><span>Variable temperature effects on release rates of readily soluble <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.-L.; Light, W.B.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )</p> <p>1988-09-01</p> <p>In this paper we study the effect of temperature on the release rate of readily soluble <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, as affected by a time-temperature dependent diffusion coefficient. In this analysis ground water fills the voids in the waste package at t = 0 and one percent of the inventories of cesium and iodine are immediately dissolved into the void water. Mass transfer resistance of partly failed container and cladding is conservatively neglected. The <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> move through the void space into the surrounding rock under a concentration gradient. We use an analytic solution to compute the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentration in the gap or void, and the mass flux rate into the porous rock. 8 refs., 4 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129"><span>Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Particle Release Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rishel, Jeremy P.; Keillor, Martin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Baciak, James E.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Smart, John E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper utilizes standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing the both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to investigate several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be utilized by an On-Site Inspection team under the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893"><span>Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, R</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Studies and calibrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, for example (15)O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L"><span>Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> agent 178Ta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine. PMID:27169489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I"><span>In situ lithium diffusion measurement in solid ionic conductors using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer beam of 8Li</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T. K.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Nakao, A.; Ueno, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We developed an in situ radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-emitting 8Li tracer. In the method, while implanting a pulsed 8Li beam into a solid material of interest, the α particles emitted into the implantation side of the sample surface were detected as a function of time. By changing the implantation depth and the detection angle against the sample surface according to lithium diffusivity (deep implantation and large angle with a large solid angle, or shallow implantation and small angle with a narrow solid angle), the method can be sensitive to a wide range of diffusion length ranging from micrometer scale to nanometer scale per second. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by measuring the lithium diffusion coefficients to the order of 10-12 cm2/s in lithium ionic conductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..96a4324H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..96a4324H"><span>α -decay chain of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 220Pa established using a digital pulse processing technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, T. H.; Zhang, W. Q.; Sun, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ding, B.; Gan, Z. G.; Ma, L.; Yang, H. B.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, L.; Jiang, J.; Wang, K. L.; Wang, Y. S.; Liu, M. L.; Li, Z. H.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Lu, H. Y.; Lin, C. J.; Sun, L. J.; Ma, N. R.; Ren, Z. Z.; Zhang, F. S.; Zou, W.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Xiao, G. Q.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 220Pa were re-investigated via the reaction 40Ar+187Re at the gas-filled recoil separator Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure. The digital pulse processing technique was applied to resolve the evaporation residues-α (ER -α ) pileup signals in the decay of 220Pa. The α -decay chain of 220Pa leading to the well-known 216Ac isotope was established for the first time. The α energy and half-life were measured to be Eα=9.520 (16 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.90 (13 ) μ s , respectively. The spin parity of the ground state of 220Pa was assigned to be 1-, based on the reduced α -decay width.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995"><span>Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"><span>Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468620"><span>Abiotic <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of Soil Organic Matter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to <span class="hlt">bromination</span> than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1354251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1354251"><span>Abiotic <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of Soil Organic Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leri, Alessandra C.; Ravel, Bruce</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to <span class="hlt">bromination</span> than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860023101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860023101"><span>The milling of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dillehay, M. E.; Gaier, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Techniques were developed for the ball milling of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers. Because of the lubrication properties of graphite, large ball loads (50 percent by volume) were required. Use of 2-propanol as a milling medium enhanced the efficiency of the process. Milled <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 fibers had resistivities which were indistinguishable from milled pristine P-100 fibers. Apparent loss of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers suggests that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> would not be the intercalate of choice in applications where milled fibers of this type are required. Other intercalates which do not degas may be more appropriate for a milled fiber application. These same results, however, do provide evidence that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules leave the fiber surface when removed from overpressure of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. While exploring possible solvent media for milling purposes, it was found that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers are stable in a wide variety of organic solvents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L"><span>On the Injection of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides from a Supernova into the Solar Nebula: Constraints from the Oxygen Isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this "late-injection" scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in 17O/16O and 18O/16O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of 41Ca and 60Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M.; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation. PMID:27627450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627450"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"><span>Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021"><span>ON THE INJECTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES FROM A SUPERNOVA INTO THE SOLAR NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE OXYGEN ISOTOPES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this ''late-injection'' scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of {sup 41}Ca and {sup 60}Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760031085&hterms=integro-differential+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dintegro-differential%2Bequation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760031085&hterms=integro-differential+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dintegro-differential%2Bequation"><span>Cratering and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. [as function of depth in regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, M. L.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A simple probabilistic model was constructed for the average value of a cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> as a function of depth in a regolith. An arbitrary function was chosen for the size distribution of craters. The resulting integro-differential equation was found to reduce in limiting cases to the marching equation with a characteristic residence time and to the diffusion equation. The regolith diffusion constant is shown to be a simple integral of the cratering rate weighted by geometrical terms. This formal treatment provides a direct and general connection between cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and cratering rates and crater population in a simple analytical form. The validity of this model remains to be tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN P-95-1128...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581) is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820d0015J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820d0015J"><span>Numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover behavior in flow battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jia, Yaobin; Cheng, Shijian; Chu, Dandan; Li, Xin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Br2 and HBr has its own series of advantages as the positive electrolyte solution, so some batteries select the Br2/Br- as the positive electrolyte solution, such as sodium polysulfide/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery, zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery, vanadium/ <span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries and hydrogen/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries. But the crossover benavior of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> occurs in these batteries too, resulting in cross-contamination, capacity loss and affecting battery's performance. In this work, we build numerical models to study the influence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover phenomenon on the three forms of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover, the concentration of electrolyte on the cathode side and the flow rate of the negative side in the quinone <span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery, to find the main models affecting the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover and the impact of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover on battery performance. It was found that the three ways of crossover through the membranes was mainly by diffusion. By reducing the concentration of positive electrolyte solution, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover can be reduced and Coulomb Efficiency can be improved. Rising the flow rate of the electrolyte solution on the negative side and reducing the differential between positive side's pressure and negative side's pressure can also reduce the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover to improve Coulomb efficiency in the battery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581) is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN P-95-1128...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300578"><span>Tryptophan octyl ester in detergent micelles of dodecylmaltoside: fluorescence properties and quenching by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergent analogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Foresta, B; Gallay, J; Sopkova, J; Champeil, P; Vincent, M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The fluorescence properties of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE), a hydrophobic model of Trp in proteins, were investigated in various mixed micelles of dodecylmaltoside (DM) and 7,8-dibromododecyl beta-maltoside (BrDM) or 10,11-dibromoundecanoyl beta-maltoside (BrUM). This study focuses on the mechanism via which these <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergents quench the fluorescence of TOE in a micellar system. The experiments were performed at a pH at which TOE is uncharged and almost completely bound to detergent micelles. TOE binding was monitored by its enhanced fluorescence in pure DM micelles or its quenched fluorescence in pure BrUM or BrDM micelles. In DM/BrUM and DM/BrDM mixed micelles, the fluorescence intensity of TOE decreased, as a nonlinear function of the molar fraction of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergent, to almost zero in pure <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergent. The indole moiety of TOE is therefore highly accessible to the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms located on the detergent alkyl chain because quenching by <span class="hlt">bromines</span> occurs by direct contact with the fluorophore. TOE is simultaneously poorly accessible to iodide (I(-)), a water-soluble collisional quencher. TOE time-resolved fluorescence intensity decay is heterogeneous in pure DM micelles, with four lifetimes (from 0.2 to 4.4 ns) at the maximum emission wavelength. Such heterogeneity may arise from dipolar relaxation processes in a motionally restricted medium, as suggested by the time-dependent (nanoseconds) red shift (11 nm) of the TOE emission spectrum, and from the existence of various TOE conformations. Time-resolved quenching experiments for TOE in mixed micelles showed that the excited-state lifetime values decreased only slightly with increases in the proportion of BrDM or BrUM. In contrast, the relative amplitude of the component with the longest lifetime decreased significantly relative to that of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. This is consistent with a mainly static mechanism for the quenching of TOE by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergents. Molecular modeling of TOE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5807168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5807168"><span>Optically pumped molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laser. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morrison, J.W.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>An optically pumped molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laser was studied to investigate the quenching kinetics state of Br2. This included characterization of the pressure dependence of the laser output power. The approach was to excite molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in a sealed cell with a Nd:YAG pumped dye laser. Unresolved side fluorescence and amplified stimulated emission (ASE) spectra were recorded. ASE offered the advantage of a simpler optical system with no externally induced wavelength dependencies. Stimulated emission as a signal monitor offered greater resolution than side fluorescence spectra and facilitated spectroscopic assignment. (JS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05676&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05676&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChlorine"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Chlorine Go Separate Ways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This graph shows the relative concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine at various locations on Earth and Mars. Typically, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine stick together in a fixed ratio, as in martian meteorites and Earth seawater. But sometimes the elements split apart and their relative quantities diverge. This separation is usually caused by evaporation processes, as in the Dead Sea on Earth. On Mars, at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, this split has been observed to an even greater degree than seen on Earth. This puzzling result is currently being further explored by Mars Exploration Rover scientists. Data for the Mars locations were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05676&hterms=chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05676&hterms=chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dchlorine"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Chlorine Go Separate Ways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This graph shows the relative concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine at various locations on Earth and Mars. Typically, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine stick together in a fixed ratio, as in martian meteorites and Earth seawater. But sometimes the elements split apart and their relative quantities diverge. This separation is usually caused by evaporation processes, as in the Dead Sea on Earth. On Mars, at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, this split has been observed to an even greater degree than seen on Earth. This puzzling result is currently being further explored by Mars Exploration Rover scientists. Data for the Mars locations were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhyS...23..249J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhyS...23..249J"><span>Ninth Spectrum of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>: Br IX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, Y. N.; van Kleef, Th A. M.</p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>The spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was photographed on a 6.60 m and a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph in the region 300-90 Å. The source used was a triggered spark. The ninth spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was analysed on the basis of 3d9-3d84p transitions between 125-104 Å. Parametric level fitting calculations support the analysis. 44 lines are classified in this spectrum. Some Br VIII lines appearing in this region have been accurately measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5052139','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5052139"><span>Process for recovering <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from waste liquid</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ikeda, M.; Mohri, A.; Ota, K.; Yamada, T.; Yokomichi, I.</p> <p>1982-04-13</p> <p>This is a process for recovering <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from a waste liquid formed in the production of an aniline derivative by ammonolysis of a nuclear substituted bromobenzene derivative with a halogen atom or a functional group. The waste liquid is first subjected to chlorine treatment in alkaline region to remove most part of ammonia and aniline derivatives, and then it is subjected to chlorine treatment in acidic region to recover <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The process does not involve danger of explosion accidents and can be smoothly operated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1083779','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1083779"><span>Shielding and activity estimator for template-based <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nelson, Karl Einar</p> <p>2013-04-09</p> <p>According to one embodiment, a method for estimating an activity of one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> includes receiving one or more templates, the one or more templates corresponding to one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> which contribute to a probable solution, receiving one or more weighting factors, each weighting factor representing a contribution of one radio-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> to the probable solution, computing an effective areal density for each of the one more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, computing an effective atomic number (Z) for each of the one more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, computing an effective metric for each of the one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, and computing an estimated activity for each of the one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. In other embodiments, computer program products, systems, and other methods are presented for estimating an activity of one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NIMPR.185..175N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NIMPR.185..175N"><span>An automatic device for sampling of thin assays of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in a liquid flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Növik, S. I.; Björnstad, T.; Alstad, J.; Brodén, K.; Skarnemark, G.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>A semicontinuously working apparatus for isolation of tracer amounts of radioactive nuclei from a continuous liquid flow (10-15 ml/s) has been constructed. The radioactivity is isolated on thin, porous plastic membranes impregnated with ion-exchange resin or extraction agents, or on a thin preformed precipitate. Chemical yields of ˜20% have been achieved for Br, Zr, Ce and Tl at on-line separation conditions. The time sequency for the different operations involved can be optimized with respect to a certain <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> by proper programming of the timer that controls the sequence. In combination with the fast, continuous chemical separation system SISAK the new apparatus allows β-measurements and delayed neutron measurements as well as X-ray and low energy γ-ray measurements on nuclei with half-lives down to a few seconds. The feasibility of the method with respect to β-measurements is demonstrated on nuclei with well known Qβ-values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPA.572..580T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPA.572..580T"><span>Production of radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in inverse reaction kinematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O. C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Young, A. R.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Efficient production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..317S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..317S"><span>Measurements of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing organic compounds at the tropical tropopause</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schauffler, S. M.; Atlas, E. L.; Flocke, F.; Lueb, R. A.; Stroud, V.; Travnicek, W.</p> <p></p> <p>The amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> entering the stratosphere from organic source gases is a primary factor involved in determining the magnitude of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> catalyzed loss of ozone. Thirty two whole air samples were collected at the tropical tropopause during the NASA STRAT Campaign in Feb., Aug., and Dec., 1996 and were analyzed for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds. Total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was 17.4±0.9 ppt with 55% from methyl bromide, 38% from the Halons, 6% from dibromomethane, and 0.8% from bromochloromethane and dichlorobromomethane. One flight showed the presence of 0.42 ppt of additional organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from bromoform and dibromochloromethane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L"><span>Effects of East Asian <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313155"><span>In situ Identification of Labile Precursor Compounds and their <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Intermediates in Plants using in vivo Nanospray High-resolution Mass Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Qing; Peng, Yue'e; Shi, Bin; Dan, Conghui; Yang, Yijun; Shuai, Qin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Many secondary metabolites in plants are labile compounds which under environmental stress, are difficult to detect and track due to the lack of rapid in situ identification techniques, making plant metabolomics research difficult. Therefore, developing a reliable analytical method for rapid in situ identification of labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in plants is of great importance. To develop under atmospheric pressure, a rapid in situ method for effective identification of labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in fresh plants. An in vivo nanospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) method was used for rapid capture of labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in plants. A quartz capillary was partially inserted into fresh plant tissues, and the liquid flowed out through the capillary tube owing to the capillary effect. A high direct current (d.c.) voltage was applied to the plant to generate a spray of charged droplets from the tip of the capillary carrying bioactive molecules toward the inlet of mass spectrometer for full-scan and MS/MS analysis. Many labile compounds and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates were identified via this method: including glucosinolates and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates (existing for only 10 s) in Raphanus sativus roots, alliin and its conversion intermediate (existing for 20 s) in Allium sativum and labile precursor compound chlorogenic acid in Malus pumila Mill. The method is an effective approach for in situ identification of internal labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in fresh plants and it can be used as an auxiliary tool to explore the degradation mechanisms of new labile plant compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33D1495L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS33D1495L"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> VSLSs in and over the East Pacific During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific Cruise (HalocAST-P)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Smith, R. W.; Shen, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs), such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHClBr2), and dichlorobromomethane (CHBrCl2) can potentially supply a significant amount of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) to the troposphere and lower stratosphere. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> radicals are 50 - 100 times more efficient in depleting ozone (O3) than chlorine radicals; therefore, these compounds are important to the ozone chemistry in the atmosphere. CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2 and CHBrCl2 are thought to be produced mainly by phytoplankton in the open ocean. During the Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Pacific (HalocAST - P) cruise we examined the distributions of halocarbons in the East Pacific Ocean and in the overlying atmosphere. The cruise started from Punta Arenas, Chile on March 29, and finished at Seattle, WA, United States on April 29 2010. Continuous underway measurements of the atmospheric and surface seawater concentrations along with depth profiles of CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, CHBrCl2, and a suite of other halogenated compounds were measured over a large cross latitudinal transect. The <span class="hlt">brominated</span> VSLS measured during this cruise generally exhibit a correlation with chlorophyll a, supporting biogenic production as the predominate source for these compounds in the open ocean. Here, we will be discussing air and seawater concentrations, saturation anomalies, fluxes, and depth profiles for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2. Cyanobacteria counts, pigment compositions, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations in the water column were also measured and serve as useful tools for understanding the biological production of these <span class="hlt">brominated</span> VSLSs.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991iece.confQ...3A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991iece.confQ...3A"><span>Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> storage batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Assink, R. A.; Arnold, C., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. During discharge, the zinc and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery is that modest amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and negatively charged <span class="hlt">bromine</span> moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced <span class="hlt">bromine</span> permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018610"><span>Graphite fiber intercalation: Dynamics of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jaworske, D. A.; Zinolabedini, R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The resistance of pitch-based graphite fibers was monitored, in situ, during a series of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation experiments. The threshold pressure for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation of pitch-based fibers was estimated to be 102 torr. When the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atmosphere was removed from the reaction chamber, the resistivity of the intercalated graphite fibers increased consistently. This increase was attributed to loss of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from the perimeter of the fiber. The loss was confirmed by mapping the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration across the diameter of single intercalated fibers with either energy dispersive spectroscopy or scanning Auger microscopy. A statistical study comparing fibers intercalated in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor with fibers intercalated in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> liquid showed that similar products were obtained with both methods of intercalation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980mpi..rept.....F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1980mpi..rept.....F"><span>Thermally dissociated chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecular jets</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Frick, J.</p> <p>1980-12-01</p> <p>High temperature nozzle sources producing thermal dissociation of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are described. Scattering between molecular potential functions in nonelastic transfer of energy processes and chemical reactions was investigated by molecular beam technique. It is shown that the recombination freezes up faster when the nozzlehole duct is shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=177303&keyword=integrated+AND+circuit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91088241&CFTOKEN=74905184','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=177303&keyword=integrated+AND+circuit&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=91088241&CFTOKEN=74905184"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon&pg=7&id=EJ726139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon&pg=7&id=EJ726139"><span>A Substitute Foe "<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Carbon Tetrachloride"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The addition of a dilute solution of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=170505&keyword=Thyroid+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90560028&CFTOKEN=57303192','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=170505&keyword=Thyroid+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90560028&CFTOKEN=57303192"><span>HEALTH EFFECTS OF <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><B>Abstract</B> <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152483&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152483&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>HEALTH ASPECTS OF <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635160"><span>Structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped graphite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A F; Cao, Chao; Cheng, H P</p> <p>2013-04-28</p> <p>First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is stable in the molecular form (Br2). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br2 molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br2 molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105494','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105494"><span>Structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.</p> <p>2013-04-28</p> <p>First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=170505&keyword=Persistent+AND+bioaccumulative+AND+toxic&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=170505&keyword=Persistent+AND+bioaccumulative+AND+toxic&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>HEALTH EFFECTS OF <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><B>Abstract</B> <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906777"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial <span class="hlt">bromine</span> dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alkene&pg=2&id=EJ726139','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=alkene&pg=2&id=EJ726139"><span>A Substitute Foe "<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Carbon Tetrachloride"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The addition of a dilute solution of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840051506&hterms=scm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscm','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19840051506&hterms=scm&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscm"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> organic species in the arctic atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Berg, W. W.; Heidt, L. E.; Pollock, W.; Sperry, P. D.; Cicerone, R. J.; Gladney, E. S.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Measurements are reported of four gas-phase, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic species found in the Arctic atmosphere during March and April 1983. Volume mixing ratios for CH3Br, CH2BrCH2Br, CHBr3, and CH2Br2 were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis from samples taken Arctic wide, including at the geographic North Pole and during a tropopause folding event over Baffin Bay near Thule, Greenland. Methyl bromide mixing ratios were reasonably constant at 11 plus or minus 4 pptv, while the other three <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organics showed a high degree of variability. Bromoform (2 to 46 pptv) was found to be the dominant contributor to gaseous organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the Arctic troposphere at 38 plus or minus 10 percent followed by CH2Br2 (3 to 60 pptv) at 29 plus or minus 6 percent. Both CH3Br and CH2BrCH2Br (1 to 37 pptv) reservoirs contained less than 20 percent of the organically bound <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Stratospheric samples, taken during a tropopause folding event, showed mixing ratios for all four species at levels high enough to support a stratospheric total volume mixing ratio of 249 pptv Br (888 ngBr/SCM).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152483&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152483&keyword=bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>HEALTH ASPECTS OF <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66477&keyword=wildlife+AND+database&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89709845&CFTOKEN=57866830','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66477&keyword=wildlife+AND+database&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89709845&CFTOKEN=57866830"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=177303&keyword=halogens&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=177303&keyword=halogens&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=235601','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=235601"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants as food contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........67G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........67G"><span>Global Distribution of Organo-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunawardena, Rohith</p> <p></p> <p>Both man-made and natural trace organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases are present in the atmosphere in minute quantities --in the order of a few parts per trillion by volume. The man-made species CBrF_3 and CBrClF _2 are believed to be an important source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the stratosphere where they act as catalysts in the chlorofluorocarbon-ozone-depletion hypothesis. A high resolution capillary column EC-GC method with and O_2 doped detector was developed, System V, to measure these and related organo -<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases in the atmosphere. It was developed from a packed column EC-GC method, System I, that was used to measure CH_3I at sub pptv levels but could measure only one organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gas, CBrClF _2. The development work to improve upon System I involved testing and matching different types of columns, carrier gases, make-up gases to the detector and detector temperatures to obtain operating conditions with optimum resolution, very high sensitivity and sufficiently stable baseline to measure atmospheric organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases. During this development work, nine organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases were identified in clean background air. The precision of analysis of each system used was sufficient to determine the distributions and time course behavior of the species studied. During the course of this study, samples collected weekly at 11 remote stations around the world spanning latitudes from 82^circN down to 42^circS were analyzed for these organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases. In addition, samples collected for 10 years at Cape Meares - Oregon, Cape Matatula - American Samoa, Cape Grim - Tasmania and at the South Pole during the austral summer months were analyzed for long term trends of CBrF_3 and CBrClF_2 . Significant altitudinal differences, interhemispheric gradients and seasonal cycles were observed for certain gases. Long-term trends were observed for CBrF _3 and CBrClF_2. CBrF _3 showed an exponential increase. From 1979 to 1987, its northern and southern hemispheric concentrations have increased at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D"><span>Identification of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Au(N3)42- dianion from its Coulomb explosion products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drenck, Kasper; Hvelplund, Preben; McKenzie, Christine J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In high-energy collisions between Au(N3)4- anions and sodium vapor, electron transfer occurred to produce Au(N3)42- dianions. These were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (sub microsecond) and Coulomb exploded into Au(N3)3- and N3- with a kinetic energy release of 2.6 +/- 0.5 eV. In the product ion spectra, peaks correspond to fragment ions formed from collisionally activated Au(N3)4- parent anions. Loss of one or more N3 or N2 produced AuNn- complexes (n = 1-4, 6, 9-10) whereas complexes with n = 5, 7, and 8 were not detected. These ions can be assigned to gold-nitride-azide complexes Au(N)x(N3)y- (x = 0-2 and y = 0-4). Cationic complexes were measured for n = 1-4 and 6. Sodium vapor collision experiments were also performed for Au(N3)2-, which is generated in situ by the spontaneous reduction of Au(N3)42- and concurrent azide dissociation. In this case there was no clear signature indicative of the formation of a dianion. The formation of dianions cannot be excluded, however, since such ions may decay by electron emission instead of dissociation into two singly charged fragment ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T"><span>Solar Cosmic-ray Interaction with Protoplanetary Disks: Production of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides and Amorphization of Crystalline Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27145158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27145158"><span>Targeted alpha therapy using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D'huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies' pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009RaPC...78..380K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009RaPC...78..380K"><span>Quantification of radiation dose from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters formed in human tissue under proton therapy conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kettern, K.; Coenen, H. H.; Qaim, S. M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The dose distribution in proton therapy is mainly due to primary particles and secondary electrons. The contribution of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> β + emitters formed in the interactions of protons with the light mass elements C, N and O has hitherto not been considered. We estimated the formation of 11C, 13N and 15O in irradiation of tissue with 200 MeV protons. The integral yields at 150 MeV were compared with a literature phantom measurement. The results for 11C and 15O agreed very well; for 13N, however, appreciable deviation was observed. The activities were also calculated in the region around the Bragg peak as well as over the path length after entrance of the beam. Dose calculations were then done using the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism. Furthermore, a dose calculation was simulated for a 150 MeV proton beam (2 nA, 2 min) in a brain tumour. The dose deposited by the positron emitters in the Bragg peak region was found to be about 1.5 mGy, i.e. less than 1% of the dose estimated from the electronic interactions of protons. The absorbed dose in the whole brain amounted to 5.5 mGy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002"><span>Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent, Octodon degus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344794"><span>Scanning electrochemical microscopy of Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction: how confined oscillations reveal <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> radicals and auto-catalytic species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stockmann, T Jane; Noël, Jean-Marc; Ristori, Sandra; Combellas, Catherine; Abou-Hassan, Ali; Rossi, Federico; Kanoufi, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-10-06</p> <p>Oscillating chemical reactions, encapsulated within artificial vesicles have been demonstrated as a powerful analogy of living cells for the investigation of chemical communication and morphogenesis. However, little is understood with regards to the influence of confinement on the reactivity of such systems. Herein, the effect of confinement on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction in bulk solution, (employing ferroin as a catalyst and malonic acid as the organic substrate) is investigated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) toward different insulating surfaces such as glass, silanized glass, or PTFE. An unexpected increase in the amplitude of the BZ reaction at a tip-substrate distance of ∼12-15 μm is observed. By simulating different reaction mechanisms, from simple EC' catalysis to more sophisticated Oregonator or even an 11-reaction scheme, it is shown that such behavior reveals the intervention of redox catalysis processes and particularly the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> highly reactive radical intermediate BrO2(•) indirectly detected at micromolar concentrations. The reinspection of the EC' mechanism shows that the homogeneous catalysis route is confirmed and kinetically characterized from SECM toward an insulating substrate, with promising potentiality in many systems. More specifically to the complex chemical case of BZ reactions, the mechanism is understood from the envelope curves of the oscillations, which are assessed in the absence of the oscillation (absence of organic substrate).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhG...31S1573P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhG...31S1573P"><span>Measuring reaction probability ratios to simulate neutron-induced cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plettner, C.; Ai, H.; Beausang, C. W.; Bernstein, L. A.; Ahle, L.; Amro, H.; Babilon, M.; Burke, J. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casten, R. F.; Church, J. A.; Cooper, J. R.; Crider, B.; Gürdal, G.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Moody, K.; Punyon, J. A.; Qian, J.; Ressler, J. J.; Schiller, A.; Williams, E.; Younes, W.</p> <p>2005-10-01</p> <p>Measuring the neutron-induced fission cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei represents an experimental challenge due to target activity and the low intensity of neutron beams. One way to alleviate the problems inherent in the direct measurement is to use the surrogate method, where one measures the decay probability of the same compound nucleus formed using a charged beam and a stable target. The decay probability of the compound nucleus is then used to estimate the neutron-induced cross-section. As an extension to the surrogate method, we introduce a new method of reporting the fission probabilities of two compound nuclei as a ratio, which has the advantage of removing most of the systematic uncertainties. The ratio method was checked in a known case, the 236U(n, f)/238U(n, f) cross-section ratio, which turned out to be the same as the probability ratio of P(236U(d, pf))/P(238U(d, pf)). As an application, the 237U(n, f)/235U(n, f) cross-section ratio was inferred, on the basis of the measured P(238U(d, d'f))/P(236U(d, d'f)) probability ratio.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421"><span>SOLAR COSMIC-RAY INTERACTION WITH PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PRODUCTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES AND AMORPHIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-20</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885"><span>Targeted alpha therapy using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D’huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Introduction: The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. Areas covered: We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. Expert opinion: We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies’ pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease. PMID:27145158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"><span>Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356953"><span>Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malíková, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesová, Jitka</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarps should not be overlooked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213"><span>Role of Sec61p in the ER-associated degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, Daniel C.; Schekman, Randy</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are identified and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), a component of ER quality control. In ERAD, misfolded proteins are removed from the ER by retrotranslocation into the cytosol where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The identity of the specific protein components responsible for retrotranslocation remains controversial, with the potential candidates being Sec61p, Der1p, and Doa10. We show that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane ERAD substrate is exposed to the lumen of the ER during the degradation process. The addition of N-linked glycan to the N terminus of the substrate is prevented by mutation of a specific cysteine residue of Sec61p, as well as a specific cysteine residue of the substrate protein. We show that the substrate protein forms a disulfide-linked complex to Sec61p, suggesting that at least part of the retrotranslocation process involves Sec61p. PMID:18573918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..771..303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..771..303S"><span>New <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 223Np and the absence of the Z = 92 subshell closure near N = 126</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Huang, T. H.; Zhang, W. Q.; Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ding, B.; Gan, Z. G.; Ma, L.; Yang, H. B.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, L.; Jiang, J.; Wang, K. L.; Wang, Y. S.; Liu, M. L.; Li, Z. H.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Lu, H. Y.; Lin, C. J.; Sun, L. J.; Ma, N. R.; Yuan, C. X.; Zuo, W.; Xu, H. S.; Zhou, X. H.; Xiao, G. Q.; Qi, C.; Zhang, F. S.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The N = 130 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 223Np was produced as evaporation residue (ER) in the fusion reaction 40Ar + 187Re at the gas-filled recoil separator Spectrometer for Heavy Atom and Nuclear Structure (SHANS). It was identified through temporal and spatial correlations with α decays of 215Ac and/or 211Fr, the third and fourth members of the α-decay chain starting from 223Np. The pileup signals of ER(223Np)-α(223Np)-α(219Pa) were resolved by using the digital pulse processing technique. An α decay with half-life of T1/2 = 2.15 (10052) μs and energy of Eα = 9477 (44) keV was attributed to 223Np. Spin and parity of 9 /2- were tentatively proposed for the ground state of 223Np by combining the reduced α-decay width and large-scale shell-model calculations. This assignment together with the proton separation energy disprove the existence of a Z = 92 subshell closure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28874118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28874118"><span>A miRNA catalogue and ncRNA annotation of the <span class="hlt">short-living</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumgart, Mario; Barth, Emanuel; Savino, Aurora; Groth, Marco; Koch, Philipp; Petzold, Andreas; Arisi, Ivan; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p>2017-09-05</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be cultured in captivity and was recently established as a model organism for aging research. Small non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs, are implicated in age dependent control of gene expression. Here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of miRNAs and several other non-coding RNA classes (ncRNAs) for Nothobranchius furzeri. Analyzing multiple small RNA-Seq libraries, we show most of these identified miRNAs are expressed in at least one of seven Nothobranchius species. Additionally, duplication and clustering of N. furzeri miRNAs was analyzed and compared to the four fish species Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus and Takifugu rubripes. A peculiar characteristic of N. furzeri, as compared to other teleosts, was a duplication of the miR-29 cluster. The completeness of the catalogue we provide is comparable to that of the zebrafish. This catalogue represents a basis to investigate the role of miRNAs in aging and development in this species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754457"><span>Iodine-131: a potential <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, wastewater-specific particle tracer in an urbanized estuarine system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Joseph P; Oktay, Sarah I; Kada, John; Olsen, Curtis R</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, fission-produced radioisotope, 131I (t1/2 = 8.04 days), was detected in wastewater, surficial sediment, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected from New York Harbor (NYH) between 2001 and 2002. lodine-131 is used as a radiopharmaceutical for medical imaging, diagnostics, and treatments for conditions of the thyroid. It is introduced into the municipal waste stream by medical facilities and patients and is subsequently released into the estuary via wastewater effluent. Measured 131I activities in surface sediments were correlated with those of 7Be (t1/2 = 53.2 days), a naturally occurring radioisotope that is widely used to quantify particle dynamics, sediment focusing, and short-term sediment deposition and accumulation in aquatic systems. Surficial sediment 131I activities were also compared with measured trace metal (Cu, Pb) and organic carbon (OC(sed)) concentrations which can be linked to wastewater inputs. These preliminary results from NYH introduce 131I as a potentially valuable source-specific, shortlived biogeochemical tracer (timescales < 1 month) for particles, sediments, and wastewater-sourced contaminants in urbanized aquatic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F"><span>Estimating surface fluxes of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens from aircraft measurements over the tropical Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Butler, Robyn; Harris, Neil; Carpenter, Lucy; Andrews, Steve; Atlas, Elliot; Pan, Laura; Salawitch, Ross; Donets, Valeria; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We use an inverse model approach to quantitatively understand the ocean flux and atmospheric transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species (VSLS) measured during the coordinated NERC CAST and NCAR CONTRAST aircraft campaigns over the Western Pacific during January/February 2014. To achieve this we have developed a nested GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model simulation of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which has a spatial resolution of 0.25° (latitude) × 0.3125° (longitude) over the tropical Western Pacific region, and fed by boundary conditions from a coarser version of the model. We use archived 3-hourly 3-D fields of OH and j-values for CHBr3 photolysis, allowing us to linearly decompose these gases into tagged contributions from different geographical regions. Using these tagged tracers, we are able to use the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) approach to estimate the VSLS sources by fitting the model to observations. We find that the resulting VSLS fluxes are significantly different from some previous studies. To interpret the results, we describe several observation system simulation experiments to understand the sensitivity of these flux estimates to observation errors as well as to the uncertainty in the boundary condition imposed around the nested grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C Arden; Thun, Michael J; Thurston, George</p> <p>2009-12-19</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352,000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto; Riahi, Keywan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO2 emissions, or staying within a CO2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO2 budget between 2011-2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO2 budget by targeting non-CO2 diminishes strongly along with CO2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974"><span>Attached and unattached fractions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPGP8120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPGP8120M"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087100&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087100&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Search for Possible Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Reservoir Species: Theoretical Study of the Photostability of Mono-, Tri-, and Pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, TImothy J.; Mejia, Cesar N.; Beran, J. O.; Head-Gordon, Martin</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds have their lowest excited electronic states shifted to the blue relative to monocoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules, and that this shift may be large enough to render them photostable in the lower stratosphere. Our earlier work has also shown that certain pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds are thermodynamically stable relative to their mono- or tricoordinated isomers, suggesting that if a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> stratospheric reservoir species exists, then it is most likely a pentacoordinated compound. In this study we have examined the singlet excited electronic states of several <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in order to assess their photostability excited states in mono-, tri-, and pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules. Due to the strong spin-orbit mixing in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, we have also examined the lowest triplet excited state.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087100&hterms=isomer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Disomer','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087100&hterms=isomer&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D70%26Ntt%3Disomer"><span>Search for Possible Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Reservoir Species: Theoretical Study of the Photostability of Mono-, Tri-, and Pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, TImothy J.; Mejia, Cesar N.; Beran, J. O.; Head-Gordon, Martin</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds have their lowest excited electronic states shifted to the blue relative to monocoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules, and that this shift may be large enough to render them photostable in the lower stratosphere. Our earlier work has also shown that certain pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds are thermodynamically stable relative to their mono- or tricoordinated isomers, suggesting that if a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> stratospheric reservoir species exists, then it is most likely a pentacoordinated compound. In this study we have examined the singlet excited electronic states of several <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in order to assess their photostability excited states in mono-, tri-, and pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules. Due to the strong spin-orbit mixing in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, we have also examined the lowest triplet excited state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0698441','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0698441"><span>INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES FOR ’FREE’ <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADON DECAY PRODUCTS (Izuchenie Raspredeleniya Zaryadov dlya ’Svobodnykh’ Korotkozhivyushchikh Produktov Raspada Radona),</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A review of published literature shows that the <span class="hlt">short</span>- <span class="hlt">lived</span> products of radon decay can exist in two states: elementary ions or ’free’ atoms...Precipitation by diffusion and in an electrical field. The present article contains the results of a study of the distribution of charges among the ’free’ products of radon decay under various conditions of their existence .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1093371','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1093371"><span>Radio-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nelson, Karl Einar</p> <p>2013-09-17</p> <p>According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10114774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10114774"><span>Production rates of terrestrial in-situ-produced cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.; Tuniz, C.; Fink, D.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made in situ in terrestrial samples and how they are applied to the interpretation of measured radionuclide concentrations were discussed at a one-day Workshop held 2 October 1993 in Sydney, Australia. The status of terrestrial in-situ studies using the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca and of various modeling and related studies were presented. The relative uncertainties in the various factors that go into the interpretation of these terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> were discussed. The magnitudes of the errors for these factors were estimated and none dominated the final uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007561&hterms=kohls&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkohls','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007561&hterms=kohls&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkohls"><span>Measurements of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in lunar rock 64455</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, J. R.; Kohl, C. P.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Eleven samples were ground from the glass coated surface of lunar rock 64455,82 with an average depth resolution of 50 microns and were measured for Be-10, Al-26, and Cl-36 using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry). Results show no evidence of SCR (solar cosmic ray) effects. The flat cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> profiles and activity levels are consistent with a 2 My exposure history for the rock and a sample location on the bottom of the rock. These AMS measurements are some of the most precise ever obtained for these three <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. This precision and the demonstrated fine depth resolution will enable us to conduct a number of detailed studies of depth effects in lunar and meteoritic samples, including investigating SCR effects in the surface exposed top of the glass coating of 64455 and possibly in the underlying rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007561&hterms=history+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dhistory%2Brocks','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007561&hterms=history+rocks&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3Dhistory%2Brocks"><span>Measurements of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in lunar rock 64455</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, J. R.; Kohl, C. P.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Eleven samples were ground from the glass coated surface of lunar rock 64455,82 with an average depth resolution of 50 microns and were measured for Be-10, Al-26, and Cl-36 using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry). Results show no evidence of SCR (solar cosmic ray) effects. The flat cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> profiles and activity levels are consistent with a 2 My exposure history for the rock and a sample location on the bottom of the rock. These AMS measurements are some of the most precise ever obtained for these three <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. This precision and the demonstrated fine depth resolution will enable us to conduct a number of detailed studies of depth effects in lunar and meteoritic samples, including investigating SCR effects in the surface exposed top of the glass coating of 64455 and possibly in the underlying rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/375686','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/375686"><span>Hot demonstration of proposed commercial <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> removal technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, D.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> to the MVST supernatant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/805572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/805572"><span>Automatic Software Processing for Inventories of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> (ASPIN)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luca Gratton; J.M. Rammsy</p> <p>2001-10-22</p> <p>EQ6 users have difficulties tracking isotopic concentrations in a system with chemical and nuclear decay reactions. The capability to track isotopic concentrations is particularly important for simulating the degradation of the spent nuclear fuels. Isotopic tracking is necessary to evaluate the criticality risk associated with fissile material relocation inside of a disposal container. A code called ASPRIN (Automatic Software PRocessing, Inventories of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>) was created to allow isotopic tracking using the results of EQ6 simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980213243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980213243"><span>Simulations of Terrestrial in-situ Cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reedy, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Lal, D.; Arnold, J. R.; Englert, P. A. J.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Targets of silicon and silicon dioxide were irradiated with spallation neutrons to simulate the production of long-lived radionuclides in the surface of the Earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure Be-7 and Na-22, and accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure Be-10, C-14, and Al-26. The measured ratios of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are compared with calculated ratios and with ratios from other simulations and agree well with ratios inferred from terrestrial samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EPJST.150..347F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007EPJST.150..347F"><span>Development of a Fourier-Transform Ion-Cyclotron-Resonance detection for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides at SHIPTRAP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ferrer, R.; Blaum, K.; Block, M.; Herfurth, F.; Ketelaer, J.; Nagy, Sz.; Neidherr, D.; Weber, C.; Shiptrap Collaboration</p> <p>2007-11-01</p> <p>The Penning-trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP at GSI is designed to provide clean and cooled beams of singly charged radioactive ions produced in fusion-evaporation reactions and separated in-flight by the velocity filter SHIP. The scientific goals include mass spectrometry, atomic and nuclear spectroscopy, and chemistry of transuranium species which are not available at ISOL- or fragmentation facilities Penning-trap based mass measurements on radionuclides relies up to now on the destructive time-of-flight ion-cyclotron-resonance method. One of the main limitations to the experimental investigations is the low production rate of most of these exotic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, for which the use of this detection scheme is not applicable. A sensitive and non-destructive method, like the narrow-band Fourier Transform ion-cyclotron-resonance technique, is ideally suited for the identification and characterization of these species. A new cryogenic trap setup for SHIPTRAP exploiting this detection technique as well as some results of first preparatory tests are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (<2 minutes) acceleration of protons to >13 GeV in association with solar flares.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCracken, Ken; Shea, Margaret Ann; Smart, Don</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> release) mechanism must then decrease greatly in efficiency abruptly ~3 minutes after it started. We note that this is not a unique example; the >10GeV particle pulse in the GLE of 20 January 2005 persisted for only 3 minutes; and a >4.5 GeV pulse at the commencement of the GLE of 7 December, 1982, only lasted one minute. We conclude with a comparison between these observations and the predictions of several proposed acceleration models. We conclude that these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bursts of highly relativistic cosmic rays have been accelerated in the reconnection regions associated with large solar flares. In the greater majority of cases, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high energy cosmic ray pulse at the commencement of a GLE is followed by a slowly rising component accelerated in the CME generated shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP53A0737L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP53A0737L"><span>Recent developments in cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rate scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lifton, N. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A new cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/528171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/528171"><span>Nuclear fission of neutron-deficient protactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Ohtsuki, T.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Fragment velocity, kinetic energy, mass yield, and element yield distributions in the fission of neutron-deficient Pa isotopes produced in the reactions of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O on {sup 209}Bi have been measured at incident beam energies near and above the Coulomb barriers by the time-of-flight and radiochemical methods. An asymmetric mass-division component has been observed. Measured fission cross sections were compared with the results of statistical model calculations which take into account two fission barrier heights for symmetric and asymmetric yields. The fission barrier height deduced for the asymmetric fission is found slightly lower than that for the symmetric one. The difference between the two barrier heights in the fission of the present protactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> (N{approximately}135) is considerably smaller than that in the neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> of {sup 233}Pa (N{approximately}142), indicating that the difference sensitively depends on the neutron number of the fissioning <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/113129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/113129"><span>The determination of critical <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in PWR waste streams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>De Goeyse, A.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>The safety studies concerning the final disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste take into consideration a series of long-lived radionuclides. The problem the producers have to cope with comes from the fact that those <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, which are mainly (pure) {beta} emitters or {alpha} emitters, cannot be measured by a direct current method such as gamma scanning. Their determination involves sophisticated radiochemical techniques which are difficult to implement by a producer on a routine basis for normal production waste. A current method for the determination of those <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the waste streams produced by a nuclear power reactor consists in applying correlation factors or scaling factors between those critical <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and so called key radionuclides, which can be easily measured and are representative for the occurrence of activation products and fission products in the waste streams. In order to identify and define those correlation factors, ONDRAF/NIRAS, has subcontracted, in agreement with the waste producer (ELECTRABEL), a complete study to the engineering company BELGATOM (BA) for the different waste streams produced by the seven Belgian PWR plants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784346','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784346"><span>Identification of Heavy and Superheavy <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> Using Chemical Separator Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turler, Andreas</p> <p>1999-12-31</p> <p>With the recent synthesis of superheavy <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> produced in the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242,244}Pu, much longer-lived nuclei than the previously known neutron-deficient isotopes of the heaviest elements have been identified. Half-lives of several hours and up to several years have been predicted for the longest-lived isotopes of these elements. Thus, the sensitivity of radiochemical separation techniques may present a viable alternative to physical separator systems for the discovery of some of the predicted longer-lived heavy and superheavy <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. The advantages of chemical separator systems in comparison to kinematic separators lie in the possibility of using thick targets, high beam intensities spread over larger target areas and in providing access to <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> emitted under large angles and low velocities. Thus, chemical separator systems are ideally suited to study also transfer and (HI, axn) reaction products. In the following, a study of (HI, axn) reactions will be presented and prospects to chemically identify heavy and superheavy elements discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045655"><span>Fluid shift is moderate and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> during acute crystalloid hemodilution and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farstad, M; Haugen, O; Rynning, S E; Onarheim, H; Husby, P</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Crystalloids are commonly used as priming solutions during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Consequently, hemodilution is a regular occurrence at the start of a CPB. This study describes the time-course variations of hemodynamic parameters, plasma volume (PV) and fluid exchange following crystalloid hemodilution at start of normothermic CPB. Forty-five anesthetized piglets were given 60-min normothermic CPB. Ringer's solution was used as priming solution and maintenance fluid. Fluid input/losses, PV, colloid osmotic pressures (plasma/interstitium), hematocrit, and s-proteins were measured, and fluid extravasation rates (FER) and intravascular protein-masses calculated. Start of CPB resulted in a 25-30% hemodilution. To keep the fluid level of the CPB-reservoir constant after start of bypass, fluid addition [2.08 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SEM) ml kg(-1) min(-1)] was necessary during the first 5 min. Thereafter the fluid needs to be leveled off [0.17 +/- 0.03 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (10-60 min), P < 0.001]. Fluid extravasation rate increased immediately following hemodilution from a baseline value of 0.08 +/- 0.01 to 1.75 +/- 0.34 ml kg(-1) min(-1) with a delayed decrease compared to fluid additions, to reach a 'steady-state' level of 0.22 +/- 0.03 ml kg(-1) min(-1) after 30 min (P < 0.001). Differences in time-course variations between fluid added and fluid extravasated were accompanied by changes in PV and mean arterial pressure. The colloid osmotic gradient decreased about 50% throughout the study and could partly explain the increased FER. Acute crystalloid hemodilution contributes to fluid overload during normothermic CPB. The resulting increase in fluid extravasation is, however, moderate, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and levels off to baseline values within 30 min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50t5203X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50t5203X"><span>Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> aqueous active species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H2O2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H2O2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OHaq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OHaq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OHaq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata. Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H2O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOHaq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F"><span>Transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere through the Asian monsoon circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated organic compounds are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. The halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), such as bromoform, have atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year. When VSLS reach the stratosphere, they enhance ozone depletion and thus impact the climate. During boreal summer, the Asian monsoon circulation transfers air masses from the Asian troposphere to the global stratosphere. Still, the extent to which VSLS from the Indian Ocean contribute to the stratospheric halogen burden and their exact origin is unclear. Here we show that the monsoon circulation transports VSLS from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere. During the research cruises SO234-2 and SO235 in July-August 2014 onboard RV SONNE, we measured oceanic and atmospheric concentrations of bromoform (tropical lifetime at 10 km = 17 days), dibromomethane (150 days) and methyl iodide (3.5 days) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean and calculated their emission strengths. We use the Langrangian transport model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim meteorological fields to investigate the transport of oceanic emissions in the atmosphere. We analyze the direct contribution of observed bromoform emissions to the stratospheric halogen budget with forward trajectories. Furthermore, we investigate the connection between the Asian monsoon anticyclone and the oceanic source regions using backward trajectories. The West Indian Ocean is a strong source region of VSLS to the atmosphere and the monsoon transport is fast enough for bromoform to reach the stratosphere. However, the main source regions for the entrainment of oceanic air masses through the Asian monsoon anticyclone are the West Pacific and Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian Sea. Our findings indicate that changes in emission or circulation in this area due to climate change can directly affect the stratospheric halogen burden and thus the ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166"><span>ICV-transplanted human glial precursor cells are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> yet exert immunomodulatory effects in mice with EAE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Heechul; Walczak, Piotr; Muja, Naser; Campanelli, James T; Bulte, Jeff W M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 10(5) hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5-10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T"><span>Integrated Assessment on Effects of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) in Asia based on Numerical Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Ueda, K.; Masutomi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Nakata, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Goto, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Air pollution over the Asian region is a serious social problem. For example, activities of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) under the UNFCCC focus on raising awareness and improving scientific understanding of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant (SLCP) impacts and mitigation strategies. Our Japanese research project is searching an optimum reduction path of SLCPs considering climate change, health impacts, and agricultural damages. For this purpose, we use aerosol and chemistry models, SPRINTARS and CHASER, respectively, which have been developed by our group, coupled with a general circulation model, MIROC. In the phase 1 of this project, changes in concentrations and radiative forcing of each major SLCPs originating from China, east Asia, southeast Asia, and south Asia in the last 30 years are estimated with the models. Transient simulations along the new emission scenario, SSPs (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) are executed using the MIROC-SPRINTARS/CHASER with ocean circulation in the phase 2 to analyze full feedbacks including hydrological cycle affected by SLCPs. These simulated results will be utilized to estimate health and agricultural impacts of SLCPs. In this presentation, we discuss the optimum reduction path of SLCPs taking both mitigation of global warming and air pollution into consideration. Acknowledgements: Simulations in this study were executed with the supercomputer system of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. This study is partly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-12-3) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H01728 and 15K12190.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1710795A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1710795A"><span>Regional temperature change potentials for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers based on radiative forcing from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Collins, William J.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We calculate the absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP) of various <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs) based on detailed radiative forcing (RF) calculations from four different models. The temperature response has been estimated for four latitude bands (90-28° S, 28° S-28° N, 28-60° N, and 60-90° N). The regional pattern in climate response not only depends on the relationship between RF and surface temperature, but also on where and when emissions occurred and atmospheric transport, chemistry, interaction with clouds, and deposition. We present four emissions cases covering Europe, East Asia, the global shipping sector, and the entire globe. Our study is the first to estimate ARTP values for emissions during Northern Hemisphere summer (May-October) and winter season (November-April). The species studied are aerosols and aerosol precursors (black carbon, organic carbon, SO2, NH3), ozone precursors (NOx, CO, volatile organic compound), and methane (CH4). For the response to BC in the Arctic, we take into account the vertical structure of the RF in the atmosphere, and an enhanced climate efficacy for BC deposition on snow. Of all SLCFs, BC is the most sensitive to where and when the emissions occur, as well as giving the largest difference in response between the latitude bands. The temperature response in the Arctic per unit BC emission is almost four times larger and more than two times larger than the global average for Northern Hemisphere winter emissions for Europe and East Asia, respectively. The latitudinal breakdown likely gives a better estimate of the global temperature response as it accounts for varying efficacies with latitude. An annual pulse of non-methane SLCF emissions globally (representative of 2008) lead to a global cooling. In contrast, winter emissions in Europe and East Asia give a net warming in the Arctic due to significant warming from BC deposition on snow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M"><span>Current and future contributions of local emissions from shipping and hydrocarbon extraction flaring to <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marelle, L.; Raut, J. C.; Law, K.; Thomas, J. L.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Easter, R. C.; Herber, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic is increasingly open to human activity due to rapid Arctic warming, associated with decreased sea ice extent and snow cover. While pollution from in-Arctic sources is currently low, oil and gas extraction and marine traffic could become a significant future source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants (aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. It is currently unclear if these local sources might become significant compared to the long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution from the midlatitudes, which is currently the main source of Arctic pollution. Here, we investigate the current (2012) and future (2050) impact of emissions from shipping and oil and gas extraction on Arctic aerosols and ozone, in relation to emissions from long-range transport. These impacts are determined by performing 6-month long, quasi-hemispheric simulations over the Arctic region with the WRF-Chem model. Our regional simulations include up-to-date representations of cloud/aerosol interactions and secondary organic aerosol formation developed recently for WRF-Chem. In order to determine the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas extraction, we use recent emission inventories by Winther et al., 2014 for local shipping and ECLIPSEv5 for oil and gas flaring. Both inventories suggest that current and future emissions from these sources are higher than previous estimates. Simulations are evaluated using measurements at Arctic surface sites and aircraft campaigns (ACCESS, YAK) in 2012. Model results are then used to assess the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas flaring on modeled surface aerosol and ozone concentrations, direct aerosol and ozone radiative effects, indirect aerosol radiative effects, and aerosol deposition. Results are used to determine if these local emissions are expected to have a significant influence on these quantities at the local or the regional scale, compared to emissions transported from the midlatitudes and to other emission sources, including boreal fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B"><span>Sediment fingerprinting with long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide tracers in the Root River watershed, southeastern Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belmont, P.; Stout, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The field of sediment fingerprinting has evolved rapidly over the past decade and is poised to improve our understanding not only of sediment sources, but also the routing of sediment through watersheds. Such information is essential for understanding and modeling human impacts on erosion and sediment routing at the watershed scale. In this study we use long- (Beryllium-10, 10Be) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (Lead-210 and Cesium-137, 210Pb and 137Cs, respectively) radionuclide tracers associated with suspended sediment to quantify sediment sources and channel-floodplain exchange across a range of watershed scales from 10 km2 to 4500 km2 in in the Root River, southeastern Minnesota, USA. The uppermost quarter of the Root River watershed was glaciated repeatedly during the late Pleistocene and is characterized by low relief agricultural fields and fine textured soils. The remainder of the watershed lies within the driftless area of the upper Midwestern US, which has not been glaciated in at least the past 500,000 years, and is characterized by karst topography, relatively steep hillslopes and bedrock channels that debouch into a wide, aggrading alluvial valley. The structure of the landscape exerts strong control on sediment generation and transport. Geochemical results indicate a highly variable erosion history, with significant variability of 10Be concentrations in source areas (agricultural fields, forested hillslopes, and alluvial floodplains and terraces) and inverted 10Be depth profiles (higher concentrations at depth) in floodplains, suggesting unsteady erosion and significant storage of legacy sediment. Concentrations of 10Be and 210Pb associated with suspended sediment show a systematic disparity in normalized concentrations, indicating that significant storage and re-suspension occurs in both systems as the sediment is routed through the channel-floodplain complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3166M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3166M"><span>Oceanic Emissions of Organic Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Substances from the Indian Ocean and their Transport to the Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marandino, C. A.; Quack, B.; Hepach, H.; Atlas, E. L.; Fiehn, A.; Lennartz, S. T.; Bracher, A.; Krüger, K.; Waersted, E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Within the frame work of the German project OASIS, research cruises SO234-2 (Durban- Port Louis, 08-20 July, 2014) and SO235 (Port Louis - Male, July 23 to August 07, 2014) of the German research vessel SONNE were conducted by the University of Oslo, Norway (www.uio.no) together with the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany (www.geomar.de) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean. The research covered the sources and air- sea gas exchange of a suite of natural and anthropogenic short- and long lived trace gases as well as atmospheric composition and transport. Among the gases investigated were very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbons such as bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, which are naturally produced in the oceans and influence stratospheric ozone and climate. The Asian monsoon circulation provides an effective pathway for air masses from the atmospheric boundary layer containing these and other compounds to enter the global stratosphere during boreal summer especially above India and the Bay of Bengal. During the cruises biological, chemical and physical parameters were analyzed in the surface waters and the deep ocean, the atmospheric conditions were determined, the oceanic trace gas emissions calculated and their transport and contribution to the stratospheric halogen budget, deduced from radiosonde launchings and high resolution transport modelling, was determined. The measurements were conducted in various marine biogeochemical regimes close to coasts, near coral reefs and sea banks, in high chlorophyll and oligotrophic regimes. We present novel results from the cruises, including biogeochemical responses to physical forcing and their contribution to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M"><span>Dealing with uncertainty: Response-resilient climate change mitigation polices for long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millar, R.; Boneham, J.; Hepburn, C.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climate change solutions are subject to many inherent uncertainties. One of the most important is the uncertainty over the magnitude of the physical response of the climate system to external forcing. The risk of extremely large responses to forcing, so called "fat-tail" outcomes, cannot be ruled out from the latest science and offer profound challenges when creating policies that aim to meet a specific target of global temperature change. This study offers examples of how mitigation policies can be made resilient to this uncertainty in the physical climate response via indexing policies against an attributable anthropogenic warming index (the magnitude of the observed global mean warming that is can be traced to human activities), the AWI, instead of against time directly. We show that indexing policy measures that influence the total stock of carbon in the atmosphere (such as the fraction of extracted carbon sequestered) against the AWI can largely eliminate the risk of missing the specified warming goal due to unexpectedly large climate responses as well as the risk of costly over-mitigation if the physical response turned out to be lower than expected. We offer further examples of how this methodology can be expanded to include <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants as well as long-lived carbon dioxide. Indexing policies against the AWI can have important consequences for the actions of governments acting to design national climate mitigation policies as well as private sector investors looking to incentivise the transition to a climate-stable economy. We conclude with some thoughts on how these indexes can help focus attention on the long-term perspective that is consistent with the conclusions of the latest climate science on what is required to ultimately stabilise the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..274..350L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..274..350L"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides and porosity on the early thermo-mechanical evolution of planetesimals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lichtenberg, Tim; Golabek, Gregor J.; Gerya, Taras V.; Meyer, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The thermal history and internal structure of chondritic planetesimals, assembled before the giant impact phase of chaotic growth, potentially yield important implications for the final composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. These parameters critically depend on the internal balance of heating versus cooling, which is mostly determined by the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs), such as 26Al and 60Fe, as well as the heat conductivity of the material. The heating by SLRs depends on their initial abundances, the formation time of the planetesimal and its size. It has been argued that the cooling history is determined by the porosity of the granular material, which undergoes dramatic changes via compaction processes and tends to decrease with time. In this study we assess the influence of these parameters on the thermo-mechanical evolution of young planetesimals with both 2D and 3D simulations. Using the code family I2ELVIS/I3ELVIS we have run numerous 2D and 3D numerical finite-difference fluid dynamic models with varying planetesimal radius, formation time and initial porosity. Our results indicate that powdery materials lowered the threshold for melting and convection in planetesimals, depending on the amount of SLRs present. A subset of planetesimals retained a powdery surface layer which lowered the thermal conductivity and hindered cooling. The effect of initial porosity was small, however, compared to those of planetesimal size and formation time, which dominated the thermo-mechanical evolution and were the primary factors for the onset of melting and differentiation. We comment on the implications of this work concerning the structure and evolution of these planetesimals, as well as their behavior as possible building blocks of terrestrial planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717302M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717302M"><span>Using daily satellite observations to estimate emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants on a mesoscopic scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Using satellite observations for emission estimates has important advantages over bottom-up emission inventories: they are spatially consistent, have high temporal resolution, and enable updates shortly after the satellite data become available. We present a new algorithm specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (˜25 × 25 km2). The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates of East China, using the CHIMERE model on a 0.25 degree resolution together with tropospheric NO2column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. Closed loop tests show that the algorithm is capable of reproducing new emission scenarios. Applied with real satellite data, the algorithm is able to detect emerging sources (e.g., new power plants), and improves emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g., shipping emissions). Chemical transport model runs with the daily updated emission estimates provide better spatial and temporal agreement between observed and simulated concentrations, facilitating improved air quality forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516"><span>Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G"><span>SMA observations towards the compact, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bipolar water maser outflow in the LkHα234 region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Curiel, S.; Anglada, G.; Gómez, J. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Patel, N. A.; Trinidad, M. A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations towards the LkHα234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of ˜5 arcsec (˜4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between ˜200 and ˜375 au and masses in the ˜0.08-0.3 M⊙ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r ≲ 135 au) circumstellar disc with a mass of ˜0.02 M⊙. This source is powering a compact (˜4000 au), low radial velocity (˜7 km s-1) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the `large-scale' counterpart of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, episodic, bipolar outflow observed through H2O masers at much smaller scales (˜180 au), and that has been created by the accumulation of the ejection of several episodic collimated events of material. The circumstellar gas around VLA 2 and VLA 3 is hot (˜130 K) and exhibits velocity gradients that could trace rotation. There is a bridge of warm and dense molecular gas connecting VLA 2 and VLA 3. We discuss the possibility that this bridge could trace a stream of gas between VLA 3 and VLA 2, increasing the accretion rate on to VLA 2 to explain why this source has an important outflow activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015"><span><span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl</p> <p>2012-01-20</p> <p>Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4957S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4957S"><span>Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using airborne in-situ measurements from the Western Pacific during SHIVA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> has been collected in the West Pacific region using the FALCON aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas cHromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CHBrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances), at least at the level of their 2 σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the Western Pacific could be a major source region for VSLS (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only slightly enhanced mixing ratios of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> halogen source gases relative to the levels reported in Montzka et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. A budget for total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, including all four halons,CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the upper troposphere, the input region for the TTL and thus also for the stratosphere, compiled from the SHIVA dataset. With exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23052885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23052885"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope effect: example from the microbial debromination of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernstein, Anat; Ronen, Zeev; Levin, Elena; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The increasing use of kinetic isotope effects for environmental studies has motivated the development of new compound-specific isotope analysis techniques for emerging pollutants. Recently, high-precision <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope analysis in individual <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds was proposed, by the coupling of gas chromatography to a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using strontium as an external spike for instrumental bias correction. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates an application of this technique for determining <span class="hlt">bromine</span> kinetic isotope effects during biological reaction, focusing on the reductive debromination of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenols under anaerobic conditions. Results show <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope enrichment factors (ε) of -0.76 ± 0.08, -0.46 ± 0.19, and -0.20 ± 0.06 ‰ for the debromination of 4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, respectively. These values are rather low, yet still high enough to be obtained with satisfying certainty. This further implies that the analytical method may be also appropriate for future environmental applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241790"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants: cause for concern?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants. PMID:14698924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26748263','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26748263"><span>Biodegradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and organophosphorus flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Waaijers, Susanne L; Parsons, John R</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants account for about 21% of the total production of flame retardants and many of these have been identified as persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic. Nevertheless, debromination of these chemicals under anaerobic conditions is well established, although this can increase their toxicity. Consequently, the production and use of these chemicals has been restricted and alternative products have been developed. Many of these are <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds and share some of the disadvantages of the chemicals they are meant to replace. Therefore, other, nonbrominated, flame retardants such as organophosphorus compounds are also being used in increasing quantities, despite the fact that knowledge of their biodegradation and environmental fate is often lacking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949161"><span>Membrane-less hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braff, William A; Bazant, Martin Z; Buie, Cullen R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm(-2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019508','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019508"><span>Marine bacterial degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> methanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Goodwin, K.D.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.<span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/142019','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/142019"><span>Catalytic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> recovery from HBr waste</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schubert, P.F.; Beatty, R.D.; Mahajan, S.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Waste HBr is formed during the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of many organic molecules, such as flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. For over 50 years attempts to recover the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from waste HBr by catalytic oxidation have been unsuccessful due to low catalyst activity and stability. The discovery of a new high-activity catalysts with excellent long-term stability and life capable of high HBr conversion below 300{degrees}C has made catalytic oxidation of waste HBr commercially feasible. The oxidation of anhydrous HBr using oxygen is highly exothermic, giving an adiabatic temperature rise of 2000{degrees}C. Use of 48 wt% HBr in the oxidation reduces the adiabatic temperature rise to only 300{degrees}C. A multitubular heat exchanger type of reactor can then be used to manage the heat. A 5,000 kg/yr pilot plant was built to verify the performance of the catalyst, the suitability of the reactor materials of construction, and the multibular reactor concept. The pilot unit has a single full-scale reactor tube 4 m long and 2.54 cm in diameter with a hot oil jacket for heat management. Excellent catalyst stability was observed during a 600 h catalyst-life test. HBr conversion of 99% was maintained throughout the run, and over 360 kg of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was produced. The temperature at a localized hot spot near the reactor inlet was only 15-20{degrees}C above the reactor inlet temperature, indicating efficient heat management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7043384','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7043384"><span>Course of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of thiazole and 2-methylthiazole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gol'dfarb, Ya. L.; Belen'kii, L.I.; Gromova, G.P.</p> <p>1986-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of thiazole by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the presence of aluminum chloride in neutral solvent or without solvent takes place at the 2-position. Such an orientation contradicts the traditional addition-cleavage mechanism, and agrees with the ylid mechanism of electrophilic substitution. 2-Methylthiazole <span class="hlt">brominates</span> at the 5-position, and the reaction is impeded in the presence of aluminum chloride; this is due to heterocycle deactivation by complexation with the Lewis acid at the nitrogen atom.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286955"><span>Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Xinqiang; Song, Tao; Wang, Zhentao; Chen, He; Cui, Lei; Li, Chaozhong</p> <p>2017-03-13</p> <p>The silver-catalyzed Hunsdiecker <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With Ag(Phen)2OTf as the catalyst and dibromoisocyanuric acid as the <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agent, various aliphatic carboxylic acids underwent decarboxylative <span class="hlt">bromination</span> to provide the corresponding alkyl bromides under mild conditions. This method not only is efficient and general but also enjoys wide functional group compatibility. An oxidative radical mechanism involving Ag(II) intermediates is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001034','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001034"><span>Hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell advance component development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Charleston, Joann; Reed, James</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JMoSt.267..123Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JMoSt.267..123Z"><span>NMR investigation of non-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> epoxy ester prepolymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Žigon, M.; Osredkar, U.; Šebenik, A.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure of epoxy ester prepolymers, based on non-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> DGEBA-type or <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DGETBBA-type epoxy resins, and on an oligomeric carboxylic acid. In the presence of a quaternary phosphonium salt, besides diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) or diglycidylether of tetrabromobisphenol A (DGETBBA) and their higher oligomers, monoesters with characteristic R-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-OCOR' groups were detected in prevailing quantities. In dependence of the epoxy-carboxy ratio, isomeric monoesters with hydroxymethyl groups, diesters and diols might also be present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.9291S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.9291S"><span>Horizontal and vertical structure of reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events probed by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide MAX-DOAS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Simpson, William R.; Peterson, Peter K.; Frieß, Udo; Sihler, Holger; Lampel, Johannes; Platt, Ulrich; Moore, Chris; Pratt, Kerri; Shepson, Paul; Halfacre, John; Nghiem, Son V.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Heterogeneous photochemistry converts bromide (Br-) to reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species (Br atoms and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide, BrO) that dominate Arctic springtime chemistry. This phenomenon has many impacts such as boundary-layer ozone depletion, mercury oxidation and deposition, and modification of the fate of hydrocarbon species. To study environmental controls on reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events, the <span class="hlt">BRomine</span>, Ozone, and Mercury EXperiment (BROMEX) was carried out from early March to mid-April 2012 near Barrow (Utqiaġvik), Alaska. We measured horizontal and vertical gradients in BrO with multiple-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) instrumentation at three sites, two mobile and one fixed. During the campaign, a large crack in the sea ice (an open lead) formed pushing one instrument package ˜ 250 km downwind from Barrow (Utqiaġvik). Convection associated with the open lead converted the BrO vertical structure from a surface-based event to a lofted event downwind of the lead influence. The column abundance of BrO downwind of the re-freezing lead was comparable to upwind amounts, indicating direct reactions on frost flowers or open seawater was not a major reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source. When these three sites were separated by ˜ 30 km length scales of unbroken sea ice, the BrO amount and vertical distributions were highly correlated for most of the time, indicating the horizontal length scales of BrO events were typically larger than ˜ 30 km in the absence of sea ice features. Although BrO amount and vertical distribution were similar between sites most of the time, rapid changes in BrO with edges significantly smaller than this ˜ 30 km length scale episodically transported between the sites, indicating BrO events were large but with sharp edge contrasts. BrO was often found in shallow layers that recycled reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> via heterogeneous reactions on snowpack. Episodically, these surface-based events propagated aloft when aerosol extinction was higher (> 0.1 km</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L−, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c− CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c−, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127− terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1− CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c− CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"><span>Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980113"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> effector CD8 T cells induced by genetically attenuated malaria parasite vaccination express CD11c.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J; Kappe, Stefan H I; Wang, Ruobing</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8(+) T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8(+) T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8(+) T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3(+) CD8b(+) T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are predominantly CD11a(hi) CD44(hi) CD62L(-), indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8(+) T cells. Coculture of CD11c(+), but not CD11c(-), CD8(+) T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8(+) T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8(+) T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are primarily KLRG1(+) CD127(-) terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1(-) CD127(+) memory precursor effector cells are CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D"><span>NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>It was found that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP.GB066L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP.GB066L"><span>Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> chart, and a command line interface. The <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..199E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..199E"><span>Russian policy on methane emissions in the oil and gas sector: A case study in opportunities and challenges in reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide in contributing to climate change on a ton-for-ton basis. Methane, along with other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers such as black carbon and tropospheric ozone, could play an important role in addressing global climate change. This stems both from their overall effect on climate systems, and from their concentrated impact in the short term. Because reducing emissions of such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants may have a large near-term impact in slowing climate change, the United States and other countries have come together to cooperate under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants, and other partnerships such as the Global Methane Initiative. For global impact, the success of such partnerships depends on their ability to scale up project-specific emission reductions. This paper assesses options and challenges for scaling based on a case study of Russia's oil and gas sector. We examine the challenges to achieving far-reaching emission reductions, successes of companies to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946731"><span>Pd0-mediated rapid cross-coupling reactions, the rapid C-[11C]methylations, revolutionarily advancing the syntheses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> PET molecular probes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Masaaki; Doi, Hisashi; Koyama, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhouen; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Onoe, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Positron emission tomography is a noninvasive method for monitoring drug (or diagnostic) behavior and its localization on the target molecules in the living systems, including the human body, using a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radionuclide. New methodologies for introducing representative <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, (11)C and (18)F, into the carbon frameworks of biologically active organic compounds have been established by developing rapid C-[(11)C]methylations and C-[(18)F]fluoromethylations using rapid Pd(0)-mediated cross-coupling reactions between [(11)C]methyl iodide (sp(3)-hybridized carbon) and an excess amount of organotributylstannane or organoboronic acid ester having sp(2) (phenyl, heteroaromatic, or alkenyl), sp(alkynyl), or sp(3) (benzyl and cinnamyl)-hybridized carbons; and [(18)F]fluoromethyl halide (iodide or bromide) and an organoboronic acid ester, respectively. These rapid reactions provide a firm foundation for an efficient and general synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (11)C- or (18)F-labeled PET molecular probes to promote in vivo molecular imaging studies. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10113641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10113641"><span>Simulations of terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.; Lal, D.; Englert, P.A.J.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Jull, A.J.T.; Donahue, D.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Targets of silicon and silicon dioxide were irradiated with spallation neutrons to simulate the production of long-lived radionuclides in the surface of the earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure {sup 7}Be and {sup 22}Na, and accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al. The measured ratios of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are compared with calculated ratios and with ratios from other simulations and agree well with ratios inferred from terrestrial samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DNP.FD007E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DNP.FD007E"><span>Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements of Neutron Rich <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrade, A.; Matos, M.; Amthor, A. M.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Lorusso, G.; Rogers, A.; Schatz, H.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Portillo, M.; Stolz, A.; Galaviz, D.; Pereira, J.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Wallace, M.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Nuclear masses of neutron rich isotopes in the region of Z ˜ 20-30 have been measured using the time-of-flight technique at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The masses of 5 isotopes have been measured for the first time, and the precision of several other masses has been improved. The time-of-flight technique has shown the potential to access nuclear masses very far from stability when applied at radioactive beam facilities like the NSCL. Such measurements are important for understanding nuclear structure far from the valley of β-stability, and provide valuable information for astrophysical model calculations of processes involving very unstable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DNP.BC006E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DNP.BC006E"><span>New mass measurements of neutron rich <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> at the NSCL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrade, Alfredo; Matos, Milan; Amthor, Matthew; Bazin, Daniel; Becerril, Ana; Elliot, Thom; Gade, Alexandra; Galaviz, Daniel; Lorusso, Giuseppe; Pereira, Jorge; Portillo, Mauricio; Rogers, Andrew; Schatz, Hendrik; Shapira, Dan; Smith, Ed; Stolz, Andreas; Wallace, Mark</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>A mass measurement of exotic isotopes in the region of 68Fe has been performed at the NSCL using the time-of-flight technique recently established. Experimental knowledge of the mass of very neutron rich <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> is an important input for astrophysical applications, such as nucleosynthesis during the r-process and the evolution of matter in the crust of an accreting neutron star, where present calculations are mostly limited to using theoretical mass extrapolations. We present the details of the experimental set up, as well as preliminary results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Addition+AND+reactions&pg=7&id=EJ726103','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Addition+AND+reactions&pg=7&id=EJ726103"><span>The Addition of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> to 1,2-Diphenylethene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25594726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25594726"><span>Potential hazards of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> carbon sorbents for mercury emission control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisson, Teresa M; Xu, Zhenghe</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Mercury is a toxic air pollutant, emitted from the combustion of coal. Activated Carbon (AC) or other carbon sorbent (CS) injection into coal combustion flue gases can remove elemental mercury through an adsorption process. Recently, a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> CS with biomass ash as the carbon source (Br-Ash) was developed as an alternative for costly AC-based sorbent for mercury capture. After mercury capture, these sorbents are disposed in landfill, and the stability of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and captured mercury is of paramount importance. The objective of this study is to determine the fate of mercury and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from Br-Ash and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> AC after their service. Mercury and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> leaching tests were conducted using the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The mercury was found to be stable on both the Br-Ash and commercial <span class="hlt">brominated</span> AC sorbents, while the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> leached into the aqueous phase considerably. Mercury pulse injection tests on the sorbent material after leaching indicate that both sorbents retain significant mercury capture capability even after the majority of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was removed. Testing of the Br-Ash sorbent over a wider range of pH and liquid:solid ratios resulted in leaching of <5% of mercury adsorbed on the Br-Ash. XPS analysis indicated more organically bound Br and less metal-Br bonds after leaching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10534.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10534 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10534.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10534 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bromine&pg=2&id=EJ726103','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=bromine&pg=2&id=EJ726103"><span>The Addition of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> to 1,2-Diphenylethene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=fisica+general&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfisica%2Bgeneral','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=fisica+general&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dfisica%2Bgeneral"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5709451','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5709451"><span>Fire-retardant coatings based on organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>/phenoxy or <span class="hlt">brominated</span> epoxy systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>Thin phenoxy and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053804&hterms=milling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmilling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053804&hterms=milling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmilling"><span>Effects of milling <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, James R.; Dillehay, Michael E.; Hambourger, Paul D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary procedures have been developed for the ball milling of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers. Because of the lubricative properties of graphite, large ball loads (50 percent by volume) are required. Use of 2-propanol as a milling medium enhances the efficiency of the process. The fibers, when allowed to settle from the milling medium, tend to be preferentially aligned with rather few fibers standing up. Milled, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 fibers have resistivities that are indistinguishable from their pristine counterparts, apparently because of loss of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. This suggests that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> would not be the intercalate of choice in applications where milled fibers of this type are required. It was found that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> graphite fibers are stable in a wide variety of organic solvents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/47908','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/47908"><span>Significance of the effect of mineral alteration of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Isobe, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hideo</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In order to clarify the effect of mineral alteration on <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> migration, we examined the processes, mechanisms, and kinetics of chlorite weathering, and the uranium concentrations in minerals and rocks at Koongarra, Australia. The observed concentrations of uranium in rocks were compared to those calculated. The sequence of chlorite weathering may be simply expressed as a chlorite {yields} vermiculite {yields} kaolinite conversion. These minerals occur as a function of depth, which corresponds well to uranium concentrations on the meter scale. Iron minerals, closely related to the uranium redistribution, are released during the weathering. The first-order kinetic model of the weathering process suggests that the weathering rate is not constant but time-dependent. The uranium concentrations are qualitatively proportional to the extent of the weathering, the weathered part having higher uranium concentration. Uranium mainly occurs with iron minerals, and sub micron sized saleeite, a uranyl phosphate, is one of the most probable uranyl phases associated with the iron minerals. The uranium fixation mechanisms are probably saleeite microcrystal coprecipitation and sorption to the iron minerals. Our model, which describes uranium concentrations in rocks as a function of time, shows that the transition zone (a vermiculite dominant area) plays an important role in the uranium migration. We have established that weathering of chlorite has affected the redistribution of uranium for more than one million years. The present study demonstrates the significance of mineral alteration when we estimate <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> migration for geologic time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.EA093L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.EA093L"><span>ICoN, the Interactive Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kevin; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. The chart of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We have created ICoN (simply short for Interactive Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>), an API which can be used to visualize theoretical and experimental datasets. This visualization is achieved by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the elements and color them accordingly. ICoN features many customization options that users can access that are dynamically applied to the chart without reloading the page. Users can save the customized chart they create to various formats. We have constructed these features in order to provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. ICoN can also be used on all electronic devices without loss of support. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022025','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022025"><span>Forbush decreases geomagnetic and atmospheric effects cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flueckiger, E. O.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An overview and synthesis is given of recent developments that have occurred in the areas of Forbush decreases, geomagnetic and atmospheric effects, and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Experimental evidence has been found for substantial differences in the effects of the various types of interplanetary perturbations on cosmic rays, and for a dependence of these effects on the three-dimensional configuration of the interplanetary medium. In order to fully understand and to be able to simulate the solar cosmic ray particle access to the polar regions of the earth we need accurate models of the magnetospheric magnetic field. These models must include all major magnetospheric current systems (in particular the field aligned currents), and they should represent magnetically quiet time periods as well as different levels of geomagnetic activity. In the evolution of magnetospheric magnetic field models, cosmic ray and magnetospheric physicists should work closely together since cosmic ray measurements are a powerful additional tool in the study of the perturbed magnetosphere. In the field of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, finally, exciting new results and developments follow in rapid succession. Thanks to new techniques and new isotopes the analysis of cosmic ray history has entered into a new dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9195G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9195G"><span>Bridging the timescales between thermochronological and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glotzbach, Christoph</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the evolution of Earth's landscape is a key to understand its future evolution and to identify the driving forces that shape Earth's surface. Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> and thermochronological methods are routinely used to quantify Earth surface processes over 102-104 yr and 106-107 yr, respectively (e.g. Lal 1991; Reiners and Ehlers 2005; von Blanckenburg 2006). A comparison of the rates of surface processes derived from these methods is, however, hampered by the large difference in their timescales. For instance, a constant erosion rate of 0.1 mm/yr yield an apatite (U-Th)/He age of ~24 Ma and a 10Be age of ~6 ka, respectively. Analytical methods that bridge this time gap are on the way, but are not yet fully established (e.g. Herman et al. 2010). A ready to use alternative are river profiles, which record the regional uplift history over 102-107 yr (e.g. Pritchard et al. 2009). Changes in uplift are retained in knickzones that propagate with a distinct velocity upstream, and therefore the time of an uplift event can be estimated. Here I present an integrative inverse modelling approach to simultaneously reconstruct river profiles, model thermochronological and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> data and to derive robust information about landscape evolution over thousands to millions of years. An efficient inversion routine is used to solve the forward problem and find the best uplift history and erosional parameters that reproduce the observed data. I test the performance of the algorithm by inverting a synthetic dataset and a dataset from the Sila massif (Italy). Results show that even complicated uplift histories can be reliably retrieved by the combined interpretation of river profiles, thermochronological and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> data. References Gallagher, K., Brown, R. & Johnson, C. (1998): Fission track analysis and its applications to geological problems. - Annu. Rev. Earth Planet., 26: 519-572. Herman, F., Rhodes, E.J., Braun, J. & Heiniger, L. (2010): Uniform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18040989','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18040989"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants in US food.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schecter, Arnold; Harris, T Robert; Shah, Nirav; Musumba, Alice; Päpke, Olaf</p> <p>2008-02-01</p> <p>We and others recently began studying <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant levels in various matrices in the US including human milk and other food. This paper reviews the food studies. In our studies, ten to thirteen polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were measured, usually including BDE 209. All US women's milk samples were contaminated with PBDEs from 6 to 419 ng/g, lipid, orders of magnitude higher than levels reported in European studies, and are the highest reported worldwide. We compared our market basket studies of meat, fish and dairy products with other US food studies of meat and fish. US studies showed somewhat higher levels of PBDEs than reported elsewhere. Fish were most highly contaminated (median 616 pg/g), then meat (median190 pg/g) and dairy products (median 32.2 pg/g). However, unlike some European countries where fish predominates, dietary intake of PBDEs in the US is mostly from meat, then fish and then dairy products. Broiling can decrease the amount of PBDEs per serving. We also measured levels of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), another <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant, in human milk. The levels are lower than PBDEs, 0.16-1.2 ng/g, similar to European levels, unlike PBDEs where US levels are much higher than European levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850103"><span>Are <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants endocrine disruptors?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) are a group of compounds that have received much attention recently due to their similarity with "old" classes of organohalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in terms of their fate, stability in the environment and accumulation in humans and wildlife. Toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed for some BFR congeners, in particular the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (BDEs). This concise review focuses on the potency of BFRs and to disrupt endocrine systems, and attempts to answer the question whether or not BFRs are endocrine disruptors. Evidence is provided on the disruption of the thyroid hormone system by BFRs, with particular emphasis on the BDEs, as most recent data is available on this class of flame retardants. Similar to the hydroxylated PCBs, in vitro mechanistic studies as well as animal experiments have demonstrated the effects of BDEs on thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. An overview of possible effects of BFRs on the estrogen system is also provided. Research gaps are outlined, as well as ongoing and future studies in the European community aimed at contributing to comprehensive risk assessments based on the endocrine-disrupting effects of BFRs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSp.326...95W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSp.326...95W"><span>New infrared spectroscopic database for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> nitrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, Georg; Birk, Manfred</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Fourier transform infrared measurements of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 675-1400 cm-1 at 0.014 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 38 spectra covering the temperature range from 203 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 190 mbar. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 223 and 293 K. The sample was synthesized from ClONO2 and Br2. Band strengths of the bands ν3 around 803 cm-1 and ν2 around 1286 cm-1 were determined from three pure BrONO2 measurements at different temperatures and pressures. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample taking into account small amounts of impurities determined spectroscopically. Resulting band strengths are Sν3 = 2.872(52) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1 and Sν2 = 3.63(15) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1. Absorption cross sections of all measurements were scaled to these band strengths. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> nitrate error budget substantially.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol28/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol28-sec415-290.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol28/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol28-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5149A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5149A"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> dating of glaciofluvial deposits: insights from the Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akcar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Claude, Anne; Reber, Regina; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Rahn, Meinert; Dehnert, Andreas; Schlüchter, Christian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al can be employed to reconstruct the chronology of sediment layers. Accumulation of these can be used to exposure date the sediment layer as the variation of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentration with depth can be modeled. Decay of 10Be and 26Al in the samples from a well-defined single bed in a deposit enables the modeling of the post-burial component and the determination of the 26Al/10Be at the time of burial. The isochron-burial age can then be calculated from the initial and the measured ratios. In this study, we focus on the depth-profile and isochron-burial dating of the oldest Quaternary deposits of the Alpine Foreland. These are called Swiss Deckenschotter (cover gravels) as they build mesa-type hill tops on the Mesozoic or Cenozoic bedrock of the Swiss Alpine forelands. Deckenschotter consists of glaciofluvial gravel layers intercalated with glacial and/or overbank deposits. Although previously morphostratigraphically correlated with Günz and Mindel glaciations of Penck and Brückner, the Swiss Deckenschotter is likely much older, and their chronostratigraphy is not well constrained. In order to reconstruct the chronology of these deposits, we studied two Deckenschotter outcrops in abandoned gravel pits in Mandach (507 m a.s.l.) and Siglistorf (530 m a.s.l.) in canton Zurich. We collected four samples from Mandach for 10Be analysis and more than 30 clasts of different lithology, shape and size from a single stratigraphic horizon in Siglistorf among which we processed 19 clasts for 10Be and 26Al analysis. 10Be concentrations of the Mandach samples vary between 10000 and 30000 at/g. Based on these, we calculated a modal depth-profile age of around 1.0 Ma. Among Siglistorf samples, four did not yield successful 26Al measurements and two were unsuccessful for 10Be. Most of the samples have low <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentrations, i.e. <20000 10Be at/g and <150000 26Al at/g. The 26Al/10Be ratio of eight samples was above the surface ratio of 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199233"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep</p> <p>2016-06-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid <span class="hlt">bromine</span> carriers. This review outlines the use of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents, and a few natural <span class="hlt">bromine</span> sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026038','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026038"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-Chlorine Coupling in the Antarctic Ozone Hole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Prather, Michael J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The contribution from the chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole is evaluated. Since chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds are of different industrial origin, it is desirable, from a policy point of view, to be able to attribute chlorine-catalyzed loss of ozone with those reactions directly involving chlorine species, and likewise for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-catalyzed loss. In the stratosphere, however, most of the chemical families are highly coupled, and, for example, changes in the chlorine abundance will alter the partitioninig in other families and thus the rate of ozone loss. This modeling study examines formation of the Antarctic ozone hole for a wide range of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations (5 - 25 pptv) and for chlorine concentrations typical of the last two decades (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ppbv). We follow the photochemical evolution of a single parcel of air, typical of the inner Antarctic vortex (50 mbar, 70 deg. S, NO(sub y) = 2 ppbv, with Polar Stratospheric Clouds(PSC)) from August 1 to November 1. For all of these ranges of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading, we would predict a substantial ozone hole (local depletion greater than 90%) within the de-nitrified, PSC- perturbed vortex. The contributions of the different catalytic cycles responsible for ozone loss are tabulated. The deep minimum in ozone is driven primarily by the chlorine abundance. As <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels decrease, the magnitude of the chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss increases to take up the slack. This is because <span class="hlt">bromine</span> suppresses ClO by accelerating the conversion of ClO an Cl2O2 back to HCI. For this range of conditions, the local relative efficiency of ozone destruction per <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atom to that per chlorine atom (alpha-factor) ranges from 33 to 55, decreasing with increase of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046682"><span>Hydrogen-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Flow Battery: Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"><span>Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trathen, Danielle Y.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G.; Valdés, Ángel A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span>182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22561662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22561662"><span>Changes in oxidative stress parameters in relation to age, growth and reproduction in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus reared in its natural environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerra, C; Zenteno-Savín, T; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Philipp, E E R; Abele, D</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Increase in oxidative damage and decrease in cellular maintenance is often associated with aging, but, in marine ectotherms, both processes are also strongly influenced by somatic growth, maturation and reproduction. In this study, we used a single cohort of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus, to investigate the effects of somatic growth, reproduction and aging on oxidative damage parameters (protein carbonyls, TBARS and lipofuscin) and cellular maintenance mechanisms (antioxidant activity and apoptosis) in scallops, caged in their natural environment. The concentrations of protein carbonyls and TBARS increased steeply during the early period of fast growth and during reproduction in one-year-old scallops. However, oxidative damage was transient, and apoptotic cell death played a pivotal role in eliminating damage in gill, mantle and muscle tissues of young scallops. Animals were able to reproduce again in the second year, but the reduced intensity of apoptosis impaired subsequent removal of damaged cells. In late survivors low antioxidant capacity and apoptotic activity together with a fast accumulation of the age pigment lipofuscin was observed. Rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress markers were strongly dependent on somatic growth and reproductive state but not on temperature. Compared to longer-lived bivalves, A. ventricosus seems more susceptible to oxidative stress with higher tissue-specific protein carbonyl levels and fast accumulation of lipofuscin in animals surviving the second spawning. Superoxide dismutase activity and apoptotic cell death intensity were however higher in this <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> scallop than in longer-lived bivalves. The life strategy of this <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and intensely predated scallop supports rapid somatic growth and fitness as well as early maturation at young age at the cost of fast cellular degradation in second year scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341"><span>182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163664"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J; Vendetti, Jann E; Ellingson, Ryan A; Trowbridge, Cynthia D; Hirano, Yayoi M; Trathen, Danielle Y; Rodriguez, Albert K; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G; Valdés, Ángel A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"><span>Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M"><span>Daily variation of radon gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26733012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26733012"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> content and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in food and animal feed from the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Rose, M; Smith, F; Panton, S; Garcia-Lopez, M</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Current occurrence data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and hexa-bromocyclododecane (HBCD) measured in most commonly consumed foods (n = 156) and animal feeds (n = 51) sampled in the UK, demonstrates an ongoing ubiquity of these contaminants in human and animal diets. PBDE concentrations for the sum of 17 measured congeners ranged from 0.02 ng/g to 8.91 ng/g whole weight for food, and 0.11 ng/g to 9.63 ng/g whole weight for animal feeds. The highest concentration ranges, and mean values were detected in fish, processed foods and fish feeds. HBCD diastereomers (alpha-HBCD was the most commonly detected) generally occurred at lower concentrations (from <0.01 ng/g to 10.1 ng/g for food and <0.01 ng/g to 0.66 ng/g for animal feed) and less frequently than PBDEs, but tetrabromobisphenol A which was also measured, was rarely detected. The total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of the samples was also determined in an attempt to use a mass balance approach to investigate some of these samples for the occurrence of novel and emerging BFRs. Although the approach was further refined by measuring organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content, the concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were too high (in most cases by orders of magnitude) to allow use of the approach. A selected sub-set of samples was screened by GC-MS, for the presence of novel/emerging <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (PBT, TBX, PBEB, DBHCTD, HCTBPH and OBTMPI) but these were not detected at the higher limits of detection that result from full scan (GC-MS) screening. This data will contribute to the EU wide risk assessment on these contaminants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"><span>Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.8297B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRD..122.8297B"><span>Snowmelt onset hinders <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide heterogeneous recycling in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burd, Justine A.; Peterson, Peter K.; Nghiem, Son V.; Perovich, Don K.; Simpson, William R.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> radicals (<span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms, Br, and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> monoxide, BrO) deplete ozone and alter tropospheric oxidation chemistry during the Arctic springtime (February-June). As spring transitions to summer (May-June) and snow begins to melt, reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events cease and BrO becomes low in summer. In this study, we explore the relationship between the end of the reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> season and snowmelt timing. BrO was measured by Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer at Utqiaġvik (Barrow), AK, from 2012 to 2016 and on drifting buoys deployed in Arctic sea ice from 2011 to 2016, a total of 13 site and year combinations. The BrO seasonal end date (SED) was objectively determined and was compared to surface-air-temperature-derived melt onset date (MOD). The SED was highly correlated with the MOD (<fi>N</fi> = 13, <fi>R</fi>2 = 0.983, RMS = 1.9 days), and BrO is only observed at subfreezing temperatures. In subsets of these sites and years where ancillary data were available, we observed that snowpack depth reduced and rain precipitation occurred within a few days of the SED. These data are consistent with snowpack melting hindering BrO recycling, which is necessary to maintain enhanced BrO concentrations. With a projected warmer Arctic, a shift to earlier snowmelt seasons could alter the timing and role of halogen chemical reactions in the Arctic with impacts on ozone depletion and mercury deposition.<abstract type="synopsis"><title type="main">Plain Language SummaryReactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events in the Arctic are common in spring and deplete ozone and cause mercury deposition. These events are affected by snow and ice, which are changing in the Arctic; therefore, we need to understand how environmental conditions affect reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry. We find that the reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> season ends when snowpack begins to melt. Through these full seasonal observations, we find that reactive <span class="hlt">bromine</span> events occur to warmer temperatures than previously reported</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6662814','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6662814"><span>The biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pyrrolnitrin derivatives by Pseudomonas aureofaciens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Pée, K H; Salcher, O; Fischer, P; Bokel, M; Lingens, F</p> <p>1983-12-01</p> <p>The mutant strain ACN of Pseudomonas aureofaciens ATCC 15926 produces several bromo derivatives of pyrrolnitrin. Five <span class="hlt">brominated</span> amino- and three <span class="hlt">brominated</span> nitrophenyl pyrrole compounds could be isolated, and their structures were established by 1H NMR, UV and mass spectroscopy. The isolated amino compounds showed no biological activity; the nitro derivatives inhibited the growth of Neurospora crassa ATCC 9276, though not as effective as pyrrolnitrin itself. 2-Carboxy-4-(2-amino-3-bromophenyl)pyrrole (X) is demonstrated to be an intermediate in the biosynthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pyrrolnitrin; the biosynthetic pathway to bromo derivatives of pyrrolnitrin is discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=169763','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=169763"><span>Inactivation by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> of single poliovirus particles in water.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Floyd, R; Johnson, J D; Sharp, D G</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Quantitative electron microscopy shows that Freon-extracted poliovirus, velocity banded in a sucrose gradient, contains over 95% single particles. This well-dispersed virus reacts quite rapidly with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in turbulent flowing water, losing plaque titer at the rate of one log10 unit in 10s at pH 7, 2 C, and at a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration of 2.2 muM. At 10 and 20 C the rate of disinfection (log10 plaque-forming units per second) is faster, and at both temperatures it increases in approximately linear fashion with increasing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration. At 2 C such a linear relationship is not observed. Images PMID:11745</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JQSRT.196..165N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JQSRT.196..165N"><span>Hyperfine structure constants of atomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br I)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ni, Xue; Deng, Lunhua; Wang, Hailing</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The absorption spectrum of the neutral <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br I), lying in the region from 11,300 cm-1 to 12,600 cm-1 has been investigated using concentration modulation absorption spectroscopy with a tunable Ti:Sapphire laser. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms were excited by discharging the mixture of Helium and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapour in a hollow discharge glass tube. The hyperfine structure spectra of 45 lines were analyzed. Hyperfine structure constants A and B were derived for 20 even and 27 odd levels amongst which constants for 12 even and 21 odd levels were newly reported.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678425"><span>Ruthenium-Catalyzed meta-Selective C—H <span class="hlt">Bromination</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teskey, Christopher J; Lui, Andrew Y W; Greaney, Michael F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed, meta-selective C–H <span class="hlt">bromination</span> procedure is reported. In the presence of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2], tetrabutylammonium tribromide can be used to functionalize the meta C–H bond of 2-phenylpyridine derivatives, thus affording difficult to access products which are highly predisposed to further derivatization. We demonstrate this utility with one-pot <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/arylation and <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/alkenylation procedures to deliver meta-arylated and meta-alkenylated products, respectively, in a single step. PMID:26288217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054543"><span>Alkaline reforming of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fire-retardant plastics: fate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and antimony.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>High-impact polystyrene (HIPS) flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether (DDE), has been reacted in supercritical water from 380 to 450 degrees C and 21.5 to 31.0 MPa pressure in a batch reactor. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide additive were used in situ to neutralize the corrosive inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species released during the reactions. It appeared that supercritical water conditions lowered the decomposition temperature of both the fire-retardant DDE and HIPS. The reaction products included oils (up to 76 wt%), char (up to 18 wt%) and gas (up to 2.4 wt%) which was mainly methane. The presence of the alkaline water led to up to 97 wt% debromination of the product oil, producing virtually <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free oil feedstock. The removal of antimony from the oil product during processing was of the order of 98 wt%. The oil consisted of many single- and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds, many of which had alkyl substituents and/or aliphatic C(n)-bridges (n=1-4). The major single-ringed compounds included toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and alpha-methylstyrene. Bibenzyl (diphenylethane), stilbene, diphenylmethane, diphenylpropane, diphenylcyclopropane, diphenylpropene, diphenylbutane, diphenylbutene and diphenylbuta-1,3-diene were the major C(n)-bridged compounds. Diphenyl ether and acetophenone were the major oxygenated compounds found. The process thus has the potential to produce <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free and antimony-free oils from fire-retardant plastics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764419','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21764419"><span>TG-MS investigation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> products from the degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in high-impact polystyrene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Grause, Guido; Karakita, Daiki; Ishibashi, Jun; Kameda, Tomohito; Bhaskar, Thallada; Yoshioka, Toshiaki</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The thermal degradation of flame retardant containing high-impact polystyrene (HIPS-Br), one of the most commonly employed plastics in electric and electronic appliances, was examined by thermogravimetry coupled with mass spectroscopy (TG-MS) in order to understand the threat that is posed by the release of hazardous <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds. The HIPS samples contained decabromodiphenylether (DPE) and decabromodibenzyl (DDB) as the flame retardants as well as Sb2O3 as the synergist. The largest number of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> compounds was obtained in the presence of DPE and Sb2O3 and DDB without Sb2O3. From the degradation of DPE, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> benzenes, phenols, diphenylethers, and dibenzofurans were identified, and from the degradation of DDB, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> benzenes, dibenzyls, and phenanthrenes were formed. The interaction between the flame retardant and the polymer matrix resulted in α-bromoethylbenzene. The formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> dibenzodioxins was not observed, probably, due to the low phenol concentration in the polymer melt. No other report has, to our knowledge, ever reported on the formation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenanthrenes from flame retardants. Because they share similar steric features, it may well be that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenanthrenes are similar in their carcinogen and mutagen potential to dibenzofurans and dibenzodioxins. A plausible mechanism for the formation of the observed compounds is presented, and the role of the synergist is considered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350916"><span>Existence state of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as an indicator of the source of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in indoor dust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Go; Kida, Akiko; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Takigami, Hidetaka</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Indoor dust is an important medium for human exposure to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, we used micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), digital optical microscopy, and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the existence state of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as an indicator of the source of BFRs in indoor dusts and in dusts from the interior of televisions collected in Japan. By means of micro XRFS <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mapping conducted at a 0.5-s dwell time, we were able to detect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels as low as about 0.1% at each point of about a beam diameter of 50 microm across. The presence of fragments containing 1.0% or more <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was confirmed in 27 of the 48 dust samples tested. Using magnified images of the fragments, we classified them roughly into particulates and fibrous substances. We analyzed PBDEs in the fragments containing high concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (> or = 0.1%) and confirmed that the fragments contained PBDEs, mainly BDE 209. Furthermore, to detect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations < or = 0.1% in the dust samples, we analyzed the samples at a dwell time of 100 s to enhance the detection sensitivity of mapping; atthis dwell time, we confirmed the presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the dust coating. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is transferred from products to dust matrixes not only through miniaturization and subsequent direct migration into dust as plastic and textile fragments but also through other pathways such as vaporization and airborne transfer of microparticulates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850089','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850089"><span>Relevance of BFRs and thermal conditions on the formation pathways of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weber, Roland; Kuch, Bertram</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The widespread use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame-retarded products in the last two decades has resulted in an increasing presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in thermal processes such as waste combustion and accidental fires. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/PBDFs, PXDDs/PXDFs) are micropollutants of concern arising from such processes. The present review aims to evaluate the relevance of these compound classes in actual thermal processes. Four categories of thermal processes are discussed in this respect according to their potential for PBDD/PBDF and PXDD/PXDF generation: thermal stress, pyrolysis/gasification, insufficient combustion conditions and controlled combustion conditions. Under thermal stress situations, as they may occur in production or recycling processes, PBDDs/PBDFs precursors like polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) can have a relevant potential for PBDD/PBDF formation via a simple elimination. Under insufficient combustion conditions as they are present in, e.g. accidental fires and uncontrolled burning as well as gasification/pyrolysis processes, considerable amounts of PBDDs/PBDFs can be formed from BFRs, preferably via the precursor pathway. In contrast, under controlled combustion conditions, BFRs and PBDDs/PBDFs can be destroyed with high efficiency. The relevance of de novo synthesis of PXDDs/PXDFs is discussed for this condition. Providing a basis for the understanding of PXDD/PXDF formation in actual thermal processes, the present paper also summarises the formation pathways of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span>-chlorinated PXDDs/PXDFs from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) investigated during laboratory thermolysis experiments. Relevant mechanistic steps for PBDD/PBDF formation from <span class="hlt">brominated</span> precursors are discussed including elimination reactions, condensation steps and debromination/hydrogenation reactions. In addition, chlorination/<span class="hlt">bromination</span> and halogen exchange reactions are briefly discussed with respect for their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24484005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24484005"><span>Magnetic trapping of cold <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P</p> <p>2014-01-17</p> <p>Magnetic trapping of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007337','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007337"><span>In search of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lestrade, John Patrick</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) is capable of recording spectra in the wavelength range of 200 to 12000 Angstroms. Data from a recent Spacelab 1 ATLAS mission has imaged the terrestrial airglow at tangent ray heights of 90 and 150 km. These data contain information about trace atmospheric constituents such as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> oxide (BrO), hydroxyl (OH), and chlorine dioxide (OClO). The abundances of these species are critical to stratospheric models of catalytic ozone destruction. Heretofore, very few observations were made especially for BrO. Software was developed to purge unwanted solar features from the airglow spectra. The next step is a measure of the strength of the emission features for BrO. The final analysis will yield the scale height of this important compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458244','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28458244"><span>Cadmium, lead and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in beached microplastics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Massos, Angelo; Turner, Andrew</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Samples of microplastic (n = 924) from two beaches in south west England have been analysed by field-portable-x-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) spectrometry, configured in a low-density mode and with a small-spot facility, for the heavy metals, Cd and Pb, and the halogen, Br. Primary plastics in the form of pre-production pellets were the principal type of microplastic (>70%) on both beaches, with secondary, irregularly-shaped fragments representing the remainder of samples. Cadmium and Pb were detected in 6.9% and 7.5% of all microplastics, respectively, with concentrations of either metal that exceeded 10(3) μg g(-1) usually encountered in red and yellow pellets or fragments. Respective correlations of Cd and Pb with Se and Cr were attributed to the presence of the coloured, inorganic pigments, cadmium sulphoselenide and lead chromate. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, detected in 10.4% of microplastics and up to concentrations of about 13,000 μg g(-1), was mainly encountered in neutrally-coloured pellets. Its strong correlation with Sb, whose oxides are effective fire suppressant synergists, suggests the presence of a variety of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants arising from the recycling of plastics originally used in casings for heat-generating electrical equipment. The maximum bioaccessible concentrations of Cd and Pb, evaluated using a physiological extraction based on the chemical characteristics of the proventriculus-gizzard of the northern fulmar, were about 50 μg g(-1) and 8 μg g(-1), respectively. These concentrations exceed those estimated for the diet of local seabirds by factors of about 50 and 4, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. 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