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Sample records for short-lived bromine nuclides

  1. Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of short-lived nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics.

  2. A Reevaluation of the Contribution of Very Short Lived Bromocarbons to Stratospheric Bromine Loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wales, P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Mount, G. H.; Spinei, E.; Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Choi, S.; Joiner, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has provided global measurements of total column BrO over the past decade. Interpreting the distribution of total column BrO between the stratosphere and troposphere depends strongly on the contribution of very short lived (VSL) bromocarbons to stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry). Salawitch et al. (2010) suggested 7 to 12 ppt of Bry must be supplied to the lower stratosphere from the decomposition of VSL bromocarbons to accurately represent the variation of total column OMI BrO with total column O3. Here we will re-evaluate this recommendation in light of ground-based total column BrO measurements obtained over Fairbanks, Alaska using a multifunction differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument during the spring of 2011. Additionally, we will assess how modifications to kinetics regulating the partitioning between BrO and BrONO2 proposed by Kreycy et al. (2013) affect the VSL Bry estimate as well as the modeled diurnal variation in BrO. ReferencesKreycy, S. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 6263-6274, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6263-2013. Salawitch, R.J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2010, 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798.

  3. Precision Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides at The Heavy-Ion Storage Ring in Lanzhou

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yuhu; Xu, Hushan; Litvinov, Yuri A.

    Recent commissioning of the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou enabled us to conduct high-precision mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou (IMP). In the past few years, mass measurements were performed using the CSRe-based isochronous mass spectrometry employing the fragmentation of the energetic beams of 58Ni, 78Kr, 86Kr, and 112Sn projectiles. Masses of short-lived nuclides of on both sides of the stability valley were addressed. Relative mass precision of down to 10-6-10-7 is routinely achieved. The mass values were used as an input for dedicated nuclear structure and astrophysics studies, providing for instance new insights into the rp-process of nucleosynthesis in X-ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly review the so far conducted experiments and the main achieved results, as well as outline the plans for future experiments.

  4. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-02-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.

  5. Instrumental activation analysis of coal and fly ash with thermal and epithermal neutrons and short-lived nuclides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinnes, E.; Rowe, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis is applied to the determination of about 25 elements in coals and fly ash by means of nuclides with half-lives of less than 48 h ; thermal and epithermal irradiations are used. The results indicate that epithermal activation is preferable for twelve of the elements (Ga, As, Br, Sr, In, Cs, Ba, La, Sm, Ho, W and U). Data for SRM 1632 (coal) and SRM 1633 (fly ash) compare favorably with the results obtained by other investigators. ?? 1976.

  6. [Bibliographic consideration of proper management of radioactive waste on short-lived period nuclides that are used in nuclear medicine].

    PubMed

    Kida, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Ichirou; Nagaoka, Hiroaki; Fujibuchi, Toshioh; Tanaka, Shinji; Hayakawa, Toshio

    2009-05-20

    A rational clearance system for medical radioactive waste has not yet been established in Japan. As Europe and USA's ways, the establishment of DIS that medical radioactive waste what are kept in storage room for more than decided period each nuclide except from regulation of radiation's control. The purpose of this report is to clarify the problems with the establishment of DIS in Japan through a literature review of the experience in Europe and the USA and previous research that has been reported in Japan. To establish the DIS system, the radiation control system in nuclear medicine should be rebuilt and put into effect.

  7. On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and Short-Lived Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.

    1997-01-01

    Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these short-lived source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the

  8. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2011-01-01

    All U.S. production of bromine in 2010 came from underground brines in Arkansas. It was the leading mineral commodity produced in the state in terms of value. Albemarle Corp. and Chemtura Corp. recovered bromine.

  9. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, J.A.

    2013-01-01

    The element bromine is found principally as a dissolved species in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. Seawater contains about 65 parts per million of bromine or an estimated 907 Gt (100 trillion st). In the Middle East, the highly saline waters of the Dead Sea are estimated to contain 907 Mt (1 billion st) of bromine. Bromine also may be recovered from seawater as a coproduct during evaporation to produce salt.

  10. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ober, Joyce A.

    2012-01-01

    The element bromine is found principally as a dissolved species in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. Seawater contains about 65 parts per million of bromine or an estimated 100 Tt (110 trillion st). In the Middle East, the highly saline waters of the Dead Sea are estimated to contain 1 Gt (1.1billion st) of bromine. Bromine is also recovered from seawater as a coproduct during evaporation to produce salt.

  11. Bromine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Apodaca, Lori E.

    2010-01-01

    The entire U.S. production of bromine in 2009 came from underground brines in Arkansas, where it was the leading mineral commodity produced in terms of value. Two companies, Albermarle Corp. and Chemtura Corp., were responsible for bromine recovery. Worldwide, the United States is still the leading producer. However, U.S. dominance has decreased, as countries like China, Israel, Japan and Jordan have strengthened their positions as world producers of elemental bromine.

  12. A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (TransCom-VSLS): linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Patra, P. K.; Leeson, A. A.; Krysztofiak, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Andrews, S. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Aschmann, J.; Atlas, E. L.; Belikov, D. A.; Bönisch, H.; Carpenter, L. J.; Dhomse, S.; Dorf, M.; Engel, A.; Feng, W.; Fuhlbrügge, S.; Griffiths, P. T.; Harris, N. R. P.; Hommel, R.; Keber, T.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Maksyutov, S.; Mantle, H.; Mills, G. P.; Miller, B.; Montzka, S. A.; Moore, F.; Navarro, M. A.; Oram, D. E.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Pyle, J. A.; Quack, B.; Robinson, A. D.; Saikawa, E.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Sala, S.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.; Taguchi, S.; Tegtmeier, S.; Lidster, R. T.; Wilson, C.; Ziska, F.

    2016-07-01

    The first concerted multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) has been performed, within the framework of the ongoing Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom). Eleven global models or model variants participated (nine chemical transport models and two chemistry-climate models) by simulating the major natural bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), over a 20-year period (1993-2012). Except for three model simulations, all others were driven offline by (or nudged to) reanalysed meteorology. The overarching goal of TransCom-VSLS was to provide a reconciled model estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection (SGI) of bromine from these gases, to constrain the current measurement-derived range, and to investigate inter-model differences due to emissions and transport processes. Models ran with standardised idealised chemistry, to isolate differences due to transport, and we investigated the sensitivity of results to a range of VSLS emission inventories. Models were tested in their ability to reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial distribution of VSLS at the surface, using measurements from NOAA's long-term global monitoring network, and in the tropical troposphere, using recent aircraft measurements - including high-altitude observations from the NASA Global Hawk platform. The models generally capture the observed seasonal cycle of surface CHBr3 and CH2Br2 well, with a strong model-measurement correlation (r ≥ 0.7) at most sites. In a given model, the absolute model-measurement agreement at the surface is highly sensitive to the choice of emissions. Large inter-model differences are apparent when using the same emission inventory, highlighting the challenges faced in evaluating such inventories at the global scale. Across the ensemble, most consistency is found within the tropics where most of the models (8 out of 11) achieve best agreement to surface CHBr3 observations

  13. Direct mass measurements of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.

    PubMed

    Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L

    2011-03-18

    Mass excesses of short-lived A=2Z-1 nuclei (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)  keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)  keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point.

  14. Efficiency of short-lived halogens at influencing climate through depletion of stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Rap, A.; Dhomse, S.; Feng, W.

    2015-03-01

    Halogens released from long-lived anthropogenic substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons, are the principal cause of recent depletion of stratospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas. Recent observations show that very short-lived substances, with lifetimes generally under six months, are also an important source of stratospheric halogens. Short-lived bromine substances are produced naturally by seaweed and phytoplankton, whereas short-lived chlorine substances are primarily anthropogenic. Here we used a chemical transport model to quantify the depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere from short-lived halogen substances, and a radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effects of that ozone depletion. According to our simulations, ozone loss from short-lived substances had a radiative effect nearly half that from long-lived halocarbons in 2011 and, since pre-industrial times, has contributed a total of about -0.02 W m-2 to global radiative forcing. We find natural short-lived bromine substances exert a 3.6 times larger ozone radiative effect than long-lived halocarbons, normalized by halogen content, and show atmospheric levels of dichloromethane, a short-lived chlorine substance not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, are rapidly increasing. We conclude that potential further significant increases in the atmospheric abundance of short-lived halogen substances, through changing natural processes or continued anthropogenic emissions, could be important for future climate.

  15. Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-06-01

    We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

  16. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  17. Inter-laboratory comparisons of short-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.

    PubMed

    Klemola, S K

    2008-01-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-lives shorter than 1h. The total number of short-lived nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful.

  18. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, P; Buitenhuis, H J T; Diblen, F; Heeres, P N; Biegun, A K; Fiedler, F; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; Brandenburg, S

    2015-12-07

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of (10)C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: (12)N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of (11)C), (29)P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of (30)P) and (38m)K (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of (38g)K). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, (12)N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, (12)N dominates over (15)O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of (12)N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, (12)N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of (12)N PET imaging is discussed.

  19. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.

  20. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  1. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  2. Convective transport of very-short-lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ∼8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, ∼150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (∼7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total ∼8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at ∼150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute ∼7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a ∼2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt).

  3. Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

  4. Have we underestimated the role of short-lived chlorine compounds in ozone depletion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, David; Laube, Johannes; Sturges, Bill; Gooch, Lauren; Leedham, Emma; Ashfold, Matthew; Pyle, John; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    In recent years much attention has been focussed on the potential of bromine-containing VSLS (very short lived substances) to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is primarily due to the large observed discrepancy between the measured inorganic bromine in the stratosphere and the amount of bromine available from known, longer lived sources gases (halons and CH3Br). In contrast, the role of very short-lived chlorine compounds (VSLS-CL) has been considered trivial because they contribute only a few percent to the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, the majority of which is supplied by long-lived compounds such as the CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. However recent evidence shows that one VSLS-Cl, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) has increased by 60% over the past decade (WMO, 2014) and has already begun to offset the long-term decline in stratospheric chlorine loading caused by the reduction in emissions of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. We will present new VSLS-Cl measurements from recent ground-based and aircraft campaigns in SE Asia where we have observed dramatic enhancements in a number of VSLS-Cl, including CH2Cl2. Furthermore we will demonstrate how pollution from China and the surrounding region can rapidly, and regularly, be transported across the South China Sea and subsequently uplifted to altitudes of 11-12 km, the region close to the lower TTL. This process occurs frequently during the winter monsoon season and could represent a fast and efficient mechanism for transporting short-lived compounds, and other pollutants, to the lower stratosphere.

  5. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  6. Workshop on Cosmogenic Nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, R. C. (Editor); Englert, P. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Abstracts of papers presented at the Workshop on Cosmogenic Nuclides are compiled. The major topic areas covered include: new techniques for measuring nuclides such as tandem accelerator and resonance mass spectrometry; solar modulation of cosmic rays; pre-irradiation histories of extraterrestrial materials; terrestrial studies; simulations and cross sections; nuclide production rate calculations; and meteoritic nuclides.

  7. SU-C-204-07: The Production of Short-Lived Positron Emitters in Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Buitenhuis, H J T; Dendooven, P; Biegun, A K; Goethem, M-J van; Graaf, E R van der; Brandenburg, S; Diblen, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the production and effect of short-lived positron emitters when using PET for in-vivo range verification during a proton therapy irradiation. Methods: The integrated production of short-lived positron emitters in the stopping of 55 MeV protons was measured in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium targets. The experimental production rates are used to calculate the production on PMMA and a representative set of 4 tissue materials. The number of decays integrated over an irradiation in these materials is calculated as function of the duration of the irradiation, considering irradiations with the same total number of protons. Results: The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12-N (T1/2 = 11 ms) on carbon (9.5% of the 11-C production), 29-P (T1/2 = 4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of the 30-P production) and 38m-K (T1/2 = 0.92 s) on calcium (113% of the 38g-K production). No short-lived nuclides are produced on water. The most noticeable Result is that for an irradiation in (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12-N will dominate the PET image up to an irradiation duration of 70 s. On bone tissue, 15-O dominates over 12-N after 7–15 s (depending on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio). Conclusions: The presence of 12-N needs to be considered in PET imaging during proton beam irradiations as, depending on tissue composition and PET scanning protocol, it may noticeably deteriorate image quality due to the large positron range blurring. The results presented warrant investigations into the energy-dependent production of 12-N, 29-P and 38m-K and their effect on PET imaging during proton irradiations.

  8. Impact of Very Short-live Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia

    2010-05-01

    In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very short-lived (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of short-lived bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.

  9. Very Short-lived Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.

  10. Nuclide production by primary cosmic-ray protons

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1986-01-01

    The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in the solar system and in interstellar space were calculated for the primary protons in the galactic and solar cosmic rays. At 1 AU, the long-term average fluxes of solar protons usually produce many more atoms of a cosmogenic nuclide than the primary protons in the galactic cosmic rays (GCR), the exceptions being nuclides made only by high-energy reactions (like /sup 10/Be). Because the particle fluxes inside meteorites and other large objects in space include many secondary neutrons, the production rates are much higher and ratios inside large objects are often very different from those by just the primary GCR protons in small objects. The production rates of cosmogenic nuclides are calculated to vary by about factors of 2.5 during at typical 11-year solar cycle, in agreement with measurements of short-lived radionuclides in recently fallen meteorites. The production of cosmogenic nuclides by the GCR particles outside the heliosphere is higher than that by the modulated GCR primaries normally in the solar system. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the fluxes of interstellar protons and, therefore, in the production rates of cosmogenic nuclides in interstellar space. Production rates and ratios for cosmogenic nuclides would be able to identify particles that were small in space or that were exposed to an unmodulated spectrum of GCR particles. 25 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Bayes’ Theorem and Early Solar Short-lived Radionuclides: The Case for an Unexceptional Origin for the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Edward D.

    2016-08-01

    The presence of excesses of short-lived radionuclides in the early solar system evidenced in meteorites has been taken as testament to close encounters with exotic nucleosynthetic sources, including supernovae or AGB stars. An analysis of the likelihoods associated with different sources of these extinct nuclides in the early solar system indicates that, rather than being exotic, their abundances were typical of star-forming regions like those observed today in the Galaxy. The radiochemistry of the early solar system is therefore unexceptional, being the consequence of extensive averaging of solids from molecular clouds.

  12. Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from Short-Lived Halogens and Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu

    2014-05-01

    Halogens released from very short-lived substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.

  13. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  14. Brominated dibenzofurans

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Brominated dibenzofurans ; no CASRN Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  15. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the

  16. How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short-lived bromocarbons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-10-01

    Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly

  17. How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very short lived bromocarbons?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    Naturally produced very short-lived substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.

  18. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  19. Short-lived chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode

    2005-01-01

    Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of short-lived chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are ≈5 × 10-6. Different from other short-lived radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > 1.6 × 10-4 at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of short-lived nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189–L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475–1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051–1070]. Furthermore, the short-lived 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes. PMID:15671168

  20. Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.

    PubMed

    Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

    2003-01-01

    Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping.

  1. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

  2. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Schauffler, Sue M.; Donets, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry−climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4−9) parts per thousand] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions. PMID:26504212

  3. Airborne measurements of organic bromine compounds in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Maria A; Atlas, Elliot L; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Kinnison, Douglas E; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R P; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J; Manning, Alistair J; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schauffler, Sue M; Donets, Valeria

    2015-11-10

    Very short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) are an important source of stratospheric bromine, an effective ozone destruction catalyst. However, the accurate estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere remains uncertain. Here, we report near-tropopause measurements of organic brominated substances found over the tropical Pacific during the NASA Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment campaigns. We combine aircraft observations and a chemistry-climate model to quantify the total bromine loading injected to the stratosphere. Surprisingly, despite differences in vertical transport between the Eastern and Western Pacific, VSLBr (organic + inorganic) contribute approximately similar amounts of bromine [∼6 (4-9) parts per trillion] [corrected] to the stratospheric input at the tropical tropopause. These levels of bromine cause substantial ozone depletion in the lower stratosphere, and any increases in future abundances (e.g., as a result of aquaculture) will lead to larger depletions.

  4. Rubberized, Brominated Epoxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilwee, W.; Kourtides, D.; Parker, J.; Nir, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Graphite/epoxy composite materials made with resins containing bromine and rubber additives. New composites tougher and more resistant to fire. Flame resistance increased by introducing bromine via commercial brominated flame-retartant polymeric additives.

  5. (Development of Bromine-77 from the LAMPF facility)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    The objective of the work was to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of bromine-77 labeled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. This report presents progress on the following tasks: An initial investigation concentrating on the radiobromination at carbon-6 or carbon-7 in selected simple steroids utilizing the nuclides, bromine-82 and bromine-77, analytical spectroscopy of radiolabeled compounds, and investigating the biodistribution, toxicology and tumor affinity of labeled agents.

  6. Bromine Safety

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, B

    2001-04-09

    The production and handling in 1999 of about 200 million kilograms of bromine plus substantial derivatives thereof by Great Lakes Chemical Corp. and Albemarle Corporation in their southern Arkansas refineries gave OSHA Occupational Injury/Illness Rates (OIIR) in the range of 0.74 to 1.60 reportable OIIRs per 200,000 man hours. OIIRs for similar industries and a wide selection of other U.S. industries range from 1.6 to 23.9 in the most recent OSHA report. Occupational fatalities for the two companies in 1999 were zero compared to a range in the U.S.of zero for all computer manufacturing to 0.0445 percent for all of agriculture, forestry and fishing in the most recent OSHA report. These results show that bromine and its compounds can be considered as safe chemicals as a result of the bromine safety standards and practices at the two companies. The use of hydrobromic acid as an electrical energy storage medium in reversible PEM fuel cells is discussed. A study in 1979 of 20 megawatt halogen working fluid power plants by Oronzio de Nora Group found such energy to cost 2 to 2.5 times the prevailing base rate at that time. New conditions may reduce this relative cost. The energy storage aspect allows energy delivery at maximum demand times where the energy commands premium rates. The study also found marginal cost and performance advantages for hydrobromic acid over hydrochloric acid working fluid. Separate studies in the late 70s by General Electric also showed marginal performance advantages for hydrobromic acid.

  7. A micropump driven by electrochemically produced short-lived bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Lemekhov, S. S.; Melenev, A. E.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new working principle for electrochemical micropump with the gas termination time as short as 100 microseconds is presented. It is based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity. A simple electrochemical micropump is designed to demonstrate this pumping principle. The device consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes, inlet and outlet diffusers, and channels for liquid. The chamber and the channels are filled with the electrolyte that plays a role of the pumped liquid. The pump was tested in different regimes. One of these regimes related to formation and termination of short-lived microbubbles is especially promising. Long time stability of the electrodes is demonstrated.

  8. Measures Urged to Cut Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    To produce significant near-term climate benefits, the Obama administration should take a series of actions under existing authorities to reduce greenhouse gases that have relatively short atmospheric lifetimes of weeks to a few decades, according to a 12 March study by the nonprofit Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). The report, "Domestic Policies to Reduce the Near-Term Risks of Climate Change," notes that recent estimates suggest that about 30-40% of warming experienced to date can be attributed to these short-lived pollutants, which include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  9. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-lived and Long-lived Radionuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2004-01-01

    In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "short-lived radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.

  10. Bromination of Phenol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  11. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

  12. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger

    2016-10-01

    Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  13. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; ...

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less

  14. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  15. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  16. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

  17. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  18. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  19. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  20. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  1. 49 CFR 173.228 - Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. 173... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.228 Bromine pentafluoride or bromine trifluoride. (a) Bromine pentafluoride and bromine trifluoride are authorized in packagings as follows: (1) Specification 3A150,...

  2. Chart of the Nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Sartori, Enrico

    1999-03-23

    Nucleus is an interactive PC-based graphical viewer of NUBASE nuclear property data. NUBASE contains experimentally known nuclear properties, together with some values that have been estimated from extrapolation of experimental data for 3010 nuclides. NUBASE also contains data on those isomeric states that have half-lives greater than 1 millisecond; there are 669 such nuclides of which 58 have more than one isomeric state. The latest version of NUCLEUS-CHART has been corrected to include the names and the chemical symbols of the elements 104 to 109 that have been finally adopted by the Commission on Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry (CNIC) of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). They differ from those recommended by the same commission a few years before and that were widely used in the evaluations AME''95 and NUBASE''97. It results in some shuffling of the names and symbols, that may cause confusion in the near future. At AMDC we''ll be as careful as possible to try to avoid such confusion. In advance we apologize if any will occur in the future and recommend the user to always double check these few names.

  3. Shunt detection with the short-lived radioactive gases.

    PubMed

    Watson, D D

    1980-01-01

    Conventional radionuclide techniques are limited by their inability to deliver noninvasively a compact bolus of radionuclide indicator into the left heart. This can be accomplished by the inhalation of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide. The inhaled carbon dioxide passes freely across the alveolar membrane and enters the carbonate cycle, which, under the accelerating influence of carbonic anhydrase, transfers the oxygen-15 tracer onto water in the pulmonary venous blood. The result is an abrupt tracer delivery to the pulmonary venous system with subsequent tracer input to the left heart at a rate limited only by the pulmonary blood flow. These properties of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide have been used to develop a specialized indicator-dilution method for quantitation of left-to-right cardiac shunt flow. The results agree well with those obtained by oxymetry at cardiac catheterization. In clinical application, the ease and reliability of this technique are remarkable. Its use is presently limited to clinical facilities with the capability for on-line production of the short-lived gases. The techniques provide a good example of the utilization of biologically active radiopharmaceuticals and are a potentially useful source of information about the hemodynamic properties of the central circulatory system.

  4. Beta Decay Studies of Short Lived Barium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendall, Charles Skipwith

    The half-lives and relative intensities of several short lived neutron rich isotopes, with atomic numbers between 54 and 57, produced in the spontaneous fission of californium-252 were determined. This was accomplished from the study of the time variation of the K X-ray yields of these isotopes. A transport system which allowed us to study isotopes with half-lives less than 10 seconds was developed. Mass assignments were made by comparing the experimental values of the half-lives with known values. A beta K X-ray coincidence technique was used to obtain the barium beta spectrum in coincidence with lanthanum K X -rays. A Kurie plot was performed on the spectrum to determine the beta groups. The probable origin of each beta group was determined through a comparison of the relative intensities of the isotopes and beta groups. Four beta groups probably from the decay of Ba-145 were revealed. The end point energies of these beta groups are 3870 (+OR-) 432 keV, 2772 (+OR-) 112 keV, 1894 (+OR-) 58 keV, and 746 (+OR-) 38 keV. The three lowest energy groups have not been observed before.

  5. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    PubMed

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  6. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  7. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

  8. Probing the tropical tropopause layer for organic and inorganic bromine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Bodo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Atlas, Elliot; Cheung, Ross; Chipperfield, Martyn; Colosimo, Fedele; Deutschmann, Tim; Elkins, Jim; Fahey, David; Feng, Wu; Festa, James; Gao, Ru-Shan; Hossaini, Ryan; Navarro, Maria; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Spolaor, Max; Thornberry, Troy; Tsai, Catalina; Stutz, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the photochemistry and budget of bromine in the tropical upper troposphere, tropopause layer and lowermost stratosphere (UT/TTL/LS). These regions are also known to serve as a gateway for delivery of ozone depleting gases to the stratosphere. CH3Br, halons, short-lived organic bromine precursors (VSLS), such as CHBr3, CH2Br2, and possibly inorganic product gases have been identified as the main bromine gases delivered to the stratosphere. However, many important details of the transport and delivery of VSLS and inorganic bromine compounds through the TTL are still uncertain. Moreover, a number of chemical processes, including the transformation of the source gases and cycling of inorganic bromine species at low ambient temperature and on ice particles are also poorly understood. The presentation reports measurements of CH4, O3, NO2, and BrO performed by different instruments and techniques during the 2013 NASA-ATTREX flights in the TTL and LS. The interpretation of our measurements is supported by chemical transport model (SLIMCAT) simulations. SLIMCAT results, in conjunction with extensive radiative transfer calculations using the Monte Carlo model McArtim, also are used to improve retrieval of O3, NO2, and BrO concentrations from limb scattered sunlight measurements made with the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique during ATTREX. The chemical transport model also allows us to attribute observed concentration variations to transport and to photochemical processes. When properly accounting for the transport-related concentration variations in methane and ozone, we find that measured BrO mostly agrees with model simulations. An exception are regions where the contribution of the short-lived CH2Br2 or the

  9. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  10. Very short-lived bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-04-01

    Short-lived organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very short-lived bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.

  11. Unconventional Nuclides for Radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Jason P.; Williamson, Matthew J.; Lewis, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and widespread growth in the use of nuclear medicine for both diagnosis and therapy of disease has been the driving force behind burgeoning research interests in the design of novel radiopharmaceuticals. Until recently, the majority of clinical and basic science research has focused on the development of 11C-, 13N-, 15O-, and 18F-radiopharmaceuticals for use with positron emission tomography (PET) and 99mTc-labeled agents for use with single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). With the increased availability of small, low-energy cyclotrons and improvements in both cyclotron targetry and purification chemistries, the use of “nonstandard” radionuclides is becoming more prevalent. This brief review describes the physical characteristics of 60 radionuclides, including β+, β−, γ-ray, and α-particle emitters, which have the potential for use in the design and synthesis of the next generation of diagnostic and/or radiotherapeutic drugs. As the decay processes of many of the radionuclides described herein involve emission of high-energy γ-rays, relevant shielding and radiation safety issues are also considered. In particular, the properties and safety considerations associated with the increasingly prevalent PET nuclides 64Cu, 68Ga, 86Y, 89Zr, and 124I are discussed. PMID:20128994

  12. Short-lived halocarbons efficient at influencing climate through ozone loss in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Steven; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu

    2015-04-01

    Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are a significant source of atmospheric bromine, chlorine and iodine. Due to relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months), VSLS breakdown in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), where ozone perturbations drive a disproportionately large climate impact compared to other altitudes. Here we present chemical transport model simulations that quantify VSLS-driven ozone loss in the UTLS and infer the climate relevance of these ozone perturbations using a radiative transfer model. Our results indicate that through their impact on UTLS ozone, VSLS are efficient at influencing climate. We calculate a whole atmosphere global mean radiative effect (RE) of -0.20 (-0.16 to -0.23) Wm-2 from natural and anthropogenic VSLS-driven ozone loss, including a tropospheric contribution of -0.12 Wm-2. In the stratosphere, the RE due to ozone loss from natural bromine-containing VSLS (e.g. CHBr3, CH2Br2) is almost half of that from long-lived anthropogenic compounds (e.g. CFCs) and normalized by equivalent chlorine is ~4 times larger. We show that the anthropogenic chlorine-containing VSLS, not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, also contribute to ozone loss in the UTLS and that the atmospheric concentration of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), the most abundant of these, is increasing rapidly. Finally, we present evidence that VSLS have made a small yet previously unrecognized contribution to the ozone-driven radiative forcing of climate since pre-industrial times of -0.02 (-0.01 to -0.03) Wm-2. Given the climate leverage that VSLS possess, future increases to their emissions, either through continued industrial or altered natural processes, may be important for future climate forcing.

  13. Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D

    2005-10-24

    The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.

  14. Yields of short-lived fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)

    SciTech Connect

    Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; England, T.R.

    1998-08-01

    Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of short-lived fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Recover bromine on site

    SciTech Connect

    Schubert, P.; Mahajan, S.; Beatty, R.D.; Rostrup-Nielsen, T.; Schubert, D.W.; Lu, Phat Tan

    1993-04-01

    Chemists have long recognized the importance of recovering bromine from waste streams, and attempts to do so catalytically date back more than 50 years. Although the early interest in bromine recovery was driven primarily by economics, increased environmental pressures are providing additional incentives to recycle this element. As the acceptability of discharging wastes into the environment decreases, the cost of doing so increases, creating a need for alternative handling. The authors interest in waste bromine recovery was driven by both economic and environmental factors. In their evaluation of a research program that included a bromination step as part of a synthesis process, Catalytica researchers found that the process would be feasible commercially only if the waste HBr produced were recycled on site to bromine. A nonbromine route was eventually adopted for this particular research program, but the need for an economical and environmentally sound process for recycling HBr to bromine was recognized. The development of this process became a project in its own right. This process eliminates the need to form and ship aqueous sodium bromide offsite. It converts the waste HBr directly to bromine by catalytic oxidation.

  16. A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.

    2016-06-23

    Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  17. Measurements of stratospheric bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlacek, W. A.; Lazrus, A. L.; Gandrud, B. W.

    1984-01-01

    From 1974 to 1977, molecules containing acidic bromine were sampled in the stratosphere by using tetrabutyl ammonium hydroxide impregnated filters. Sampling was accomplished by WB-57F aircraft and high-altitude balloons, spanning latitudes from the equator to 75 deg N and altitudes up to 36.6 km. Analytical results are reported for 4 years of measurements and for laboratory simulations that determined the filter collection efficiencies for a number of brominated species. Mass mixing ratios for the collected bromine species in air average about 27 pptm in the stratosphere. Seasonal variability seems to be small.

  18. The very short-lived ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.

    2014-05-01

    CHBr3 (bromoform) is a short-lived atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of short-lived brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (Λ) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, σ(Λ,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being

  19. Karlsruhe nuclide chart - new 9. edition 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Soti, Zsolt; Magill, Joseph; Pfennig, Gerda; Derher, Raymond

    2015-07-01

    Following the success of the 8. Edition of the Karlsruhe Nuclide Chart 2012, a new edition is planned for 2015. Since the 2012 edition, more than 100 nuclides have been discovered and about 1400 nuclides have been updated. In summary, the new 9. edition contains decay and radiation data on approximately 3230 ground state nuclides and 740 isomers from 118 chemical elements. The accompanying booklet provides a detailed explanation of the nuclide box structure used in the Chart. An expanded section contains many additional nuclide decay schemes to aid the user to interpret the highly condensed information in the nuclide boxes. The booklet contains - in addition to the latest values of the physical constants and physical properties - a periodic table of the elements, tables of new and updated nuclides, and a difference chart showing the main changes in the Chart graphically. (authors)

  20. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Bodo; Stutz, Jochen; Spolaor, Max; Festa, James; Tsai, Catalina; Colosimo, Fedele; Cheung, Ross; Deutschmann, Tim; Raecke, Rasmus; Scalone, Lisa; Tricoli, Ugo; Pfeilsticker, Klaus; Navarro, Maria; Atlas, Elliot; Chipperfield, Martyn; Hossaini, Ryan

    2015-04-01

    Bromine plays an important role for the chemistry of ozone in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy instrument was deployed onboard NASA's UAV Global Hawk during the NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX) during a series of flights into the eastern and western Pacific tropopause layer (flight altitudes up to 18 km), which is a gateway to the stratosphere. The measurement methodology to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. Observations of BrO, NO2 and O3 and of other trace species, in particular of brominated hydrocarbons are compared with simulations of the SLIMCAT CTM and interpreted with respect to photochemistry and the budget of bromine within the tropical tropopause layer (TTL).

  1. Bromine Chemistry in the Tropical UTLS during the 2011, 2013 and 2014 ATTREX Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stutz, J.; Spolaor, M.; Festa, J.; Tsai, J. Y.; Colosimo, S. F.; Cheung, R.; Werner, B.; Deutschmann, T.; Scalone, L.; Raecke, R.; Tricoli, U.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Navarro, M. A.; Atlas, E. L.

    2014-12-01

    Bromine chemistry impacts the levels of ozone in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. An accurate quantitative understanding of the sources, sinks, and chemical transformation of bromine species is thus important to understand the bromine budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), which also serves as a gate to the stratosphere. Vertical transport of very short-lived organic bromine precursors, such as CHBr3, CH2Br2 and inorganic product gases has been identified as the main source of bromine in the UTLS. However, the contribution of inorganic vs. organic compounds is not well quantified, particularly in the tropical UTLS. A number of chemical processes, including the role of ice particles for the transformation and cycling of inorganic bromine species are also poorly understood. A limb scanning Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy Instrument was deployed on-board NASA's unmanned high-altitude Global Hawk aircraft during the 2011, 2013, and 2014 NASA Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX). Flights in the eastern and western Pacific were performed to study, among other topics, the chemistry of bromine and ozone in the subtropical and tropical UTLS. Here we will present observations of BrO, NO2 and other trace species made by this instrument at altitudes between 15 - 20 km. The measurement methodology as well as the procedure to retrieve vertical trace gas concentration profiles will be briefly presented. The combination of those observations with the measurements of organic bromine species from the University of Miami's Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) will be used to determine and interpret the bromine budget in the UTLS.

  2. Solid bromine complexers

    DOEpatents

    Grimes, Patrick G.

    1987-01-20

    The cell of the invention comprises a housing, a zinc or cadmium anode, a chemically non-reactive counterelectrode and cathodic halogen. The cathodic halogen is selected from chlorine and bromine, and preferably is bromine. The cell also is provided with an aqueous metal halide containing electrolyte in which the metal ions are of the same metal as the metal of the anode and halide anions are of the same halogen as the cathodic halogen material. Importantly, in the present invention, anion exchange resins provide a convenient means for storing the halogen generated during charging of the cell and providing a source of halogen to be used in the discharge of the cell.

  3. Lithium/bromine cell systems

    SciTech Connect

    Howard, W.G.; Skarstad, P.M.; Hayes, T.G.; Owens, B.B.

    1980-01-01

    Bromine is attractive as a cathode material because cells with a high energy density and high cell voltage are theoretically possible. The addition of small amounts of certain salts or organic compounds results in bromine solutions of sufficient conductivity for cathode applications. However, given these highly conductive bromine cathodes, lithium/bromine cells are limited in rate and practical available capacity by the high resistivity of the discharge product. The rate of resistance increase for the best bromine cells in this study is more than one order of magnitude greater than that observed for corresponding lithium/iodine cells. Lithium/bromine cells can function at pacemaker rates and they may be superior to cells used in early pacemakers. However, the authors have not found the lithium/bromine cells described to be superior to existing lithium/iodine cells available for cardiac pacemakers. 17 refs.

  4. Brominated Flame Retardants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) belong to a large class of compounds known as organohalogens. BFRs are currently the largest marketed flame retardant group due to their high performance efficiency and low cost. In the commercial market, more than 75 different BFRs are recogniz...

  5. Sensitivity of Ozone to Bromine in the Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salawitch, R. J.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Kovalenko, L. J.; Sioris, C. E.; Wennberg, P. O.; Chance, K.; Ko, M. K. W.; McLinden, C. A.

    2005-01-01

    Measurements of BrO suggest that inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)) at and above the tropopause is 4 to 8 ppt greater than assumed in models used in past ozone trend assessment studies. This additional bromine is likely carried to the stratosphere by short-lived biogenic compounds and their decomposition products, including tropospheric BrO. Including this additional bromine in an ozone trend simulation increases the computed ozone depletion over the past approx.25 years, leading to better agreement between measured and modeled ozone trends. This additional Br(sub y) (assumed constant over time) causes more ozone depletion because associated BrO provides a reaction partner for ClO, which increases due to anthropogenic sources. Enhanced Br(sub y) causes photochemical loss of ozone below approx.14 km to change from being controlled by HO(sub x) catalytic cycles (primarily HO2+O3) to a situation where loss by the BrO+HO2 cycle is also important.

  6. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  7. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  8. Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily; Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2015-02-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the strength of selection for resistance increases with longevity. In a single locus model of innate resistance to a frequency-dependent, sterilizing disease, longer lived hosts evolved resistance more rapidly than short-lived hosts. Moreover, resistance in long-lived hosts could only be polymorphic for more costly and more extreme resistance levels than short-lived hosts. The increased rate of evolution occurred in spite of longer generation times because longer-lived hosts had both a longer period of exposure to disease as well as higher disease prevalence. Qualitatively similar results were found when the model was extended to mortality-inducing diseases, or to density-dependent transmission modes. Our study shows that the evolutionary dynamics of host resistance is determined by more than just levels of resistance and cost, but is highly sensitive to the life-history traits of the host.

  9. New nuclide sup 263 Ha

    SciTech Connect

    Kratz, J.V.; Gober, M.K.; Zimmermann, H.P. ); Schaedel, M.; Bruechle, W.; Schimpf, E. ); Gregorich, K.E.; Tuerler, A.; Hannink, N.J.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Kadkhodayan, B.; Lee, D.M.; Nurmia, M.J.; Hoffman, D.C. ); Gaeggeler, H.; Jost, D.; Kovacs, J.; Scherer, U.W.; Weber, A. )

    1992-03-01

    A new nuclide {sup 263}Ha was produced in the bombardment of a {sup 249}Bk target with 93-MeV {sup 18}O ions. It was detected via spontaneous fission counting and was shown to have a half-life of about 0.5 min. This activity was also separated from the reaction products by automated rapid chemical separations using cation-exchange chromatography in 0.05{ital M} {alpha}-hydroxyisobutyric acid. After chemical separation, {sup 263}Ha was found to decay by spontaneous fission (57{sub {minus}15}{sup +13}%) and by {alpha} emission ({ital E}{sub {alpha}}=8.35 MeV, 43%) with a half-life of 27{sub {minus}7}{sup +10} s. The spontaneous fission fragment energy spectrum is compatible with an average total kinetic energy of about 200 MeV.

  10. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  11. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  12. Short-Lived Radionuclides in Meteorites: Constraints on Nebular Timescales for the Production of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Robert H., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Variations in the abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al (τ1/2 ≈ 0.74 Ma) and 53Mn (τ1/2 ≈ 3.7 Ma) in meteoritic solids may be used to infer relative formation intervals of these solids in the nebula at precisions of less than 1 Ma. In a strict chronometric interpretation of the isotopic variations, whereby criteria such as spatial and temporal isotopic homogeneity and closed system isotopic evolution are met, solid formation occurred in the nebula for at least several million years. This is longer than some theoretical and astronomical estimates for the duration of the active nebula. The evidence for live 41Ca (τ1/2 ≈ 0.10 Ma) in meteoritic inclusions further indicates that the onset of solid formation occurred quite early, perhaps within a few hundred thousand years after the onset of the collapse of the sun's parent molecular cloud. Failure of the chronometric interpretation may arise for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, the late, inhomogeneous injection of material from a nearby stellar source or the local production of short-lived radionuclides by an energetic particle irradiation, e. g., from T Tauri (X-wind) or galactic cosmic ray sources. Although some isotopic evidence exists that the criteria required for a strict chronometric interpretation are not met by each of the short-lived chronometers, there is no compelling reason to shorten the interval of solid formation in the nebula to less than 1 Ma.

  13. A Simulation of Bromoform's Contribution to Stratospheric Bromine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, J. Eric; Douglass, Anne R.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Many chlorinated and brominated compounds that are inert in the troposphere are destroyed in the stratosphere and act as an in-situ source of stratospheric reactive chlorine and bromine. Other halogenated compounds that are reactive in the troposphere might contribute to the stratosphere's halogen budget in two ways. First, like their unreactive companions, rapid convective transport might carry them to the upper troposphere and make them available for subsequent advection by the mean circulation into the stratosphere before they are oxidized or photolyzed. Second, it is more likely that they are destroyed in the troposphere, and the chlorine and bromine that is released might then be transported to the stratosphere. We evaluate the relative influence of these processes on stratospheric bromine in a three-dimensional chemistry and transport model which simulates the distribution of bromoform (CHBr3). CHBr3 is parameterized as a short-lived, ocean-surface source gas whose destruction by photolysis and reaction with hydroxyl (OH) in the troposphere and stratosphere yields inorganic bromine (Br(sub y)). Many of the observed features of CHBr3 are simulated well, and comparisons with observations are used to show that the model represents aspects of transport in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that are critical to the evaluation. In particular, the model maintains the observed troposphere-stratosphere distinctness in transport pathways and reproduces the observed seasonal dependence of the mixture of air in the middle- and high-latitude lowermost stratosphere. We estimate that adding CHBr3 to models which already include the long-lived organic brominated compounds (halons and methyl bromide) will increase the simulated stratospheric mass of Br(sub y) by about 15 percent. In-situ stratospheric destruction of CHBr3 produces Br(sub y) in amounts which are comparable to that transported into the stratosphere after photolysis and oxidation of CHBr3 in the

  14. An analysis of a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramchurn, S K; Moheeput, K; Goorah, S S

    2009-08-27

    During the month of June 2009, Mauritius experienced a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever localised in its capital city Port Louis. Aedes albopictus, a secondary vector of dengue viruses, was the probable vector. We introduce a method which combines Google Earth images, stochastic cellular automata and scale free network ideas to map this outbreak. The method could complement other techniques to forecast the evolution of potential localised mosquito-borne viral outbreaks in Mauritius and in at-risk locations elsewhere for public health planning purposes.

  15. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-12-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox.

  16. Cosmogenic Nuclides Study of Large Iron Meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutzler, A.; Smith, T.; Rochette, P.; Bourles, D. L.; Leya, I.; Gattacceca, J.

    2014-09-01

    Six large iron meteorites were selected (Saint-Aubin, Mont-Dieu, Caille, Morasko, Agoudal, and Gebel Kamil). We measured stable and radiogenic cosmogenic nuclides, to study pre-atmospheric size, cosmic-ray exposure ages and terrestrial ages.

  17. The paradox of great longevity in a short-lived tree species.

    PubMed

    Larson, D W

    2001-04-01

    Thuja occidentalis is a tree species that was once thought to be relatively short-lived (80 years). Up until 10 years ago maximum ages were considered to be near 400 years, but such trees were thought to be rare. Research along the cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment has altered this view. Exceptionally slow-growing trees of this species have been found with ring counts to 1653 years and estimated ages to 1890 years. Senescence is slow or absent. Injury and death is due to rockfall and sporadic severe drought that kills small sectors of the trees by exposing and killing the roots. Experiments in which colored dyes are infused into roots show that each tree is composed of hydraulically independent units that allow mortality in one part of the 'individual' with little negative effect on the remaining parts of the tree. The trees are small, so environmental loadings of ice, snow, and wind are low. Slow growth of the trees results in a much greater mechanical strength in the wood. Together these properties increase the ability of the cedars to persist on cliffs for long periods of time. The paradox of great longevity in this 'short-lived' tree species is explained by slow growth that minimizes maintenance and repair costs while maximizing durability and strength, combined with an internal architecture that creates functionally independent units within each tree.

  18. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  19. The effect of representing bromine from VSLS on the simulation and evolution of Antarctic ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Luke D.; Douglass, Anne R.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Canty, Timothy P.; Ziemke, Jerald R.; Manyin, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We use the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model, a contributor to both the 2010 and 2014 World Meteorological Organization Ozone Assessment Reports, to show that inclusion of 5 parts per trillion (ppt) of stratospheric bromine (Bry) from very short lived substances (VSLS) is responsible for about a decade delay in ozone hole recovery. These results partially explain the significantly later recovery of Antarctic ozone noted in the 2014 report, as bromine from VSLS was not included in the 2010 Assessment. We show multiple lines of evidence that simulations that account for VSLS Bry are in better agreement with both total column BrO and the seasonal evolution of Antarctic ozone reported by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument on NASA's Aura satellite. In addition, the near-zero ozone levels observed in the deep Antarctic lower stratospheric polar vortex are only reproduced in a simulation that includes this Bry source from VSLS.

  20. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  1. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  2. Short-lived two-soliton bound states in weakly perturbed nonlinear Schrodinger equation.

    PubMed

    Dmitriev, Sergey V.; Shigenari, Takeshi

    2002-06-01

    Resonant soliton collisions in the weakly discrete nonlinear Schrodinger equation are studied numerically. The fractal nature of the soliton scattering, described in our previous works, is investigated in detail. We demonstrate that the fractal scattering pattern is related to the existence of the short-lived two-soliton bound states. The bound state can be regarded as a two-soliton quasiparticle of a new type, different from the breather. We establish that the probability P of a bound state with the lifetime L follows the law P approximately L(-3). In the frame of a simple two-particle model, we derive the nonlinear map, which generates the fractal pattern similar to that observed in the numerical study of soliton collisions. (c) 2002 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite

    PubMed

    Mora; Riciputi; Cole

    1999-12-17

    Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite.

  4. Isotope shift calculations for D lines of stable and short-lived lithium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Geng-Hua; Zhao, Peng-Yi; Xu, Bing-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The isotope shifts (ISs) for the 2s2S1/2 to 2p2P J (J = 1/2, 3/2) transitions of the lithium nuclei including the stable and short-lived isotopes are calculated based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic configuration interaction approach. The results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results within a deviation less than 0.05%. The methods used here could be applied to the IS calculations for other heavier Li-like ions and few-electron systems. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304093), the Fund of the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZB0386), and the Fund of the 1315 Project of Chengdu University, China (Grant No. 2081915041).

  5. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. PMID:26839399

  6. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  7. New Short-Lived Isotope 221U and the Mass Surface Near N =126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Cox, D. M.; Even, J.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hoffmann, J.; Hübner, A.; Jäger, E.; Jeppsson, J.; Kindler, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Minami, S.; Mistry, A. K.; Mrosek, Ch. M.; Pysmenetska, I.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schaffner, H.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Steiner, J.; De Heidenreich, T. Torres; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.; Yakusheva, V.

    2015-12-01

    Two short-lived isotopes 221U and 222U were produced as evaporation residues in the fusion reaction 50Ti + 176Yb at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. An α decay with an energy of Eα=9.31 (5 ) MeV and half-life T1 /2=4.7 (7 ) μ s was attributed to 222U. The new isotope 221U was identified in α -decay chains starting with Eα=9.71 (5 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.66 (14 ) μ s leading to known daughters. Synthesis and detection of these unstable heavy nuclei and their descendants were achieved thanks to a fast data readout system. The evolution of the N =126 shell closure and its influence on the stability of uranium isotopes are discussed within the framework of α -decay reduced width.

  8. Jahn-Teller effect for short-lived states: Study of the complex potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2004-07-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect for bound electronic states has been investigated for many decades. In contrast, nothing is known regarding its occurrence for short-lived electronic states. Here we investigate the linear and the quadratic E⊗e Jahn-Teller effect for degenerate resonance states with special regard to the complex potential energy surfaces. We find many new phenomena for both the real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces including additional minima and intersections. Possible simplifications of the equations describing the adiabatic potential energy surfaces are discussed. We also briefly investigate other Jahn-Teller effects in linear approximation. The theoretical concepts are exemplified by calculating ab initio data for the degenerate Π*-type resonance states of the tris(boramethyl)amin anion along two different doubly degenerate vibrational modes.

  9. Prolonged Marital Stress is Associated with Short-Lived Responses to Positive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, Regina C.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Norris, Catherine J.; Bachhuber, David R.W.; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N=116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957

  10. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model.

  11. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  12. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and season variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from South and South-East Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the Western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with also non-negligible values extending into northern mid-latitudes particularly in the summer. These first estimates, which include some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODP values than previous studies, particularly over Southern Asia, suggesting that emissions of short-lived halogen source gases in certain geographical regions could have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion.

  13. Surficial Studies of Mars Using Cosmogenic Nuclides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishiizumi, K.

    2001-01-01

    Cosmogenic nuclides (CNs) are produced by cosmic-ray nuclear interactions with target nuclei in rocks, soils, ice, and the atmosphere. Cosmogenic nuclides have been widely used for investigation of solar system matter for several decades. Stable nuclides, such as He-3, Ne-21, and Ar-38, are built up over time as the surface is exposed to cosmic rays. The concentrations of cosmogenic radionuclides, such as Be-10, Al-26, and C-14 also build up with exposure time but reach saturation values after several half-lives. Especially since the development of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), CNs in terrestrial samples have been routinely used for geomorphic studies such as glaciation, surface erosion, and tectonics, and studies of atmospheric and ocean circulation. Cosmogenic nuclides on Mars will be able to answer questions of exposure ages, erosion rates, tectonic events, and deposition rates of sediments and/or volatiles. The concentrations of cosmogenic stable nuclides give the integrated exposure time of the rock/mineral, and the activities of radionuclides give recent records for times back as long as a few half-lives.

  14. Production systematics of cosmogenic nuclides in the earth

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The high-energy particles in the galactic cosmic rays, (GCR) can produce nuclides deep in any object exposed to them. These cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides have been extensively studied during the last four decades, mainly in meteorites and lunar samples (e.g., 1,2). In extraterrestrial matter, several approaches have been used to determine the production systematics of these cosmogenic nuclides. Production rates of most cosmogenic nuclides in the Earth axe much lower, especially those nuclides made ``in situ`` in the Earth`s surface. Many of these @trial cosmogenic nuclides are only now being measured because of improved techniques, such as accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). There have been very few determinations of the production rates of nuclides made in the Earth by cosmic rays. The work being done for terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides is following the approaches used for, studying the production of extraterrestrial nuclides.

  15. INTRODUCTION TO BROMINATED FLAME RETARDANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are a large and diverse class of major industrial products used to provide fire safety. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), Hexabromocylocodecane (HBCD), and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are the major commercial compounds. TBBPA is a react...

  16. Cosmogenic nuclides in early solar system materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bricker, Glynn Edward

    2009-09-01

    The overall goal of this research was to assess early solar system processes, particularly ancient proto-solar activity. This goal was addressed on two fronts. First, a model was developed to explain the provenance of now extinct radionuclides in early solar system materials, namely the refractory inclusions termed CAIs (Calcium-Aluminum-Inclusion) found in carbonaceous chondrites. As CAIs are believed to be the first solids to condense in the solar system and are also believed to have formed close to the proto-Sun, a model which explains the now extinct radionuclides found in CAIs constrains early solar system processes. Secondly, a series of measurements were performed on samples of the early solar system, namely chrondritic meteorites and the inclusions called chondrules, often contained within these meteorites. Chondrules, which are often a chief constituent of these meteorites, are believed to have originated close to the proto-Sun. As such, these materials should contain clues about solar processes at the beginning of the solar system. We propose a model for the incorporation of SLRs (short lived radionuclide) within CAIs in primitive carbonaceous meteorites. In this model SLRs are produced by energetic particle reactions in the proto-solar atmosphere of a more active proto-Sun characterized by proton fluxes higher than contemporary particle fluxes. These SLRs are entrained in the solar wind that is then implanted into CAI precursor material. This production mechanism is operational in the contemporary solar system and is responsible for implantation of 10 Be, 14 C and other nuclides in lunar materials. We utilize contemporary experimental solar wind production rates for 10Be and 14 C and theoretical ancient production rates for 7 Be, 10 Be, 14 C, 26 Al, 36 Cl, 41 Ca, and 53 Mn. Using a ~ 10 5 enhancement in SEPs (solar energetic particles) and hence production rates in conjunction with an accepted refractory mass inflow rates close to the proto-Sun, we model

  17. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable. PMID:28321175

  18. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) appears questionable.

  19. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-07-01

    Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  20. Vertical transport rates and concentrations of OH and Cl radicals in the Tropical Tropopause Layer from Observations of CO2 and halocarbons: implications for distributions of long- and short-lived chemical species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Jiménez, R.; Daube, B. C.; Gottlieb, E. W.; Nan, J.; Jones, D. B. A.; Pfister, L.; Conway, T. J.; Bui, T. P.; Gao, R.-S.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2010-03-01

    Rates for large-scale vertical transport of air in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) were determined using high-resolution, in situ observations of CO2 concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the NASA Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling (TC4) campaign in August 2007. Upward movement of trace gases in the deep tropics was notably slower in TC4 than during the Costa Rica AURA Validation Experiment (CR-AVE), in January 2006. Transport rates in the TTL were combined with in situ measurements of chlorinated and brominated organic compounds from whole air samples to determine chemical loss rates for reactive chemical species, providing empirical vertical profiles for 24-h mean concentrations of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and chlorine atoms in the TTL. The analysis shows that important short-lived species such as CHCl3, CH2Cl2, and CH2Br2 have longer chemical lifetimes than the time for transit of the TTL, implying that these species, which are not included in most models, could readily reach the stratosphere and make significant contributions of chlorine and/or bromine to stratospheric loading.

  1. Zinc-bromine battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Lew; Vanschalwijk, Walter; Albert, George; Tarjanyi, Mike; Leo, Anthony; Lott, Stephen

    1990-05-01

    This report describes development activities on the zinc-bromine battery system conducted by Energy Research Corporation (ERC). The project was a cost-shared program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and managed through Sandia. The project began in September 1985 and ran through January 1990. The zinc-bromine battery has been identified as a promising alternative to conventional energy storage options for many applications. The low cost of the battery reactants and the potential for long life make the system an attractive candidate for bulk energy storage applications, such as utility load leveling. The battery stores energy by the electrolysis of an aqueous zinc bromide salt to zinc metal and dissolved bromine. Zinc is plated as a layer on the electrode surface while bromine is dissolved in the electrolyte and carried out of the stack. The bromine is then extracted from the electrolyte with an organic complexing agent in the positive electrolyte storage tank. On discharge the zinc and bromine are consumed, regenerating the zinc bromide salt.

  2. Cosmogenic nuclides in the Brenham pallasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Caffee, M. W.; Miura, Y. N.; Nagai, H.; Nagao, K.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2002-12-01

    Cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) nuclides were studied in fragments of the Brenham pallasite, a large stony iron meteorite. The contents of light noble gases (He, Ne, and Ar) and long-lived radionuclides (10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, and 53Mn), produced by nuclear reactions with cosmic rays, were measured in the separated metal and olivine phases from numerous samples representing a wide range of shielding conditions in the meteoroid. The distribution of cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in the metal follows patterns similar to that observed in large iron meteorites. Shielding effects were estimated from the relative proportions of low- and high-energy reaction products. The production rates varied, from surface to interior, by a factor of more than several hundred. The 36Cl-36Ar cosmic-ray exposure age of Brenham is 156 +/- 8 Myr. This determination is based on a multiple nuclide approach that utilizes cosmogenic nuclide pairs. This approach not only yields a "shielding independent" exposure age but also demonstrates that the production of cosmogenic nuclides occurred in a single stage. The depth profiles of 10Be in the stone phase and 53Mn in the metal phase are shown superimposed on corresponding profiles from the Apollo 15 long drill core. Surprisingly low abundances of lithophile elements, such as K, U, and Th, provided a unique opportunity to examine the production systematics of those nuclides whose inventories typically have significant contributions from non-cosmogenic sources, particularly radiogenic contributions. The U and Th contents of the olivine samples are extremely low, allowing detection of cosmogenic 4He production from oxygen, magnesium, silicon, and iron.

  3. Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

    1986-10-01

    This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived.

  4. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  5. AGB stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some short-lived nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key short-lived nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.

  6. Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692"><span>Establishing equivalence for activity standards of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, M J; Baker, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R; Chipperfield, M P; Saiz-Lopez, A; Harrison, J J; von Glasow, R; Sommariva, R; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Montzka, S A; Feng, W; Dhomse, S; Harth, C; Mühle, J; Lunder, C; O'Doherty, S; Young, D; Reimann, S; Vollmer, M K; Krummel, P B; Bernath, P F</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2-the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K"><span>Large-Scale, <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Subduction of the Western Gneiss Region Ultrahigh-Pressure Terrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Corfu, F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway includes one of Earth's giant ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes. Understanding the subduction and exhumation of this >60,000 km2 area is relevant to a range of processes, including collisional orogenesis, reworking of the continents, and the global geochemical cycle. Important aspects that remain unanswered include the spatial and temporal style of subduction. Was the crust subducted as smaller slivers one at a time, or as one larger unit, all at the same time? The WGR exhibits consistent ages of ~415-400 Ma, 100+ km along strike, but no ages have been identified at an equivalent distance across strike. To address this issue we have determined the age of one of the easternmost eclogites identified in the WGR, a retrogressed eclogite from Lesja. Seven fractions of this sample were analyzed; six of them yield identical U/Pb ages, however, they are slightly discordant. The seventh fraction is anomalously young and interpreted to have suffered lead loss. A weighted-mean 206Pb/238U age of 408.0 ± 1.7 Ma is obtained from the six older fractions; an age that is within the range of U/Pb, Sm/Nd, and Lu/Hf ages from the western portion of the WGR. The similarity in ages from 100+ km north to south and 100+ km east to west indicate that large portions of the continental crust were subducted in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> event, if not en masse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish. PMID:26121607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Hyewook Genevieve; Christensen, Kate; Drolet, Aimee</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This research investigated the influence of trait indecisiveness on variety-seeking behavior. Study 1 revealed that chronic indecisiveness was associated with increased variety-seeking behavior. Study 2A showed that the incidence of not choosing to make a choice was much lower among chronically indecisive people when a variety-pack option was available, and Study 2B showed that chronically indecisive people chose the variety pack even if it included their least preferred option. Study 3 demonstrated that chronically indecisive people contended with the negative emotion they experienced during choice making by choosing a mix of options. Study 4 revealed that the emotional benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. Chronically indecisive people felt more satisfied and less anxious after choosing a mix of options. However, having chosen a mix, chronically indecisive people then faced more choices, specifically the choices of which specific option to consume on each specific occasion. In this way, variety seeking is a maladaptive long-term emotional coping strategy for the chronically indecisive. The results of this research have important theoretical implications for understanding the causes of variety-seeking behavior as well as practical implications for increasing (a) the incidence of choice making among chronically indecisive people and (b) satisfaction with the choices they do make. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers - The Connections Between Emissions, Forcing, and Mitigation Potential (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to the impact of ozone and aerosols on health and ecosystems. These climate forcing agents are linked both though common emissions sources and atmospheric chemical processes. The magnitude and regional distribution of these forcings have changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing. Overall, reductions in aerosol emissions lead to a net warming due to the net negative aerosol forcing, although some mitigation benefits may be possible in specific sub-sectors. While the emissions leading to enhanced tropospheric ozone levels are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, mitigation has proved to be difficult due to the ubiquity of major emission sources, particularly surface transportation vehicles. From a mitigation standpoint, therefore, tropospheric ozone might be considered as more of a long-term pollutant. This presentation will review these links using historical data and future projections and discuss the implications for mitigation. The implications of these links for atmospheric chemistry analysis, and the potential for using ACC-MIP results to improve integrated assessment modeling and analysis, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Cages Restrict Protein Diffusion in the Plasma Membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goiko, Maria; de Bruyn, John R.; Heit, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The plasma membrane is a heterogeneous environment characterized by anomalous diffusion and the presence of microdomains that are molecularly distinct from the bulk membrane. Using single particle tracking of the C-type lectin CD93, we have identified for the first time the transient trapping of transmembrane proteins in cage-like microdomains which restrict protein diffusion. These cages are stabilized by actin-dependent confinement regions, but are separate structures with sizes and lifespans uncorrelated to those of the underlying actin corral. These membrane cages require cholesterol for their strength and stability, with cholesterol depletion decreasing both. Despite this, cages are much larger in size and are longer lived than lipid rafts, suggesting instead that cholesterol-dependent effects on membrane fluidity or molecular packing play a role in cage formation. This diffusional compartment in the plasma membrane has characteristics of both a diffusional barrier and a membrane microdomain, with a size and lifespan intermediate between <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> microdomains such as lipid rafts and long-lasting diffusional barriers created by the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27725698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A"><span>New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578"><span>The long non-coding RNA Morrbid regulates Bim and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCright, Sam J.; Kumar, Dinesh B. Uthaya; Collet, Magalie A.; Mowel, Walter K.; Elliott, Ellen N.; Uyar, Asli; Makiya, Michelle A.; Dunagin, Margaret C.; Harman, Christian C.D.; Virtue, Anthony T.; Zhu, Stella; Bailis, Will; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Raj, Arjun; Wherry, E. John; Goff, Loyal A.; Klion, Amy D.; Rinn, John L.; Williams, Adam; Flavell, Richard A.; Henao-Mejia, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes collectively account for ~70% of human blood leukocytes and are among the shortest-lived cells in the body1,2. Precise regulation of the lifespan of these myeloid cells is critical to maintain protective immune responses while minimizing the deleterious consequences of prolonged inflammation1,2. However, how the lifespan of these cells is strictly controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we identify a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we termed Morrbid, which tightly controls the survival of neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes in response to pro-survival cytokines. To control the lifespan of these cells, Morrbid regulates the transcription of its neighboring pro-apoptotic gene, Bcl2l11 (Bim), by promoting the enrichment of the PRC2 complex at the Bcl2l11 promoter to maintain this gene in a poised state. Notably, Morrbid regulates this process in cis, enabling allele-specific control of Bcl2l11 transcription. Thus, in these highly inflammatory cells, changes in Morrbid levels provide a locus-specific regulatory mechanism that allows for rapid control of apoptosis in response to extracellular pro-survival signals. As MORRBID is present in humans and dysregulated in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome, this lncRNA may represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders characterized by aberrant <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan. PMID:27525555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.JH007M"><span>Developments in precison mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> r-process nuclei with CARIBU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marley, S. T.; Aprahamian, A.; Mumpower, M.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S.; Surman, R.; Clark, J. A.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>The confluence of new radioactive beam facilities and modern precision mass spectrometry techniques now make it possible to measure masses of many neutron-rich nuclei important to nuclear structure and astrophysics. A recent mass sensitivity study (S. Brett et al., Eur. Phys. J., A 48, 184 (2012)) identified the nuclear masses that are the most influential to the final rapid-neutron capture process abundance distributions under various astrophysical scenarios. This work motivated a campaign of precision mass measurements using the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) installed at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. In order to measure the weakest and most <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t1/2 < 150 ms) of these influential nuclei, a series of upgrades to the CARIBU and CPT systems have been developed. The implementation of these upgrades, the r-process mass measurements, and the status of CARIBU facilty will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of NSERC, Canada, appl. # 216974, the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357, DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-98ER41086, & DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NSF Grants PHY08-22648 and PHY-106819.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_5");'>5</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li class="active"><span>7</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_7 --> <div id="page_8" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="141"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015"><span>Efficient genome engineering approaches for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A central challenge in experimental aging research is the lack of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate models for genetic studies. Here we present a comprehensive protocol for efficient genome engineering in the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), which is the shortest-lived vertebrate in captivity with a median life span of 4-6 months. By taking advantage of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system and the turquoise killifish genome, this platform enables the generation of knockout alleles via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and knock-in alleles via homology-directed repair (HDR). We include guidelines for guide RNA (gRNA) target design, embryo injection and hatching, germ-line transmission and for minimizing off-target effects. We also provide strategies for Tol2-based transgenesis and large-scale husbandry conditions that are critical for success. Because of the fast life cycle of the turquoise killifish, stable lines can be generated as rapidly as 2-3 months, which is much faster than other fish models. This protocol provides powerful genetic tools for studying vertebrate aging and aging-related diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Aixue; Xu, Yangyang; Tebaldi, Claudia; Washington, Warren M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Under present growth rates of greenhouse gas and black carbon aerosol emissions, global mean temperatures can warm by as much as 2°C from pre-industrial temperatures by about 2050. Mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), methane, tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon, has been shown to reduce the warming trend by about 50% (refs , ) by 2050. Here we focus on the potential impact of this SLCP mitigation on global sea-level rise (SLR). The temperature projections under various SLCP scenarios simulated by an energy-balance climate model are integrated with a semi-empirical SLR model, derived from past trends in temperatures and SLR, to simulate future trends in SLR. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model is also used to estimate SLR trends due to just the ocean thermal expansion. Our results show that SLCP mitigation can have significant effects on SLR. It can decrease the SLR rate by 24-50% and reduce the cumulative SLR by 22-42% by 2100. If the SLCP mitigation is delayed by 25 years, the warming from pre-industrial temperature exceeds 2°C by 2050 and the impact of mitigation actions on SLR is reduced by about a third.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q"><span>A new approach for fluid dynamics simulation: The <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Changjian; Li, Jiansong; Tian, Zongshun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There are many researches to simulate the fluid which adopt the traditional particle-based approach and the grid-based approach. However, it needs massive storage in the traditional particle-based approach and it is very complicated to design the grid-based approach with the Navier-Stokes Equations or the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) because of the difficulty of solving equations. This paper presents a new model called the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model. It updates the fluid properties (mass and momentum) recorded in the fixed Cartesian grids by computing the weighted sum of the water cuboid particles with a time step life. Thus it is a two-type-based approach essentially, which not only owns efficient computation and manageable memory like the grid-based approach, but also deals with the discontinuous water surface (wet/dry fronts, boundary conditions, etc.) with high accuracy as well as the particle-based approach. The proposed model has been found capable to simulate the fluid excellently for three laboratory experimental cases and for the field case study of the Malpasset dam-break event occurred in France in 1959. The obtained results show that the model is proved to be an alternative approach to simulate the fluid dynamics with a fair accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6492848"><span>Sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lewis, D.A.</p> <p>1981-02-01</p> <p>The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L"><span>Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gobies face demographic bottlenecks?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The majority of coral reef goby species are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, with some highly abundant species living less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally short life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334728','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6334728"><span>Cosmic-ray-produced stable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>: various production rates and their implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.</p> <p>1981-06-15</p> <p>The rates for a number of reactions producing certain stable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, such as /sup 3/He and /sup 4/He, and fission in the moon are calculated for galactic-cosmic-ray particles and for solar protons. Solar-proton-induced reactions with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> usually are not an important source of cosmogenic Kr isotopes. The /sup 130/Ba(n,p) reaction cannot account for the undercalculation of /sup 130/Xe production rates. Calculated production rates of /sup 15/N, /sup 13/C, and /sup 2/H agree fairly well with rates inferred from measured excesses of these isotopes in samples with long exposure ages. Cosmic-ray-induced fission of U and Th can produce significant amounts of fission tracks and of /sup 86/Kr, /sup 134/Xe, and /sup 136/Xe, especially in samples with long exposures to cosmic-ray particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.249 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. When... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.249 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. When... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.249 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. When... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title49-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title49-vol2-sec173-249.pdf"><span>49 CFR 173.249 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. 173.249 Section 173.249 Transportation... PACKAGINGS Bulk Packaging for Hazardous Materials Other Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.249 <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>. When... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> service built prior to August 31, 1991, may continue in service under the requirements...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/mineral-resource-month-bromine','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://www.earthmagazine.org/article/mineral-resource-month-bromine"><span>Mineral Resource of the Month: <span class="hlt">Bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Schnebele, Emily</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, along with mercury, is one of only two elements that are liquid at room temperature. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is a highly volatile and corrosive reddish-brown liquid that evaporates easily and converts to a metal at extreme pressures — above about 540,000 times atmospheric pressure. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> occurs in seawater, evaporitic (salt) lakes and underground brines associated with petroleum deposits. </p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L"><span>Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S"><span>Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T. K.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M. G.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased at twice the global rate, largely as a result of ice-albedo and temperature feedbacks. Although deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs; refs ,). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly than for mitigation of CO2 and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This Letter is one of the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCFs emissions, taking into account black carbon (BC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone (O3), and their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. This study extends the scope of previous works by including more detailed calculations of Arctic radiative forcing and quantifying the Arctic temperature response. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations owing to the large absolute amount of emissions. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible mitigation scenario for SLCFs, phased in from 2015 to 2030, could cut warming by 0.2 (+/-0.17) K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A"><span>Treatment of solid tumors by interstitial release of recoiling <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arazi, L.; Cooks, T.; Schmidt, M.; Keisari, Y.; Kelson, I.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A new method utilizing alpha particles to treat solid tumors is presented. Tumors are treated with interstitial radioactive sources which continually release <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitting atoms from their surface. The atoms disperse inside the tumor, delivering a high dose through their alpha decays. We implement this scheme using thin wire sources impregnated with 224Ra, which release by recoil 220Rn, 216Po and 212Pb atoms. This work aims to demonstrate the feasibility of our method by measuring the activity patterns of the released radionuclides in experimental tumors. Sources carrying 224Ra activities in the range 10-130 kBq were used in experiments on murine squamous cell carcinoma tumors. These included gamma spectroscopy of the dissected tumors and major organs, Fuji-plate autoradiography of histological tumor sections and tissue damage detection by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The measurements focused on 212Pb and 212Bi. The 220Rn/216Po distribution was treated theoretically using a simple diffusion model. A simplified scheme was used to convert measured 212Pb activities to absorbed dose estimates. Both physical and histological measurements confirmed the formation of a 5-7 mm diameter necrotic region receiving a therapeutic alpha-particle dose around the source. The necrotic regions shape closely corresponded to the measured activity patterns. 212Pb was found to leave the tumor through the blood at a rate which decreased with tumor mass. Our results suggest that the proposed method, termed DART (diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy), may potentially be useful for the treatment of human patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"><span>Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_6");'>6</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li class="active"><span>8</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_8 --> <div id="page_9" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="161"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.; Samset, B. H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealised, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all three models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the northern hemisphere high latitudes, and a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation and run-off. Changes in precipitation and run-off patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ, consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker forcing signal, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are free-running means that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P"><span>Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T.; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24245662"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and carbon isotope effects during photolysis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zakon, Yevgeni; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina</p> <p>2013-12-17</p> <p>In the present study, carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope effects during UV-photodegradation of bromophenols in aqueous and ethanolic solutions were determined. An anomalous relatively high inverse <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope fractionation (εreactive position up to +5.1‰) along with normal carbon isotope effect (εreactive position of -12.6‰ to -23.4‰) observed in our study may be attributed to coexistence of both mass-dependent and mass-independent isotope fractionation of C-Br bond cleavage. Isotope effects of a similar scale were observed for all the studied reactions in ethanol, and for 4-bromophenol in aqueous solution. This may point out related radical mechanism for these processes. The lack of any carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope effects during photodegradation of 2-bromophenol in aqueous solution possibly indicates that C-Br bond cleavage is not a rate-limiting step in the reaction. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope fractionation, without any detectable carbon isotope effect, that was observed for 3-bromophenol photolysis in aqueous solution probably originates from mass-independent fractionation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5713065','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5713065"><span>Neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>This paper continues, with respect to the transplutonium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, earlier efforts to collate and evaluate data from the scientific literature on the prompt neutron multiplicity distribution from fission and its first moment <nu> = ..sigma..nuPnu. The isotopes considered here for which P/sub nu/ and or <nu> data (or both) were found in the literature are of americium (Am), curium (Cm), berkelium (Bk), californium (Cf), einsteinium (Es), fermium (Fm), and nobelium (No).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M⊙. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-isotope composition in the range Δ17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O isotopic ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A"><span>Regional emission metrics for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Bellouin, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry-climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs), which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature change potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation policy package is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs: methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for Northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20 year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/806134','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/806134"><span>Electronic properties of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-doped carbon nanotubes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Louie, Steven G.; Cohen, Marvin L.</p> <p>2002-07-15</p> <p>Intercalation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules (Br2) into single-wall carbon nanotube (SWNT) ropes is studied using the ab initio pseudopotential density functional method. Electronic and vibrational properties of the SWNT and Br2 are studied for various <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations. A drastic change in the charge transfer, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> stretching-mode, and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> bond-length is observed when the <span class="hlt">bromine-bromine</span> distance decreases. Calculated electronic structures show that, at high <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ppsigma level broadens due to the interbromine interaction. These states overlap with the electronic bands of the SWNT near the Fermi level which results in a substantial charge transfer from carbon to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p> plumes cannot explain the intraplate volcanism of the South Pacific region. We argue that the observed <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism has been produced by another type of hot spot-related volcanism, as opposed to the strong and continuous Hawaiian-type hot spots. Our results also indicate that other geological processes (plate tension, hotlines, faulting, wetspots, self-propagating volcanoes) may act in conjunction with hot spot volcanism in the South Pacific. In all these scenarios, intraplate volcanism has to be controlled by "broad-scale" events giving rise to multiple closely-spaced mantle plumelets, each with a distinct isotopic signature, but only briefly active and stable over geological time. It seems most likely that these plumelets originate and dissipate at very shallow mantle depths, where they may shoot off as thin plumes from the top of a "superplume" that is present in the South Pacific mantle. The absence of clear age progressions in most seamount trails and periodic flare-ups of massive intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific (such as the one in the Cretaceous and one starting 30 Myr ago) show that regional extension (caused by changes in the global plate circuit and/or the rise-and-fall of an oscillating superplume) may be driving the waxing and waning of intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S"><span>Global Modeling and Projection of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In predicting and mitigating future global warming, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q"><span>Multi-model evaluation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p> is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077258','SCIGOV-DOEDE'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1077258"><span>Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> from the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/dataexplorer">DOE Data Explorer</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>The Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> is a software product that allows users to search and plot nuclear structure and nuclear decay data interactively. The Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> was developed by the National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC). It provides an interface between web users and several databases containing nuclear structure, nuclear decay and some neutron-induced nuclear reaction information. Using the Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>, it is possible to search for nuclear level properties (energy, half-life, spin-parity), gamma-ray information (energy, intensity, multipolarity, coincidences),radiation information following nuclear decay (energy, intensity, dose), and neutron-induced reaction data from the BNL-325 book (thermal cross section and resonance integral). The information provided by the Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> can be seen in tables, level schemes and an interactive chart of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. (From the Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> Description at http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/chart/help/index.jsp?product=chart)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21061827','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21061827"><span>Mass measurements of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> at SHIPTRAP</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Block, M.; Ackermann, D.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Maero, G.; Martin, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Mukherjee, M.; Quint, W.; Rahaman, S.; Rauth, C.; Rodriguez, D.; Scheidenberger, C.; Vorobjev, G.; Blaum, K.; Ferrer, R.; Weber, C.</p> <p>2007-05-22</p> <p>The Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP is installed behind the velocity-filter SHIP at GSI for high-precision mass measurements of fusion-evaporation residues. To facilitate an efficient stopping of the reaction products a buffer gas stopping cell is utilized. In an investigation of neutron-deficient <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the terbium-to-thulium region around A {approx_equal} 146, 18 new or improved mass values have been obtained, resulting in a more accurate determination of the proton drip line for holmium and thulium. With the present performance of SHIPTRAP, a first direct mass measurement of transuranium elements in the nobelium region is within reach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850001880','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850001880"><span>Stability of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Intercalated Graphite Fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, J. R.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Previous evidence suggested that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation compounds of crystalline graphite spontaneously deintercalate when the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atmosphere is removed. However, results show that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalated P-100 graphite fibers are stable for long periods of time. They are stable under vacuum conditions, high humidity, and current densities up to 24,000 A/sq cm. They are thermally stable to 200 C, and at temperatures as high as 400 C still retain 80 percent of the conductivity gained by intercalation. At temperatures greater than 300 C, there is significant oxidative degradation of the fibers. The environmental stability shown by the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compound makes it a promising candidate for practical applications in aerospace technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.9665P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACPD...12.9665P"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone concentrations by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6723P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ACP....12.6723P"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry: implications for present and pre-industrial ozone and mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Parrella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; Van Roozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol mol-1 (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4%. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005812','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005812"><span>Tropospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Chemistry: Implications for Present and Pre-industrial Ozone and Mercury</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parella, J. P.; Jacob, D. J.; Liang, Q.; Zhang, Y.; Mickley, L. J.; Miller, B.; Evans, M. J.; Yang, X.; Pyle, J. A.; Theys, N.; VanRoozendael, M.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>We present a new model for the global tropospheric chemistry of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Bry) coupled to oxidant-aerosol chemistry in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model (CTM). Sources of tropospheric Bry include debromination of sea-salt aerosol, photolysis and oxidation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons, and transport from the stratosphere. Comparison to a GOME-2 satellite climatology of tropospheric BrO columns shows that the model can reproduce the observed increase of BrO with latitude, the northern mid-latitudes maximum in winter, and the Arctic maximum in spring. This successful simulation is contingent on the HOBr + HBr reaction taking place in aqueous aerosols and ice clouds. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> chemistry in the model decreases tropospheric ozone mixing ratios by <1-8 nmol/mol (6.5% globally), with the largest effects in the northern extratropics in spring. The global mean tropospheric OH concentration decreases by 4 %. Inclusion of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry improves the ability of global models (GEOS-Chem and p-TOMCAT) to simulate observed 19th-century ozone and its seasonality. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> effects on tropospheric ozone are comparable in the present-day and pre-industrial atmospheres so that estimates of anthropogenic radiative forcing are minimally affected. Br atom concentrations are 40% higher in the pre-industrial atmosphere due to lower ozone, which would decrease by a factor of 2 the atmospheric lifetime of elemental mercury against oxidation by Br. This suggests that historical anthropogenic mercury emissions may have mostly deposited to northern mid-latitudes, enriching the corresponding surface reservoirs. The persistent rise in background surface ozone at northern mid-latitudes during the past decades could possibly contribute to the observations of elevated mercury in subsurface waters of the North Atlantic.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_7");'>7</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li class="active"><span>9</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_9 --> <div id="page_10" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="181"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M</p> <p>2017-01-24</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confc0120Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confc0120Y"><span>Design Study for a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph for Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Nuclei</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yoon, Jin Woo; Park, Young-Ho; Im, Kang-Bin; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun</p> <p></p> <p>The multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been designed for the high precision mass measurement system in RAON accelerator facility, which will be constructed in Korea. Mirror-electrode potentials were numerically optimized by Nelder-Mead algorithm. The temporal spread and the mass-resolving power were calculated for the 132Sn+ ions with an energy spread of 20 eV and an emittance of 3 π mm mrad; the mass resolving power over 105 was achieved. MR-TOF-MS will be used for the isobar separation and the mass measurement for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21052767"><span>Nuclear DNA fragmentation during cell death of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ray tracheids in the conifer Pinus densiflora.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nakaba, Satoshi; Kubo, Takafumi; Funada, Ryo</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>One key event in the programmed cell death is nuclear DNA fragmentation. We investigated the timing of nuclear DNA fragmentation during the cell death of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ray tracheids in Pinus densiflora using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Fluorescence due to TUNEL was detected only in deformed nuclei that lacked obvious chromatin in ray tracheids that were adjacent to ray tracheids that no longer contained nuclei. Our observations revealed that nuclear DNA fragmentation occurred only at the final stage of cell death in ray tracheids in situ.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"><span>Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5559210','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5559210"><span>Prompt neutron multiplicities for the transplutonium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, N.E.; Zucker, M.S.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The direct determination of the average prompt neutron emission values is reviewed, and a method of comparing different sites of neutron emission multiplicity distribution values is described. Measured and recommended values are tabulated for these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>: /sup 241/Am, /sup 242/Am, /sup 242/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 247/Cm, /sup 248/Cm, /sup 250/Cm, /sup 245/Cm, /sup 249/Bk, /sup 246/Cf, /sup 249/Cf, /sup 250/Cf, /sup 252/Cf, /sup 254/Cf, /sup 251/Cf, /sup 253/Es, /sup 254/Es, /sup 244/Fm, /sup 246/Fm, /sup 255/Fm, /sup 252/No, /sup 254/Fm, /sup 256/Fm, /sup 257/Fm. 59 refs., 24 tabs. (LEW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738925','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25738925"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of olefins with HBr and DMSO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karki, Megha; Magolan, Jakob</p> <p>2015-04-03</p> <p>A simple and inexpensive methodology is reported for the conversion of alkenes to 1,2-dibromo alkanes via oxidative <span class="hlt">bromination</span> using HBr paired with dimethyl sulfoxide, which serves as the oxidant as well as cosolvent. The substrate scope includes 21 olefins <span class="hlt">brominated</span> in good to excellent yields. Three of six styrene derivatives yielded bromohydrins under the reaction conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045923','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70045923"><span>Mineral resource of the month: <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>,</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The article offers information on <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, a natural element considered as a dissolved species in seawater, saltwater lakes and underground brines linked with petroleum deposits. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> belongs to the halogen group of elements and is characterized with brownish-red color and beach-like odor. It is commonly used in flame retardants, agriculture and drilling.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311375','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22311375"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> carbon black: An EDXD study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Carbone, Marilena; Gontrani, Lorenzo</p> <p>2014-06-19</p> <p>An energy dispersive X-Ray study of pure and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> carbon black was carried out. The analysis of the diffraction patterns reveals that the low <span class="hlt">bromine</span> load (ca.1% mol) is trapped into the structure, without significantly modifying it. This allows the application of the difference methods, widely tested for electrolyte solutions, inorganic matrices containing metals and isomorphic substitutions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022877','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022877"><span><span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> production in (very) small meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, J. R.; Nishiizumi, K.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>One of the most interesting open questions in the study of cosmic-ray effects in meteorites is the expected behavior of objects which are very small compared to the mean interaction length of primary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) particles. A reasonable limit might be a pre-atmospheric radius of 5 gram/cm(2), or 1.5 cm for chondrites. These are interesting for at least three reasons: (1) this is a limiting case for large objects, and can help us make better models; (2) this size is intermediate between usual meteorites and irradiated grams (spherules); and (3) these are the most likely objects to show solar cosmic ray (SCR) effects. Reedy (1984) has recently proposed a model for production by GCR of radioactive and stable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in spherical meteorites. Very small objects are expected to deviate from this model in the direction of fewer secondary particles (larger spectral shape parameter), at all depths. The net effect will be significantly lower production of such low-energy products as Mn-53 and Al-26. The SCR production of these and other <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> will be lower, too, because meteorite orbits extend typically out into the asteroid belt, and the mean SCR flux must fall off approximately as r(-2) with distance from the Sun. Kepler's laws insure that for such orbits most of the exposure time is spent near aphelion. None the less the equivalent mean exposure distance, R(exp), is slightly less than the semimajor axis A because of the weighting by R(-2). For the three meteorite orbits we have, R(exp) has a narrow range, from about 1.6 to 2.1 a.u. This is probably true for the great majority of meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943"><span>Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G"><span>Overview of the methods for the measurement and interpretation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes and their limits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghaleb, B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The daughter products of the uranium and thorium series consist of several radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from less than a second to 105 years. Combining their half-live with their geochemical behaviour some of these radioisotopes could be used as tracers and/or chronometers of sedimentary processes. For example, thorium isotopes, and to a lesser extent polonium isotopes are characterized by very low solubility and very high affinity for the surface of particles. Consequently, thorium isotopes can be used to document scavenging and adsorption processes. On the other hand, radium isotopes tend to remain in solution and can be used to document diffusion processes. In the following, we present the analytical methods for the measurement and analysis of the most common <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes and throughout their utility in studying sedimentary processes will be illustrated by a few examples of applications. These examples will focus essentially on the applications of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> thorium isotopes (notably 234Th) and the use of 210Pb as chronometer for recent sedimentary accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K"><span>Production cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Production cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag → 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716"><span>Alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic events in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-lived mice testes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matzkin, María Eugenia; Miquet, Johanna Gabriela; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal Monique; Turyn, Daniel; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Bartke, Andrzej; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, although the expression of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged in testes of long-lived mice, the remainder of the parameters assessed showed a significant reduction. This study provides novel evidence that longevity confers anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities to the adult testis. Oppositely, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice suffer testicular inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes. PMID:26805572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L"><span>Sediment Dating With <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes In Monterey Canyon, California Imply Episodes Of Rapid Deposition And Erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenson, T. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Maier, K. L.; Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E.; Symons, W. O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Submarine canyons are a major conduit for terrestrial material to the deep sea. To better constrain the timing and rates in which sediment is transported down-canyon, we collected a series of sediment cores along the axis of Monterey Canyon, and quantified mass accumulation rates using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes. A suite of sediment cores were carefully collected perpendicular to the canyon thalweg in water depths of approximately 300m, 500m, 800m, and 1500m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We choose cores that were between 60m and 75m above the canyon thalweg on canyon side bench features for correlation with moored instrument deployments. The sediment cores reveal a complex stratigraphy that includes copious bioturbation features, sand lenses, subtle erosional surfaces, subtle graded bedding, and abrupt changes sediment texture and color. Downcore excess 210Pb and 137Cs profiles imply episodic deposition and remobilization cycles on the canyon benches. Excess 210Pb activities in cores reach depths of up to 1m, implying very rapid sedimentation. Sedimentation rates vary with water depth, generally with the highest sedimentation rate in closest to land, but vary substantially on adjacent canyon benches. Preliminary results demonstrate that sediment movement within Monterey Canyon is both dynamic and episodic on human time-scales and can be reconstructed used <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893"><span>Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, R</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Studies and calibrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, for example (15)O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I"><span>In situ lithium diffusion measurement in solid ionic conductors using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer beam of 8Li</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T. K.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Nakao, A.; Ueno, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We developed an in situ radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-emitting 8Li tracer. In the method, while implanting a pulsed 8Li beam into a solid material of interest, the α particles emitted into the implantation side of the sample surface were detected as a function of time. By changing the implantation depth and the detection angle against the sample surface according to lithium diffusivity (deep implantation and large angle with a large solid angle, or shallow implantation and small angle with a narrow solid angle), the method can be sensitive to a wide range of diffusion length ranging from micrometer scale to nanometer scale per second. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by measuring the lithium diffusion coefficients to the order of 10-12 cm2/s in lithium ionic conductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"><span>Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L"><span>Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> agent 178Ta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17358897"><span>Structural determination of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> excited iron(II) complex by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gawelda, Wojciech; Pham, Van-Thai; Benfatto, Maurizio; Zaushitsyn, Yuri; Kaiser, Maik; Grolimund, Daniel; Johnson, Steven L; Abela, Rafael; Hauser, Andreas; Bressler, Christian; Chergui, Majed</p> <p>2007-02-02</p> <p>Structural changes of the iron(II)-tris-bipyridine ([Fe(II)(bpy)(3)](2+)) complex induced by ultrashort pulse excitation and population of its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (< or =0.6 ns) quintet high spin state have been detected by picosecond x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The structural relaxation from the high spin to the low spin state was followed over the entire lifetime of the excited state. A combined analysis of the x-ray-absorption near-edge structure and extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy features delivers an Fe-N bond elongation of 0.2 A in the quintet state compared to the singlet ground state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129"><span>Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Particle Release Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rishel, Jeremy P.; Keillor, Martin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Baciak, James E.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Smart, John E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper utilizes standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing the both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to investigate several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be utilized by an On-Site Inspection team under the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995"><span>Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine. PMID:27169489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"><span>Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021"><span>ON THE INJECTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES FROM A SUPERNOVA INTO THE SOLAR NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE OXYGEN ISOTOPES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this ''late-injection'' scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of {sup 41}Ca and {sup 60}Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L"><span>On the Injection of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides from a Supernova into the Solar Nebula: Constraints from the Oxygen Isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this "late-injection" scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in 17O/16O and 18O/16O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of 41Ca and 60Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M.; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation. PMID:27627450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AMT.....9.5213A"><span>A comparison of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbon (VSLS) and DMS aircraft measurements in the tropical west Pacific from CAST, ATTREX and CONTRAST</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Andrews, Stephen J.; Carpenter, Lucy J.; Apel, Eric C.; Atlas, Elliot; Donets, Valeria; Hopkins, James R.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Lewis, Alastair C.; Lidster, Richard T.; Lueb, Richard; Minaeian, Jamie; Navarro, Maria; Punjabi, Shalini; Riemer, Daniel; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present a comparison of aircraft measurements of halogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS, C2H6S) from a co-ordinated campaign in January-February 2014 in the tropical west Pacific. Measurements were made on the NASA Global Hawk, NCAR Gulfstream-V High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (GV HIAPER) and UK Facility for Airborne Atmospheric Measurements (FAAM) BAe-146 (see Sect. 2.2) using four separate gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) instruments: one operated by the University of Miami (UoM), one from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and two from the University of York (UoY). DMS was measured on the BAe-146 and GV. The instruments were inter-calibrated for halocarbons during the campaign period using two gas standards on separate scales: a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) SX-3581 standard representative of clean low-hydrocarbon air, and an Essex canister prepared by UoM, representative of coastal air, which was higher in VSLS and hydrocarbon content. UoY and NCAR use the NOAA scale/standard for VSLS calibration, and UoM uses a scale based on dilutions of primary standards calibrated by GC with FID (flame ionisation detector) and AED (atomic emission detector). Analysis of the NOAA SX-3581 standard resulted in good agreement for CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CHBr3, CH2Br2, CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl, CH3I, CH2ICl and CH2I2 (average relative standard deviation (RSD) < 10 %). Agreement was in general slightly poorer for the UoM Essex canister with an RSD of < 13 %. Analyses of CHBrCl2 and CHBr3 in this standard however showed significant variability, most likely due to co-eluting contaminant peaks, and a high concentration of CHBr3, respectively. These issues highlight the importance of calibration at atmospherically relevant concentrations ( ˜ 0.5-5 ppt for VSLSs; see Fig. 5 for individual ranges). The UoY in situ GC-MS measurements on board the BAe-146</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21860855','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21860855"><span>Penetration of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs through the activated carbon columns during total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiangru; Krasner, Stuart W; Shang, Chii; Zhai, Hongyan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yang, Mengting</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (TOBr) is a collective parameter representing all the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water samples. TOBr can be measured using the adsorption-pyrolysis method according to Standard Method 5320B. This method involves that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic DBPs are separated from inorganic halides and concentrated from aqueous solution by adsorption onto the activated carbon (AC). Previous studies have reported that some commonly known <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs can partially penetrate through the AC during this adsorption step. In this work, the penetration of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs through AC and ozone-modified AC was explored with two simulated drinking water samples and one chlorinated wastewater effluent sample. Polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs were selectively detected with a novel precursor ion scan method using electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The results show that 3.4% and 10.4% of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs (in terms of total ion intensity) in the chlorinated Suwannee River fulvic acid and humic acid samples, respectively, penetrated through the AC, and 19.6% of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs in the chlorinated secondary wastewater effluent sample penetrated through the AC. The ozone-modification of AC minimized the penetration of polar <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DBPs during the TOBr analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5180787','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5180787"><span>(The fate of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in natural water systems)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turekian, K.K. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Our research at Yale on the fate of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in natural water systems has three components to it: the study of the atmospheric precipitation of radionuclides and other chemical species; the study of the behavior of natural radionuclides in groundwater and hydrothermal systems; and understanding the controls on the distribution of radionuclides and stable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the marine realm. In this section a review of our progress in each of these areas is presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235237&keyword=Veterinary&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736277&CFTOKEN=19268812','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=235237&keyword=Veterinary&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78736277&CFTOKEN=19268812"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants and Perfluorinated Chemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) belong to a large class of chemicals known as organohalogens. It is believed that both BFRs and PFCs saved lives by reducing flammability of materials commonly used and bactericidal (biocidal) properties. Thes...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015InJPh..89.1109L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015InJPh..89.1109L"><span>Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283728&keyword=Homeostasis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78725056&CFTOKEN=55373179','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=283728&keyword=Homeostasis&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78725056&CFTOKEN=55373179"><span>PCBs, PBBs and <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Flame Retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This chapter introduces selected organohalogen chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB5), polychiorinated biphenyls (PBBs), and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) with emphasis on the background, physicochemical properties, environmental levels, health effects and possib...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000034788&hterms=scr&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscr','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000034788&hterms=scr&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dscr"><span>Solar-Cosmic-Ray-Produced <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Extraterrestrial Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reedy, Robert C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>There are two main types of cosmic rays that have sufficient energy to induce nuclear reactions -- the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (also called solar energetic particles). Both types of particles can have production rates and production ratios in the small objects often found in cold and hot deserts that are different from those seen for most meteorites, which typically have radii of approx. 10-100 centimeters. GCR production rates are often lower than those for most meteorites. GCR production ratios, such as Ne-22/Ne-21, are also often different in small objects. Smaller meteoroids also are more likely to have <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made by solar-cosmic-ray (SCR) particles than typically-sized meteorites. The very small meteorite Salem had large amounts of SCR-produced radionuclides. Meteorites recovered in Antarctica are more likely to contain SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> than other meteorites. Martian and lunar meteorites are also likely to have SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Production rates and profiles for SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteoroids have been calculated previously. However, the cross sections for the nuclear reactions making many SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, such as Be-10 were not well measured then. New rates and profiles are calculated here using good cross sections for the reactions making these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000LPICo.997...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000LPICo.997...69R"><span>Solar-Cosmic-Ray-Produced <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Extraterrestrial Matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reedy, Robert C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>There are two main types of cosmic rays that have sufficient energy to induce nuclear reactions -- the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar cosmic rays (also called solar energetic particles). Both types of particles can have production rates and production ratios in the small objects often found in cold and hot deserts that are different from those seen for most meteorites, which typically have radii of approx.10-100 centimeters. GCR production rates are often lower than those for most meteorites. GCR production ratios, such as Ne-22/Ne-21, are also often different in small objects. Smaller meteoroids also are more likely to have <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made by solar-cosmic-ray (SCR) particles than typically-sized meteorites. The very small meteorite Salem had large amounts of SCR-produced radionuclides. Meteorites recovered in Antarctica are more likely to contain SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> than other meteorites. Martian and lunar meteorites are also likely to have SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Production rates and profiles for SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteoroids have been calculated previously. However, the cross sections for the nuclear reactions making many SCR-produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, such as Be-10, were not well measured then. New rates and profiles are calculated here using good cross sections for the reactions making these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1268021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1268021"><span>Nuclear Properties and Decay Data Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>OSORIO, V. B.</p> <p>2008-04-04</p> <p>Version 00 NUCHART displays nuclear decay data graphically on a PC and, includes a search routine for assigning gamma-ray energies to radionuclides. The numerical data included in NUCHART were taken from the online database "NUDAT" Version of March 1994. The following information is presented: (1) <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> information: for each <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>, abundance, mass excess, (main) decay mode, half-life and uncertainty, branching ratio, decay Q; (2) decay radiation: for each <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>, tables of radiation energy, intensity and equivalent dose for the 5 most intense decay radiations of beta+, beta-, conversion electrons, gammas, alphas and x-rays, including electron Augers; (3) adopted gammas: for each <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>, table containing energy, relative intensity, energy level of the main gamma lines and year of publication in Nuclear Data Sheets; (4) search gamma energies: for a specified interval of gamma energies all know gamma lines and their <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are displayed; the database contains 132,000 gamma lines; (5) a search mode by specific <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> is also available. For the latest data and online tools for viewing the data, see NuDat 2.4 on the NNDC and IAEA NDS websites: http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/ and http://www-nds.iaea.org/.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170289','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1170289"><span>Algorithm Improvement Program <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> Identification Algorithm Scoring Criteria And Scoring Application - DNDO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Enghauser, Michael</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The goal of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO) Algorithm Improvement Program (AIP) is to facilitate gamma-radiation detector <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm development, improvement, and validation. Accordingly, scoring criteria have been developed to objectively assess the performance of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithms. In addition, a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application for automated <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification scoring has been developed. This report provides an overview of the equations, <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> weighting factors, <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> equivalencies, and configuration weighting factors used by the application for scoring <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm performance. Furthermore, this report presents a general overview of the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification algorithm scoring application including illustrative examples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/784251','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/784251"><span>PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET <span class="hlt">NUCLIDES</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.</p> <p>2001-06-25</p> <p>Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-31/pdf/2010-7045.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-03-31/pdf/2010-7045.pdf"><span>75 FR 16104 - <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-03-31</p> <p>... AGENCY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Registration Review Final Decision; Notice of Availability AGENCY: Environmental... registration review decision for the pesticide <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>, case 4015. Registration review is EPA's periodic review... registration review decision for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, case 4015. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is a bromide releasing antimicrobial...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L"><span>Effects of East Asian <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP53A3641M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP53A3641M"><span>Initial Test Determination of Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Magnetite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matsumura, H.; Caffee, M. W.; Nagao, K.; Nishiizumi, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Long-lived radionuclides, such as 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl, are produced by cosmic rays in surficial materials on Earth, and used for determinations of cosmic-ray exposure ages and erosion rates. Quartz and limestone are routinely used as the target minerals for these geomorphological studies. Magnetite also contains target elements that produce abundant cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> when exposed to the cosmic rays. Magnetite has several notable merits that enable the measurement of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>: (1) the target elements for production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in magnetite comprise the dominant mineral form of magnetite, Fe3O4; (2) magnetite can be easily isolated, using a magnet, after rock milling; (3) multiple cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are produced by exposure of magnetite to cosmic-ray secondaries; and (4) cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> produced in the rock containing the magnetite, but not within the magnetite itself, can be separated using nitric acid and sodium hydroxide leaches. As part of this initial study, magnetite was separated from a basaltic sample collected from the Atacama Desert in Chili (2,995 m). Then Be, Al, Cl, Ca, and Mn were separated from ~2 g of the purified magnetite. We measured cosmogenic 10Be, 26Al, and 36Cl concentrations in the magnetite by accelerator mass spectrometry at PRIME Lab, Purdue University. Cosmogenic 3He and 21Ne concentrations of aliquot of the magnetite were measured by mass spectrometry at the University of Tokyo. We also measured the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentrations from magnetite collected from a mine at Ishpeming, Michigan as a blank. The 10Be and 36Cl concentrations as well as 3He concentration produce concordant cosmic ray exposure ages of ~0.4 Myr for the Atacama basalt. However, observed high 26Al and 21Ne concentrations attribute to those <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> incorporation from silicate impurity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.174..143C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.174..143C"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cortizas, Antonio Martínez; Vázquez, Cruz Ferro; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Casais, Manuela Costa; Rodríguez, Teresa Taboada; Lado, Luis Rodríguez</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Recent investigations showed that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (<50 μm) fraction were on average 3-times higher than those (17-250 μg g-1) in the fine earth (<2 mm), the former containing almost all <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (90 ± 5%). Inventories were between 148 and 314 g m-2, indicating a rather large variability in a small area, and total estimated retention was low (6-16%). The degree of SOM <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, expressed as the Br/C molar ratio, varied between 0.03 and 1.20 mmol Br/mol C. The ratio was highly correlated (n = 23, r2 0.88, p < 0.01) with the age of the SOM for the last ∼12 ka. Partial least squares modeling indicates that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration depends on the amount of organic matter stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"><span>Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421"><span>SOLAR COSMIC-RAY INTERACTION WITH PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PRODUCTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES AND AMORPHIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-20</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D"><span>Identification of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Au(N3)42- dianion from its Coulomb explosion products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drenck, Kasper; Hvelplund, Preben; McKenzie, Christine J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In high-energy collisions between Au(N3)4- anions and sodium vapor, electron transfer occurred to produce Au(N3)42- dianions. These were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (sub microsecond) and Coulomb exploded into Au(N3)3- and N3- with a kinetic energy release of 2.6 +/- 0.5 eV. In the product ion spectra, peaks correspond to fragment ions formed from collisionally activated Au(N3)4- parent anions. Loss of one or more N3 or N2 produced AuNn- complexes (n = 1-4, 6, 9-10) whereas complexes with n = 5, 7, and 8 were not detected. These ions can be assigned to gold-nitride-azide complexes Au(N)x(N3)y- (x = 0-2 and y = 0-4). Cationic complexes were measured for n = 1-4 and 6. Sodium vapor collision experiments were also performed for Au(N3)2-, which is generated in situ by the spontaneous reduction of Au(N3)42- and concurrent azide dissociation. In this case there was no clear signature indicative of the formation of a dianion. The formation of dianions cannot be excluded, however, since such ions may decay by electron emission instead of dissociation into two singly charged fragment ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T"><span>Solar Cosmic-ray Interaction with Protoplanetary Disks: Production of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides and Amorphization of Crystalline Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002"><span>Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent, Octodon degus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213"><span>Role of Sec61p in the ER-associated degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, Daniel C.; Schekman, Randy</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are identified and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), a component of ER quality control. In ERAD, misfolded proteins are removed from the ER by retrotranslocation into the cytosol where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The identity of the specific protein components responsible for retrotranslocation remains controversial, with the potential candidates being Sec61p, Der1p, and Doa10. We show that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane ERAD substrate is exposed to the lumen of the ER during the degradation process. The addition of N-linked glycan to the N terminus of the substrate is prevented by mutation of a specific cysteine residue of Sec61p, as well as a specific cysteine residue of the substrate protein. We show that the substrate protein forms a disulfide-linked complex to Sec61p, suggesting that at least part of the retrotranslocation process involves Sec61p. PMID:18573918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885"><span>Targeted alpha therapy using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D’huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Introduction: The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. Areas covered: We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. Expert opinion: We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies’ pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease. PMID:27145158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto; Riahi, Keywan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO2 emissions, or staying within a CO2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO2 budget between 2011-2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO2 budget by targeting non-CO2 diminishes strongly along with CO2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPGP8120M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DPPGP8120M"><span>Comparison of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C Arden; Thun, Michael J; Thurston, George</p> <p>2009-12-19</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352,000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F"><span>Estimating surface fluxes of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens from aircraft measurements over the tropical Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Butler, Robyn; Harris, Neil; Carpenter, Lucy; Andrews, Steve; Atlas, Elliot; Pan, Laura; Salawitch, Ross; Donets, Valeria; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We use an inverse model approach to quantitatively understand the ocean flux and atmospheric transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species (VSLS) measured during the coordinated NERC CAST and NCAR CONTRAST aircraft campaigns over the Western Pacific during January/February 2014. To achieve this we have developed a nested GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model simulation of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which has a spatial resolution of 0.25° (latitude) × 0.3125° (longitude) over the tropical Western Pacific region, and fed by boundary conditions from a coarser version of the model. We use archived 3-hourly 3-D fields of OH and j-values for CHBr3 photolysis, allowing us to linearly decompose these gases into tagged contributions from different geographical regions. Using these tagged tracers, we are able to use the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) approach to estimate the VSLS sources by fitting the model to observations. We find that the resulting VSLS fluxes are significantly different from some previous studies. To interpret the results, we describe several observation system simulation experiments to understand the sensitivity of these flux estimates to observation errors as well as to the uncertainty in the boundary condition imposed around the nested grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974"><span>Attached and unattached fractions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6542744','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6542744"><span>Predicting the production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in extraterrestrial matter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The production rates of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made by the galactic and solar cosmic rays are important in the interpretations of measurements made with lunar samples, meteorites, and cosmic spherules. Production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> have been predicted by a variety of methods that are reviewed in this paper, ranging from systematic studies of one or a group of meteorites to purely theoretical calculations. Production rates can vary with the chemical composition and the preatmospheric depth of the sample and with the size and shape of the object. While the production systematics for cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are fairly well known, our ability to predict their production rates can be improved, with a corresponding increase in the scientific return. Additional detailed studies of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in extraterrestrial objects are needed, especially for fairly small and very large objects. <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> made in simulation experiments and cross sections for many major nuclear reactions should be measured. Such studies are especially needed for the long-lived radionuclides that have only recently become readily measurable by accelerator mass spectrometry. 34 refs., 5 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468620','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26468620"><span>Abiotic <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of Soil Organic Matter.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Leri, Alessandra C; Ravel, Bruce</p> <p>2015-11-17</p> <p>Biogeochemical transformations of plant-derived soil organic matter (SOM) involve complex abiotic and microbially mediated reactions. One such reaction is halogenation, which occurs naturally in the soil environment and has been associated with enzymatic activity of decomposer organisms. Building on a recent finding that naturally produced organobromine is ubiquitous in SOM, we hypothesized that inorganic bromide could be subject to abiotic oxidations resulting in <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of SOM. Through lab-based degradation treatments of plant material and soil humus, we have shown that abiotic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of particulate organic matter occurs in the presence of a range of inorganic oxidants, including hydrogen peroxide and assorted forms of ferric iron, producing both aliphatic and aromatic forms of organobromine. <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of oak and pine litter is limited primarily by bromide concentration. Fresh plant material is more susceptible to <span class="hlt">bromination</span> than decayed litter and soil humus, due to a labile pool of mainly aliphatic compounds that break down during early stages of SOM formation. As the first evidence of abiotic <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of particulate SOM, this study identifies a mechanistic source of the natural organobromine in humic substances and the soil organic horizon. Formation of organobromine through oxidative treatments of plant material also provides insights into the relative stability of aromatic and aliphatic components of SOM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860023101','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860023101"><span>The milling of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dillehay, M. E.; Gaier, J. R.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Techniques were developed for the ball milling of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers. Because of the lubrication properties of graphite, large ball loads (50 percent by volume) were required. Use of 2-propanol as a milling medium enhanced the efficiency of the process. Milled <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 fibers had resistivities which were indistinguishable from milled pristine P-100 fibers. Apparent loss of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers suggests that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> would not be the intercalate of choice in applications where milled fibers of this type are required. Other intercalates which do not degas may be more appropriate for a milled fiber application. These same results, however, do provide evidence that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules leave the fiber surface when removed from overpressure of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. While exploring possible solvent media for milling purposes, it was found that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fibers are stable in a wide variety of organic solvents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1300578"><span>Tryptophan octyl ester in detergent micelles of dodecylmaltoside: fluorescence properties and quenching by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergent analogs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>de Foresta, B; Gallay, J; Sopkova, J; Champeil, P; Vincent, M</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The fluorescence properties of tryptophan octyl ester (TOE), a hydrophobic model of Trp in proteins, were investigated in various mixed micelles of dodecylmaltoside (DM) and 7,8-dibromododecyl beta-maltoside (BrDM) or 10,11-dibromoundecanoyl beta-maltoside (BrUM). This study focuses on the mechanism via which these <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergents quench the fluorescence of TOE in a micellar system. The experiments were performed at a pH at which TOE is uncharged and almost completely bound to detergent micelles. TOE binding was monitored by its enhanced fluorescence in pure DM micelles or its quenched fluorescence in pure BrUM or BrDM micelles. In DM/BrUM and DM/BrDM mixed micelles, the fluorescence intensity of TOE decreased, as a nonlinear function of the molar fraction of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergent, to almost zero in pure <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergent. The indole moiety of TOE is therefore highly accessible to the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms located on the detergent alkyl chain because quenching by <span class="hlt">bromines</span> occurs by direct contact with the fluorophore. TOE is simultaneously poorly accessible to iodide (I(-)), a water-soluble collisional quencher. TOE time-resolved fluorescence intensity decay is heterogeneous in pure DM micelles, with four lifetimes (from 0.2 to 4.4 ns) at the maximum emission wavelength. Such heterogeneity may arise from dipolar relaxation processes in a motionally restricted medium, as suggested by the time-dependent (nanoseconds) red shift (11 nm) of the TOE emission spectrum, and from the existence of various TOE conformations. Time-resolved quenching experiments for TOE in mixed micelles showed that the excited-state lifetime values decreased only slightly with increases in the proportion of BrDM or BrUM. In contrast, the relative amplitude of the component with the longest lifetime decreased significantly relative to that of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. This is consistent with a mainly static mechanism for the quenching of TOE by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> detergents. Molecular modeling of TOE</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol30-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3085.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3085 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. 721.3085... Substances § 721.3085 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> phthalate ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phthalate ester (PMN P-90-581)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-2925.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.2925 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. 721.2925... Substances § 721.2925 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aromatic ester. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> aromatic ester (PMN...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820d0015J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017AIPC.1820d0015J"><span>Numerical simulation of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover behavior in flow battery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jia, Yaobin; Cheng, Shijian; Chu, Dandan; Li, Xin</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Br2 and HBr has its own series of advantages as the positive electrolyte solution, so some batteries select the Br2/Br- as the positive electrolyte solution, such as sodium polysulfide/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery, zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery, vanadium/ <span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries and hydrogen/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries. But the crossover benavior of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> occurs in these batteries too, resulting in cross-contamination, capacity loss and affecting battery's performance. In this work, we build numerical models to study the influence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover phenomenon on the three forms of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover, the concentration of electrolyte on the cathode side and the flow rate of the negative side in the quinone <span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery, to find the main models affecting the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover and the impact of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover on battery performance. It was found that the three ways of crossover through the membranes was mainly by diffusion. By reducing the concentration of positive electrolyte solution, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover can be reduced and Coulomb Efficiency can be improved. Rising the flow rate of the electrolyte solution on the negative side and reducing the differential between positive side's pressure and negative side's pressure can also reduce the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> crossover to improve Coulomb efficiency in the battery.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2012-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2013-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2014-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... Requirements for Certain Food Additives § 180.30 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2010-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title21-vol3/pdf/CFR-2011-title21-vol3-sec180-30.pdf"><span>21 CFR 180.30 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. 180.30 Section 180.30... <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> vegetable oil. The food additive <span class="hlt">brominated</span> vegetable oil may be safely used in accordance with... used on an interim basis as a stabilizer for flavoring oils used in fruit-flavored beverages, for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10124.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10124 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10124 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance... <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyaromatic compound (PMN P-06-617) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760031085&hterms=integro-differential+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dintegro-differential%2Bequation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19760031085&hterms=integro-differential+equation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dintegro-differential%2Bequation"><span>Cratering and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. [as function of depth in regolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Blake, M. L.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>A simple probabilistic model was constructed for the average value of a cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> as a function of depth in a regolith. An arbitrary function was chosen for the size distribution of craters. The resulting integro-differential equation was found to reduce in limiting cases to the marching equation with a characteristic residence time and to the diffusion equation. The regolith diffusion constant is shown to be a simple integral of the cratering rate weighted by geometrical terms. This formal treatment provides a direct and general connection between cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and cratering rates and crater population in a simple analytical form. The validity of this model remains to be tested.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (<2 minutes) acceleration of protons to >13 GeV in association with solar flares.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCracken, Ken; Shea, Margaret Ann; Smart, Don</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> release) mechanism must then decrease greatly in efficiency abruptly ~3 minutes after it started. We note that this is not a unique example; the >10GeV particle pulse in the GLE of 20 January 2005 persisted for only 3 minutes; and a >4.5 GeV pulse at the commencement of the GLE of 7 December, 1982, only lasted one minute. We conclude with a comparison between these observations and the predictions of several proposed acceleration models. We conclude that these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bursts of highly relativistic cosmic rays have been accelerated in the reconnection regions associated with large solar flares. In the greater majority of cases, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high energy cosmic ray pulse at the commencement of a GLE is followed by a slowly rising component accelerated in the CME generated shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T"><span>Integrated Assessment on Effects of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) in Asia based on Numerical Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Ueda, K.; Masutomi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Nakata, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Goto, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Air pollution over the Asian region is a serious social problem. For example, activities of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) under the UNFCCC focus on raising awareness and improving scientific understanding of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant (SLCP) impacts and mitigation strategies. Our Japanese research project is searching an optimum reduction path of SLCPs considering climate change, health impacts, and agricultural damages. For this purpose, we use aerosol and chemistry models, SPRINTARS and CHASER, respectively, which have been developed by our group, coupled with a general circulation model, MIROC. In the phase 1 of this project, changes in concentrations and radiative forcing of each major SLCPs originating from China, east Asia, southeast Asia, and south Asia in the last 30 years are estimated with the models. Transient simulations along the new emission scenario, SSPs (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) are executed using the MIROC-SPRINTARS/CHASER with ocean circulation in the phase 2 to analyze full feedbacks including hydrological cycle affected by SLCPs. These simulated results will be utilized to estimate health and agricultural impacts of SLCPs. In this presentation, we discuss the optimum reduction path of SLCPs taking both mitigation of global warming and air pollution into consideration. Acknowledgements: Simulations in this study were executed with the supercomputer system of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. This study is partly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-12-3) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H01728 and 15K12190.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M"><span>Current and future contributions of local emissions from shipping and hydrocarbon extraction flaring to <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marelle, L.; Raut, J. C.; Law, K.; Thomas, J. L.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Easter, R. C.; Herber, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic is increasingly open to human activity due to rapid Arctic warming, associated with decreased sea ice extent and snow cover. While pollution from in-Arctic sources is currently low, oil and gas extraction and marine traffic could become a significant future source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants (aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. It is currently unclear if these local sources might become significant compared to the long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution from the midlatitudes, which is currently the main source of Arctic pollution. Here, we investigate the current (2012) and future (2050) impact of emissions from shipping and oil and gas extraction on Arctic aerosols and ozone, in relation to emissions from long-range transport. These impacts are determined by performing 6-month long, quasi-hemispheric simulations over the Arctic region with the WRF-Chem model. Our regional simulations include up-to-date representations of cloud/aerosol interactions and secondary organic aerosol formation developed recently for WRF-Chem. In order to determine the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas extraction, we use recent emission inventories by Winther et al., 2014 for local shipping and ECLIPSEv5 for oil and gas flaring. Both inventories suggest that current and future emissions from these sources are higher than previous estimates. Simulations are evaluated using measurements at Arctic surface sites and aircraft campaigns (ACCESS, YAK) in 2012. Model results are then used to assess the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas flaring on modeled surface aerosol and ozone concentrations, direct aerosol and ozone radiative effects, indirect aerosol radiative effects, and aerosol deposition. Results are used to determine if these local emissions are expected to have a significant influence on these quantities at the local or the regional scale, compared to emissions transported from the midlatitudes and to other emission sources, including boreal fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G"><span>SMA observations towards the compact, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bipolar water maser outflow in the LkHα234 region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Curiel, S.; Anglada, G.; Gómez, J. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Patel, N. A.; Trinidad, M. A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations towards the LkHα234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of ˜5 arcsec (˜4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between ˜200 and ˜375 au and masses in the ˜0.08-0.3 M⊙ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r ≲ 135 au) circumstellar disc with a mass of ˜0.02 M⊙. This source is powering a compact (˜4000 au), low radial velocity (˜7 km s-1) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the `large-scale' counterpart of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, episodic, bipolar outflow observed through H2O masers at much smaller scales (˜180 au), and that has been created by the accumulation of the ejection of several episodic collimated events of material. The circumstellar gas around VLA 2 and VLA 3 is hot (˜130 K) and exhibits velocity gradients that could trace rotation. There is a bridge of warm and dense molecular gas connecting VLA 2 and VLA 3. We discuss the possibility that this bridge could trace a stream of gas between VLA 3 and VLA 2, increasing the accretion rate on to VLA 2 to explain why this source has an important outflow activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166"><span>ICV-transplanted human glial precursor cells are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> yet exert immunomodulatory effects in mice with EAE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Heechul; Walczak, Piotr; Muja, Naser; Campanelli, James T; Bulte, Jeff W M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 10(5) hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5-10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M"><span>Dealing with uncertainty: Response-resilient climate change mitigation polices for long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millar, R.; Boneham, J.; Hepburn, C.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climate change solutions are subject to many inherent uncertainties. One of the most important is the uncertainty over the magnitude of the physical response of the climate system to external forcing. The risk of extremely large responses to forcing, so called "fat-tail" outcomes, cannot be ruled out from the latest science and offer profound challenges when creating policies that aim to meet a specific target of global temperature change. This study offers examples of how mitigation policies can be made resilient to this uncertainty in the physical climate response via indexing policies against an attributable anthropogenic warming index (the magnitude of the observed global mean warming that is can be traced to human activities), the AWI, instead of against time directly. We show that indexing policy measures that influence the total stock of carbon in the atmosphere (such as the fraction of extracted carbon sequestered) against the AWI can largely eliminate the risk of missing the specified warming goal due to unexpectedly large climate responses as well as the risk of costly over-mitigation if the physical response turned out to be lower than expected. We offer further examples of how this methodology can be expanded to include <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants as well as long-lived carbon dioxide. Indexing policies against the AWI can have important consequences for the actions of governments acting to design national climate mitigation policies as well as private sector investors looking to incentivise the transition to a climate-stable economy. We conclude with some thoughts on how these indexes can help focus attention on the long-term perspective that is consistent with the conclusions of the latest climate science on what is required to ultimately stabilise the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B"><span>Sediment fingerprinting with long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide tracers in the Root River watershed, southeastern Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belmont, P.; Stout, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The field of sediment fingerprinting has evolved rapidly over the past decade and is poised to improve our understanding not only of sediment sources, but also the routing of sediment through watersheds. Such information is essential for understanding and modeling human impacts on erosion and sediment routing at the watershed scale. In this study we use long- (Beryllium-10, 10Be) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (Lead-210 and Cesium-137, 210Pb and 137Cs, respectively) radionuclide tracers associated with suspended sediment to quantify sediment sources and channel-floodplain exchange across a range of watershed scales from 10 km2 to 4500 km2 in in the Root River, southeastern Minnesota, USA. The uppermost quarter of the Root River watershed was glaciated repeatedly during the late Pleistocene and is characterized by low relief agricultural fields and fine textured soils. The remainder of the watershed lies within the driftless area of the upper Midwestern US, which has not been glaciated in at least the past 500,000 years, and is characterized by karst topography, relatively steep hillslopes and bedrock channels that debouch into a wide, aggrading alluvial valley. The structure of the landscape exerts strong control on sediment generation and transport. Geochemical results indicate a highly variable erosion history, with significant variability of 10Be concentrations in source areas (agricultural fields, forested hillslopes, and alluvial floodplains and terraces) and inverted 10Be depth profiles (higher concentrations at depth) in floodplains, suggesting unsteady erosion and significant storage of legacy sediment. Concentrations of 10Be and 210Pb associated with suspended sediment show a systematic disparity in normalized concentrations, indicating that significant storage and re-suspension occurs in both systems as the sediment is routed through the channel-floodplain complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F"><span>Transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere through the Asian monsoon circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated organic compounds are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. The halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), such as bromoform, have atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year. When VSLS reach the stratosphere, they enhance ozone depletion and thus impact the climate. During boreal summer, the Asian monsoon circulation transfers air masses from the Asian troposphere to the global stratosphere. Still, the extent to which VSLS from the Indian Ocean contribute to the stratospheric halogen burden and their exact origin is unclear. Here we show that the monsoon circulation transports VSLS from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere. During the research cruises SO234-2 and SO235 in July-August 2014 onboard RV SONNE, we measured oceanic and atmospheric concentrations of bromoform (tropical lifetime at 10 km = 17 days), dibromomethane (150 days) and methyl iodide (3.5 days) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean and calculated their emission strengths. We use the Langrangian transport model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim meteorological fields to investigate the transport of oceanic emissions in the atmosphere. We analyze the direct contribution of observed bromoform emissions to the stratospheric halogen budget with forward trajectories. Furthermore, we investigate the connection between the Asian monsoon anticyclone and the oceanic source regions using backward trajectories. The West Indian Ocean is a strong source region of VSLS to the atmosphere and the monsoon transport is fast enough for bromoform to reach the stratosphere. However, the main source regions for the entrainment of oceanic air masses through the Asian monsoon anticyclone are the West Pacific and Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian Sea. Our findings indicate that changes in emission or circulation in this area due to climate change can directly affect the stratospheric halogen burden and thus the ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015"><span><span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl</p> <p>2012-01-20</p> <p>Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516"><span>Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhyS...23..249J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981PhyS...23..249J"><span>Ninth Spectrum of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>: Br IX</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Joshi, Y. N.; van Kleef, Th A. M.</p> <p>1981-03-01</p> <p>The spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was photographed on a 6.60 m and a 10.7 m grazing incidence spectrograph in the region 300-90 Å. The source used was a triggered spark. The ninth spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was analysed on the basis of 3d9-3d84p transitions between 125-104 Å. Parametric level fitting calculations support the analysis. 44 lines are classified in this spectrum. Some Br VIII lines appearing in this region have been accurately measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05676&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=PIA05676&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DChlorine"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Chlorine Go Separate Ways</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>This graph shows the relative concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine at various locations on Earth and Mars. Typically, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine stick together in a fixed ratio, as in martian meteorites and Earth seawater. But sometimes the elements split apart and their relative quantities diverge. This separation is usually caused by evaporation processes, as in the Dead Sea on Earth. On Mars, at Meridiani Planum and Gusev Crater, this split has been observed to an even greater degree than seen on Earth. This puzzling result is currently being further explored by Mars Exploration Rover scientists. Data for the Mars locations were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5807168','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5807168"><span>Optically pumped molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laser. Master's thesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Morrison, J.W.</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>An optically pumped molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laser was studied to investigate the quenching kinetics state of Br2. This included characterization of the pressure dependence of the laser output power. The approach was to excite molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in a sealed cell with a Nd:YAG pumped dye laser. Unresolved side fluorescence and amplified stimulated emission (ASE) spectra were recorded. ASE offered the advantage of a simpler optical system with no externally induced wavelength dependencies. Stimulated emission as a signal monitor offered greater resolution than side fluorescence spectra and facilitated spectroscopic assignment. (JS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPA.572..580T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007NIMPA.572..580T"><span>Production of radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in inverse reaction kinematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Traykov, E.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Bosswell, M.; Dammalapati, U.; Dendooven, P.; Dermois, O. C.; Jungmann, K.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sohani, M.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.; Young, A. R.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Efficient production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive isotopes in inverse reaction kinematics is an important technique for various applications. It is particularly relevant when the isotope of interest is only a few nucleons away from a stable isotope. In this article production via charge exchange and stripping reactions in combination with a magnetic separator is explored. The relation between the separator transmission efficiency, the production yield, and the choice of beam energy is discussed. The results of some exploratory experiments will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..317S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998GeoRL..25..317S"><span>Measurements of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> containing organic compounds at the tropical tropopause</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schauffler, S. M.; Atlas, E. L.; Flocke, F.; Lueb, R. A.; Stroud, V.; Travnicek, W.</p> <p></p> <p>The amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> entering the stratosphere from organic source gases is a primary factor involved in determining the magnitude of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> catalyzed loss of ozone. Thirty two whole air samples were collected at the tropical tropopause during the NASA STRAT Campaign in Feb., Aug., and Dec., 1996 and were analyzed for <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds. Total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was 17.4±0.9 ppt with 55% from methyl bromide, 38% from the Halons, 6% from dibromomethane, and 0.8% from bromochloromethane and dichlorobromomethane. One flight showed the presence of 0.42 ppt of additional organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from bromoform and dibromochloromethane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1083779','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1083779"><span>Shielding and activity estimator for template-based <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification methods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nelson, Karl Einar</p> <p>2013-04-09</p> <p>According to one embodiment, a method for estimating an activity of one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> includes receiving one or more templates, the one or more templates corresponding to one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> which contribute to a probable solution, receiving one or more weighting factors, each weighting factor representing a contribution of one radio-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> to the probable solution, computing an effective areal density for each of the one more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, computing an effective atomic number (Z) for each of the one more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, computing an effective metric for each of the one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, and computing an estimated activity for each of the one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. In other embodiments, computer program products, systems, and other methods are presented for estimating an activity of one or more radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991iece.confQ...3A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991iece.confQ...3A"><span>Preparation of ionic membranes for zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> storage batteries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Assink, R. A.; Arnold, C., Jr.</p> <p></p> <p>Zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow batteries are being developed for vehicular and utility load leveling applications. During charge, an aqueous zinc bromide salt is electrolyzed to zinc metal and molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. During discharge, the zinc and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> react to again form the zinc bromide salt. One serious disadvantage of the microporous separators presently used in the zinc/<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery is that modest amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and negatively charged <span class="hlt">bromine</span> moieties permeate through these materials and react with the zinc anode. This results in partial self-discharge of the battery and low coulombic efficiencies. Our approach to this problem is to impregnate the microporous separators with a soluble cationic polyelectrolyte. In laboratory screening tests a sulfonated polysulfone resin and fully fluorinated sulfonic acid polymer substantially reduced <span class="hlt">bromine</span> permeation with only modest increases in the area resistance.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018610','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850018610"><span>Graphite fiber intercalation: Dynamics of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation process</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jaworske, D. A.; Zinolabedini, R.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The resistance of pitch-based graphite fibers was monitored, in situ, during a series of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation experiments. The threshold pressure for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intercalation of pitch-based fibers was estimated to be 102 torr. When the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atmosphere was removed from the reaction chamber, the resistivity of the intercalated graphite fibers increased consistently. This increase was attributed to loss of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from the perimeter of the fiber. The loss was confirmed by mapping the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration across the diameter of single intercalated fibers with either energy dispersive spectroscopy or scanning Auger microscopy. A statistical study comparing fibers intercalated in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor with fibers intercalated in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> liquid showed that similar products were obtained with both methods of intercalation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906777','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21906777"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of selected pharmaceuticals in water matrices.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Benitez, F Javier; Acero, Juan L; Real, Francisco J; Roldan, Gloria; Casas, Francisco</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of five selected pharmaceuticals (metoprolol, naproxen, amoxicillin, phenacetin, and hydrochlorothiazide) was studied with these compounds individually dissolved in ultra-pure water. The apparent rate constants for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reaction were determined as a function of the pH, obtaining the sequence amoxicillin>naproxen>hydrochlorothiazide≈phenacetin≈metoprolol. A kinetic mechanism specifying the dissociation reactions and the species formed for each compound according to its pK(a) value and the pH allowed the intrinsic rate constants to be determined for each elementary reaction. There was fairly good agreement between the experimental and calculated values of the apparent rate constants, confirming the goodness of the proposed reaction mechanism. In a second stage, the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the selected pharmaceuticals simultaneously dissolved in three water matrices (a groundwater, a surface water from a public reservoir, and a secondary effluent from a WWTP) was investigated. The pharmaceutical elimination trend agreed with the previously determined rate constants. The influence of the main operating conditions (pH, initial <span class="hlt">bromine</span> dose, and characteristics of the water matrix) on the degradation of the pharmaceuticals was established. An elimination concentration profile for each pharmaceutical in the water matrices was proposed based on the use of the previously evaluated apparent rate constants, and the theoretical results agreed satisfactorily with experiment. Finally, chlorination experiments performed in the presence of bromide showed that low bromide concentrations slightly accelerate the oxidation of the selected pharmaceuticals during chlorine disinfection.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=170505&keyword=Thyroid+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90560028&CFTOKEN=57303192','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=170505&keyword=Thyroid+AND+cancer&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90560028&CFTOKEN=57303192"><span>HEALTH EFFECTS OF <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><B>Abstract</B> <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardant use has increased dramatically in order to provide fire safety to consumers. However, there is growing concern about widespread environmental contamination and potential health risks from some of these products. The most used products...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66477&keyword=wildlife+AND+database&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89709845&CFTOKEN=57866830','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=66477&keyword=wildlife+AND+database&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=89709845&CFTOKEN=57866830"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: CAUSE FOR CONCERN?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen due to the occurrence of several class...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=177303&keyword=hpv&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79980103&CFTOKEN=18044854','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=177303&keyword=hpv&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=79980103&CFTOKEN=18044854"><span><span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS: WHY DO WE CARE?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) save lives and property by preventing the spread of fires or delaying the time of flashover, enhancing the time people have to escape. The worldwide production of BFRs exceeded 200,000 metric tons in 2003 placing them in the high production vol...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon&pg=7&id=EJ726139','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Carbon&pg=7&id=EJ726139"><span>A Substitute Foe "<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Carbon Tetrachloride"</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Daley, Joshua M.; Landolt, Robert G.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The addition of a dilute solution of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in carbon tetrachloride to a compound to test for carbon-carbon multiple bonds, which is one of the widely cited qualitative tests employed in organic chemistry is presented. Major advantages of this approach include the ease and rapidness of the procedure, the stability of the test solution over time,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152483&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=152483&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>HEALTH ASPECTS OF <span class="hlt">BROMINATED</span> FLAME RETARDANTS (BFRS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>In order to reduce the societal costs of fires, flammability standards have been set for consumer products and equipment. Flame retardants containing <span class="hlt">bromine</span> have constituted the largest share of this market due both to their efficiency and cost. While there are at least 75 dif...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23635160"><span>Structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped graphite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A F; Cao, Chao; Cheng, H P</p> <p>2013-04-28</p> <p>First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is stable in the molecular form (Br2). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br2 molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br2 molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105494','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22105494"><span>Structure and functionality of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> doped graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hamdan, Rashid; Kemper, A. F.; Cao Chao; Cheng, H. P.</p> <p>2013-04-28</p> <p>First-principles calculations are used to study the enhanced in-plane conductivity observed experimentally in Br-doped graphite, and to study the effect of external stress on the structure and functionality of such systems. The model used in the numerical calculations is that of stage two doped graphite. The band structure near the Fermi surface of the doped systems with different <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations is compared to that of pure graphite, and the charge transfer between carbon and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms is analyzed to understand the conductivity change along different high symmetry directions. Our calculations show that, for large interlayer separation between doped graphite layers, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is stable in the molecular form (Br{sub 2}). However, with increased compression (decreased layer-layer separation) Br{sub 2} molecules tend to dissociate. While in both forms, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is an electron acceptor. The charge exchange between the graphite layers and Br atoms is higher than that with Br{sub 2} molecules. Electron transfer to the Br atoms increases the number of hole carriers in the graphite sheets, resulting in an increase of conductivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=235601','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=235601"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants as food contaminants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>This book chapter reviews analytical methods for the three major <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardant (BFR) classes in use today, tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A), hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a "legacy" BFR no longer in use, polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), and a...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"><span>Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L−, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c− CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c−, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127− terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1− CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c− CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........67G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1989PhDT........67G"><span>Global Distribution of Organo-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gunawardena, Rohith</p> <p></p> <p>Both man-made and natural trace organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases are present in the atmosphere in minute quantities --in the order of a few parts per trillion by volume. The man-made species CBrF_3 and CBrClF _2 are believed to be an important source of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the stratosphere where they act as catalysts in the chlorofluorocarbon-ozone-depletion hypothesis. A high resolution capillary column EC-GC method with and O_2 doped detector was developed, System V, to measure these and related organo -<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases in the atmosphere. It was developed from a packed column EC-GC method, System I, that was used to measure CH_3I at sub pptv levels but could measure only one organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gas, CBrClF _2. The development work to improve upon System I involved testing and matching different types of columns, carrier gases, make-up gases to the detector and detector temperatures to obtain operating conditions with optimum resolution, very high sensitivity and sufficiently stable baseline to measure atmospheric organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases. During this development work, nine organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases were identified in clean background air. The precision of analysis of each system used was sufficient to determine the distributions and time course behavior of the species studied. During the course of this study, samples collected weekly at 11 remote stations around the world spanning latitudes from 82^circN down to 42^circS were analyzed for these organo-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> gases. In addition, samples collected for 10 years at Cape Meares - Oregon, Cape Matatula - American Samoa, Cape Grim - Tasmania and at the South Pole during the austral summer months were analyzed for long term trends of CBrF_3 and CBrClF_2 . Significant altitudinal differences, interhemispheric gradients and seasonal cycles were observed for certain gases. Long-term trends were observed for CBrF _3 and CBrClF_2. CBrF _3 showed an exponential increase. From 1979 to 1987, its northern and southern hemispheric concentrations have increased at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087100&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040087100&hterms=Bromine&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Search for Possible Stratospheric <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Reservoir Species: Theoretical Study of the Photostability of Mono-, Tri-, and Pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lee, TImothy J.; Mejia, Cesar N.; Beran, J. O.; Head-Gordon, Martin</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Previous work has shown that pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds have their lowest excited electronic states shifted to the blue relative to monocoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules, and that this shift may be large enough to render them photostable in the lower stratosphere. Our earlier work has also shown that certain pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds are thermodynamically stable relative to their mono- or tricoordinated isomers, suggesting that if a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> stratospheric reservoir species exists, then it is most likely a pentacoordinated compound. In this study we have examined the singlet excited electronic states of several <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in order to assess their photostability excited states in mono-, tri-, and pentacoordinated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> molecules. Due to the strong spin-orbit mixing in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, we have also examined the lowest triplet excited state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D"><span>NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>It was found that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4957S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.4957S"><span>Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using airborne in-situ measurements from the Western Pacific during SHIVA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive dataset of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> has been collected in the West Pacific region using the FALCON aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully-automated in-situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas cHromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground based state-of-the-art GC/MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CHBrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances), at least at the level of their 2 σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the Western Pacific could be a major source region for VSLS (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only slightly enhanced mixing ratios of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> halogen source gases relative to the levels reported in Montzka et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. A budget for total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, including all four halons,CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the upper troposphere, the input region for the TTL and thus also for the stratosphere, compiled from the SHIVA dataset. With exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950034549&hterms=radioactive+decay&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dradioactive%2Bdecay"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994ApJ...424..412W"><span>Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.</p> <p>1994-03-01</p> <p>We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007561&hterms=kohls&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkohls','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19940007561&hterms=kohls&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dkohls"><span>Measurements of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in lunar rock 64455</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Arnold, J. R.; Kohl, C. P.; Nishiizumi, K.; Caffee, M. W.; Finkel, R. C.; Southon, J. R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Eleven samples were ground from the glass coated surface of lunar rock 64455,82 with an average depth resolution of 50 microns and were measured for Be-10, Al-26, and Cl-36 using AMS (accelerator mass spectrometry). Results show no evidence of SCR (solar cosmic ray) effects. The flat cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> profiles and activity levels are consistent with a 2 My exposure history for the rock and a sample location on the bottom of the rock. These AMS measurements are some of the most precise ever obtained for these three <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. This precision and the demonstrated fine depth resolution will enable us to conduct a number of detailed studies of depth effects in lunar and meteoritic samples, including investigating SCR effects in the surface exposed top of the glass coating of 64455 and possibly in the underlying rock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1093371','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1093371"><span>Radio-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> mixture identification using medium energy resolution detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Nelson, Karl Einar</p> <p>2013-09-17</p> <p>According to one embodiment, a method for identifying radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> includes receiving spectral data, extracting a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and using a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library. In another embodiment, a device for identifying unknown radio-<span class="hlt">nuclides</span> includes a processor, a multi-channel analyzer, and a memory operatively coupled to the processor, the memory having computer readable code stored thereon. The computer readable code is configured, when executed by the processor, to receive spectral data, to extract a feature set from the spectral data comparable to a plurality of templates in a template library, and to use a branch and bound method to determine a probable template match based on the feature set and templates in the template library.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10114774','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10114774"><span>Production rates of terrestrial in-situ-produced cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.; Tuniz, C.; Fink, D.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made in situ in terrestrial samples and how they are applied to the interpretation of measured radionuclide concentrations were discussed at a one-day Workshop held 2 October 1993 in Sydney, Australia. The status of terrestrial in-situ studies using the long-lived radionuclides {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, and {sup 41}Ca and of various modeling and related studies were presented. The relative uncertainties in the various factors that go into the interpretation of these terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> were discussed. The magnitudes of the errors for these factors were estimated and none dominated the final uncertainty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23052885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23052885"><span>Kinetic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope effect: example from the microbial debromination of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenols.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernstein, Anat; Ronen, Zeev; Levin, Elena; Halicz, Ludwik; Gelman, Faina</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>The increasing use of kinetic isotope effects for environmental studies has motivated the development of new compound-specific isotope analysis techniques for emerging pollutants. Recently, high-precision <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope analysis in individual <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds was proposed, by the coupling of gas chromatography to a multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer using strontium as an external spike for instrumental bias correction. The present study, for the first time, demonstrates an application of this technique for determining <span class="hlt">bromine</span> kinetic isotope effects during biological reaction, focusing on the reductive debromination of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> phenols under anaerobic conditions. Results show <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope enrichment factors (ε) of -0.76 ± 0.08, -0.46 ± 0.19, and -0.20 ± 0.06 ‰ for the debromination of 4-bromophenol, 2,4-dibromophenol, and 2,4,6-tribromophenol, respectively. These values are rather low, yet still high enough to be obtained with satisfying certainty. This further implies that the analytical method may be also appropriate for future environmental applications.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/805572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/805572"><span>Automatic Software Processing for Inventories of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> (ASPIN)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Luca Gratton; J.M. Rammsy</p> <p>2001-10-22</p> <p>EQ6 users have difficulties tracking isotopic concentrations in a system with chemical and nuclear decay reactions. The capability to track isotopic concentrations is particularly important for simulating the degradation of the spent nuclear fuels. Isotopic tracking is necessary to evaluate the criticality risk associated with fissile material relocation inside of a disposal container. A code called ASPRIN (Automatic Software PRocessing, Inventories of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>) was created to allow isotopic tracking using the results of EQ6 simulations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/375686','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/375686"><span>Hot demonstration of proposed commercial <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> removal technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, D.</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>This task covers the development and operation of an experimental test unit located in a Building 4501 hot cell within Building 4501 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This equipment is designed to test radionuclides removal technologies under continuous operatoin on actual ORNL Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant, Savannah River high-level waste supernatant, and Hanford supernatant. The latter two may be simulated by adding the appropriate chemicals and/or <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> to the MVST supernatant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980213243','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19980213243"><span>Simulations of Terrestrial in-situ Cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Reedy, R. C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Lal, D.; Arnold, J. R.; Englert, P. A. J.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Targets of silicon and silicon dioxide were irradiated with spallation neutrons to simulate the production of long-lived radionuclides in the surface of the Earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure Be-7 and Na-22, and accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure Be-10, C-14, and Al-26. The measured ratios of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are compared with calculated ratios and with ratios from other simulations and agree well with ratios inferred from terrestrial samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241790','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1241790"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants: cause for concern?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Birnbaum, Linda S; Staskal, Daniele F</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) have routinely been added to consumer products for several decades in a successful effort to reduce fire-related injury and property damage. Recently, concern for this emerging class of chemicals has risen because of the occurrence of several classes of BFRs in the environment and in human biota. The widespread production and use of BFRs; strong evidence of increasing contamination of the environment, wildlife, and people; and limited knowledge of potential effects heighten the importance of identifying emerging issues associated with the use of BFRs. In this article, we briefly review scientific issues associated with the use of tetrabromobisphenol A, hexabromocyclododecane, and three commercial mixtures of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and discuss data gaps. Overall, the toxicology database is very limited; the current literature is incomplete and often conflicting. Available data, however, raise concern over the use of certain classes of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants. PMID:14698924</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949161','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23949161"><span>Membrane-less hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> flow battery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Braff, William A; Bazant, Martin Z; Buie, Cullen R</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In order for the widely discussed benefits of flow batteries for electrochemical energy storage to be applied at large scale, the cost of the electrochemical stack must come down substantially. One promising avenue for reducing stack cost is to increase the system power density while maintaining efficiency, enabling smaller stacks. Here we report on a membrane-less hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laminar flow battery as a potential high-power density solution. The membrane-less design enables power densities of 0.795 W cm(-2) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, with a round-trip voltage efficiency of 92% at 25% of peak power. Theoretical solutions are also presented to guide the design of future laminar flow batteries. The high-power density achieved by the hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> laminar flow battery, along with the potential for rechargeable operation, will translate into smaller, inexpensive systems that could revolutionize the fields of large-scale energy storage and portable power systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP53A0737L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP53A0737L"><span>Recent developments in cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rate scaling</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lifton, N. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>A new cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rate scaling model based on analytical fits to Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric cosmic ray flux spectra (both of which agree well with measured spectra) enables identification and quantification of the biases in previously published models (Lifton, N., Sato, T., Dunai, T., in review, Earth and Planet. Sci. Lett.). Scaling predictions derived from the new model (termed LSD) suggest two potential sources of bias in the previous models: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. In addition, the particle flux spectra generated by the LSD model allow one to generate <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>-specific scaling factors that reflect the influences of the flux energy distribution and the relevant excitation functions (probability of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production in a given nuclear reaction as a function of energy). Resulting scaling factors indicate 3He shows the strongest positive deviation from the flux-based scaling, while 14C exhibits a negative deviation. These results are consistent with previous studies showing an increasing 3He/10Be ratio with altitude in the Himalayas, but with a much lower magnitude for the effect. Furthermore, the new model provides a flexible framework for exploring the implications of future advances in model inputs. For example, the effects of recently updated paleomagnetic models (e.g. Korte et al., 2011, Earth and Planet Sci. Lett. 312, 497-505) on scaling predictions will also be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/528171','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/528171"><span>Nuclear fission of neutron-deficient protactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Ohtsuki, T.</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>Fragment velocity, kinetic energy, mass yield, and element yield distributions in the fission of neutron-deficient Pa isotopes produced in the reactions of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O on {sup 209}Bi have been measured at incident beam energies near and above the Coulomb barriers by the time-of-flight and radiochemical methods. An asymmetric mass-division component has been observed. Measured fission cross sections were compared with the results of statistical model calculations which take into account two fission barrier heights for symmetric and asymmetric yields. The fission barrier height deduced for the asymmetric fission is found slightly lower than that for the symmetric one. The difference between the two barrier heights in the fission of the present protactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> (N{approximately}135) is considerably smaller than that in the neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> of {sup 233}Pa (N{approximately}142), indicating that the difference sensitively depends on the neutron number of the fissioning <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784346','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784346"><span>Identification of Heavy and Superheavy <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> Using Chemical Separator Systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Turler, Andreas</p> <p>1999-12-31</p> <p>With the recent synthesis of superheavy <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> produced in the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 242,244}Pu, much longer-lived nuclei than the previously known neutron-deficient isotopes of the heaviest elements have been identified. Half-lives of several hours and up to several years have been predicted for the longest-lived isotopes of these elements. Thus, the sensitivity of radiochemical separation techniques may present a viable alternative to physical separator systems for the discovery of some of the predicted longer-lived heavy and superheavy <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. The advantages of chemical separator systems in comparison to kinematic separators lie in the possibility of using thick targets, high beam intensities spread over larger target areas and in providing access to <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> emitted under large angles and low velocities. Thus, chemical separator systems are ideally suited to study also transfer and (HI, axn) reaction products. In the following, a study of (HI, axn) reactions will be presented and prospects to chemically identify heavy and superheavy elements discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019508','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019508"><span>Marine bacterial degradation of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> methanes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Goodwin, K.D.; Lidstrom, M.E.; Oremland, R.S.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.<span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methanes are ozone-depleting compounds whose natural sources include marine algae such as kelp. <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> methane degradation by bacteria was investigated to address whether bacterial processes might effect net emission of these compounds to the atmosphere. Bacteria in seawater collected from California kelp beds degraded CH2Br2 but not CHBr3. Specific inhibitors showed that methanotrophs and nitrifiers did not significantly contribute to CH2Br2 removal. A seawater enrichment culture oxidized 14CH2Br2 to 14CO2 as well as 14CH3Br to 14CO2. The rates of CH2Br2 degradation in laboratory experiments suggest that bacterial degradation of CH2Br2 in a kelp bed accounts for <1% of the CH2Br2 produced by the kelp. However, the half-life of CH2Br2 due to bacterial removal appears faster than hydrolysis and within an order of magnitude of volatilization to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/142019','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/142019"><span>Catalytic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> recovery from HBr waste</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Schubert, P.F.; Beatty, R.D.; Mahajan, S.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Waste HBr is formed during the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of many organic molecules, such as flame retardants, pharmaceuticals, and agricultural chemicals. For over 50 years attempts to recover the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from waste HBr by catalytic oxidation have been unsuccessful due to low catalyst activity and stability. The discovery of a new high-activity catalysts with excellent long-term stability and life capable of high HBr conversion below 300{degrees}C has made catalytic oxidation of waste HBr commercially feasible. The oxidation of anhydrous HBr using oxygen is highly exothermic, giving an adiabatic temperature rise of 2000{degrees}C. Use of 48 wt% HBr in the oxidation reduces the adiabatic temperature rise to only 300{degrees}C. A multitubular heat exchanger type of reactor can then be used to manage the heat. A 5,000 kg/yr pilot plant was built to verify the performance of the catalyst, the suitability of the reactor materials of construction, and the multibular reactor concept. The pilot unit has a single full-scale reactor tube 4 m long and 2.54 cm in diameter with a hot oil jacket for heat management. Excellent catalyst stability was observed during a 600 h catalyst-life test. HBr conversion of 99% was maintained throughout the run, and over 360 kg of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was produced. The temperature at a localized hot spot near the reactor inlet was only 15-20{degrees}C above the reactor inlet temperature, indicating efficient heat management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286955','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28286955"><span>Silver-Catalyzed Decarboxylative <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of Aliphatic Carboxylic Acids.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tan, Xinqiang; Song, Tao; Wang, Zhentao; Chen, He; Cui, Lei; Li, Chaozhong</p> <p>2017-03-13</p> <p>The silver-catalyzed Hunsdiecker <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of aliphatic carboxylic acids is described. With Ag(Phen)2OTf as the catalyst and dibromoisocyanuric acid as the <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agent, various aliphatic carboxylic acids underwent decarboxylative <span class="hlt">bromination</span> to provide the corresponding alkyl bromides under mild conditions. This method not only is efficient and general but also enjoys wide functional group compatibility. An oxidative radical mechanism involving Ag(II) intermediates is proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001034','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890001034"><span>Hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell advance component development</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Charleston, Joann; Reed, James</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Advanced cell component development is performed by NASA Lewis to achieve improved performance and longer life for the hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cells system. The state-of-the-art hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> system utilizes the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) technology, similar to the SPE technology developed for the hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell system. These studies are directed at exploring the potential for this system by assessing and evaluating various types of materials for cell parts and electrode materials for <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-hydrogen <span class="hlt">bromine</span> environment and fabricating experimental membrane/electrode-catalysts by chemical deposition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JMoSt.267..123Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992JMoSt.267..123Z"><span>NMR investigation of non-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> epoxy ester prepolymers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Žigon, M.; Osredkar, U.; Šebenik, A.</p> <p>1992-03-01</p> <p>1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy has been used to investigate the structure of epoxy ester prepolymers, based on non-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> DGEBA-type or <span class="hlt">brominated</span> DGETBBA-type epoxy resins, and on an oligomeric carboxylic acid. In the presence of a quaternary phosphonium salt, besides diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) or diglycidylether of tetrabromobisphenol A (DGETBBA) and their higher oligomers, monoesters with characteristic R-CH 2-CH(OH)-CH 2-OCOR' groups were detected in prevailing quantities. In dependence of the epoxy-carboxy ratio, isomeric monoesters with hydroxymethyl groups, diesters and diols might also be present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span>182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341"><span>182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"><span>Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"><span>Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trathen, Danielle Y.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G.; Valdés, Ángel A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M"><span>Daily variation of radon gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"><span>Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP.GB066L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014APS..DNP.GB066L"><span>Notre Dame Nuclear Database: A New Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kevin; Khouw, Timothy; Fasano, Patrick; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. We are creating a database, the Notre Dame Nuclear Database, which can store theoretical and experimental datasets. We place emphasis on storing metadata and user interaction with the database. Users are able to search in addition to the specific nuclear datum, the author(s), the facility where the measurements were made, the institution of the facility, and device or method/technique used. We also allow users to interact with the database by providing online search, an interactive <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> chart, and a command line interface. The <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> chart is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We achieve this by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and color them accordingly. Search capabilities can be applied dynamically to the chart by using Python to communicate with MySQL, allowing for customization. Users can save the customized chart they create to any image format. These features provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before in a manner that is much easier and fully detailed. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25594726','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25594726"><span>Potential hazards of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> carbon sorbents for mercury emission control.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bisson, Teresa M; Xu, Zhenghe</p> <p>2015-02-17</p> <p>Mercury is a toxic air pollutant, emitted from the combustion of coal. Activated Carbon (AC) or other carbon sorbent (CS) injection into coal combustion flue gases can remove elemental mercury through an adsorption process. Recently, a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> CS with biomass ash as the carbon source (Br-Ash) was developed as an alternative for costly AC-based sorbent for mercury capture. After mercury capture, these sorbents are disposed in landfill, and the stability of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and captured mercury is of paramount importance. The objective of this study is to determine the fate of mercury and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from Br-Ash and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> AC after their service. Mercury and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> leaching tests were conducted using the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The mercury was found to be stable on both the Br-Ash and commercial <span class="hlt">brominated</span> AC sorbents, while the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> leached into the aqueous phase considerably. Mercury pulse injection tests on the sorbent material after leaching indicate that both sorbents retain significant mercury capture capability even after the majority of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was removed. Testing of the Br-Ash sorbent over a wider range of pH and liquid:solid ratios resulted in leaching of <5% of mercury adsorbed on the Br-Ash. XPS analysis indicated more organically bound Br and less metal-Br bonds after leaching.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Addition+AND+reactions&pg=7&id=EJ726103','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Addition+AND+reactions&pg=7&id=EJ726103"><span>The Addition of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> to 1,2-Diphenylethene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Amburgey-Peters, Judith C.; Haynes, Leroy W.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of 1,2-diphenylethene, using a variety of solvents and <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents, can be used in both introductory and advanced organic chemistry courses. The reactions can be used to illustrate the effects of changing solvents and reagents, as well as to reveal interesting aspects of organic reaction mechanisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10534.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10534 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10534.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10534.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10534 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10534 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> aliphatic alcohol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... aliphatic alcohol (PMN P-12-260) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DNP.BC006E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007APS..DNP.BC006E"><span>New mass measurements of neutron rich <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> at the NSCL.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrade, Alfredo; Matos, Milan; Amthor, Matthew; Bazin, Daniel; Becerril, Ana; Elliot, Thom; Gade, Alexandra; Galaviz, Daniel; Lorusso, Giuseppe; Pereira, Jorge; Portillo, Mauricio; Rogers, Andrew; Schatz, Hendrik; Shapira, Dan; Smith, Ed; Stolz, Andreas; Wallace, Mark</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>A mass measurement of exotic isotopes in the region of 68Fe has been performed at the NSCL using the time-of-flight technique recently established. Experimental knowledge of the mass of very neutron rich <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> is an important input for astrophysical applications, such as nucleosynthesis during the r-process and the evolution of matter in the crust of an accreting neutron star, where present calculations are mostly limited to using theoretical mass extrapolations. We present the details of the experimental set up, as well as preliminary results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DNP.FD007E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008APS..DNP.FD007E"><span>Time-of-Flight Mass Measurements of Neutron Rich <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estrade, A.; Matos, M.; Amthor, A. M.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Lorusso, G.; Rogers, A.; Schatz, H.; Bazin, D.; Gade, A.; Portillo, M.; Stolz, A.; Galaviz, D.; Pereira, J.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Wallace, M.</p> <p>2008-10-01</p> <p>Nuclear masses of neutron rich isotopes in the region of Z ˜ 20-30 have been measured using the time-of-flight technique at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). The masses of 5 isotopes have been measured for the first time, and the precision of several other masses has been improved. The time-of-flight technique has shown the potential to access nuclear masses very far from stability when applied at radioactive beam facilities like the NSCL. Such measurements are important for understanding nuclear structure far from the valley of β-stability, and provide valuable information for astrophysical model calculations of processes involving very unstable <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10113641','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10113641"><span>Simulations of terrestrial in-situ cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.; Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R.; Lal, D.; Englert, P.A.J.; Klein, J.; Middleton, R.; Jull, A.J.T.; Donahue, D.J.</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Targets of silicon and silicon dioxide were irradiated with spallation neutrons to simulate the production of long-lived radionuclides in the surface of the earth. Gamma-ray spectroscopy was used to measure {sup 7}Be and {sup 22}Na, and accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure {sup 10}Be, {sup 14}C, and {sup 26}Al. The measured ratios of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are compared with calculated ratios and with ratios from other simulations and agree well with ratios inferred from terrestrial samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D"><span>Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5709451','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5709451"><span>Fire-retardant coatings based on organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>/phenoxy or <span class="hlt">brominated</span> epoxy systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hoffman, D.M.; Chiu, Ing L.</p> <p>1989-06-01</p> <p>Thin phenoxy and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> epoxy/curing agent films were prepared by solvent casting on Mylar and Kapton. Thicknesses were approximated assuming volume additivity. Important parameters were uniformity of thickness, distribution of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing fire retardant, adhesion to carrier substrate (either Mylar or Kapton), and uniformity of the coating, i.e., absence of pinholes, blush, blistering, etc. Wetting behavior was modified using fluoro, silicone or polyurea surfactants. Several solvent systems were examined and a ternary solvent system was ultimately used. Distribution of fire-retardant <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was analyzed using electron microprobe, x-ray fluorescence and wet chemical methods. Significant discrepancies in the /mu/m-scale analyses of the microprobe measurements have not been resolved. Some of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fire retardants were insoluble in the resin systems and the phase separation was immediately obvious. Similarly, some of the crystallizable epoxies could not be cast easily into homogeneous, amorphous films. Castings were made on a standard 8'' /times/ 10'' aluminum vacuum plate polished with jeweler's rouge prior to every casting. Solvent was removed in a forced air or vacuum oven. Removal and/or curing was accelerated with temperature. The fire-retardant <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was required to be stable in alcohol/salt solutions. Final formulation used after a significant amount of testing was phenoxy resin PKHC in a ternary solvent system composed of methylethyl ketone, cellosolve acetate and toluene. Tetrabromobisphenol A was used as the flame retardant with FC-430 as surfactant. The dying schedule was 30 minutes at 150/degree/C. 4 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053804&hterms=milling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmilling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870053804&hterms=milling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmilling"><span>Effects of milling <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Gaier, James R.; Dillehay, Michael E.; Hambourger, Paul D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Preliminary procedures have been developed for the ball milling of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers. Because of the lubricative properties of graphite, large ball loads (50 percent by volume) are required. Use of 2-propanol as a milling medium enhances the efficiency of the process. The fibers, when allowed to settle from the milling medium, tend to be preferentially aligned with rather few fibers standing up. Milled, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 fibers have resistivities that are indistinguishable from their pristine counterparts, apparently because of loss of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. This suggests that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> would not be the intercalate of choice in applications where milled fibers of this type are required. It was found that <span class="hlt">brominated</span> graphite fibers are stable in a wide variety of organic solvents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022025','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022025"><span>Forbush decreases geomagnetic and atmospheric effects cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Flueckiger, E. O.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An overview and synthesis is given of recent developments that have occurred in the areas of Forbush decreases, geomagnetic and atmospheric effects, and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Experimental evidence has been found for substantial differences in the effects of the various types of interplanetary perturbations on cosmic rays, and for a dependence of these effects on the three-dimensional configuration of the interplanetary medium. In order to fully understand and to be able to simulate the solar cosmic ray particle access to the polar regions of the earth we need accurate models of the magnetospheric magnetic field. These models must include all major magnetospheric current systems (in particular the field aligned currents), and they should represent magnetically quiet time periods as well as different levels of geomagnetic activity. In the evolution of magnetospheric magnetic field models, cosmic ray and magnetospheric physicists should work closely together since cosmic ray measurements are a powerful additional tool in the study of the perturbed magnetosphere. In the field of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, finally, exciting new results and developments follow in rapid succession. Thanks to new techniques and new isotopes the analysis of cosmic ray history has entered into a new dimension.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.EA093L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.EA093L"><span>ICoN, the Interactive Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Kevin; Mumpower, Matthew; Aprahamian, Ani</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Nuclear data is critical to research fields from medicine to astrophysics. The chart of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> is a more descriptive version of the periodic table that can be used to visualize nuclear properties such as half-lives and mass. We have created ICoN (simply short for Interactive Chart of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>), an API which can be used to visualize theoretical and experimental datasets. This visualization is achieved by using D3 (Data Driven Documents), HTML, and CSS3 to plot the elements and color them accordingly. ICoN features many customization options that users can access that are dynamically applied to the chart without reloading the page. Users can save the customized chart they create to various formats. We have constructed these features in order to provide a unique approach for researchers to interface with nuclear data. ICoN can also be used on all electronic devices without loss of support. We report on the current progress of this project and will present a working demo that highlights each aspect of the aforementioned features. This is the first time that all available technologies are put to use to make nuclear data more accessible than ever before. This is a first and we will make it available as open source ware.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/47908','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/47908"><span>Significance of the effect of mineral alteration of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> migration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Murakami, Takashi; Ohnuki, Toshihiko; Isobe, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsutomu; Yanase, Nobuyuki; Kimura, Hideo</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>In order to clarify the effect of mineral alteration on <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> migration, we examined the processes, mechanisms, and kinetics of chlorite weathering, and the uranium concentrations in minerals and rocks at Koongarra, Australia. The observed concentrations of uranium in rocks were compared to those calculated. The sequence of chlorite weathering may be simply expressed as a chlorite {yields} vermiculite {yields} kaolinite conversion. These minerals occur as a function of depth, which corresponds well to uranium concentrations on the meter scale. Iron minerals, closely related to the uranium redistribution, are released during the weathering. The first-order kinetic model of the weathering process suggests that the weathering rate is not constant but time-dependent. The uranium concentrations are qualitatively proportional to the extent of the weathering, the weathered part having higher uranium concentration. Uranium mainly occurs with iron minerals, and sub micron sized saleeite, a uranyl phosphate, is one of the most probable uranyl phases associated with the iron minerals. The uranium fixation mechanisms are probably saleeite microcrystal coprecipitation and sorption to the iron minerals. Our model, which describes uranium concentrations in rocks as a function of time, shows that the transition zone (a vermiculite dominant area) plays an important role in the uranium migration. We have established that weathering of chlorite has affected the redistribution of uranium for more than one million years. The present study demonstrates the significance of mineral alteration when we estimate <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> migration for geologic time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9195G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9195G"><span>Bridging the timescales between thermochronological and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Glotzbach, Christoph</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Reconstructing the evolution of Earth's landscape is a key to understand its future evolution and to identify the driving forces that shape Earth's surface. Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> and thermochronological methods are routinely used to quantify Earth surface processes over 102-104 yr and 106-107 yr, respectively (e.g. Lal 1991; Reiners and Ehlers 2005; von Blanckenburg 2006). A comparison of the rates of surface processes derived from these methods is, however, hampered by the large difference in their timescales. For instance, a constant erosion rate of 0.1 mm/yr yield an apatite (U-Th)/He age of ~24 Ma and a 10Be age of ~6 ka, respectively. Analytical methods that bridge this time gap are on the way, but are not yet fully established (e.g. Herman et al. 2010). A ready to use alternative are river profiles, which record the regional uplift history over 102-107 yr (e.g. Pritchard et al. 2009). Changes in uplift are retained in knickzones that propagate with a distinct velocity upstream, and therefore the time of an uplift event can be estimated. Here I present an integrative inverse modelling approach to simultaneously reconstruct river profiles, model thermochronological and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> data and to derive robust information about landscape evolution over thousands to millions of years. An efficient inversion routine is used to solve the forward problem and find the best uplift history and erosional parameters that reproduce the observed data. I test the performance of the algorithm by inverting a synthetic dataset and a dataset from the Sila massif (Italy). Results show that even complicated uplift histories can be reliably retrieved by the combined interpretation of river profiles, thermochronological and cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> data. References Gallagher, K., Brown, R. & Johnson, C. (1998): Fission track analysis and its applications to geological problems. - Annu. Rev. Earth Planet., 26: 519-572. Herman, F., Rhodes, E.J., Braun, J. & Heiniger, L. (2010): Uniform</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSp.326...95W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JMoSp.326...95W"><span>New infrared spectroscopic database for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> nitrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wagner, Georg; Birk, Manfred</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Fourier transform infrared measurements of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 675-1400 cm-1 at 0.014 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 38 spectra covering the temperature range from 203 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 190 mbar. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 223 and 293 K. The sample was synthesized from ClONO2 and Br2. Band strengths of the bands ν3 around 803 cm-1 and ν2 around 1286 cm-1 were determined from three pure BrONO2 measurements at different temperatures and pressures. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample taking into account small amounts of impurities determined spectroscopically. Resulting band strengths are Sν3 = 2.872(52) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1 and Sν2 = 3.63(15) × 10-17 cm2 molec-1 cm-1. Absorption cross sections of all measurements were scaled to these band strengths. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> nitrate error budget substantially.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12850103"><span>Are <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants endocrine disruptors?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Legler, Juliette; Brouwer, Abraham</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) are a group of compounds that have received much attention recently due to their similarity with "old" classes of organohalogenated compounds such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), in terms of their fate, stability in the environment and accumulation in humans and wildlife. Toxic effects, including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity and neurotoxicity, have been observed for some BFR congeners, in particular the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (BDEs). This concise review focuses on the potency of BFRs and to disrupt endocrine systems, and attempts to answer the question whether or not BFRs are endocrine disruptors. Evidence is provided on the disruption of the thyroid hormone system by BFRs, with particular emphasis on the BDEs, as most recent data is available on this class of flame retardants. Similar to the hydroxylated PCBs, in vitro mechanistic studies as well as animal experiments have demonstrated the effects of BDEs on thyroid hormone transport and metabolism. An overview of possible effects of BFRs on the estrogen system is also provided. Research gaps are outlined, as well as ongoing and future studies in the European community aimed at contributing to comprehensive risk assessments based on the endocrine-disrupting effects of BFRs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K"><span>Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiser, Matthew R.</p> <p></p> <p>Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol28/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol28-sec415-290.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol28/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol28-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol29/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol29-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol30/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol30-sec415-290.pdf"><span>40 CFR 415.290 - Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production subcategory. 415.290 Section 415.290 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... CATEGORY <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production Subcategory § 415.290 Applicability; description of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production... <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by the brine-mining process and by the Trona process....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27199233"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and Bromo-Organic Compounds in Organic Synthesis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saikia, Indranirekha; Borah, Arun Jyoti; Phukan, Prodeep</p> <p>2016-06-22</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> is one of the most important transformations in organic synthesis and can be carried out using <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and many other bromo compounds. Use of molecular <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in organic synthesis is well-known. However, due to the hazardous nature of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, enormous growth has been witnessed in the past several decades for the development of solid <span class="hlt">bromine</span> carriers. This review outlines the use of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and different bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis. The applications of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, a total of 107 bromo-organic compounds, 11 other <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agents, and a few natural <span class="hlt">bromine</span> sources were incorporated. The scope of these reagents for various organic transformations such as <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, cohalogenation, oxidation, cyclization, ring-opening reactions, substitution, rearrangement, hydrolysis, catalysis, etc. has been described briefly to highlight important aspects of the bromo-organic compounds in organic synthesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046682','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046682"><span>Hydrogen-<span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Flow Battery: Hydrogen <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026038','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19970026038"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-Chlorine Coupling in the Antarctic Ozone Hole</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Danilin, Michael Y.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Rodriquez, Jose M.; Prather, Michael J.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>The contribution from the chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species in the formation of the Antarctic ozone hole is evaluated. Since chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds are of different industrial origin, it is desirable, from a policy point of view, to be able to attribute chlorine-catalyzed loss of ozone with those reactions directly involving chlorine species, and likewise for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-catalyzed loss. In the stratosphere, however, most of the chemical families are highly coupled, and, for example, changes in the chlorine abundance will alter the partitioninig in other families and thus the rate of ozone loss. This modeling study examines formation of the Antarctic ozone hole for a wide range of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations (5 - 25 pptv) and for chlorine concentrations typical of the last two decades (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5 ppbv). We follow the photochemical evolution of a single parcel of air, typical of the inner Antarctic vortex (50 mbar, 70 deg. S, NO(sub y) = 2 ppbv, with Polar Stratospheric Clouds(PSC)) from August 1 to November 1. For all of these ranges of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading, we would predict a substantial ozone hole (local depletion greater than 90%) within the de-nitrified, PSC- perturbed vortex. The contributions of the different catalytic cycles responsible for ozone loss are tabulated. The deep minimum in ozone is driven primarily by the chlorine abundance. As <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels decrease, the magnitude of the chlorine-catalyzed ozone loss increases to take up the slack. This is because <span class="hlt">bromine</span> suppresses ClO by accelerating the conversion of ClO an Cl2O2 back to HCI. For this range of conditions, the local relative efficiency of ozone destruction per <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atom to that per chlorine atom (alpha-factor) ranges from 33 to 55, decreasing with increase of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5149A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5149A"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> dating of glaciofluvial deposits: insights from the Alps</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Akcar, Naki; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Alfimov, Vasily; Claude, Anne; Reber, Regina; Christl, Marcus; Vockenhuber, Christof; Schlunegger, Fritz; Rahn, Meinert; Dehnert, Andreas; Schlüchter, Christian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al can be employed to reconstruct the chronology of sediment layers. Accumulation of these can be used to exposure date the sediment layer as the variation of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentration with depth can be modeled. Decay of 10Be and 26Al in the samples from a well-defined single bed in a deposit enables the modeling of the post-burial component and the determination of the 26Al/10Be at the time of burial. The isochron-burial age can then be calculated from the initial and the measured ratios. In this study, we focus on the depth-profile and isochron-burial dating of the oldest Quaternary deposits of the Alpine Foreland. These are called Swiss Deckenschotter (cover gravels) as they build mesa-type hill tops on the Mesozoic or Cenozoic bedrock of the Swiss Alpine forelands. Deckenschotter consists of glaciofluvial gravel layers intercalated with glacial and/or overbank deposits. Although previously morphostratigraphically correlated with Günz and Mindel glaciations of Penck and Brückner, the Swiss Deckenschotter is likely much older, and their chronostratigraphy is not well constrained. In order to reconstruct the chronology of these deposits, we studied two Deckenschotter outcrops in abandoned gravel pits in Mandach (507 m a.s.l.) and Siglistorf (530 m a.s.l.) in canton Zurich. We collected four samples from Mandach for 10Be analysis and more than 30 clasts of different lithology, shape and size from a single stratigraphic horizon in Siglistorf among which we processed 19 clasts for 10Be and 26Al analysis. 10Be concentrations of the Mandach samples vary between 10000 and 30000 at/g. Based on these, we calculated a modal depth-profile age of around 1.0 Ma. Among Siglistorf samples, four did not yield successful 26Al measurements and two were unsuccessful for 10Be. Most of the samples have low <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentrations, i.e. <20000 10Be at/g and <150000 26Al at/g. The 26Al/10Be ratio of eight samples was above the surface ratio of 6</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EL....10442001P"><span>First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy α-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclei.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849"><span>Direct determination of nuclear polarization produced by beam-foil interaction for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. beta. emitter /sup 12/B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nojiri, Y.; Deutch, B.I.</p> <p>1983-07-18</p> <p>Nuclear polarization P of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ..beta.. emitter /sup 12/B was produced by the beam-foil interaction and directly determined via asymmetric ..beta.. decay. For a single tilted foil, at boron energy E/sub B/ = 1.0 MeV, Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 1.82(14)%. This was enhanced to Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 4.69(46)% by stacking four tilted foils. The dependence of P vs E/sub B/ was observed for a single tilted foil in the range of E/sub B/ = 0.6 to 1.3 MeV. The sign of P followed that of the tilt angle and was consistent with predictions from electron-density-gradient models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26733012','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26733012"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> content and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in food and animal feed from the UK.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fernandes, A R; Mortimer, D; Rose, M; Smith, F; Panton, S; Garcia-Lopez, M</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Current occurrence data for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) and hexa-bromocyclododecane (HBCD) measured in most commonly consumed foods (n = 156) and animal feeds (n = 51) sampled in the UK, demonstrates an ongoing ubiquity of these contaminants in human and animal diets. PBDE concentrations for the sum of 17 measured congeners ranged from 0.02 ng/g to 8.91 ng/g whole weight for food, and 0.11 ng/g to 9.63 ng/g whole weight for animal feeds. The highest concentration ranges, and mean values were detected in fish, processed foods and fish feeds. HBCD diastereomers (alpha-HBCD was the most commonly detected) generally occurred at lower concentrations (from <0.01 ng/g to 10.1 ng/g for food and <0.01 ng/g to 0.66 ng/g for animal feed) and less frequently than PBDEs, but tetrabromobisphenol A which was also measured, was rarely detected. The total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of the samples was also determined in an attempt to use a mass balance approach to investigate some of these samples for the occurrence of novel and emerging BFRs. Although the approach was further refined by measuring organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content, the concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were too high (in most cases by orders of magnitude) to allow use of the approach. A selected sub-set of samples was screened by GC-MS, for the presence of novel/emerging <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (PBT, TBX, PBEB, DBHCTD, HCTBPH and OBTMPI) but these were not detected at the higher limits of detection that result from full scan (GC-MS) screening. This data will contribute to the EU wide risk assessment on these contaminants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.</p> <p>2015-03-09</p> <p>Spectroscopic detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm{sup −1} was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ∼40 mm{sup 3}) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ∼109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 σ) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1σ minimum detected absorption coefficient is ∼1.1 × 10{sup −7 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ∼1.1 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691"><span>Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2014-06-10</p> <p>A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678425','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678425"><span>Ruthenium-Catalyzed meta-Selective C—H <span class="hlt">Bromination</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Teskey, Christopher J; Lui, Andrew Y W; Greaney, Michael F</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The first example of a transition-metal-catalyzed, meta-selective C–H <span class="hlt">bromination</span> procedure is reported. In the presence of catalytic [{Ru(p-cymene)Cl2}2], tetrabutylammonium tribromide can be used to functionalize the meta C–H bond of 2-phenylpyridine derivatives, thus affording difficult to access products which are highly predisposed to further derivatization. We demonstrate this utility with one-pot <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/arylation and <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/alkenylation procedures to deliver meta-arylated and meta-alkenylated products, respectively, in a single step. PMID:26288217</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054543','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19054543"><span>Alkaline reforming of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> fire-retardant plastics: fate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and antimony.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Onwudili, Jude A; Williams, Paul T</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>High-impact polystyrene (HIPS) flame retarded with decabromodiphenyl ether (DDE), has been reacted in supercritical water from 380 to 450 degrees C and 21.5 to 31.0 MPa pressure in a batch reactor. Different concentrations of sodium hydroxide additive were used in situ to neutralize the corrosive inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species released during the reactions. It appeared that supercritical water conditions lowered the decomposition temperature of both the fire-retardant DDE and HIPS. The reaction products included oils (up to 76 wt%), char (up to 18 wt%) and gas (up to 2.4 wt%) which was mainly methane. The presence of the alkaline water led to up to 97 wt% debromination of the product oil, producing virtually <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free oil feedstock. The removal of antimony from the oil product during processing was of the order of 98 wt%. The oil consisted of many single- and multiple-ringed aromatic compounds, many of which had alkyl substituents and/or aliphatic C(n)-bridges (n=1-4). The major single-ringed compounds included toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene and alpha-methylstyrene. Bibenzyl (diphenylethane), stilbene, diphenylmethane, diphenylpropane, diphenylcyclopropane, diphenylpropene, diphenylbutane, diphenylbutene and diphenylbuta-1,3-diene were the major C(n)-bridged compounds. Diphenyl ether and acetophenone were the major oxygenated compounds found. The process thus has the potential to produce <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-free and antimony-free oils from fire-retardant plastics.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350916','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19350916"><span>Existence state of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as an indicator of the source of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants in indoor dust.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Go; Kida, Akiko; Sakai, Shin-ichi; Takigami, Hidetaka</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p>Indoor dust is an important medium for human exposure to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In this study, we used micro X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRFS), digital optical microscopy, and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry to investigate the existence state of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> as an indicator of the source of BFRs in indoor dusts and in dusts from the interior of televisions collected in Japan. By means of micro XRFS <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mapping conducted at a 0.5-s dwell time, we were able to detect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> levels as low as about 0.1% at each point of about a beam diameter of 50 microm across. The presence of fragments containing 1.0% or more <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was confirmed in 27 of the 48 dust samples tested. Using magnified images of the fragments, we classified them roughly into particulates and fibrous substances. We analyzed PBDEs in the fragments containing high concentrations of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (> or = 0.1%) and confirmed that the fragments contained PBDEs, mainly BDE 209. Furthermore, to detect <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations < or = 0.1% in the dust samples, we analyzed the samples at a dwell time of 100 s to enhance the detection sensitivity of mapping; atthis dwell time, we confirmed the presence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the dust coating. Our results suggest that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is transferred from products to dust matrixes not only through miniaturization and subsequent direct migration into dust as plastic and textile fragments but also through other pathways such as vaporization and airborne transfer of microparticulates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24484005','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24484005"><span>Magnetic trapping of cold <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rennick, C J; Lam, J; Doherty, W G; Softley, T P</p> <p>2014-01-17</p> <p>Magnetic trapping of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atoms at temperatures in the millikelvin regime is demonstrated for the first time. The atoms are produced by photodissociation of Br2 molecules in a molecular beam. The lab-frame velocity of Br atoms is controlled by the wavelength and polarization of the photodissociation laser. Careful selection of the wavelength results in one of the pair of atoms having sufficient velocity to exactly cancel that of the parent molecule, and it remains stationary in the lab frame. A trap is formed at the null point between two opposing neodymium permanent magnets. Dissociation of molecules at the field minimum results in the slowest fraction of photofragments remaining trapped. After the ballistic escape of the fastest atoms, the trapped slow atoms are lost only by elastic collisions with the chamber background gas. The measured loss rate is consistent with estimates of the total cross section for only those collisions transferring sufficient kinetic energy to overcome the trapping potential.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007337','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870007337"><span>In search of stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> oxide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lestrade, John Patrick</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) is capable of recording spectra in the wavelength range of 200 to 12000 Angstroms. Data from a recent Spacelab 1 ATLAS mission has imaged the terrestrial airglow at tangent ray heights of 90 and 150 km. These data contain information about trace atmospheric constituents such as <span class="hlt">bromine</span> oxide (BrO), hydroxyl (OH), and chlorine dioxide (OClO). The abundances of these species are critical to stratospheric models of catalytic ozone destruction. Heretofore, very few observations were made especially for BrO. Software was developed to purge unwanted solar features from the airglow spectra. The next step is a measure of the strength of the emission features for BrO. The final analysis will yield the scale height of this important compound.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6545237','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6545237"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-77 from the LAMPF facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mettler, F.A. Jr.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>The objective of the work is to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 labelled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. The synthetic goals of the project are to prepose estradiol derivatives which are labelled with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 at specific positions in the steroid nucleus. In addition, animal studies imaging studies, and cooperative studies are being conducted. (KJD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991STIN...9217025R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991STIN...9217025R"><span>Gas transport in polybutadiene treated with aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rein, D. H.; Baddour, R. F.; Cohen, R. E.</p> <p>1991-10-01</p> <p>Diffusion, solubility and permeability coefficients were measured for He, CO2, Ar and CH4 in polybutadiene (PB) and in polybutadiene reacted in the solid state to various extents with aqueous <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Analysis of the sorption curves and x ray emission spectra showed that the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> created a heterogeneous membrane with an outer <span class="hlt">brominated</span> skin and an unreacted core. At relatively low extent of <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, the diffusion and permeability coefficients for CO2, Ar and CH4 became immeasurably small after about 3 percent <span class="hlt">bromination</span>. The ideal separation factor for gas pairs with different molecular size increased with <span class="hlt">bromination</span>, suggesting applications in gas separation processes. Tailoring the structure of existing commodity polymers through chemical modification is an attractive approach to improving the properties of membranes for gas separation and barrier applications. Systematic alterations of the polymer structure also provide a convenient route for studying the effects of molecular architecture on the permeability. Substitutions to the backbone or side chains affect the intrasegmental mobility and intersegmental chain packing, resulting in changes in gas diffusivity, solubility and permeability coefficients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800041336&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800041336&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>Atmospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and ozone perturbations in the lower stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Yung, Y. L.; Pinto, J. P.; Watson, R. T.; Sander, S. P.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> compounds in the photochemistry of the natural and perturbed stratosphere has been reexamined using an expanded reaction scheme and the results of recent laboratory studies of several key reactions. The most important finding is that through the reaction BrO + ClO yielding Br + Cl + O2 there is a synergistic effect between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and chlorine which results in an efficient catalytic destruction of ozone in the lower stratosphere. One-dimensional photochemical model results indicate that BrO is the major <span class="hlt">bromine</span> species throughout the stratosphere, followed by BrONO2, HBr, HOBr and Br. It is shown from the foregoing that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is more efficient than chlorine as a catalyst for destroying ozone, and the implications for stratospheric ozone of possible future growth in the industrial and agricultural use of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> are discussed. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> concentrations of 20 pptv (2 x 10 to the -11th power), as suggested by recent observations, can decrease the present-day integrated ozone column density by 2.4%, and can enhance ozone depletion from steady-state chlorofluoromethane release at 1973 rates by a factor of 1.1-1.2.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.6903S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.6903S"><span>Deriving an atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using airborne in situ measurements from the western Pacific area during SHIVA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sala, S.; Bönisch, H.; Keber, T.; Oram, D. E.; Mills, G.; Engel, A.</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>During the recent SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) project an extensive data set of all halogen species relevant for the atmospheric budget of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> was collected in the western Pacific region using the Falcon aircraft operated by the German Aerospace agency DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) covering a vertical range from the planetary boundary layer up to the ceiling altitude of the aircraft of 13 km. In total, more than 700 measurements were performed with the newly developed fully automated in situ instrument GHOST-MS (Gas chromatograph for the Observation of Tracers - coupled with a Mass Spectrometer) by the Goethe University of Frankfurt (GUF) and with the onboard whole-air sampler WASP with subsequent ground-based state-of-the-art GC / MS analysis by the University of East Anglia (UEA). Both instruments yield good agreement for all major (CHBr3 and CH2Br2) and minor (CH2BrCl, CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl) VSLS (very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances), at least at the level of their 2σ measurement uncertainties. In contrast to the suggestion that the western Pacific could be a region of strongly increased atmospheric VSLS abundance (Pyle et al., 2011), we found only in the upper troposphere a slightly enhanced amount of total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from VSLS relative to the levels reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) for other tropical regions. From the SHIVA observations in the upper troposphere, a budget for total organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, including four halons (H-1301, H-1211, H-1202, H-2402), CH3Br and the VSLS, is derived for the level of zero radiative heating (LZRH), the input region for the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and thus also for the stratosphere. With the exception of the two minor VSLS CHBrCl2 and CHBr2Cl, excellent agreement with the values reported in Montzka and Reimann et al. (2011) is found, while being slightly higher than previous studies from our group based on balloon-borne measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7051903','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7051903"><span>Cosmic-ray interactions and dating of meteorite stranding surfaces with cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A wide variety of products from cosmic-ray interactions have been measured in terrestrial or extraterrestrial samples. These ''cosmogenic'' products include radiation damage tracks and rare <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> that are made by nuclear reactions. They often have been used to determine the fluxes and composition of cosmic-ray particles in the past, but they are usually used to study the history of the ''target'' (such as the time period that it was exposed to cosmic-ray particles). Products made by both the high-energy galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles emitted irregularly from the Sun have been extensively studied. Some of these cosmogenic products, especially <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, have been or can be applied to studies of Antarctic meteorite stranding surfaces, the ice surfaces in Antarctica where meteorites have been found. Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> studied in samples from Antarctica and reported by others elsewhere in this volume include those in meteorites, especially radionuclides used to determine terrestrial ages, and those made in situ in terrestrial rocks. Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made in the Earth's atmosphere or brought in with cosmic dust have also been studied in polar ice, and it should also be possible to measure <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made in situ in ice. As an introduction to cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and their applications, cosmic rays and their interactions will be presented below and production systematics of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in these various media will be discussed later. 20 refs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..331B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..331B"><span>A renewed search for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 126Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Souders, Amanda K.; Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Marks, Naomi E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System, many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence, mostly in the form of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides present in the early Solar System, are potentially consistent with this hypothesis, but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of 126Sn is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (126Sn→126Te, t1/2 = 235 ky), the discovery of extant 126Sn would provide unequivocal proof of supernova input to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of 126Sn by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus, here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te-an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system, when coupled to a MC-ICPMS, enables high-precision Te isotopic analyses on samples with <10 ng of Te. We used this technique to analyze Te from a unique set of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios, facilitating the search for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 126Sn. This sample set shows no evidence of live 126Sn, implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However, based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te, as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189"><span>IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell</p> <p>2005-07-11</p> <p>For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B"><span>The possibility to measure the magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles (charm and beauty baryons) at LHC and FCC energies using the phenomenon of spin rotation in crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baryshevsky, V. G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The use of spin rotation effect in bent crystals for measuring the magnetic moment of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles in the range of LHC and FCC energies is considered. It is shown that the estimated number of produced baryons that are captured into a bent crystal grows as ∼γ 3 / 2 with increasing particle energy. Hence it may be concluded that the experimental measurement of magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles using the spin rotation effect is feasible at LHC and higher energies (for LHC energies, e.g., the running time required for measuring the magnetic moment of Λc+ is 2 ÷ 16 hours).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412399G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..1412399G"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> isotope analysis - a tool for investigating biogeochemical cycle of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing organic and inorganic compounds in the environment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gelman, F.; Bernstein, A.; Levin, E.; Ronen, Z.; Halicz, L.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> naturally occurs mainly in the form of bromide and is usually considered as a conservative tracer in the groundwater system. However, nowadays many synthetically produced organobromine compounds are introduced into the environment by humans. Due to a possible toxic effect of these compounds, investigation of their fate in the nature is of the utmost importance. In this sense, examination of isotopic composition of inorganic and organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> may serve as a powerful tool for understanding Br geochemical cycle. Due to a relatively small mass difference between the isotopes 81Br and 79Br, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope fractionation originating from biotic and abiotic processes is expected to be in the range of several permille. Therefore, a highly precise technique for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope ratio analysis is required. This work presents a new methodology for the precise determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope ratio in inorganic bromides and individual organic compounds by MC-ICPMS. Attained external precision (2σ) up to 0.1‰ allowed employment of the developed technique for determination of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope composition in organic and inorganic bromides and Br KIE in biogeochemical processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NIMPA.598..450C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009NIMPA.598..450C"><span><span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> identification algorithm based on K-L transform and neural networks</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Liang; Wei, Yi-Xiang</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Traditional spectrum analysis algorithm based on peak search is hard to deal with complex overlapped peaks, especially in bad resolution and high background conditions. This paper described a new <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification method based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (K-L transform) and artificial neural networks. By the K-L transform and feature extraction, the <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> gamma spectrum was compacted. The K-L transform coefficients were used as the neural network's input. The linear associative memory and ADALINE were discussed. Lots of experiments and tests showed that the method was credible and practical, especially suitable for fast <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> identification.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a by-product of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focussed on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health impacts but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve due to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate-change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783"><span>Reaction dynamics. Extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H</p> <p>2015-01-02</p> <p>The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525...55B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525...55B"><span>Combining radon, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S"><span>The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva</p> <p></p> <p>The formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The δ 18O and δ 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Mills, G. E.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focused on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health and vegetation impacts, but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve owing to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner. The review shows that there remain a number of clear challenges for ozone such as explaining surface trends, incorporating new chemical understanding, ozone-climate coupling, and a better assessment of impacts. There is a clear and present need to treat ozone across the range of scales, a transboundary issue, but with an emphasis on the hemispheric scales. New observational opportunities are offered both by satellites and small sensors that bridge the scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191"><span>Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-living parrots and <span class="hlt">short-living</span> fowl.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, indirectly, an animal's BMR, it is the susceptibility of those fatty acids to peroxidation which influence MLSP. Although there is a correlation between body size and MLSP, there is considerable MLSP variation independent of body size. For example, among bird families, Galliformes (fowl) are relatively <span class="hlt">short-living</span> and Psittaciformes (parrots) are unusually long-living, with some parrot species reaching maximum lifespans of more than 100 years. We determined BMR and tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in seven tissues from three species of parrots with an average MLSP of 27 years and from two species of quails with an average MLSP of 5.5 years. We also characterised mitochondrial phospholipids in two of these tissues. Neither BMR nor membrane susceptibility to peroxidation corresponded with differences in MLSP among the birds we measured. We did find that (1) all birds had lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in mitochondrial membranes compared to those of the corresponding tissue, and that (2) irrespective of reliance on flight for locomotion, both pectoral and leg muscle had an almost identical membrane fatty acid composition in all birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587799','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2587799"><span>The impact of dietary restriction, intermittent feeding and compensatory growth on reproductive investment and lifespan in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Inness, Claire L.W; Metcalfe, Neil B</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>While dietary restriction usually increases lifespan, an intermittent feeding regime, where periods of deprivation alternate with times when food is available, has been found to reduce lifespan in some studies but prolong it in others. We suggest that these disparities arise because in some situations lifespan is reduced by the costs of catch-up growth (following the deprivation) and reproductive investment, a factor that has rarely been measured in studies of lifespan. Using three-spined sticklebacks, we show for the first time that while animals subjected to an intermittent feeding regime can grow as large as continuously fed controls that receive the same total amount of food, and can maintain reproductive investment, they have a shorter lifespan. Furthermore, we show that this reduction in lifespan is linked to rapid skeletal growth rate and is due to an increase in the instantaneous risk of mortality rather than in the rate of senescence. By contrast, dietary restriction caused a reduction in reproductive investment in females but no corresponding increase in longevity. This suggests that in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species where reproduction is size dependent, selection pressures may lead to an increase in intrinsic mortality risk when resources are diverted from somatic maintenance to both growth and reproductive investment. PMID:18445563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992"><span>Leadership emergence over time in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926"><span>Climate impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K"><span>Diurnal variation climatology of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We present a diurnal variation climatology for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985xgrs.sympQ....H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1985xgrs.sympQ....H"><span>International program to improve decay data for transactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helmer, R. G.; Reich, C. W.</p> <p></p> <p>To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 an international coordinated research program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and gamma (-) and alpha (-) emission probabilities for selected transactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of importance for reactor technology was organized. The CRP goals were: (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Participation in this effort involved the measurement of gamma-ray emission probabilities for sup 232, 233, 235 U, sup 238, 239, 240. 241 Pu, (229)Th and (233)Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The gamma-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of gamma-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of less than or equal to 1%. Measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at approx. 60 gamma-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21156475','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21156475"><span>Modified microspheres for cleaning liquid wastes from radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Danilin, Lev; Drozhzhin, Valery</p> <p>2007-07-01</p> <p>An effective solution of nuclear industry problems related to deactivation of technological and natural waters polluted with toxic and radioactive elements is the development of inorganic sorbents capable of not only withdrawing radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, but also of providing their subsequent conservation under conditions of long-term storage. A successful technical approach to creation of sorbents can be the use of hollow aluminosilicate microspheres. Such microspheres are formed from mineral additives during coal burning in furnaces of boiler units of electric power stations. Despite some reduction in exchange capacity per a mass unit of sorbents the latter have high kinetic characteristics that makes it possible to carry out the sorption process both in static and dynamic modes. Taking into account large industrial resources of microspheres as by-products of electric power stations, a comparative simplicity of the modification process, as well as good kinetic and capacitor characteristics, this class of sorbents can be considered promising enough for solving the problems of cleaning liquid radioactive wastes of various pollution levels. (authors)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...823...12T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...823...12T"><span>Production and Recoil Loss of Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Presolar Grains</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, Reto; Leya, Ingo</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Presolar grains are small particles that condensed in the vicinity of dying stars. Some of these grains survived the voyage through the interstellar medium (ISM) and were incorporated into meteorite parent bodies at the formation of the Solar System. An important question is when these stellar processes happened, i.e., how long presolar grains were drifting through the ISM. While conventional radiometric dating of such small grains is very difficult, presolar grains are irradiated with galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) in the ISM, which induce the production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. This opens the possibility to determine cosmic-ray exposure (CRE) ages, i.e., how long presolar grains were irradiated in the ISM. Here, we present a new model for the production and loss of cosmogenic 3He, 6,7Li, and 21,22Ne in presolar SiC grains. The cosmogenic production rates are calculated using a state-of-the-art nuclear cross-section database and a GCR spectrum in the ISM consistent with recent Voyager data. Our findings are that previously measured 3He and 21Ne CRE ages agree within the (sometimes large) 2σ uncertainties and that the CRE ages for most presolar grains are smaller than the predicted survival times. The obtained results are relatively robust since interferences from implanted low-energy GCRs into the presolar SiC grains and/or from cosmogenic production within the meteoroid can be neglected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745557','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24745557"><span><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardant exposure of aircraft personnel.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Strid, Anna; Smedje, Greta; Athanassiadis, Ioannis; Lindgren, Torsten; Lundgren, Håkan; Jakobsson, Kristina; Bergman, Åke</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in aircraft is the result of high fire safety demands. Personnel working in or with aircraft might therefore be exposed to several BFRs. Previous studies have reported PBDE exposure in flight attendants and in passengers. One other group that may be subjected to significant BFR exposure via inhalation, are the aircraft maintenance workers. Personnel exposure both during flights and maintenance of aircraft, are investigated in the present study. Several BFRs were present in air and dust sampled during both the exposure scenarios; PBDEs, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane. PBDEs were also analyzed in serum from pilots/cabin crew, maintenance workers and from a control group of individuals without any occupational aircraft exposure. Significantly higher concentrations of PBDEs were found in maintenance workers compared to pilots/cabin crew and control subjects with median total PBDE concentrations of 19, 6.8 and 6.6 pmol g(-1) lipids, respectively. Pilots and cabin crew had similar concentrations of most PBDEs as the control group, except for BDE-153 and BDE-154 which were significantly higher. Results indicate higher concentrations among some of the pilots compared to the cabin crew. It is however, evident that the cabin personnel have lower BFR exposures compared to maintenance workers that are exposed to such a degree that their blood levels are significantly different from the control group.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/tsca-work-plan-chemical-technical-supplement','PESTICIDES'); return false;" href="https://www.epa.gov/assessing-and-managing-chemicals-under-tsca/tsca-work-plan-chemical-technical-supplement"><span>TSCA Work Plan Chemical Technical Supplement – Physicochemical Properties and Environmental Fate of the <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Phthalates Cluster (BPC) Chemicals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/search.htm">EPA Pesticide Factsheets</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>TSCA Work Plan Chemical Technical Supplement – Physicochemical Properties and Environmental Fate of the <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Phthalates Cluster (BPC) Chemicals -- <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> Phthalates Cluster Flame Retardants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775082','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/775082"><span>Recommended Partition Coefficient (Kd) Values for <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> Partitioning in the Presence of Cellulose Degradation Products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Serkiz, S.M.</p> <p>2001-02-23</p> <p>This report documents the data analysis of the results of the described laboratory studies in order to recommend Kd values for use in Performance Assessment modeling of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> transport in the presence of CDP.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/13808"><span>Phase II <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> Partition Laboratory Study Influence of Cellulose Degradation Products on the Transport of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> from SRS Shallow Land Burial Facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Serkiz, S.M.</p> <p>1999-10-04</p> <p>Degradation products of cellulosic materials (e.g., paper and wood products) can significantly influence the subsurface transport of metals and radionuclides. Codisposal of radionuclides with cellulosic materials in the E-Area slit trenches at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is, therefore, expected to influence <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> fate and transport in the subsurface. Due to the complexities of these systems and the scarcity of site-specific data, the effects of cellulose waste loading and its subsequent influence on <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> transport are not well established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040059911&hterms=mcnpx+calculation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmcnpx%2Bcalculation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040059911&hterms=mcnpx+calculation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dmcnpx%2Bcalculation"><span>Production Rates of Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in the Knyahinya L-Chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kim, K. J.; Reedy, R. C.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The production rates of spallogenic radionuclides and stable isotopes in the L-chondrite Knyahinya were investigated using the MCNPX code. Numerous cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> had been measured in many Knyahinya samples. The pre-atmospheric size and sample locations of Knyahinya are well known, thus Knyahinya is a good test case for cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production-rate calculations. Our calculated profiles were compared to the measurements to determine effective proton fluxes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010019457&hterms=1073&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231073','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20010019457&hterms=1073&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3D%2526%25231073"><span>Measurements of Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in and their Significance for Samples Returned from Asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nishiizumi, K.; Herzog, G. F.; Reedy, R. C.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with matter produce cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> (CNs). Ever since they were first measured nearly 50 years ago, cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> have been used to infer the irradiation histories of terrestrial and extraterrestrial materials. Here we call for an extension of such measurements to samples returned from an asteroidal surface. The information gained in this way will be important for elucidating the evolution of the asteroidal surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612459','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21612459"><span>Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Shir-kuh Granites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba</p> <p>2011-12-26</p> <p>One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23803673','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23803673"><span>Addressing <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> not in the CAP88-PC Version-3 library.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>McNaughton, Michael; Brock, Burgandy; Eisele, William; Fuehne, David; Green, Andrew; Whicker, Jeffrey</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Versions of the computer program, CAP88, are widely used to calculate the radiological doses from radionuclides emitted into the air. CAP88-PC Version-3 includes an extensive library of radionuclides, but there are many more that are not included. Surrogates are often used to substitute for <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> not in the library, though the results are usually overestimates. This paper addresses <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> that are not in the library and describes methods to obtain more accurate results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19066481','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19066481"><span>Dietary iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intakes in Ukrainian subjects.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shiraishi, Kunio; Ko, Susumu; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Zamostyan, Pavlo V; Tsigankov, Nikolay Y</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Dietary iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intakes in Ukrainian subjects were estimated in relation to the health effects on inhabitants after the Chernobyl accident. Two hundred and eighty-six total diets were collected from twenty-five regions for Ukrainians by a duplicate portion study. Iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were rapidly determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after chemical separation. The range, median, and geometric mean of iodine intakes were 2.86-698, 44.7, and 48.1 microg per person per day, respectively. Those of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were 0.627-16.9, 2.97, and 2.92 mg per person per day, respectively. Daily intakes of both elements in Ukrainians were lower than previously reported values. The iodine intake in areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident was lower than that in non-contaminated areas. The low iodine intake in both areas would be related to the high prevalence of goiters throughout the whole country. The low <span class="hlt">bromine</span> intakes indicated Ukrainians were not exposed to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-containing foods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310701','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17310701"><span>Fate of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PBDEs in lactating cows.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kierkegaard, Amelie; Asplund, Lillemor; de Wit, Cynthia A; McLachlan, Michael S; Thomas, Gareth O; Sweetman, Andrew J; Jones, Kevin C</p> <p>2007-01-15</p> <p>Dietary intake studies of lower <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (BDEs) have shown that fish and animal products are important vectors of human exposure, but almost no data exist for higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs. Therefore, the fate of hepta- to decaBDEs was studied in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a previous mass balance study of PCB. Tissue distribution was studied in one cow slaughtered after the experiment. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in feed, organs, adipose tissues, and feces, but not in milk. In contrast to PCBs and lower <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs, concentrations of hepta- to decaBDEs in adipose tissue were 9-80 times higher than in milk fat and the difference increased with degree of <span class="hlt">bromination</span>/log K(OW). The congener profiles in adipose tissue and feed differed; BDE-207, BDE-196, BDE-197, and BDE-182 accumulated to a surprisingly greater extent in the fat compared to their isomers, suggesting metabolic debromination of BDE-209 to these BDEs. The results indicate that meat rather than dairy product consumption may be an important human exposure route to higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> BDEs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3538V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.3538V"><span>What can <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in ice cores tell us about Arctic sea ice in the past?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Maffazzoli, Niccolo; Kjær, Helle; Barbante, Carlo; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is of interest as a potential sea ice proxy due to its role in polar atmospheric chemistry, particularly the photochemical "<span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion" events which occur over the seasonal sea ice surface. A growing body of literature has demonstrated that <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is reliably deposited and preserved in polar ice caps and can be used to investigate variability over timescales varying from seasonal to multimillenial. For sea ice reconstructions, <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and sodium are usually evaluated with respect to their relative abundances in seawater. Competing processes of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment due to the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> explosion, and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> depletion due to scavenging and deposition, must be taken into account when comparing results from coastal and inland sampling sites. We will review existing <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-based sea ice reconstructions and present new data for locations from Svalbard, Severnaya Zemlya, Northwest Greenland (NEEM ice core) and central East Greenland (Renland ice core).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP53B3648T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMEP53B3648T"><span>Using cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> from amalgamated talus cobbles to assess alpine erosion in the Teton Range</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tranel, L. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Measuring spatial patterns and rates of erosion in alpine landscapes is challenging because locations are steep and remote, and hillslope processes including rockfalls, avalanches and landslides are stochastic. This study evaluates how variability between quantitative erosion rates and surface ages and qualitative weathering features on talus deposits may influence interpretations of the spatial distribution of hillslope erosion in the Teton Range. I use cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> concentrations to estimate erosion rates and surface ages of bedrock and talus deposits. I then compare these cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> results to talus volumetric estimates of erosion rates. I also compare the quantitative estimates of surface ages and erosion to qualitative weathering observations on talus cobbles. The resulting erosion rates from cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are slower than rates estimated from talus volumes, however, both methods produced the same pattern of erosion. The fastest and slowest cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> and volumetric erosion rates were associated with the same fans. Exposure ages of talus surfaces decrease as elevation of the fans increase. Qualitative observations of weathering on cobble surfaces were not reliable to predict the relative rates of erosion on the talus fans. Using amalgamated samples from hillslope deposits adjacent to steep sided canyons for cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> analysis has high uncertainty when finding accurate erosion rates or exposure ages due to complicated shielding on steeply sloping walls. The similar patterns of rapid or slow erosion rates, however, suggest that cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> or volume estimates are both reasonable methods to understand relative timing of hillslope events, even if the absolute age or erosion rate cannot be determined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JIEx...22...96M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JIEx...22...96M"><span>(1) Selective separation and solidification of radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> by zeolites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mimura, Hitoshi; Sato, Nobuaki; Kirishima, Akira</p> <p></p> <p>Massive tsunami generated by the Great East Japan Earthquake attacked the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused the nuclear accident of level 7 to overturn the safety myth of the nuclear power generation. The domestic worst accident does not yet reach the convergence, and many inhabitants around the power plant are forced to double pains of earthquake disaster and nuclear accident. Large amounts of high-activity-level water over 200,000 tons are accumulated on the basement floor of each turbine building, which is a serious obstacle to take measures for the nuclear accident. For the decontamination of high-activity-level water containing seawater, the inorganic ion-exchangers having high selectivity are effective especially for the selective removal of radioactive Cs. On the other hand, radioactive Cs and I released into the atmosphere from the power plant spread widely around Fukushima prefecture, and the decontamination of rainwater and soil become the urgent problem. At present, passing about four months after nuclear accident, the radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of 137Cs and 134Cs are mainly contained in the high-activity-level water and the selective adsorbents for radioactive Cs play an important part in the decontamination. Since the construction of original decontamination system is an urgent necessity, selective separation methods using inorganic ion-exchangers are greatly expected. From the viewpoint of cost efficiency and high Cs-selectivity, natural zeolites are effective for the decontamination of radioactive Cs. This special issue deals with the selective separation and solidification of radioactive Cs and Sr using zeolites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986NIMPA.242..475H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986NIMPA.242..475H"><span>International program to improve decay data for transactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Helmer, R. G.; Reich, C. W.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>To help meet an identified need for precise decay data, in 1977 the IAEA organized an international Coordinated Research Program (CRP) to measure and evaluate half-lives and γ- and α-emission probabilities for selected transactinium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of importance for reactor technology. The CRP goals were (1) to determine a list of data that needed improvement, (2) to encourage new measurements, and (3) to evaluate the available data. All three phases of this work are now complete. Our participation in this effort has involved the measurement of γ-ray emission probabilities for 232,233,235U, 238,239,240,241Pu, 229Th and 233Pa, as well as participating in the data evaluation. The γ-emission probabilities were determined from the measurement of γ-emission rates with the goal of obtaining uncertainties of ≤ 1%. γ-measurements were made on calibrated Ge detectors. These calibrations were done by standard methods, generally involving measurements at ˜ 60 γ-ray energies from 14 to 2700 keV. The efficiency-calibration functions were assigned uncertainties ranging from 2% below 50 keV to 0.50% from 400 to 1400 keV. The determination of the decay rates of the various sources involved several techniques. The 238Pu, 239Pu and 240Pu samples were calibrated by gross α-emission-rate measurements at NBS. The 235U sample was taken from an NBS-calibrated spike solution. The 241Pu and 233U samples were calibrated by isotope-dilution mass spectrometry based on spikes of the calibrated 239Pu, 240Pu and 235U materials. Some of our results are given, together with a comparison of some present and previous results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8029E..1JV','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011SPIE.8029E..1JV"><span>Environmental monitoring of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vagula, Mary C.; Kubeldis, Nathan; Nelatury, Charles F.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) are synthetic organobromide compounds which inhibit ignition and combustion processes. Because of their immense ability to retard fire and save life and property, they have been extensively used in many products such as TVs, computers, foam, plastics etc. The five major classes of BFRs are tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), pentabromodiphenyl ether, octabromodiphenyl ether, and decabromodiphenyl ether. The last three are also commonly called PBDEs. BDE-85 and BDE-209 are the two prominent congeners of PBDEs and this study reports the adverse effects of these congeners in rodents. Exposure of rat sciatic nerves to 5 μg/mL and 20 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 respectively lead to significant, concentration dependent reduction in nerve conduction function. Glucose absorption in the rat intestinal segments exposed to 5 μg/mL of BDE-85 and BDE-209 was significantly reduced for both the compounds tested. Lastly, mice when exposed to 0.25 mg/kg body weight for four days showed a disruption in oxidant and antioxidant equilibrium. The tissues namely liver and brain have shown increase in the levels of lipid hydroperoxides indicating oxidative stress. Moreover, all the protective enzymes namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase, and glutathione S transferase (GST) have shown tissue specific alterations indicating the induction of damaging oxidative stress and setting in of lipid peroxidation in exposed animals. The results indicate monitoring of PBDEs in the environment is essential because levels as low as 5 μg/mL and 0.25 mg/kg body weight were able to cause damage to the functions of rodents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J"><span>Formation of the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclide 36Cl in the Protoplanetary Disk During Late-stage Irradiation of a Volatile-rich Reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36Cl-36S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 μm), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR 36Cl (τ 1/2 ~ 3 × 105 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) × 10-5, is the highest 36Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26Al (26Al/27Al <= 3.9 × 10-6) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26Al and other SLRs (10Be, 53Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E"><span>The Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data (MUTED): A database to support the identification of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkeling, G.; Luesebrink, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Heyer, T.; Jaumann, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Images of Mars taken by spacecraft in the last few decades indicate that the landscape has changed and that current processes are continuously changing the surface. The modifications of the landscape are caused by exogenic processes including eolian activity, mass movement, the growth and retreat of the polar caps, glacial processes and crater-forming impacts. In particular the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board Mars Express (MEx) and the Context Camera (CTX) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) cover large areas at high resolution and thus are particularly well-suited to detect the extent and origin of surface changes on Mars. Multi-temporal observations of variable features on Mars became possible by the increasing number of repeated image acquisitions of the same surface areas. To support the investigation of surface changes that represents a key element in martian research, we developed MUTED, the "Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data", which is a tool for the identification of the spatial and multi-temporal coverage of planetary image data from Mars. Using MUTED, scientists are able to identify the location, number, and time range of acquisitions of overlapping images from, for example, HRSC and CTX. MUTED also includes images from other planetary datasets such as those of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). The database supports the identification and analysis of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes on Mars based on fast automatic planetary image database queries. From the multi-temporal planetary image database and investigations based on multi-temporal observations we will better understand the interactions between the surface of Mars and external forces, including the atmosphere. MUTED is available for the planetary scientific community via the webpage of the Institut für Planetologie (IfP) Muenster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D"><span>The development of miocene extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin in the Andean broken foreland: The Conglomerado Los Patos, Northwestern Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>del Papa, Cecilia E.; Petrinovic, Ivan A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Conglomerado Los Patos is a coarse-grained clastic unit that crops out irregularly in the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley in the Puna, Northwestern Argentina. It covers different units of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Salta Group by means of an angular unconformity and, in turn, is overlaid in angular unconformity by the Viscachayoc Ignimbrite (13 ± 0.3 Ma) or by late Miocene tuffs. Three lithofacies have been identified in the Corte Blanco locality; 1) Bouldery matrix-supported conglomerate (Gmm); 2) Clast-supported conglomerate (Gch) and 3) Imbricated clast-supported conglomerate (Gci). The stratigraphic pattern displays a general fining upward trend. The sedimentary facies association suggests gravitational flow processes and sedimentation in alluvial fan settings, from proximal to medial fan positions, together with a slope decrease upsection. Provenance studies reveal sediments sourced from Precambrian to Ordovician units located to the southwest, except for volcanic clasts in the Gmm facies that shows U/Pb age of 14.5 ± 0.5 Ma. This new age represents the maximum depositional age for the Conglomerado Los Patos, and it documents that deposition took place simultaneously during a period of increased tectonic and volcanic activity in the area. The structural analysis of the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley and the available thermochronological ages, indicate active N-S main thrusts and NW-SE transpressive and locally normal faults during the middle Miocene. In this context, we interpret the Conglomerado Los Patos to represent sedimentation in a small, extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin associated with the compressional Andean setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732"><span>FORMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629"><span>Stepwise Catalytic Mechanism via <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Intermediate Inferred from Combined QM/MM MERP and PES Calculations on Retaining Glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Koča, Jaroslav</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals. PMID:25849117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114"><span>2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jílek, K; Timková, J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ~8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546"><span>The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed</p> <p>2010-01-10</p> <p>The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F"><span>Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S"><span>Preliminary Results of IS Plasma Focus as a Breeder of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Elahi, M.; Adlparvar, S.; Shahhoseini, E.; Sheibani, S.; Ranjber akivaj, H.; Alhooie, S.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Aghaei, N.; Amini, S.; Khalaj, M. M.; Zirak, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Soleimani, J.; Torkzadeh, F.; Mousazadeh, M. M.; Moradi, K.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Talaei, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Moslehi, A.; Kashani, A.; Babazadeh, A. R.; Bagiyan, F.; Ardestani, M.; Roozbahani, A.; Pourbeigi, H.; Tajik Ahmadi, H.; Ahmadifaghih, M. A.; Mahlooji, M. S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Zahedi, F.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Modified IS (Iranian Sun) plasma focus (10 kJ,15 kV, 94 μF, 0.1 Hz) has been used to produce the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope 13N (half-life of 9.97 min) through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The filling gas was 1.5-3 torr of hydrogen (60%) deuterium (40%) mixture. The target was solid nuclear grade graphite with 5 mm thick, 9 cm width and 13 in length. The activations of the exogenous target on average of 20 shots (only one-third acceptable) through 10-13 kV produced the 511 keV gamma rays. Another peak found at the 570 keV gamma of which both was measured by a NaI portable gamma spectrometer calibrated by a 137Cs 0.25 μCi sealed reference source with its single line at 661.65 keV and 22Na 0.1 μCi at 511 keV. To measure the gamma rays, the graphite target converts to three different phases; solid graphite, powder graphite, and powder graphite in water solution. The later phase approximately has a doubled activity with respect to the solid graphite target up to 0.5 μCi of 511 keV and 1.1 μCi of 570 keV gamma lines were produced. This increment in activity was perhaps due to structural transformation of graphite powder to nano-particles characteristic in liquid water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L"><span>Dating the Laschamp Excursion: Why Speleothems are Valuable Tools for Constraining the Timing and Duration of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Geomagnetic Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lascu, I.; Feinberg, J. M.; Dorale, J. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> geomagnetic events are reflections of geodynamo behavior at small length scales. A rigorous documentation of the anatomy, timing, duration, and frequency of centennial-to-millennial scale geomagnetic events can be invaluable for theoretical and numerical geodynamo models, and for the understanding the finer dynamics of the Earth's core. A critical ingredient for characterizing such geomagnetic instabilities are tightly constrained age models that enable high-resolution magnetostratigraphies. Here we focus on a North American speleothem geomagnetic record of the Laschamp excursion, which was the first geomagnetic excursion recognized and described in the paleomagnetic record, and remains the most studied event of its kind. The geological significance of the Laschamp lies chiefly in the fact that it constitutes a global time-synchronous geochronological marker. The Laschamp excursion occurred around the time of the demise of Homo neanderthalensis, in conjunction with high-amplitude, rapid climatic oscillations leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, and precedes a major supervolcano eruption in the Mediterranean. Thus, the precise determination of the timing and duration of the Laschamp would help in elucidating major scientific questions situated at the intersection of geology, paleoclimatology, and anthropology. Here we present a geomagnetic record from a stalagmite collected in Crevice Cave, Missouri, which we have dated using a combination of high-precision 230Th ages and annual layer counting using confocal microscopy. We have found a maximum duration for the Laschamp that spans the interval 42,250-39,700 years BP, and an age of 41,100 ± 350 years BP for the height of the excursion. During this period relative paleointensity decreased by an order of magnitude and the virtual geomagnetic pole was located at southerly latitudes. Our chronology provides the first robust bracketing for the Laschamp excursion, and improves on previous age determinations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H"><span>Time-series variations of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969"><span>A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang; Chaussidon, Marc; Srinivasan, Gopalan; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2012-12-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F"><span>An examination of chemistry and transport processes in the tropical lower stratosphere using observations of long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds obtained during STRAT and POLARIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flocke, F.; Herman, R. L.; Salawitch, R. J.; Atlas, E.; Webster, C. R.; Schauffler, S. M.; Lueb, R. A.; May, R. D.; Moyer, E. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Scott, D. C.; Blake, D. R.; Bui, T. P.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>A suite of compounds with a wide range of photochemical lifetimes (3 months to several decades) was measured in the tropical and midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) experiment (fall 1995 and winter, summer, and fall 1996) and the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) deployment in late summer 1997. These species include various chlorofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, and halons measured in whole air samples and CO measured in situ by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. Mixing ratio profiles of long-lived species in the tropical lower stratosphere are examined using a one-dimensional (1-D) photochemical model that includes entrainment from the extratropical stratosphere and is constrained by measured concentrations of OH. Profiles of tracers found using the 1-D model agree well with all the observed tropical profiles for an entrainment time scale of 8.5-4+6 months, independent of altitude between potential temperatures of 370 and 500 K. The tropical profile of CO is used to show that the annually averaged ascent rate profile, on the basis of a set of radiative heating calculations, is accurate to approximately ±44%, a smaller uncertainty than found by considering the uncertainties in the radiative model and its inputs. Tropical profiles of ethane and C2Cl4 reveal that the concentration of Cl is higher than expected on the basis of photochemical model simulations using standard gas phase kinetics and established relationships between total inorganic chlorine and CFC-11. Our observations suggest that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic chlorinated compounds and HCl carried across the tropical tropopause may provide an important source of inorganic chlorine to the tropical lower stratosphere that has been largely unappreciated in previous studies. The entrainment timescale found here is considerably less than the value found by a similar study that focused on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276"><span>Phylogeny, genetic variability and colour polymorphism of an emerging animal model: the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual Nothobranchius fishes from southern Mozambique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorn, A; Ng'oma, E; Janko, K; Reichwald, K; Polačik, M; Platzer, M; Cellerino, A; Reichard, M</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Nothobranchius are a group of small, extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifishes living in temporary savannah pools in Eastern Africa and that survive annual desiccation of their habitat as dormant eggs encased in dry mud. One mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (CX32.2, GHITM, PNP) loci were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Nothobranchius species from southern and central Mozambique. This group shows marked variation in captive lifespan at both the inter- and intraspecific levels; lifespan varies from a few months to over a year. As their distribution encompasses a steep gradient between semi-arid and humid habitats, resulting in contrasting selection pressures on evolution of lifespan and associated life history traits, Mozambican Nothobranchius spp. have recently become a model group in studies of ageing, age-related disorders and life history evolution. Consequently, intraspecific genetic variation and male colour morph distribution was also examined in the recovered clades. Using Bayesian species tree reconstruction and single loci analyses, three large clades were apparent and their phylogenetic substructure was revealed at the inter- and intra-specific levels within those clades. The Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus clades were strongly geographically structured. Further, it was demonstrated that male colour has no phylogenetic signal in N. furzeri, where colour morphs are sympatric, but is associated with two reciprocally monophyletic groups in Nothobranchius rachovii clade, where colour morphs are parapatric. Finally, our analysis showed that a polymorphism in the Melanocortin1 receptor gene (which controls pigmentation in many vertebrates and was a candidate gene of male colouration in N. furzeri) is unrelated to colour phenotypes of the study species. Our results raise significant implications for future comparative studies of the species and populations analysed in the present work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B"><span>Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. II. Varied Shock Wave and Cloud Core Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of ~10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6806699','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6806699"><span>Development of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-77 from the LAMPF facility</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mettler, F.A.; Hylarides, M.</p> <p>1982-12-03</p> <p>The objective of the work is to conduct the necessary studies required to evaluate the efficacy, potential benefit and role of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 labelled steroids in the detection and evaluation of treatment for hormone-dependent tumors. The synthetic goals of 1982-3 included the synthesis estradiol derivatives which were radiohalogenated in the A- or C-ring with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-77 or <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-82. Estradiol derivatives in which the radiohalogen was incorporated into the C-ring were prepared and purified with high specific activity. Biodistribution studies of the resultant compounds will be performed on rats in the near future. Various synthetic approaches toward estradiol which is radiohalogenated in the 1-position are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.7409R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993JGR....98.7409R"><span>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of micrometeorites - Arguments for stratospheric contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, F. J. M.</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-salt nanocrystals are associated with a porous chondritic micrometeorite (W7029E5) that was collected in the lower stratosphere. These salt nanocrystals occur together with volcanic Na and K salt nanocrystals embedded in sulfuric acid droplets that were originally adhered to the particle. These materials were concentrated during hexane rinsing as part of routine curation procedures at the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Curatorial Facility. This observation is fortuitous to the extent that the concentration of nanocrystals and sulfuric acid is an experimental artifact of curation. If <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a stratospheric contaminant due to surface adsorption, there should be a positive linear relationship between the mass-normalized residence time and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of individual micrometeorites. I show that the predicted correlation exists using a new model to calculate the stratospheric residence time of individual nonspherical micrometeorites in the slow-settling Wilson-Huang regime of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051388&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBromine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930051388&hterms=Bromine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DBromine"><span>The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of micrometeorites - Arguments for stratospheric contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, Frans J. M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-salt nanocrystals are associated with a porous chondritic micrometeorite (W7029E5) that was collected in the lower stratosphere. These salt nanocrystals occur together with volcanic Na and K salt nanocrystals embedded in sulfuric acid droplets that were originally adhered to the particle. These materials were concentrated during hexane rinsing as part of routine curation procedures at the NASA Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Curatorial Facility. This observation is fortuitous to the extent that the concentration of nanocrystals and sulfuric acid is an experimental artifact of curation. If <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is a stratospheric contaminant due to surface adsorption, there should be a positive linear relationship between the mass-normalized residence time and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content of individual micrometeorites. I show that the predicted correlation exists using a new model to calculate the stratospheric residence time of individual nonspherical micrometeorites in the slow-settling Wilson-Huang regime of the stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol23-sec180-519.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol23/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol23-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol25/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol25-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2011-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol24/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol24-sec180-519.pdf"><span>40 CFR 180.519 - Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>... Tolerances § 180.519 Bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>; tolerances for residues. (a) General. The food additives, bromide ion and residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, may be present in water, potable in accordance with...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865587','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865587"><span>Method and apparatus for maintaining the pH in zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Grimes, Patrick G.</p> <p>1985-09-10</p> <p>A method and apparatus for maintaining the pH level in a zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery features reacting decomposition hydrogen with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the presence of a catalyst. The catalyst encourages the formation of hydrogen and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> ions. The decomposition hydrogen is therefore consumed, alloying the pH of the system to remain substantially at a given value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231885','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21231885"><span>Temporal effects in porcine skin following <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Price, Jennifer A; Rogers, James V; Wendling, Morgan Q S; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L; Perry, Mark R; Reid, Frances M; Kiser, Robyn C; Graham, John S</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> is an industrial chemical that causes severe cutaneous burns. When selecting or developing effective treatments for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> burns, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of tissue damage and wound healing. This study investigated the effect of cutaneous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure on gene expression using a weanling swine burn model by microarray analysis. Ventral abdominal sites were exposed to a mean calculated <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor concentration of 0.51 g/L for 7 or 17 min. At 6 h, 48 h, and 7 days post-exposure, total RNA from skin samples was isolated, processed, and analyzed with Affymetrix GeneChip® Porcine Genome Arrays (N = 3 per experimental group). Differences in gene expression were observed with respect to exposure duration and sampling time. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed four common biological functions (cancer, cellular movement, cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, and tissue development) among the top ten functions of each experimental group, while canonical pathway analysis revealed 9 genes (ARG2, CCR1, HMOX1, ATF2, IL-8, TIMP1, ESR1, HSPAIL, and SELE) that were commonly shared among four significantly altered signaling pathways. Among these, the transcripts encoding HMOX1 and ESR1 were identified using IPA as common potential therapeutic targets for Phase II/III clinical trial or FDA-approved drugs. The present study describes the transcriptional responses to cutaneous <span class="hlt">bromine</span> vapor exposure identifying molecular networks and genes that could serve as targets for developing therapeutics for <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-induced skin injury.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993GeoRL..20..201S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993GeoRL..20..201S"><span>Spring measurements of tropospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> at Barrow, Alaska</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sturges, William T.; Schnell, Russell C.; Dutton, Geoffrey S.; Garcia, Samuel R.; Lind, John A.</p> <p>1993-02-01</p> <p>The partitioning of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the lower troposphere between particulate, inorganic gaseous, and organic gaseous phases was measured during the arctic spring. Rapid photochemical production of particulate Br from organic gaseous Br was indicated by (1) an inverse correlation between particulate bromide and organic gaseous <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, (2) a diurnal cycle in the ratio of these two phases, and (3) a diurnal cycle in the ratio of organic gaseous Br to Cl. Organic gaseous Br and Cl were correlated indicating a common, possibly marine, source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17156788','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17156788"><span>Recent developments in the analysis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> natural compounds.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Covaci, Adrian; Voorspoels, Stefan; Ramos, Lourdes; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny</p> <p>2007-06-15</p> <p>This article reviews recent literature on the analysis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs) and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> natural compounds (BNCs). The main literature sources are reviews from the last five years and research articles reporting new analytical developments published between 2003 and 2006. Sample pretreatment, extraction, clean-up and fractionation, injection techniques, chromatographic separation, detection methods, quality control and method validation are discussed. Only few new techniques, such as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) or pressurized liquid extraction (PLE), have been investigated for their ability of combining the extraction and clean-up steps. With respect to the separation of BFRs, the most important developments were the use of comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and the growing tendency for liquid-chromatographic techniques for hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) stereoisomers and of tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBP-A). At the detection stage, mass spectrometry (MS) has been developed as well-established and reliable technology in the identification and quantification of BFRs. A growing attention has been paid to quality assurance. Interlaboratory exercises directed towards BFRs have grown in popularity and have enabled laboratories to validate analytical methods and to guarantee the quality of their results. The analytical procedures used for the identification and characterization of several classes of BNCs, such as methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) (also metabolites of PBDEs), halogenated methyl or dimethyl bipyrroles (DBPs), are reviewed here for the first time. These compounds were generally identified during the routine analysis of BFRs and have received little attention until recently. For each topic, an overview is presented of its current status.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27087522"><span>Sensing and inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Sterne by polymer-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> complexes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>D'Angelo, Paola A; Bromberg, Lev; Hatton, T Alan; Wilusz, Eugene</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>We report on the performance of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP-Br), <span class="hlt">brominated</span> poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-Br), and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> poly(allylamine-co-4-aminopyridine) (PAAm-APy-Br) for their ability to decontaminate Bacillus anthracis Sterne spores in solution while also allowing for the sensing of the spores. The polymers were <span class="hlt">brominated</span> by <span class="hlt">bromine</span> using carbon tetrachloride or potassium tribromide as solvents, with <span class="hlt">bromine</span> loadings ranging from 1.6 to 4.2 mEq/g of polymer. B. anthracis Sterne spores were exposed to increasing concentrations of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers for 5 min, while the kinetics of the sporicidal activity was assessed. All <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers demonstrated spore log-kills of 8 within 5 min of exposure at 12 mg/mL aqueous polymer concentration. Sensing of spores was accomplished by measuring the release of dipicolinic acid (DPA) from the spore using time-resolved fluorescence. Parent, non-<span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers did not cause any release of DPA and the spores remained viable. In contrast, spores exposed to the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers were inactivated and the release of DPA was observed within minutes of exposure. Also, this release of DPA continued for a long time after spore inactivation as in a controlled release process. The DPA release was more pronounced for spores exposed to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PVP and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PEG-8000 compared to <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PAAm-APy and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> PEG-400. Using time-resolved fluorescence, we detected as low as 2500 B. anthracis spores, with PEG-8000 being more sensitive to low spore numbers. Our results suggest that the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polymers may be used effectively as decontamination agents against bacterial spores while also providing the sensing capability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Metic..27Q.280R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1992Metic..27Q.280R"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs): Evidence for Stratospheric Contamination</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rietmeijer, F. J. M.</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>Chondritic IDPs that are collected in the lower stratosphere are enriched in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>: up to 40 x CI in an individual IDP [1]. The average enrichment is 19 x CI [2]. Volatile element enrichments in chondritic IDPs show a general increase with increased element volatility [1,2] which is consistent with solar nebula condensation models. However, the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> enrichment is markedly up from the general volatile element enrichment trend. Stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> derives from anthropogenic and volcanic activities and micrometeoroid ablation and evaporation [3]. It is possible that a portion or all <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in IDPs is stratospheric surface contamination. In this case there should be an inverse correlation between <span class="hlt">bromine</span> content and IDP size [1,4]. This correlation is not obvious because it may be complicated by the different ability of exposed IDP surfaces to adsorb volatile elements [1]. To evaluate this model it is important to know whether <span class="hlt">bromine</span> occurs in a distinct mineral phase [5] or in a surface layer that might not survive the curatorial rinsing procedure. Another factor is the IDP stratospheric residence time. In my continued AEM analyses of ultrathin CP IDP sections, I recently observed round Br-containing grains associated with CP IDP W7029E5. These grains (11.6-744 nm in diameter) have a volatile matrix with abundant nanocrystals. Their bulk composition shows the presence of Na, K, Br, Cl, and S. Polycrystalline rings in their diffraction patterns are consistent with KBrO(sub)3, KCl, Na(sub)2SO(sub)3 and Na(sub)2S(sub)2 [Gail Fraundorf, written comm., 1991]. These round grains resemble sulfuric acid droplets associated with silica grains in other CP IDPs [6]. The sulfuric acid was washed off the silica grain surface during curatorial hexane rinsing of IDPs. The AEM data confirm a Br-bearing layer on W7029E5. This study is the first, and so far only, observation of Br-bearing material associated with chondritic IDPs in support of a stratospheric <span class="hlt">bromine</span> surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1018000"><span>Formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the protoplanetary disk during late-stage irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, B; Matzel, J; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Yin, Q -; Nagashima, K; Ramon, E; Weber, P; Ishii, H; Ciesla, F</p> <p>2010-11-30</p> <p>The origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (t{sub 1/2} < 5 Myr) and now extinct radionuclides ({sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 41}Ca, {sup 53}Mn, {sup 60}Fe; hereafter SLRs) is fundamental to understanding the formation of the early solar system. Two distinct classes of models have been proposed to explain the origin of SLRs: (1) injection from a nearby stellar source (e.g., supernova, asymptotic giant branch star or Wolf-Rayet star) and (2) solar energetic particle irradiation of dust and gas near the proto-Sun. Recent studies have demonstrated that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system. However, its presence, initial abundance and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. Here we report {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S and {sup 26}Al-{sup 26}Mg systematics for wadalite and grossular, secondary minerals in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the CV chondrite Allende that allow us to reassess the origin of SLRs. The inferred abundance of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {le} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular indicates that (1) {sup 36}Cl formed by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation and (2) the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by secondary minerals, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We conclude that 36Cl was produced by solar energetic particle irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the accretion region of the CV chondrite parent asteroid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994STIN...9514437R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994STIN...9514437R"><span>Production profiles of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> by galactic-cosmic-ray particles in small meteoroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reedy, R. C.; Masarik, J.</p> <p></p> <p>Many of the meteorites found in cold and hot deserts are small, and many were small bodies in space. Production of cosmic-ray-produced (cosmogenic) <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in small meteoroids is expected to be different than that in the larger meteoroids typically studied, with lower levels of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production by galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles and possibly significant production by solar-cosmic-ray (SCR) protons. Motivated by the cosmogenic-<span class="hlt">nuclide</span> measurements for the very small Salem meteorite and for cosmic spherules, which show high levels of SCR production, we have reported earlier <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rates by SCR protons in small objects in space. The GCR production rates reported for small meteoroids have not been tested and were expected to be poor for meteoroids with radii less than 40 g/cm2 because of the very simple nature of that semi-empirical model (only one free parameter) and because the mix of neutrons and protons is different (relatively more protons) than that in the model, which was based on larger objects. Thus we have calculated produciton rates for <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> mad by GCR particles in small objects with a physical model that is much better suited for unusual targets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6814906','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6814906"><span>Model for GCR-particle fluxes in stony meteorites and production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Reedy, R.C.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A model is presented for the differential fluxes of galactic-cosmic-ray (GCR) particles with energies above 1 MeV inside any spherical stony meteorite as a function of the meteorite's radius and the sample's depth. This model is based on the Reedy-Arnold equations for the energy-dependent fluxes of GCR particles in the moon and is an extension of flux parameters that were derived for several meteorites of various sizes. This flux is used to calculate the production rates of many cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> as a function of radius and depth. The peak production rates for most <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> made by the reactions of energetic GCR particles occur near the centers of meteorites with radii of 40 to 70 g cm/sup -2/. Although the model has some limitations, it reproduces well the basic trends for the depth-dependent production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in stony meteorites of various radii. These production profiles agree fairly well with measurements of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteorites. Some of these production profiles are different than those calculated by others. The chemical dependence of the production rates for several <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> varies with size and depth. 25 references, 8 figures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25560260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25560260"><span>Estimation of the residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentration after disinfection of cooling water by statistical evaluation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Megalopoulos, Fivos A; Ochsenkuehn-Petropoulou, Maria T</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>A statistical model based on multiple linear regression is developed, to estimate the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> residual that can be expected after the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of cooling water. Make-up water sampled from a power plant in the Greek territory was used for the creation of the various cooling water matrices under investigation. The amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fed to the circuit, as well as other important operational parameters such as concentration at the cooling tower, temperature, organic load and contact time are taken as the independent variables. It is found that the highest contribution to the model's predictive ability comes from cooling water's organic load concentration, followed by the amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fed to the circuit, the water's mean temperature, the duration of the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> period and finally its conductivity. Comparison of the model results with the experimental data confirms its ability to predict residual <span class="hlt">bromine</span> given specific <span class="hlt">bromination</span> conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983erec.rept.....B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983erec.rept.....B"><span>Development of a circulating zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery, phase 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bellows, R.; Einstein, H.; Grimes, P.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P. A.; Newby, K.; Tsien, H.; Young, A.</p> <p>1983-10-01</p> <p>This report summarizes Phase 2 of a multi-phase program aimed at developing Exxon's circulating zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery into an advanced energy storage system. Previous work at Exxon had developed a basic zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery system approach. This approach utilizes carbon-plastic electrodes in a bipolar stack design, a circulating electrolyte with separable <span class="hlt">bromine</span> complexes, and shunt current protection. Phase 2 was highlighted by the successful scale-up and demonstration of a 20 kWh zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery module. Important technology improvements were demonstrated in the areas of extended life cycling, low cost stack technology, high power/high efficiency supported electrolytes, and system auxiliaries. The basic technology was augmented via increases in parametric testing, materials testing, and electrolyte studies. Production cost estimates from Phase 1 ($28/kWh in 1980) were projected to an OEM price of $37/kWh using the A.D. Little costing method. A design has been developed for a prototype 20 kWh energy storage system which will be delivered to Sandia National laboratories in 1983 near the completion of Phase 3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1489311','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1489311"><span>[Detection of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> uptake in cadavers from seawater].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Powitz, G</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Pieces of animal and human lungs were placed in seawater. The fluids pressed of it produced in X-ray fluorescence analysis <span class="hlt">bromine</span> concentrations, which exceeded the physiological level. These experiments created the supposition to interpret correctly relevant findings in the victims of flight accidents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3420.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-3420.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.3420 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> arylalkyl ether.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3420 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> arylalkyl ether. Link to an amendment published at 79 FR 34637, June 18, 2014. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90525&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=90525&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>ENHANCED FORMATION OF CHLORINATED PICS BY THE ADDITION OF <span class="hlt">BROMINE</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A systematic series of experiments were performed on a pilot-scale rotary kiln incinerator simulator in which liquid surrogate wastes containing varied levels of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> were burned. The surrogate wastes used were a series of mixtures of methylene chloride and methyl...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901998','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4901998"><span>Regiodefined synthesis of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> hydroxyanthraquinones related to proisocrinins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Roy, Joyeeta; Mal, Tanushree; Jana, Supriti</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Dibromobenzoisofuranone 12, synthesized in six steps, was regiospecifically annulated with 5-substituted cyclohexenones 13/36 in the presence of LiOt-Bu to give <span class="hlt">brominated</span> anthraquinones 14/38 in good yields. Darzens condensation of 30 was shown to give chain-elongated anthraquinone 32. Alkaline hydrolysis of 38 furnished 39 representing desulfoproisocrinin F. PMID:27340445</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1473L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JGRA..122.1473L"><span>Simulation of the production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> on the Moon based on Geant4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yong; Zhang, Xiaoping; Dong, Wudong; Ren, Zhongzhou; Dong, Tiekuang; Xu, Aoao</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>A numerical simulation model is built to simulate the production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> based on Geant4 (GEometry ANd Tracking). Some modifications have been made for cross sections in Geant4 using the experimental data or the other proper model and the contributions of all secondary particles caused by cosmic rays are included in our simulation model. Our simulation results suggest a substantial contribution of the secondary charged pions to the production rates of 10Be and 14C, as high as 21.04% for 10Be and 21.36% for 14C, respectively. Within one set of self-consistent parameters, the simulation results of the production rates of the cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, 53Mn, 36Cl, 41Ca, 26Al, 10Be, and 14C, agree well with the measured data from Apollo 15 drill core. This model provides users a validated approach to study the production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> on the planet surface and in the meteorites.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22257912','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22257912"><span>Reprocessing system with <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> separation based on chromatography in hydrochloric acid solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Tatsuya; Tachibana, Yu; Koyama, Shi-ichi</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We have proposed the reprocessing system with <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> separation processes based on the chromatographic technique in the hydrochloric acid solution system. Our proposed system consists of the dissolution process, the reprocessing process, the minor actinide separation process, and <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> separation processes. In the reprocessing and separation processes, the pyridine resin is used as a main separation media. It was confirmed that the dissolution in the hydrochloric acid solution is easily achieved by the plasma voloxidation and by the addition of oxygen peroxide into the hydrochloric acid solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/245626','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/245626"><span>Applications of in situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the geologic site characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gosse, J.C.; Harrington, C.D.; Whitney, J.W.</p> <p>1995-12-31</p> <p>The gradual buildup of rare isotopes from interactions between cosmic rays and atoms in an exposed rock provides a new method of directly determining the exposure age of rock surfaces. The cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> method can also provide constraints on erosion rates and the length of time surface exposure was interrupted by burial. Numerous successful applications of the technique have been imperative to the complete surface geologic characterization of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential high level nuclear waste repository. In this short paper, we summarize the cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> method and describe with examples some the utility of the technique in geologic site characterization. We report preliminary results from our ongoing work at Yucca Mountain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026787','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850026787"><span>Accelerator experiments on the contribution of secondary particles to the production of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteorites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Dragovitsch, P.; Englert, P.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Through the interaction of galactic cosmic particle radiation (GCR) a wide variety of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> is produced in meteorites. They provide historical information about the cosmic radiation and the bombarded meteorites. An important way to understand the production mechanisms of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteorites is to gather information about the depth and size dependence of the build-up of Galactic Rays Cosmic-secondary particles within meteorites of different sizes and chemical compositions. Simulation experiments with meteorite models offer an alternative to direct observation providing a data basis to describe the development and action of the secondary cascade induced by the GCR in meteorites.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865322','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/865322"><span>Apparatus and method for quantitatively evaluating total fissile and total fertile <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> content in samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Caldwell, John T.; Kunz, Walter E.; Cates, Michael R.; Franks, Larry A.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>Simultaneous photon and neutron interrogation of samples for the quantitative determination of total fissile <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> and total fertile <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> material present is made possible by the use of an electron accelerator. Prompt and delayed neutrons produced from resulting induced fissions are counted using a single detection system and allow the resolution of the contributions from each interrogating flux leading in turn to the quantitative determination sought. Detection limits for .sup.239 Pu are estimated to be about 3 mg using prompt fission neutrons and about 6 mg using delayed neutrons.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018128','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70018128"><span>Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818247G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1818247G"><span>Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope distribution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and alpha counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013mss..confERD11S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013mss..confERD11S"><span>High Resolution Coherent 3d Spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">Bromine</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Strangfeld, Benjamin R.; Wells, Thresa A.; House, Zuri R.; Chen, Peter C.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The high resolution gas phase electronic spectrum of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> is rather congested due to many overlapping vibrational and rotational transitions with similar transition frequencies, and also due to isotopomeric effects. Expansion into the second dimension will remove some of this congestion; however through the implementation of High Resolution Coherent 3D Spectroscopy, the density of peaks is further reduced by at least two orders of magnitude. This allows for the selective examination of a small number of spatially resolved multidimensional bands, separated by vibrational quantum number and by isotopomer, which facilitates the fitting of many rovibrational peaks in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. The ability to derive information about the molecular constants for the electronic states involved will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386233','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21386233"><span>The crystal structure and superconducting properties of monatomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duan, Defang; Meng, Xing; Tian, Fubo; Chen, Changbo; Wang, Liancheng; Ma, Yanming; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing; He, Zhi; Zou, Guangtian</p> <p>2010-01-13</p> <p>The crystal structure and superconducting properties of monatomic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> under high pressure have been studied by first-principles calculations. We have found the following phase transition sequence with increasing pressure: from body-centered orthorhombic (bco, phase II) to body-centered tetragonal structure (bct, phase III) at 126 GPa, then to face-centered cubic structure (fcc, phase IV) at 157 GPa, which is stable at least up to 300 GPa. The calculated superconducting critical temperature T(c) = 1.46 K at 100 GPa is consistent with the experimental value of 1.5 K. In addition, our results of T(c) decrease with increasing pressure in all the monatomic phases of <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, similar to monatomic iodine. Further calculations show that the decrease of λ with pressure in phase IV is mainly attributed to the weakening of the 'soft' vibrational mode caused by pressure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897055','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27897055"><span>Novel <span class="hlt">brominated</span> metabolites from Bryozoa: a functional analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Maltseva, Arina L; Kotenko, Olga N; Kutyumov, Vladimir A; Matvienko, Darya A; Shavarda, Alexey L; Winson, Michael K; Ostrovsky, Andrew N</p> <p>2016-11-29</p> <p>Marine invertebrates are a promising source of novel natural products with biological activities. The phylum Bryozoa is relatively under-investigated in this context, although a number of compounds with medical potential has been discovered in recent years. Here, we report on the novel group of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> metabolites from the bryozoan Terminoflustra membranaceatruncata, including analysis of biological activities of the tribrominated terminoflustrindole A (Cm-1) and the structures of the related dibrominated variants terminoflustrindoles B and C. Terminoflustrindole A was previously shown to have fungicidal properties. Although they vary by just one <span class="hlt">bromine</span> group in each case from terminoflustrindole A, in this study, we report that terminoflustrindoles B and C exhibit no antimicrobial activity in the same assays. In addition to displaying antifungal activity, Terminoflustrindole A was also found to exhibit potent cytotoxic activity when tested against tumour cell lines. The gradient distribution of this compound within the bryozoan colony was demonstrated using LC-MS-analysis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6625966','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6625966"><span>Zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> battery design for electric vehicles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bellows, R.; Grimes, P.; Einstein, H.; Kantner, E.; Malachesky, P.; Newby, K.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Design projections for zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> batteries are attractive for electric vehicle applications in terms of low manufacturing costs ($28/kWh) and good performance characteristics. Zinc-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> batery projections (60 to 80 Wh/kg, 130 to 200 W/kg) compare favorably to both current lead acid batteries and proposed advanced battery candidates. The performance of recently developed battery components with 1200 cm/sup 2/ electrodes in a 120V, 10 kWh module is described. Similarly constructed smaller scale (600 cm/sup 2/) components have shown lifetimes exceeding 400 cycles and the ability to follow both regenerative braking (J227aD) and random cycling regimes. Initial dynamometer evaluations of full scale 20 kWh batteries is expected in early 1984.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177243','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3177243"><span>New Methods for Labeling RGD Peptides with <span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-76</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lang, Lixin; Li, Weihua; Jia, Hong-Mei; Fang, De-Cai; Zhang, Shushu; Sun, Xilin; Zhu, Lei; Ma, Ying; Shen, Baozhong; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Direct <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of the tyrosine residues of peptides and antibodies with <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-76, to create probes for PET imaging, has been reported. For peptides that do not contain tyrosine residues, however, a prosthetic group is required to achieve labeling via conjugation to other functional groups such as terminal α-amines or lysine ε-amines. The goal of this study was to develop new strategies for labeling small peptides with Br-76 using either a direct labeling method or a prosthetic group, depending on the available functional group on the peptides. A new labeling agent, N-succinimidyl-3-[76Br]bromo-2,6-dimethoxybenzoate ([76Br]SBDMB) was prepared for cyclic RGD peptide labeling. N-succinimidyl-2, 6-dimethoxybenzoate was also used to pre-attach a 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoyl (DMB) moiety to the peptide, which could then be labeled with Br-76. A competitive cell binding assay was performed to determine the binding affinity of the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> peptides. PET imaging of U87MG human glioblastoma xenografted mice was performed using [76Br]-BrE[c(RGDyK)]2 and [76Br]-BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK)]2. An ex vivo biodistribution assay was performed to confirm PET quantification. The mechanisms of <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reaction between DMB-c(RGDyK) and the <span class="hlt">brominating</span> agent CH3COOBr were investigated with the SCRF-B3LYP/6-31G* method with the Gaussian 09 program package. The yield for direct labeling of c(RGDyK) and E[c(RGDyK)]2 using chloramine-T and peracetic acid at ambient temperature was greater than 50%. The yield for [76Br]SBDMB was over 60% using peracetic acid. The conjugation yields for labeling c(RGDfK) and c(RGDyK) were over 70% using the prosthetic group at room temperature. Labeling yield for pre-conjugated peptides was over 60%. SDMB conjugation and <span class="hlt">bromination</span> did not affect the binding affinity of the peptides with integrin receptors. Both [76Br]Br-E[c(RGDyK)]2 and [76Br]BrDMB-E[c(RGDyK)]2 showed high tumor uptake in U87MG tumor bearing mice. The specificity of the imaging tracers was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007324','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007324"><span>Measurements of long-lived cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in returned comet nucleus samples</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Nishiizumi, K.; Kohl, C. P.; Arnold, J. R.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of long lived cosmic ray produced radionuclides have given much information on the histories and rates of surface evolution for meteorites, the Moon and the Earth. These <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> can be equally useful in studying cometary histories and post nebular processing of cometary surfaces. The concentration of these <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> depends on the orbit of the comet (cosmic ray intensity changes with distance from the sun), the depth of the sampling site in the comet surface, and the rate of continuous evolution of the surface (erosion rate of surface materials). If the orbital parameters and the sampling depth are known, production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> can be fairly accurately calculated by theoretical models normalized to measurement on lunar surface materials and meteoritic samples. Due to the continuous evaporation of surface materials, it is expected that the long lived radioactivities will be undersaturated. Accurate measurements of the degree of undersaturation in <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of different half-lives allows for the determination of the rate of surface material loss over the last few million years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22003873','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22003873"><span>Production and Separation of T = 1/2 <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> for {beta}--{nu} angular correlation measurements</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Delahaye, P.; Bajeat, O.; Saint Laurent, M. G.; Thomas, J. C.; Traykov, E.; Lienard, E.; Ban, G.; Durand, D.; Flechard, X.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Stora, T.; Collaboration: GANISOL Group</p> <p>2011-11-30</p> <p>The SPIRAL facility at GANIL, which uses the so-called ISOL method to produce radioactive ion beams, is being upgraded to extend its production capabilities to the metallic beams of neutron deficient isotopes. We discuss here the potentialities offered by this upgrade for the measurement of the {beta}--{nu} angular correlation in the {beta}--decay of mirror <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3033H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3033H"><span>Analytical source term optimization for radioactive releases with approximate knowledge of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hofman, Radek; Seibert, Petra; Kovalets, Ivan; Andronopoulos, Spyros</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>We are concerned with source term retrieval in the case of an accident in a nuclear power with off-site consequences. The goal is to optimize atmospheric dispersion model inputs using inverse modeling of gamma dose rate measurements (instantaneous or time-integrated). These are the most abundant type of measurements provided by various radiation monitoring networks across Europe and available continuously in near-real time. Usually, a source term of an accidental release comprises of a mixture of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Unfortunately, gamma dose rate measurements do not provide a direct information on the source term composition; however, physical properties of respective <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> (deposition properties, decay half-life) can yield some insight. In the method presented, we assume that <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios are known at least approximately, e.g. from <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> specific observations or reactor inventory and assumptions on the accident type. The source term can be in multiple phases, each being characterized by constant <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios. The method is an extension of a well-established source term inversion approach based on the optimization of an objective function (minimization of a cost function). This function has two quadratic terms: mismatch between model and measurements weighted by an observation error covariance matrix and the deviation of the solution from a first guess weighted by the first-guess error covariance matrix. For simplicity, both error covariance matrices are approximated as diagonal. Analytical minimization of the cost function leads to a liner system of equations. Possible negative parts of the solution are iteratively removed by the means of first guess error variance reduction. <span class="hlt">Nuclide</span> ratios enter the problem in the form of additional linear equations, where the deviations from prescribed ratios are weighted by factors; the corresponding error variance allows us to control how strongly we want to impose the prescribed ratios. This introduces some freedom into the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6176T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.6176T"><span>Bayesian estimation of a source term of radiation release with approximately known <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tichý, Ondřej; Šmídl, Václav; Hofman, Radek</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We are concerned with estimation of a source term in case of an accidental release from a known location, e.g. a power plant. Usually, the source term of an accidental release of radiation comprises of a mixture of <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>. The gamma dose rate measurements do not provide a direct information on the source term composition. However, physical properties of respective <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> (deposition properties, decay half-life) can be used when uncertain information on <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios is available, e.g. from known reactor inventory. The proposed method is based on linear inverse model where the observation vector y arise as a linear combination y = Mx of a source-receptor-sensitivity (SRS) matrix M and the source term x. The task is to estimate the unknown source term x. The problem is ill-conditioned and further regularization is needed to obtain a reasonable solution. In this contribution, we assume that <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios of the release is known with some degree of uncertainty. This knowledge is used to form the prior covariance matrix of the source term x. Due to uncertainty in the ratios the diagonal elements of the covariance matrix are considered to be unknown. Positivity of the source term estimate is guaranteed by using multivariate truncated Gaussian distribution. Following Bayesian approach, we estimate all parameters of the model from the data so that y, M, and known ratios are the only inputs of the method. Since the inference of the model is intractable, we follow the Variational Bayes method yielding an iterative algorithm for estimation of all model parameters. Performance of the method is studied on simulated 6 hour power plant release where 3 <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> are released and 2 <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios are approximately known. The comparison with method with unknown <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios will be given to prove the usefulness of the proposed approach. This research is supported by EEA/Norwegian Financial Mechanism under project MSMT-28477/2014 Source-Term Determination of Radionuclide Releases</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15099731"><span>Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brown, David J; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Goeyens, Leo; Denison, Michael S; De Vito, Michael J; Clark, George C</p> <p>2004-06-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Brominated</span> flame-retardants (BFRs) are used as additives in plastics to decrease the rate of combustion of these materials, leading to greater consumer safety. As the use of plastics has increased, the production and use of flame-retardants has also grown. Many BFRs are persistent and have been detected in environmental samples, raising concerns about the biological/toxicological risk associated with their use. Most BFRs appear to be non-toxic, however there is still some concern that these compounds, or possible contaminants in BFRs mixtures could interact with cellular receptors. In this study we have examined the interaction of decabromodiphenyl ether, Firemaster BP4A (tetrabromobisphenol A), Firemaster PHT4 (tetrabromophthalic anhydride), hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, decabromobiphenyl, Firemaster BP-6 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl) and possible contaminants of BFR mixtures with the Ah receptor. Receptor binding and activation was examined using the Gel Retardation Assay and increased expression of dioxin responsive genes was detected using the reporter gene based CALUX assay. The results demonstrate the ability of BFRs to activate the AhR signal transduction pathway at moderate to high concentrations as assessed using both assays. AhR-dependent activation by BFRs may be due in part to contaminants present in commercial/technical mixtures. This was suggested by our comparative analysis of Firemaster BP-6 versus its primary component 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Some technical mixtures of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame-retardants contain <span class="hlt">brominated</span> biphenyls, dioxins or dibenzofurans as contaminants. When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these <span class="hlt">brominated</span> HAHs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=315470','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=315470"><span>Eosinophils generate <span class="hlt">brominating</span> oxidants in allergen-induced asthma</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and <span class="hlt">brominating</span> oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive <span class="hlt">brominating</span> species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJMSp.289..167G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010IJMSp.289..167G"><span>High precision determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope ratio by GC-MC-ICPMS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gelman, Faina; Halicz, Ludwik</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This work presents a new methodology for the precise determination of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope ratio in individual organic compounds based on the simultaneous introduction of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> organic compounds and strontium as an external spike into MC-ICPMS. Using the proposed methodology, an external precision (2[sigma]) up to 0.1[per mille sign] has been attained. The new approach for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> isotope ratio analysis could be applied for the investigating the fate of the organobromine compounds in the environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461437','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27461437"><span>Elemental <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> Production by TiO2 Photocatalysis and/or Ozonation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Parrino, Francesco; Camera Roda, Giovanni; Loddo, Vittorio; Palmisano, Leonardo</p> <p>2016-08-22</p> <p>Significant production of elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (Br2 ) was observed for the first time when treating bromide containing solutions at acidic pH, with TiO2 photocatalyst, ozone, or a combination thereof. Br2 selectivities up to approximately 85 % were obtained and the corresponding <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mass balance values satisfied. The process is general and may be applied at a laboratory scale for green <span class="hlt">bromination</span> reactions, or industrially as a cheap, safe, and environmentally sustainable alternative to the currently applied <span class="hlt">bromine</span> production methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3778398','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3778398"><span><span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of hydrocarbons with CBr4, initiated by light-emitting diode irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ohtani, Bunsho; Kikushima, Kotaro</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Summary The <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of hydrocarbons with CBr4 as a <span class="hlt">bromine</span> source, induced by light-emitting diode (LED) irradiation, has been developed. Monobromides were synthesized with high efficiency without the need for any additives, catalysts, heating, or inert conditions. Action and absorption spectra suggest that CBr4 absorbs light to give active species for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span>. The generation of CHBr3 was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and GC–MS spectrometry analysis, indicating that the present <span class="hlt">bromination</span> involves the homolytic cleavage of a C–Br bond in CBr4 followed by radical abstraction of a hydrogen atom from a hydrocarbon. PMID:24062826</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045626&hterms=specific+heat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspecific%2Bheat','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19880045626&hterms=specific+heat&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspecific%2Bheat"><span>Specific heat of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> graphite fibers, composites and HOPG. [Highly Oriented Pyrolytic Graphite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Hung, Ching-Chen; Maciag, Carolyn</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>Differential scanning calorimetry was used to obtain specific heat values of pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100 graphite fibers and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> P-100/epoxy composite as well as pristine and <span class="hlt">brominated</span> highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for comparison. Based on the experimental results obtained, specific heat values are calculated for several different temperatures, with a standard deviation estimated at 1.4 percent of the average values. The data presented here are useful in designing heat transfer devices (such as airplane de-icing heaters) from <span class="hlt">bromine</span> fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACPD....3.2963S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACPD....3.2963S"><span>Inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer: a critical review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sander, R.; Keene, W. C.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Arimoto, R.; Ayers, G. P.; Baboukas, E.; Cainey, J. M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Duce, R. A.; Hönninger, G.; Huebert, B. J.; Maenhaut, W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Turekian, V. C.; van Dingenen, R.</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>The cycling of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer (mbl) has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is depleted in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> by about 50% relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that these depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. However, currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many \\chem{Br}-containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> over the open oceans, excluding the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion) can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br-containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic Br and Cl. Subsequent transformations can destroy tropospheric ozone, oxidize</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACP.....3.1301S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003ACP.....3.1301S"><span>Inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer: a critical review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sander, R.; Keene, W. C.; Pszenny, A. A. P.; Arimoto, R.; Ayers, G. P.; Baboukas, E.; Cainey, J. M.; Crutzen, P. J.; Duce, R. A.; Hönninger, G.; Huebert, B. J.; Maenhaut, W.; Mihalopoulos, N.; Turekian, V. C.; van Dingenen, R.</p> <p>2003-09-01</p> <p>The cycling of inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the marine boundary layer (mbl) has received increased attention in recent years. Bromide, a constituent of sea water, is injected into the atmosphere in association with sea-salt aerosol by breaking waves on the ocean surface. Measurements reveal that supermicrometer sea-salt aerosol is substantially depleted in <span class="hlt">bromine</span> (often exceeding 50%) relative to conservative tracers, whereas marine submicrometer aerosol is often enriched in <span class="hlt">bromine</span>. Model calculations, laboratory studies, and field observations strongly suggest that the supermicrometer depletions reflect the chemical transformation of particulate bromide to reactive inorganic gases that influence the processing of ozone and other important constituents of marine air. Mechanisms for the submicrometer enrichments are not well understood. Currently available techniques cannot reliably quantify many Br containing compounds at ambient concentrations and, consequently, our understanding of inorganic Br cycling over the oceans and its global significance are uncertain. To provide a more coherent framework for future research, we have reviewed measurements in marine aerosol, the gas phase, and in rain. We also summarize sources and sinks, as well as model and laboratory studies of chemical transformations. The focus is on inorganic <span class="hlt">bromine</span> over the open oceans outside the polar regions. The generation of sea-salt aerosol at the ocean surface is the major tropospheric source producing about 6.2 Tg/a of bromide. The transport of Br from continents (as mineral aerosol, and as products from biomass-burning and fossil-fuel combustion) can be of local importance. Transport of degradation products of long-lived Br containing compounds from the stratosphere and other sources contribute lesser amounts. Available evidence suggests that, following aerosol acidification, sea-salt bromide reacts to form Br2 and BrCl that volatilize to the gas phase and photolyze in daylight to produce atomic</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068459','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22068459"><span>Isotope shifts of the 6d{sup 2} D{sub 3/2}-7 p{sup 2} P{sub 1/2} transition in trapped <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +}</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Giri, G. S.; Versolato, O. O.; Berg, J. E. van den; Boell, O.; Dammalapati, U.; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Mueller, S.; Nunez Portela, M.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Santra, B.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.</p> <p>2011-08-15</p> <p>Laser spectroscopy of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes in a linear Paul trap has been performed. The isotope shifts of the 6d{sup 2} D{sub 3/2} -7 p{sup 2} P{sub 1/2} transition in {sup 209-214}Ra{sup +}, which are sensitive to the short-range part of the atomic wave functions, were measured. The results are essential experimental input for improving the precision of atomic structure calculations. This is indispensable for parity violation in Ra{sup +} aiming at the determination of the weak mixing angle.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6347502','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6347502"><span><span class="hlt">Bromine</span>-80m-labeled estrogens: Auger-electron emitting, estrogen receptor-directed ligands with potential for therapy of estrogen receptor positive cancers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>DeSombre, E.R.; Mease, R.C.; Hughes, A.; Harper, P.V.; DeJesus, O.T.; Friedman, A.M.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A triphenylbromoethylene, 1,1-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-bromo-2-phenylethylene, Br-BHPE, and a bromosteroidal estrogen, 17..cap alpha..- bromovinylestradiol, BrVE/sub 2/, were labeled with the Auger electron emitting <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-80m, prepared by the (p,n) reaction with /sup 80/Se. To assess their potential as estrogen receptor (ER) directed therapeutic substrates the <span class="hlt">bromine</span>-80m labeled estrogens were injected into immature female rats and the tissue distribution studied at 0.5 and 2 hours. Both radiobromoestrogens showed substantial diethylstilbesterol (DES)-inhibitable localization in the ER rich tissues, uterus, pituitary, ovary and vagina at both time points. While the percent dose per gram tissue was higher for the Br-BHPE, the BrVE/sub 2/ showed higher tissue to blood ratios, especially at 2 hr, reflecting the lower blood concentrations of radiobromine following administration of the steroidal bromoestrogen. Comparing intraperitoneal, intravenous and subcutaneous routes of administration for the radiobromine labeled Br-BHPE, the intraperitoneal route was particularly advantageous to provide maximum, DES-inhibitable concentrations in the peritoneal, ER-rich target organs, the uterus, ovary and vagina. While uterine concentrations after BrBHPE were from 10--48% dose/g and after BrVE/sub 2/ were 15--25% dose/g, similar treatment with /sup 80m/Br as sodium bromide showed uniform low concentrations in all tissues at about the levels seen in blood. The effective specific activity of (/sup 80m/Br)BrBHPE, assayed by specific binding to ER in rat uterine cytosol, was 8700 Ci/mmole. 23 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.386..149L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.386..149L"><span>Scaling in situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rates using analytical approximations to atmospheric cosmic-ray fluxes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lifton, Nathaniel; Sato, Tatsuhiko; Dunai, Tibor J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Several models have been proposed for scaling in situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production rates from the relatively few sites where they have been measured to other sites of interest. Two main types of models are recognized: (1) those based on data from nuclear disintegrations in photographic emulsions combined with various neutron detectors, and (2) those based largely on neutron monitor data. However, stubborn discrepancies between these model types have led to frequent confusion when calculating surface exposure ages from production rates derived from the models. To help resolve these discrepancies and identify the sources of potential biases in each model, we have developed a new scaling model based on analytical approximations to modeled fluxes of the main atmospheric cosmic-ray particles responsible for in situ cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production. Both the analytical formulations and the Monte Carlo model fluxes on which they are based agree well with measured atmospheric fluxes of neutrons, protons, and muons, indicating they can serve as a robust estimate of the atmospheric cosmic-ray flux based on first principles. We are also using updated records for quantifying temporal and spatial variability in geomagnetic and solar modulation effects on the fluxes. A key advantage of this new model (herein termed LSD) over previous Monte Carlo models of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> production is that it allows for faster estimation of scaling factors based on time-varying geomagnetic and solar inputs. Comparing scaling predictions derived from the LSD model with those of previously published models suggest potential sources of bias in the latter can be largely attributed to two factors: different energy responses of the secondary neutron detectors used in developing the models, and different geomagnetic parameterizations. Given that the LSD model generates flux spectra for each cosmic-ray particle of interest, it is also relatively straightforward to generate <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>-specific scaling</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972162','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24972162"><span>On the calculation of activity concentrations and <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.EA120A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.EA120A"><span>Determination of Concentrations of Radioactive <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> in Soil Samples using Gamma Ray Spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Adil, Arsalan; Weaver, Joshua</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A hyper-pure Germanium detector system was used to determine the contents and concentrations of various <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in soil samples collected from different parts of the United States. These include areas in close proximity to nuclear power plants, areas susceptible to nuclear fallout from weapons testing from the pre Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) period, and areas vulnerable to fallout from Fukushima from the west coast. The concentrations of naturally occurring <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the 238U, 232Th, and 40K decay chains as well as that of synthetic isotopes of 137Cs and 60Co were measured with the aid of Genie-2000 and Radware (gf3m). An efficiency curve was obtained by designing a simulation and compared with standard sources. The research, now in its next stage, aims to do the same in samples from Karachi (Pakistan) which is home to three nuclear power plant projects but has no available baseline radioactivity measurements. University of Richmond.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhG...35a4045M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JPhG...35a4045M"><span>TOF-Bρ mass measurements of very exotic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> for astrophysical calculations at the NSCL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matoš, M.; Estrade, A.; Amthor, M.; Aprahamian, A.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Elliot, T.; Galaviz, D.; Gade, A.; Gupta, S.; Lorusso, G.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Portillo, M.; Rogers, A. M.; Schatz, H.; Shapira, D.; Smith, E.; Stolz, A.; Wallace, M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Atomic masses play a crucial role in many nuclear astrophysics calculations. The lack of experimental values for relevant exotic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> triggered a rapid development of new mass measurement devices around the world. The time-of-flight (TOF) mass measurements offer a complementary technique to the most precise one, Penning trap measurements (Blaum 2006 Phys. Rep. 425 1), the latter being limited by the rate and half-lives of the ions of interest. The NSCL facility provides a well-suited infrastructure for the TOF mass measurements of very exotic nuclei. At this facility, we have recently implemented a TOF-Bρ technique and performed mass measurements of neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the Fe region, important for r-process calculations and for calculations of processes occurring in the crust of accreting neutron stars.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986conu.work...38H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986conu.work...38H"><span>The exposure history of Jilin and production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Heusser, G.</p> <p></p> <p>Jilin, the largest known story meteorite, is a very suitable object for studying the systematics of cosmic ray produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in stony meteorites. Its well established two stage exposure history even permits to gain information about two different irradiation geometries (2pi and 4pi). All stable and long-lived cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> measured in Jilin so far correlate well with each other. An example is shown where the Al-26 activities are plotted vs. the spallogenic Ne-21 concentration. These records of cosmic-ray interaction in Jilin can be used both to determine the history of the target and to study the nature of production rate profiles. This is unavoidably a bootstrap process, involving studying one with assumption about the other. Production rate equations are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7145189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/7145189"><span>Interplay of direct and compound-nucleus mechanisms in neutron capture by light <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raman, S.; Kahane, S.; Lynn, J.E.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The authors discuss the direct-capture theory pertaining to primary electric-dipole (E1) transitions following slow-neutron capture. For approximately 20 light <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> that we have studied, estimates of direct-capture cross sections using optical-model potentials with physically realistic parameters are in reasonable agreement with the data. Minor disagreements that exist are consistent with extrapolations to light <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of generally accepted formulations of compound-nucleus capture. In dealing with nuclei soft to vibrations, we have considered the possible effects of coupling of the collective motion with the optical potential in the framework of R-matrix theory. In such cases, we find that the inclusion of inelastic channels results in systematic changes in the calculated cross sections.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022894','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022894"><span>Studies on cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in meteorites with regard to an application as potential depth indicators</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sarafin, R.; Herpers, U.; Englert, P.; Wieler, R.; Signer, P.; Bonani, G.; Hofmann, H. J.; Morenzoni, E.; Nessi, M.; Suter, M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Measurements of stable and radioactive spallation products in meteorites allow to investigate their histories, especially with respect to the exposure to galactic cosmic ray particles and the pre-atmospheric size of the object. While the concentrations of spallation products lead to the determination of exposure and terrestrial ages, production rate ratios are characteristic for the location of the sample in the meteorite. So, one of the aims of this investigation on meteorites is to obtain depth indicators from suitable pairs of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Because of the different depth profiles for <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> productions it is necessary to determine the concentrations of a larger number of spallation products in aliquots of a single small sample. Such same sample measurements of Be-10 and light noble gases were performed on 15 ordinary chondrites (7 H- and 8 L-chondrites. Be-10 was determined by accelerator mass spectrometry and the noble gases were measured by static mass spectrometry. The results are summarized and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022883','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022883"><span>The exposure history of Jilin and production rates of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Heusser, G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Jilin, the largest known story meteorite, is a very suitable object for studying the systematics of cosmic ray produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in stony meteorites. Its well established two stage exposure history even permits to gain information about two different irradiation geometries (2pi and 4pi). All stable and long-lived cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> measured in Jilin so far correlate well with each other. An example is shown where the Al-26 activities are plotted vs. the spallogenic Ne-21 concentration. These records of cosmic-ray interaction in Jilin can be used both to determine the history of the target and to study the nature of production rate profiles. This is unavoidably a bootstrap process, involving studying one with assumption about the other. Production rate equations are presented and discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10416 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2012-title40-vol32-sec721-10416.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10416 - <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>...) (P-11-264). 721.10416 Section 721.10416 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10416 <span class="hlt">Brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (generic) (P-11-264). (a) Chemical... as <span class="hlt">brominated</span> polyphenyl ether (PMN P-11-264) is subject to reporting under this section for...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stilbenes&id=EJ717320','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stilbenes&id=EJ717320"><span>The Evolution of a Green Chemistry Laboratory Experiment: Greener <span class="hlt">Brominations</span> of Stilbene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>McKenzie, Lallie C.; Huffman, Lauren M.; Hutchison, James E.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The use of green metrics to compare three <span class="hlt">bromination</span> laboratory procedures demonstrates the effectiveness of an incremental greening process for chemistry curricula. Due to this process, the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of alkenes can be introduced to students through the use of a safe, effective, modern practice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812492','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22812492"><span>Fundamental mechanisms of DNA radiosensitization: damage induced by low-energy electrons in <span class="hlt">brominated</span> oligonucleotide trimers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Yeunsoo; Polska, Katarzyna; Rak, Janusz; Wagner, J Richard; Sanche, Léon</p> <p>2012-08-16</p> <p>The replacement of nucleobases with <span class="hlt">brominated</span> analogs enhances DNA radiosensitivity. We examine the chemistry of low-energy electrons (LEEs) in this sensitization process by experiments with thin films of the oligonucleotide trimers TBrXT, where BrX = 5-BrU (5-bromouracil), 5-BrC (5-bromocytosine), 8-BrA (8-bromoadenine), or 8-BrG (8-bromoguanine). The products induced from irradiation of thin (∼ 2.5 nm) oligonucleotide films, with 10 eV electrons, under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) are analyzed by HPLC-UV. The number of damaged <span class="hlt">brominated</span> trimers ranges from about 12 to 15 × 10(-3) molecules per incident electron, whereas under the identical conditions, these numbers drop to 4-7 × 10(-3) for the same, but nonbrominated oligonucleotides. The results of HPLC analysis show that the main degradation pathway of trinucleotides containing <span class="hlt">brominated</span> bases involve debromination (i.e., loss of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> atom and its replacement with a hydrogen atom). The electron-induced sum of products upon <span class="hlt">bromination</span> increases by factors of 2.1 for the pyrimidines and 3.2 for the purines. Thus, substitution of any native nucleobase with a <span class="hlt">brominated</span> one in simple models of DNA increases LEE-induced damage to DNA and hence its radiosensitivity. Furthermore, besides the <span class="hlt">brominated</span> pyrimidines that have already been tested in clinical trials, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> purines not only appear to be promising sensitizers for radiotherapy, but could provide a higher degree of radiosensitization.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sodium&pg=4&id=EJ1090646','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sodium&pg=4&id=EJ1090646"><span>Obtaining the Iodine Value of Various Oils via <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> with Pyridinium Tribromide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Simurdiak, Michael; Olukoga, Olushola; Hedberg, Kirk</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>A laboratory exercise was devised that allows students to rapidly and fairly accurately determine the iodine value of oleic acid. This method utilizes the addition of elemental <span class="hlt">bromine</span> to the unsaturated bonds in oleic acid, due to <span class="hlt">bromine</span>'s relatively fast reaction rate compared to that of the traditional Wijs solution method. This method also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20095529"><span>Bayesian statistical modeling of disinfection byproduct (DBP) <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation in the ICR database.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Francis, Royce A; Vanbriesen, Jeanne M; Small, Mitchell J</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>Statistical models are developed for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation in the trihalomethane (THM), trihaloacetic acids (THAA), dihaloacetic acid (DHAA), and dihaloacetonitrile (DHAN) subclasses of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) using distribution system samples from plants applying only free chlorine as a primary or residual disinfectant in the Information Collection Rule (ICR) database. The objective of this study is to characterize the effect of water quality conditions before, during, and post-treatment on distribution system <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into DBP mixtures. Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are used to model individual DBP concentrations and estimate the coefficients of the linear models used to predict the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation fraction for distribution system DBP mixtures in each of the four priority DBP classes. The <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation models achieve good agreement with the data. The most important predictors of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation fraction across DBP classes are alkalinity, specific UV absorption (SUVA), and the bromide to total organic carbon ratio (Br:TOC) at the first point of chlorine addition. Free chlorine residual in the distribution system, distribution system residence time, distribution system pH, turbidity, and temperature only slightly influence <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation. The bromide to applied chlorine (Br:Cl) ratio is not a significant predictor of the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation fraction (BIF) in any of the four classes studied. These results indicate that removal of natural organic matter and the location of chlorine addition are important treatment decisions that have substantial implications for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> incorporation into disinfection byproduct in drinking waters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922838','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21922838"><span>[Study on modes of occurrence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in coals using sequential chemical extraction procedure].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Peng, Bing-Xian; Wu, Dai-She; Li, Ping</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Modes of occurrence of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in eight coals from Sichuan and Chongqing were studied using inductively coupled plasma spectrometry and sequential chemical extraction. The results showed that the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> mainly occur the water-soluble, ion exchangeable, carbonate, Fe-Mn oxides and organic fraction in these coals, which average total extraction rate was 88.2%. In bituminous coal and anthracite, the mean relative amount was 22.3% and 20.0% for organic <span class="hlt">bromine</span>, 14.0% and 19.2% for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> of carbonate bound and almost equal for the <span class="hlt">bromine</span> from water soluble and Fe-Mn oxidizes. The ion exchangeable <span class="hlt">bromine</span> may be mainly adsorbed to organic matter in these coals. The relative amount of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in various modes of occurrence may not be very closely related to its sedimentary environment during the formation of coal. <span class="hlt">Bromine</span> in coals from Sichuan and Chongqing should be paid more attention because its potential leachable rate was 36.62% - 86.80% and potential leachable content was 7.092- 20.10 microg/g.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=titration&pg=2&id=EJ1002584','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=titration&pg=2&id=EJ1002584"><span>A Multistep Synthesis Incorporating a Green <span class="hlt">Bromination</span> of an Aromatic Ring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cardinal, Pascal; Greer, Brandon; Luong, Horace; Tyagunova, Yevgeniya</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Electrophilic aromatic substitution is a fundamental topic taught in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum. A multistep synthesis that includes a safer and greener method for the <span class="hlt">bromination</span> of an aromatic ring than traditional <span class="hlt">bromination</span> methods is described. This experiment is multifaceted and can be used to teach students about…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20188948','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20188948"><span>Determination of iodine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in coal and atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Mingxing; Gao, Yunchuan; Wei, Biwen; Wu, Xiaowei</p> <p>2010-04-15</p> <p><span class="hlt">Bromine</span> and iodine in atmospheric particles or coal can cause environmental problems such as destruction of ozone in the atmosphere; therefore, the presence of these compounds has recently received increased attention. Here, a rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine using ICP-MS analysis is described. Samples were dissolved in mixtures of 5 mL of HNO(3) and 2 mL of H(2)O(2) in a high pressure microwave digester. The solution was then oxidized by per-sulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(8)) in addition to a small amount of silver nitrate, after which the total <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine were measured simultaneously by ICP-MS. The signal memory effects of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine during analysis were effectively decreased by washing with a new mixture agent (2% alcohol acidic solution, pH 1-2 adjusted with HCl). The detection limits for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine using this method were about 3.2 microg L(-1) and 1.1 microg L(-1), respectively. Additionally, the spike recoveries were between 78.7% and 121% for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine analysis, while the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.3% to 9.7%, and from 1.5% to 3.4% for <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the method described here is suitable for the analysis of micro-amounts of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> and iodine in atmospheric particles and coal samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10280.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10280.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>. (a... benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> (PMN P-10-476; CAS No. 1195978-93-8)) is...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10280.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10280.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10280 - Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10280 Benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span>. (a... benzene ethenyl-, polymer with 1,3-butadiene, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> (PMN P-10-476; CAS No. 1195978-93-8)) is...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001OAP....14..235G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001OAP....14..235G"><span>The Abundances of <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span> Magnesium in the Atmospheres of Arcturus and Aldebaran</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gorbanjeva, T. I.; Kantzen, L. E.; Komarov, N. S.</p> <p></p> <p>The abundances of <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> magnesium in the atmospheres of Arcturus and Aldebaran thick and thin disks of Galaxy have been studied. The stars have various chromospheric activity. We used the new data on molecular constants of radiation for every electrically- vibrationally-rotating line of molecular system A2 Π-X2 Σ for MgH. The synthetic spectra were calculated. The values determined are generally close, but not equal, to the solar ratios.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5597808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5597808"><span>Fabrication of a set of realistic torso phantoms for calibration of transuranic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> lung counting facilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, A.L.; Sundbeck, C.W.; Alderson, S.W.</p> <p>1983-10-26</p> <p>A set of 16 tissue equivalent torso phantoms has been fabricated for use by major laboratories involved in counting transuranic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the lung. These phantoms, which have bone equivalent plastic rib cages, duplicate the performance of the DOE Realistic Phantom set. The new phantoms (and their successors) provide the user laboratories with a highly realistic calibration tool. Moreover, use of these phantoms will allow participating laboratories to intercompare calibration information, both on formal and informal bases. 3 refs., 2 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA279392','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA279392"><span>Surface Exposure Geochronology Using Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">Nuclides</span>: Applications in Antarctic Glacial Geology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://publicaccess.dtic.mil/psm/api/service/search/search">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-02-01</p> <p>Lal, 1987; Brook and Kurz, 1993 [Chapter 3]). Nuclear interactions with muons (negative ;i- mesons ) produce a number of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>. Muons are...of plates allows measurement of both the rate of energy loss (AE) of the particle, and I the total or residual (Er) energy. Most light ions have a...domains of in ts smple. varying optical extinction angles in crossed polarized light , and deformed or "-metamorphic quartz." The general trend of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6264519','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6264519"><span>Total and spontaneous fission half-lives of the americium and curium <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, N.E.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The total half-life and the half-life for spontaneous fission are evaluated for the various long-lived <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of interest. Recommended values are presented for /sup 241/Am, /sup 242m/Am, /sup 243/Am, /sup 242/Cm, /sup 243/Cm, /sup 244/Cm, /sup 245/Cm, /sup 246/Cm, /sup 247/Cm, /sup 248/Cm, and /sup 250/Cm. The uncertainties are provided at the 95% confidence limit for each of the recommended values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5400201','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5400201"><span>Heavy mass elements total half-lives for selected long-lived <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Holden, N.E.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In the past, many compilations and evaluations of half-lives have been made which have uncritically accepted authors' values and uncertainties. They have merely recommended weight-averaged reported results. This evaluation attempts to reanalyze each experiment in the literature including an estimate of the standard deviation utilizing, where possible, an estimate of the systematic error. This paper constitutes a preliminary step in the process of recommending values. The long-lived <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> of heavy mass elements are of interest in determining geological ages using the Re-Os or the Lu-Hf dating methods, in supplying information on the p-process (proton capture) of nucleo-synthesis, in providing information on lepton number conservation and the rest mass for the electron neutrino from double ..beta.. decay processes and in the case of tantalum because it represents the first long-lived state which is actually an isomer. Experimental data on the half-lives of selected <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> have been evaluated and recommended values and uncertainties are presented for the following <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>: /sup 128/Te, /sup 130/Te, /sup 129/I, /sup 138/La, /sup 144,145/Nd, /sup 146,147,148/Sm, /sup 152/Gd, /sup 154/Dy, /sup 176/Lu, /sup 174/Hf, /sup 180/Ta, /sup 187/Re, /sup 186/Os, /sup 190/Pt, /sup 204,205/Pb and /sup 230,232/Th. It is shown that /sup 204/Pb, which was previously thought to be radioactive, is stable. For /sup 205/Pb, the L electron capture x-rays have been revised for the M and higher x-ray yields. The resulting half-life for /sup 205/Pb is 1.9 +- 0.3 x 10/sup 7/ years. /sup 146/Sm with a half-life of 1.03 +- 0.05 x 10/sup 8/ years is the longest-lived extinct natural <span class="hlt">nuclide</span>. 21 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1321104','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1321104"><span>Measurement of radon/thoron and its daughter <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in room air.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suppian, R; Vegandraj, S; Kandaiya, S</p> <p>1992-07-01</p> <p>Pumping air through a soft tissue which acts as a membrane is a relatively easy and quick method to collect and measure radon/thoron and its daughter <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in air. Analysis of the activity of the radionuclides can be calculated using an alpha counter which has been calibrated. In this method the activity of radon/thoron cannot be separated from the activity of radionuclides already present in the aerosol or dust particles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10625.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title40-vol32/pdf/CFR-2013-title40-vol32-sec721-10625.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>... benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). 721.10625 Section 721.10625 Protection... Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). (a... generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10625.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title40-vol31/pdf/CFR-2014-title40-vol31-sec721-10625.pdf"><span>40 CFR 721.10625 - Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>... benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). 721.10625 Section 721.10625 Protection... Distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane (generic). (a... generically as distillation bottoms, alkylated benzene by-product, <span class="hlt">brominated</span> and bromo diphenyl alkane...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=194363&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=194363&keyword=Bromine&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=90718988&CFTOKEN=99248257"><span>Levels of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenylether, dibenzo-P-dioxin, and dibenzofuran in flue gases of a municipal waste combustor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Due to the extensive use of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> flame retardants (BFRs), including <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenylether (BDE) formulations, for various domestic and industrial applications, the presence of <span class="hlt">brominated</span> chemicals in the waste stream is to be expected for decades. As much as 40% to 50% o...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020512','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19870020512"><span>Theoretical performance of hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> rechargeable SPE fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007949','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19730007949"><span>Dissociation rate of <span class="hlt">bromine</span> diatomics in an argon heat bath</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Razner, R.; Hopkins, D.</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of a collection of 300 K <span class="hlt">bromine</span> diatomics embedded in a heat bath of argon atoms at 1800 K was studied by computer, and a dissociation-rate constant for the reaction Br2 + BR + Ar yields Br + Ar was determined. Previously published probability distributions for energy and angular momentum transfers in classical three-dimensional Br2-Ar collisions were used in conjunction with a newly developed Monte Carlo scheme for this purpose. Results are compared with experimental shock-tube data and the predictions of several other theoretical models. A departure from equilibrium is obtained which is significantly greater than that predicted by any of these other theories.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001907','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19930001907"><span>Future chlorine-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> loading and ozone depletion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Prather, Michael J.; Ibrahim, Abdel Moneim; Sasaki, Toru; Stordal, Frode; Visconti, Guido</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>The prediction of future ozone requires three elements: (1) a scenario for the net emissions of chemically and radiatively active trace gases from the land and oceans; (2) a global atmospheric model that projects the accumulation of these gases; and (3) a chemical transport model that describes the distribution of ozone for a prescribed atmospheric composition and climate. This chapter, of necessity, presents models for all three elements and focuses on the following: (1) atmospheric abundance of chlorine and <span class="hlt">bromine</span> in the form of halocarbons; and (2) the associated perturbations to stratospheric ozone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18539291','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18539291"><span>Environmental analysis of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S</p> <p>2009-01-16</p> <p>Methods for environmental analysis of higher <span class="hlt">brominated</span> diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JPS....22..423S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988JPS....22..423S"><span>Theoretical performance of hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> rechargeable SPE fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savinell, R. F.; Fritts, S. D.</p> <p>1988-04-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987sert.nasa..321S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987sert.nasa..321S"><span>Theoretical performance of hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> rechargeable SPE fuel cell</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savinell, Robert F.; Fritts, S. D.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>A mathematical model was formulated to describe the performance of a hydrogen-<span class="hlt">bromine</span> fuel cell. Porous electrode theory was applied to the carbon felt flow-by electrode and was coupled to theory describing the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) system. Parametric studies using the numerical solution to this model were performed to determine the effect of kinetic, mass transfer, and design parameters on the performance of the fuel cell. The results indicate that the cell performance is most sensitive to the transport properties of the SPE membrane. The model was also shown to be a useful tool for scale-up studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890008943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890008943"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> in the Martian surface: Constraints for sample recovery and transport</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Englert, Peter A. J.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Stable and radioactive cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and radiation damage effects such as cosmic ray tracks can provide information on the surface history of Mars. A recent overview on developments in cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> research for historical studies of predominantly extraterrestrial materials was published previously. The information content of cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and radiation damage effects produced in the Martian surface is based on the different ways of interaction of the primary galactic and solar cosmic radiation (GCR, SCR) and the secondary particle cascade. Generally the kind and extent of interactions as seen in the products depend on the following factors: (1) composition, energy and intensity of the primary SCR and GCR; (2) composition, energy and intensity of the GCR-induced cascade of secondary particles; (3) the target geometry, i.e., the spatial parameters of Martian surface features with respect to the primary radiation source; (4) the target chemistry, i.e., the chemical composition of the Martian surface at the sampling location down to the minor element level or lower; and (5) duration of the exposure. These factors are not independent of each other and have a major influence on sample taking strategies and techniques.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HyInt.237...43M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016HyInt.237...43M"><span>Synchrotron radiation based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various <span class="hlt">nuclides</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mitsui, Takaya; Seto, Makoto</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Synchrotron-radiation (SR) based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of various <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> is reviewed. The details of the measuring system and analysis method are described. Especially, the following two advantages of the current system are described: the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close distance between the energy standard scatterer and the detector. Both of these advantages yield the enhancement of the counting rate and reduction of the measuring time. Furthermore, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of 40K, 151Eu, and 174Yb is introduced to show the wide applicability of this method. In addition to these three <span class="hlt">nuclides</span>, SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy of 61Ni, 73Ge, 119Sn, 125Te, 127I, 149Sm, and 189Os has been performed. We continue to develop the method to increase available <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> and to increase its ease of use. The complementary relation between the time-domain method using SR, such as nuclear forward scattering and the energy-domain methods such as SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy is also noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJMSp.251..286L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006IJMSp.251..286L"><span>Mass measurements of the shortest-lived <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> à la MISTRAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lunney, D.; Vieira, N.; Audi, G.; Gaulard, C.; de Saint Simon, M.; Thibault, C.</p> <p>2006-04-01</p> <p>At Princeton in the 1960's, L.G. Smith invented an instrument of astonishing accuracy and rapid measurement time, derived from his so-called mass synchrometer. Using the same principle, a radiofrequency spectrometer was constructed in Orsay to measure masses of the shortest-lived <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> at Cern's Isolde facility. Smith's spectrometer is now a museum piece, making the Orsay version (since baptized, MISTRAL) the sole example of such an instrument and the only one ever to be used on-line. Here we report on a measurement of the 65[thin space]ms half-life, NDZ <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> performed with MISTRAL. The measured mass excess of [thin space]keV is compared with that obtained by ISOLTRAP, since independent measurements using different techniques assure a healthy gene pool for the recommended masses of the atomic mass evaluation. The <span class="hlt">nuclide</span> is the heaviest for which a precise mass is of importance for the so-called Wigner energy. A discussion is presented concerning this Wigner energy, perhaps the last component of nuclear mass formulas resisting microscopic treatment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20771204','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20771204"><span>Light <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> produced in the proton-induced spallation of {sup 238}U at 1 GeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ricciardi, M.V.; Armbruster, P.; Enqvist, T.; Kelic, A.; Rejmund, F.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Yordanov, O.; Benlliure, J.; Pereira, J.; Bernas, M.; Mustapha, B.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.</p> <p>2006-01-15</p> <p>The production of light and intermediate-mass <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> formed in the reaction {sup 1}H+{sup 238}U at 1 GeV was measured at the Fragment Separator at GSI, Darmstadt. The experiment was performed in inverse kinematics, by shooting a 1 A GeV {sup 238}U beam on a thin liquid-hydrogen target. A total of 254 isotopes of all elements in the range 7{<=}Z{<=}37 were unambiguously identified, and the velocity distributions of the produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> were determined with high precision. The results show that the <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> are produced in a very asymmetric binary decay of heavy nuclei originating from the spallation of uranium. All the features of the produced <span class="hlt">nuclides</span> merge with the characteristics of the fission products as their mass increases.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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