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Sample records for short-lived neutron-deficient nuclei

  1. Magnetic moments of neutron deficient yttrium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Berks; El Hajjaji, O.; Fahad, M.; Hassani, R.; Giroux, J.; Marest, G.; Marguier, G.; Stone, N.J.; Rikovska, J.; Green, V.R.; and others

    1987-12-10

    This paper describes recent low temperature nulcear orientation (LTNO) work on neutron deficient /sup 85m,86,86m/Y nuclei. Results are compared with experimental systematics of neighbouring nuclei and particle core coupling calculations.

  2. The Onset of Deformation in Neutron-Deficient At Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.B.; Chapman, R.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Dorvaux, O.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P.M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaa, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Le Coz, Y.; Leino, M.; Middleton, D.J.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Spohr, K.-M.

    1999-12-31

    Excited states in the {sup 197}At nucleus have been identified for the first time using the recoil-decay-tagging technique. The excitation energy of these states is found to be consistent with the systematics of neutron-deficient At nuclei and with calculations indicating that the nucleus may be deformed in its ground state. A more recent experiment, to study states in {sup 195}At, is discussed.

  3. The onset of deformation in neutron-deficient At nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. B.; Chapman, R.; Middleton, D. J.; Spohr, K.-M.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Nieminen, P.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Coz, Y. Le

    1999-11-16

    Excited states in the {sup 197}At nucleus have been identified for the first time using the recoil-decay-tagging technique. The excitation energy of these states is found to be consistent with the systematics of neutron-deficient. At nuclei and with calculations indicating that the nucleus may be deformed in its ground state. A more recent experiment, to study states in {sup 195}At, is discussed.

  4. Spectroscopy of neutron-deficient nuclei around 36Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, A.; Azaiez, F.; Bourgeois, Ch.; Franchoo, S.; Ibrahim, F.; Verney, D.; Dombradi, Zs.; Algora, A.; Fueloep, Zs.; Sohler, D.; Al-Khatib, A.; Bringel, P.; Engelhardt, C.; Huebel, H.; Bastin, B.; Benzoni, G.; Borcea, R.; Rotaru, F.; Sorlin, O.

    2006-04-26

    An experiment was performed to extend the knowledge of excited states in neutron-deficient Ca isotopes. In particular, excited states in 36Ca were searched for to allow for a comparison with its stable mirror nucleus, 36S. Secondary beams of 37Ca and 36Ca were produced by fragmentation of a primary 40Ca beam with an energy of 95 {center_dot} A MeV on the SISSI target at GANIL. A variety of nuclei around 36Ca has been produced in a secondary Be target by neutron and proton-removal at beam energies around 61 {center_dot} A MeV. The produced nuclei were identified using the spectrometer SPEG, and prompt {gamma} rays were measured with the Chateau de Cristal. A preliminary value for the energy of the first 2+ state of 36Ca has been determined.

  5. Probe of Triple Shape Coexistence In Neutron Deficient Polonium Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wiseman, D. R.; Page, R. D.; Darby, I. G.; Andreyev, A. N.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kettunen, H.; Leino, M.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Nyman, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Uusitalo, J.; Sandzelius, M.

    2006-04-26

    {gamma}-ray transitions in the neutron deficient 190,197Po nuclei have been identified. The yrast band of 190Po has been extended up to a spin and parity of 14+ and is found to display similar systematic behaviour to isotones 186Hg and 188Pb above the 4+ level, thus confirming its prolate nature. In 197Po the band built upon the 13/2+ isomer has been extended up to a spin and parity of 33/2+, while the non-yrast side-band has been observed for the first time. The behaviour of 197Po is found to be similar to that of the nearby even-mass isotopes, which is consistent with the model in which the i13/2 neutron is weakly coupled to the states in the even-even core.

  6. Four-Quasiparticle High-K States in Neutron-Deficient Lead and Polonium Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yue; Xu, Furong

    2012-06-01

    Configuration-constrained potential energy surface calculations have been performed to investigate four-quasiparticle high-K configurations in neutron-deficient lead and polonium isotopes. A good agreement between the calculations and the experimental data has been found for the excitation energy of the observed Kπ = 19- state in 188Pb. Several lowly excited high-K states are predicted, and the large oblate deformation and low energy indicate high-K isomerism in these nuclei.

  7. Theoretical predictions on production of neutron-deficient nuclei with Z ≥ 93 in multinucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Su, Jun; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2017-08-01

    Within the framework of dinuclear system model, the transfer reactions 58Ni + 233U, 58Ni + 238U, and 64Ni + 238U are investigated. The influences of projectile and target neutron numbers on cross sections of producing neutron-deficient actinide nuclei in transfer reactions are studied. It is found that the system 58Ni + 233U with smaller neutron excess is favorable to produce neutron-deficient nuclei. We predict the production cross sections of neutron-deficient nuclei with Z = 93- 98 in transfer reactions 58Ni + 233U and 40Ca + 245Cm with different incident energies. We find the transfer reactions 58Ni + 233U and 40Ca + 245Cm are feasible for producing neutron-deficient actinide nuclei in future experiments.

  8. Probing collectivity in the vicinity of neutron deficient Pb nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grahn, T.; Page, R. D.; Petts, A.; Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, Th.; Hornillos, M. B. Gomez; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Uusitalo, J.

    2008-05-12

    A series of recoil distance Doppler-shift lifetime measurements have been carried out to probe collectivity and configuration mixing of different shapes in the vicinity of neutron mid-shell Pb nuclei. Lifetime measurements of {sup 186}Pb and {sup 194}Po, the first ever utilizing the recoil-decay tagging method, probed the collectivity of coexisting prolate and oblate shapes in this region. Futher lifetime measurements of excited states in {sup 180}Hg, {sup 182}Hg and {sup 196}Po have been carried out.

  9. Delayed-fission properties of neutron-deficient americium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, H.L. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-10-23

    Characteristics of the delayed-fission decay mode in light americium nuclei have been investigated. Measurements on the unknown isotopes {sup 230}Am and {sup 236}Am were attempted, and upper limits on the delayed-fission branches of these nuclei were determined. Evidence of the existence of {sup 236}Am was observed in radiochemical separations. Total kinetic energy and mass-yield distributions of the electron-capture delayed-fission mode were measured for {sup 232}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 1.31 {plus minus} 0.04 min) and for {sup 234}Am (t{sub 1/2} = 2.32 {plus minus} 0.08 min), and delayed-fission probabilities of 6.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} and 6.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}, respectively, were determined. The total kinetic energy and the asymmetric mass-yield distributions are typical of fission of mid-range actinides. No discernible influence of the anomalous triple-peaked mass division characteristic of the thorium-radium region was detected. Measurements of the time correlation between the electron-capture x-rays and the subsequent fission conform that the observed fissions arise from the electron-capture delayed-fission mechanism. Delayed fission has provided a unique opportunity to extend the range of low-energy fission studies to previously inaccessible regions. 71 refs., 44 figs., 13 tabs.

  10. Projected shell model study of yrast states of neutron-deficient odd-mass Pr nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanez-Sandoval, A.; Ortiz, M. E.; Velazquez, V.; Galindo-Uribarri, A.; Hess, P. O.; Sun, Y.

    2011-03-15

    A wide variety of modern instruments allow us to study neutron-deficient nuclei in the A=130 mass region. Highly deformed nuclei have been found in this region, providing opportunities to study the deformed rotational bands. The description of the {sup 125,127,129,131,133}Pr isotopes with the projected shell model is presented in this paper. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained and some characteristics are discussed, including the dynamic moment of inertia J{sup (2)}, kinetic moment of inertia J{sup (1)}, the crossing of rotational bands, and backbending effects.

  11. Projected Shell Model Study of Yrast States of Neutron-Deficient Odd-Mass Pr Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ibanes, A.; Ortiz, Mark E; Velazquez, V.; Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}; Hess, P. O.; Sun, Y.

    2011-01-01

    A wide variety of modern instruments allow us to study neutron-deficient nuclei in the A = 130 mass region. Highly deformed nuclei have been found in this region, providing opportunities to study the deformed rotational bands. The description of the 125,127,129,131,133Pr isotopes with the projected shell model is presented in this paper. Good agreement between theory and experiment is obtained and some characteristics are discussed, including the dynamic moment of inertia J (2), kinetic moment of inertia J (1), the crossing of rotational bands, and backbending effects.

  12. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, U.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cederwall, B.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; HerzáÅ, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Stolze, S.

    2015-10-01

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2+ state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2+ state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2+ state and the spherical 9/2- ground state in 203Fr and 205Fr.

  13. Spectroscopy of low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsson, U. Cederwall, B.; Uusitalo, J.; Auranen, K.; Badran, H.; Cox, D. M.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Herzáň, A.; Konki, J.; Leino, M.; Mallaburn, M.; Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Partanen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Sarén, J.; and others

    2015-10-15

    Low-lying states in neutron-deficient astatine and francium nuclei have been studied by means of in-beam and delayed spectroscopy. The 13/2{sup +} state has been observed in francium nuclei with a similar down-sloping trend as in neighbouring astatine and bismuth isotopes, as a function of decreasing neutron number. A systematic trend can also now be seen for the 1/2{sup +} state both in astatine and francium nuclei, where the level energy decreases steeply as a function of neutron number when moving further away from the neutron shell closure. This trend is very similar between astatine nuclei and their francium isotones. Moreover, shape coexistence has been observed between the 13/2{sup +} state and the spherical 9/2{sup −} ground state in {sup 203}Fr and {sup 205}Fr.

  14. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    DOE PAGES

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Betamore » Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.« less

  15. Failure of the gross theory of beta decay in neutron deficient nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, R. B.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The neutron deficient isotopes 117-121Xe, 117-124Cs, and 122-124Ba were produced by a beam of 28Si from the LBNL SuperHILAC on a target of natMo. The isotopes were mass separated and their beta decay schemes were measured with a Total Absorption Spectrometer (TAS). The beta strengths derived from these data decreased dramatically to levels above ≈1 MeV for the even-even decays; 3–4 MeV for even-Z, odd-N decays; 4–5 MeV for the odd-Z, even-N decays; and 7–8 MeV for the odd-Z, odd-N decays. The decreasing strength to higher excitation energies in the daughters contradicts the predictions of the Gross Theory of Beta Decay. The integrated beta strengths are instead found to be consistent with shell model predictions where the single-particle beta strengths are divided amoung many low-lying levels. The experimental beta strengths determined here have been used calculate the half-lives of 143 neutron deficient nuclei with Z=51–64 to a precision of 20% with respect to the measured values.

  16. Competition between α decay and proton radioactivity of neutron-deficient nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Z.; Cui, J. P.; Zhang, Y. L.; Zhang, S.; Gu, J. Z.

    2017-01-01

    The α decay and proton radioactivity half-lives of some neutron-deficient nuclei are calculated using an effective liquid drop model (ELDM). It is found that the experimental half-lives of the two decay modes and the dominant decay mode can be well reproduced by the ELDM. Moreover, the predicted penetration probabilities (P ) of proton radioactivity by the ELDM are in agreement with those by a microscopic model (MM). This allows us to make predictions on the competition of the two decay modes for nuclei whose experimental data are not available, which are useful for future measurements. In addition, the comparison between the predicted reduced proton radioactivity half-lives by the ELDM and the ones by a standard formula suggests that one is unlikely to observe large angular momentum transfers for nuclei with a very large Coulomb parameter χ . Last, we find that in most isotope chains the proton radioactivity is the dominant decay mode for nuclei that are very close to the proton drip line. But with increasing neutron number N the main decay mode is changed into α decay. With the decay energies the decay mode anomaly of 184Bi is discussed.

  17. Calculations of the β-decay half-lives of neutron-deficient nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Wenjin; Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-05-01

    In this work, β+/EC decays of some medium-mass nuclei are investigated within the extended quasiparticle random-phase approximation (QRPA), where neutron-neutron, proton-proton and neutron-proton (np) pairing correlations are taken into consideration in the specialized Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) transformation. In addition to the pairing interaction, the Brückner G-matrix obtained with the charge-dependent Bonn nucleon-nucleon force is used for the residual particle-particle and particle-hole interactions. Calculations are performed for even-even proton-rich isotopes ranging from Z=24 to Z=34. It is found that the np pairing interaction plays a significant role in β-decay for some nuclei far from stability. Compared with other theoretical calculations, our calculations show good agreement with the available experimental data. Predictions of β-decay half-lives for some very neutron-deficient nuclei are made for reference. Supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (11535004, 11375086, 11120101005, 11175085 and 11235001), 973 Nation Major State Basic Research and Development of China (2013CB834400) and Science and Technology Development Fund of Macau (020/2014/A1 and 039/2013/A2)

  18. Low energy E0 transitions in odd-mass nuclei of the neutron deficient 180 < A < 200 region

    SciTech Connect

    Zganjar, E.F.; Kortelahti, M.O.; Wood, J.L.; Papanicolopulos, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    The region of neutron-deficient nuclei near Z = 82 and N = 104 provides the most extensive example of low-energy shape coexistence anywhere on the mass surface. It is shown that E0 and E0 admixed transitions may be used as a fingerprint to identify shape coexistence in odd-mass nuclei. It is also shown that all the known cases of low energy E0 and E0 admixed transitions in odd-mass nuclei occur where equally low-lying O/sup +/ states occur in neighboring even-even nuclei. A discussion of these and other relevant data as well as suggestions for new studies which may help to clarify and, more importantly, quantify the connection between E0 transitions and shape coexistence are presented. 60 refs., 7 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Isomeric states in neutron-deficient A~80-90 nuclei populated in the fragmentation of Ag107

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnsworthy, A. B.; Regan, P. H.; Pietri, S.; Sun, Y.; Xu, F. R.; Rudolph, D.; Górska, M.; Cáceres, L.; Podolyák, Zs.; Steer, S. J.; Hoischen, R.; Heinz, A.; Becker, F.; Bednarczyk, P.; Doornenbal, P.; Geissel, H.; Gerl, J.; Grawe, H.; Grebosz, J.; Kelic, A.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Montes, F.; Prokopwicz, W.; Saito, T.; Schaffner, H.; Tachenov, S.; Werner-Malento, E.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Benzoni, G.; Blank, B.; Brandau, C.; Bruce, A. M.; Camera, F.; Catford, W. N.; Cullen, I. J.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Estevez, E.; Gelletly, W.; Ilie, G.; Jolie, J.; Jones, G. A.; Jungclaus, A.; Kmiecik, M.; Kondev, F. G.; Kurtukian-Nieto, T.; Lalkovski, S.; Liu, Z.; Maj, A.; Myalski, S.; Pfützner, M.; Schwertel, S.; Shizuma, T.; Simons, A. J.; Walker, P. M.; Wieland, O.

    2009-12-01

    The relativistic projectile fragmentation of a 750 MeV per nucleon beam of Ag107 was used to populate isomeric states in neutron-deficient nuclei around A=80-90. Reaction products were separated and unambiguously identified using the GSI FRagment Separator (FRS) and its ancillary detectors. At the final focal plane, the fragments were slowed from relativistic energies by means of an aluminium degrader and implanted in a passive stopper in the center of the high-efficiency, high-granularity Stopped Rare Isotope Spectroscopic INvestigation at GSI (RISING) germanium array. This allowed the identification of excited states in the N=Z nuclei 4386Tc and, for the first time, 4182Nb. Isomeric states have also been identified for the first time in Tc87,88, and a previously unreported isomer was observed in Nb84. Experimental results are presented along with a discussion on the structure of these nuclei based on interpretations provided by several theoretical models.

  20. Multi-quasiparticle excitation: Extending shape coexistence in A~190 neutron-deficient nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yue; Xu, F. R.; Liu, H. L.; Walker, P. M.

    2010-10-01

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in neutron-deficient mercury, lead, and polonium isotopes have been investigated systematically by means of configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations. An abundance of high-K states is predicted with both prolate and oblate shapes, which extends the shape coexistence of the mass region. Well-deformed shapes provide good conditions for the formation of isomers, as exemplified in Pb188. Of particular interest is the prediction of low-lying 10- states in polonium isotopes, which indicate long-lived isomers.

  1. Multi-quasiparticle excitation: Extending shape coexistence in A{approx}190 neutron-deficient nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Shi Yue; Liu, H. L.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.

    2010-10-15

    Multi-quasiparticle high-K states in neutron-deficient mercury, lead, and polonium isotopes have been investigated systematically by means of configuration-constrained potential-energy-surface calculations. An abundance of high-K states is predicted with both prolate and oblate shapes, which extends the shape coexistence of the mass region. Well-deformed shapes provide good conditions for the formation of isomers, as exemplified in {sup 188}Pb. Of particular interest is the prediction of low-lying 10{sup -} states in polonium isotopes, which indicate long-lived isomers.

  2. AGB stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose is to estimate the possible contribution of some short-lived nuclei to the early solar nebula from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) sources. Low mass (1 to 3 solar mass) AGB stars appear to provide a site for synthesis of the main s process component for solar system material with an exponential distribution of neutron irradiations varies as exp(-tau/tau(sub 0)) (where tau is the time integrated neutron flux with a mean neutron exposure tau(sub 0)) for solar abundances with tau(sub 0) = 0.28 mb(sup -1). Previous workers estimated the synthesis of key short-lived nuclei which might be produced in AGB stars. While these calculations exhibit the basic characteristics of nuclei production by neutron exposure, there is need for a self-consistent calculation that follows AGB evolution and takes into account the net production from a star and dilution with the cloud medium. Many of the general approaches and the conclusions arrived at were presented earlier by Cameron. The production of nuclei for a star of 1.5 solar mass during the thermal pulsing of the AGB phase was evaluated. Calculations were done for a series of thermal pulses with tau(sub 0) = 0.12 and 0.28 mb(sup -1). These pulses involve s nucleosynthesis in the burning shell at the base of the He zone followed by the ignition of the H burning shell at the top of the He zone. After about 10-15 cycles the abundances of the various nuclei in the He zone become constant. Computations of the abundances of all nuclei in the He zone were made following Gallino. The mass of the solar nebula was considered to consist of some initial material of approximately solar composition plus some contributions from AGB stars. The ratios of the masses required from the AGB He burning zone to the ISM necessary to produce the observed value of Pd-107/Pd-108 in the early solar system were calculated and this dilution factor was applied to all other relevant nuclei.

  3. Deformation of the very neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclei produced with the SPIRAL 76Kr radioactive beam and studied with EXOGAM + DIAMANT

    SciTech Connect

    Redon, N.; Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph.; Meyer, M.; Rosse, B.; Stezowski, O.; France, G. de; Casandjian, J. M.

    2004-02-27

    The structure of the very neutron-deficient rare-earth nuclei has been investigated in the first experiment with the EXOGAM gamma array coupled to the DIAMANT light charged particle detector using radioactive beam of 76Kr delivered by the SPIRAL facility. Very neutron-deficient Pr, Nd and Pm isotopes have been populated at rather high spin by the reaction 76Kr + 58Ni at a beam energy of 328 MeV. We report here the first results of this experiment.

  4. Isotope shift calculations for D lines of stable and short-lived lithium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Geng-Hua; Zhao, Peng-Yi; Xu, Bing-Ming; Yang, Wei; Zhu, Xiao-Ling

    2016-11-01

    The isotope shifts (ISs) for the 2s2S1/2 to 2p2P J (J = 1/2, 3/2) transitions of the lithium nuclei including the stable and short-lived isotopes are calculated based on the multi-configuration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method and the relativistic configuration interaction approach. The results are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental results within a deviation less than 0.05%. The methods used here could be applied to the IS calculations for other heavier Li-like ions and few-electron systems. Project supported by the Young Scientists Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304093), the Fund of the Scientific Research Foundation of Sichuan Provincial Department of Education, China (Grant No. 15ZB0386), and the Fund of the 1315 Project of Chengdu University, China (Grant No. 2081915041).

  5. Electron-capture delayed fission properties of neutron-deficient einsteinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.

    2000-01-01

    Electron-capture delayed fission (ECDF) properties of neutron-deficient einsteinium isotopes were investigated using a combination of chemical separations and on-line radiation detection methods. 242Es was produced via the 233U(14N,5n)242Es reaction at a beam energy of 87 MeV (on target) in the lab system, and was found to decay with a half-life of 11 ± 3 seconds. The ECDF of 242Es showed a highly asymmetric mass distribution with an average pre-neutron emission total kinetic energy (TKE) of 183 ± 18 MeV. The probability of delayed fission (PDF) was measured to be 0.006 ± 0.002. In conjunction with this experiment, the excitation functions of the 233U(14N,xn)247-xEs and 233U(15N,xn)248-xEs reactions were measured for 243Es, 244Es and 245Es at projectile energies between 80 MeV and 100 MeV.

  6. Shape-coexisting rotation in neutron-deficient Hg and Pb nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, C. F.; Shi, Yue; Liu, H. L.; Xu, F. R.; Walker, P. M.

    2015-03-01

    For a shape-soft nucleus, the deformation change with increasing angular momentum of rotation can be significant. Total-Routhian-surface (TRS) calculations include the shape changes, but angular momentum is not conserved (neither is it a good quantum number, nor is it kept unchanged in the whole TRS mesh). In the projected shell model (PSM), the angular momentum appears as a good quantum number, but calculations have usually been performed with fixed deformation. In the present work, by performing angular-momentum projection on the mean-field potential-energy surface (PES), we can obtain an angular-momentum-conserved PES which gives deformation for a rotational state at a given spin. In order to investigate the shape-changing effect, we have chosen neutron-deficient Hg and Pb isotopes in which shape coexistence occurs. We interpret the irregular rotational behavior of the oblate bands at low spin as arising from deformation changes which are induced by collective rotation. At higher spin, the oblate rotational spectrum can also be influenced by the crossing between the K =0 ground-state band and a low-K two-quasineutron band. Calculated g factors for the states of oblate bands are given for future experimental testing, and the intrinsic structures of high-K oblate states are investigated.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of neutron-deficient light nuclei: decay properties of 21Mg, 25Si and 26P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, J.-C.; Achouri, L.; ńystö, J.; Béraud, R.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Dendooven, P.; Ensallem, A.; Giovinazzo, J.; Guillet, N.; Honkanen, J.; Jokinen, A.; Laird, A.; Lewitowicz, M.; Longour, C.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Stanoiu, M.

    2003-09-01

    Neutron-deficient nuclei with Tz equals to -3/2 and -2 have been produced at the GANIL/LISE3 facility in fragmentation reactions of a 95 MeV/u 36Ar primary beam in a 12C target. For the first time, β-delayed proton and β-γ emission has been simultaneously observed in the decay of 21Mg, 25Si and 26P. The decay scheme of the latter is proposed and the Gamow-Teller strength distribution in its β decay is compared to shell-model calculations based on the USD interaction. The B(GT) values derived from the absolute measurement of the β-branching ratios are in agreement with the quenching factor of about 60% obtained for allowed Gamow-Teller transitions in this mass region. A precise half-life of 43.7 (6) ms was determined for 26P, the β-2p emission of which was studied. The expected contribution of spectroscopic studies of neutron-rich nuclei is discussed with respect to the mirror asymmetry phenomenon occuring in analogous β decays.

  8. Developments in precison mass measurements of short-lived r-process nuclei with CARIBU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, S. T.; Aprahamian, A.; Mumpower, M.; Nystrom, A.; Paul, N.; Siegl, K.; Strauss, S.; Surman, R.; Clark, J. A.; Perez Galvan, A.; Savard, G.; Morgan, G.; Orford, R.

    2013-10-01

    The confluence of new radioactive beam facilities and modern precision mass spectrometry techniques now make it possible to measure masses of many neutron-rich nuclei important to nuclear structure and astrophysics. A recent mass sensitivity study (S. Brett et al., Eur. Phys. J., A 48, 184 (2012)) identified the nuclear masses that are the most influential to the final rapid-neutron capture process abundance distributions under various astrophysical scenarios. This work motivated a campaign of precision mass measurements using the Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) installed at the Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility at Argonne National Laboratory. In order to measure the weakest and most short-lived (t1/2 < 150 ms) of these influential nuclei, a series of upgrades to the CARIBU and CPT systems have been developed. The implementation of these upgrades, the r-process mass measurements, and the status of CARIBU facilty will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of NSERC, Canada, appl. # 216974, the U.S. DOE, Office of Nuclear Physics, under contracts DE-AC02-06CH11357, DE-FG02-91ER-40609, DE-FG02-98ER41086, & DE-AC52-07NA27344, and NSF Grants PHY08-22648 and PHY-106819.

  9. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Progress report, May 1, 1980-January 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.

    1981-02-01

    The first stage of the program to study the sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure is to develop a movable laser spectroscopy system. This system is now almost complete and is described in this report along with plans for measurements at Argonne National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory.

  10. Odd-even staggering in yields of neutron-deficient nuclei produced by projectile fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, B.; Xu, H. S.; Zhang, Y. H.; Wang, M.; Tu, X. L.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Sun, Z. Y.; Zhou, X. H.; Yuan, Y. J.; Blaum, K.; Ricciardi, M. V.; Kelić-Heil, A.; Mao, R. S.; Hu, Z. G.; Shuai, P.; Zang, Y. D.; Ma, X. W.; Zhang, X. Y.; Xia, J. W.; Xiao, G. Q.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, J. C.; Zhang, X. H.; Xu, X.; Yan, X. L.; Zhang, W.; Zhan, W. L.

    2016-10-01

    Background: Fragment yields exhibit a strong odd-even staggering (OES). This OES has been experimentally observed in different fragmentation reactions with different projectile-target combinations. However, the experimental data are still scarce for fragments close to drip lines and the origin of this OES is not well understood. Purpose: More experimental data are needed to explore the origin of this OES in fragment yields and to validate fragmentation reaction models, especially for nuclei close to the drip lines. To study the pronounced OES near the proton drip line, we measured the yields of Tz=-1 and Tz=-3 /2 nuclei over a wide range of mass number. Methods: The combination of a fragment separator and a storage ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou has been used to measure the yields of Tz=-1 and Tz=-3 /2 fragments, produced by 58Ni projectiles impinging on a beryllium target at an energy of about 463 MeV/nucleon. Results: A very strong OES is observed in the measured yields of both Tz=-1 and Tz=-3 /2 fragments. Our experimental data demonstrate that the shell structure has a significant impact on the magnitude of this OES. A comparison of different fragmentation reaction data indicates that this OES is almost independent of the projectile-target combinations and the fragmentation energy between 140 and 650 MeV/nucleon. Conclusions: Our study reveals that the OES of fragment yields originates mainly from the OES of particle-emission threshold energies, which is very close to the OES of fragment yields when the Coulomb barrier is considered in particle-emission threshold energies.

  11. Nuclear structure investigations of neutron deficient nuclei in the region Z=103 to 105

    SciTech Connect

    Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Armbruster, P.; Muenzenberg, G.; Stodel, Ch.; Ackermann, D.; Lavrentev, A. Yu.; Popeko, A. G.; Yeremin, A. V.; Saro, S.; Leino, M.

    1999-11-16

    The isotopes {sup 257,255}Rf, {sup 257,256}Db, {sup 253,252}Lr have been produced in bombardments of {sup 207,208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi target nuclei with {sup 50}Ti and identified by their {alpha}-decay. New or improved decay data could be obtained. Analysis of the fine structure of the {alpha}-decay pattern of {sup 257}Rf allowed the construction of a first tentative level scheme for the daughter nucleus {sup 253}No and also the identification of a low lying high spin isomeric state, while from {alpha}-{gamma}- coincidence measurements for {sup 255}Rf a first tentative level scheme of the daughter nucleus {sup 251}No was derived. For {sup 257}Db we found that two nuclear levels decay by {alpha}-emission and populate also different levels in the daughter nucleus {sup 253}Lr. The levels are produced by the reaction process. In bombardments of {sup 209}Bi with {sup 50}Ti at E{sub CN}*=26.4 MeV and 30.8 MeV the previously unknown isotopes {sup 256}Db and {sup 252}Lr were identified.

  12. Nuclear Structure Investigations of Neutron Deficient Nuclei in the Region Z = 103 to 105

    SciTech Connect

    Heberger, F.P.; Hofmann, S.; Ackermann, D.; Armbruster, P.; Munzenberg, G.; Stodel, Ch.; Lavrentev, A.Yu.; Popeko, A.G.; Yeremin, A.V.; Saro, S.; Leino, M.

    1999-12-31

    The isotopes {sup 257,255}Rf, {sup 257,256}Db, {sup 253,252}Lr have been produced in bombardments of {sup 207,208}Pb and {sup 209}Bi target nuclei with {sup 50}Ti and identified by their {alpha}-decay. New or improved decay data could be obtained. Analysis of the fine structure of the {alpha}-decay pattern of {sup 257}Rf allowed the construction of a first tentative level scheme for the daughter nucleus {sup 253}No and also the identification of a low lying high spin isomeric state, while from {alpha}-{gamma} coincidence measurements for {sup 255}Rf a first tentative level scheme of the daughter nucleus {sup 251}No was derived. For {sup 257}Db we found that two nuclear levels decay by {alpha}-emission and populate also different levels in the daughter nucleus {sup 253}Lr. The levels are produced by the reaction process. In bombardments of {sup 209}Bi with {sup 50}Ti at E*{sub cn} = 26.4 MeV and 30.8 MeV the previously unknown isotopes {sup 256}Db and {sup 22}Lr were identified.

  13. Particle-Hole Symmetries Near Closed Shells:. General Structure and Applications in Neutron-Deficient Nuclei in the PB Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heyde, K.; de Coster, C.; Decroix, B.; Wood, J. L.

    2001-11-01

    We discuss the recent observation of low-lying collective bands built on 0+ intruder states in the neutron-deficient Pb region. Next to an interpretation making use of a deformed mean-field, we also discuss thes excitations within the context of 2p-2h and 4p-4h proton excitations across the Z = 82 proton shell closure. Possibilities to embed this shell-model description within the context of interacting particle and hole pairs, or within an extended Interacting Boson Model (EIBM), is put forward. We also indicate the presence of symmetries within this EIBM.

  14. New Developments for Isochronous Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, S. A.; Boutin, D.; Chen, L.; Geissel, H.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Winckler, N.; Sun, B.; Beckert, K.; Beller, P.; Bosch, F.; Brandau, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Dolinskii, A.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Montes, F.; Muenzenberg, G.; Nociforo, C.

    2007-02-26

    The combination of the in-flight separator FRS and the storage-ring ESR at GSI offers unique possibilities for high accuracy mass and lifetime measurements of bare and few-electron fragments. Operating the ESR in the isochronous mode allows for measurements of revolution frequencies of stored ions without cooling. Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) can be applied to fragments with half-lives as short as several tens of microseconds. Newly developed magnetic rigidity tagging increases the resolving power of IMS to about 500000. IMS can be used to measure masses of nuclei with rates even lower than one ion per day, a property also needed for the purpose of the ILIMA project at the future facility FAIR.

  15. Measuring reaction probability ratios to simulate neutron-induced cross-sections of short-lived nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plettner, C.; Ai, H.; Beausang, C. W.; Bernstein, L. A.; Ahle, L.; Amro, H.; Babilon, M.; Burke, J. T.; Caggiano, J. A.; Casten, R. F.; Church, J. A.; Cooper, J. R.; Crider, B.; Gürdal, G.; Heinz, A.; McCutchan, E. A.; Moody, K.; Punyon, J. A.; Qian, J.; Ressler, J. J.; Schiller, A.; Williams, E.; Younes, W.

    2005-10-01

    Measuring the neutron-induced fission cross-sections of short-lived nuclei represents an experimental challenge due to target activity and the low intensity of neutron beams. One way to alleviate the problems inherent in the direct measurement is to use the surrogate method, where one measures the decay probability of the same compound nucleus formed using a charged beam and a stable target. The decay probability of the compound nucleus is then used to estimate the neutron-induced cross-section. As an extension to the surrogate method, we introduce a new method of reporting the fission probabilities of two compound nuclei as a ratio, which has the advantage of removing most of the systematic uncertainties. The ratio method was checked in a known case, the 236U(n, f)/238U(n, f) cross-section ratio, which turned out to be the same as the probability ratio of P(236U(d, pf))/P(238U(d, pf)). As an application, the 237U(n, f)/235U(n, f) cross-section ratio was inferred, on the basis of the measured P(238U(d, d'f))/P(236U(d, d'f)) probability ratio.

  16. Estimates of fission barrier heights for neutron-deficient Po to Ra nuclei produced in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagaidak, Roman

    2017-09-01

    The cross section data for fission and evaporation residue production in fusion reactions leading to nuclei from Po to Ra have been considered in a systematic way in the framework of the conventional barrier-passing (fusion) model coupled with the statistical model. The cross section data obtained in very asymmetric projectile-target combinations can be described within these models rather well with the adjusted model parameters. In particular, one can scale and fix the macroscopic (liquid-drop) fission barrier heights (FBHs) for nuclei involved in the de-excitation of compound nuclei produced in the reactions. The macroscopic FBHs for nuclei from Po to Ra have been derived in the framework of such analysis and compared with the predictions of various theoretical models.

  17. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  18. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-01-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (10(exp 6) less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 10(exp 7) yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau(sub 0) were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau(sub 0). It is found that small masses M(sub He) of He-shell material (10(exp -4)-10(exp -7) solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau(sub 0) = 0.03 mbarn(sup -1)) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of M(sub He)/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10(exp -4). This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10(exp -4) of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is

  19. Asymptotic Giant Branch stars as a source of short-lived radioactive nuclei in the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasserburg, G. J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Raiteri, C. M.

    1994-03-01

    We carried out a theoretical evaluation of the contribution of Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars to some short-lived (106 less than or equal to Tau-bar less than or equal to 2 x 107 yr) isotopes in the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in the early solar system using stellar model calculations for thermally pulsing evolutionary phases of low-mass stars. The yields of s-process nuclei in the convective He-shell for different neutron exposures tau0 were obtained, and AGB stars were shown to produce several radioactive nuclei (especially Pd-107, Pb-205, Fe-60, Zr-93, Tc-99, Cs-135, and Hf-182) in diferent amounts. Assuming either contamination of the solar nebula from a single AGB star or models for continuous injection and mixing from many stars into the ISM, we calculate the ratios of radioactive to stable nuclei at the epoch of the Sun's formation. The dilution factor between the AGB ejecta and the early solar system matter is obtained by matching the observed Pd-107/Pd-108 and depends on the value of tau0. It is found that small masses MHe of He-shell material (10-4-10-7 solar mass) enriched in s-process nuclei are sufficient to contaminate 1 solar mass of the ISM to produce the Pd-107 found in the early solar system. Predictions are made for all of the other radioactive isotopes. The optimal model to explain several observed radioactive species at different states of the proto-solar nebula involves a single AGB star with a low neutron exposure (tau0 = 0.03 mbarn-1) which contaminated the cloud with a dilution factor of MHe/solar mass approximately 1.5 x 10-4. This will also contribute newly synthesized stable s-process nuclei in the amount of approximately 10-4 of their abundances already present in the proto-solar cloud. Variations in the degree of homogenization (approximately 30%) of the injected material may account for some of the small general isotopic anomalies found in meteorites. It is also found that Fe-60 is produced in small but significant quantities

  20. Intermediate-energy inverse-kinematics one-proton pickup reactions on neutron-deficient fp-shell nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDaniel, S.; Gade, A.; Tostevin, J. A.; Baugher, T.; Bazin, D.; Brown, B. A.; Cook, J. M.; Glasmacher, T.; Grinyer, G. F.; Ratkiewicz, A.; Weisshaar, D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Thick-target-induced nucleon-adding transfer reactions onto energetic rare-isotope beams are an emerging spectroscopic tool. Their sensitivity to single-particle structure complements one-nucleon removal reaction capabilities in the quest to reveal the evolution of nuclear shell structure in very exotic nuclei. Purpose: Our purpose is to add intermediate-energy, carbon-target-induced one-proton pickup reactions to the arsenal of γ-ray-tagged direct reactions applicable in the regime of low beam intensities and to apply these for the first time to fp-shell nuclei. Methods: Inclusive and partial cross sections were measured for the 12C(48Cr,49Mn+γ)X and 12C(50Fe,51Co+γ)X proton pickup reactions at 56.7 and 61.2 MeV/nucleon, respectively, using coincident particle-γ spectroscopy at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The results are compared to reaction theory calculations using fp-shell-model nuclear structure input. For comparison with our previous work, the same reactions were measured on 9Be targets. Results: The measured partial cross sections confirm the specific population pattern predicted by theory, with pickup into high-ℓ orbitals being strongly favored, driven by linear and angular momentum matching. Conclusion: Carbon-target-induced pickup reactions are well suited, in the regime of modest beam intensity, to study the evolution of nuclear structure, with specific sensitivities that are well described by theory.

  1. Design Study for a Multi-Reflection Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrograph for Very Short Lived Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jin Woo; Park, Young-Ho; Im, Kang-Bin; Kim, Gi Dong; Kim, Yong Kyun

    The multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MR-TOF-MS) has been designed for the high precision mass measurement system in RAON accelerator facility, which will be constructed in Korea. Mirror-electrode potentials were numerically optimized by Nelder-Mead algorithm. The temporal spread and the mass-resolving power were calculated for the 132Sn+ ions with an energy spread of 20 eV and an emittance of 3 π mm mrad; the mass resolving power over 105 was achieved. MR-TOF-MS will be used for the isobar separation and the mass measurement for very short-lived isotopes.

  2. Precision Mass Measurements of Short-Lived, Neutron-Rich, R-Process Nuclei About the N=82 Waiting Point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lascar, Daniel David

    This thesis details the precision mass measurements of 33 neutron-rich ground-state nuclei and isomeric states that approach or lie on the proposed rapid neutron capture process (r-process) path. For many of the nuclei measured the work presented here will be the rst direct mass measurements of these nuclei, including 130In, 137Sb, 133I, and 134I. The measurements were made using the Canadian Penning Trap mass spectrometer (CPT), located at the ATLAS heavy ion-linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Ground states and isomers have been measured with the CPT at fractional precisions (δm/m) between 10-7, and 10-8. The nuclei were produced at the new CAlifornium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) to ATLAS. Because nuclear masses are required for measuring neutron separation energies, and neutron separation energies are important inputs in r-process network calculations, precision mass measurements are critical for advancing our knowledge of the r-process. This thesis will give the astrophysical motivation for making these mass measurements, the theoretical background behind ion trapping and mass measurements using ion traps, an explanation of the CPT apparatus, the mass measurements themselves, and the results of those measurements as they pertain to r-process network calculations. Results of these mass measurements show significant shifts in the r-process path over a range of temperatures and neutron densities.

  3. A high-speed target-rotation system (taro) for the study of short-lived nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyatake, H.; Hama, H.; Kamiya, T.; Yoshii, M.; Shinozuka, T.; Fujioka, M.

    1986-05-01

    We describe the design and performance of a high-speed target-rotation system for the study of nuclei far from stability, by which targets can be transported to the detector position in 60 ms after irradiation (90° rotation). The rotor movement and the cyclotron beam pulsing, as well as the data acquisition, are controlled by a microcomputer. Using this device 54Co (T {1}/{2} = 193 ms) and 58Cu (T {1}/{2} = 3.2 s) were observed in a test experiment with a transport efficiency of 71 and 98%, respectively (180° rotation).

  4. Shape coexistence in neutron deficient Po nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Helariutta, K.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Enqvist, T.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Jaemsen, P.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Piiparinen, M.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Trzaska, W. H.; Toermaenen, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Allatt, R. G.

    1999-11-16

    The excited levels in {sup 192-195}Po have been studied using the recoil-decay tagging method. New levels have been identified. The data are in accordance with the scheme of the coexisting spherical and deformed intruder structures crossing each other with N<112.

  5. Shape Coexistence in Neutron Deficient Po Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Helariutta, K.; Cocks, J.F.C.; Enqvist, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Jamsen, P.; Kankaanpaa, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuiusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikkui, M.; Piiparinen, M.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Trzaska, W.H.; Tormanen, S.; Uusitalo, J.; Allatt, R.G.; Butler, P.A.; Page, R.D.; Kapusta, M.

    1999-12-31

    The excited levels in {sup 192-195}Po have been studied using the recoil-decay tagging method. New levels have been identified. The data are in accordance with the scheme of the coexisting spherical and deformed intruder structures crossing each other with N<112.

  6. On-Line Nuclear Orientation Studies of Neutron Deficient Tellurium, Iodine and Cesium Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Timothy Lee

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. On-line nuclear orientation at low temperature has become an important technique for the study of nuclei far from stability, through measurements of nuclear moments and other quantities of spectroscopic interest. The theory of low temperature nuclear orientation and its application to the study of nuclear structure are reviewed. Of particular importance to the on-line measurement, in which a wide range of short-lived nuclei are available for study, is the question of how fast these nuclei can be cooled to the lattice temperature, and thus oriented. To address this, the theory of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation, relevant to the on-line technique, is outlined. In particular, quantitative methods to deal with cases in which the spin -lattice relaxation time is comparable with the isotope half-life have been developed and applied. One of the major current interests in nuclear structure physics is to investigate how the neutron-proton interaction influences the structure of nuclei that are transitional, between well established regions of spherical and deformed nuclei. In such nuclei, intruder excitations, which signal the onset of deformation, are observed low in energy. Using the Daresbury on-line isotope separator, an extensive study of the decay of ^{118 }I to ^{118}Te has been performed using nuclear orientation techniques, combined with gamma - gamma and conversion electron spectroscopy measurements. Interpretation of the results obtained for ^{118}Te within the framework of IBM-2, gives strong evidence for the existence of such an intruder configuration in this nucleus. On-line experiments have also been performed in which a range of neutron-deficient Cs nuclei has been oriented for the first time. In these measurements the hyperfine field of CsFe has been determined as (+)40.8(7) T, and also the Korringa constant for the system ^ {121}Cs^{m}Fe has been measured (using a new

  7. Efficiency and rate capability studies of the time-of-flight detector for isochronous mass measurements of stored short-lived nuclei with the FRS-ESR facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzminchuk-Feuerstein, Natalia; Fabian, Benjamin; Diwisch, Marcel; Plaß, Wolfgang R.; Geissel, Hans; Ayet San Andrés, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Knöbel, Ronja; Scheidenberger, Christoph; Sun, Baohua; Weick, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) detector is used for Isochronous Mass Spectrometry (IMS) with the projectile fragment separator FRS and the heavy-ion storage ring ESR. Exotic nuclei are spatially separated in flight with the FRS at about 70% of the speed of light and are injected into the ESR. The revolution times of the stored ions circulating in the ESR are measured with a thin transmission foil detector. When the ions penetrate the thin detector foil, secondary electrons (SEs) are emitted from the surface and provide the timing information in combination with microchannel plate (MCP) detectors. The isochronous transport of the SEs is performed by perpendicular superimposed electric and magnetic fields. The detection efficiency and the rate capability of the TOF detector have been studied in simulations and experiments. As a result the performance of the TOF detector has been improved substantially: (i) The SE collection efficiency was doubled by use of an optimized set of electric and magnetic field values; now SEs from almost the full area of the foil are transmitted to the MCP detectors. (ii) The rate capability of the TOF detector was improved by a factor of four by the use of MCPs with 5 μm pore size. (iii) With these MCPs and a carbon foil with a reduced thickness of 10 μg/cm2 the number of recorded revolutions in the ESR has been increased by nearly a factor of 10. The number of recorded revolutions determine the precision of the IMS experiments. Heavy-ion measurements were performed with neon ions at 322 MeV/u and uranium fission fragments at about 370 MeV/u. In addition, measurements with an alpha source were performed in the laboratory with a duplicate of the TOF detector.

  8. γ-ray spectroscopy of neutron-deficient 123Ce

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. F.; Angus, L. J.; Paul, E. S.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chantler, H. J.; Choy, P. T. W.; Davids, C. N.; Devlin, M.; Fossan, D. B.; Freeman, S. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kelsall, N. S.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D. R.; Sarantites, D. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Starosta, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A. N.

    2012-09-01

    Excited states have been identified in the very neutron-deficient Z=58 nucleus 123Ce. This is the most neutron-deficient odd-A cerium isotope in which excited states have been identified. The states have been unambiguously assigned to 123Ce by detecting de-excitation γ rays in coincidence with evaporated charged particles and neutrons. Three rotational bands, each consisting of at least eight E2 transitions, have been observed. The bands have tentatively been assigned to be based on neutrons in g7/2 and h11/2 orbitals. Two of the bands have been assigned to be signature partners, although no interband transitions have been observed. The aligned angular momenta of the bands have been studied in comparison with neighboring nuclei and with the results of Woods-Saxon cranking calculations. Observation of the deformation-dependent π(h11/2)2 quasiparticle alignment at 0.36 MeV/ℏ in each of the bands suggests a quadrupole deformation of β2≃0.3, in good agreement with theoretical predictions for the suggested possible configuration assignments.

  9. Beta Decay Measurements of Neutron Deficient Cesium Isotopes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parry, Roger Franklin

    The study of nuclei far from beta stability provides information on nuclear binding energies and nuclear structure. However, as one progresses away from the valley of stability, the associated half-lives and production cross sections decrease with increasing interference from the decays of adjacent nuclei. An experimental solution to these problems was the use of the He-jet fed on-line mass separator, RAMA. This instrument provided a fast and selective technique for the mass separation necessary for the investigation of exotic nuclei. Using this device, a beta decay Q-value study of the neutron deficient cesium isotopes, ('119-123)Cs, was conducted. Beta decay endpoint energy measurements of the neutron deficient cesium isotopes were done using an energy spectrum shape fitting technique. This was a departure from the typical method of endpoint energy analysis, the Fermi-Kurie plot. A discussion of the shape fitting procedure and its improved features are discussed. These beta endpoint measurements have led to total decay energies (Q(,EC)) of the neutron deficient ('119 -123)Cs isotopes. The total decay energies of ('122m)Cs (Q(,EC) = 6.95 (+OR-) 0.25 MeV) and ('119)Cs (Q(,EC) = 6.26 (+OR-) 0.29 MeV) were new measurements. The total decay energies of ('123)Cs (Q(,EC) = 4.05 (+OR-) 0.18 MeV), ('122g)Cs (Q(,EC) = 7.05 (+OR-) 0.18 MeV), ('121)Cs (Q(,EC) = 5.21 (+OR-) 0.22 MeV), and ('120)Cs (Q(,EC) = 7.38 (+OR -) 0.23 MeV) were measurements with significantly improved uncertainties as compared to the literature. Further, a combination of the energy levels derived from previous literature gamma-gamma coincident measurements and the experimental beta-coincident gamma decay energies has supported an improved level scheme for ('121)Xe and the proposal of three new energy levels in ('119)Xe. Comparison of the experimental cesium mass excesses (determined with our Q(,EC) values and known xenon mass excesses) with both the literature and theoretical predicted values showed

  10. Experiment for synthesis of neutron-deficient protactinium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huabin; Ma, Long; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Yu, Lin; Jia, Guobin; Huang, Minghui; Gan, Zaiguo; Huang, Tianheng; Li, Guangshun; Wu, Xiaolei; Fang, Yongde; Wang, Zhigang; Gao, Bingshui; Hua, Wei

    2014-10-01

    The complete fusion reaction 40Ca+175Lu was studied at a beam energy of 5.1 MeV u-1. Evaporation residues recoiled from the target were separated from the primary beam by the gas-filled recoil separator SHANS and then implanted into the focal plane detection system. Based on the energy-position-time correlation measurement, neutron-deficient nuclei 208-213Ac, 212Pa and 211Th produced in this reaction were identified. Previously reported decay properties of the ground state in 212Pa were confirmed and improved values of 5.1_{-1.7}^{+5.1} ms and 8.250(20) MeV for the half-life and α-particle energy of 212Pa were obtained. No correlated decay chain arising from 211Pa was observed and an upper limit for the cross section of 211Pa was estimated.

  11. Observation of new neutron-deficient isotopes with Z ≥ 92 in multinucleon transfer reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devaraja, H. M.; Heinz, S.; Beliuskina, O.; Comas, V.; Hofmann, S.; Hornung, C.; Münzenberg, G.; Nishio, K.; Ackermann, D.; Gambhir, Y. K.; Gupta, M.; Henderson, R. A.; Heßberger, F. P.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Kindler, B.; Lommel, B.; Moody, K. J.; Maurer, J.; Mann, R.; Popeko, A. G.; Shaughnessy, D. A.; Stoyer, M. A.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    In deep inelastic multinucleon transfer reactions of 48Ca + 248Cm we observed about 100 residual nuclei with proton numbers between Z = 82 and Z = 100. Among them, there are five new neutron-deficient isotopes: 216U, 219Np, 223Am, 229Am and 233Bk. As separator for the transfer products we used the velocity filter SHIP of GSI while the isotope identification was performed via the α decay chains of the nuclei. These first results reveal that multinucleon transfer reactions together with here applied fast and sensitive separation and detection techniques are promising for the synthesis of new isotopes in the region of heaviest nuclei.

  12. β-decay properties of neutron-deficient Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Sarriguren, P.; Boillos, J. M.; Moreno, O.; Moya de Guerra, E.

    2015-10-15

    Neutron-deficient isotopes in the lead region are well established examples of the shape coexistence phenomenon in nuclei. In this work, bulk and decay properties, including deformation energy curves, charge mean square radii, Gamow-Teller (GT) strength distributions, and β-decay half-lives, are studied in neutron-deficient Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes. The nuclear structure involved is described microscopically from deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation calculations with residual interactions in both particle-hole and particle-particle channels, performed on top of a self-consistent deformed quasiparticle Skyrme Hartree-Fock basis. The sensitivity to deformation of the GT strength distributions in those isotopes is proposed as an additional complementary signature of the nuclear shape. The β-decay half-lives resulting from the GT strength distributions are compared to experiment to demonstrate the ability of the method.

  13. Short-Lived Climate Pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierrehumbert, R. T.

    2014-05-01

    Although carbon dioxide emissions are by far the most important mediator of anthropogenic climate disruption, a number of shorter-lived substances with atmospheric lifetimes of under a few decades also contribute significantly to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. In recent years, the argument that early and aggressive mitigation of the emission of these substances or their precursors forms an essential part of any climate protection strategy has gained a considerable following. There is often an implication that such control can in some way make up for the current inaction on carbon dioxide emissions. The prime targets for mitigation, known collectively as short-lived climate pollution (SLCP), are methane, hydrofluo-rocarbons, black carbon, and ozone. A re-examination of the issues shows that the benefits of early SLCP mitigation have been greatly exaggerated, largely because of inadequacies in the methodologies used to compare the climate effects of short-lived substances with those of CO2, which causes nearly irreversible climate change persisting millennia after emissions cease. Eventual mitigation of SLCP can make a useful contribution to climate protection, but there is little to be gained by implementing SLCP mitigation before stringent carbon dioxide controls are in place and have caused annual emissions to approach zero. Any earlier implementation of SLCP mitigation that substitutes to any significant extent for carbon dioxide mitigation will lead to a climate irreversibly warmer than will a strategy with delayed SLCP mitigation. SLCP mitigation does not buy time for implementation of stringent controls on CO2 emissions.

  14. β Decay in the Region of Neutron-deficient {sup 69,70,71}Kr

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, A.M.; Giovinazzo, J.; Blank, B.; Canchel, G.; France, G. de; Grévy, S.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Stefan, I.; Thomas, J.-C.

    2014-06-15

    Decay spectroscopy was performed for neutron-deficient nuclei ranging from zinc to krypton with isospin −3/2 ≤T{sub z}≤0. Measurements of correlated β-delayed protons allowed us to determine the isobaric analog states fed from the decay of {sup 65}Se and {sup 69}Kr, constraining the spin of the {sup 69}Kr ground state. Preliminary results regarding the half lives for the T{sub z}=−1 systems, relevant to the rapid proton capture (rp) process, are discussed.

  15. Decay and In-Beam Studies of Neutron-Deficient Po and Ra Isotopes at JYFL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leino, M.; Allatt, R. G.; Andreyev, A. N.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Enqvist, T.; Eskola, K.; Helariutta, K.; Huyse, M.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanpaeae, H.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Muikku, M.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.; Trzaska, W. H.; Uusitalo, J.; van Duppen, P.

    1999-05-01

    An extensive program to study the production, decay properties, and nuclear structure of very neutron-deficient polonium and radium nuclei is underway at the Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Finland (JYFL). The main tools used in these studies are the gas-filled recoil separator RITU and various germanium gamma-ray arrays. In the course of these studies, among others the following new isotopes have been produced: 204Ra, 203Ra, and 202Ra. Isomeric alpha decaying states have been discovered in 203Ra and 191Po. Fine structure in the decay of 192Po to the oblate and prolate band heads in 188Pb has been observed. In-beam gamma-ray spectra have been, for the first time, measured for 192Po, 206Ra, 208Ra, and 210Ra. Development of collectivity in nuclei in the Po-Ra region and the systematics of reduced alpha widths will be discussed.

  16. Beta delayed alpha emission from the neutron deficient rare earth isotopes {sup 152}Tm and {sup 150}Ho

    SciTech Connect

    Nacher, E.; Tain, J. L.; Rubio, B.; Algora, A.; Estevez Aguado, M. E.; Gadea, A.; Batist, L.; Briz, J. A.; Cano-Ott, D.; Doering, J.; Mukha, I.; Plettner, C.; Roeckl, E.; Gierlik, M.; Janas, Z.

    2011-11-30

    The study of beta-delayed proton emission is a well known method to aid the determination of the beta strength distribution in nuclei far from the stability line. At the neutron deficient side of the nuclear chart the process of proton or alpha emission from excited states is energetically allowed when one goes far enough from stability. However, beta-delayed alphas have seldom been measured for nuclei heavier than A = 20. Here we present a study of the beta-delayed alpha-particle emission from {sup 152}Tm and {sup 150}Ho and their importance in the full B(GT) distribution.

  17. Inferring neutron capture rates of short-lived isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liddick, Sean

    2015-04-01

    Neutron capture reactions on short-lived nuclei play an important role in astrophysical processes such as the rapid neutron capture process. However, these cross sections are difficult to measure in the laboratory. The so-called beta-Oslo technique has been developed for constraining the neutron capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei by combining beta-delayed gamma-ray spectroscopy and the Oslo method to extract nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions. The two quantities are used within the framework of a Hauser-Feshbach model to constrain the neutron capture cross section. The technique will be described and the inferred neutron capture cross sections for a preliminary set of nuclei presented. The experimental reach of the technique at current facilities and eventually at the upcoming Facility for Radioactive Ion Beams (FRIB) as well as the overlap with astrophysical processes will be discussed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. PHY 102511, No. PHY 0822648, No. PHY 1350234 and by the Research Council of Norway, Project Grant No. 205528.

  18. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.

    2011-11-01

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  19. Delayed and In-beam Spectroscopy on Francium and Astatine Nuclei at the Proton Drip Line

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Collaboration: RITU-Gamma Gollaboration

    2011-11-30

    Delayed and in-beam spectroscopy on francium and astatine nuclei at and beyond the proton drip line has been performed. In neutron deficient astatine nuclei a shift to deformed shapes as a function of decreasing neutron has been obtained. In neutron deficient francium isotope the same shift is evident.

  20. First Use of High Charge States for Mass Measurements of Short-Lived Nuclides in a Penning Trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ettenauer, S.; Gallant, A. T.; Dilling, J.; Simon, M. C.; Chaudhuri, A.; Mane, E.; Delheij, P.; Pearson, M. R.; Brunner, T.; Chowdhury, U.; Simon, V. V.; Brodeur, M.; Andreoiu, C.; Audi, G.; Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo; Ullrich, J.; Gwinner, G.; Lapierre, A.; Lunney, D.; Ringle, R.

    2011-12-30

    Penning trap mass measurements of short-lived nuclides have been performed for the first time with highly charged ions, using the TITAN facility at TRIUMF. Compared to singly charged ions, this provides an improvement in experimental precision that scales with the charge state q. Neutron-deficient Rb isotopes have been charge bred in an electron beam ion trap to q=8-12+ prior to injection into the Penning trap. In combination with the Ramsey excitation scheme, this unique setup creating low energy, highly charged ions at a radioactive beam facility opens the door to unrivaled precision with gains of 1-2 orders of magnitude. The method is particularly suited for short-lived nuclides such as the superallowed {beta} emitter {sup 74}Rb (T{sub 1/2}=65 ms). The determination of its atomic mass and an improved Q{sub EC} value are presented.

  1. Study of Neutron Deficient 13O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belarge, Joseph; Rogachev, G. V.; Blackmon, J.; Wiedenhover, I.; Baby, L.; Johnson, E. D.; Kuchera, A. N.; Koshchiy, E.; Lai, J.; Linhardt, L.; Macon, K.; Matos, M.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.

    2013-10-01

    Development of theoretical framework that allows the combination of nuclear structure calculations with the continuum is an important objective of modern nuclear theory [A. Volya, PRC 79, 044308 (2009), S. Quaglioni and P. Navratil, PRL 101092501 (2008)]. Due to the low binding energy of exotic isotopes even the lowest excited states are unbound and therefore it is essential to take the continuum into account. We studied the structure of the lightest bound oxygen isotope, 13O, through 12N+p resonance scattering using the new active target detector ANASEN [M. Matos et al., Proc. Intern. Symp. on Nuclei in the Cosmos, July 19-23, Heidelberg, Germany, p. 226 (2010)]. The experiment was performed at the John D. Fox Superconducting Accelerator Laboratory at Florida State University. A rare isotope beam of 12N ions was produced using the radioactive nuclear beam facility RESOLUT. Methane gas was used as a target and also as an active medium for the gas proportional counters of the ANASEN detector. The analysis of the p+12N excitation functions was performed using the R-Matrix approach. The preliminary results of the experiment will be presented.

  2. Study of Neutron Deficient ^9C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belarge, Joseph; Rogachev, G. V.; Blackmon, J.; Wiedenhover, I.; Baby, L.; Johnson, E. D.; Kuchera, A. N.; Koshchiy, E.; Lai, J.; Linhardt, L.; Macon, K.; Matos, M.; Santiago-Gonzalez, D.

    2012-10-01

    Development of theoretical framework that allows the combination of nuclear structure calculations with the continuum is an important objective of modern nuclear theory [1,2]. Due to the low binding energy of exotic isotopes even the lowest excited states are unbound and therefore it is essential to take the continuum into account. We studied the structure of the lightest bound carbon isotope, ^9C, through ^8B+p resonance scattering using the new active target detector ANASEN [3]. The experiment was performed at the John D. Fox Superconducting Accelerator Laboratory at FSU. A rare isotope beam of ^8B ions was produced using the radioactive nuclear beam facility RESOLUT. Pure hydrogen gas was used as a target and also as an active medium for the gas proportional counters of the ANASEN detector. The analysis of the p+^8B excitation functions was performed using the R-Matrix approach. The preliminary results will be presented.[4pt] [1] A. Volya, Phys. Rev. C 79, 044308 (2009).[0pt] [2] S. Quaglioni and P. Navr'atil, PRL 101, 092501 (2008).[0pt] [3] M. Matos, et al.,Proc. Intern. Symposium on Nuclei in the Cosmos XI, July 19-23 2010, Heidelberg, Germany, p.226(2010).

  3. Quadrupole Collectivity in Neutron Deficient Sn Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gade, Alexandra

    2014-03-01

    One of the overarching goals of nuclear physics is the development of a comprehensive model of the atomic nucleus with predictive power across the nuclear chart. Of particular importance for the development of nuclear models is experimental data that consistently track the effect of isospin and changed binding, for example. The chain of Sn isotopes has been a formidable testing ground for nuclear models as some spectroscopic data is available from N = Z = 50 100Sn in the proximity of the proton dripline to 134Sn, beyond the very neutron-rich doubly magic nucleus 132Sn. In even-even nuclei, the electromagnetic quadrupole excitation strength is a measure of quadrupole collectivity, sensitive to the presence of shell gaps, nuclear deformation, and nucleon-nucleon correlations, for example. In the Sn isotopes, this transition strength has been reported from 104Sn to 130Sn, spanning a chain of 14 even-even Sn isotopes. The trend is asymmetric with respect to midshell and not even the largest-scale shell-model calculations have been able to describe the evolution of transition strength across the isotopic chain without varying effective charges. Implications will be discussed. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. PHY-1102511.

  4. A new opportunity: coincident spectroscopy in neutron-deficient actinides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gothe, Oliver; Gates, J. M.; Gregorich, K. E.; Baartman, B.; Fallon, P.; Esker, N. E.; Kwarsick, J.; Machiavelli, A. O.; Mudder, P. R.; Olive, D. T.; Pang, G.; Rissanen, J.; Nitsche, H.

    2014-09-01

    Due to high γ-ray background rates heavy element production facilities are usually not sensitive to the electron capture decay of neutron deficient actinides. We have developed new capabilities at the Berkeley Gas Filled Separator (BGS) that allow us to study these isotopes. The highly selective and efficient separation of compound nucleus evaporation residue products using the BGS couple with a rapid delivery to a low-background detector facility, opens up many new possibilities for nuclear decay and structure studies in the neutron deficient actinides. The decay of these actinides produces vacancies in the K-shell resulting in x-rays uniquely identifying the Z of the decay products. We present the first results of this new methodology in studying the nuclear structure of fermium-254 by observing the gamma rays in coincidence with fermium x-rays. Coincident gamma-decay spectroscopy gives us a new tool to study the nuclear structure of previously inaccessible systems.

  5. Decay-Assisted Laser Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Cocolios, T. E.; De Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on the hyperfine-structure and radioactive-decay studies of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-206 performed with the Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at the ISOLDE facility, CERN. The high resolution innate to collinear laser spectroscopy is combined with the high efficiency of ion detection to provide a highly sensitive technique to probe the hyperfine structure of exotic isotopes. The technique of decay-assisted laser spectroscopy is presented, whereby the isomeric ion beam is deflected to a decay-spectroscopy station for alpha-decay tagging of the hyperfine components. Here, we present the first hyperfine-structure measurements of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-206, in addition to the identification of the low-lying states of Fr202,204 performed at the CRIS experiment.

  6. Probing short-lived fluctuations in hadrons and nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Munier, Stéphane

    2015-04-10

    We develop a picture of dipole-nucleus (namely dilute-dense) and dipole-dipole (dilute-dilute) scattering in the high-energy regime based on the analysis of the fluctuations in the quantum evolution. We emphasize the difference in the nature of the fluctuations probed in these two processes respectively, which, interestingly enough, leads to observable differences in the scattering amplitude profiles.

  7. Skylab short-lived event alert program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Citron, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    During the three manned Skylab missions, the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena (CSLP) reported a total of 39 significant events to the Johnson Space Center (JSC) as part of the Skylab Short-Lived Event Alert Program. The telegraphed daily status reports included the names and locations of the events, the track number and revolution number during which the event could be observed, the time (GMT) to within plus or minus 2 sec when Skylab was closest to the event area, and the light condition (daylight or darkness) at that time and place. The messages sent to JSC during the Skylab 4 mission also included information pertaining to ground-truth studies and observations being conducted on the events. Photographic priorities were assigned for each event.

  8. Alchemy with short-lived radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Rubio, F.F.; Finn, R.D.; Gilson, A.J.

    1981-04-01

    A variety of short-lived radionuclides are produced and subsequently incorporated into radiopharmaceutical compounds in the radionuclide production program currently being conducted at the Cyclotron Facility of Mount Sinai Medical Center. The recovery of high specific activity oxygen-15 labelled water prepared by means of an inexpensive system operating in conjunction with an on-line radiogas target routinely utilized for oxygen-15 labelled carbon dioxide studies is currently receiving particular attention.

  9. Description of the neutron deficient Sr and Zr isotopes in the interacting boson model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cǎta, G.; Cutoiu, D.; Constantinescu, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Zamfir, N. V.

    1983-05-01

    The available experimental data for the neutron deficient isotopes of Sr (78 to 86) and Zr (80 to 86) are collected and compared to the predictions of IBA-1 model calculations. The variations of the collectivity along these two isotopic chains is well reproduced with a set of smoothly varying parameters of the model. The description of both the energy levels and the B(E2) transition probabilities improves with decreasing N, the hamiltonian evolving towards an SU(3) dynamical symmetry. Both the large B(E2) value of the 2 1+ → 0 g.s.+ transition and the predicted prolate shape for the very light isotopes, agree well with the recent findings of superdeformed nuclei around Z, N ≈ 38. Transition strengths for the (p, t) reaction are calculated and compared to experimental observations for 0 + states, and a discussion is made about the possible intruder character of the 0 2+ state. The interacting boson-fermion approximation (IBFA) model is used to extend the calculations to some odd nuclei. Two shell (1g {9}/{2}, 2d {5}/{2}) calculations are performed for the positive-parity states in 83Sr, 81Sr and 85Y and they compare well with the experimental level scheme of these nuclei below 3 MeV excitation.

  10. Collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy of neutron-deficient francium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, K T; Lynch, K M; Billowes, J; Bissell, M L; Budinčević, I; Cocolios, T E; de Groote, R P; De Schepper, S; Fedosseev, V N; Franchoo, S; Garcia Ruiz, R F; Heylen, H; Marsh, B A; Neyens, G; Procter, T J; Rossel, R E; Rothe, S; Strashnov, I; Stroke, H H; Wendt, K D A

    2013-11-22

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes (202-205)Fr were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1% was measured for (202)Fr. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 10(5) beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to (205)Fr, with a departure observed in (203)Fr (N=116).

  11. Collinear Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy of Neutron-Deficient Francium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flanagan, K. T.; Lynch, K. M.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; De Schepper, S.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Heylen, H.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Procter, T. J.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Strashnov, I.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.

    2013-11-01

    The magnetic moments and isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient francium isotopes Fr202-205 were measured at ISOLDE-CERN with use of collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy. A production-to-detection efficiency of 1% was measured for Fr202. The background from nonresonant and collisional ionization was maintained below one ion in 105 beam particles. Through a comparison of the measured charge radii with predictions from the spherical droplet model, it is concluded that the ground-state wave function remains spherical down to Fr205, with a departure observed in Fr203 (N=116).

  12. Ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of the neutron-deficient bismuth isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Fei

    1997-12-01

    The isotope shifts and nuclear moments of the neutron deficient bismuth isotopes 201-204Bi have been measured at Stony Brook with a highly sensitive gas cell technique. The isotopes were populated with the nuclear reactions 197Au(10B,6n)201Po and 197Au(11B,xn)208-xPo, with boron beams from the SUNY Stony Brook tandem-linac accelerator. The bismuth samples that accumulated from the Po decay were evaporated from the target material and illuminated with 1-2mW of 306.7nm radiation from an intra-cavity frequency doubled ring dye laser. By measuring and analyzing the fluorescence spectra of the bismuth isotopes, the isotope shifts and hyperfine constants were obtained and the nuclear moments were extracted. The systematic behaviour of isotope shifts of the neutron-deficient bismuth isotopes is discussed and compared with the Po, Pb, Tl and Fr isotope shifts. It was found that the isotonic and isotopic trends, around the doubly magic core of 208Pb, are nearly identical. This implies that the h9/2 valence proton in the bismuth isotopes does not have a strong effect on the deformation of the core.

  13. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  14. Charge radii of neutron-deficient 52,53Fe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Brown, B. A.; Miller, A. J.; Rossi, D. M.; Maa, B.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Garand, D.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Mantica, P. F.; Beerwerth, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Klose, A.; Liu, Y.; Müller, P.; Pearson, M. R.

    2016-09-01

    Shell closures can be identified as ``kinks'' in the chain of charge radii, , which can be seen for the N = 28 neutron shell closure up to 25 Mn. The trends in the vicinity of 56Ni is of particular interest, since the 56Ni nucleus is known to be soft. The of neutron-deficient 52,53Fe were determined in the present study using the bunched beam collinear laser spectroscopy at BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU. The presence of a kink in the chain of at N = 28 for the Fe isotopes was confirmed. The global behavior of the of Fe, and Ca thorough Ni isotopes, will be discussed. Work supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-11-02511 and U.S. DOE Grant DE-NA0002924.

  15. Mass Study of the Neutron Deficient Nulceus ^68Se

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, T.; Davids, C.; Penttila, H.; Blumenthal, D.; Lister, C.; Busse, B.; Batchelder, J.; Walters, W.; Conticchio, L.; Mustillo, D.; Ramayya, A. V.

    1998-10-01

    For the last few decades, many groups have made innovative attempts to study the properties of the neutron deficient nucleus ^68Se. Due to the small production cross section and the inability to quickly and definitely separate ^68Se from other reaction products, the search has thus far been incomplete. With the Fragment Mass Analyzer at Argonne National Lab, the halflife and β+ decay scheme were measured and found to agree with that of a previous work (P. Baumann et al., Phys. Rev. C50 R1180(1994)). A mass measurement was also performed. The latter piece of information is critical for nuclear synthesis models in regard to the rp process. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Nuclear Physics Division, under contract W-31-109-ENG-38 and by the NSF.

  16. Beta-decay measurements of neutron-deficient cesium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Parry, R.F.

    1983-03-01

    Beta decay endpoint energy measurements of the neutron deficient cesium isotopes were done using an energy spectrum shape fitting technique. This was a departure from the typical method of endpoint energy analysis, the Fermi-Kurie plot. A discussion of the shape fitting procedure and its improved features are discussed. These beta endpoint measurements have led to total decay energies (Q/sub EC/) of the neutron deficient /sup 119/ /sup 123/Cs isotopes. The total decay energies of /sup 122m/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.95 +- 0.25 MeV) and /sup 119/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 6.26 +- 0.29 MeV) were new measurements. The total decay energies of /sup 123/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 4.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 122g/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.05 +- 0.18 MeV), /sup 121/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 5.21 +- 0.22 MeV), and /sup 120/Cs (Q/sub EC/ = 7.38 +- 0.23 MeV) were measurements with significantly improved uncertainties as compared to the literature. Further, a combination of the energy levels derived from previous literature gamma-gamma coincident measurements and the experimental beta-coincident gamma decay energies has supported an improved level scheme for /sup 121/Xe and the proposal of three new energy levels in /sup 119/Xe. Comparison of the experimental cesium mass excesses (determined with our Q/sub EC/ values and known xenon mass excesses) with both the literature and theoretical predicted values showed general agreement except for /sup 120/Cs. Possible explanations for this deviation are discussed.

  17. Direct proton decay of 0.56-s147Tm and search for this decay mode among very neutron-deficient isotopes with 53≦Z≦67

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, P. O.; Batsch, T.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Kurcewicz, W.; Roeckl, E.; Schardt, D.; Feix, W. F.; Nyman, G.; Tidemand-Petersson, P.

    1983-02-01

    The earlier preliminary assignment of a 1,055±6 keV proton line to direct proton decay of147Tm is supported by cross bombardment measurements and by a negative result from a positron-proton coincidence experiment. The half-life was remeasured to be 0.56 ±0.04s. For two types of thermal ion sources, overall efficiencies were estimated for on-line mass separation of known short-lived isotopes of promethium, europium, terbium, and holmium. Direct proton decay was searched for among very neutron-deficient isotopes of these elements, and of iodine and caesium. No evidence for direct proton decay was found. Based on estimated overall efficiencies, on calculated cross-sections, and on predictions from the gross-theory of β decay, half-life limits for direct proton decay were deduced.

  18. Nuclear fission of neutron-deficient protactinium nuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Nishinaka, I.; Nagame, Y.; Tsukada, K.; Ikezoe, H.; Sueki, K.; Nakahara, H.; Tanikawa, M.; Ohtsuki, T.

    1997-08-01

    Fragment velocity, kinetic energy, mass yield, and element yield distributions in the fission of neutron-deficient Pa isotopes produced in the reactions of {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O on {sup 209}Bi have been measured at incident beam energies near and above the Coulomb barriers by the time-of-flight and radiochemical methods. An asymmetric mass-division component has been observed. Measured fission cross sections were compared with the results of statistical model calculations which take into account two fission barrier heights for symmetric and asymmetric yields. The fission barrier height deduced for the asymmetric fission is found slightly lower than that for the symmetric one. The difference between the two barrier heights in the fission of the present protactinium nuclides (N{approximately}135) is considerably smaller than that in the neutron-rich nuclide of {sup 233}Pa (N{approximately}142), indicating that the difference sensitively depends on the neutron number of the fissioning nuclide. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  19. New systematic features in the neutron-deficient Au isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venhart, M.; Wood, J. L.; Sedlák, M.; Balogh, M.; Bírová, M.; Boston, A. J.; Cocolios, T. E.; Harkness-Brennan, L. J.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Holub, L.; Joss, D. T.; Judson, D. S.; Kliman, J.; Klimo, J.; Krupa, L.; Lušnák, J.; Makhathini, L.; Matoušek, V.; Motyčák, Š.; Page, R. D.; Patel, A.; Petrík, K.; Podshibyakin, A. V.; Prajapati, P. M.; Rodin, A. M.; Špaček, A.; Urban, R.; Unsworth, C.; Veselský, M.

    2017-07-01

    A recently developed portable, on-line capability for γ-ray and conversion-electron spectroscopy, HIGH-TATRA is demonstrated with its application to the study of 183Hg \\to 183Au at ISOLDE. Key details of the low-energy level scheme of the neutron-deficient nuclide 183Au populated in this decay are presented. A broad energy germanium detector is employed to achieve this (the first-ever use of such a device in decay-scheme spectroscopy), by way of a combination of high-gain γ-ray singles spectroscopy and γ–γ coincidence spectroscopy. Further, by combining the γ-ray detectors with a liquid-nitrogen-cooled Si(Li) detector operated under high vacuum, conversion-electron singles and e–γ coincidences are obtained. These data lead to the determination of transition multipolarities and the location of a highly converted (E0 + M1 + E2) transition in the 183Au decay scheme, suggesting a possible new shape coexisting structure in this nucleus. Identification of new intruder and normal states fixes their relative energies in 183Au for the first time. New systematic features in the odd-Au isotopes are presented.

  20. Investigation of the structure of neutron-deficient Cd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Anna; Humby, P.; Beausang, C. W.; Burke, J. T.; Casperson, R. J.; McCleskey, M.; Saastamoinen, A.; Allmond, J. M.; Chyzh, R.; Dag, M.; Koglin, J.; Ota, S.; Ross, T. J.

    2014-03-01

    The STARLITER setup at Texas A&M University consists of an array of six Compton suppressed HPGe clover γ-ray detectors coupled with a segmented Si ΔE-E charged particle telescope. The combination allows for coincident γ ray and particle spectroscopy and provides a powerful tool for precise determination of the nuclear level structure. A recent experiment conducted using STARLITER aimed at the investigation of structures of neutron-deficient Cd isotopes (A = 104, 105, 106) using an enriched 106Cd target and 35 MeV proton beam supplied by the K-150 Cyclotron at TAMU. Low mass cadmium isotopes are a great environment for analysis of the evolution from vibrational to rotational sequences in A ~100-110 region and provide insight into the structure phenomena around Z = 50 shell closure. Here, the first results of the experiment will be presented. This work was partly supported by the US Department of Energy Grants No. DE-FG52-06NA26206 and No. DE-FG02-05ER41379.

  1. Studies of images of short lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The program to study short-lived events with the ERTS-1 satellite has evaluated 97 events reported by the Center for Short-Lived Phenomena. Forty-eight of these events were listed as candidates for ERTS-1 coverage and 8 of these were considered significant enough to immediately alert the ERTS operation staff by telephone. Studies of the images received from six events indicate that useful data on short-lived events can be obtained from ERTS-1 that would be difficult or impossible to obtain by other methods.

  2. Search for long-lived isomeric states in neutron-deficient thorium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Lachner, J.; Dillmann, I.; Faestermann, T.; Korschinek, G.; Poutivtsev, M.; Rugel, G.

    2008-12-15

    The discovery of naturally occurring long-lived isomeric states (t{sub 1/2}>10{sup 8} yr) in the neutron-deficient isotopes {sup 211,213,217,218}Th[A. Marinov et al., Phys. Rev. C 76, 021303(R) (2007)] was reexamined using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Because AMS does not suffer from molecular isobaric background in the detection system, it is an extremely sensitive technique. Despite our up to two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity we cannot confirm the discoveries of neutron-deficient thorium isotopes and provide upper limits for their abundances.

  3. Study of asymmetric fission yield behavior from neutron-deficient Hg isotope

    SciTech Connect

    Perkasa, Y. S.; Waris, A. Kurniadi, R. Su'ud, Z.

    2014-09-30

    A study of asymmetric fission yield behavior from a neutron-deficient Hg isotope has been conducted. The fission yield calculation of the neutron-deficient Hg isotope using Brownian Metropolis shape had showed unusual result at decreasing energy. In this paper, this interesting feature will be validated by using nine degree of scission shapes parameterization from Brosa model that had been implemented in TALYS nuclear reaction code. This validation is intended to show agreement between both model and the experiment result. The expected result from these models considered to be different due to dynamical properties that implemented in both models.

  4. Coupled-Channels Predictions of the Fine Structure in the α Decay of Neutron-Deficient Ds, Cn, and 114 Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2013-11-01

    The fine structure in the α decay of neutron-deficient Ds, Cn, and 114 isotopes have been systematically predicted using the multi-channel cluster model (MCCM). The theoretical α-decay energy Qα is deduced from the local formula of Qα values for heavy and superheavy nuclei. The ground-state rotational states in a daughter nucleus are established based on the macroscopic- microscopic model with some improved ingredients. Exact five-channels microscopic calculations are performed, and the branching ratios to various daughter states and total α-decay half-lives are evaluated. Any adjustable parameter is not introduced in our calculations. It is expected that the present coupled- channel predictions would provide a reference for future structure researches of superheavy nuclei.

  5. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Pt isotopes in the configuration-mixed IBM

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Carlos E.; Campuzano, Cuauhtemoc; Morales, Irving O.; Frank, Alejandro; Van Isacker, Piet

    2008-05-12

    The matrix-coherent state approach in the IBM with configuration mixing is used to describe the geometry of neutron-deficient Pt isotopes. Employing a parameter set for all isotopes determined previously, it is found that the lowest minimum goes from spherical to oblate and finally acquires a prolate shape when approaching the mid-shell Pt isotopes.

  6. Decay properties of neutron-deficient isotopes of elements from Z = 101 to Z = 108

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Streicher, B.; Sulignano, B.; Antalic, S.; Ackermann, D.; Heinz, S.; Kindler, B.; Kojouharov, I.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Lommel, B.; Mann, R.; Popeko, A. G.; Šáro, Š.; Uusitalo, J.; Yeremin, A. V.

    2009-08-01

    In a series of experiments performed at the velocity filter SHIP, new or improved decay data of neutron-deficient isotopes of elements from mendelevium ( Z = 101) to hassium ( Z = 108) were obtained. In particular, evidence for α -decay or electron capture from isomeric states in 265Hs and 258Db was found.

  7. Studies of Neutron-Deficient Nuclei Near the Z = 82 Shell Closure via Cold Fusion Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Seweryniak, D.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Zhu, S.; Camera, F.; Bracco, A.; Million, B.; Leoni, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Wadsworth, R.

    2009-03-04

    Over the last decade, we have performed in-beam experiments using Gammasphere+FMA to measure excited states in proton-rich Au, Hg, Tl and Pb isotopes. In these studies, the use of the FMA is essential in order to differentiate evaporation residues from the large fission background which dominates the reaction cross-section. In addition, we have found that using near-symmetric reactions at bombarding energies near the Coloumb barrier is beneficial in performing these studies. By keeping the bombarding energy low, fission is minimized and the reaction products are concentrated in only a few channels. New results have recently been obtained using the {sup 90}Zr+{sup 92}Mo reaction to study shape co-existence in {sup 181}Tl via the lp evaporation channel. In addition, we have measured the total {gamma}-ray energy and multiplicity associated with the surviving compound system, {sup 179}Au, following the fusion reaction, {sup 90}Zr+{sup 89}Y.

  8. Studies of Neutron-Deficient Nuclei Near the Z = 82 Shell Closure via Cold Fusion Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, M. P.; Kondev, F. G.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Seweryniak, D.; Khoo, T. L.; Lauritsen, T.; Lister, C. J.; Zhu, S.; Camera, F.; Bracco, A.; Million, B.; Leoni, S.; Jenkins, D. G.; Wadsworth, R.

    2009-03-01

    Over the last decade, we have performed in-beam experiments using Gammasphere+FMA to measure excited states in proton-rich Au, Hg, Tl and Pb isotopes. In these studies, the use of the FMA is essential in order to differentiate evaporation residues from the large fission background which dominates the reaction cross-section. In addition, we have found that using near-symmetric reactions at bombarding energies near the Coloumb barrier is beneficial in performing these studies. By keeping the bombarding energy low, fission is minimized and the reaction products are concentrated in only a few channels. New results have recently been obtained using the 90Zr+92Mo reaction to study shape co-existence in 181Tl via the lp evaporation channel. In addition, we have measured the total γ-ray energy and multiplicity associated with the surviving compund system, 179Au, following the fusion reaction, 90Zr+89Y.

  9. Soot and short-lived pollutants provide political opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victor, David G.; Zaelke, Durwood; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2015-09-01

    Cutting levels of soot and other short-lived pollutants delivers tangible benefits and helps governments to build confidence that collective action on climate change is feasible. After the Paris climate meeting this December, actually reducing these pollutants will be essential to the credibility of the diplomatic process.

  10. Systematical study of high-spin rotational bands in neutron-deficient Kr isotopes by the extended projected shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xin-Yi; Ghorui, S. K.; Wang, Long-Jun; Kaneko, K.; Sun, Yang

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the high-spin structure of the even-even 72-80Kr isotopes using the Projected Shell Model (PSM). With the help of the Pfaffian formulas, we have vigorously extended the quasi-particle (qp) basis of the PSM code and applied in this mass region for the first time. We consider a sufficiently large multi-qp configuration space in order to describe high-spin rotational behavior. The results show that the calculation can reproduce most of the known rotational bands with positive- or negative-parity. Moreover, some side bands appearing in the near-yrast region are predicted. The main structure for each band is discussed in terms of multi-qp configurations. The variations in moment of inertia with spin are explained in terms of successive band crossings among the 2-qp, 4-qp, 6-qp, and 8-qp states. The B (E 2) transition probabilities in these bands are also calculated. To further understand the high-spin behavior of these neutron-deficient nuclei and to confirm predictions of the present work, good high-spin data, especially for B (E 2) transitions, are called for.

  11. Changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic moments of neutron-deficient Tl isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Mezilev, K. A.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2013-08-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron-deficient thallium isotopes at the 276.9-nm atomic transition have been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts and the hyperfine structure for 183-207Tl isotopes and isomers are presented. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and magnetic-moment values are deduced. It is shown that nuclear properties of Tl isotopes and isomers smoothly change at the neutron midshell and beyond without development of strong deformation in contrast to the adjacent Hg nuclei. A rather great isomer shift between I = 1/2 and I = 9/2 states for odd Tl isotopes is preserved for both sides of the previously investigated mass range. For the first time, a similar isomer shift is found for the odd-odd isotope 186Tl. The close resemblance of the charge radii isotopic behavior for the Tl and Pb ground states is demonstrated.

  12. Deformation in the neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes: Radioactive decay scheme studies in the neodymium, promethium, and samarium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenbach, J.B.

    1993-12-31

    Several experiments were performed at the UNISOR isotope separator facility at HHIRF at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the {beta}{sup +}/EC decay of neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes. Data for the decay chain {sup 133}Sm {yields} {sup 133}Pm {yields} {sup 133}Nd was obtained, consisting of multiscaled spectra of {gamma} rays, X rays, and conversion electrons, as well as {gamma}{gamma}t, X{gamma}t, e{gamma}t and eXt coincidences. Gamma rays associated with the decay of {sup 133}Sm and {sup 133}Pm were observed for the first time. The decay of a new low-spin (1/2) isomeric state, with a half life of about 70 sec was established for {sup 133}Nd. The level schemes for {sup 133}Nd and {sup 133}Pr were constructed. An M3 and two E1 isomers are established in {sup 133}Nd and an E3 isomer is confirmed in {sup 133}Pr. The energy level systematics for the nuclear region bounded by Z {ge} 58 and N {le} 78 is discussed. Theoretical interpretations are based on the particle-plus-triaxial rotor model calculations. In the framework of these calculations, the {beta}{sub 2} deformation is moderate for these nuclei ({beta}{sub 2} {approx} 0.20-0.25). A sudden onset of strong deformation is not observed, in contrast with the theoretical predictions by Leander and Moeller [Lea82].

  13. Decay studies of the highly neutron-deficient indium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Wouters, J.M.

    1982-02-01

    An extension of the experimentally known nuclidic mass surface to nuclei far from the region of beta-stability is of fundamental interest in providing a better determination of the input parameters for the various nuclear mass formulae, allowing a more accurate prediction of the ultimate limits of nuclear stability. In addition, a study of the shape of the mass surface in the vicinity of the doubly-closed nuclide /sup 100/Sn provides initial information on the behavior of the shell closure to be expected when Z = N = 50. Experiments measuring the decay energies of /sup 103/ /sup 105/In by ..beta..-endpoint measurements are described with special attention focused on the development of a plastic scintillator ..beta..-telescope coupled to the on-line mass separator RAMA (Recoil Atom Mass Analyzer). An attempt to measure the ..beta..-endpoint energy of /sup 102/In is also briefly described. The experimentally determined decay energies and derived masses for /sup 103/ /sup 105/In are compared with the predictions of different mass models to identify which models are more successful in this region. Furthermore, the inclusion in these comparisons of the available data on the neutron-rich indium nuclei permits a systematic study of their ground state mass behavior as a function of the neutron number between the shell closures at N = 50 and N = 82. These analyses indicate that the binding energy of /sup 103/In is 1 MeV larger than predicted by the majority of the mass models. An examination of the Q/sub EC/ surface and the single- and two-neutron separation energies in the vicinity of /sup 103/ /sup 105/In is also performed to investigate further the deviation and other possible systematic variations in the mass surface in a model-independent way.

  14. Monitoring of short-lived radon progeny in mines.

    PubMed

    Skubacz, K; Bywalec, T

    2003-01-01

    Obligatory measurements of the potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny have been performing in the Polish underground mines since 1989. In consideration of economic aspects, an attempt was made from the very beginning to combine it with measurements of the dust concentration. Therefore the developed measuring units were an integral part of the dust samplers complying with the requirements of the State Mining Authority to apply them in underground mines. This way the developed devices could fulfil two measurement tasks simultaneously: measurement of the dust concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of short-lived radon progeny. The new device based on the thermoluminescence detectors is able to cooperate with the dust samplers made by the SKC company and equipped with a cyclone making it possible to operate them constantly for one working day. The lower limit of detection was equal about 0.04 microJ m(-3) at a 95% confidence level and 1 h pumping.

  15. Short-lived positron emitter labeled radiotracers - present status

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1982-01-01

    The preparation of labelled compounds is important for the application of positron emission transaxial tomography (PETT) in biomedical sciences. This paper describes problems and progress in the synthesis of short-lived positron emitter (/sup 11/C, /sup 18/F, /sup 13/N) labelled tracers for PETT. Synthesis of labelled sugars, amino acids, and neurotransmitter receptors (pimozide and spiroperidol tagged with /sup 11/C) is discussed in particular. (DLC)

  16. Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

    The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

  17. Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy of extremely neutron-deficient barium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, S. A.; Evans, D. E.; Griffith, J. A. R.; Eastham, D. A.; Groves, J.; Smith, J. R. H.; Tolfree, D. W. L.; Warner, D. D.; Billowes, J.; Grant, I. S.; Walker, P. M.

    1988-09-01

    Fluorescent atom coincidence spectroscopy (FACS) has been used to measure the nuclear mean square radii and moments of the extremely neutron-deficient isotopes 120-124Ba. At N=65 an abrupt change in nuclear mean square charge radii is observed which can be understood in terms of the occupation of the spin-orbit partner g7/25/2[413] neutron and g9/29/2[404] proton orbitals and the consequent enhancement of the n-p interaction.

  18. Shape coexistence in the neutron-deficient Pt isotopes in a configuration mixing IBM

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Irving O.; Vargas, Carlos E.; Frank, Alejandro

    2004-09-13

    The recently proposed matrix-coherent state approach for configuration mixing IBM is used to describe the evolving geometry of the neutron deficient Pt isotopes. It is found that the Potential Energy Surface (PES) of the Platinum isotopes evolves, when the number of neutrons decreases, from spherical to oblate and then to prolate shapes, in agreement with experimental measurements. Oblate-Prolate shape coexistence is observed in 194,192Pt isotopes.

  19. New Short-Lived Isotope 221U and the Mass Surface Near N =126

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuyagbaatar, J.; Yakushev, A.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Ackermann, D.; Andersson, L.-L.; Block, M.; Brand, H.; Cox, D. M.; Even, J.; Forsberg, U.; Golubev, P.; Hartmann, W.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hoffmann, J.; Hübner, A.; Jäger, E.; Jeppsson, J.; Kindler, B.; Kratz, J. V.; Krier, J.; Kurz, N.; Lommel, B.; Maiti, M.; Minami, S.; Mistry, A. K.; Mrosek, Ch. M.; Pysmenetska, I.; Rudolph, D.; Sarmiento, L. G.; Schaffner, H.; Schädel, M.; Schausten, B.; Steiner, J.; De Heidenreich, T. Torres; Uusitalo, J.; Wegrzecki, M.; Wiehl, N.; Yakusheva, V.

    2015-12-01

    Two short-lived isotopes 221U and 222U were produced as evaporation residues in the fusion reaction 50Ti + 176Yb at the gas-filled recoil separator TASCA. An α decay with an energy of Eα=9.31 (5 ) MeV and half-life T1 /2=4.7 (7 ) μ s was attributed to 222U. The new isotope 221U was identified in α -decay chains starting with Eα=9.71 (5 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.66 (14 ) μ s leading to known daughters. Synthesis and detection of these unstable heavy nuclei and their descendants were achieved thanks to a fast data readout system. The evolution of the N =126 shell closure and its influence on the stability of uranium isotopes are discussed within the framework of α -decay reduced width.

  20. Beam-on imaging of short-lived positron emitters during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Brzezinski, K. W.; Brandenburg, S.; Dendooven, P.

    2017-06-01

    In vivo dose delivery verification in proton therapy can be performed by positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron-emitting nuclei produced by the proton beam in the patient. A PET scanner installed in the treatment position of a proton therapy facility that takes data with the beam on will see very short-lived nuclides as well as longer-lived nuclides. The most important short-lived nuclide for proton therapy is 12N (Dendooven et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8923-47), which has a half-life of 11 ms. The results of a proof-of-principle experiment of beam-on PET imaging of short-lived 12N nuclei are presented. The Philips Digital Photon Counting Module TEK PET system was used, which is based on LYSO scintillators mounted on digital SiPM photosensors. A 90 MeV proton beam from the cyclotron at KVI-CART was used to investigate the energy and time spectra of PET coincidences during beam-on. Events coinciding with proton bunches, such as prompt gamma rays, were removed from the data via an anti-coincidence filter with the cyclotron RF. The resulting energy spectrum allowed good identification of the 511 keV PET counts during beam-on. A method was developed to subtract the long-lived background from the 12N image by introducing a beam-off period into the cyclotron beam time structure. We measured 2D images and 1D profiles of the 12N distribution. A range shift of 5 mm was measured as 6  ±  3 mm using the 12N profile. A larger, more efficient, PET system with a higher data throughput capability will allow beam-on 12N PET imaging of single spots in the distal layer of an irradiation with an increased signal-to-background ratio and thus better accuracy. A simulation shows that a large dual panel scanner, which images a single spot directly after it is delivered, can measure a 5 mm range shift with millimeter accuracy: 5.5  ±  1.1 mm for 1  ×  108 protons and 5.2  ±  0.5 mm for 5  ×  108 protons. This makes

  1. A micropump driven by electrochemically produced short-lived bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, I. V.; Lemekhov, S. S.; Melenev, A. E.; Svetovoy, V. B.

    2016-10-01

    A new working principle for electrochemical micropump with the gas termination time as short as 100 microseconds is presented. It is based on water electrolysis with a fast change of voltage polarity. A simple electrochemical micropump is designed to demonstrate this pumping principle. The device consists of a working chamber with metallic electrodes, inlet and outlet diffusers, and channels for liquid. The chamber and the channels are filled with the electrolyte that plays a role of the pumped liquid. The pump was tested in different regimes. One of these regimes related to formation and termination of short-lived microbubbles is especially promising. Long time stability of the electrodes is demonstrated.

  2. Measures Urged to Cut Short-Lived Climate Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-03-01

    To produce significant near-term climate benefits, the Obama administration should take a series of actions under existing authorities to reduce greenhouse gases that have relatively short atmospheric lifetimes of weeks to a few decades, according to a 12 March study by the nonprofit Center for Climate and Energy Solutions (C2ES). The report, "Domestic Policies to Reduce the Near-Term Risks of Climate Change," notes that recent estimates suggest that about 30-40% of warming experienced to date can be attributed to these short-lived pollutants, which include black carbon, methane, and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs).

  3. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers.

    PubMed

    Smith, Steven J; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-08-27

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04-0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy.

  4. Nuclear moments and charge radii of neutron-deficient francium isotopes and isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voss, A.; Buchinger, F.; Cheal, B.; Crawford, J. E.; Dilling, J.; Kortelainen, M.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leary, A.; Levy, C. D. P.; Mooshammer, F.; Ojeda, M. L.; Pearson, M. R.; Procter, T. J.; Tamimi, W. Al

    2015-04-01

    Collinear laser fluorescence spectroscopy has been performed on the ground and isomeric states of Fr,206204 in order to determine their spins, nuclear moments, and changes in mean-squared charge radii. A new experimental technique has been developed as part of this work which much enhances the data collection rate while maintaining the high resolution. This has permitted the extension of this study to the two isomeric states in each nucleus. The investigation of nuclear g factors and mean-squared charge radii indicates that the neutron-deficient Fr isotopes lie in a transitional region from spherical towards more collective structures.

  5. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  6. SHORT-LIVED RADIO BURSTS FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crossley, J. H.; Eilek, J. A.; Hankins, T. H.; Kern, J. S.

    2010-10-20

    Our high-time-resolution observations reveal that individual main pulses from the Crab pulsar contain one or more short-lived microbursts. Both the energy and duration of bursts measured above 1 GHz can vary dramatically in less than a millisecond. These fluctuations are too rapid to be caused by propagation through turbulence in the Crab Nebula or in the interstellar medium; they must be intrinsic to the radio emission process in the pulsar. The mean duration of a burst varies with frequency as {nu}{sup -2}, significantly different from the broadening caused by interstellar scattering. We compare the properties of the bursts to some simple models of microstructure in the radio emission region.

  7. Nucleosynthesis of Short-lived Radioactivities in Massive Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    A leading model for the source of many of the short-lived radioactivities in the early solar nebula is direct incorporation from a massive star [1]. A recent and promising incarnation of this model includes an injection mass cut, which is a boundary between the stellar ejecta that become incorporated into the solar cloud and those ejecta that do not [2-4]. This model also includes a delay time between ejection from the star and incorporation into early solar system solid bodies. While largely successful, this model requires further validation and comparison against data. Such evaluation becomes easier if we have a better sense of the nature of the synthesis of the various radioactivities in the star. That is the goal of this brief abstract.

  8. Near-Term Climate Mitigation by Short-Lived Forcers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew H.

    2013-08-12

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes such as methane (CH4) and black carbon (BC) have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and BC would likely have only a modest impact on near-term climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 are reduced by 0.16 °C, with an uncertainty range of 0.04-0.36°C, with the high end of this range only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is small. More realistic mitigation scenarios would likely provide a smaller climate benefit. The climate benefits from targeted reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated and are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits due to a comprehensive climate policy.

  9. Superdeformation in the mercury nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Janssens, R.V.F.; Carpenter, M.P.; Fernandez, P.B.; Moore, E.F.; Ahmad, I.; Khoo, T.L.; Wolfs, F.L.H. ); Drigert, M.W. ); Ye, D.; Beard, K.B.; Garg, U.; Reviol, W. ); Bearden, I.G.; Benet, P.; Daly, P.J.; Grabowski, Z.W. )

    1990-01-01

    We shall first summarize the present experimental situation concerning {sup 192}Hg, the nucleus regarded as the analog of {sup 152}Dy for this superdeformation (SD) region in that gaps are calculated to occur at large deformation for Z = 80 and N = 112. Proton and neutron excitations out of the {sup 192}Hg core will then be reviewed with particular emphasis on {sup 191}Hg and {sup 193}Tl. The presentation will conclude with a brief discussion on limits of the SD region for neutron deficient Hg nuclei. 26 refs., 10 figs.

  10. α decay of the very neutron-deficient isotopes 197-199Fr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaninová, Z.; Andreyev, A. N.; Antalic, S.; Heßberger, F. P.; Ackermann, D.; Andel, B.; Drummond, M. C.; Hofmann, S.; Huyse, M.; Kindler, B.; Lane, J. F. W.; Liberati, V.; Lommel, B.; Page, R. D.; Rapisarda, E.; Sandhu, K.; Šáro, Š.; Thornthwaite, A.; Van Duppen, P.

    2013-04-01

    Decay properties of the very neutron-deficient isotopes 197-199Fr were studied at the velocity filter Separator for Heavy Ion reaction Products (SHIP) at GSI in Darmstadt. The isotopes were produced in the 2n-4n evaporation channels of the fusion-evaporation reaction 60Ni+141Pr → 201Fr*. Improved α-decay properties of 199Fr were determined and the possible existence of two α-decaying states in this nucleus is discussed. For the isotope 198Fr a broad α-decay energy distribution was detected in the range of (7470-7930) keV and two α-decaying states were observed with half-lives of 1.1(7) and 15(3) ms. The new isotope 197Fr was identified based on the observation of one α-decay chain yielding Eα=7728(15) keV and T1/2=0.6-0.3+3.0 ms. The systematics of reduced α-decay widths are presented for neutron-deficient francium, radon, and astatine isotopes.

  11. {alpha} decay studies of very neutron-deficient francium and radium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Uusitalo, J.; Leino, M.; Enqvist, T.; Grahn, T.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Keenan, A.; Kettunen, H.; Koivisto, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leppaenen, A.-P.; Nieminen, P.; Pakarinen, J.; Rahkila, P.; Scholey, C.; Eskola, K.

    2005-02-01

    Very neutron-deficient francium and radium isotopes have been produced in fusion evaporation reactions using {sup 63}Cu and {sup 65}Cu ions on {sup 141}Pr targets and {sup 36}Ar ions on {sup 170}Yb targets. The gas-filled recoil separator RITU was employed to collect the fusion products and to separate them from the scattered beam. The activities were implanted into a position-sensitive silicon detector after passing through a gas-counter system. The isotopes were identified using spatial and time correlations between the implants and decays. Two new {alpha} decaying radium isotopes, {sup 201}Ra and {sup 202}Ra, were identified. The {alpha} decay energy and half-life of {sup 203}Ra were measured with improved precision. The {alpha} decay properties measured for the francium isotopes {sup 201}Fr,{sup 202}Fr,{sup 203}Fr, and {sup 204}Fr were confirmed, in many cases with improved precision. For the first time, a ({pi}s{sub 1/2}{sup -1})1/2{sup +} proton intruder state was identified in francium isotopes, namely in {sup 201}Fr and tentatively in {sup 203}Fr. The measured decay properties for the neutron-deficient odd-mass Fr isotopes suggest an onset of substantial deformation at N=112.

  12. Possibilities of production of neutron-deficient isotopes of U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Cf in complete fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Zubov, A. S.; Scheid, W.

    2008-10-15

    Within the dinuclear system model we analyze the production of yet unknown neutron-deficient isotopes of U, Np, Pu, Am, Cm, and Cf in various complete fusion reactions. Different deexcitation channels of the excited compound nucleus are treated. The results are obtained without special adjustment to the selected evaporation channel. The fusion probability is an important ingredient of the excitation function. The results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The alpha decay half-life times in the neutron-deficient actinides are discussed.

  13. Study of Short-Lived Unstable Nuclei by Means of Laser Optical Pumping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-04

    Supervisor A ccepted by .......................................................... George F. Koster Chairman, Departmental Committee on Graduate Students...The work described in this thesis is the culmination of a program begun in 1975 at the George R. Harrison Spectroscopy Laboratory to incorporate laser...the rest frame of the parent. The value 3 of a is equal either to +1 or -1/3 , depending on whether the transition is Fermi transition or Gamow -Teller

  14. Beta Decay Studies of Short Lived Barium Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendall, Charles Skipwith

    The half-lives and relative intensities of several short lived neutron rich isotopes, with atomic numbers between 54 and 57, produced in the spontaneous fission of californium-252 were determined. This was accomplished from the study of the time variation of the K X-ray yields of these isotopes. A transport system which allowed us to study isotopes with half-lives less than 10 seconds was developed. Mass assignments were made by comparing the experimental values of the half-lives with known values. A beta K X-ray coincidence technique was used to obtain the barium beta spectrum in coincidence with lanthanum K X -rays. A Kurie plot was performed on the spectrum to determine the beta groups. The probable origin of each beta group was determined through a comparison of the relative intensities of the isotopes and beta groups. Four beta groups probably from the decay of Ba-145 were revealed. The end point energies of these beta groups are 3870 (+OR-) 432 keV, 2772 (+OR-) 112 keV, 1894 (+OR-) 58 keV, and 746 (+OR-) 38 keV. The three lowest energy groups have not been observed before.

  15. Quantifying short-lived events in multistate ionic current measurements.

    PubMed

    Balijepalli, Arvind; Ettedgui, Jessica; Cornio, Andrew T; Robertson, Joseph W F; Cheung, Kin P; Kasianowicz, John J; Vaz, Canute

    2014-02-25

    We developed a generalized technique to characterize polymer-nanopore interactions via single channel ionic current measurements. Physical interactions between analytes, such as DNA, proteins, or synthetic polymers, and a nanopore cause multiple discrete states in the current. We modeled the transitions of the current to individual states with an equivalent electrical circuit, which allowed us to describe the system response. This enabled the estimation of short-lived states that are presently not characterized by existing analysis techniques. Our approach considerably improves the range and resolution of single-molecule characterization with nanopores. For example, we characterized the residence times of synthetic polymers that are three times shorter than those estimated with existing algorithms. Because the molecule's residence time follows an exponential distribution, we recover nearly 20-fold more events per unit time that can be used for analysis. Furthermore, the measurement range was extended from 11 monomers to as few as 8. Finally, we applied this technique to recover a known sequence of single-stranded DNA from previously published ion channel recordings, identifying discrete current states with subpicoampere resolution.

  16. Shunt detection with the short-lived radioactive gases.

    PubMed

    Watson, D D

    1980-01-01

    Conventional radionuclide techniques are limited by their inability to deliver noninvasively a compact bolus of radionuclide indicator into the left heart. This can be accomplished by the inhalation of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide. The inhaled carbon dioxide passes freely across the alveolar membrane and enters the carbonate cycle, which, under the accelerating influence of carbonic anhydrase, transfers the oxygen-15 tracer onto water in the pulmonary venous blood. The result is an abrupt tracer delivery to the pulmonary venous system with subsequent tracer input to the left heart at a rate limited only by the pulmonary blood flow. These properties of oxygen-15-labeled carbon dioxide have been used to develop a specialized indicator-dilution method for quantitation of left-to-right cardiac shunt flow. The results agree well with those obtained by oxymetry at cardiac catheterization. In clinical application, the ease and reliability of this technique are remarkable. Its use is presently limited to clinical facilities with the capability for on-line production of the short-lived gases. The techniques provide a good example of the utilization of biologically active radiopharmaceuticals and are a potentially useful source of information about the hemodynamic properties of the central circulatory system.

  17. Spectroscopic factors and cluster decay half-lives of heavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kuklin, S.N.; Adamian, G.G.; Antonenko, N.V.

    2005-01-01

    The cluster radioactivity is treated under the assumption that the light clusters are produced by a collective motion of the nuclear system in the charge asymmetry coordinate with further penetration through the Coulomb barrier. The known experimental data on cluster radioactivity are described. The half-lives of cluster emission of neutron-deficient actinides and medium-mass nuclei are predicted.

  18. High-precision masses of neutron-deficient rubidium isotopes using a Penning trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Kellerbauer, A.; Audi, G.; Guenaut, C.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Herfurth, F.; Kluge, H.-J.; Weber, C.; Yazidjian, C.; Blaum, K.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Herlert, A.; Schweikhard, L.

    2007-10-15

    The atomic masses of the neutron-deficient radioactive rubidium isotopes {sup 74-77,79,80,83}Rb have been measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Using the time-of-flight cyclotron resonance technique, relative mass uncertainties ranging from 1.6x10{sup -8} to 5.6x10{sup -8} were achieved. In all cases, the mass precision was significantly improved as compared with the prior Atomic-Mass Evaluation; no significant deviations from the literature values were observed. The exotic nuclide {sup 74}Rb, with a half-life of only 65 ms, is the shortest-lived nuclide on which a high-precision mass measurement in a Penning trap has been carried out. The significance of these measurements for a check of the conserved-vector-current hypothesis of the weak interaction and the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix is discussed.

  19. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Barzakh, A. E. Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-10-15

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for {sup 189–198,} {sup 211}Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  20. Rotation induced octupole correlations in the neutron-deficient 109Te nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Fahlander, C.; Gadea, A.; Farnea, E.; Bazzacco, D.; Belcari, N.; Blasi, N.; Bizzeti, P. G.; Bizzeti-Sona, A.; de Acuña, D.; de Poli, M.; Grawe, H.; Johnson, A.; Lo Bianco, G.; Lunardi, S.; Napoli, D. R.; Nyberg, J.; Pavan, P.; Persson, J.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Rudolph, D.; Schubart, R.; Spolaore, P.; Wyss, R.; Xu, F.

    1998-10-01

    High spin states in the neutron deficient nucleus 109Te have been populated with the 58Ni+54Fe reaction at 220 MeV and investigated through γ-spectroscopy methods at the GASP spectrometer making use of reaction channel selection with the ISIS Si-ball. The level scheme has been extended up to an excitation energy of ~12.1 MeV. The spins and parities of the observed levels are assigned tentatively supporting the identification of two bands of opposite parity connected by strong dipole transitions inferred to be of E1 character. Octupole correlations in 109Te induced by rotation are suggested as the cause of this effect.

  1. Changes in the mean square charge radii and electromagnetic moments of neutron-deficient Bi isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Batist, L. Kh.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2015-10-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for neutron deficient bismuth isotopes at the 306.77 nm atomic transition were carried out at the IRIS (Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron) facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (PNPI). New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for 189-198, 211Bi isotopes and isomers were obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii and the magnetic moment values were deduced. Marked deviation from the nearly spherical behavior for ground states of bismuth isotopes at N < 109 is demonstrated, in contrast to the lead and thallium isotopic chains. The big isomer shift between I = 1/2 (intruder) and I = 9/2 (normal) states for odd Bi isotopes (A = 193, 195, 197) was found.

  2. {beta}-decay in neutron-deficient Hg, Pb, and Po isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Moreno, O.; Sarriguren, P.; Alvarez-Rodriguez, R.; Guerra, E. Moya de

    2006-05-15

    The effect of nuclear deformation on the energy distributions of the Gamow-Teller strength is studied in neutron-deficient Hg, Pb, and Po even isotopes. The theoretical framework is based on a self-consistent deformed Skyrme Hartree-Fock mean field with pairing correlations between like nucleons in BCS approximation and residual spin-isospin interactions treated in the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation. After a systematic study of the Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the low-excitation-energy region, relevant for {beta}{sup +} decay, we have identified the best candidates to look for deformation signatures in their {beta}{sup +}-decay patterns. {beta}{sup +} half-lives and total Gamow-Teller strengths B(GT{sup {+-}}) are analyzed as well.

  3. First observation of very neutron-deficient ^1^2^2Ce [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, J. F.; Chiara, C. J.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chantler, H. J.; Choy, P. T. W.; Davids, C. N.; Devlin, M.; Durell, J. L.; Fossan, D. B.; Freeman, S. J.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Kelsall, N. S.; Koike, T.; LaFosse, D. R.; Paul, E. S.; Reiter, P.; Sarantites, D. G.; Seweryniak, D.; Starosta, K.; Wadsworth, R.; Wilson, A. N.; Heenen, P.-H.

    2005-10-01

    Excited states have been identified in the very neutron-deficient 122Ce nucleus. This is the first observation of this nucleus and its excited states. The ground-state rotational band has been observed up to spin 14 ℏ. The band has been assigned to 122Ce by detecting gamma rays in coincidence with evaporated charged particles and neutrons. The E (21+) value suggests a rather large ground-state deformation of β2 = 0.35, in good agreement with Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) mean-field calculations. The aligned angular momentum of the band has been studied and is compared with those of the neighboring even-even cerium isotopes, and to Woods-Saxon cranking calculations. The non-observation of the π(h11 / 2) 2 alignment until at least 0.4 MeV/ℏ is consistent with the extracted value of β2.

  4. First direct mass measurement of the neutron-deficient nucleus 24Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, U.; Leach, K. G.; Andreoiu, C.; Bader, A.; Brodeur, M.; Chaudhuri, A.; Gallant, A. T.; Grossheim, A.; Gwinner, G.; Klawitter, R.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Lennarz, A.; Macdonald, T. D.; Pearkes, J.; Schultz, B. E.; Dilling, J.

    2015-10-01

    The first direct mass measurement of the neutron-deficient nucleus 24Al was performed via Penning-Trap Mass Spectrometry (PTMS) using TRIUMF's Ion Trap for Atomic and Nuclear science (TITAN). This measurement was facilitated by the use of TRIUMF's new Ion-Guide Laser Ion Source (IG-LIS), which reduced A =24 isobaric contamination in the delivered beam by nearly six orders of magnitude. The measured mass excess was found to be Δ =-48.86 (23 ) keV, which is five times more precise than the value quoted in the most recent atomic mass evaluation. When combined with the relevant 24Al excitation energy, and a recent measurement of the 23Mg mass, the astrophysical 23Mg(p,γ ) 24Al reaction resonance energy is extracted as Er=480.8 (14 ) keV. The presented value shows a 2 σ disagreement with the direct measurement of this quantity by the DRAGON recoil spectrometer.

  5. AFS dynamics in a short-lived active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, F.; Battiato, V.; Contarino, L.; Romano, P.; Spadaro, D.; Vlahos, L.

    2005-11-01

    In the framework of the study on active region emergence, we report the results obtained from the analysis of the short-lived (7 days) active region NOAA 10407. The data used were acquired during an observational campaign carried out with the THEMIS telescope in IPM mode in July 2003, coordinated with other ground- and space-based instruments (INAF-OACT, DOT, BBSO, MDI/SOHO, EIT/SOHO, TRACE). We determined the morphological and magnetic evolution of NOAA 10407, as well as the velocity fields associated with its magnetic structures. Within the limits imposed by the spatial and temporal resolution of the images analyzed, the first evidence of the active region formation is initially observed in the transition region and lower corona, and later on (i.e. after about 7 h) in the inner layers, as found in a previous analysis concerning a long-lived, recurrent active region. The results also indicate that the AFS formed in the active region shows typical upward motion at the AFS's tops and downward motion at the footpoints. The velocity values relevant to the upward motions decrease over the evolution of the region, similarly to the case of the recurrent active region, while we notice an increasing trend in the downflow velocity during the early phases of the time interval analyzed by THEMIS. On the other hand, the AFS preceding legs show a higher downflow than the following ones, a result in contrast with that found in the long-lived active region. The chromospheric area overhanging the sunspot umbra shows an upward motion of ˜ 2 km s-1, while that above the pores shows a downward motion of ~4 km s-1.

  6. Convective transport of very short lived bromocarbons to the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.

    2014-06-01

    We use the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of the two most important brominated very short lived substances (VSLSs), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLSs from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the tropical western Pacific, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ~8 ppt total bromine to the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, ~150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (~7.8-8.4 ppt) in the active convective lofting regions mentioned above. Of the total ~8 ppt VSLS bromine that enters the base of the TTL at ~150 hPa, half is in the form of organic source gases and half in the form of inorganic product gases. Only a small portion (<10%) of the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On average, globally, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 together contribute ~7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep-convection strength between maximum (strongest) and minimum (weakest) convection conditions can introduce a ~2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLSs to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to conventional wisdom, the minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, and thus a significant increase in product gas injection (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relatively minor decrease in source gas injection (a few 10ths ppt).

  7. Crantor, a short-lived horseshoe companion to Uranus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Fuente Marcos, C.; de la Fuente Marcos, R.

    2013-03-01

    Context. Stable co-orbital motion with Uranus is vulnerable to planetary migration, but temporary co-orbitals may exist today. So far, only two candidates have been suggested, both moving on horseshoe orbits: 83982 Crantor (2002 GO9) and 2000 SN331. Aims: (83982) Crantor is currently classified in the group of the Centaurs by the MPC although the value of its orbital period is close to that of Uranus. Here we revisit the topic of the possible 1:1 commensurability of (83982) Crantor with Uranus, explore its dynamical past, and look into its medium-term stability and future orbital evolution. Methods: Our analysis is based on the results of N-body calculations that use the most updated ephemerides and include perturbations by the eight major planets, the Moon, the barycenter of the Pluto-Charon system, and the three largest asteroids. Results: (83982) Crantor currently moves inside Uranus' co-orbital region on a complex horseshoe orbit. The motion of this object is primarily driven by the influence of the Sun and Uranus, although Saturn plays a significant role in destabilizing its orbit. The precession of the nodes of (83982) Crantor, which is accelerated by Saturn, controls its evolution and short-term stability. Although this object follows a temporary horseshoe orbit, more stable trajectories are possible and we present 2010 EU65 as a long-term horseshoe librator candidate in urgent need of follow-up observations. Available data indicate that the candidate 2000 SN331 is not a Uranus' co-orbital. Conclusions: Our calculations confirm that (83982) Crantor is currently trapped in the 1:1 commensurability with Uranus but it is unlikely to be a primordial 1:1 librator. Although this object follows a chaotic, short-lived horseshoe orbit, longer term horseshoe stability appears to be possible. We also confirm that high-order resonances with Saturn play a major role in destabilizing the orbits of Uranus co-orbitals. Figures 2 and 6 (animations) are available in

  8. Efficiency of short-lived halogens at influencing climate through depletion of stratospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Montzka, S. A.; Rap, A.; Dhomse, S.; Feng, W.

    2015-03-01

    Halogens released from long-lived anthropogenic substances, such as chlorofluorocarbons, are the principal cause of recent depletion of stratospheric ozone, a greenhouse gas. Recent observations show that very short-lived substances, with lifetimes generally under six months, are also an important source of stratospheric halogens. Short-lived bromine substances are produced naturally by seaweed and phytoplankton, whereas short-lived chlorine substances are primarily anthropogenic. Here we used a chemical transport model to quantify the depletion of ozone in the lower stratosphere from short-lived halogen substances, and a radiative transfer model to quantify the radiative effects of that ozone depletion. According to our simulations, ozone loss from short-lived substances had a radiative effect nearly half that from long-lived halocarbons in 2011 and, since pre-industrial times, has contributed a total of about -0.02 W m-2 to global radiative forcing. We find natural short-lived bromine substances exert a 3.6 times larger ozone radiative effect than long-lived halocarbons, normalized by halogen content, and show atmospheric levels of dichloromethane, a short-lived chlorine substance not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, are rapidly increasing. We conclude that potential further significant increases in the atmospheric abundance of short-lived halogen substances, through changing natural processes or continued anthropogenic emissions, could be important for future climate.

  9. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Significant results are the continued detection of short-lived events. The following have been detected and analyzed: forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes. It is hoped that the Mississippi River flood scenes will arrive shortly and then floods be added to the list of identified short-lived events.

  10. Application of the Non-Adiabatic Phase Matrix Method to Vibrational Excitation Near a Short-lived Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Michael A.; Mazevet, S.; Nesbet, R. K.

    1998-05-01

    Non-adiabatic effects arising from energy exchange between the kinetic energy of the projectile and the nuclear degrees of freedom play a vital role in resonance vibrational excitation of molecules for sufficiently long-lived resonances. The importance of these effects for short-lived resonances is less clear, and the suitability of approximate theories for incorporating these effects to such resonances has been heretofore unknown. We have applied one such approach, the non-adiabatic phase (NADP) matrix method,(R. K. Nesbet, Phys. Rev. A 54), 2899 (1996) to the very short-lived resonance in e--H2 vibrational excitation. Even in this problematic case, the NADP method provides a systematic treatment of the (fixed-nuclei) ^2Σ_u^+ resonance that is consistent for all internuclear separations. We shall compare NADP scattering quantities for excitation of low-lying vibrational states of H2 to benchmark results from body-fixed vibrational close-coupling calculations.(S. J. Buckman, M. J. Brunger, D. S. Newman, G. Snitchler, S. Alston, D. W. Norcross, M. A. Morrison, B. C. Saha, G. Danby, and W. K. Trail, Phys. Rev. Lett. 65), 3253 (1990)

  11. Charge radii and nuclear moments of neutron-deficient potassium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Barquest, B. R.; Bollen, G.; Hughes, M.; Strum, R.; Tarazona, D.; Asberry, H. B.; Cooper, K.; Hammerton, K.; Klose, A.; Mantica, P. F.; Morrissey, D. J.; Geppert, Ch.; Harris, J.; Ringle, R.; Rodriguez, J. A.; Rossi, D. M.; Ryder, C. A.; Smith, A.; Schwarz, S.; Sumithrarachchi, C.

    2014-09-01

    The monotonic change of charge radii of K isotopes across N = 20 suggests a reduction of the shell gap. A systematic study of the charge radii and ground state magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient 35-37K isotopes is underway at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU to investigate the anomalous trend in charge radii. The K isotopes were produced by fragmentation of a 40Ca beam, thermalized in a linear gas cell, extracted at an energy of 30 keV, and transported to BECOLA. The K ion beam was cooled and bunched, and neutralized in a Na vapor cell. Laser-induced fluorescence was detected as a function of the Doppler-tuned laser frequency and time relative to the release of the beam bunch. The beta-NMR technique was used to determine ground-state nuclear moments, where hyperfine splittings are too small to resolve using collinear laser spectroscopy. The monotonic change of charge radii of K isotopes across N = 20 suggests a reduction of the shell gap. A systematic study of the charge radii and ground state magnetic and quadrupole moments of neutron-deficient 35-37K isotopes is underway at the BEam COoling and LAser spectroscopy (BECOLA) facility at NSCL/MSU to investigate the anomalous trend in charge radii. The K isotopes were produced by fragmentation of a 40Ca beam, thermalized in a linear gas cell, extracted at an energy of 30 keV, and transported to BECOLA. The K ion beam was cooled and bunched, and neutralized in a Na vapor cell. Laser-induced fluorescence was detected as a function of the Doppler-tuned laser frequency and time relative to the release of the beam bunch. The beta-NMR technique was used to determine ground-state nuclear moments, where hyperfine splittings are too small to resolve using collinear laser spectroscopy. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant No. PHY-11-02511.

  12. Spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals at LHC and FCC energies. The possibility to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles and quadrupole moment of Ω -hyperon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2017-07-01

    The phenomena of spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals in the range of high energies that will be available at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC) provides a unique possibility of measuring the anomalous magnetic moment of charged and neutral charm and beauty hyperons and quadrupole moment of Ω -hyperon. Crystals with polarized nuclei give opportunities for measuring spin-dependent interactions of short lived particles with nuclei and measurement of a particle polarization.

  13. Charge Radii of Neutron Deficient Fe,5352 Produced by Projectile Fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minamisono, K.; Rossi, D. M.; Beerwerth, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Garand, D.; Klose, A.; Liu, Y.; Maaß, B.; Mantica, P. F.; Miller, A. J.; Müller, P.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nörtershäuser, W.; Olsen, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Saperstein, E. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2016-12-01

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient Fe,5352 prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δ ⟨r2⟩ of Fe,5352 are determined relative to stable 56Fe as δ ⟨r2⟩56 ,52=-0.034 (13 ) fm2 and δ ⟨r2⟩56 ,53=-0.218 (13 ) fm2 , respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ ⟨r2⟩. The values of δ ⟨r2⟩ exhibit a minimum at the N =28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. The trend of δ ⟨r2⟩ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ ⟨r2⟩ of closed-shell Ca isotopes.

  14. Charge radii of neutron deficient Fe52,53 produced by projectile fragmentation

    DOE PAGES

    Minamisono, K.; Rossi, D. M.; Beerwerth, R.; ...

    2016-12-15

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient 52,53Fe prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δmore » $$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ of 52,53Fe are determined relative to stable 56Fe as δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$56,52=$-$0.034(13) fm2 and δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$56,53=$-$0.218(13) fm2, respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$. The values of δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ exhibit a minimum at the N=28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. As a result, the trend of δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ$$\\langle$$r2$$\\rangle$$ of closed-shell Ca isotopes« less

  15. Charge Radii of Neutron Deficient ^{52,53}Fe Produced by Projectile Fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Minamisono, K; Rossi, D M; Beerwerth, R; Fritzsche, S; Garand, D; Klose, A; Liu, Y; Maaß, B; Mantica, P F; Miller, A J; Müller, P; Nazarewicz, W; Nörtershäuser, W; Olsen, E; Pearson, M R; Reinhard, P-G; Saperstein, E E; Sumithrarachchi, C; Tolokonnikov, S V

    2016-12-16

    Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on neutron deficient ^{52,53}Fe prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δ⟨r^{2}⟩ of ^{52,53}Fe are determined relative to stable ^{56}Fe as δ⟨r^{2}⟩^{56,52}=-0.034(13)  fm^{2} and δ⟨r^{2}⟩^{56,53}=-0.218(13)  fm^{2}, respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ⟨r^{2}⟩. The values of δ⟨r^{2}⟩ exhibit a minimum at the N=28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. The trend of δ⟨r^{2}⟩ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ⟨r^{2}⟩ of closed-shell Ca isotopes.

  16. Deformation and mixing of coexisting shapes in neutron-deficient polonium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesteloot, N.; Bastin, B.; Gaffney, L. P.; Wrzosek-Lipska, K.; Auranen, K.; Bauer, C.; Bender, M.; Bildstein, V.; Blazhev, A.; Bönig, S.; Bree, N.; Clément, E.; Cocolios, T. E.; Damyanova, A.; Darby, I.; De Witte, H.; Di Julio, D.; Diriken, J.; Fransen, C.; García-Ramos, J. E.; Gernhäuser, R.; Grahn, T.; Heenen, P.-H.; Hess, H.; Heyde, K.; Huyse, M.; Iwanicki, J.; Jakobsson, U.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Laurent, B.; Lecesne, N.; Lutter, R.; Pakarinen, J.; Peura, P.; Piselli, E.; Próchniak, L.; Rahkila, P.; Rapisarda, E.; Reiter, P.; Scheck, M.; Seidlitz, M.; Sferrazza, M.; Siebeck, B.; Sjodin, M.; Tornqvist, H.; Traykov, E.; Van De Walle, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Vermeulen, M.; Voulot, D.; Warr, N.; Wenander, F.; Wimmer, K.; Zielińska, M.

    2015-11-01

    Coulomb-excitation experiments are performed with postaccelerated beams of neutron-deficient Po 196 ,198 ,200 ,202 isotopes at the REX-ISOLDE facility. A set of matrix elements, coupling the low-lying states in these isotopes, is extracted. In the two heaviest isotopes, Po,202200, the transitional and diagonal matrix elements of the 21+ state are determined. In Po,198196 multistep Coulomb excitation is observed, populating the 41+,02+ , and 22+ states. The experimental results are compared to the results from the measurement of mean-square charge radii in polonium isotopes, confirming the onset of deformation from 196Po onwards. Three model descriptions are used to compare to the data. Calculations with the beyond-mean-field model, the interacting boson model, and the general Bohr Hamiltonian model show partial agreement with the experimental data. Finally, calculations with a phenomenological two-level mixing model hint at the mixing of a spherical structure with a weakly deformed rotational structure.

  17. Deformation studies in the extremely neutron-deficient praseodymium, neodymium and promethium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenbach, J.; Braga, R.A.; Wood, J.L.; Semmes, P.B.; Kormicki, J.

    1992-12-31

    Several experiments were performed at the UNISOR isotope separator facility at HHIRF at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the {beta}{sup +}/EC decay of neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes. Data for the three decay chains {sup 137}Eu {yields} {sup 137}Sm {yields} {sup 137}Pm {yields} {sup 137}Nd, {sup 135}Sm {yields} {sup 135}Pm {yields} {sup 135}Nd and {sup 133}Sm {yields} {sup 133}Pm {yields} {sup 133}Nd were obtained consisting of multiscaled spectra of {gamma} rays, x rays, and conversion electrons, as well as {gamma}{gamma}t, X{gamma}t, e{gamma}t and eXt coincidences. Gamma rays associated with the decay of {sup 133}Sm and {sup 133}Pm were observed for the first time. The decay of a new low-spin (1/2,3/2) isomeric state, with a half life around 70 sec was seen in {sup 133}Nd. Systematics and particle-rotor calculations are discussed.

  18. Deformation studies in the extremely neutron-deficient praseodymium, neodymium and promethium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Breitenbach, J.; Braga, R.A.; Wood, J.L. ); Semmes, P.B. . Dept. of Physics); Kormicki, J. . Dept. of Physics)

    1992-01-01

    Several experiments were performed at the UNISOR isotope separator facility at HHIRF at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the [beta][sup +]/EC decay of neutron-deficient rare earth isotopes. Data for the three decay chains [sup 137]Eu [yields] [sup 137]Sm [yields] [sup 137]Pm [yields] [sup 137]Nd, [sup 135]Sm [yields] [sup 135]Pm [yields] [sup 135]Nd and [sup 133]Sm [yields] [sup 133]Pm [yields] [sup 133]Nd were obtained consisting of multiscaled spectra of [gamma] rays, x rays, and conversion electrons, as well as [gamma][gamma]t, X[gamma]t, e[gamma]t and eXt coincidences. Gamma rays associated with the decay of [sup 133]Sm and [sup 133]Pm were observed for the first time. The decay of a new low-spin (1/2,3/2) isomeric state, with a half life around 70 sec was seen in [sup 133]Nd. Systematics and particle-rotor calculations are discussed.

  19. Neutron-deficient N{approx_equal}126 nuclei produced in 238U fragmentation: population of high-spin states

    SciTech Connect

    Podolyak, Zs.; Regan, P. H.; Walker, P. M.; Pearson, C. J.; Valiente-Dobon, J. J.; Gerl, J.; Hellstroem, M.; Becker, F.; Gorska, M.; Kelic, A.; Kopatch, Y.; Mandal, S.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Banu, A.; Geissel, H.; Grawe, H.; Kojouharov, I.; Lozeva, R.; Portillo, M.

    2006-04-26

    The population of metastable states produced in relativistic-energy fragmentation of a 238U beam has been measured. For states with high angular momentum, I=17({Dirac_h}/2{pi}) and I=21.5({Dirac_h}/2{pi}), a higher population than expected has been observed, with the discrepancy increasing with angular momentum. By considering two sources for the angular momentum, related to single-particle and collective motions, a much improved description of the experimental results can be obtained. In addition, new results on the structure of 208Fr, 211Ra and 216Ac are reported.

  20. 247Cm as a Short-lived r-Process Chronometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, J. B.; Schramm, D. N.

    1973-06-01

    Nucleocosmochronological studies1-3 have used two short-lived isotopes (relative to the age of the Solar System), 129I(τ1/2 = 1.7 × 107 yr) and 244Pu(τ1/2 = 8.2 × 107 yr). Short-lived isotopes provide valuable information about the early history of the Solar System and, in particular, about meteorite parent bodies. Additional short-lived chronometers, particularly if created by different nucleosynthetic processes, would be very useful. The two isotopes 129I and 244Pu are believed to be produced (essentially) entirely by the r-process.

  1. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Of significance are the continued detection and analysis of such short-lived events as forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, and earthquakes.

  2. Spherical nuclei near the stability line and far from it

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isakov, V. I.

    2016-11-01

    Results of microscopic and semiphenomenological calculations of features of spherical nuclei lying near the stability line and far from it are presented. The reason why the nuclei being considered are spherical is that they are magic at least in one nucleon sort. The present analysis is performed for Z = 50 and Z = 28 isotopes and for N = 50 isotones, the region extending from neutron-rich to neutron-deficient nuclei being covered. The isotopic dependence of the mean-field spin-orbit nuclear potential is revealed; systematics of energies of levels and probabilities for electromagnetic transitions is examined; and root-mean-square radii of nuclei are calculated, along with the proton- and neutron-density distributions in them. Nuclei in the vicinity of closed shells are considered in detail, and the axial-vector weak coupling constant in nuclei is evaluated. A systematic comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data is performed.

  3. Spherical nuclei near the stability line and far from it

    SciTech Connect

    Isakov, V. I.

    2016-11-15

    Results of microscopic and semiphenomenological calculations of features of spherical nuclei lying near the stability line and far from it are presented. The reason why the nuclei being considered are spherical is that they are magic at least in one nucleon sort. The present analysis is performed for Z = 50 and Z = 28 isotopes and for N = 50 isotones, the region extending from neutron-rich to neutron-deficient nuclei being covered. The isotopic dependence of the mean-field spin–orbit nuclear potential is revealed; systematics of energies of levels and probabilities for electromagnetic transitions is examined; and root-mean-square radii of nuclei are calculated, along with the proton- and neutron-density distributions in them. Nuclei in the vicinity of closed shells are considered in detail, and the axial-vector weak coupling constant in nuclei is evaluated. A systematic comparison of the results of calculations with experimental data is performed.

  4. Shape Coexistence in Pb-Rn Nuclei Studied by Particle Decay Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.

    2006-08-14

    This contribution reviews the results of recent experiments at the velocity filter SHIP (GSI, Darmstadt) in which a number of very neutron-deficient nuclei with Z=83-88 and N< 126 were studied in detail and new nuclides 186,187Po, 192At and 193,194Rn were identified. Complete fusion reactions at beam energies close to the Coulomb barrier were used, followed by particle detection with various detection systems. Peculiarities in {alpha}-decay characteristics of the 186-191Po isotopes are discussed in detail. Very recent results for the neutron-deficient At-Ra nuclei from the gas-filled separator RITU (JYFL, Jyvaeskylae) are also highlighted.The application of a new method to reach nuclei in this region - spallation-evaporation reactions of 238U ions at 1 AGeV on a Be target, followed by the separation with the FRS at GSI is discussed as well.

  5. Production of a short-lived filament by a surge. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zirin, H.

    1976-01-01

    An unusual solar event is investigated in which a short-lived cloud, very much like a filament, was formed by ejecta from a large surge. The temporal evolution of this surge is described, and evidence is presented which indicates that the short-lived cloud was a bona fide filament. The energetics of this event and the mass of the surge are estimated from radio and X-ray data obtained at the onset.

  6. Mass measurements of short-lived isotopes in a penning trap

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, F.; Egelhof, P.; Hilberath, T.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kluge, H.h.; Kunz, K.; Schweikhard, L.; Stolzenberg, H.; Moore, R.B.; Audi, G.; and others

    1987-12-10

    A mass spectrometer has been set up at the on-line isotope separator ISOLDE at CERN/Geneva. Mass-separated radioactive ions are stored in a Penning trap. Their mass is determined by a measurement of the cyclotron frequency in the magnetic field of a superconducting magnet. A resolving power of up to 300.000 and a precision of some 10 keV were determined in case of mass measurements of neutron-deficient RB and Cs isotopes. The resonance of the isobars /sup 88/Sr and /sup 88/Rb were clearly resolved and evidence was obtained for an isomer in /sup 122/Cs.

  7. Vehicle emissions of short-lived and long-lived climate forcers: trends and tradeoffs.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Morgan R; Klemun, Magdalena M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Winkler, Sandra L; Tamor, Michael A; Trancik, Jessika E

    2017-08-24

    Evaluating technology options to mitigate the climate impacts of road transportation can be challenging, particularly when they involve a tradeoff between long-lived emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived emissions (e.g., methane or black carbon). Here we present trends in short- and long-lived emissions for light- and heavy-duty transport globally and in the U.S., EU, and China over the period 2000-2030, and we discuss past and future changes to vehicle technologies to reduce these emissions. We model the tradeoffs between short- and long-lived emission reductions across a range of technology options, life cycle emission intensities, and equivalency metrics. While short-lived vehicle emissions have decreased globally over the past two decades, significant reductions in CO2 will be required by mid-century to meet climate change mitigation targets. This is true regardless of the time horizon used to compare long- and short-lived emissions. The short-lived emission intensities of some low-CO2 technologies are higher than others, and thus their suitability for meeting climate targets depends sensitively on the evaluation time horizon. Other technologies offer low intensities of both short-lived emissions and CO2.

  8. Spatio-temporal characterisation of short-lived surface-groundwater interactions using streambed thermal signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Gabriel; Halloran, Landon; Cuthbert, Mark; Andersen, Martin; Acworth, Ian; Tellam, John

    2017-04-01

    Streamflow cessation and drying occurs in the majority of the world's river networks, yet the spatio-temporal dynamics of short-lived surface-groundwater interactions are poorly understood. We develop a new method to characterise water flow in variably saturated dryland streambeds based on the depth propagation of the diurnal temperature amplitude ratio. A contrast in thermal signatures between dry or saturated conditions can be used to detect and characterise short-lived stream flow and surface-groundwater interactions. We deployed 10 streambed arrays to measure temperature and pressure time series along a 12 km stretch of a dryland channel where the groundwater is monitored at 4 locations by piezometers located in the alluvium. Analyses of the thermal signatures in conjunction with the pressure records illustrate that short-lived surface-groundwater interactions are complicated and highly variable in space and time. Thermal signatures were used to categorise short-lived surface-groundwater interactions into distinct hydrological regimes: (1) dry channel, (2) surface runoff, (3) pool-riffle sequences, (4) drying pools. Our analyses demonstrates that the rate of redistribution of infiltrated water controls the duration of the pool-riffle sequences regime, which either leads to ephemeral or intermittent stream flow behaviour. This subsurface water redistribution is determined by the hydraulic conductivity of the alluvium, i.e. the heterogeneity of sediments along the channel. Our new approach can be used to investigate how short-lived flow underpins dryland ecology, influences water quality and leads to groundwater recharge.

  9. Synthesis of Superheavy Nuclei with Z = 112 - 118

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utyonkov, V. K.

    2015-06-01

    Review of the discovery and investigation of the "Island of stability" of superheavy nuclei at the separator DGFRS in the 238U-249Cf+48Ca reactions is presented. The synthesis of the heaviest nuclei, their decay properties, and methods of identification are discussed. The results are compared with the data obtained in the chemistry experiments performed at the IVO+COLD setup and at the separators SHIP, BGS, and TASCA. The role of shell effects in the stability of superheavy nuclei is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental and theoretical data. The recent experiment aimed at the investigation of the region of neutron-deficient nuclei produced in the 239Pu+48Ca reaction is described. Future experiments at DGFRS aimed at the study of superheavy nuclei are considered.

  10. Impact of Reducing Short-Lived Air Pollutants on Atmospheric Composition and Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.; Fiore, A. M.; Levy, H.

    2010-12-01

    Most studies to date have quantified the impact of short-lived air pollutants on climate in terms of radiative forcing, where radiative forcing is calculated based on changes in forcing agent distributions induced by emission perturbations simulated in a chemistry-transport model (CTM). Here, we employ the GFDL AM3 model to investigate the impact of a change in the emissions of short-lived air pollutants on the coupled chemistry-climate system (including stratospheric and tropospheric chemistry, and cloud-aerosol interactions). We present results from two simulations conducted in support of the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The base case simulation uses prescribed mean 1981-2000 sea surface temperatures and sea ice cover taken from the historical simulations conducted for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project 5 (CMIP5) in support of the IPCC-AR5. Concentrations of well-mixed greenhouse gases, ozone depleting substances, and emissions of short-lived pollutants are for the year 2000. The perturbation simulation uses the same configuration except the short-lived pollutant emissions are reduced to 1860 values (77% decrease for NOx, 54% decrease for CO, 70% NMVOCs, 95% SO2, 58% BC and 35% OC). Our initial analysis indicates that the troposphere and stratosphere respond in opposite ways to the reduction in short-lived pollutants. While tropospheric ozone burden decreases (by 18% or 64 Tg on an annual average), stratospheric ozone increases, particularly over the poles. This pre-industrial to present change in tropospheric ozone is somewhat smaller than prior CTM estimates, suggesting an important influence from stratosphere-troposphere interactions. We will examine the differences in atmospheric circulation, temperature and precipitation, stratosphere-troposphere exchange, oxidizing capacity and aerosol distributions in the two simulations, with the goal of advancing our understanding of the role of short-lived pollutants

  11. Advanced short-lived nuclide NAA with application in the life sciences.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, N N; Tsagas, N F

    1994-01-01

    A new technique for short-lived nuclide activation analysis has been developed that compensates the rapid radioactive decay during the counting period by simultaneous approach of the sample holder to the detector with a mechanical device, permitting prolongation of the counting time and reduction of the required complementary cyclic activation to avoid sample container damage. The operation of the analytical system is automated by a programmable logic controller (PLC). This improvement of short-lived nuclide activation analysis, providing a high throughput, is important in biological and environmental research, where often a large number of samples has to be analyzed for sufficient sampling statistics.

  12. First experimental results of a cryogenic stopping cell with short-lived, heavy uranium fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, S.; Reiter, M. P.; Haettner, E.; Dendooven, P.; Dickel, T.; Geissel, H.; Ebert, J.; Jesch, C.; Plass, W. R.; Ranjan, M.; Weick, H.; Amjad, F.; Ayet, S.; Diwisch, M.; Estrade, A.; Farinon, F.; Greiner, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Knöbel, R.; Kurcewicz, J.; Lang, J.; Moore, I. D.; Mukha, I.; Nociforo, C.; Petrick, M.; Pfützner, M.; Pietri, S.; Prochazka, A.; Rink, A.-K.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Scheidenberger, C.; Takechi, M.; Tanaka, Y. K.; Winfield, J. S.; Yavor, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    A cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) has been commissioned with 238U projectile fragments produced at 1000 MeV/u. The spatial isotopic separation in flight was performed with the FRS applying a monoenergetic degrader. For the first time, a stopping cell was operated with exotic nuclei at cryogenic temperatures (70 to 100 K). A helium stopping gas density of up to 0.05\\ \\text{mg/cm}^3 was used, about two times higher than reached before for a stopping cell with RF ion repelling structures. An overall efficiency of up to 15%, a combined ion survival and extraction efficiency of about 50%, and extraction times of 24 ms were achieved for heavy α-decaying uranium fragments. Mass spectrometry with a multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer has demonstrated the excellent cleanliness of the CSC. This setup has opened a new field for the spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei.

  13. Cranking study of low lying yrast spectra and deformation systematics in some even-even neutron-deficient 130-136Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Arun; Bharti, Arun; Khosa, S. K.

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the results of calculations on various nuclear structure quantities in even-even neutron-deficient 130-136Nd using Cranked Hartree-Fock Bogoliubov (CHFB) technique have been presented. The various nuclear structure quantities that have been calculated in 130-136Nd isotopes are the yrast spectra, subshell occupation probabilities of various valence orbits and intrinsic quadrupole moments. Besides this, a comparative study of the calculated yrast spectra with the available experimental data as well as with the results of calculations obtained by using Variation-After-Projection (VAP) technique on these neutron - deficient 130-136Nd isotopes has also been presented.

  14. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  15. Mass Measurements of Very Neutron-Deficient Mo and Tc Isotopes and Their Impact on rp Process Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Haettner, E.; Plass, W. R.; Scheidenberger, C.; Ackermann, D.; Block, M.; Eliseev, S.; Herfurth, F.; Hessberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Kluge, H.-J.; Audi, G.; Blaum, K.; Ketter, J.; Fleckenstein, T.; Ketelaer, J.; Marx, G.; Schweikhard, L.; Mazzocco, M.; Novikov, Yu. N.; Vorobjev, G.

    2011-03-25

    The masses of ten proton-rich nuclides, including the N=Z+1 nuclides {sup 85}Mo and {sup 87}Tc, were measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. Compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2003 a systematic shift of the mass surface by up to 1.6 MeV is observed causing significant abundance changes of the ashes of astrophysical x-ray bursts. Surprisingly low {alpha} separation energies for neutron-deficient Mo and Tc are found, making the formation of a ZrNb cycle in the rp process possible. Such a cycle would impose an upper temperature limit for the synthesis of elements beyond Nb in the rp process.

  16. Mass measurements of very neutron-deficient Mo and Tc isotopes and their impact on rp process nucleosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Haettner, E; Ackermann, D; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Block, M; Eliseev, S; Fleckenstein, T; Herfurth, F; Hessberger, F P; Hofmann, S; Ketelaer, J; Ketter, J; Kluge, H-J; Marx, G; Mazzocco, M; Novikov, Yu N; Plass, W R; Rahaman, S; Rauscher, T; Rodríguez, D; Schatz, H; Scheidenberger, C; Schweikhard, L; Sun, B; Thirolf, P G; Vorobjev, G; Wang, M; Weber, C

    2011-03-25

    The masses of ten proton-rich nuclides, including the N=Z+1 nuclides ⁸⁵Mo and ⁸⁷Tc, were measured with the Penning trap mass spectrometer SHIPTRAP. Compared to the Atomic Mass Evaluation 2003 a systematic shift of the mass surface by up to 1.6 MeV is observed causing significant abundance changes of the ashes of astrophysical x-ray bursts. Surprisingly low α separation energies for neutron-deficient Mo and Tc are found, making the formation of a ZrNb cycle in the rp process possible. Such a cycle would impose an upper temperature limit for the synthesis of elements beyond Nb in the rp process.

  17. Experimental Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Products from Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.

    2009-11-01

    Fission yields are especially well characterized for long-lived fission products. Modeling techniques incorporate numerous assumptions and can be used to deduce information about the distribution of short-lived fission products. This work is an attempt to gather experimental (model-independent) data on the short-lived fission products. Fissile isotopes of uranium, neptunium, plutonium and americium were irradiated under pulse conditions at the Washington State University 1 MW TRIGA reactor to achieve ~108 fissions. The samples were placed on a HPGe (high purity germanium) detector to begin counting in less than 3 minutes post irradiation. The samples were counted for various time intervals ranging from 5 minutes to 1 hour. The data was then analyzed to determine which radionuclides could be quantified and compared to the published fission yield data.

  18. Intersections of potential energy surfaces of short-lived states: the complex analogue of conical intersections.

    PubMed

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Sommerfeld, Thomas; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2004-02-15

    Whereas conical intersections between potential energy surfaces of bound states are well known, the interaction of short-lived states has been investigated only rarely. Here, we present several systematically constructed model Hamiltonians to study the topology of intersecting complex potential energy surfaces describing short-lived states: We find the general phenomenon of doubly intersecting complex energy surfaces, i.e., there are two points instead of one as in the case of bound states where the potential energy surfaces coalesce. In addition, seams of intersections of the respective real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces emanate from these two points. Using the Sigma* and Pi* resonance states of the chloroethene anion as a practical example, we demonstrate that our complete linear model Hamiltonian is able to reproduce all phenomena found in explicitly calculated ab initio complex potential energy surfaces.

  19. M-Track: detecting short-lived protein-protein interactions in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zuzuarregui, Aurora; Kupka, Thomas; Bhatt, Bhumika; Dohnal, Ilse; Mudrak, Ingrid; Friedmann, Christina; Schüchner, Stefan; Frohner, Ingrid E.; Ammerer, Gustav; Ogris, Egon

    2012-01-01

    We developed a protein-proximity assay in yeast based on fusing a histone lysine methyltransferase onto a bait and its substrate onto a prey. Upon binding, the prey is stably methylated and detected by methylation-specific antibodies. We applied this approach to detect varying interaction affinities among proteins in a mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and to detect short-lived interactions between protein phosphatase 2A and its substrates that have so far escaped direct detection. PMID:22581371

  20. Rate of resistance evolution and polymorphism in long- and short-lived hosts.

    PubMed

    Bruns, Emily; Hood, Michael E; Antonovics, Janis

    2015-02-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that long-lived hosts are expected to evolve higher equilibrium levels of disease resistance than shorter-lived hosts, but questions of how longevity affects the rate of resistance evolution and the maintenance of polymorphism remain unanswered. Conventional wisdom suggests that adaptive evolution should occur more slowly in long-lived organisms than in short-lived organisms. However, the opposite may be true for the evolution of disease-resistance traits where exposure to disease, and therefore the strength of selection for resistance increases with longevity. In a single locus model of innate resistance to a frequency-dependent, sterilizing disease, longer lived hosts evolved resistance more rapidly than short-lived hosts. Moreover, resistance in long-lived hosts could only be polymorphic for more costly and more extreme resistance levels than short-lived hosts. The increased rate of evolution occurred in spite of longer generation times because longer-lived hosts had both a longer period of exposure to disease as well as higher disease prevalence. Qualitatively similar results were found when the model was extended to mortality-inducing diseases, or to density-dependent transmission modes. Our study shows that the evolutionary dynamics of host resistance is determined by more than just levels of resistance and cost, but is highly sensitive to the life-history traits of the host.

  1. Subpopulations of long-lived and short-lived T cells in advanced HIV-1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Hellerstein, Marc K.; Hoh, Rebecca A.; Hanley, Mary Beth; Cesar, Denise; Lee, Daniel; Neese, Richard A.; McCune, Joseph M.

    2003-01-01

    Antigenic stimulation of T cells gives rise to short-lived effector cells and long-lived memory cells. We used two stable isotope-labeling techniques to identify kinetically distinct subpopulations of T cells and to determine the effect of advanced infection with HIV-1. Long-term deuterated water (2H2O) incorporation into DNA demonstrated biphasic accrual of total and of memory/effector (m/e)–phenotype but not naive-phenotype T cells, consistent with the presence of short-lived and longer-lived subpopulations within the m/e-phenotype T cell pool. These results were mirrored by biphasic die-away kinetics in m/e- but not naive-phenotype T cells after short-term 2H-glucose labeling. Persistent label retention was observed in a subset of m/e-phenotype T cells (presumably memory T cells), confirming the presence of T cells with very different life spans in humans. In advanced HIV-1 infection, much higher proportions of T cells were short-lived, compared to healthy controls. Effective long-term anti-retroviral therapy restored values to normal. These results provide the first quantitative evidence that long-lived and quiescent T cells do indeed predominate in the T cell pool in humans and determine T cell pool size, as in rodents. The greatest impact of advanced HIV-1 infection is to reduce the generation of long-lived, potential progenitor T cells. PMID:12975480

  2. Classification of short-lived objects using an interactive adaptable assistance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Bekri, Nadia; Angele, Susanne; Peinsipp-Byma, Elisabeth

    2015-05-01

    "Although we know that it is not a familiar object, after a while we can say what it resembles". The core task of an aerial image analyst is to recognize different object types based on certain clearly classified characteristics from aerial or satellite images. An interactive recognition assistance system compares selected features with a fixed set of reference objects (core data set). Therefore it is mainly designed to evaluate durable single objects like a specific type of ship or vehicle. Aerial image analysts on missions realized a changed warfare over the time. The task was not anymore to classify and thereby recognize a single durable object. The problem was that they had to classify strong variable objects and the reference set did not match anymore. In order to approach this new scope we introduce a concept to a further development of the interactive assistance system to be able to handle also short-lived, not clearly classifiable and strong variable objects like for example dhows. Dhows are the type of ships that are often used during pirate attacks at the coast of West Africa. Often these ships were build or extended by the pirates themselves. They follow no particular pattern as the standard construction of a merchant ship. In this work we differ between short-lived and durable objects. The interactive adaptable assistance system is supposed to assist image analysts with the classification of objects, which are new and not listed in the reference set of objects yet. The human interaction and perception is an important factor in order to realize this task and achieve the goal of recognition. Therefore we had to model the possibility to classify short-lived objects with appropriate procedures taking into consideration all aspects of short-lived objects. In this paper we will outline suitable measures and the possibilities to categorize short-lived objects via simple basic shapes as well as a temporary data storage concept for shortlived objects. The

  3. The Onset of Collectivity in Neutron-Deficient POLONIUM-200,198,196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernstein, Lee Allen

    This dissertation concerns the study of discrete, low spin and high spin states in the three even-mass polonium (Z = 84) isotopes; ^{200}Po, ^{198}Po and ^{196}Po. The reactions used to study the nuclei were: ^{172} Yb(^{28}Si,4n) ^{196}Po at beam energies of 141 and 145 MeV; ^{174}Yb( ^{29}Si,5n)^ {198}Po at beam energies of 141 and 146 MeV; ^{176}Yb( ^{29}Si,5n)^{200 }Po at a beam energy of 146 MeV. The experiment studying ^{196}Po was performed at Argonne National Laboratory using the Argonne -Notre Dame array, which consists of 12 Compton-suppressed Ge detectors and a 50 element BGO inner ball of detectors. The other two nuclei were studied at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory using the High Energy Resolution Array, which consisted of 20 Compton suppressed Ge detectors and a 40 element BGO inner ball. Decay schemes of yrast and near-yrast states, including probable spin and parity assignments, were built in spite of sizable backgrounds from fission, Coulomb excitation, and transfer reactions. The purpose of the present work was to study the transition from single-particle to collective behavior in the low-lying states. The systematic behavior of the low-lying states, including ratios of the yrast state energies and branching ratios of transitions depopulating the 2 _sp{2}{+} and 4_sp{2}{+} states, were studied. The transition was described using a composite of the shell model and the vibrational limit of the liquid drop model. It was determined that the yrast 2 ^+ and 4^+ states are collective for ^{208-196} Po. However, the yrast 6^+ state remains predominantly a non-collective excitation until ^{196}Po, where it becomes an excellent example of vibrational behavior. This can be attributed to the opening of the neutron i _{13/2} orbital near ^ {198}Po (N = 114), which causes larger overlap between the valence protons and neutrons. In addition to the transitional behavior of the low-lying states, high spin level schemes were established for all three nuclei

  4. Onset of deformation in neutron-deficient Bi isotopes studied by laser spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barzakh, A. E.; Fedorov, D. V.; Ivanov, V. S.; Molkanov, P. L.; Moroz, F. V.; Orlov, S. Yu.; Panteleev, V. N.; Seliverstov, M. D.; Volkov, Yu. M.

    2017-04-01

    In-source laser spectroscopy experiments for bismuth isotopes at the 306.77-nm atomic transition has been carried out at the Investigation of Radioactive Isotopes on Synchrocyclotron facility of Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute. New data on isotope shifts and hyperfine structure for Bi ground states and isomers (189,190 m 1,190 m 2,191,192,192 m,194,194 m,198 mBi) have been obtained. The changes in the mean-square charge radii δ and magnetic-moment values have been deduced. For Bi nuclei a marked deviation from the isotopic trend of δ in lead and thallium isotopic chains has been demonstrated at N <111 . This has been interpreted as an indication of the onset of quadrupole deformation. Analysis of the magnetic moments for odd-odd Bi isotopes also points to the possible increase in deformation at N <111 .

  5. Three-cluster model for the α-accompanied fission of californium nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2009-02-01

    A three-cluster model is proposed to explain the particle-accompanied binary fission of radioactive nuclei. The model is developed as an extension of the preformed cluster model of Gupta and collaborators. The advantage of this model is that, for a fixed third fragment, we can calculate the fragmentation potential minimized in charge coordinate. For our study we chose the various neutron-deficient to neutron-rich californium nuclei, whose analysis reveals that the closed-shell effect of any one of the fragments in ternary fragmentation presents itself as the most favorable configuration to be observed. As one goes from a neutron-deficient to a neutron-rich californium isotope, the role of the neutron closed shell associated with any one of the preferred fragments changes to that of the proton closed shell, and for very neutron rich isotopes of californium the presence of a double closed shell nucleus enhances the decay probability. The quadrupole deformation of the light fragment (A2) associated with the preferred configuration in the symmetric mass region also has a transition from positive to negative deformation as one goes from neutron-deficient to neutron-rich californium isotopes. The calculated relative yields of different fragmentation channels are compared with the available experimental yields for Cf252.

  6. Three-cluster model for the {alpha}-accompanied fission of californium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2009-02-15

    A three-cluster model is proposed to explain the particle-accompanied binary fission of radioactive nuclei. The model is developed as an extension of the preformed cluster model of Gupta and collaborators. The advantage of this model is that, for a fixed third fragment, we can calculate the fragmentation potential minimized in charge coordinate. For our study we chose the various neutron-deficient to neutron-rich californium nuclei, whose analysis reveals that the closed-shell effect of any one of the fragments in ternary fragmentation presents itself as the most favorable configuration to be observed. As one goes from a neutron-deficient to a neutron-rich californium isotope, the role of the neutron closed shell associated with any one of the preferred fragments changes to that of the proton closed shell, and for very neutron rich isotopes of californium the presence of a double closed shell nucleus enhances the decay probability. The quadrupole deformation of the light fragment (A{sub 2}) associated with the preferred configuration in the symmetric mass region also has a transition from positive to negative deformation as one goes from neutron-deficient to neutron-rich californium isotopes. The calculated relative yields of different fragmentation channels are compared with the available experimental yields for {sup 252}Cf.

  7. Production of neutron-rich nuclei with Z =60 -73 in reactions induced by Xe isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Long; Zhang, Feng-Shou; Wen, Pei-Wei; Su, Jun; Xie, Wen-Jie

    2017-08-01

    The multinucleon transfer reactions 124,136,144Xe +238U , Xe,144136+160Gd , Xe,144136+170Er , and Xe,144136+186W are investigated within the framework of the dinuclear system model. The charge equilibration effects on the production cross sections of exotic nuclei are studied. The neutron-deficient projectile 124Xe is favorable to produce transtarget neutron-deficient nuclei, while Xe,144136 shows great advantages of cross sections for producing neutron-rich nuclei in the proton pick-up channel. Furthermore, the influence of entrance angular momentum on the charge equilibration process is investigated. It is found that in a low angular momentum channel the more profound reconstruction of initial nuclei is noticed rather than peripheral collisions. We predict the production cross sections of several neutron-rich nuclei in the reactions Xe,144136+160Gd , Xe,144136+170Er , and Xe,144136+186W . It is found that many unknown nuclei can be produced at the level of μ b to mb.

  8. Neutrino-induced nucleosynthesis of A>64 nuclei: the nu p process.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, C; Martínez-Pinedo, G; Liebendörfer, M; Thielemann, F-K; Bravo, E; Hix, W R; Langanke, K; Zinner, N T

    2006-04-14

    We present a new nucleosynthesis process that we denote as the nu p process, which occurs in supernovae (and possibly gamma-ray bursts) when strong neutrino fluxes create proton-rich ejecta. In this process, antineutrino absorptions in the proton-rich environment produce neutrons that are immediately captured by neutron-deficient nuclei. This allows for the nucleosynthesis of nuclei with mass numbers A>64, , making this process a possible candidate to explain the origin of the solar abundances of (92,94)Mo and (96,98)Ru. This process also offers a natural explanation for the large abundance of Sr seen in a hyper-metal-poor star.

  9. Global properties of nuclei from {sup 100}Sn to {sup 132}Sn

    SciTech Connect

    Isakov, V. I.

    2013-07-15

    The paper presents the results of both microscopical and semi-empirical calculations of single-particle characteristics, nuclear binding, and one-nucleon separation energies of nuclei, as well as their root-mean-square radii, energy levels and transition rates in the long chain of Sn isotopes. We consider nuclei from the extremely neutron-deficient {sup 100}Sn up to neutron excess {sup 136}Sn, where the experimental information is available by now. The comprehensive comparison with the experimental data is carried out.

  10. Have we underestimated the role of short-lived chlorine compounds in ozone depletion?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oram, David; Laube, Johannes; Sturges, Bill; Gooch, Lauren; Leedham, Emma; Ashfold, Matthew; Pyle, John; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Brenninkmeijer, Carl

    2015-04-01

    In recent years much attention has been focussed on the potential of bromine-containing VSLS (very short lived substances) to contribute to stratospheric ozone depletion. This is primarily due to the large observed discrepancy between the measured inorganic bromine in the stratosphere and the amount of bromine available from known, longer lived sources gases (halons and CH3Br). In contrast, the role of very short-lived chlorine compounds (VSLS-CL) has been considered trivial because they contribute only a few percent to the total organic chlorine in the troposphere, the majority of which is supplied by long-lived compounds such as the CFCs, HCFCs, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. However recent evidence shows that one VSLS-Cl, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) has increased by 60% over the past decade (WMO, 2014) and has already begun to offset the long-term decline in stratospheric chlorine loading caused by the reduction in emissions of substances controlled by the Montreal Protocol. We will present new VSLS-Cl measurements from recent ground-based and aircraft campaigns in SE Asia where we have observed dramatic enhancements in a number of VSLS-Cl, including CH2Cl2. Furthermore we will demonstrate how pollution from China and the surrounding region can rapidly, and regularly, be transported across the South China Sea and subsequently uplifted to altitudes of 11-12 km, the region close to the lower TTL. This process occurs frequently during the winter monsoon season and could represent a fast and efficient mechanism for transporting short-lived compounds, and other pollutants, to the lower stratosphere.

  11. ``Sleeping reactor`` irradiations: Shutdown reactor determination of short-lived activation products

    SciTech Connect

    Jerde, E.A.; Glasgow, D.C.

    1998-09-01

    At the High-Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the principal irradiation system has a thermal neutron flux ({phi}) of {approximately} 4 {times} 10{sup 14} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s, permitting the detection of elements via irradiation of 60 s or less. Irradiations of 6 or 7 s are acceptable for detection of elements with half-lives of as little as 30 min. However, important elements such as Al, Mg, Ti, and V have half-lives of only a few minutes. At HFIR, these can be determined with irradiation times of {approximately} 6 s, but the requirement of immediate counting leads to increased exposure to the high activity produced by irradiation in the high flux. In addition, pneumatic system timing uncertainties (about {+-} 0.5 s) make irradiations of < 6 s less reliable. Therefore, the determination of these ultra-short-lived species in mixed matrices has not generally been made at HFIR. The authors have found that very short lived activation products can be produced easily during the period after reactor shutdown (SCRAM), but prior to the removal of spent fuel elements. During this 24- to 36-h period (dubbed the ``sleeping reactor``), neutrons are produced in the beryllium reflector by the reaction {sup 9}Be({gamma},n){sup 8}Be, the gamma rays principally originating in the spent fuel. Upon reactor SCRAM, the flux drops to {approximately} 1 {times} 10{sup 10} n/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} s within 1 h. By the time the fuel elements are removed, the flux has dropped to {approximately} 6 {times} 10{sup 8}. Such fluxes are ideal for the determination of short-lived elements such as Al, Ti, Mg, and V. An important feature of the sleeping reactor is a flux that is not constant.

  12. Short-Lived Radionuclides in Meteorites: Constraints on Nebular Timescales for the Production of Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, Robert H., Jr.

    2000-04-01

    Variations in the abundances of short-lived radionuclides such as 26Al (τ1/2 ≈ 0.74 Ma) and 53Mn (τ1/2 ≈ 3.7 Ma) in meteoritic solids may be used to infer relative formation intervals of these solids in the nebula at precisions of less than 1 Ma. In a strict chronometric interpretation of the isotopic variations, whereby criteria such as spatial and temporal isotopic homogeneity and closed system isotopic evolution are met, solid formation occurred in the nebula for at least several million years. This is longer than some theoretical and astronomical estimates for the duration of the active nebula. The evidence for live 41Ca (τ1/2 ≈ 0.10 Ma) in meteoritic inclusions further indicates that the onset of solid formation occurred quite early, perhaps within a few hundred thousand years after the onset of the collapse of the sun's parent molecular cloud. Failure of the chronometric interpretation may arise for a variety of reasons, including but not limited to, the late, inhomogeneous injection of material from a nearby stellar source or the local production of short-lived radionuclides by an energetic particle irradiation, e. g., from T Tauri (X-wind) or galactic cosmic ray sources. Although some isotopic evidence exists that the criteria required for a strict chronometric interpretation are not met by each of the short-lived chronometers, there is no compelling reason to shorten the interval of solid formation in the nebula to less than 1 Ma.

  13. Experiments on mixing in pyroclastic density currents generated from short-lived volcanic explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sher, Diana; Woods, Andrew W.

    2017-06-01

    During short lived volcanic eruptions, dilute, turbulent pyroclastic density currents are often observed to spread laterally from a collapsing fountain. These flows entrain and heat air while also sedimenting particles. Both processes lead to a reduction in the bulk density and since these flows often become vertically stratified, the upper part of the flow may then exhibit a reversal in buoyancy and lift off. The relative importance of entrainment and sedimentation in controlling the lift-off and the associated run-out distance of short-lived flows is not well-understood. We report a series of novel analogue laboratory experiments in which a suspension of dense particles and salt powder is released into a flume filled with CO2-laden water. A strong circulation develops in the head of the current: as current fluid reaches the front of the flow, it rises and mixes with ambient fluid which is displaced upwards over the advancing head. As the salt powder in the current mixes with the ambient fluid, small CO2 bubbles are released, decreasing the bulk density below the ambient and the mixture then rises off the current. As it advances, progressively more of the material in the flow circulates through the head, becomes buoyant and rises from the flow. Within a distance of order 9-12 times the initial size of the flow, all the original fluid has cycled through the head of the flow, mixed with ambient and lifted off. This suggests that dilute turbulent pyroclastic density currents produced by short-lived explosions, of initial length-scale L, will only propagate distances of order 9-12L. Currents with larger particles sediment more of their particles before the flow has fully mixed with the ambient, and this leads to a reduction in the mass which lifts off from the flow.

  14. Neutron Stars as a Source of the Short-Lived Nuclides in Ap-star Atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gopka, Vera F.; Andrievsky, Sergey M.; Ulyanov, Oleg M.

    2008-05-21

    We propose a new explanation of some magnetic chemically peculiar (MCP) star anomalies, which is based on an assumption that such stars be the close binary systems with a secondary component being a neutron star. Within this hypothesis one can naturally explain the main anomalous features of MCP stars: first of all, an existence of the short-lived radioactive isotopes detected in some stars (like Przybylski's star (PS) and HR465), and some others peculiarities. Also we can assume the presence of the electron-positron annihilation emission lines (0.511 MeV) in the gamma spectrum of some MCP stars.

  15. Accurate mass determination of short-lived isotopes by a tandem Penning-trap mass spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Stolzenberg, H.; Becker, S.; Bollen, G.; Kern, F.; Kluge, H.; Otto, T.; Savard, G.; Schweikhard, L. ); Audi, G. ); Moore, R.B. ); The ISOLDE Collaboration

    1990-12-17

    A mass spectrometer consisting of two Penning traps has been set up for short-lived isotopes at the on-line mass separator ISOLDE at CERN. The ion beam is collected and cooled in the first trap. After delivery to the second trap, high-accuracy direct mass measurements are made by determining the cyclotron frequency of the stored ions. Measurements have been performed for {sup 118}Cs--{sup 137}Cs. A resolving power of over 10{sup 6} and an accuracy of 1.4{times}10{sup {minus}7} have been achieved, corresponding to about 20 keV.

  16. An analysis of a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Ramchurn, S K; Moheeput, K; Goorah, S S

    2009-08-27

    During the month of June 2009, Mauritius experienced a short-lived outbreak of dengue fever localised in its capital city Port Louis. Aedes albopictus, a secondary vector of dengue viruses, was the probable vector. We introduce a method which combines Google Earth images, stochastic cellular automata and scale free network ideas to map this outbreak. The method could complement other techniques to forecast the evolution of potential localised mosquito-borne viral outbreaks in Mauritius and in at-risk locations elsewhere for public health planning purposes.

  17. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Dendooven, P; Buitenhuis, H J T; Diblen, F; Heeres, P N; Biegun, A K; Fiedler, F; van Goethem, M-J; van der Graaf, E R; Brandenburg, S

    2015-12-07

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of (10)C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: (12)N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of (11)C), (29)P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of (30)P) and (38m)K (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of (38g)K). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, (12)N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, (12)N dominates over (15)O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of (12)N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, (12)N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of (12)N PET imaging is discussed.

  18. Short-lived positron emitters in beam-on PET imaging during proton therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dendooven, P.; Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Heeres, P. N.; Biegun, A. K.; Fiedler, F.; van Goethem, M.-J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Brandenburg, S.

    2015-12-01

    The only method for in vivo dose delivery verification in proton beam radiotherapy in clinical use today is positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron emitters produced in the patient during irradiation. PET imaging while the beam is on (so called beam-on PET) is an attractive option, providing the largest number of counts, the least biological washout and the fastest feedback. In this implementation, all nuclides, independent of their half-life, will contribute. As a first step towards assessing the relevance of short-lived nuclides (half-life shorter than that of 10C, T1/2  =  19 s) for in vivo dose delivery verification using beam-on PET, we measured their production in the stopping of 55 MeV protons in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium The most copiously produced short-lived nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12N (T1/2  =  11 ms) on carbon (9% of 11C), 29P (T1/2  =  4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of 30P) and 38mK (T1/2  =  0.92 s) on calcium (113% of 38gK). No short-lived nuclides are produced on oxygen. The number of decays integrated from the start of an irradiation as a function of time during the irradiation of PMMA and 4 tissue materials has been determined. For (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12N dominates up to 70 s. On bone tissue, 12N dominates over 15O during the first 8-15 s (depending on carbon-to-oxygen ratio). The short-lived nuclides created on phosphorus and calcium provide 2.5 times more beam-on PET counts than the long-lived ones produced on these elements during a 70 s irradiation. From the estimated number of 12N PET counts, we conclude that, for any tissue, 12N PET imaging potentially provides equal to superior proton range information compared to prompt gamma imaging with an optimized knife-edge slit camera. The practical implementation of 12N PET imaging is discussed.

  19. Quantum non-locality in a two-slit interferometer for short-lived particles

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Spencer R.; Nystrand, Joakim

    2001-12-01

    We describe a new test of quantum nonlocality, using an interferometer for short-lived particles. The separation is large compared with the particle lifetimes. This interferometer is realized by vector meson production in distant heavy ion collisions. The mesons decay before waves from the two sources (ions) can overlap, so interference is only possible among the decay products. The post-decay wave function must retain amplitudes for all possible decays. The decay products are spatially separated, necessitating a non-local wave function. The interference is measurable by summing the product momenta. Alternately, the products positions could be observed, allowing new tests of the EPR paradox.

  20. Competition between α and β decays for heavy deformed neutron-deficient Pa, U, Np, and Pu isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2017-01-01

    The competition between α and β decays is investigated for neutron-deficient Pa, U, Np, and Pu isotopes. β+/electron-capture (EC) decay rates are calculated within the deformed quasiparticle random-phase approximation with realistic nucleon-nucleon (N N ) interactions. Contributions from allowed Gamow-Teller and Fermi transitions as well as first-forbidden transitions are considered. α -decay calculations are performed within the generalized density-dependent cluster model. Effects of differences between neutron and proton distributions and nuclear deformation are taken into account. In the calculations, Reid-93 N N interactions are used for β+/EC decays, while Michigan three-range Yukawa effective interactions, based on the G -matrix elements of Reid N N potentials, are used for α decay. The calculated β -decay half-lives show good agreement with the experimental data over a range of magnitude from 102 to 105 s. The resulting total half-lives including α and β contributions are found to be in good agreement with the experimental data, together with the α /β -decay branching ratios.

  1. Short-lived organic trace gases in the UT/LS: Results from recent field campaigns.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Pan, L.; Bowman, K. P.; Blake, D.; Meinardi, S.

    2008-12-01

    The chemistry of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere can be impacted by delivery of reactive trace gases that are variable in composition and depend on source emissions and transport pathway and time. Because surface emissions include gases with a range of chemical lifetimes, and because different source emissions (e.g. marine boundary layer, anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning) can have different chemical signatures, the composition of the organic trace gases that are found in the UT/LS region have the potential to provide diagnostic information on air mass sources and transport time scales. Further, the role of short-lived organic halogen gases in the UT/LS has been highlighted as a major uncertainty for defining the reactive halogen budget and the chemical boundary conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. Recent campaigns in the tropics (TC-4 and AVE missions) and in the extra-tropics (START08) have included the measurement of trace gases from whole air sampling and analysis on the NASA WB-57 or NSF Gulfstream V aircraft. Measurements of a range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, organic nitrates, and sulfur species were made to examine the role of short-lived organic gases in the UT/LS. This presentation will highlight different aspects of these measurements that deal with transport pathways, transport rates, and halogen budgets.

  2. The paradox of great longevity in a short-lived tree species.

    PubMed

    Larson, D W

    2001-04-01

    Thuja occidentalis is a tree species that was once thought to be relatively short-lived (80 years). Up until 10 years ago maximum ages were considered to be near 400 years, but such trees were thought to be rare. Research along the cliffs of the Niagara Escarpment has altered this view. Exceptionally slow-growing trees of this species have been found with ring counts to 1653 years and estimated ages to 1890 years. Senescence is slow or absent. Injury and death is due to rockfall and sporadic severe drought that kills small sectors of the trees by exposing and killing the roots. Experiments in which colored dyes are infused into roots show that each tree is composed of hydraulically independent units that allow mortality in one part of the 'individual' with little negative effect on the remaining parts of the tree. The trees are small, so environmental loadings of ice, snow, and wind are low. Slow growth of the trees results in a much greater mechanical strength in the wood. Together these properties increase the ability of the cedars to persist on cliffs for long periods of time. The paradox of great longevity in this 'short-lived' tree species is explained by slow growth that minimizes maintenance and repair costs while maximizing durability and strength, combined with an internal architecture that creates functionally independent units within each tree.

  3. Radioisotope generators for short-lived positron emitters applicable to positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, Y.

    1989-04-01

    Radioisotope generators provide short-lived positron emitters for positron emission tomography (PET) without the need for an on-site cyclotron. These generators consist of a long-lived parent radionuclide, generally produced on an accelerator, from which the short-lived daughter radionuclide is separated and used as needed. Generators developed and applied to PET studies include 288 d 68Ge for 68 min 68Ga, 25 d 82Sr for 76 s 82Rb and 20.1 h 122Xe for 3.6 min 122I. These radiotracers have been used for the assessment of myocardial and brain blood flow in patient studies. Additionally, 82Rb has been used to determine the breakdown in the blood brain barrier in brain tumor patients who have undergone radiation therapy. When used in conjunction with 18F-fluorodeoxylucose produced on a regional cyclotron for the measurement of glucose utilization in brain tumors, differential diagnosis can be made between tumor regrowth and radiation therapy necrosis. Other possible applications include the detection of vascular lesions with 68Ga labeled platelets or porphyrins.

  4. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  5. A multi-proxy approach to identifying short-lived marine incursions in the Early Carboniferous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Carys; Davies, Sarah; Leng, Melanie; Snelling, Andrea; Millward, David; Kearsey, Timothy; Marshall, John; Reves, Emma

    2015-04-01

    This study is a contribution to the TW:eed Project (Tetrapod World: early evolution and diversification), which examines the rebuilding of Carboniferous ecosystems following a mass extinction at the end of the Devonian. The project focuses on the Tournaisian Ballagan Formation of Scotland and the Borders, which contains rare fish and tetrapod material. The Ballagan Formation is characterised by sandstones, dolomitic cementstones, paleosols, siltstones and gypsum deposits. The depositional environment ranges from fluvial, alluvial-plain to marginal-marine environments, with fluvial, floodplain and lacustrine deposition dominant. A multi-proxy approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology, micropalaeontology, palynology and geochemistry is used to identify short-lived marine transgressions onto the floodplain environment. Rare marginal marine fossils are: Chondrites-Phycosiphon, Spirorbis, Serpula, certain ostracod species, rare orthocones, brachiopods and putative marine sharks. More common non-marine fauna include Leiocopida and Podocopida ostracods, Mytilida and Myalinida bivalves, plants, eurypterids, gastropods and fish. Thin carbonate-bearing dolomitic cementstones and siltstone contain are the sedimentary deposits of marine incursions and occur throughout the formation. Over 600 bulk carbon isotope samples were taken from the 500 metre thick Norham Core (located near Berwick-Upon-Tweed), encompassing a time interval of around 13 million years. The results range from -26o to -19 δ13Corg, with an average of -19o much lighter than the average value for Early Carboniferous marine bulk organic matter (δ13C of -28 to -30). The isotope results correspond to broad-scale changes in the depositional setting, with more positive δ13C in pedogenic sediments and more negative δ13C in un-altered grey siltstones. They may also relate to cryptic (short-lived) marine incursions. A comparison of δ13C values from specific plant/wood fragments, palynology and bulk

  6. Short-lived oxygen diffusion during hot, deep-seated meteoric alteration of anorthosite

    PubMed

    Mora; Riciputi; Cole

    1999-12-17

    Heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions of plagioclase from the Boehls Butte anorthosite include some of the most oxygen-18-depleted values (to -16 per mil) reported for plagioclase in meta-igneous rocks and indicate high-temperature (T > 500 degrees C) isotopic exchange between plagioclase and nearly pristine meteoric fluid. Retrograde reaction-enhanced permeability assisted influx of meteoric-hydrothermal fluids into the deep-seated anorthosite. Isotopic gradients of about 14 per mil over 600 micrometers in single crystals require short-lived (about 10(4) years) diffusional exchange of oxygen and locally large effective water:rock ratios, followed by rapid loss of water and cessation of oxygen diffusion in the anorthosite.

  7. Laser spectroscopy of trapped short-lived Ra{sup +} ions

    SciTech Connect

    Versolato, O. O.; Giri, G. S.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Berg, J. E. van den; Hoek, D. J. van der; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W. L.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Sahoo, B. K.; Santra, B.; Shidling, P. D.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2010-07-15

    As an important step toward an atomic parity violation experiment in one single trapped Ra{sup +} ion, laser spectroscopy on short-lived {sup 212,213,214}Ra{sup +} ions was conducted. The isotope shift of the 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2}-7 {sup 2}P{sub 3/2} transitions and the hyperfine structure constants of the 7 {sup 2}P{sub 1/2} and 6 {sup 2}D{sub 3/2} states in {sup 213}Ra{sup +} were measured, which provides a benchmark for the required atomic theory. A lower limit of 232(4) ms for 6 {sup 2}D{sub 5/2} state lifetime was determined.

  8. Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using short-lived greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Samset, Bjørn H.; Shine, Keith P.

    2014-12-01

    A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. We show, for the first time, that it may be possible to counteract these climate effects through deliberate emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases, dampening the abrupt impact of an eruption. We estimate an emission pathway countering a hypothetical eruption 3 times the size of Mount Pinatubo in 1991. We use a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counteremissions. We then raise practical, financial, and ethical questions related to such a strategy. Unlike the more commonly discussed geoengineering to mitigate warming from long-lived greenhouse gases, designed emissions to counter temporary cooling would not have the disadvantage of needing to be sustained over long periods. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.

  9. Regulation of life span by the gut microbiota in the short-lived African turquoise killifish

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Patrick; Willemsen, David; Popkes, Miriam; Metge, Franziska; Gandiwa, Edson; Reichard, Martin; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Gut bacteria occupy the interface between the organism and the external environment, contributing to homeostasis and disease. Yet, the causal role of the gut microbiota during host aging is largely unexplored. Here, using the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), a naturally short-lived vertebrate, we show that the gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating vertebrate life span. Recolonizing the gut of middle-age individuals with bacteria from young donors resulted in life span extension and delayed behavioral decline. This intervention prevented the decrease in microbial diversity associated with host aging and maintained a young-like gut bacterial community, characterized by overrepresentation of the key genera Exiguobacterium, Planococcus, Propionigenium and Psychrobacter. Our findings demonstrate that the natural microbial gut community of young individuals can causally induce long-lasting beneficial systemic effects that lead to life span extension in a vertebrate model. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27014.001 PMID:28826469

  10. Regulation of life span by the gut microbiota in the short-lived African turquoise killifish.

    PubMed

    Smith, Patrick; Willemsen, David; Popkes, Miriam; Metge, Franziska; Gandiwa, Edson; Reichard, Martin; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2017-08-22

    Gut bacteria occupy the interface between the organism and the external environment, contributing to homeostasis and disease. Yet, the causal role of the gut microbiota during host aging is largely unexplored. Here, using the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), a naturally short-lived vertebrate, we show that the gut microbiota plays a key role in modulating vertebrate life span. Recolonizing the gut of middle-age individuals with bacteria from young donors resulted in life span extension and delayed behavioral decline. This intervention prevented the decrease in microbial diversity associated with host aging and maintained a young-like gut bacterial community, characterized by overrepresentation of the key genera Exiguobacterium, Planococcus, Propionigenium and Psychrobacter. Our findings demonstrate that the natural microbial gut community of young individuals can causally induce long-lasting beneficial systemic effects that lead to life span extension in a vertebrate model.

  11. Jahn-Teller effect for short-lived states: Study of the complex potential energy surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feuerbacher, Sven; Cederbaum, Lorenz S.

    2004-07-01

    The Jahn-Teller effect for bound electronic states has been investigated for many decades. In contrast, nothing is known regarding its occurrence for short-lived electronic states. Here we investigate the linear and the quadratic E⊗e Jahn-Teller effect for degenerate resonance states with special regard to the complex potential energy surfaces. We find many new phenomena for both the real and imaginary parts of the potential energy surfaces including additional minima and intersections. Possible simplifications of the equations describing the adiabatic potential energy surfaces are discussed. We also briefly investigate other Jahn-Teller effects in linear approximation. The theoretical concepts are exemplified by calculating ab initio data for the degenerate Π*-type resonance states of the tris(boramethyl)amin anion along two different doubly degenerate vibrational modes.

  12. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model. PMID:26839399

  13. Short-lived particle search procedure in the OPERA experiment. Application to charm decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Amo Sánchez, Pablo; OPERA Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    The OPERA experiment has recently provided evidence of νμ →ντ neutrino oscillations in appearance mode through the detection of tau leptons produced in ντ Charged Current interactions. The OPERA detector collected data from 2008 to 2012, when it was exposed to the CNGS muon neutrino beam from CERN to Gran Sasso, 730 km away from the source. We report on the search procedure for short-lived particles and on its validation with charmed hadron decays. The latter, produced in about 4% of the neutrino interactions in OPERA, are an important background to the νμ →ντ channel and an ideal control sample as their decay exhibits topological and kinematical features strongly resembling the tau's decay.

  14. The role of short-lived climate pollutants in meeting temperature goals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowerman, Niel H. A.; Frame, David J.; Huntingford, Chris; Lowe, Jason A.; Smith, Stephen M.; Allen, Myles R.

    2013-12-01

    Some recent high-profile publications have suggested that immediately reducing emissions of methane, black carbon and other short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) may contribute substantially towards the goal of limiting global warming to 2 °C above pre-industrial levels. Although this literature acknowledges that action on long-lived climate pollutants (LLCPs) such as CO2 is also required, it is not always appreciated that SLCP emissions in any given decade only have a significant impact on peak temperature under circumstances in which CO2 emissions are falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially 'buy time' for adaptation by reducing near-term warming; however early SLCP reductions, compared with reductions in a future decade, do not buy time to delay reductions in CO2.

  15. The short-lived African turquoise killifish: an emerging experimental model for ageing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yumi; Nam, Hong Gil; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo

    2016-02-01

    Human ageing is a fundamental biological process that leads to functional decay, increased risk for various diseases and, ultimately, death. Some of the basic biological mechanisms underlying human ageing are shared with other organisms; thus, animal models have been invaluable in providing key mechanistic and molecular insights into the common bases of biological ageing. In this Review, we briefly summarise the major applications of the most commonly used model organisms adopted in ageing research and highlight their relevance in understanding human ageing. We compare the strengths and limitations of different model organisms and discuss in detail an emerging ageing model, the short-lived African turquoise killifish. We review the recent progress made in using the turquoise killifish to study the biology of ageing and discuss potential future applications of this promising animal model.

  16. Inter-laboratory comparisons of short-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in nuclear reactor water.

    PubMed

    Klemola, S K

    2008-01-01

    Inter-laboratory comparisons of gamma-emitting nuclides in nuclear power plant coolant water have been carried out in Finland since 1994. The reactor water samples are taken and prepared by one of the two nuclear power plants and delivered to the participants. Since all the participants get their sample within just a few hours it has been possible to analyse and compare results of nuclides with half-lives shorter than 1h. The total number of short-lived nuclides is 26. All the main nuclides are regularly identified and the activities have been obtained with reasonable accuracy throughout the years. The overall deviation of the results has decreased in 13 years. The effects of true coincidence summing and discrepancies in nuclear data have been identified as potential sources of remaining discrepancies. All the participants have found this type of comparison very useful.

  17. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschmann, J.; Sinnhuber, B.-M.

    2013-02-01

    Very short-lived substances (VSLS) still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry) in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2). The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly shifted away from HBr, according to our current state of knowledge the only member of the Bry family which is efficiently adsorbed on ice particles

  18. Prolonged Marital Stress is Associated with Short-Lived Responses to Positive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lapate, Regina C.; van Reekum, Carien M.; Schaefer, Stacey M.; Greischar, Lawrence L.; Norris, Catherine J.; Bachhuber, David R.W.; Ryff, Carol D.; Davidson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N=116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. PMID:24660957

  19. Prolonged marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lapate, Regina C; van Reekum, Carien M; Schaefer, Stacey M; Greischar, Lawrence L; Norris, Catherine J; Bachhuber, David R W; Ryff, Carol D; Davidson, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Marital stress is associated with a higher incidence of psychiatric disorders, in particular major depression. One pathway through which marital stress may impact emotional health is by compromising emotion-responding processes. We examined a longitudinal sample of adults (N = 116; 59 males; 39-84 years) to verify how marital stress predicts reactivity to, and recovery from, emotional provocation. Individuals watched positive, neutral, and negative pictures while an objective measure of affective state, corrugator supercilii muscle activity, was recorded continuously. Our results indicate that marital stress is associated with short-lived responses to positive pictures, indexed by a less persistent decrease in corrugator activity after picture offset. Extending beyond the prior focus on negative emotional processes, these results suggest that social stress may impact health by influencing the time course of responding to positive events. Copyright © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  20. Cohort variation, climate effects and population dynamics in a short-lived lizard.

    PubMed

    Le Galliard, Jean François; Marquis, Olivier; Massot, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    1. Demographic theory and empirical studies indicate that cohort variation in demographic traits has substantial effects on population dynamics of long-lived vertebrates but cohort effects have been poorly investigated in short-lived species. 2. Cohort effects were quantified in the common lizard (Zootoca vivipara Jacquin 1787), a short-lived ectothermic vertebrate, for body size, reproductive traits and age-specific survival with mark-recapture data collected from 1989 to 2005 in two wetlands. We assessed cohort variation and covariation in demographic traits, tested the immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions (temperature and rainfall), and predicted consequences for population growth. 3. Most demographic traits exhibited cohort variation, but this variation was stronger for juvenile growth and survival, sub-adult survival and breeding phenology than for other traits. 4. Cohort variation was partly explained by a web of immediate and delayed effects of climate conditions. Rainfall and temperature influenced distinct life-history traits and the periods of gestation and early juvenile life were critical stages for climate effects. 5. Cohort covariation between demographic traits was usually weak, apart from a negative correlation between juvenile and sub-adult body growth suggesting compensatory responses. An age-structured population model shows that cohort variation influences population growth mainly through direct numerical effects of survival variation early in life. 6. An understanding of cohort effects is necessary to predict critical life stages and climatic determinants of population dynamics, and therefore demographic responses to future climate warming. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 British Ecological Society.

  1. Global Air Quality and Climate Impacts of Mitigating Short-lived Climate Pollution in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, K.; Unger, N.; Heyes, C.; Kiesewetter, G.; Klimont, Z.; Schoepp, W.; Wagner, F.

    2014-12-01

    China is a major emitter of harmful air pollutants, including the short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) and their precursors. Implementation of pollution control technologies provides a mechanism for simultaneously protecting human and ecosystem health and achieving near-term climate co-benefits; however, predicting the outcomes of technical and policy interventions is challenging because the SLCPs participate in both climate warming and cooling and share many common emission sources. Here, we present the results of a combined regional integrated assessment and global climate modeling study aimed at quantifying the near-term climate and air quality co-benefits of selective control of Chinese air pollution emissions. Results from IIASA's Greenhouse Gas - Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies (GAINS) integrated assessment model indicate that methane emission reductions make up > 75% of possible CO2-equivalent emission reductions of the SLCPs and their precursors in China in 2030. A multi-pollutant emission reduction scenario incorporating the 2030 Chinese pollution control measures with the highest potential for future climate impact is applied to the NASA ModelE2 - Yale Interactive Terrestrial Biosphere (NASA ModelE2-YIBs) global carbon - chemistry - climate model to assess the regional and long-range impacts of Chinese SLCP mitigation measures. Using model simulations that incorporate dynamic methane emissions and photosynthesis-dependent isoprene emissions, we quantify the impacts of Chinese reductions of the short-lived air pollutants on radiative forcing and on surface ozone and particulate air pollution. Present-day modeled methane mole fractions are evaluated against SCIAMACHY methane columns and NOAA ESRL/GMD surface flask measurements.

  2. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.

    2010-06-01

    We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and season variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from South and South-East Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the Western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with also non-negligible values extending into northern mid-latitudes particularly in the summer. These first estimates, which include some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODP values than previous studies, particularly over Southern Asia, suggesting that emissions of short-lived halogen source gases in certain geographical regions could have a significant impact on stratospheric ozone depletion.

  3. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  4. Measuring the collectivity of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgen, Andreas

    2012-10-01

    Measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states provides direct information on electromagnetic transition rates and on the collectivity of nuclear excitations. The recoil distance Doppler-shift (RDDS) method is a well-established technique for measuring picosecond lifetimes of excited states, which has been extensively used in combination with fusion-evaporation reactions to measure lifetimes in neutron-deficient nuclei. Here we discuss novel ways of combining the RDDS technique with multi-nucleon transfer and fusion-fission reactions, which allow measurement of picosecond lifetimes in neutron-rich nuclei. Experiments were performed at both GANIL and Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) with the goal to investigate the onset of collectivity around 68Ni and the evolution of shapes and shape coexistence in medium-heavy fission fragments.

  5. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA) appears questionable. PMID:28321175

  6. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Feinendegen, Ludwig E; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting "radiation-sensitive individuals." Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan) was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures "as low as reasonably achievable" (ALARA) appears questionable.

  7. Evaluation of sediment dynamics in coastal systems via short-lived radioisotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giffin, Dan; Corbett, D. Reide

    2003-08-01

    The Neuse and Pamlico River Estuaries are shallow, dynamic systems that have been plagued with symptoms of eutrophication over the past two decades. Extensive research has been conducted over the last 5-10 years to better understand the complex nutrient dynamics of these systems. However, most of these studies have concentrated on nutrient cycling in the water column. Only recently have studies focused on the benthic environment, and most sediment studies have neglected the dynamic nature of the benthos, focusing instead on diffusion as the dominant transport process delivering nutrients to the water column. Although diffusion of nutrients across the sediment-water interface may be important during quiescent periods of sediment deposition and short-term storage, wind events associated with storms throughout the year will resuspend newly deposited sediments resulting in the advective transport of sediment porewater, rich with nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon, into the water column. Sediment resuspension may increase water column nutrient concentrations, and therefore present estimates of nutrient and carbon inputs from the sediments may be too low. This study evaluated short-term sediment dynamics of natural resuspension events and deposition rates in these two estuaries with the use of short-lived radioisotopes, 7Be, 137Cs, and 234Th. Sediment cores at nine sites in the estuaries have been collected at least bimonthly since May 2001. In general, tracers indicate a depositional environment with minimal episodes of removal. The largest sediment removal occurred in August 2001 in the Neuse River where an estimated 2.2 cm of sediment were removed over the previous 6-week period. This removal mechanism essentially advects porewater nutrients into the water column. Calculated advective fluxes of ammonium and phosphate based on this resuspension event were approximately six times greater than the average diffusive flux measured in the same general area of the river. Longer

  8. Variation in the local population dynamics of the short-lived Opuntia macrorhiza (Cactaceae).

    PubMed

    Haridas, C V; Keeler, Kathleen H; Tenhumberg, Brigitte

    2015-03-01

    Spatiotemporal variation in demographic rates can have profound effects for population persistence, especially for dispersal-limited species living in fragmented landscapes. Long-term studies of plants in such habitats help with understanding the impacts of fragmentation on population persistence but such studies are rare. In this work, we reanalyzed demographic data from seven years of the short-lived cactus Opuntia macrorhiza var. macrorhiza at five plots in Boulder, Colorado. Previous work combining data from all years and all plots predicted a stable population (deterministic log lamda approximately 0). This approach assumed that all five plots were part of a single population. Since the plots were located in a suburban-agricultural interface separated by highways, grazing lands, and other barriers, and O. macrorhiza is likely dispersal limited, we analyzed the dynamics of each plot separately using stochastic matrix models assuming each plot represented a separate population. We found that the stochastic population growth rate log lamdaS varied widely between populations (log lamdaS = 0.1497, 0.0774, -0.0230, -0.2576, -0.4989). The three populations with the highest growth rates were located close together in space, while the two most isolated populations had the lowest growth rates suggesting that dispersal between populations is critical for the population viability of O. macrorhiza. With one exception, both our prospective (stochastic elasticity) and retrospective (stochastic life table response experiments) analysis suggested that means of stasis and growth, especially of smaller plants, were most important for population growth rate. This is surprising because recruitment is typically the most important vital rate in a short-lived species such as O. macrorhiza. We found that elasticity to the variance was mostly negligible, suggesting that O. macrorhiza populations are buffered against large temporal variation. Finally, single-year elasticities to means

  9. The impacts of short-lived ozone precursors on climate and air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, Meridith McGee

    Human emissions of short-lived ozone precursors not only degrade air quality and health, but indirectly affect climate via chemical effects on ozone, methane, and aerosols. Some have advocated for short-lived air pollutants in near-term climate mitigation strategies, in addition to national air quality programs, but their radiative forcing (RF) impacts are uncertain and vary based on emission location. In this work, global chemical transport modeling is combined with radiative transfer modeling to study the impacts of regional ozone precursor emissions (NOx, CO, and NMVOCs) on climate, via changes in ozone, methane, and sulfate, and on regional and global air quality. The first study evaluates NOx, CO, and NMVOC emission reductions from four regions across an ensemble of models, finding that NMVOC and CO reductions from all four regions cool climate (negative RF) by decreasing ozone and methane, while improving air quality. NOx and NMVOC global warming potentials (GWPs), a measure of the relative radiative effects of individual climate forcers, vary strongly among regions, while CO GWPs show less variability. The second and third studies investigate further the RF and air quality impacts of CO and NMVOC emission reductions from 10 world regions. The greatest benefits to RF and air quality (per unit emissions) are achieved by CO reductions from the tropics, due to more active photochemistry and convection. CO GWPs are fairly independent of the reduction region (GWP20: 3.71 to 4.37; GWP100: 1.26 to 1.44), while NMVOC GWPs are more variable (GWP 20: -1.13 to 18.9; GWP100: 0.079 to 6.05). Accounting for additional forcings from CO and NMVOC emissions would likely change RF and GWP estimates. Regionally-specific GWPs for NOx and NMVOCs and a globally-uniform GWP for CO may allow these gases to be included in a multi-gas emissions trading framework, and enable comprehensive strategies for meeting climate and air quality goals simultaneously. Future research could

  10. Distinct short-lived and long-lived antibody-producing cell populations.

    PubMed

    Ho, F; Lortan, J E; MacLennan, I C; Khan, M

    1986-10-01

    This report analyzes the life span of Ig-containing cells (IgCC) in different sites of antibody production. The experimental approach was based upon the observations that most IgCC are derived from proliferating precursors while IgCC themselves are mainly nondividing end cells. Rats were given a continuous infusion of [3H] thymidine via an osmotic pump inserted in the peritoneal cavity. At intervals of 1, 3, 5 or 10 days after starting infusions, tissues were taken and analyzed by a combination of immunohistology and autoradiography to identify the proportions of IgCC which had gone through S phase of the cell cycle during the period of infusion. After 3 days infusion the median and (range) percent-labeled IgCC in the medullary cords of mesenteric and cervical lymph nodes and the red pulp of the spleen were, respectively, 88 (81-90), 75 (66-77) and 88 (82-93). Conversely that for IgCC in bone marrow was only 13 (11-17) and that in the lamina propria of the jejunum 47 (33-68). The rate of increase in labeling of bone marrow IgCC with length of infusion was approximately linear. Extrapolation of this slope suggests that bone marrow IgCC have a life span in excess of 3 weeks. The slopes of increase in IgCC labeled with time for lymph nodes and spleen were clearly biphasic suggesting that while most IgCC in these tissues have a life span of less than 3 days, there is also a minor population of long-lived IgCC. The lamina propria appears to have approximately equal proportions of long and short-lived IgCC. The life span of IgCC, with the exception of IgMCC, appears to be a feature of the site of antibody production rather than the Ig class produced. Almost all IgM-containing cells were found to be short lived.

  11. Short-lived Be and Be In Refractory Inclusions From 7 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Meteorite, The

    The source of 26Al [1] and other short-lived radioactive nuclides (e.g. 41Ca or 53Mn) found in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) of chondritic meteorites is still controversial between the tenants of an external seeding of the protosolar nebula (e.g. by supernova produced Al) and the tenants of an internal source of 26 26Al within the solar system (e.g. by irradiation processes occurring in the vicinity of the young Sun). The resolution of this issue is of importance for (i) early solar system chronology and for (ii) models of the formation of the solar system. Recently we showed that 10Be, which decays to B with a half-life of 1.5 My, was 10 also incorporated in CAIs during their formation [2]. The incorporation of 10 Be in CAIs is a strong hint for the existence of irradiation processes that may have occurred in the early solar system, producing 10Be and a fraction (or all) of other extinct radioactive nuclides. However, because of its long half life, 10Be could have been produced by spallation reactions taking place in supernovae envelopes and transported into the protosolar nebula. To progress in this debate we have looked for traces of another short-lived isotope of Be, Be which decays to Li 7 7 with a half life of 53 days. Large Li isotopic variations have been found in a few Allende CAIs, with 7Li excesses positively correlated to Be/Li concentration ratios. These observations are best explained by the incorporation of lived Be in 7 CAIs during their formation. The Be/10Be ratio which is deduced for CAIs is of 7 220+/-130, i.e. close within errors to the production ratio modelled for irradiation processes at low energy around the young Sun. Because of its very short half life of 53 days, the presence of Be in CAIs demonstrates that Be (and 7 7 10Be) were produced within the solar system. It is also a strong indication that the formation of CAIs was likely linked in space and time to these irradiation processes. [1] T. Lee, D. Papanastassiou and G. J

  12. Recalculation of data for short-lived radionuclide systems using less-biased ratio estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telus, M.; Huss, G. R.; Ogliore, R. C.; Nagashima, K.; Tachibana, S.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Ratios determined from counting a subset of atoms in a sample are positively biased relative to the true ratio in the sample (Ogliore et al. 2011). The relative magnitude of the bias is approximately equal to the inverse of the counts in the denominator of the ratio. SIMS studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are particularly subject to the problem of ratio bias because the abundance of the daughter element is low, resulting in low count rates. In this paper, we discuss how ratio bias propagates through mass-fractionation corrections into an isochron diagram, thereby affecting the inferred initial ratio of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides. The slope of the biased isochron can be either too high or too low, depending on how it is calculated. We then reanalyze a variety of previously published data sets and discuss the extent to which they were affected by ratio bias. New, more accurate, results are presented for each study. In some cases, such as for 53Mn-53Cr in pallasite olivines and 60Fe-60Ni in chondrite sulfides, the apparent excesses of radiogenic isotopes originally reported disappear completely. Many of the reported initial 60Fe/56Fe ratios for chondrules from ordinary chondrites are no longer resolved from zero, though not all of them. Data for 10Be-10B in CAIs were only slightly affected by bias because of how they were reduced. Most of the data sets were recalculated using the ratio of the total counts, which increases the number of counts in the denominator isotope and reduces the bias. However, if the sum of counts is too low, the ratio may still be biased and a less-biased estimator, such as Beale's estimator, must be used. Ratio bias must be considered in designing the measurement protocol and reducing the data. One can still collect data in cycles to permit editing of the data and to monitor and correct for changes in ion-beam intensity, even if total counts are used to calculate the final ratio. The cycle data also provide a more</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14987692"><span>Establishing equivalence for activity standards of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides using the NPL secondary standard radionuclide calibrator.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Woods, M J; Baker, M</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Conventional comparison techniques used between National Metrology Institutes are not practicable for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides because of geographical separations and transport difficulties. The NPL Secondary Standard Radionuclide Calibrator provides an alternative approach and a comparison was conducted with 18F to investigate its feasibility. The exercise was successful and the paper details the protocol used, the quality assurance mechanisms introduced to underpin the comparison and an analysis of the results. It was also demonstrated that this approach could be linked to the BIPM SIR system. Recommendations are presented for the extension of this work to other suitable, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NIMPA.492...57J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002NIMPA.492...57J"><span>Yield calculations for a facility for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclear beams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jiang, C. L.; Back, B. B.; Gomes, I.; Heinz, A. M.; Nolen, J.; Rehm, K. E.; Savard, G.; Schiffer, J. P.</p> <p>2002-10-01</p> <p>Yields for a broad range of radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> produced by spallation reactions, neutron-induced fission, in-flight projectile fragmentation and in-flight fission have been calculated for beams of stable <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> at energies of 100- 1000 MeV/u . Calculations of cross-sections and yields, attenuation effects due to absorption, production from secondary reactions, and transport efficiencies for mass selection are discussed. Rare isotope yields as functions of bombarding energies for both reaccelerated and directly produced fast-fragmentation beams are presented. This information provides a foundation for a cost-effective design of a next generation rare isotope accelerator.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..94f4313M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvC..94f4313M"><span>Prediction and evaluation of magnetic moments in T =1 /2 , 3/2, and 5/2 mirror <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mertzimekis, Theo J.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The Buck-Perez analysis of mirror <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> magnetic moments has been applied on an updated set of data for T =1 /2 ,3 /2 mirror pairs and attempted for the first time for T =5 /2 <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The spin expectation value for mirror <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> up to mass A =63 has been reexamined. The main purpose is to test Buck-Perez analysis effectiveness as a prediction and—more importantly—an evaluation tool of magnetic moments in mirror <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. In this scheme, ambiguous signs of magnetic moments are resolved, evaluations of moments with multiple existing measurements have been performed, and a set of predicted values for missing moments, especially for several <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is produced. A resolution for the case of the 57Cu ground-state magnetic moment is proposed. Overall, the method seems to be promising for future evaluations and planning future measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27570318"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R; Chipperfield, M P; Saiz-Lopez, A; Harrison, J J; von Glasow, R; Sommariva, R; Atlas, E; Navarro, M; Montzka, S A; Feng, W; Dhomse, S; Harth, C; Mühle, J; Lunder, C; O'Doherty, S; Young, D; Reimann, S; Vollmer, M K; Krummel, P B; Bernath, P F</p> <p>2015-06-16</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ∼83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ∼52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2-the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27643405"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jeong, Hyewook Genevieve; Christensen, Kate; Drolet, Aimee</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>This research investigated the influence of trait indecisiveness on variety-seeking behavior. Study 1 revealed that chronic indecisiveness was associated with increased variety-seeking behavior. Study 2A showed that the incidence of not choosing to make a choice was much lower among chronically indecisive people when a variety-pack option was available, and Study 2B showed that chronically indecisive people chose the variety pack even if it included their least preferred option. Study 3 demonstrated that chronically indecisive people contended with the negative emotion they experienced during choice making by choosing a mix of options. Study 4 revealed that the emotional benefits of variety seeking among the chronically indecisive were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. Chronically indecisive people felt more satisfied and less anxious after choosing a mix of options. However, having chosen a mix, chronically indecisive people then faced more choices, specifically the choices of which specific option to consume on each specific occasion. In this way, variety seeking is a maladaptive long-term emotional coping strategy for the chronically indecisive. The results of this research have important theoretical implications for understanding the causes of variety-seeking behavior as well as practical implications for increasing (a) the incidence of choice making among chronically indecisive people and (b) satisfaction with the choices they do make. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeoRL..42.4573H"><span>Growth in stratospheric chlorine from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2318L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRC..118.2318L"><span>Spatial distribution of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances in the eastern Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Yina; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A.; Thornton, Daniel C. O.; Campbell, Lisa; Bianchi, Thomas S.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>Seawater concentrations and distributions of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (BrVSLS), including bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), were measured in the upper water column (5-750 m) in the eastern Pacific. Inorganic nutrient, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton cell counts were measured to determine biogeochemical factors that affect the production and distribution of these BrVSLS. Elevated concentrations of BrVSLS were observed in coastal and tropical seawater. Concentration maxima for CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHClBr2 were observed below the mixed layer, near the subsurface chlorophyll a maxima, which suggest BrVSLS production may be related to photosynthetic biomass production. Our results also suggest that heterotrophic bacteria may also contribute to CH2Br2 and CHBrCl2 production in the water column. The maximum CHBrCl2 concentration was observed at a depth much deeper than the euphotic zone, which suggests sources other than photosynthetic biomass. Elevated CHBrCl2 concentrations in deeper waters were coincident with elevated CHCl3 concentrations, which may be an evidence for successive chlorine substitution of CHBr3 in deeper and older water masses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723123"><span>Dissolved organic matter composition drives the marine production of brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Yina; Thornton, Daniel C O; Bianchi, Thomas S; Arnold, William A; Shields, Michael R; Chen, Jie; Yvon-Lewis, Shari A</p> <p>2015-03-17</p> <p>Brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (BrVSLS), such as bromoform, are important trace gases for stratospheric ozone chemistry. These naturally derived trace gases are formed via bromoperoxidase-mediated halogenation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater. Information on DOM type in relation to the observed BrVSLS concentrations in seawater, however, is scarce. We examined the sensitivity of BrVSLS production in relation to the presence of specific DOM moieties. A total of 28 model DOM compounds in artificial seawater were treated with vanadium bromoperoxidase (V-BrPO). Our results show a clear dependence of BrVSLS production on DOM type. In general, molecules that comprise a large fraction of the bulk DOM pool did not noticeably affect BrVSLS production. Only specific cell metabolites and humic acid appeared to significantly enhance BrVSLS production. Amino acids and lignin phenols suppressed enzyme-mediated BrVSLS production and may instead have formed halogenated nonvolatile molecules. Dibromomethane production was not observed in any experiments, suggesting it is not produced by the same pathway as the other BrVSLS. Our results suggest that regional differences in DOM composition may explain the observed BrVSLS concentration variability in the global ocean. Ultimately, BrVSLS production and concentrations are likely affected by DOM composition, reactivity, and cycling in the ocean.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5057110"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Cages Restrict Protein Diffusion in the Plasma Membrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Goiko, Maria; de Bruyn, John R.; Heit, Bryan</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The plasma membrane is a heterogeneous environment characterized by anomalous diffusion and the presence of microdomains that are molecularly distinct from the bulk membrane. Using single particle tracking of the C-type lectin CD93, we have identified for the first time the transient trapping of transmembrane proteins in cage-like microdomains which restrict protein diffusion. These cages are stabilized by actin-dependent confinement regions, but are separate structures with sizes and lifespans uncorrelated to those of the underlying actin corral. These membrane cages require cholesterol for their strength and stability, with cholesterol depletion decreasing both. Despite this, cages are much larger in size and are longer lived than lipid rafts, suggesting instead that cholesterol-dependent effects on membrane fluidity or molecular packing play a role in cage formation. This diffusional compartment in the plasma membrane has characteristics of both a diffusional barrier and a membrane microdomain, with a size and lifespan intermediate between <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> microdomains such as lipid rafts and long-lasting diffusional barriers created by the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:27725698</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/41285"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Final report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.</p> <p>1995-02-01</p> <p>The Harvard-MIT Research Program in <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244530','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25244530"><span>Seasonal assemblages and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> blooms in coastal north-west Atlantic Ocean bacterioplankton.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>El-Swais, Heba; Dunn, Katherine A; Bielawski, Joseph P; Li, William K W; Walsh, David A</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Temperate oceans are inhabited by diverse and temporally dynamic bacterioplankton communities. However, the role of the environment, resources and phytoplankton dynamics in shaping marine bacterioplankton communities at different time scales remains poorly constrained. Here, we combined time series observations (time scales of weeks to years) with molecular analysis of formalin-fixed samples from a coastal inlet of the north-west Atlantic Ocean to show that a combination of temperature, nitrate, small phytoplankton and Synechococcus abundances are best predictors for annual bacterioplankton community variability, explaining 38% of the variation. Using Bayesian mixed modelling, we identified assemblages of co-occurring bacteria associated with different seasonal periods, including the spring bloom (e.g. Polaribacter, Ulvibacter, Alteromonadales and ARCTIC96B-16) and the autumn bloom (e.g. OM42, OM25, OM38 and Arctic96A-1 clades of Alphaproteobacteria, and SAR86, OM60 and SAR92 clades of Gammaproteobacteria). Community variability over spring bloom development was best explained by silicate (32%)--an indication of rapid succession of bacterial taxa in response to diatom biomass--while nanophytoplankton as well as picophytoplankton abundance explained community variability (16-27%) over the transition into and out of the autumn bloom. Moreover, the seasonal structure was punctuated with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> blooms of rare bacteria including the KSA-1 clade of Sphingobacteria related to aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5161578"><span>The long non-coding RNA Morrbid regulates Bim and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCright, Sam J.; Kumar, Dinesh B. Uthaya; Collet, Magalie A.; Mowel, Walter K.; Elliott, Ellen N.; Uyar, Asli; Makiya, Michelle A.; Dunagin, Margaret C.; Harman, Christian C.D.; Virtue, Anthony T.; Zhu, Stella; Bailis, Will; Stein, Judith; Hughes, Cynthia; Raj, Arjun; Wherry, E. John; Goff, Loyal A.; Klion, Amy D.; Rinn, John L.; Williams, Adam; Flavell, Richard A.; Henao-Mejia, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Summary Neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes collectively account for ~70% of human blood leukocytes and are among the shortest-lived cells in the body1,2. Precise regulation of the lifespan of these myeloid cells is critical to maintain protective immune responses while minimizing the deleterious consequences of prolonged inflammation1,2. However, how the lifespan of these cells is strictly controlled remains largely unknown. Here, we identify a novel long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that we termed Morrbid, which tightly controls the survival of neutrophils, eosinophils and “classical” monocytes in response to pro-survival cytokines. To control the lifespan of these cells, Morrbid regulates the transcription of its neighboring pro-apoptotic gene, Bcl2l11 (Bim), by promoting the enrichment of the PRC2 complex at the Bcl2l11 promoter to maintain this gene in a poised state. Notably, Morrbid regulates this process in cis, enabling allele-specific control of Bcl2l11 transcription. Thus, in these highly inflammatory cells, changes in Morrbid levels provide a locus-specific regulatory mechanism that allows for rapid control of apoptosis in response to extracellular pro-survival signals. As MORRBID is present in humans and dysregulated in patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome, this lncRNA may represent a potential therapeutic target for inflammatory disorders characterized by aberrant <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> myeloid cell lifespan. PMID:27525555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684364','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25684364"><span>A platform for rapid exploration of aging and diseases in a naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Benayoun, Bérénice A; Machado, Ben; Singh, Param Priya; Hu, Chi-Kuo; Pech, Matthew F; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Zhang, Elisa; Sharp, Sabrina C; Artandi, Steven E; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2015-02-26</p> <p>Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here, we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de-novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We mutate many genes encompassing the hallmarks of aging, and for a subset, we produce stable lines within 2-3 months. As a proof of principle, we show that fish deficient for the protein subunit of telomerase exhibit the fastest onset of telomere-related pathologies among vertebrates. We further demonstrate the feasibility of creating specific genetic variants. This genome-to-phenotype platform represents a unique resource for studying vertebrate aging and disease in a high-throughput manner and for investigating candidates arising from human genome-wide studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A13G0369P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A13G0369P"><span>Convective Influence on <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Species in the Tropical Upper Troposphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Park, M.; Randel, W. J.; Emmons, L. K.; Kinnison, D. E.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Santee, M. L.; Wisthaler, A.; Atlas, E. L.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Measurements of atmospheric methanol (CH3OH) obtained from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) together with in-situ measurements from the SEAC4RS (2013) field campaign conducted over North America are used to better understand their variability in the tropical upper troposphere. The main objective of this study is to investigate the influence of surface biogenic emissions and convective transport on distributions of methanol and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species over different regions and season. Simulations of methanol from the CAM-chem global chemistry model are also used to evaluate the model with a focus on Asian vs. North American summer monsoon regions. The results show overall agreement in the large-scale variabilities from the measurements and the model, reflecting the transport of directly emitted methanol to the upper troposphere. Differences in the magnitudes of the modeled and satellite mixing ratios are due to an underestimate of emissions, as supported by model evaluation with the aircraft observations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFM.T53C1619K"><span>Large-Scale, <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Subduction of the Western Gneiss Region Ultrahigh-Pressure Terrane</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kylander-Clark, A. R.; Hacker, B. R.; Corfu, F.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>The Western Gneiss Region (WGR) of Norway includes one of Earth's giant ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes. Understanding the subduction and exhumation of this >60,000 km2 area is relevant to a range of processes, including collisional orogenesis, reworking of the continents, and the global geochemical cycle. Important aspects that remain unanswered include the spatial and temporal style of subduction. Was the crust subducted as smaller slivers one at a time, or as one larger unit, all at the same time? The WGR exhibits consistent ages of ~415-400 Ma, 100+ km along strike, but no ages have been identified at an equivalent distance across strike. To address this issue we have determined the age of one of the easternmost eclogites identified in the WGR, a retrogressed eclogite from Lesja. Seven fractions of this sample were analyzed; six of them yield identical U/Pb ages, however, they are slightly discordant. The seventh fraction is anomalously young and interpreted to have suffered lead loss. A weighted-mean 206Pb/238U age of 408.0 ± 1.7 Ma is obtained from the six older fractions; an age that is within the range of U/Pb, Sm/Nd, and Lu/Hf ages from the western portion of the WGR. The similarity in ages from 100+ km north to south and 100+ km east to west indicate that large portions of the continental crust were subducted in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> event, if not en masse.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26561867"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen</p> <p>2015-12-15</p> <p>This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23653410"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> effects of a visual inducer during egocentric space perception and manual behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Wenxun; Matin, Ethel; Matin, Leonard</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>A pitched visual inducer has a strong effect on the visually perceived elevation of a target in extrapersonal space, and also on the elevation of the arm when a subject points with an unseen arm to the target's elevation. The manual effect is a systematic function of hand-to-body distance (Li and Matin Vision Research 45:533-550, 2005): When the arm is fully extended, manual responses to perceptually mislocalized luminous targets are veridical; when the arm is close to the body, gross matching errors occur. In the present experiments, we measured this hand-to-body distance effect during the presence of a pitched visual inducer and after inducer offset, using three values of hand-to-body distance (0, 40, and 70 cm) and two open-loop tasks (pointing to the perceived elevation of a target at true eye level and setting the height of the arm to match the elevation). We also measured manual behavior when subjects were instructed to point horizontally under induction and after inducer offset (no visual target at any time). In all cases, the hand-to-body distance effect disappeared shortly after inducer offset. We suggest that the rapid disappearance of the distance effect is a manifestation of processes in the dorsal visual stream that are involved in updating <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> representations of the arm in egocentric visual perception and manual behavior.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..773A"><span>New use of global warming potentials to compare cumulative and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Allen, Myles R.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Reisinger, Andy; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.; Forster, Piers M.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have requested guidance on common greenhouse gas metrics in accounting for Nationally determined contributions (NDCs) to emission reductions. Metric choice can affect the relative emphasis placed on reductions of `cumulative climate pollutants' such as carbon dioxide versus `<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants' (SLCPs), including methane and black carbon. Here we show that the widely used 100-year global warming potential (GWP100) effectively measures the relative impact of both cumulative pollutants and SLCPs on realized warming 20-40 years after the time of emission. If the overall goal of climate policy is to limit peak warming, GWP100 therefore overstates the importance of current SLCP emissions unless stringent and immediate reductions of all climate pollutants result in temperatures nearing their peak soon after mid-century, which may be necessary to limit warming to ``well below 2 °C'' (ref. ). The GWP100 can be used to approximately equate a one-off pulse emission of a cumulative pollutant and an indefinitely sustained change in the rate of emission of an SLCP. The climate implications of traditional CO2-equivalent targets are ambiguous unless contributions from cumulative pollutants and SLCPs are specified separately.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13I0777S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMGC13I0777S"><span>Counteracting the climate effects of volcanic eruptions using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Samset, B. H.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Shine, K. P.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>A large volcanic eruption might constitute a climate emergency, significantly altering global temperature and precipitation for several years. Major future eruptions will occur, but their size or timing cannot be predicted. How could global society prepare for, and react to, such emergencies? One possibility is deliberate, coordinated emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases, along a pathway designed to match the climate responses to the eruption. We estimate such an emission pathway, countering a hypothetical eruption three times the size of Mt Pinatubo in 1991. Using a global climate model to evaluate global and regional responses to the eruption, with and without counter emissions, we show that it may be possible to counteract its climate effects, significantly dampening the abrupt impact of the eruption. We then raise practical, financial and ethical aspects related to such a strategy. Designed emissions to counter temporary global cooling would not have the disadvantages associated with more commonly discussed geoengineering to avoid long-term warming. Nevertheless, implementation would still face significant challenges.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21B0126W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A21B0126W"><span>A Reevaluation of the Contribution of Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Bromocarbons to Stratospheric Bromine Loading</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wales, P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Canty, T. P.; Mount, G. H.; Spinei, E.; Suleiman, R. M.; Chance, K.; McPeters, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K.; Kurosu, T. P.; Simpson, W. R.; Donohoue, D.; Johnson, B. J.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Choi, S.; Joiner, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) has provided global measurements of total column BrO over the past decade. Interpreting the distribution of total column BrO between the stratosphere and troposphere depends strongly on the contribution of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons to stratospheric inorganic bromine (Bry). Salawitch et al. (2010) suggested 7 to 12 ppt of Bry must be supplied to the lower stratosphere from the decomposition of VSL bromocarbons to accurately represent the variation of total column OMI BrO with total column O3. Here we will re-evaluate this recommendation in light of ground-based total column BrO measurements obtained over Fairbanks, Alaska using a multifunction differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MFDOAS) instrument during the spring of 2011. Additionally, we will assess how modifications to kinetics regulating the partitioning between BrO and BrONO2 proposed by Kreycy et al. (2013) affect the VSL Bry estimate as well as the modeled diurnal variation in BrO. ReferencesKreycy, S. et al. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 2013, 13, 6263-6274, doi:10.5194/acp-13-6263-2013. Salawitch, R.J. et al. Geophys. Res. Lett. 2010, 37, L21805, doi:10.1029/2010GL043798.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344913','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4344913"><span>A platform for rapid exploration of aging and diseases in a naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Benayoun, Bérénice A.; Machado, Ben; Singh, Param Priya; Hu, Chi-Kuo; Pech, Matthew F.; Valenzano, Dario R.; Zhang, Elisa; Sharp, Sabrina C.; Artandi, Steven E.; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Summary Aging is a complex process that affects multiple organs. Modeling aging and age-related diseases in the lab is challenging because classical vertebrate models have relatively long lifespans. Here we develop the first platform for rapid exploration of age-dependent traits and diseases in vertebrates, using the naturally <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish. We provide an integrative genomic and genome-editing toolkit in this organism using our de novo-assembled genome and the CRISPR/Cas9 technology. We mutate many genes encompassing the hallmarks of aging, and for a subset, we produce stable lines within 2–3 months. As a proof-of-principle, we show that fish deficient for the protein subunit of telomerase exhibit the fastest onset of telomere-related pathologies among vertebrates. We further demonstrate the feasibility of creating specific genetic variants. This genome-to-phenotype platform represents a unique resource for studying vertebrate aging and disease in a high throughput manner and for investigating candidates arising from human genome-wide studies. PMID:25684364</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2016K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2016K"><span>Chemistry of Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Halogens in the Troposphere: Pre-Industrial to Present day</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kinnison, Douglas; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Fernandez, Rafael; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Ozone in the troposphere is one of the most important <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases contributing to greenhouse radiative forcing (IPCC, 2007) and is of central importance to the chemistry of this region of the atmosphere. Tropospheric ozone is produced by photochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide, methane and other non-methane volatile organic compounds in the presence of nitrogen oxide. A large fraction of the tropospheric ozone loss occurs within the tropical marine boundary layer via photolysis to excited oxygen atoms followed by reaction with water vapor, reactions with odd hydrogen radical, and surface deposition. In addition, inorganic halogens (i.e., chlorine, bromine, and iodine species) are known to destroy ozone through efficient catalytic reaction cycles. In this study, we use the NCAR 3D chemistry climate model (CAM-Chem), including a detailed representation of tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Its scope has been extended to include halogen sources, reactive halogen chemistry, and related atmospheric processes (Ordonez et al., ACP, 2012; Saiz-Lopez et al., ACP,. 2012). The purpose of this work is to contrast the pre-industrial importance of tropospheric halogen driven ozone loss to present day conditions, specifically the importance of iodine and bromine chemistry. The sensitivity to inorganic nitrogen abundance will be shown. The model results compared to the pre-industrial surface ozone measurements at Montsouris (Volz and Kley, 1988) will also be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.A53F0318S"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers - The Connections Between Emissions, Forcing, and Mitigation Potential (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Smith, S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Methane, tropospheric ozone, and aerosols have a substantial global and regional influence on climate in addition to the impact of ozone and aerosols on health and ecosystems. These climate forcing agents are linked both though common emissions sources and atmospheric chemical processes. The magnitude and regional distribution of these forcings have changed substantially over the past and is expected to continue to change into the future. While aerosols have had a substantial impact on climate over the past century, by the end of the 21st century aerosols will likely be only a minor contributor to radiative forcing. Overall, reductions in aerosol emissions lead to a net warming due to the net negative aerosol forcing, although some mitigation benefits may be possible in specific sub-sectors. While the emissions leading to enhanced tropospheric ozone levels are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, mitigation has proved to be difficult due to the ubiquity of major emission sources, particularly surface transportation vehicles. From a mitigation standpoint, therefore, tropospheric ozone might be considered as more of a long-term pollutant. This presentation will review these links using historical data and future projections and discuss the implications for mitigation. The implications of these links for atmospheric chemistry analysis, and the potential for using ACC-MIP results to improve integrated assessment modeling and analysis, will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4568973"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish. PMID:26121607</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26121607"><span>Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JHyd..540..437Q"><span>A new approach for fluid dynamics simulation: The <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiao, Changjian; Li, Jiansong; Tian, Zongshun</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>There are many researches to simulate the fluid which adopt the traditional particle-based approach and the grid-based approach. However, it needs massive storage in the traditional particle-based approach and it is very complicated to design the grid-based approach with the Navier-Stokes Equations or the Shallow Water Equations (SWEs) because of the difficulty of solving equations. This paper presents a new model called the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Water Cuboid Particle model. It updates the fluid properties (mass and momentum) recorded in the fixed Cartesian grids by computing the weighted sum of the water cuboid particles with a time step life. Thus it is a two-type-based approach essentially, which not only owns efficient computation and manageable memory like the grid-based approach, but also deals with the discontinuous water surface (wet/dry fronts, boundary conditions, etc.) with high accuracy as well as the particle-based approach. The proposed model has been found capable to simulate the fluid excellently for three laboratory experimental cases and for the field case study of the Malpasset dam-break event occurred in France in 1959. The obtained results show that the model is proved to be an alternative approach to simulate the fluid dynamics with a fair accuracy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27658015"><span>Efficient genome engineering approaches for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> African turquoise killifish.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Harel, Itamar; Valenzano, Dario Riccardo; Brunet, Anne</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>A central challenge in experimental aging research is the lack of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> vertebrate models for genetic studies. Here we present a comprehensive protocol for efficient genome engineering in the African turquoise killifish (Nothobranchius furzeri), which is the shortest-lived vertebrate in captivity with a median life span of 4-6 months. By taking advantage of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (CRISPR/Cas9) system and the turquoise killifish genome, this platform enables the generation of knockout alleles via nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and knock-in alleles via homology-directed repair (HDR). We include guidelines for guide RNA (gRNA) target design, embryo injection and hatching, germ-line transmission and for minimizing off-target effects. We also provide strategies for Tol2-based transgenesis and large-scale husbandry conditions that are critical for success. Because of the fast life cycle of the turquoise killifish, stable lines can be generated as rapidly as 2-3 months, which is much faster than other fish models. This protocol provides powerful genetic tools for studying vertebrate aging and aging-related diseases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013NatCC...3..730H"><span>Mitigation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants slows sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hu, Aixue; Xu, Yangyang; Tebaldi, Claudia; Washington, Warren M.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Under present growth rates of greenhouse gas and black carbon aerosol emissions, global mean temperatures can warm by as much as 2°C from pre-industrial temperatures by about 2050. Mitigation of the four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs), methane, tropospheric ozone, hydrofluorocarbons and black carbon, has been shown to reduce the warming trend by about 50% (refs , ) by 2050. Here we focus on the potential impact of this SLCP mitigation on global sea-level rise (SLR). The temperature projections under various SLCP scenarios simulated by an energy-balance climate model are integrated with a semi-empirical SLR model, derived from past trends in temperatures and SLR, to simulate future trends in SLR. A coupled ocean-atmosphere climate model is also used to estimate SLR trends due to just the ocean thermal expansion. Our results show that SLCP mitigation can have significant effects on SLR. It can decrease the SLR rate by 24-50% and reduce the cumulative SLR by 22-42% by 2100. If the SLCP mitigation is delayed by 25 years, the warming from pre-industrial temperature exceeds 2°C by 2050 and the impact of mitigation actions on SLR is reduced by about a third.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H51E0815B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.H51E0815B"><span>Dating Fluvial Floodplains and Quantifying Channel Migration Rates Using <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Black, E. E.; Renshaw, C. E.; Kaste, J. M.; Magilligan, F. J.; Dade, W. B.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>A variety of methods, including dendrochronolgy and aerial photography, have been used previously to quantify fluvial channel geometry changes and lateral migration rates on time scales of tens to hundreds of years. However, no universally satisfactory technique has emerged due to various limitations of each method. We explore the novel technique of using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides to date fluvial surfaces with the goal of determining lateral migration rates. In particular, we use 210Pb (t(1/2) ~ 22.3 years) in floodplain sediment to determine the lateral migration rates of regulated reaches on the Genesee River, NY, and unregulated reaches on the Winooski River, VT and the upper Connecticut River, NH. Surface ages and lateral migration rates are compared to those determined using historical aerial photography. Preliminary analyses of sediment cores are consistent with the general trend of surface ages recorded in the aerial photography, but the absolute ages of the surfaces indicate that inheritance of 210Pb within the deposited sediment affects the surface ages. Furthermore, the temporal resolution of the method is much greater in areas with rapid migration over the past 50 years than in those areas with similarly rapid migration occurring in years prior to 1960.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016CorRe..35..399L"><span>Consequences of extreme life history traits on population persistence: do <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gobies face demographic bottlenecks?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lefèvre, Carine D.; Nash, Kirsty L.; González-Cabello, Alonso; Bellwood, David R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The majority of coral reef goby species are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, with some highly abundant species living less than 100 d. To understand the role and consequences of this extreme life history in shaping coral reef fish populations, we quantitatively documented the structure of small reef fish populations over a 26-month period (>14 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish generations) at an inshore reef on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. Most species with life spans >1 yr, such as pomacentrids, exhibited a peak in recruitment during the austral summer, driving seasonal changes in the small fish community composition. In contrast, there were no clear changes in goby community composition, despite the abundance of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high turnover species. Species of Eviota, the most abundant gobiid genus observed, showed remarkably similar demographic profiles year-round, with consistent densities of adults as well as recently recruited juveniles. Our results demonstrate ongoing recruitment of these small cryptic fishes, which appears to compensate for an exceptionally short life span on the reef. Our results suggest that gobiid populations are able to overcome demographic limitations, and by maintaining reproduction, larval survival and recruitment throughout the year, they may avoid population bottlenecks. These findings also underline the potential trophodynamic importance of these small species; because of this constant turnover, Eviota species and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fishes may be particularly valuable contributors to the flow of energy on coral reefs, underpinning the year-round trophic structure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25137624"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S; Sobus, Jon R; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J; Arbuckle, Tye E; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument--the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument--for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JGRD..113.6102L"><span>Strong sensitivity of late 21st century climate to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Levy, Hiram; Schwarzkopf, M. Daniel; Horowitz, Larry; Ramaswamy, V.; Findell, K. L.</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This study examines the impact of projected changes (A1B "marker" scenario) in emissions of four <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants (ozone, black carbon, organic carbon, and sulfate) on future climate. Through year 2030, simulated climate is only weakly dependent on the projected levels of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants, primarily the result of a near cancellation of their global net radiative forcing. However, by year 2100, the projected decrease in sulfate aerosol (driven by a 65% reduction in global sulfur dioxide emissions) and the projected increase in black carbon aerosol (driven by a 100% increase in its global emissions) contribute a significant portion of the simulated A1B surface air warming relative to the year 2000: 0.2°C (Southern Hemisphere), 0.4°C globally, 0.6°C (Northern Hemisphere), 1.5-3°C (wintertime Arctic), and 1.5-2°C (˜40% of the total) in the summertime United States. These projected changes are also responsible for a significant decrease in central United States late summer root zone soil water and precipitation. By year 2100, changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants produce a global average increase in radiative forcing of ˜1 W/m2; over east Asia it exceeds 5 W/m2. However, the resulting regional patterns of surface temperature warming do not follow the regional patterns of changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species emissions, tropospheric loadings, or radiative forcing (global pattern correlation coefficient of -0.172). Rather, the regional patterns of warming from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species are similar to the patterns for well-mixed greenhouse gases (global pattern correlation coefficient of 0.8) with the strongest warming occurring over the summer continental United States, Mediterranean Sea, and southern Europe and over the winter Arctic.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4310547"><span>A proposal for assessing study quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>LaKind, Judy S.; Sobus, Jon R.; Goodman, Michael; Barr, Dana Boyd; Fürst, Peter; Albertini, Richard J.; Arbuckle, Tye E.; Schoeters, Greet; Tan, Yu-Mei; Teeguarden, Justin; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Weisel, Clifford P.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals present several challenges, including their presence in analytical laboratories and sampling equipment, difficulty in establishing temporal order in cross-sectional studies, short- and long-term variability in exposures and biomarker concentrations, and a paucity of information on the number of measurements required for proper exposure classification. To date, the scientific community has not developed a set of systematic guidelines for designing, implementing and interpreting studies of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals that use biomonitoring as the exposure metric or for evaluating the quality of this type of research for WOE assessments or for peer review of grants or publications. We describe key issues that affect epidemiology studies using biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals and propose a systematic instrument – the Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Chemicals (BEES-C) instrument – for evaluating the quality of research proposals and studies that incorporate biomonitoring data on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals. Quality criteria for three areas considered fundamental to the evaluation of epidemiology studies that include biological measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chemicals are described: 1) biomarker selection and measurement, 2) study design and execution, and 3) general epidemiological study design considerations. We recognize that the development of an evaluative tool such as BEES-C is neither simple nor non-controversial. We hope and anticipate that the instrument will initiate further discussion/debate on this topic. PMID:25137624</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005411','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140005411"><span>Convective Transport of Very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007PMB....52.5025A"><span>Treatment of solid tumors by interstitial release of recoiling <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Arazi, L.; Cooks, T.; Schmidt, M.; Keisari, Y.; Kelson, I.</p> <p>2007-08-01</p> <p>A new method utilizing alpha particles to treat solid tumors is presented. Tumors are treated with interstitial radioactive sources which continually release <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha emitting atoms from their surface. The atoms disperse inside the tumor, delivering a high dose through their alpha decays. We implement this scheme using thin wire sources impregnated with 224Ra, which release by recoil 220Rn, 216Po and 212Pb atoms. This work aims to demonstrate the feasibility of our method by measuring the activity patterns of the released radionuclides in experimental tumors. Sources carrying 224Ra activities in the range 10-130 kBq were used in experiments on murine squamous cell carcinoma tumors. These included gamma spectroscopy of the dissected tumors and major organs, Fuji-plate autoradiography of histological tumor sections and tissue damage detection by Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The measurements focused on 212Pb and 212Bi. The 220Rn/216Po distribution was treated theoretically using a simple diffusion model. A simplified scheme was used to convert measured 212Pb activities to absorbed dose estimates. Both physical and histological measurements confirmed the formation of a 5-7 mm diameter necrotic region receiving a therapeutic alpha-particle dose around the source. The necrotic regions shape closely corresponded to the measured activity patterns. 212Pb was found to leave the tumor through the blood at a rate which decreased with tumor mass. Our results suggest that the proposed method, termed DART (diffusing alpha-emitters radiation therapy), may potentially be useful for the treatment of human patients.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8201B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealized, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the Northern Hemisphere mid and (especially) high latitudes, and showing a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation. Changes in precipitation patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker response, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25368182"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Velders, Guus J M; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-11-18</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2-SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2-SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2-SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...15.3823B"><span>Climate responses to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baker, L. H.; Collins, W. J.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Cherian, R.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Quaas, J.; Samset, B. H.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Policies to control air quality focus on mitigating emissions of aerosols and their precursors, and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs). On a local scale, these policies will have beneficial impacts on health and crop yields, by reducing particulate matter (PM) and surface ozone concentrations; however, the climate impacts of reducing emissions of SLCPs are less straightforward to predict. In this paper we consider a set of idealised, extreme mitigation strategies, in which the total anthropogenic emissions of individual SLCP emissions species are removed. This provides an upper bound on the potential climate impacts of such air quality strategies. We focus on evaluating the climate responses to changes in anthropogenic emissions of aerosol precursor species: black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC) and sulphur dioxide (SO2). We perform climate integrations with four fully coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate models (AOGCMs), and examine the effects on global and regional climate of removing the total land-based anthropogenic emissions of each of the three aerosol precursor species. We find that the SO2 emissions reductions lead to the strongest response, with all three models showing an increase in surface temperature focussed in the northern hemisphere high latitudes, and a corresponding increase in global mean precipitation and run-off. Changes in precipitation and run-off patterns are driven mostly by a northward shift in the ITCZ, consistent with the hemispherically asymmetric warming pattern driven by the emissions changes. The BC and OC emissions reductions give a much weaker forcing signal, and there is some disagreement between models in the sign of the climate responses to these perturbations. These differences between models are due largely to natural variability in sea-ice extent, circulation patterns and cloud changes. This large natural variability component to the signal when the ocean circulation and sea-ice are free-running means that the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ACP....1012025P"><span>Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pisso, I.; Haynes, P. H.; Law, K. S.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs) for very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs. The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4246330"><span>Disentangling the effects of CO2 and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer mitigation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Meinshausen, Malte; Shindell, Drew T.; Hare, William; Klimont, Zbigniew; Amann, Markus; Schellnhuber, Hans Joachim</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for reasons of simplification, this CO2–SLCF linkage was often disregarded in long-term projections of earlier studies. Here we explicitly account for CO2–SLCF linkages and show that the short- and long-term climate effects of many SLCF measures consistently become smaller in scenarios that keep warming to below 2 °C relative to preindustrial levels. Although long-term mitigation of methane and hydrofluorocarbons are integral parts of 2 °C scenarios, early action on these species mainly influences near-term temperatures and brings small benefits for limiting maximum warming relative to comparable reductions taking place later. Furthermore, we find that maximum 21st-century warming in 2 °C-consistent scenarios is largely unaffected by additional black-carbon-related measures because key emission sources are already phased-out through CO2 mitigation. Our study demonstrates the importance of coherently considering CO2–SLCF coevolutions. Failing to do so leads to strongly and consistently overestimating the effect of SLCF measures in climate stabilization scenarios. Our results reinforce that SLCF measures are to be considered complementary rather than a substitute for early and stringent CO2 mitigation. Near-term SLCF measures do not allow for more time for CO2 mitigation. We disentangle and resolve the distinct benefits across different species and therewith facilitate an integrated strategy for mitigating both short and long-term climate change. PMID:25368182</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatCC...6..286S"><span>Response of Arctic temperature to changes in emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T. K.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M. G.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased at twice the global rate, largely as a result of ice-albedo and temperature feedbacks. Although deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs; refs ,). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation are seen more quickly than for mitigation of CO2 and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This Letter is one of the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCFs emissions, taking into account black carbon (BC), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone (O3), and their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. This study extends the scope of previous works by including more detailed calculations of Arctic radiative forcing and quantifying the Arctic temperature response. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations owing to the large absolute amount of emissions. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible mitigation scenario for SLCFs, phased in from 2015 to 2030, could cut warming by 0.2 (+/-0.17) K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14..651L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14..651L"><span>Convective transport of very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons to the stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liang, Q.; Atlas, E.; Blake, D.; Dorf, M.; Pfeilsticker, K.; Schauffler, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies ∼8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, ∼150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (∼7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total ∼8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at ∼150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (< 10%) the VSLS-originated bromine is removed via wet scavenging in the TTL before reaching the lower stratosphere. On global and annual average, CHBr3 and CH2Br2, together, contribute ∼7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a ∼2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.A51A0199L"><span>Polyhalogenated Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Live</span> Substances in the Atlantic Ocean, and their Linkages with Ocean Primary Production</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Y.; Yvon-Lewis, S. A.; Hu, L.; Bianchi, T. S.; Campbell, L.; Smith, R. W.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Halocarbon Air-Sea Transect - Atlantic (HalocAST-A) cruise was conducted aboard FS Polarstern during the ANT-XXVII/1 expedition. The ship departed from Bremerhaven, Germany on October 25th and arrived in Cape Town, South Africa on November 24th in 2010. The HalocAST-A cruise was devoted to studying air-sea fluxes of a suite of halocarbon compounds. Atmospheric mixing ratios and seawater concentrations of the halocarbons were continuously measured with the gas chromatograph - mass spectrometer (GC-MS). This study focuses on the polyhalogenated very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> substances (VSLSs) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), chlorodibromomethane (CHClBr2), and bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). The goal of this study is to examine the distributions of these compounds and possible relationship between their emissions and oceanic primary production. Therefore, along with the halocarbon concentrations, parameters like dissolved organic carbon concentrations, nutrient concentrations, pigment concentrations, and picoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria counts were also determined. The observed saturation anomalies indicated these VSLSs were supersaturated for almost the entire duration of the cruise. The highest seawater concentrations for these compounds were observed near the Canary Islands. Air mixing ratios were also elevated in this region. The net fluxes for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHClBr2, and CHBrCl2 were 13.8 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1, 4.5 nmol m-2 d-1 and 1.2 nmol m-2 d-1, respectively. During the HalocAST-A cruise, these compounds exhibit similar trends with total chlorophyll a. Contributions from selected phytoplankton group will be further assessed through the use of individual pigment biomarkers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..04S"><span>Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24D..05F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFMGC24D..05F"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Climate Forcers in a 1.5 Degree World</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Samset, B. H.; Sand, M.; Smith, C. J.; Forster, P.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> climate forcers, such as aerosol species black carbon (BC) and sulphate (SO4), make up a significant - but poorly constrained - portion of the present anthropogenic climate perturbation. Measures to improve air quality and curb environmental impacts are likely to lead to strong reductions in aerosol emissions over the coming decades. While the resulting global mean changes to temperature and precipitation may be modest, regionally the impacts may be significant. Should we also manage to strongly mitigate greenhouse gas emissions, and thus limit global warming to 1.5 degrees above the preindustrial level, both the local and global climate impacts of simultaneous reductions in aerosol emissions may be severe. Within the present uncertainties on aerosol radiative forcing, there is a strong possibility that removing aerosol emissions alone perturbs the climate beyond natural variability in certain areas. In this talk, we map out and quantify the possible climate impacts from removing anthropogenic aerosol emissions, when combined with greenhouse gas concentrations consistent with 1.5 degrees of global warming. Simulations using three global climate models indicate that fully removing the present emissions of SO4, and BC from fossil fuel and biofuel sources, yields an additional 0.5 degrees of global mean surface temperature increase. Regionally, this additional warming becomes stronger with latitude, due to a combination of the geographical distribution of aerosol emissions and Arctic amplification. The precipitation change is more variable, but significant relative to natural variability in several industrial regions. Distributions of climate extremes are also affected. To be policy relevant, we should be able to model regional consequences of ambitious, multi-component emission reduction scenarios. The results in this talk allow us to better constrain the climate consequences of reducing aerosol emissions in a 1.5 degree world.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJA...53..134K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJA...53..134K"><span>Half-life determination of Tz = -1 and Tz = - {{1}/{2}} proton-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and the β decay of 58Zn</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kucuk, L.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Montaner-Pizá, A.; Rubio, B.; Fujita, Y.; Gelletly, W.; Blank, B.; Oktem, Y.; Adachi, T.; Algora, A.; Ascher, P.; Cakirli, R. B.; de France, G.; Fujita, H.; Ganioğlu, E.; Giovinazzo, J.; Grévy, S.; Marqués, F. M.; Molina, F.; de Oliveira Santos, F.; Perrot, L.; Raabe, R.; Srivastava, P. C.; Susoy, G.; Tamii, A.; Thomas, J. C.</p> <p>2017-06-01</p> <p>We have measured the β -decay half-lives of 16 <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with Tz = -1/2 and -1 , ranging from chromium to germanium. They were produced in an experiment carried out at GANIL and optimized for the production of 58Zn , for which in addition we present the decay scheme and absolute Fermi and Gamow-Teller transition strengths. Since all of these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> lie on the rp -process pathway, the T_{1/2} values are important ingredients for the rp -process reaction flow calculations and for models of X-ray bursters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....16.7451A"><span>Regional emission metrics for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Bellouin, Nicolas</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry-climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter (November-April) for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs), which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP) and global temperature change potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation policy package is</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012M%26PS...47.1998L"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radioactivity in the early solar system: The Super-AGB star hypothesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lugaro, Maria; Doherty, Carolyn L.; Karakas, Amanda I.; Maddison, Sarah T.; Liffman, Kurt; García-Hernández, D. A.; Siess, Lionel; Lattanzio, John C.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The composition of the most primitive solar system condensates, such as calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) and micron-sized corundum grains, show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLR), e.g., 26Al, were present in the early solar system. Their abundances require a local or stellar origin, which, however, is far from being understood. We present for the first time the abundances of several SLR up to 60Fe predicted from stars with initial mass in the range approximately 7-11 M⊙. These stars evolve through core H, He, and C burning. After core C burning they go through a "Super"-asymptotic giant branch (Super-AGB) phase, with the H and He shells activated alternately, episodic thermal pulses in the He shell, a very hot temperature at the base of the convective envelope (approximately 108 K), and strong stellar winds driving the H-rich envelope into the surrounding interstellar medium. The final remnants of the evolution of Super-AGB stars are mostly O-Ne white dwarfs. Our Super-AGB models produce 26Al/27Al yield ratios approximately 0.02-0.26. These models can account for the canonical value of the 26Al/27Al ratio using dilutions with the solar nebula of the order of 1 part of Super-AGB mass per several 102 to several 103 of solar nebula mass, resulting in associated changes in the O-isotope composition in the range Δ17O from 3 to 20‰. This is in agreement with observations of the O isotopic ratios in primitive solar system condensates, which do not carry the signature of a stellar polluter. The radionuclides 41Ca and 60Fe are produced by neutron captures in Super-AGB stars and their meteoritic abundances are also matched by some of our models, depending on the nuclear and stellar physics uncertainties as well as the meteoritic experimental data. We also expect and are currently investigating Super-AGB production of SLR heavier than iron, such as 107Pd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1526089A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1526089A"><span>Multimodel emission metrics for regional emissions of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, B.; Berntsen, T. K.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Shine, K. P.; Bellouin, N.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>For <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF) values calculated in four different (chemistry-transport or coupled-chemistry climate) models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May-October) and winter season (November-April) for emissions from Europe, East Asia, as well as the global shipping sector. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosols precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3), and ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOC), which also influence aerosols, to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated relative to CO2, using Global Warming Potential (GWP) and Global Temperature change Potential (GTP), based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramp up period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies. For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOC. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of a mitigation policy package is robust even when accounting for correlations. For</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94j3002P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhRvD..94j3002P"><span>Positron excess in the center of the Milky Way from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> β+ emitting isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pshirkov, M. S.</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>Observations of the INTEGRAL satellite revealed the presence of yet unexplained excess in the central region of the Galaxy at energies around 511 keV. These gamma rays are produced in the process of positron annihilation; the needed rate is around 1 042 s-1 . In this short paper it is shown that β+ -emitting isotopes that are formed in interactions of subrelativistic cosmic rays with light <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> (CNONe) can account for a considerable fraction—up to several tens of percent—of e+ production rate in the central region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143154','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21143154"><span>Long Fission Times of Super-Heavy Compound <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Drouart, A.; Charvet, J. L.; Dayras, R.; Nalpas, L.; Volant, C.; Jacquet, D.</p> <p>2008-04-17</p> <p>The blocking technique in single crystals is a direct method to investigate the presence of long fission time components. With a lead beam impinging on a germanium single crystal, we tried to produce compound <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> (CN) with atomic number Z = 114 at high excitation energy. Blocking patterns for reaction products are reconstructed with position sensitive detectors at 20 deg. relative to the beam direction. The Z and the energies of all products are measured with {delta}E-E telescopes of the 4{pi} INDRA array, so that all reaction channels are unambiguously identified. With this setup, we can reach long fission times (>10{sup -18} s) that can be associated with CN fissions. However, in contrast to previous experiments in which such long fission times could be measured for Z = 120 and 124, no hint of long lifetimes within our sensitivity limit for Z = 114 was observed, which may be due to the <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficiency</span> of the formed isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACPD...1515155S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs: methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for Northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20 year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....1510529S"><span>Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486572','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22486572"><span>SU-C-204-07: The Production of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Positron Emitters in Proton Therapy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Buitenhuis, H J T; Dendooven, P; Biegun, A K; Goethem, M-J van; Graaf, E R van der; Brandenburg, S; Diblen, F</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: To investigate the production and effect of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters when using PET for in-vivo range verification during a proton therapy irradiation. Methods: The integrated production of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters in the stopping of 55 MeV protons was measured in water, carbon, phosphorus and calcium targets. The experimental production rates are used to calculate the production on PMMA and a representative set of 4 tissue materials. The number of decays integrated over an irradiation in these materials is calculated as function of the duration of the irradiation, considering irradiations with the same total number of protons. Results: The most copiously produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides and their production rates relative to the relevant long-lived nuclides are: 12-N (T1/2 = 11 ms) on carbon (9.5% of the 11-C production), 29-P (T1/2 = 4.1 s) on phosphorus (20% of the 30-P production) and 38m-K (T1/2 = 0.92 s) on calcium (113% of the 38g-K production). No <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides are produced on water. The most noticeable Result is that for an irradiation in (carbon-rich) adipose tissue, 12-N will dominate the PET image up to an irradiation duration of 70 s. On bone tissue, 15-O dominates over 12-N after 7–15 s (depending on the carbon-to-oxygen ratio). Conclusions: The presence of 12-N needs to be considered in PET imaging during proton beam irradiations as, depending on tissue composition and PET scanning protocol, it may noticeably deteriorate image quality due to the large positron range blurring. The results presented warrant investigations into the energy-dependent production of 12-N, 29-P and 38m-K and their effect on PET imaging during proton irradiations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671168','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15671168"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode</p> <p>2005-02-01</p> <p>Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are approximately 5 x 10(-6). Different from other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > or = 1.6 x 10(-4) at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189-L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475-1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051-1070]. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=547833','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=547833"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> chlorine-36 in a Ca- and Al-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Yangting; Guan, Yunbin; Leshin, Laurie A.; Ouyang, Ziyuan; Wang, Daode</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Excesses of sulfur-36 in sodalite, a chlorine-rich mineral, in a calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusion from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite linearly correlate with chorine/sulfur ratios, providing direct evidence for the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> chlorine-36 (with a half-life of 0.3 million years) in the early solar system. The best inferred (36Cl/35Cl)o ratios of the sodalite are ≈5 × 10-6. Different from other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, chlorine-36 was introduced into the inclusion by solid-gas reaction during secondary alteration. The alteration reaction probably took place at least 1.5 million years after the first formation of the inclusion, based on the correlated study of the 26Al-26Mg systems of the relict primary minerals and the alteration assemblages, from which we inferred an initial ratio of (36Cl/35Cl)o > 1.6 × 10-4 at the time when calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions formed. This discovery supports a supernova origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides [Cameron, A. G. W., Hoeflich, P., Myers, P. C. & Clayton, D. D. (1995) Astrophys. J. 447, L53; Wasserburg, G. J., Gallino, R. & Busso, M. (1998) Astrophys. J. 500, L189–L193], but presents a serious challenge for local irradiation models [Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E. & Lee, T. (1997) Science 277, 1475–1479; Gounelle, M., Shu, F. H., Shang, H., Glassgold, A. E., Rehm, K. E. & Lee, T. (2001) Astrophys. J. 548, 1051–1070]. Furthermore, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 36Cl may serve as a unique fine-scale chronometer for volatile-rock interaction in the early solar system because of its close association with aqueous and/or anhydrous alteration processes. PMID:15671168</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733941','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19733941"><span>Variation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> beta radionuclide (radon progeny) concentrations and the mixing processes in the atmospheric boundary layer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Veleva, B; Valkov, N; Batchvarova, E; Kolarova, M</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>Radon is emitted to the atmosphere with quasi constant emission rates depending on the radium concentration in the earth's crust and soil physical properties. In this way, the 222Rn and 220Rn concentration in air reflects significantly the thickness of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The aerosol-associated, beta-emitting progeny nuclides of 222Rn were measured daily in the framework of the atmospheric radioactivity monitoring program of NIMH at Sofia. The 214Pb concentration was estimated from the measured <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> beta activity of 24-h filter samples, changed daily at 6:00 GMT. The impact of some meteorological factors such as wind direction, wind velocity, humidity, and temperature on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> beta radionuclides is estimated, and the results show no simple statistical relationship. A seasonal pattern was observed with winter minima and late summer-early autumn maxima. High variability in daily morning concentrations and mean monthly values was observed. There were well pronounced differences between years. The height of the convective ABL was estimated from daily radio-soundings at 12:00 GMT for the period 2001-2006 and from seven soundings per day during the experimental campaign in Sofia in October 2003. In general, concentrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 222Rn progeny nuclides decreased with increased convective ABL height. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3741H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19.3741H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> brine infiltration during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the continental collision zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Higashino, Fumiko; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Grantham, Geoffrey; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p> conditions, and the different chemical profiles would represent differences in diffusion coefficients for each element. In addition, we estimated trace element concentrations of the brine and duration of the microstructural development, using elemental partition coefficients between fluids and minerals and diffusion equations. The duration, which was estimated to be 4 Myr, suggests <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brine infiltration in an otherwise long-lived continental collision scenario (e.g., Elburg et al., 2016). References Elburg, M.A., Andersen, T., Jacobs, J., Läufer, A., Ruppel, A., Krohne, N., Damaske, D. (2016) Journal of Geology 124, 1-26. Higashino, F., Kawakami, T., Tsuchiya, N., Satish-Kumar, M., Ishikawa, M., Grantham, G.H., Sakata, S., Hattori, K., Hirata, T. (2015) Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 110, 166-178. Higashino, F., Kawakami, T., Tsuchiya, N., Satish-Kumar, M., Ishikawa, M., Grantham, G.H., Sakata, S., Hirata, T. Journal of Petrology, under review. Newton, R.C., Manning, C.E. (2010) Geofluids 10, 58-72. Ruiz-Agudo, E., Putnis, C.V., Putnis, A. (2014) Chemical Geology 383, 132-146.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ACP....1610765Q"><span>Multi-model evaluation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p> is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A14A..08S"><span>Global Modeling and Projection of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants in an Earth System Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sudo, K.; Takemura, T.; Klimont, Z.; Kurokawa, J.; Akimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>In predicting and mitigating future global warming, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCPs) such as tropospheric ozone (O3), black carbon (BC), and other related components including CH4/VOCs and aerosols play crucial roles as well as long-lived species like CO2 or N2O. Several recent studies suggests that reduction of heating SLCPs (i.e., O3 and black carbon) together with CH4 can decrease and delay the expected future warming, and can be an alternative to CO2 mitigation (Shindell et al., 2012). However it should be noted that there are still large uncertainties in simulating SLCPs and their climate impacts. For instance, present global models generally have a severe tendency to underestimate BC especially in remote areas like the polar regions as shown by the recent model intercomparison project under the IPCC (ACCMIP/AeroCOM). This problem in global BC modeling, basically coming from aging and removal processes of BC, causes still a large uncertainty in the estimate of BC's atmospheric heating and climate impacts (Bond et al., 2013; Kerr et al., 2013). This study attempted to improve global simulation of BC by developing a new scheme for simulating aging process of BC and re-evaluate radiative forcing of BC in the framework of a chemistry-aerosol coupled climate model (Earth system model) MIROC-ESM-CHEM. Our improved model with the new aging scheme appears to relatively well reproduce the observed BC concentrations and seasonality in the Arctic/Antarctic region. The new model estimates radiative forcing of BC to be 0.83 W m-2 which is about two times larger than the estimate by our original model with no aging scheme (0.41 W m-2), or the model ensemble mean in the IPCC report. Using this model, future projection of SLCPs and their climate impacts is conducted following the recent IIASA emission scenarios for the year 2030 (Klimont et al., 2006; Cofala et al., 2007). Our simulation suggests that heating SLCPs components (O3, BC, and CH4) are significantly reduced</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003GGG.....4.1089K"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific: Hot spots or extensional volcanism?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koppers, Anthony A. P.; Staudigel, Hubert; Pringle, Malcolm S.; Wijbrans, Jan R.</p> <p>2003-10-01</p> <p> plumes cannot explain the intraplate volcanism of the South Pacific region. We argue that the observed <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and discontinuous intraplate volcanism has been produced by another type of hot spot-related volcanism, as opposed to the strong and continuous Hawaiian-type hot spots. Our results also indicate that other geological processes (plate tension, hotlines, faulting, wetspots, self-propagating volcanoes) may act in conjunction with hot spot volcanism in the South Pacific. In all these scenarios, intraplate volcanism has to be controlled by "broad-scale" events giving rise to multiple closely-spaced mantle plumelets, each with a distinct isotopic signature, but only briefly active and stable over geological time. It seems most likely that these plumelets originate and dissipate at very shallow mantle depths, where they may shoot off as thin plumes from the top of a "superplume" that is present in the South Pacific mantle. The absence of clear age progressions in most seamount trails and periodic flare-ups of massive intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific (such as the one in the Cretaceous and one starting 30 Myr ago) show that regional extension (caused by changes in the global plate circuit and/or the rise-and-fall of an oscillating superplume) may be driving the waxing and waning of intraplate volcanism in the South Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/277360','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/277360"><span>Intruder states and the onset of deformation in the <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> even-even polonium isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>The ISOLDE Collaboration</p> <p>1995-12-01</p> <p>Alpha- and beta-decay studies of mass-separated Rn and At <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> reveal the existence of a low-lying 0{sup +} state in {sup 196,198,200,202}Po. The excited 0{sup +} states are interpreted as proton-pair excitations across the {ital Z}=82 shell gap leading to a deformed state, coexisting with the spherical ground state. It is shown that with decreasing neutron number the deformed configuration intrudes to lower excitation energy, increasingly mixing into the ground state. {copyright} {ital 1995 The American Physical Society.}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21469858"><span>Direct mass measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 nuclides (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr and their impact on nucleosynthesis in the rp process.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tu, X L; Xu, H S; Wang, M; Zhang, Y H; Litvinov, Yu A; Sun, Y; Schatz, H; Zhou, X H; Yuan, Y J; Xia, J W; Audi, G; Blaum, K; Du, C M; Geng, P; Hu, Z G; Huang, W X; Jin, S L; Liu, L X; Liu, Y; Ma, X; Mao, R S; Mei, B; Shuai, P; Sun, Z Y; Suzuki, H; Tang, S W; Wang, J S; Wang, S T; Xiao, G Q; Xu, X; Yamaguchi, T; Yamaguchi, Y; Yan, X L; Yang, J C; Ye, R P; Zang, Y D; Zhao, H W; Zhao, T C; Zhang, X Y; Zhan, W L</p> <p>2011-03-18</p> <p>Mass excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> A=2Z-1 <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> (63)Ge, (65)As, (67)Se, and (71)Kr have been directly measured to be -46,921(37), -46,937(85), -46,580(67), and -46,320(141)  keV, respectively. The deduced proton separation energy of -90(85)  keV for (65)As shows that this nucleus is only slightly proton unbound. X-ray burst model calculations with the new mass excess of (65)As suggest that the majority of the reaction flow passes through (64)Ge via proton capture, indicating that (64)Ge is not a significant rp-process waiting point.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5309075','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/5309075"><span>Superdeformed <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, Teng Lek.</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>This paper reviews the most recent advances in the understanding of the physics of superdeformed <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> from the point of view of the experimentalists. It covers among other subjects the following topics: (1) the discovery of a new region of superdeformed <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> near A=190, (2) the surprising result of the occurrence of bands with identical transition energies in neighboring superdeformed <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> near A=150 and A=190, (3) the importance of octupole degrees of freedom at large deformation and (4) the properties associated with the feeding and the decay of superdeformed bands. The text presented hereafter will appear as a contribution to the Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science, Volume 41. 88 refs., 11 figs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980218972&hterms=gardening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgardening','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19980218972&hterms=gardening&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dgardening"><span>Physical Processing of Cometary <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, Paul R.; Stern, S. Alan</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Cometary <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> preserve a cosmo-chemical record of conditions and processes in the primordial solar nebula, and possibly even the interstellar medium. However, that record is not perfectly preserved over the age of the solar system due to a variety of physical processes which act to modify cometary surfaces and interiors. Possible structural and/or internal processes include: collisional accretion, disruption, and reassembly during formation; internal heating by long and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides; amorphous to crystalline phase transitions, and thermal stresses. Identified surface modification processes include: irradiation by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, UV photons, and the Sun's T Tauri stage mass outflow; heating by passing stars and nearby supernovae; gardening by debris impacts; the accretion of interstellar dust and gas and accompanying erosion by hypervelocity dust impacts and sputtering; and solar heating with accompanying crust formation. These modification processes must be taken into account in both the planning and the interpretation of the results of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission. Sampling of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> should be done at as great a depth below the surface crust as technically feasible, and at vents or fissures leading to exposed volatiles at depth. Samples of the expected cometary crust and near-surface layers also need to be returned for analysis to achieve a better understanding of the effects of these physical processes. We stress that comets are still likely less modified dm any other solar system bodies, but the degree of modification can vary greatly from one comet to the next.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997arcn.rept..119W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1997arcn.rept..119W"><span>Physical Processing of Cometary <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weissman, Paul R.; Stern, S. Alan</p> <p>1997-12-01</p> <p>Cometary <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> preserve a cosmo-chemical record of conditions and processes in the primordial solar nebula, and possibly even the interstellar medium. However, that record is not perfectly preserved over the age of the solar system due to a variety of physical processes which act to modify cometary surfaces and interiors. Possible structural and/or internal processes include: collisional accretion, disruption, and reassembly during formation; internal heating by long and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides; amorphous to crystalline phase transitions, and thermal stresses. Identified surface modification processes include: irradiation by galactic cosmic rays, solar protons, UV photons, and the Sun's T Tauri stage mass outflow; heating by passing stars and nearby supernovae; gardening by debris impacts; the accretion of interstellar dust and gas and accompanying erosion by hypervelocity dust impacts and sputtering; and solar heating with accompanying crust formation. These modification processes must be taken into account in both the planning and the interpretation of the results of a Comet Nucleus Sample Return Mission. Sampling of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> should be done at as great a depth below the surface crust as technically feasible, and at vents or fissures leading to exposed volatiles at depth. Samples of the expected cometary crust and near-surface layers also need to be returned for analysis to achieve a better understanding of the effects of these physical processes. We stress that comets are still likely less modified dm any other solar system bodies, but the degree of modification can vary greatly from one comet to the next.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28069937"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M</p> <p>2017-01-24</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5278445','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5278445"><span>Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zickfeld, Kirsten</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the “world avoided” by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gases or net radiative forcing. PMID:28069937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254795','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21254795"><span>Spectroscopy of the <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> isobars {sup 163}Re and {sup 163}W using tagging techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Joss, D. T.; Thomson, J.; Page, R. D.; Bianco, L.; Darby, I. G.; Grahn, T.; Pakarinen, J.; Paul, E. S.; Scholey, C.; Eeckhaudt, S.; Greenlees, P. T.; Jones, P. M.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Leppaennen, A.-P.; Nyman, M.; Rahkila, P.; Sorri, J.</p> <p>2008-11-11</p> <p>Selective tagging techniques have been used to establish new band structures in the transitional isobars {sup 163}Re and {sup 163}W. These <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> were produced in the {sup 106}Cd({sup 60}Ni, xp yn {gamma}) reaction at a bombarding energy of 270 MeV. Prompt {gamma} rays were detected at the target position using the JUROGAM spectrometer while recoiling ions were separated by the RITU separator and implanted into the GREAT spectrometer. At low spin, the yrast band of {sup 163}Re is shown to be a strongly coupled collective band based on a proton h{sub 11/2} configuration. In {sup 163}W, the decay path of the 13/2{sup +} isomeric state to the ground state has been identified and negative parity structures based on the ground state established.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022016','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19860022016"><span>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Raisbeck, G. M.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Cosmogenic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, nuclides formed by nuclear interactions of galactic and solar cosmic rays with extraterrestrial or terrestrial matter are discussed. Long lived radioactive cosmogenic isotopes are focused upon. Their uses in dating, as tracers of the interactions of cosmic rays with matter, and in obtaining information on the variation of primary cosmic ray flux in the past are discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.724a2059V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016JPhCS.724a2059V"><span>Study of <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> isotopes of Fl in the 239Pu, 240Pu + 48Ca reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Voinov, A. A.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Brewer, N. T.; Oganessian, Yu Ts; Rykaczewski, K. P.; Abdullin, F. Sh; Dmitriev, S. N.; Grzywacz, R. K.; Itkis, M. G.; Miernik, K.; Polyakov, A. N.; Roberto, J. B.; Sagaidak, R. N.; Shirokovsky, I. V.; Shumeiko, M. V.; Tsyganov, Yu S.; Subbotin, V. G.; Sukhov, A. M.; Sabelnikov, A. V.; Vostokin, G. K.; Hamilton, J. H.; Stoyer, M. A.; Strauss, S. Y.</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>The results of the experiments aimed at the synthesis of Fl isotopes in the 239Pu + 48Ca and 240Pu + 48Ca reactions are presented. The experiment was performed using the Dubna gas-filled recoil separator at the U400 cyclotron. In the 239Pu+48Ca experiment one decay of spontaneously fissioning 284Fl was detected at 245-MeV beam energy. In the 240Pu+48Ca experiment three decay chains of 285Fl were detected at 245 MeV and four decays were assigned to 284Fl at the higher 48Ca beam energy of 250 MeV. The α-decay energy of 285Fl was measured for the first time and decay properties of its descendants 281Cn, 277Ds, 273Hs, 269Sg, and 265Rf were determined more precisely. The cross section of the 239Pu(48Ca,3n)284Fl reaction was observed to be about 20 times lower than those predicted by theoretical models and 50 times less than the value measured in the 244Pu+48Ca reaction. The cross sections of the 240Pu(48Ca,4-3n)284,285Fl at both 48Ca energies are similar and exceed that observed in the reaction with lighter isotope 239Pu by a factor of 10. The decay properties of the synthesized <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and their production cross sections indicate rapid decrease of stability of superheavy <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with departing from the neutron number N=184 predicted to be the next magic number.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5276181"><span>Harvard-MIT research program in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.</p> <p>1984-02-01</p> <p>This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826..129Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ApJ...826..129Y"><span>Bayes’ Theorem and Early Solar <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides: The Case for an Unexceptional Origin for the Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Young, Edward D.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The presence of excesses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in the early solar system evidenced in meteorites has been taken as testament to close encounters with exotic nucleosynthetic sources, including supernovae or AGB stars. An analysis of the likelihoods associated with different sources of these extinct nuclides in the early solar system indicates that, rather than being exotic, their abundances were typical of star-forming regions like those observed today in the Galaxy. The radiochemistry of the early solar system is therefore unexceptional, being the consequence of extensive averaging of solids from molecular clouds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126380','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17126380"><span>Extended longevity mechanisms in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeroid mice: identification of a preservative stress response associated with successful aging.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van de Ven, Marieke; Andressoo, Jaan-Olle; Holcomb, Valerie B; Hasty, Paul; Suh, Yousin; van Steeg, Harry; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Mitchell, James R</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Semantic distinctions between "normal" aging, "pathological" aging (or age-related disease) and "premature" aging (otherwise known as segmental progeria) potentially confound important insights into the nature of each of the complex processes. Here we review a recent, unexpected discovery: the presence of longevity-associated characteristics typical of long-lived endocrine-mutant and dietary-restricted animals in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeroid mice. These data suggest that a subset of symptoms observed in premature aging, and possibly normal aging as well, may be indirect manifestations of a beneficial adaptive stress response to endogenous oxidative damage, rather than a detrimental result of the damage itself.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JGRD..118.8086N"><span>Impact of preindustrial to present-day changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions on atmospheric composition and climate forcing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Naik, Vaishali; Horowitz, Larry W.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Ginoux, Paul; Mao, Jingqiu; Aghedo, Adetutu M.; Levy, Hiram</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>We describe and evaluate atmospheric chemistry in the newly developed Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL AM3) and apply it to investigate the net impact of preindustrial (PI) to present (PD) changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions (ozone precursors, sulfur dioxide, and carbonaceous aerosols) and methane concentration on atmospheric composition and climate forcing. The inclusion of online troposphere-stratosphere interactions, gas-aerosol chemistry, and aerosol-cloud interactions (including direct and indirect aerosol radiative effects) in AM3 enables a more complete representation of interactions among <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species, and thus their net climate impact, than was considered in previous climate assessments. The base AM3 simulation, driven with observed sea surface temperature (SST) and sea ice cover (SIC) over the period 1981-2007, generally reproduces the observed mean magnitude, spatial distribution, and seasonal cycle of tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide. The global mean aerosol optical depth in our base simulation is within 5% of satellite measurements over the 1982-2006 time period. We conduct a pair of simulations in which only the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane concentrations are changed from PI (1860) to PD (2000) levels (i.e., SST, SIC, greenhouse gases, and ozone-depleting substances are held at PD levels). From the PI to PD, we find that changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutant emissions and methane have caused the tropospheric ozone burden to increase by 39% and the global burdens of sulfate, black carbon, and organic carbon to increase by factors of 3, 2.4, and 1.4, respectively. Tropospheric hydroxyl concentration decreases by 7%, showing that increases in OH sinks (methane, carbon monoxide, nonmethane volatile organic compounds, and sulfur dioxide) dominate over sources (ozone and nitrogen oxides) in the model. Combined changes in tropospheric ozone and aerosols cause a net negative top</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028194','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1028194"><span>Study of near-stability <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> populated as fission fragments in heavy-ion fusion reactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fotiadis, Nikolaos; Nelson, Ronald O; Devlin, Matthew; Cizewski, Jolie A; Krucken, Reiner; Clark, R M; Fallon, Paul; Lee, I Yang; Macchiavelli, Agusto O; Becker, John A; Younes, Walid</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Examples are presented to illustrate the power of prompt {gamma}-ray spectroscopy of fission fragments from compound <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with A {approx} 200 formed in fusion-evaporation reactions in experiments using the Gammasphere Ge-detector array. Complementary methods, such as Coulomb excitation and deep-inelastic processes, are also discussed. In other cases (n, xn{gamma}) reactions on stable isotopes have been used to establish neutron excitation functions for {gamma}-rays using a pulsed 'white'-neutron source, coupled to a high-energy-resolution germanium-detector array. The excitation functions can unambiguously assign {gamma}-rays to a specific reaction product. Results from all these methods bridge the gaps in the systematics of high-spin states between the <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> and neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. Results near shell closures should motivate new shell model calculations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9301024M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EPJWC..9301024M"><span>Study of ground and excited state decays in N ≈ Z Ag <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moschner, K.; Blazhev, A.; Warr, N.; Boutachkov, P.; Davies, P.; Wadsworth, R.; Ameil, F.; Baba, H.; Bäck, T.; Dewald, M.; Doornenbal, P.; Faestermann, T.; Gengelbach, A.; Gerl, J.; Gernhäuser, R.; Go, S.; Górska, M.; Grawe, H.; Gregor, E.; Hotaka, H.; Isobe, T.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jolie, J.; Jung, H. S.; Kojouharov, I.; Kurz, N.; Lewitowicz, M.; Lorusso, G.; Merchan, E.; Naqvi, F.; Nishibata, H.; Nishimura, D.; Nishimura, S.; Pietralla, N.; Schaffner, H.; Söderström, P.-A.; Steiger, K.; Sumikama, T.; Taprogge, J.; Thöle, P.; Watanabe, H.; Werner, V.; Xu, Z. Y.; Yagi, A.; Yoshinaga, K.; Zhu, Y.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>A decay spectroscopy experiment was performed within the EURICA campaign at RIKEN in 2012. It aimed at the isomer and particle spectroscopy of excited states and ground states in the mass region below the doubly magic 100Sn. The N = Z <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> 98In, 96Cd and 94Ag were of particular interest for the present study. Preliminary results on the <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> 93Ag and 94Ag are presented. In 94Ag a more precise value for the half-life of the ground state's superallowed Fermi transition was deduced. In addition the energy spectra of the mentioned decay could be reproduced through precise Geant4 simulations of the used active stopper SIMBA. This will enable us to extract Qβ values from the measured data. The decay of 93Ag is discussed based on the observed implantation-decay correlation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19740005943"><span>Studies of images of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4761716"><span>Alterations in oxidative, inflammatory and apoptotic events in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and long-lived mice testes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Matzkin, María Eugenia; Miquet, Johanna Gabriela; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal Monique; Turyn, Daniel; Calandra, Ricardo Saúl; Bartke, Andrzej; Frungieri, Mónica Beatriz</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Aged testes undergo profound histological and morphological alterations leading to a reduced functionality. Here, we investigated whether variations in longevity affect the development of local inflammatory processes, the oxidative state and the occurrence of apoptotic events in the testis. To this aim, well-established mouse models with delayed (growth hormone releasing hormone-knockout and Ames dwarf mice) or accelerated (growth hormone-transgenic mice) aging were used. We hereby show that the testes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice show a significant increase in cyclooxygenase 2 expression, PGD2 production, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant enzymes expression, local macrophages and TUNEL-positive germ cells numbers, and the levels of both pro-caspase-3 and cleaved caspase-3. In contrast, although the expression of antioxidant enzymes remained unchanged in testes of long-lived mice, the remainder of the parameters assessed showed a significant reduction. This study provides novel evidence that longevity confers anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic capacities to the adult testis. Oppositely, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> mice suffer testicular inflammatory, oxidative and apoptotic processes. PMID:26805572</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009E%26ES....5a2007G"><span>Overview of the methods for the measurement and interpretation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes and their limits</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ghaleb, B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The daughter products of the uranium and thorium series consist of several radioactive isotopes with half-lives varying from less than a second to 105 years. Combining their half-live with their geochemical behaviour some of these radioisotopes could be used as tracers and/or chronometers of sedimentary processes. For example, thorium isotopes, and to a lesser extent polonium isotopes are characterized by very low solubility and very high affinity for the surface of particles. Consequently, thorium isotopes can be used to document scavenging and adsorption processes. On the other hand, radium isotopes tend to remain in solution and can be used to document diffusion processes. In the following, we present the analytical methods for the measurement and analysis of the most common <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes and throughout their utility in studying sedimentary processes will be illustrated by a few examples of applications. These examples will focus essentially on the applications of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> thorium isotopes (notably 234Th) and the use of 210Pb as chronometer for recent sedimentary accumulation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1267025-generalized-method-characterization-content-using-short-lived-fission-product-gamma-spectroscopy','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1267025-generalized-method-characterization-content-using-short-lived-fission-product-gamma-spectroscopy"><span>A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; ...</p> <p>2016-06-23</p> <p>Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification,more » mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239377','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23239377"><span>Electron ionization of different large perfluoroethers embedded in ultracold helium droplets: effective freezing of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decomposition intermediates.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bartl, P; Tanzer, K; Mitterdorfer, C; Karolczak, S; Illenberger, E; Denifl, S; Scheier, P</p> <p>2013-01-30</p> <p>Electron ionization of three perfluoroethers (PFEs), C(6)F(14)O(3), C(8)F(18)O(4), and C(10)F(20)O(5), is studied in the gas phase and when the molecules are embedded in ultracold helium (He) droplets. The molecules investigated are model compounds for perfluoropolyethers used as lubricants in technical applications. The present study gives insight into possible radiolysis pathways upon radiation exposure. The experiments utilized a crossed electron/droplet beam apparatus consisting of a He droplet source and pick-up chamber combined with a commercial time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The doped droplets were ionized by electron ionization at 70 eV. The He environment strongly affects the ionization patterns in the way that both the molecular ion M(+) and high-mass fragment ions formed by the loss of light neutral species such as F([M-F](+)), or CF(3)OCF(2) ([M-CF(3)OCF(2)](+)), etc., became strong signals in the mass spectrum. These signals were not or only barely visible in the gas-phase experiment and were identified as <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> (< µs) dissociation intermediates which in the gas phase immediately decomposed into lower-mass fragment ions. Ionic fragmentation intermediates are frozen and subsequently stabilized in the He environment. Helium droplets can hence be viewed as a cryogenic laboratory transforming <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decomposition intermediates into stable fragment ions appearing as strong signals in the mass spectrum. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395083-equilibrium-ultrafast-kinetic-studies-manipulating-electron-transfer-short-lived-flavin-semiquinone-sufficient-electron-bifurcation','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395083-equilibrium-ultrafast-kinetic-studies-manipulating-electron-transfer-short-lived-flavin-semiquinone-sufficient-electron-bifurcation"><span>Equilibrium and ultrafast kinetic studies manipulating electron transfer: A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> flavin semiquinone is not sufficient for electron bifurcation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Hoben, John P.; Lubner, Carolyn E.; Ratzloff, Michael W.; ...</p> <p>2017-06-14</p> <p>Flavin-based electron transfer bifurcation is emerging as a fundamental and powerful mechanism for conservation and deployment of electrochemical energy in enzymatic systems. In this process, a pair of electrons is acquired at intermediate reduction potential (i.e. intermediate reducing power) and each electron is passed to a different acceptor, one with lower and the other with higher reducing power, leading to 'bifurcation'. It is believed that a strongly reducing semiquinone species is essential for this process, and it is expected that this species should be kinetically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. We now demonstrate that presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anionic flavin semiquinone (ASQ) is notmore » sufficient to infer existence of bifurcating activity, although such a species may be necessary for the process. We have used transient absorption spectroscopy to compare the rates and mechanisms of decay of ASQ generated photochemically in bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase and the non-bifurcating flavoproteins nitroreductase, NADH oxidase and flavodoxin. We found that different mechanisms dominate ASQ decay in the different protein environments, producing lifetimes ranging over two orders of magnitude. Capacity for electron transfer among redox cofactors vs. charge recombination with nearby donors can explain the range of ASQ lifetimes we observe. In conclusion, our results support a model wherein efficient electron propagation can explain the short lifetime of the ASQ of bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP+ oxidoreductase I, and can be an indication of capacity for electron bifurcation.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.833...38K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NIMPA.833...38K"><span>A generalized method for characterization of 235U and 239Pu content using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Knowles, Justin; Skutnik, Steven; Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of 235U and 239Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing 235U and 239Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A22D..01A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.A22D..01A"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic trace gases in the UT/LS: Results from recent field campaigns. (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Atlas, E. L.; Pan, L.; Schauffler, S.; Bowman, K. P.; Blake, D. R.; Meinardi, S.; Stone, D.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Recent research campaigns in the tropics (TC-4 and AVE missions) and in the extra-tropics (START08) have included the measurement of trace gases from whole air sampling on the NASA WB-57 or NSF Gulfstream V aircraft. Measurements of a range of halocarbons, hydrocarbons, organic nitrates, and sulfur species were made during these missions to examine the role of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic gases in the UT/LS. The trace gas composition of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region depends on emission sources, transport pathways, mixing rates and photochemical processing time. Because surface emissions include gases with a range of chemical lifetimes, and because different source emissions (e.g. marine boundary layer, anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning) can have different chemical signatures, the composition of the organic trace gases that are found in the UT/LS region have the potential to provide diagnostic information on air mass sources and transport time scales. Also, measurement of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic halogen gases in the UT/LS during these missions provides data to define the reactive halogen budget and the chemical boundary conditions for the stratospheric chemistry that affects ozone depletion rates. This presentation will highlight different aspects of these measurements that deal with transport pathways, transport rates, and halogen budgets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012NIMPB.274..148K"><span>Production cross sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> silver radionuclides from natPd(p,xn) nuclear processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Kim, Kwangsoo; Kim, Guinyun</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>Production cross-sections of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag, 104mAg and 104gAg radionuclides from proton-induced reactions on natural palladium (Pd) were measured up to 41 MeV by using a stacked-foil activation technique combined with high resolution γ-ray spectrometry. The present results are compared with the available literature values as well as theoretical data calculated by the TALYS and the ALICE-IPPE computer codes. Note that production cross-sections of the 104mAg radionuclide from natPd(p,xn) processes has been measured here for the first time. Physical thick target yields for the investigated radionuclides were deduced from the respective threshold energy to 41 MeV taking into account that the total energy is absorbed in the targets. Measured data of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 103Ag radionuclide are noteworthy due to its possible applications as a precursor for the indirect production of widely used therapeutic 103Pd radionuclide via natPd(p,xn)103Ag → 103Pd processes. On the other hand, the investigated 104Ag radionuclide finds importance due to its potential use as a diagnostic and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging analogue. Above all, measured data will enrich the literature database leading to various applications in science and technology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842500','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16842500"><span>Temperature affects longevity and age-related locomotor and cognitive decay in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Valenzano, Dario R; Terzibasi, Eva; Cattaneo, Antonino; Domenici, Luciano; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p>2006-06-01</p> <p>Temperature variations are known to modulate aging and life-history traits in poikilotherms as different as worms, flies and fish. In invertebrates, temperature affects lifespan by modulating the slope of age-dependent acceleration in death rate, which is thought to reflect the rate of age-related damage accumulation. Here, we studied the effects of temperature on aging kinetics, aging-related behavioural deficits, and age-associated histological markers of senescence in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri. This species shows a maximum captive lifespan of only 3 months, which is tied with acceleration in growth and expression of aging biomarkers. These biological peculiarities make it a very convenient animal model for testing the effects of experimental manipulations on life-history traits in vertebrates. Here, we show that (i) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C increases both median and maximum lifespan; (ii) life extension is due to reduction in the slope of the age-dependent acceleration in death rate; (iii) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C retards the onset of age-related locomotor and learning deficits; and (iv) lowering temperature from 25 degrees C to 22 degrees C reduces the accumulation of the age-related marker lipofuscin. We conclude that lowering water temperature is a simple experimental manipulation which retards the rate of age-related damage accumulation in this <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28615449"><span>Equilibrium and ultrafast kinetic studies manipulating electron transfer: A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> flavin semiquinone is not sufficient for electron bifurcation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hoben, John P; Lubner, Carolyn E; Ratzloff, Michael W; Schut, Gerrit J; Nguyen, Diep M N; Hempel, Karl W; Adams, Michael W W; King, Paul W; Miller, Anne-Frances</p> <p>2017-08-25</p> <p>Flavin-based electron transfer bifurcation is emerging as a fundamental and powerful mechanism for conservation and deployment of electrochemical energy in enzymatic systems. In this process, a pair of electrons is acquired at intermediate reduction potential (i.e. intermediate reducing power), and each electron is passed to a different acceptor, one with lower and the other with higher reducing power, leading to "bifurcation." It is believed that a strongly reducing semiquinone species is essential for this process, and it is expected that this species should be kinetically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. We now demonstrate that the presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anionic flavin semiquinone (ASQ) is not sufficient to infer the existence of bifurcating activity, although such a species may be necessary for the process. We have used transient absorption spectroscopy to compare the rates and mechanisms of decay of ASQ generated photochemically in bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase and the non-bifurcating flavoproteins nitroreductase, NADH oxidase, and flavodoxin. We found that different mechanisms dominate ASQ decay in the different protein environments, producing lifetimes ranging over 2 orders of magnitude. Capacity for electron transfer among redox cofactors versus charge recombination with nearby donors can explain the range of ASQ lifetimes that we observe. Our results support a model wherein efficient electron propagation can explain the short lifetime of the ASQ of bifurcating NADH-dependent ferredoxin-NADP(+) oxidoreductase I and can be an indication of capacity for electron bifurcation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP41B0929L"><span>Sediment Dating With <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes In Monterey Canyon, California Imply Episodes Of Rapid Deposition And Erosion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenson, T. D.; Swarzenski, P. W.; Maier, K. L.; Gwiazda, R.; Paull, C. K.; Sumner, E.; Symons, W. O.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Submarine canyons are a major conduit for terrestrial material to the deep sea. To better constrain the timing and rates in which sediment is transported down-canyon, we collected a series of sediment cores along the axis of Monterey Canyon, and quantified mass accumulation rates using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes. A suite of sediment cores were carefully collected perpendicular to the canyon thalweg in water depths of approximately 300m, 500m, 800m, and 1500m using a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). We choose cores that were between 60m and 75m above the canyon thalweg on canyon side bench features for correlation with moored instrument deployments. The sediment cores reveal a complex stratigraphy that includes copious bioturbation features, sand lenses, subtle erosional surfaces, subtle graded bedding, and abrupt changes sediment texture and color. Downcore excess 210Pb and 137Cs profiles imply episodic deposition and remobilization cycles on the canyon benches. Excess 210Pb activities in cores reach depths of up to 1m, implying very rapid sedimentation. Sedimentation rates vary with water depth, generally with the highest sedimentation rate in closest to land, but vary substantially on adjacent canyon benches. Preliminary results demonstrate that sediment movement within Monterey Canyon is both dynamic and episodic on human time-scales and can be reconstructed used <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radio-isotopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8874T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.8874T"><span>Trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by different types of algae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Thorenz, U. R.; Kundel, M.; Huang, R.-J.; Hoffmann, T.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Atmospheric iodine chemistry in the lower troposphere gained more attention in the last decade, because of its role in depleting tropospheric ozone and accelerating the ozone destroying capacity of other halogen species [1]. The iodine oxides formed during this reaction may also undergo further oxidation and form polyoxides which then can act as cloud condensation <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> [2]. Precursors of both reactions are gaseous molecular iodine (I2) and volatile iodocarbons. Both I2 and iodocarbons are emitted by different kinds of macroalgae, whereby the emission of I2 dominates [3]. Iodocarbons are also released by different kinds of microalgaeand itis assumed that also I2 is released by these algae. Here we present the results of the measurement of iodine containing volatiles emitted by eight different macroalgae found in the intertidal zone and microalgae, two pure cultures and two net samples. To measure I2 emissionfrom macroalgae an on-line time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used[4] to determine the emission rates and to investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. The molecular iodine emissions from microalgae were measured using a recently developed denuder sampling technique and GC-MS method [5]. Iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and measured using thermodesorption-GC-MS. The results of the macroalgae experiments showed that Laminariales were found to be the strongest I2 emitters. Time series of the iodine release of L. digitata and L. hyperborea showed a strong I2 emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species I2 emission bursts were observed. For L. saccharina und F. serratus a more continuous I2 release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I2. For A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus the I2 emission rates were slowly increasing with time (1h-2h) until a more or less stable I2 emission rate was reached. The lowest I2 emission rates were</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..95e4322M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..95e4322M"><span>Penning-trap mass spectrometry and mean-field study of nuclear shape coexistence in the <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> lead region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Manea, V.; Ascher, P.; Atanasov, D.; Barzakh, A. E.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Borgmann, Ch.; Breitenfeldt, M.; Cakirli, R. B.; Cocolios, T. E.; Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D. V.; Fedosseev, V. N.; George, S.; Herfurth, F.; Kowalska, M.; Kreim, S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Lunney, D.; Marsh, B.; Neidherr, D.; Rosenbusch, M.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Schweikhard, L.; Wienholtz, F.; Wolf, R. N.; Zuber, K.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>We present a study of nuclear shape coexistence in the region of <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> lead isotopes. The midshell gold isotopes 180,185,188,190Au (Z =79 ), the two long-lived nuclear states in 197At (Z =85 ), and the neutron-rich nuclide 219At were produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN and their masses were determined with the high-precision Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. The studied gold isotopes address the trend of binding energies in a region of the nuclear chart where the nuclear charge radii show pronounced discontinuities. Significant deviations from the atomic-mass evaluation were found for Au,190188. The new trend of two-neutron separation energies is smoother, although it does reveal the onset of deformation. The origin of this effect is interpreted in connection to the odd-even staggering of binding energies, as well as theoretically by Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations including quasiparticle blocking. The role of blocking for reproducing the large odd-even staggering of charge radii in the mercury isotopic chain is illustrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A43A0175H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.A43A0175H"><span>Growth in the Stratospheric Loading of Chlorinated Very <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Substances: Recent Trends and Implications for Future Ozone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Leeson, A.; Dhomse, S.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species (VSLS) are an important source of stratospheric halogens and contribute to ozone loss, particularly in the lower stratosphere, where ozone perturbations are most climate-relevant (Hossaini et al., 2015a,b). Chlorine VSLS, such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), are primarily anthropogenic and their production is not controlled by the Montreal Protocol. Long-term surface measurements of CH2Cl2, the most abundant chlorine VSLS, show its atmospheric concentration has more than doubled in the last decade. Here, we used the TOMCAT/SLIMCAT chemical transport model to quantify (i) recent trends in the emission and stratospheric input of CH2Cl2, (ii) the impact of CH2Cl2 on present day ozone & (iii) the impact of continued CH2Cl2 growth on future ozone. Constrained by time-dependent surface CH2Cl2 measurements, our model shows the contribution of CH2Cl2 to stratospheric Cl doubled between 2005 (36 ppt Cl) and 2016 (72 ppt Cl). The model reproduces well high-altitude CH2Cl2 measurements from recent NASA ATTREX missions. Increases in the stratospheric input of CH2Cl2 are attributed to increasing industrial emissions. We estimate a 1 Tg CH2Cl2/yr source is required to sustain observed present day CH2Cl2 concentrations. By comparing a simulation with CH2Cl2 considered to one without, we show that CH2Cl2 presently accounts for up to 10% of lower stratospheric Cly. Inclusion of CH2Cl2 leads to a modest reduction of the model springtime Antarctic ozone column of up to 3%. Assuming CH2Cl2 concentrations continue to increase at their present rate, our forward simulations show CH2Cl2 could account for 20-30% of lower stratospheric Cly by 2050, as the contribution from long-lived chlorocarbons declines. We find that continued CH2Cl2 growth could significantly delay the return of Antarctic ozone to pre-1980 levels by more than a decade. In conclusion, sustained future CH2Cl2 growth could significantly offset some of the future benefits of the Montreal Protocol and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10614551W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JGR...10614551W"><span>New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao</p> <p>2001-07-01</p> <p>A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1017302','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1017302"><span>Exotic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn}</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Current experimental developments on the study of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> far from the valley of stability are discussed. I start with general aspects related to the production of radioactive beams followed by the description of some of the experimental tools and specialized techniques for studies in reaction spectroscopy, nuclear structure research and nuclear applications with examples from selected topical areas with which I have been involved. I discuss some of the common challenges faced in Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) and Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1327129"><span>Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioactive Particle Release Experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Rishel, Jeremy P.; Keillor, Martin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Baciak, James E.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Kirkham, Randy R.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Smart, John E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper utilizes standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing the both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to investigate several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be utilized by an On-Site Inspection team under the verification regime of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682893"><span>Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fitzgerald, R</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Studies and calibrations of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, for example (15)O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988NIMPA.269..369L"><span>Clinical applications of a pressurized xenon wire chamber gamma camera utilizing the <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> agent 178Ta</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lacy, J. L.; Verani, M. S.; Ball, M. E.; Roberts, R.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>A pressurized xenon wire chamber camera has been developed for applications in nuclear medicine. The device employs a high speed delay-line readout and digital processing system providing a peak count rate of 850 000 cps, spatial resolution of 2.5 mm and highly uniform imaging characteristics. A <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> generator produced radionuclide, 178Ta, having an emission energy of 55-65 keV has also been developed. It provides greatly reduced radiation dosimetry compared with any commercial isotope in current use and is imaged very effectively with the wire chamber camera. Performance of this camera and isotope for first-pass radionuclide assessment of cardiac function compares favorably with the accepted standard of this technique, the multicrystal gamma camera and 99mTc. Currently ongoing studies in exercise cardiac assessment, bedside imaging in myocardial infarction patients and pediatric cardiac imaging, point the way to unique applications of this technology in cardiology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4864414"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine. PMID:27169489</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.354..297I"><span>In situ lithium diffusion measurement in solid ionic conductors using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer beam of 8Li</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ishiyama, H.; Jeong, S. C.; Watanabe, Y. X.; Hirayama, Y.; Imai, N.; Miyatake, H.; Oyaizu, M.; Osa, A.; Otokawa, Y.; Matsuda, M.; Nishio, K.; Makii, H.; Sato, T. K.; Kuwata, N.; Kawamura, J.; Nakao, A.; Ueno, H.; Kim, Y. H.; Kimura, S.; Mukai, M.</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>We developed an in situ radiotracer method for diffusion studies in solids using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-emitting 8Li tracer. In the method, while implanting a pulsed 8Li beam into a solid material of interest, the α particles emitted into the implantation side of the sample surface were detected as a function of time. By changing the implantation depth and the detection angle against the sample surface according to lithium diffusivity (deep implantation and large angle with a large solid angle, or shallow implantation and small angle with a narrow solid angle), the method can be sensitive to a wide range of diffusion length ranging from micrometer scale to nanometer scale per second. The feasibility of the method was demonstrated by measuring the lithium diffusion coefficients to the order of 10-12 cm2/s in lithium ionic conductors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confa0019Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015aris.confa0019Z"><span>Precision Mass Measurements of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclides at The Heavy-Ion Storage Ring in Lanzhou</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yuhu; Xu, Hushan; Litvinov, Yuri A.</p> <p></p> <p>Recent commissioning of the Cooler Storage Ring at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou enabled us to conduct high-precision mass measurements at the Institute of Modern Physics in Lanzhou (IMP). In the past few years, mass measurements were performed using the CSRe-based isochronous mass spectrometry employing the fragmentation of the energetic beams of 58Ni, 78Kr, 86Kr, and 112Sn projectiles. Masses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides of on both sides of the stability valley were addressed. Relative mass precision of down to 10-6-10-7 is routinely achieved. The mass values were used as an input for dedicated nuclear structure and astrophysics studies, providing for instance new insights into the rp-process of nucleosynthesis in X-ray bursts. In this contribution, we briefly review the so far conducted experiments and the main achieved results, as well as outline the plans for future experiments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..96a4324H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhRvC..96a4324H"><span>α -decay chain of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 220Pa established using a digital pulse processing technique</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, T. H.; Zhang, W. Q.; Sun, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ding, B.; Gan, Z. G.; Ma, L.; Yang, H. B.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, L.; Jiang, J.; Wang, K. L.; Wang, Y. S.; Liu, M. L.; Li, Z. H.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Lu, H. Y.; Lin, C. J.; Sun, L. J.; Ma, N. R.; Ren, Z. Z.; Zhang, F. S.; Zou, W.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Xiao, G. Q.</p> <p>2017-07-01</p> <p>The decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 220Pa were re-investigated via the reaction 40Ar+187Re at the gas-filled recoil separator Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure. The digital pulse processing technique was applied to resolve the evaporation residues-α (ER -α ) pileup signals in the decay of 220Pa. The α -decay chain of 220Pa leading to the well-known 216Ac isotope was established for the first time. The α energy and half-life were measured to be Eα=9.520 (16 ) MeV and T1 /2=0.90 (13 ) μ s , respectively. The spin parity of the ground state of 220Pa was assigned to be 1-, based on the reduced α -decay width.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934995"><span>Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.</p> <p>2008-02-13</p> <p>Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016NatSR...625728S"><span>Calcium influx through TRP channels induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reactive species in plasma-irradiated solution</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Non-equilibrium helium atmospheric-pressure plasma (He-APP), which allows for a strong non-equilibrium chemical reaction of O2 and N2 in ambient air, uniquely produces multiple extremely reactive products, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), in plasma-irradiated solution. We herein show that relatively <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> unclassified reactive species (i.e., deactivated within approximately 10 min) generated by the He-APP irradiation can trigger physiologically relevant Ca2+ influx through ruthenium red- and SKF 96365-sensitive Ca2+-permeable channel(s), possibly transient receptor potential channel family member(s). Our results provide novel insight into understanding of the interactions between cells and plasmas and the mechanism by which cells detect plasma-induced chemically reactive species, in addition to facilitating development of plasma applications in medicine.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1072884"><span>Identifying and quantifying <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products from thermal fission of HEU using portable HPGe detectors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Pierson, Bruce D.; Finn, Erin C.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Kephart, Rosara F.; Metz, Lori A.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Due to the emerging potential for trafficking of special nuclear material, research programs are investigating current capabilities of commercially available portable gamma ray detection systems. Presented in this paper are the results of three different portable high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors used to identify <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products generated from thermal neutron interrogation of small samples of highly enriched uranium. Samples were irradiated at the Washington State University (WSU) Nuclear Radiation Center’s 1MW TRIGA reactor. The three portable, HPGe detectors used were the ORTEC MicroDetective, the ORTEC Detective, and the Canberra Falcon. Canberra’s GENIE-2000 software was used to analyze the spectral data collected from each detector. Ultimately, these three portable detectors were able to identify a large range of fission products showing potential for material discrimination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050165546"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> and Long-lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kita, N. T.; Huss, G. R.; Tachibana, S.; Amelin, Y.; Zinner, E.; Nyquist, L. E.; Hutcheon, I. D.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>In order to understand the timing of events in the early solar system, we rely on the radio-nuclide-based chronometers applied to materials in primitive meteorites. Because the time scale of early-solar system evolution was on the order of a few million years (Myr), we focus on so-called "<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides" with mean lives of less than 10 Myr (Table 1), as well as on the long-lived U-Pb system where high precision 207Pb-206Pb ages are applied. Note that the validity of some systems as chronometers (e.g., Be-B, Fe-Ni) has yet to be established. We summarize literature data for chondrules and CAIs and discuss how these chronometers constrain formation time scales in the early solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ApJ...781L..28L"><span>On the Injection of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides from a Supernova into the Solar Nebula: Constraints from the Oxygen Isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this "late-injection" scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in 17O/16O and 18O/16O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of 41Ca and 60Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching 26Al, 41Ca, and 60Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5023163"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M.; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation. PMID:27627450</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27627450"><span>Dicer Regulates the Balance of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumann, Florian M; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1212408T"><span>Impact of Very <span class="hlt">Short-live</span> Halogens on Stratospheric Ozone Abundance (and UV radiation) in a Geo-engineered Atmosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tilmes, Simone; Kinnison, Doug; Garcia, Rolando; Salawitch, Ross; Lee-Taylor, Julia</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>In this study we used the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) to explore the impact of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (VSL) bromocarbons on stratospheric ozone abundance and surface UV radiation under the influence of geoengineered aerosols. VSL bromocarbons have by definition a chemical lifetime of less than 0.5 years (WMO, 2006). In contrast to long-lived bromocarbons (e.g., CH3Br plus halons), these VSL bromocarbons have natural sources (e.g., oceanic emissions) and their abundance will therefore not decrease in the future due to international protocols. They are eventually oxidized via reactions with OH and photolysis to form inorganic bromine product gases and get transported into the stratosphere. Observations suggest that VSL bromocarbons add an additional 4-10 pptv volume mixing ratios to the total stratospheric inorganic bromine abundance. Since inorganic bromine is ~60 times more efficient (relative to inorganic chlorine) at catalytic destroying ozone, this additional inorganic bromine loading could significantly affect stratospheric ozone. This is especially true in the Arctic, where the coupled BrO/ClO catalytic ozone loss cycle is as important as the ClO dimer ozone loss cycle. The chemical activation of chlorine is highly dependent on the amount of sulfate aerosol and VSL bromine provides a reaction partner for activated chlorine, resulting in a significant increase of ozone depletion in a geo-engineered aerosol environment in high latitudes. An additional impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons on the ozone abundance is expected and was not considered in earlier studies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6034636"><span>Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters and external radiation exposure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GBioC..14.1191C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000GBioC..14.1191C"><span>Novel biogenic iodine-containing trihalomethanes and other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons in the coastal East Atlantic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Carpenter, L. J.; Malin, G.; Liss, P. S.; Küpper, F. C.</p> <p>2000-12-01</p> <p>Reactive halogen photochemistry and its impact on tropospheric oxidant levels have recently attracted intense research interest following the observation of the iodine oxide radical at midlatitudes. During September 1998, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organoiodines including CH3I, C2H5I, CH2ICl, CH2IBr, CH2I2, and the hitherto undetected CHIBr2, as well as the organobromines CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CH3Br, and C2H5Br, were measured in air and seawater at and around Mace Head, on the west coast of Ireland. The release rates of organic bromines and iodines from seaweeds were determined from incubations of 10 species of brown, red, and green macroalgae collected in the intertidal or subtidal zones of the rocky shore. For all the brown algae studied, iodine was released mainly as CH2I2. However, for several seaweeds, the novel iodine-containing trihalomethanes CHIBr2 and CHI2Cl represented a significant fraction of the released organic iodine. The macroalgae incubation experiments as well as monitoring of the in situ concentrations in a rock pool indicated that natural halocarbon production by seaweeds was stimulated by incident light. The halocarbon fluxes derived from the seaweed incubations, coupled with published detailed biomass surveys, enabled coastal organohalogen seawater concentrations to be estimated. The CHBr3, CH2Br2, and CHBr2Cl concentrations calculated by this method compared well with coastal surface seawater measurements, implying that macroalgae were the major sources of the polybromomethanes. Measured CH3Br, CH3I, and CH2ICl levels were higher than calculated, which may be due to the existence of additional sources. CH3Br production by macroalgae accounted for less than 10% of measured levels in coastal waters. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> iodocarbons such as CH2I2 and CHIBr2 were depleted in surface seawater compared to calculated levels, implying their photolytic loss within the upper water column.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22364021"><span>ON THE INJECTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES FROM A SUPERNOVA INTO THE SOLAR NEBULA: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE OXYGEN ISOTOPES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang</p> <p>2014-02-01</p> <p>Injection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides from a nearby core-collapse Type II supernova into the already-formed solar protoplanetary disk was proposed to account for the former presence of {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe in the early solar system inferred from isotopic analysis of meteoritic samples. One potential corollary of this ''late-injection'' scenario is that the disk's initial (pre-injection) oxygen isotopic composition could be significantly altered, as supernova material that carried the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides would also deliver oxygen components synthesized in that given star. Therefore, the change in the oxygen isotopic composition of the disk caused by injection could in principle be used to constrain the supernova injection models. Previous studies showed that although supernova oxygen could result in a wide range of shifts in {sup 17}O/{sup 16}O and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O of the disk, a couple of cases existed where the calculated oxygen changes in the disk would be compatible with the meteoritic and solar wind data. Recently, the initial abundances of {sup 41}Ca and {sup 60}Fe in the solar system were revised to lower values, and the feasibility of supernova injection as a source for the three radionuclides was called into question. In this study, supernova parameters needed for matching {sup 26}Al, {sup 41}Ca, and {sup 60}Fe to their early solar system abundances were reinvestigated and then were used to infer the pre-injection O-isotope composition of the disk. The result suggested that a supernova undergoing mixing fallback might be a viable source for the three radionuclides.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JPhG...22..215K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996JPhG...22..215K"><span>Cluster emissions with ? daughter from neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kumar, Satish; Batra, J. S.; Gupta, Raj K.</p> <p>1996-02-01</p> <p>Cluster emissions from neutron-rich 0954-3899/22/2/006/img2, and 0954-3899/22/2/006/img3 <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> are studied within the preformed cluster model of Malik and Gupta. Q-value estimates of the decays selected on the basis of shell effects in binding energies and their relative preformation probabilities show that these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> are stable (Q<0) against 0954-3899/22/2/006/img4 and 0954-3899/22/2/006/img5 decays and all the metastable (Q>0) decays are of non-alpha-like heavy clusters. The most probable decays (minimum half-life times) are the ones with a doubly magic 0954-3899/22/2/006/img6 nucleus as the daughter nucleus, arising due to the WKB penetrability. Compared to the presently measurable alpha-like cluster decays of the corresponding <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> parents into a 0954-3899/22/2/006/img7 daughter nucleus, these decays are suppressed by many orders of magnitude.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.A43E0201L"><span>Effects of East Asian <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Anthropogenic Air Pollutants on the Northern Hemispheric Air Quality and Climate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J.; Horowitz, L. W.; Lau, N.; Fan, S.; Tao, S.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Levy, H.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> anthropogenic pollutants (such as ozone and aerosols) not only degrade ambient air quality and influence human health, but also play an important role in scattering/absorbing atmospheric radiation and disturbing regional climate. Due to the rapid industrialization, anthropogenic emissions from East Asia (EA) have increased substantially during the past decades. At the same time, EA has experienced a changing climate in terms of surface temperature and precipitation. In order to understand to what extent that EA <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions could influence domestic and downwind air quality (e.g. surface O3 and PM2.5), and explore the potential linkage between hemispheric-scale climate perturbation and regional anthropogenic forcing, we simulate global climate and chemical compositions during 1981-2000 based on the coupled general circulation model CM3 for atmosphere (with interactive tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry), oceans, land and sea ice, recently developed at Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL/NOAA). We also conduct a parallel sensitivity simulation which is identical to the base simulation but with all anthropogenic emissions over EA turned off. The difference between the base and sensitivity simulations represents the short-term response of the Northern Hemispheric climate system and atmospheric composition to the perturbation of regional anthropogenic forcing. We find that East Asian <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> anthropogenic emissions exert significant adverse impacts on local air quality during 1981-2000, accounting for 10-30ppbV daily-averaged O3 over Eastern China in JJA. In particular, EA anthropogenic emissions elevate the summertime daily maximum 8-hour average ozone (MDA8 O3) by 30-40ppbV over the North China Plain, where the typical background MDA8 ozone ranges 30 to 45ppbV. In addition, the surface PM2.5 concentrations peak at the same season and over the same region, with a seasonal mean of 10-30ug/m3, mostly contributed from</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313155','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313155"><span>In situ Identification of Labile Precursor Compounds and their <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Intermediates in Plants using in vivo Nanospray High-resolution Mass Spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chang, Qing; Peng, Yue'e; Shi, Bin; Dan, Conghui; Yang, Yijun; Shuai, Qin</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Many secondary metabolites in plants are labile compounds which under environmental stress, are difficult to detect and track due to the lack of rapid in situ identification techniques, making plant metabolomics research difficult. Therefore, developing a reliable analytical method for rapid in situ identification of labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in plants is of great importance. To develop under atmospheric pressure, a rapid in situ method for effective identification of labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in fresh plants. An in vivo nanospray high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) method was used for rapid capture of labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in plants. A quartz capillary was partially inserted into fresh plant tissues, and the liquid flowed out through the capillary tube owing to the capillary effect. A high direct current (d.c.) voltage was applied to the plant to generate a spray of charged droplets from the tip of the capillary carrying bioactive molecules toward the inlet of mass spectrometer for full-scan and MS/MS analysis. Many labile compounds and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates were identified via this method: including glucosinolates and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates (existing for only 10 s) in Raphanus sativus roots, alliin and its conversion intermediate (existing for 20 s) in Allium sativum and labile precursor compound chlorogenic acid in Malus pumila Mill. The method is an effective approach for in situ identification of internal labile compounds and their <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in fresh plants and it can be used as an auxiliary tool to explore the degradation mechanisms of new labile plant compounds. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70..224C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70..224C"><span>Li and B isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be and for the possible presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide 7Be in the early solar system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, Marc; Robert, François; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The concentrations and isotopic compositions of lithium, beryllium, and boron, analyzed in situ by ion microprobe in 66 spots of a type B1 Ca-Al-rich inclusion (CAI 3529-41) from the Allende meteorite, are reported. Large variations are observed for both the Li and the B isotopic ratios with 7Li/ 6Li ranging from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 12.22 ± 0.43 (a ≈250‰ range in δ7Li values) and 10B/ 11B ranging from 0.2468 ± 0.0057 to 0.4189 ± 0.0493 (a 410‰ range in δ11B values). The very low Li concentrations (<1 ppb) observed in several anorthite and fassaite grains require that a correction for the contribution of spallogenic Li produced during irradiation of the Allende meteoroid by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) be made (after this correction 7Li/ 6Li ranges from 9.2 ± 0.22 to 13.44 ± 0.56, i.e., a ≈350‰ range in δ7Li values). In 3529-41, the 10B/ 11B ratios are positively correlated with 9Be/ 11B in a manner indicating the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be (half-life = 1.5 Ma) with a 10Be/ 9Be ratio at the time of formation of the CAI of 8.8 ± 0.6 × 10 -4, which is in agreement with previous findings [McKeegan, K.D., Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., 2000. Incorporation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the Allende meteorite. Science289, 1334-1337]. The present detailed investigation demonstrates that only minor perturbations of the 10Be- 10B system are present in 3529-41, contrary to the 26Al/ 26Mg system for which numerous examples of isotopic redistribution following crystallization were observed [Podosek, F.A., Zinner, E.K., MacPherson, G.J., Lundberg, L.L., Brannon, J.C., Fahey, A.J., 1991. Correlated study of initial 87Sr/ 86Sr and Al-Mg systematics and petrologic properties in a suite of refractory inclusions from the Allende meteorite. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta55, 1083-1110]. Petrographically based criteria were developed to identify within the 66 analyzed spots in 3529-41, those where post-magmatic perturbation of the Li and Be</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14601013T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EPJWC.14601013T"><span>Capture cross sections on unstable <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tonchev, A. P.; Escher, J. E.; Scielzo, N.; Bedrossian, P.; Ilieva, R. S.; Humby, P.; Cooper, N.; Goddard, P. M.; Werner, V.; Tornow, W.; Rusev, G.; Kelley, J. H.; Pietralla, N.; Scheck, M.; Savran, D.; Löher, B.; Yates, S. W.; Crider, B. P.; Peters, E. E.; Tsoneva, N.; Goriely, S.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>Accurate neutron-capture cross sections on unstable <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> near the line of beta stability are crucial for understanding the s-process nucleosynthesis. However, neutron-capture cross sections for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides are difficult to measure due to the fact that the measurements require both highly radioactive samples and intense neutron sources. Essential ingredients for describing the γ decays following neutron capture are the γ-ray strength function and level densities. We will compare different indirect approaches for obtaining the most relevant observables that can constrain Hauser-Feshbach statistical-model calculations of capture cross sections. Specifically, we will consider photon scattering using monoenergetic and 100% linearly polarized photon beams. Challenges that exist on the path to obtaining neutron-capture cross sections for reactions on isotopes near and far from stability will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NIMPR.185..175N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NIMPR.185..175N"><span>An automatic device for sampling of thin assays of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides in a liquid flow</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Növik, S. I.; Björnstad, T.; Alstad, J.; Brodén, K.; Skarnemark, G.</p> <p>1981-06-01</p> <p>A semicontinuously working apparatus for isolation of tracer amounts of radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> from a continuous liquid flow (10-15 ml/s) has been constructed. The radioactivity is isolated on thin, porous plastic membranes impregnated with ion-exchange resin or extraction agents, or on a thin preformed precipitate. Chemical yields of ˜20% have been achieved for Br, Zr, Ce and Tl at on-line separation conditions. The time sequency for the different operations involved can be optimized with respect to a certain nuclide by proper programming of the timer that controls the sequence. In combination with the fast, continuous chemical separation system SISAK the new apparatus allows β-measurements and delayed neutron measurements as well as X-ray and low energy γ-ray measurements on <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with half-lives down to a few seconds. The feasibility of the method with respect to β-measurements is demonstrated on <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with well known Qβ-values.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.1673F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....17.1673F"><span>Impact of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ˜ 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..435F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..435F"><span>Impact of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Rafael Pedro; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14% when natural VSLBr are considered, in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affect the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by year 2070, and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611708H"><span>Ozone Destruction in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Halogens and Climate Impacts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Stephen; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Halogens released from very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) can deplete ozone in the upper-troposphere and lower stratosphere where the perturbation can exert a large climate impact. In addition to the known ozone loss from natural biogenic bromine VSLS, such as bromoform (CHBr3), using a global atmospheric model we show that anthropogenic chlorine VSLS such as dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) - not regulated by the Montreal Protocol - also contribute. Although this impact is small compared to bromine VSLS at present, CH2Cl2 has industrial sources and observations show its atmospheric loading is increasing rapidly. We estimate a significant radiative effect of the bromine and chlorine VSLS-driven lower stratospheric ozone destruction of -0.11 Wm-2. The largest impact comes from ozone loss at high latitudes, where column ozone decreases due to VSLS are up to 6%. The trend in anthropogenic chlorine VSLS could cause a significant radiative forcing, especially if augmented by any trend in natural bromine VSLS. We also used the model to study the impact of iodine-containing VSLS such as methyl iodide (CH3I). Of the three halogens iodine has the largest leverage to destroy lower stratospheric ozone, but current limits based on IO observations indicate only a minor impact at present.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005IJMSp.244..144D"><span>Identification of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Au(N3)42- dianion from its Coulomb explosion products</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Drenck, Kasper; Hvelplund, Preben; McKenzie, Christine J.; Nielsen, Steen Brøndsted</p> <p>2005-07-01</p> <p>In high-energy collisions between Au(N3)4- anions and sodium vapor, electron transfer occurred to produce Au(N3)42- dianions. These were <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (sub microsecond) and Coulomb exploded into Au(N3)3- and N3- with a kinetic energy release of 2.6 +/- 0.5 eV. In the product ion spectra, peaks correspond to fragment ions formed from collisionally activated Au(N3)4- parent anions. Loss of one or more N3 or N2 produced AuNn- complexes (n = 1-4, 6, 9-10) whereas complexes with n = 5, 7, and 8 were not detected. These ions can be assigned to gold-nitride-azide complexes Au(N)x(N3)y- (x = 0-2 and y = 0-4). Cationic complexes were measured for n = 1-4 and 6. Sodium vapor collision experiments were also performed for Au(N3)2-, which is generated in situ by the spontaneous reduction of Au(N3)42- and concurrent azide dissociation. In this case there was no clear signature indicative of the formation of a dianion. The formation of dianions cannot be excluded, however, since such ions may decay by electron emission instead of dissociation into two singly charged fragment ions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ApJ...805....5T"><span>Solar Cosmic-ray Interaction with Protoplanetary Disks: Production of <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclides and Amorphization of Crystalline Material</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-01</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27145158','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27145158"><span>Targeted alpha therapy using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D'huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies' pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009RaPC...78..380K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009RaPC...78..380K"><span>Quantification of radiation dose from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron emitters formed in human tissue under proton therapy conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kettern, K.; Coenen, H. H.; Qaim, S. M.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>The dose distribution in proton therapy is mainly due to primary particles and secondary electrons. The contribution of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> β + emitters formed in the interactions of protons with the light mass elements C, N and O has hitherto not been considered. We estimated the formation of 11C, 13N and 15O in irradiation of tissue with 200 MeV protons. The integral yields at 150 MeV were compared with a literature phantom measurement. The results for 11C and 15O agreed very well; for 13N, however, appreciable deviation was observed. The activities were also calculated in the region around the Bragg peak as well as over the path length after entrance of the beam. Dose calculations were then done using the medical internal radiation dose (MIRD) formalism. Furthermore, a dose calculation was simulated for a 150 MeV proton beam (2 nA, 2 min) in a brain tumour. The dose deposited by the positron emitters in the Bragg peak region was found to be about 1.5 mGy, i.e. less than 1% of the dose estimated from the electronic interactions of protons. The absorbed dose in the whole brain amounted to 5.5 mGy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5131W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.5131W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Bromomethanes in the Upper Troposphere/Lower Stratosphere during CARIBIC May 2009 to May 2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, Adam; Oram, Dave; Laube, Johannes; van Velthoven, Peter; Brenninkmeijer, Carl</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Reactive halogenated compounds including brominated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) play an important role both in the stratosphere, where they impact on stratospheric ozone, and in the troposphere, where they participate in catalytic ozone destruction and aerosol formation. According to the latest WMO figures, brominated VSLS could be responsible for 1-8 ppt contribution to the stratospheric bromine burden. However, observations of brominated VSLS in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere are relatively sparse. In this study we present measurements made during the CARIBIC project from May 2009 to May 2011 using a negative ion chemical ionisation (NICI) mass spectrometer instrument. NICI is a "soft" ionisation technique that gives enhanced detection limits for electronegative species such as halocarbons. The CARIBIC project deploys a large range of automated instruments in an airfreight container aboard a Lufthansa A340-600 passenger aircraft. The container system also houses two automated bottle samplers which are analysed for various compounds. As part of the project we measure a range of halogenated compounds in the bottle samples. We will present profiles of bromoform (CHBr3), dibromomethane (CH2Br2), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl), bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2) and bromochloromethane (CH2BrCl) and compare results with previous measurements of brominated VSLS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span>Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and CAIs from <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide based relative ages for CAIs and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of CAIs. Time scales of CAIs ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after CAIs. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after CAI formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..222N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..19..222N"><span>Very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated substances (VSLBr) and inorganic bromine (Bry) in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Schauffler, Sue; Donets, Valeria; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Organic very-<span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated substances (VSLBr) and inorganic bromine species (Bry) play an important role in the chemistry of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. Their distribution, vertical structure, and variability provide information about sources and transport. In addition, an accurate quantification of the reactive and reservoirs species defines the halogen budget and assists in the assessment of the ozone depletion potential for brominated trace gases. In the last decade, there have been efforts to better understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL), including convection, dehydration, and heterogeneous recycling reactions, which influence the partitioning of the trace gas species that enter the stratosphere. However, uncertainties in the estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere still persist. Based on the measurements of samples collected by the Global Hawk Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) during the NASA-Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and chemistry climate simulations (using CAM-Chem along ATTREX flight tracks), we will examine the vertical distribution of selected organic species in the UT/LS of the Eastern and Western Pacific. We also will describe the budget and partitioning of bromine at the tropical tropopause and evaluate the contribution of bromine to ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23524002"><span>Fecal cortisol levels predict breeding but not survival of females in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> rodent, Octodon degus.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ebensperger, Luis A; Tapia, Diego; Ramírez-Estrada, Juan; León, Cecilia; Soto-Gamboa, Mauricio; Hayes, Loren D</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>The cort-adaptation hypothesis indicates that an association between glucocorticoid (cort) levels and fitness may vary with the extent to which reproduction or breeding effort is a major determinant of cort levels. Support for a context dependent association between cort and fitness comes mostly from relatively long-lived, bird species. We tested the hypothesis that there are gender and context (life-history) specific cort-fitness relationships in degus, a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and generally semelparous social rodent. In particular, we used demographical records on a natural population to estimate adult survival through seasons and years and linked that to records of baseline cort (based on fecal cortisol metabolites). We found no evidence for a direct relationship between baseline cort and adult survival across seasons, and this lack of association was recorded irrespective of sex and life history stage. Yet, cort levels during early lactation predicted the probability that females produce a second litter during the same breeding season, supporting a connection between baseline cort levels and breeding effort. Overall, the differential effects of cort on survival and breeding supported that the extent of cort-fitness relationships depends on the fitness component examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4059357"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R.; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T.; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W.; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B.; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C. Arden; Thun, Michael J.; Thurston, George</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants—black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352 000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies. PMID:19942276</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344794','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26344794"><span>Scanning electrochemical microscopy of Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction: how confined oscillations reveal <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> radicals and auto-catalytic species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stockmann, T Jane; Noël, Jean-Marc; Ristori, Sandra; Combellas, Catherine; Abou-Hassan, Ali; Rossi, Federico; Kanoufi, Frédéric</p> <p>2015-10-06</p> <p>Oscillating chemical reactions, encapsulated within artificial vesicles have been demonstrated as a powerful analogy of living cells for the investigation of chemical communication and morphogenesis. However, little is understood with regards to the influence of confinement on the reactivity of such systems. Herein, the effect of confinement on the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) oscillating reaction in bulk solution, (employing ferroin as a catalyst and malonic acid as the organic substrate) is investigated using scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) toward different insulating surfaces such as glass, silanized glass, or PTFE. An unexpected increase in the amplitude of the BZ reaction at a tip-substrate distance of ∼12-15 μm is observed. By simulating different reaction mechanisms, from simple EC' catalysis to more sophisticated Oregonator or even an 11-reaction scheme, it is shown that such behavior reveals the intervention of redox catalysis processes and particularly the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> highly reactive radical intermediate BrO2(•) indirectly detected at micromolar concentrations. The reinspection of the EC' mechanism shows that the homogeneous catalysis route is confirmed and kinetically characterized from SECM toward an insulating substrate, with promising potentiality in many systems. More specifically to the complex chemical case of BZ reactions, the mechanism is understood from the envelope curves of the oscillations, which are assessed in the absence of the oscillation (absence of organic substrate).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/639188','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/639188"><span>Yields of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products produced following {sup 235}U(n{sub th},f)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Tipnis, S.V.; Campbell, J.M.; Couchell, G.P.; Li, S.; Nguyen, H.V.; Pullen, D.J.; Schier, W.A.; Seabury, E.H.; England, T.R.</p> <p>1998-08-01</p> <p>Measurements of gamma-ray spectra, following the thermal neutron fission of {sup 235}U have been made using a high purity germanium detector at the University of Massachusetts Lowell (UML) Van de Graaff facility. The gamma spectra were measured at delay times ranging from 0.2 s to nearly 10thinsp000 s following the rapid transfer of the fission fragments with a helium-jet system. On the basis of the known gamma transitions, forty isotopes have been identified and studied. By measuring the relative intensities of these transitions, the relative yields of the various precursor nuclides have been calculated. The results are compared with the recommended values listed in the ENDF/B-VI fission product data base (for the lifetimes and the relative yields) and those published in the Nuclear Data Sheets (for the beta branching ratios). This information is particularly useful for the cases of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products with lifetimes of the order of fractions of a second or a few seconds. Independent yields of many of these isotopes have rather large uncertainties, some of which have been reduced by the present study. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22522421"><span>SOLAR COSMIC-RAY INTERACTION WITH PROTOPLANETARY DISKS: PRODUCTION OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDES AND AMORPHIZATION OF CRYSTALLINE MATERIAL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Trappitsch, R.; Ciesla, F. J.</p> <p>2015-05-20</p> <p>Solar cosmic-ray (SCR) interactions with a protoplanetary disk have been invoked to explain several observations of primitive planetary materials. In our own Solar System, the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the oldest materials has been attributed to spallation reactions induced in phases that were irradiated by energetic particles in the solar nebula. Furthermore, observations of other protoplanetary disks show a mixture of crystalline and amorphous grains, though no correlation between grain crystallinity and disk or stellar properties have been identified. As most models for the origin of crystalline grains would predict such correlations, it was suggested that amorphization by stellar cosmic-rays may be masking or erasing such correlations. Here we quantitatively investigate these possibilities by modeling the interaction of energetic particles emitted by a young star with the surrounding protoplanetary disk. We do this by tracing the energy evolution of SCRs emitted from the young star through the disk and model the amount of time that dust grains would spend in regions where they would be exposed to these particles. We find that this irradiation scenario cannot explain the total SLR content of the solar nebula; however, this scenario could play a role in the amorphization of crystalline material at different locations or epochs of the disk over the course of its evolution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4940885"><span>Targeted alpha therapy using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D’huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>ABSTRACT Introduction: The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. Areas covered: We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. Expert opinion: We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies’ pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease. PMID:27145158</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3660700"><span>Mood regulation in youth: research findings and clinical approaches to irritability and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes of mania like symptoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Leigh, Eleanor; Smith, Patrick; Milavic, Gordana; Stringaris, Argyris</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Purpose of review Mood regulation problems, such as severe chronic irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms are common, impairing and a topic of intense recent interest to clinicians, researchers and the DSM-5 process. Here we review the most recent findings about these two presentations and discuss approaches to their treatment. Recent findings Longitudinal and genetic findings suggest that chronic irritability should be regarded as a mood problem that is distinct from bipolar disorder. A proportion of children with short (less than 4 days) episodes of mania like symptoms seem to progress to classical (Type I or II) bipolar disorder over time in US clinic samples. In a UK sample, such episodes were independently associated with psychosocial impairment. The evidence base for the treatment of either irritability or <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> episodes to mania-like symptoms is still small. Clinicians should be cautious with extrapolating treatments from classical bipolar disorder to these mood regulation problems. CBT-based approaches targeting general mood regulation processes may be effective for cases with severe irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms. Summary There is increasing research evidence for the importance of mood regulation problems in the form of either irritability or short episodes of mania like symptoms in youth. The evidence base for their drug treatment has yet to be developed. CBT-based interventions to modify processes of mood regulation may be a useful and safe intervention for patients with these presentations. PMID:22569307</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1358422-impact-biogenic-very-short-lived-bromine-antarctic-ozone-hole-during-century','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1358422-impact-biogenic-very-short-lived-bromine-antarctic-ozone-hole-during-century"><span>Impact of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Fernandez, Rafael P.; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean -Francois; ...</p> <p>2017-02-03</p> <p>Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960–2100 coupled chemistry–climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14 % when natural VSLBr are considered, which is in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of ~5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recentlymore » estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem (Community Atmosphere Model with Chemistry, version 4.0) does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affects the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by the year 2070 and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. As a result, this work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356953','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20356953"><span>Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Malíková, Lenka; Smilauer, Petr; Klimesová, Jitka</p> <p>2010-06-01</p> <p>Adventitious sprouting from the hypocotyle and roots in monocarpic herbs has been confirmed in previous experimental studies as a means to avoid bud limitation after severe injury in annual and biennial plants. Data regarding the role of adventitious sprouting in natural populations, however, were lacking. The aim of the present study was to assess whether adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations and how it is affected by plant size, plant injury, plant cover and environmental characteristics. Data were sampled from 14 037 individual plants from 389 populations belonging to 22 annual and biennial species. Growth parameters were measured in individual plants, species composition and plant cover in communities were evaluated, and environmental characteristics were estimated using Ellenberg indicator values. It was confirmed that adventitious sprouting occurs in natural populations of all but five species examined. Adventitious sprouting was positively affected by plant size and plant injury. Environmental factors including availability of soil nitrogen were not shown to affect adventitious sprouting. Annual and biennial plants did not differ in sprouting, but upright annuals had a lower number of and longer adventitious shoots than prostrate annuals. Adventitious bud formation is used to overcome meristem limitation when stem parts are lost due to injury, and thus resprouting in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monocarps should not be overlooked.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2442213"><span>Role of Sec61p in the ER-associated degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane proteins</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Scott, Daniel C.; Schekman, Randy</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are identified and degraded by the ER-associated degradation pathway (ERAD), a component of ER quality control. In ERAD, misfolded proteins are removed from the ER by retrotranslocation into the cytosol where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. The identity of the specific protein components responsible for retrotranslocation remains controversial, with the potential candidates being Sec61p, Der1p, and Doa10. We show that the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> transmembrane ERAD substrate is exposed to the lumen of the ER during the degradation process. The addition of N-linked glycan to the N terminus of the substrate is prevented by mutation of a specific cysteine residue of Sec61p, as well as a specific cysteine residue of the substrate protein. We show that the substrate protein forms a disulfide-linked complex to Sec61p, suggesting that at least part of the retrotranslocation process involves Sec61p. PMID:18573918</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..771..303S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhLB..771..303S"><span>New <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 223Np and the absence of the Z = 92 subshell closure near N = 126</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sun, M. D.; Liu, Z.; Huang, T. H.; Zhang, W. Q.; Wang, J. G.; Liu, X. Y.; Ding, B.; Gan, Z. G.; Ma, L.; Yang, H. B.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yu, L.; Jiang, J.; Wang, K. L.; Wang, Y. S.; Liu, M. L.; Li, Z. H.; Li, J.; Wang, X.; Lu, H. Y.; Lin, C. J.; Sun, L. J.; Ma, N. R.; Yuan, C. X.; Zuo, W.; Xu, H. S.; Zhou, X. H.; Xiao, G. Q.; Qi, C.; Zhang, F. S.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>The N = 130 <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 223Np was produced as evaporation residue (ER) in the fusion reaction 40Ar + 187Re at the gas-filled recoil separator Spectrometer for Heavy Atom and Nuclear Structure (SHANS). It was identified through temporal and spatial correlations with α decays of 215Ac and/or 211Fr, the third and fourth members of the α-decay chain starting from 223Np. The pileup signals of ER(223Np)-α(223Np)-α(219Pa) were resolved by using the digital pulse processing technique. An α decay with half-life of T1/2 = 2.15 (10052) μs and energy of Eα = 9477 (44) keV was attributed to 223Np. Spin and parity of 9 /2- were tentatively proposed for the ground state of 223Np by combining the reduced α-decay width and large-scale shell-model calculations. This assignment together with the proton separation energy disprove the existence of a Z = 92 subshell closure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28874118','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28874118"><span>A miRNA catalogue and ncRNA annotation of the <span class="hlt">short-living</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baumgart, Mario; Barth, Emanuel; Savino, Aurora; Groth, Marco; Koch, Philipp; Petzold, Andreas; Arisi, Ivan; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja; Cellerino, Alessandro</p> <p>2017-09-05</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be cultured in captivity and was recently established as a model organism for aging research. Small non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs, are implicated in age dependent control of gene expression. Here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of miRNAs and several other non-coding RNA classes (ncRNAs) for Nothobranchius furzeri. Analyzing multiple small RNA-Seq libraries, we show most of these identified miRNAs are expressed in at least one of seven Nothobranchius species. Additionally, duplication and clustering of N. furzeri miRNAs was analyzed and compared to the four fish species Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus and Takifugu rubripes. A peculiar characteristic of N. furzeri, as compared to other teleosts, was a duplication of the miR-29 cluster. The completeness of the catalogue we provide is comparable to that of the zebrafish. This catalogue represents a basis to investigate the role of miRNAs in aging and development in this species.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754457','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18754457"><span>Iodine-131: a potential <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, wastewater-specific particle tracer in an urbanized estuarine system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Joseph P; Oktay, Sarah I; Kada, John; Olsen, Curtis R</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, fission-produced radioisotope, 131I (t1/2 = 8.04 days), was detected in wastewater, surficial sediment, and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected from New York Harbor (NYH) between 2001 and 2002. lodine-131 is used as a radiopharmaceutical for medical imaging, diagnostics, and treatments for conditions of the thyroid. It is introduced into the municipal waste stream by medical facilities and patients and is subsequently released into the estuary via wastewater effluent. Measured 131I activities in surface sediments were correlated with those of 7Be (t1/2 = 53.2 days), a naturally occurring radioisotope that is widely used to quantify particle dynamics, sediment focusing, and short-term sediment deposition and accumulation in aquatic systems. Surficial sediment 131I activities were also compared with measured trace metal (Cu, Pb) and organic carbon (OC(sed)) concentrations which can be linked to wastewater inputs. These preliminary results from NYH introduce 131I as a potentially valuable source-specific, shortlived biogeochemical tracer (timescales < 1 month) for particles, sediments, and wastewater-sourced contaminants in urbanized aquatic systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1815628F"><span>Estimating surface fluxes of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogens from aircraft measurements over the tropical Western Pacific</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feng, Liang; Palmer, Paul I.; Butler, Robyn; Harris, Neil; Carpenter, Lucy; Andrews, Steve; Atlas, Elliot; Pan, Laura; Salawitch, Ross; Donets, Valeria; Schauffler, Sue</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We use an inverse model approach to quantitatively understand the ocean flux and atmospheric transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halogenated species (VSLS) measured during the coordinated NERC CAST and NCAR CONTRAST aircraft campaigns over the Western Pacific during January/February 2014. To achieve this we have developed a nested GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model simulation of bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), which has a spatial resolution of 0.25° (latitude) × 0.3125° (longitude) over the tropical Western Pacific region, and fed by boundary conditions from a coarser version of the model. We use archived 3-hourly 3-D fields of OH and j-values for CHBr3 photolysis, allowing us to linearly decompose these gases into tagged contributions from different geographical regions. Using these tagged tracers, we are able to use the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) approach to estimate the VSLS sources by fitting the model to observations. We find that the resulting VSLS fluxes are significantly different from some previous studies. To interpret the results, we describe several observation system simulation experiments to understand the sensitivity of these flux estimates to observation errors as well as to the uncertainty in the boundary condition imposed around the nested grid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19942276"><span>Public health benefits of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions: health implications of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, Kirk R; Jerrett, Michael; Anderson, H Ross; Burnett, Richard T; Stone, Vicki; Derwent, Richard; Atkinson, Richard W; Cohen, Aaron; Shonkoff, Seth B; Krewski, Daniel; Pope, C Arden; Thun, Michael J; Thurston, George</p> <p>2009-12-19</p> <p>In this report we review the health effects of three <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> greenhouse pollutants-black carbon, ozone, and sulphates. We undertook new meta-analyses of existing time-series studies and an analysis of a cohort of 352,000 people in 66 US cities during 18 years of follow-up. This cohort study provides estimates of mortality effects from long-term exposure to elemental carbon, an indicator of black carbon mass, and evidence that ozone exerts an independent risk of mortality. Associations among these pollutants make drawing conclusions about their individual health effects difficult at present, but sulphate seems to have the most robust effects in multiple-pollutant models. Generally, the toxicology of the pure compounds and their epidemiology diverge because atmospheric black carbon, ozone, and sulphate are associated and could interact with related toxic species. Although sulphate is a cooling agent, black carbon and ozone could together exert nearly half as much global warming as carbon dioxide. The complexity of these health and climate effects needs to be recognised in mitigation policies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ERL....10g5001R"><span>Impact of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rogelj, Joeri; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto; Riahi, Keywan</p> <p>2015-07-01</p> <p>Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO2 emissions, or staying within a CO2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> non-CO2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO2 budget between 2011-2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO2 budget by targeting non-CO2 diminishes strongly along with CO2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24390974"><span>Attached and unattached fractions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radon decay products in outdoor environments: effect on the human respiratory system.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Amrane, M; Oufni, L; Misdaq, M A</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The authors developed a model for determining the alpha- and beta-activities per unit volume of air due to radon ((222)Rn), thoron ((220)Rn) and their decay products attached and unattached to the aerosol in the outdoor air at the workplace in natural conditions at different locations in Morocco by using both CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid-state nuclear track detectors. In addition, the percentage of (218)Po, (214)Pb and (214)Po radionuclides attached to the aerosols and the unattached fraction f(j) for different values of the attachment rate were evaluated. Radon and thoron concentrations in outdoor air of the studied different locations were found to vary from 9.20±0.8 to 16.30±1.50 Bq m(-3) and 0.22±0.02 to 1.80±0.20 Bq m(-3), respectively. The committed equivalent doses due to the radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny (218)Po and (214)Po attached and unattached to the aerosol air were evaluated in different tissues of the respiratory tract of the members of the public from the inhalation of outdoor air.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0698441','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/AD0698441"><span>INVESTIGATION OF THE DISTRIBUTION OF CHARGES FOR ’FREE’ <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADON DECAY PRODUCTS (Izuchenie Raspredeleniya Zaryadov dlya ’Svobodnykh’ Korotkozhivyushchikh Produktov Raspada Radona),</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A review of published literature shows that the <span class="hlt">short</span>- <span class="hlt">lived</span> products of radon decay can exist in two states: elementary ions or ’free’ atoms...Precipitation by diffusion and in an electrical field. The present article contains the results of a study of the distribution of charges among the ’free’ products of radon decay under various conditions of their existence .</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22614143','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22614143"><span>Towards a novel laser-driven method of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> extraction−acceleration for fundamental physics and technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nishiuchi, M. Sakaki, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Nishio, K.; Pikuz, T. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Orlandi, R.; Pirozhkov, A. S.; Sagisaka, A.; Ogura, K.; Kanasaki, M.; Kiriyama, H.; Fukuda, Y.; Koura, H.; Kando, M.; Yamauchi, T.; Watanabe, Y.; Bulanov, S. V. Kondo, K.; and others</p> <p>2016-04-15</p> <p>A combination of a petawatt laser and nuclear physics techniques can crucially facilitate the measurement of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> properties. With numerical simulations and laser-driven experiments we show prospects for the Laser-driven Exotic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> extraction–acceleration method proposed in [M. Nishiuchi et al., Phys, Plasmas 22, 033107 (2015)]: a femtosecond petawatt laser, irradiating a target bombarded by an external ion beam, extracts from the target and accelerates to few GeV highly charged <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> heavy exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> created in the target via nuclear reactions.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.9634M"><span>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (<2 minutes) acceleration of protons to >13 GeV in association with solar flares.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McCracken, Ken; Shea, Margaret Ann; Smart, Don</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> release) mechanism must then decrease greatly in efficiency abruptly ~3 minutes after it started. We note that this is not a unique example; the >10GeV particle pulse in the GLE of 20 January 2005 persisted for only 3 minutes; and a >4.5 GeV pulse at the commencement of the GLE of 7 December, 1982, only lasted one minute. We conclude with a comparison between these observations and the predictions of several proposed acceleration models. We conclude that these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bursts of highly relativistic cosmic rays have been accelerated in the reconnection regions associated with large solar flares. In the greater majority of cases, the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, high energy cosmic ray pulse at the commencement of a GLE is followed by a slowly rising component accelerated in the CME generated shock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410431Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....1410431Y"><span>How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P. J.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here, by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical doubling (an increase of 5 ppt Bry) of VSLS bromocarbons on ozone and how the resulting ozone changes depend on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for the 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the ozone decrease in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone decrease in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). The largest impact on the ozone column is found in the Antarctic spring. There is a significantly larger ozone decrease following the doubling of the VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background, indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the decline in the high-latitude, lower-stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~ 3 ppb (present day), compared with Cly of ~ 0.8 ppb (a pre-industrial or projected future situation). Bromine will play an important role in the future ozone layer. However, even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will likely be dominated by the decrease in anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recovery date could be delayed by approximately 6-8 years, depending on Cly</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9232H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9232H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> halocarbons efficient at influencing climate through ozone loss in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hossaini, Ryan; Chipperfield, Martyn; Montzka, Steven; Rap, Alex; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS) of both natural and anthropogenic origin are a significant source of atmospheric bromine, chlorine and iodine. Due to relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (typically <6 months), VSLS breakdown in the upper troposphere-lower stratosphere (UTLS), where ozone perturbations drive a disproportionately large climate impact compared to other altitudes. Here we present chemical transport model simulations that quantify VSLS-driven ozone loss in the UTLS and infer the climate relevance of these ozone perturbations using a radiative transfer model. Our results indicate that through their impact on UTLS ozone, VSLS are efficient at influencing climate. We calculate a whole atmosphere global mean radiative effect (RE) of -0.20 (-0.16 to -0.23) Wm-2 from natural and anthropogenic VSLS-driven ozone loss, including a tropospheric contribution of -0.12 Wm-2. In the stratosphere, the RE due to ozone loss from natural bromine-containing VSLS (e.g. CHBr3, CH2Br2) is almost half of that from long-lived anthropogenic compounds (e.g. CFCs) and normalized by equivalent chlorine is ~4 times larger. We show that the anthropogenic chlorine-containing VSLS, not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, also contribute to ozone loss in the UTLS and that the atmospheric concentration of dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), the most abundant of these, is increasing rapidly. Finally, we present evidence that VSLS have made a small yet previously unrecognized contribution to the ozone-driven radiative forcing of climate since pre-industrial times of -0.02 (-0.01 to -0.03) Wm-2. Given the climate leverage that VSLS possess, future increases to their emissions, either through continued industrial or altered natural processes, may be important for future climate forcing.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045655','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045655"><span>Fluid shift is moderate and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> during acute crystalloid hemodilution and normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass in piglets.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Farstad, M; Haugen, O; Rynning, S E; Onarheim, H; Husby, P</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Crystalloids are commonly used as priming solutions during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Consequently, hemodilution is a regular occurrence at the start of a CPB. This study describes the time-course variations of hemodynamic parameters, plasma volume (PV) and fluid exchange following crystalloid hemodilution at start of normothermic CPB. Forty-five anesthetized piglets were given 60-min normothermic CPB. Ringer's solution was used as priming solution and maintenance fluid. Fluid input/losses, PV, colloid osmotic pressures (plasma/interstitium), hematocrit, and s-proteins were measured, and fluid extravasation rates (FER) and intravascular protein-masses calculated. Start of CPB resulted in a 25-30% hemodilution. To keep the fluid level of the CPB-reservoir constant after start of bypass, fluid addition [2.08 +/- 0.36 (mean +/- SEM) ml kg(-1) min(-1)] was necessary during the first 5 min. Thereafter the fluid needs to be leveled off [0.17 +/- 0.03 ml kg(-1) min(-1) (10-60 min), P < 0.001]. Fluid extravasation rate increased immediately following hemodilution from a baseline value of 0.08 +/- 0.01 to 1.75 +/- 0.34 ml kg(-1) min(-1) with a delayed decrease compared to fluid additions, to reach a 'steady-state' level of 0.22 +/- 0.03 ml kg(-1) min(-1) after 30 min (P < 0.001). Differences in time-course variations between fluid added and fluid extravasated were accompanied by changes in PV and mean arterial pressure. The colloid osmotic gradient decreased about 50% throughout the study and could partly explain the increased FER. Acute crystalloid hemodilution contributes to fluid overload during normothermic CPB. The resulting increase in fluid extravasation is, however, moderate, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and levels off to baseline values within 30 min.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50t5203X','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JPhD...50t5203X"><span>Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> aqueous active species</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H2O2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H2O2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OHaq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OHaq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OHaq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata. Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H2O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOHaq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2775F"><span>Transport of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> halocarbons from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere through the Asian monsoon circulation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fiehn, Alina; Hepach, Helmke; Atlas, Elliot; Quack, Birgit; Tegtmeier, Susann; Krüger, Kirstin</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Halogenated organic compounds are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. The halogenated very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), such as bromoform, have atmospheric lifetimes of less than half a year. When VSLS reach the stratosphere, they enhance ozone depletion and thus impact the climate. During boreal summer, the Asian monsoon circulation transfers air masses from the Asian troposphere to the global stratosphere. Still, the extent to which VSLS from the Indian Ocean contribute to the stratospheric halogen burden and their exact origin is unclear. Here we show that the monsoon circulation transports VSLS from the Indian Ocean to the stratosphere. During the research cruises SO234-2 and SO235 in July-August 2014 onboard RV SONNE, we measured oceanic and atmospheric concentrations of bromoform (tropical lifetime at 10 km = 17 days), dibromomethane (150 days) and methyl iodide (3.5 days) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean and calculated their emission strengths. We use the Langrangian transport model FLEXPART driven by ERA-Interim meteorological fields to investigate the transport of oceanic emissions in the atmosphere. We analyze the direct contribution of observed bromoform emissions to the stratospheric halogen budget with forward trajectories. Furthermore, we investigate the connection between the Asian monsoon anticyclone and the oceanic source regions using backward trajectories. The West Indian Ocean is a strong source region of VSLS to the atmosphere and the monsoon transport is fast enough for bromoform to reach the stratosphere. However, the main source regions for the entrainment of oceanic air masses through the Asian monsoon anticyclone are the West Pacific and Bay of Bengal as well as the Arabian Sea. Our findings indicate that changes in emission or circulation in this area due to climate change can directly affect the stratospheric halogen burden and thus the ozone layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22499166"><span>ICV-transplanted human glial precursor cells are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> yet exert immunomodulatory effects in mice with EAE.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kim, Heechul; Walczak, Piotr; Muja, Naser; Campanelli, James T; Bulte, Jeff W M</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Human glial precursor cells (hGPs) have potential for remyelinating lesions and are an attractive cell source for cell therapy of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate whether transplanted hGPs can affect the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of transplanted hGPs together with the in vivo fate of these cells using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). At 14 days post-EAE induction, mice (n = 19) were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 5 × 10(5) hGPs that were magnetically labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles as MR contrast agent and transduced with firefly luciferase for BLI of cell survival. Control mice (n = 18) received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) vehicle only. The severity of EAE clinical disability in the hGP-transplanted group was significantly suppressed (P < 0.05) with concomitant inhibition of ConA and MOG-specific T cell proliferation in the spleen. Astrogliosis was reduced and a lower activity of macrophages and/or microglia was observed in the spinal cord (P < 0.05). On MRI, SPIO signal was detected within the lateral ventricle from 1 day post-transplantation and remained there for up to 34 days. BLI indicated that most cells did not survive beyond 5-10 days, consistent with the lack of detectable migration into the brain parenchyma and the histological presence of an abundance of apoptotic cells. Transplanted hGPs could not be detected in the spleen. We conclude that ICV transplantation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> hGPs can have a remote therapeutic effect through immunomodulation from within the ventricle, without cells directly participating in remyelination.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A43D0315T"><span>Integrated Assessment on Effects of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants (SLCPs) in Asia based on Numerical Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takemura, T.; Sudo, K.; Ueda, K.; Masutomi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Nakata, M.; Takahashi, H. G.; Goto, D.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Air pollution over the Asian region is a serious social problem. For example, activities of the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) under the UNFCCC focus on raising awareness and improving scientific understanding of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant (SLCP) impacts and mitigation strategies. Our Japanese research project is searching an optimum reduction path of SLCPs considering climate change, health impacts, and agricultural damages. For this purpose, we use aerosol and chemistry models, SPRINTARS and CHASER, respectively, which have been developed by our group, coupled with a general circulation model, MIROC. In the phase 1 of this project, changes in concentrations and radiative forcing of each major SLCPs originating from China, east Asia, southeast Asia, and south Asia in the last 30 years are estimated with the models. Transient simulations along the new emission scenario, SSPs (Shared Socio-economic Pathways) are executed using the MIROC-SPRINTARS/CHASER with ocean circulation in the phase 2 to analyze full feedbacks including hydrological cycle affected by SLCPs. These simulated results will be utilized to estimate health and agricultural impacts of SLCPs. In this presentation, we discuss the optimum reduction path of SLCPs taking both mitigation of global warming and air pollution into consideration. Acknowledgements: Simulations in this study were executed with the supercomputer system of the National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. This study is partly supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-12-3) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 15H01728 and 15K12190.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1710795A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ACP....1710795A"><span>Regional temperature change potentials for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers based on radiative forcing from multiple models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Collins, William J.</p> <p>2017-09-01</p> <p>We calculate the absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP) of various <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs) based on detailed radiative forcing (RF) calculations from four different models. The temperature response has been estimated for four latitude bands (90-28° S, 28° S-28° N, 28-60° N, and 60-90° N). The regional pattern in climate response not only depends on the relationship between RF and surface temperature, but also on where and when emissions occurred and atmospheric transport, chemistry, interaction with clouds, and deposition. We present four emissions cases covering Europe, East Asia, the global shipping sector, and the entire globe. Our study is the first to estimate ARTP values for emissions during Northern Hemisphere summer (May-October) and winter season (November-April). The species studied are aerosols and aerosol precursors (black carbon, organic carbon, SO2, NH3), ozone precursors (NOx, CO, volatile organic compound), and methane (CH4). For the response to BC in the Arctic, we take into account the vertical structure of the RF in the atmosphere, and an enhanced climate efficacy for BC deposition on snow. Of all SLCFs, BC is the most sensitive to where and when the emissions occur, as well as giving the largest difference in response between the latitude bands. The temperature response in the Arctic per unit BC emission is almost four times larger and more than two times larger than the global average for Northern Hemisphere winter emissions for Europe and East Asia, respectively. The latitudinal breakdown likely gives a better estimate of the global temperature response as it accounts for varying efficacies with latitude. An annual pulse of non-methane SLCF emissions globally (representative of 2008) lead to a global cooling. In contrast, winter emissions in Europe and East Asia give a net warming in the Arctic due to significant warming from BC deposition on snow.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.A24C..08M"><span>Current and future contributions of local emissions from shipping and hydrocarbon extraction flaring to <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> pollutants in the Arctic</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marelle, L.; Raut, J. C.; Law, K.; Thomas, J. L.; Fast, J. D.; Berg, L. K.; Shrivastava, M. B.; Easter, R. C.; Herber, A. B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The Arctic is increasingly open to human activity due to rapid Arctic warming, associated with decreased sea ice extent and snow cover. While pollution from in-Arctic sources is currently low, oil and gas extraction and marine traffic could become a significant future source of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants (aerosols, ozone) in the Arctic. It is currently unclear if these local sources might become significant compared to the long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution from the midlatitudes, which is currently the main source of Arctic pollution. Here, we investigate the current (2012) and future (2050) impact of emissions from shipping and oil and gas extraction on Arctic aerosols and ozone, in relation to emissions from long-range transport. These impacts are determined by performing 6-month long, quasi-hemispheric simulations over the Arctic region with the WRF-Chem model. Our regional simulations include up-to-date representations of cloud/aerosol interactions and secondary organic aerosol formation developed recently for WRF-Chem. In order to determine the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas extraction, we use recent emission inventories by Winther et al., 2014 for local shipping and ECLIPSEv5 for oil and gas flaring. Both inventories suggest that current and future emissions from these sources are higher than previous estimates. Simulations are evaluated using measurements at Arctic surface sites and aircraft campaigns (ACCESS, YAK) in 2012. Model results are then used to assess the impact of Arctic shipping and oil and gas flaring on modeled surface aerosol and ozone concentrations, direct aerosol and ozone radiative effects, indirect aerosol radiative effects, and aerosol deposition. Results are used to determine if these local emissions are expected to have a significant influence on these quantities at the local or the regional scale, compared to emissions transported from the midlatitudes and to other emission sources, including boreal fires.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP21C0916B"><span>Sediment fingerprinting with long- and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide tracers in the Root River watershed, southeastern Minnesota</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Belmont, P.; Stout, J. C.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The field of sediment fingerprinting has evolved rapidly over the past decade and is poised to improve our understanding not only of sediment sources, but also the routing of sediment through watersheds. Such information is essential for understanding and modeling human impacts on erosion and sediment routing at the watershed scale. In this study we use long- (Beryllium-10, 10Be) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (Lead-210 and Cesium-137, 210Pb and 137Cs, respectively) radionuclide tracers associated with suspended sediment to quantify sediment sources and channel-floodplain exchange across a range of watershed scales from 10 km2 to 4500 km2 in in the Root River, southeastern Minnesota, USA. The uppermost quarter of the Root River watershed was glaciated repeatedly during the late Pleistocene and is characterized by low relief agricultural fields and fine textured soils. The remainder of the watershed lies within the driftless area of the upper Midwestern US, which has not been glaciated in at least the past 500,000 years, and is characterized by karst topography, relatively steep hillslopes and bedrock channels that debouch into a wide, aggrading alluvial valley. The structure of the landscape exerts strong control on sediment generation and transport. Geochemical results indicate a highly variable erosion history, with significant variability of 10Be concentrations in source areas (agricultural fields, forested hillslopes, and alluvial floodplains and terraces) and inverted 10Be depth profiles (higher concentrations at depth) in floodplains, suggesting unsteady erosion and significant storage of legacy sediment. Concentrations of 10Be and 210Pb associated with suspended sediment show a systematic disparity in normalized concentrations, indicating that significant storage and re-suspension occurs in both systems as the sediment is routed through the channel-floodplain complex.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3166M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUOSPO44C3166M"><span>Oceanic Emissions of Organic Very <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Substances from the Indian Ocean and their Transport to the Stratosphere</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marandino, C. A.; Quack, B.; Hepach, H.; Atlas, E. L.; Fiehn, A.; Lennartz, S. T.; Bracher, A.; Krüger, K.; Waersted, E.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Within the frame work of the German project OASIS, research cruises SO234-2 (Durban- Port Louis, 08-20 July, 2014) and SO235 (Port Louis - Male, July 23 to August 07, 2014) of the German research vessel SONNE were conducted by the University of Oslo, Norway (www.uio.no) together with the GEOMAR Helmholtz Centre for Ocean Research Kiel, Germany (www.geomar.de) in the subtropical and tropical West Indian Ocean. The research covered the sources and air- sea gas exchange of a suite of natural and anthropogenic short- and long lived trace gases as well as atmospheric composition and transport. Among the gases investigated were very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> halocarbons such as bromoform, dibromomethane and methyl iodide, which are naturally produced in the oceans and influence stratospheric ozone and climate. The Asian monsoon circulation provides an effective pathway for air masses from the atmospheric boundary layer containing these and other compounds to enter the global stratosphere during boreal summer especially above India and the Bay of Bengal. During the cruises biological, chemical and physical parameters were analyzed in the surface waters and the deep ocean, the atmospheric conditions were determined, the oceanic trace gas emissions calculated and their transport and contribution to the stratospheric halogen budget, deduced from radiosonde launchings and high resolution transport modelling, was determined. The measurements were conducted in various marine biogeochemical regimes close to coasts, near coral reefs and sea banks, in high chlorophyll and oligotrophic regimes. We present novel results from the cruises, including biogeochemical responses to physical forcing and their contribution to the atmosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGC32A..06M"><span>Dealing with uncertainty: Response-resilient climate change mitigation polices for long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Millar, R.; Boneham, J.; Hepburn, C.; Allen, M. R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Climate change solutions are subject to many inherent uncertainties. One of the most important is the uncertainty over the magnitude of the physical response of the climate system to external forcing. The risk of extremely large responses to forcing, so called "fat-tail" outcomes, cannot be ruled out from the latest science and offer profound challenges when creating policies that aim to meet a specific target of global temperature change. This study offers examples of how mitigation policies can be made resilient to this uncertainty in the physical climate response via indexing policies against an attributable anthropogenic warming index (the magnitude of the observed global mean warming that is can be traced to human activities), the AWI, instead of against time directly. We show that indexing policy measures that influence the total stock of carbon in the atmosphere (such as the fraction of extracted carbon sequestered) against the AWI can largely eliminate the risk of missing the specified warming goal due to unexpectedly large climate responses as well as the risk of costly over-mitigation if the physical response turned out to be lower than expected. We offer further examples of how this methodology can be expanded to include <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutants as well as long-lived carbon dioxide. Indexing policies against the AWI can have important consequences for the actions of governments acting to design national climate mitigation policies as well as private sector investors looking to incentivise the transition to a climate-stable economy. We conclude with some thoughts on how these indexes can help focus attention on the long-term perspective that is consistent with the conclusions of the latest climate science on what is required to ultimately stabilise the global climate system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..274..350L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016Icar..274..350L"><span>The effects of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides and porosity on the early thermo-mechanical evolution of planetesimals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lichtenberg, Tim; Golabek, Gregor J.; Gerya, Taras V.; Meyer, Michael R.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>The thermal history and internal structure of chondritic planetesimals, assembled before the giant impact phase of chaotic growth, potentially yield important implications for the final composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. These parameters critically depend on the internal balance of heating versus cooling, which is mostly determined by the presence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs), such as 26Al and 60Fe, as well as the heat conductivity of the material. The heating by SLRs depends on their initial abundances, the formation time of the planetesimal and its size. It has been argued that the cooling history is determined by the porosity of the granular material, which undergoes dramatic changes via compaction processes and tends to decrease with time. In this study we assess the influence of these parameters on the thermo-mechanical evolution of young planetesimals with both 2D and 3D simulations. Using the code family I2ELVIS/I3ELVIS we have run numerous 2D and 3D numerical finite-difference fluid dynamic models with varying planetesimal radius, formation time and initial porosity. Our results indicate that powdery materials lowered the threshold for melting and convection in planetesimals, depending on the amount of SLRs present. A subset of planetesimals retained a powdery surface layer which lowered the thermal conductivity and hindered cooling. The effect of initial porosity was small, however, compared to those of planetesimal size and formation time, which dominated the thermo-mechanical evolution and were the primary factors for the onset of melting and differentiation. We comment on the implications of this work concerning the structure and evolution of these planetesimals, as well as their behavior as possible building blocks of terrestrial planets.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717302M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012JGRD..11717302M"><span>Using daily satellite observations to estimate emissions of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> air pollutants on a mesoscopic scale</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijling, B.; van der A, R. J.</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Emission inventories of air pollutants are crucial information for policy makers and form important input data for air quality models. Using satellite observations for emission estimates has important advantages over bottom-up emission inventories: they are spatially consistent, have high temporal resolution, and enable updates shortly after the satellite data become available. We present a new algorithm specifically designed to use daily satellite observations of column concentrations for fast updates of emission estimates of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric constituents on a mesoscopic scale (˜25 × 25 km2). The algorithm needs only one forward model run from a chemical transport model to calculate the sensitivity of concentration to emission, using trajectory analysis to account for transport away from the source. By using a Kalman filter in the inverse step, optimal use of the a priori knowledge and the newly observed data is made. We apply the algorithm for NOx emission estimates of East China, using the CHIMERE model on a 0.25 degree resolution together with tropospheric NO2column retrievals of the OMI and GOME-2 satellite instruments. Closed loop tests show that the algorithm is capable of reproducing new emission scenarios. Applied with real satellite data, the algorithm is able to detect emerging sources (e.g., new power plants), and improves emission information for areas where proxy data are not or badly known (e.g., shipping emissions). Chemical transport model runs with the daily updated emission estimates provide better spatial and temporal agreement between observed and simulated concentrations, facilitating improved air quality forecasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19846516"><span>Human cytomegalovirus gene UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates virus replication in fibroblasts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fehr, Anthony R; Yu, Dong</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene UL21a was recently annotated by its conservation in chimpanzee cytomegalovirus. Two large-scale mutagenic analyses showed that mutations in overlapping UL21a/UL21 resulted in a severe defect of virus growth in fibroblasts. Here, we characterized UL21a and demonstrated its role in HCMV infection. We mapped a UL21a-specific transcript of approximately 600 bp that was expressed with early kinetics. UL21a encoded pUL21a, a protein of approximately 15 kDa, which was unstable and localized predominantly to the cytoplasm during HCMV infection or when expressed alone. Interestingly, pUL21a was drastically stabilized in the presence of proteasome inhibitor MG132, but its instability was independent of a functional ubiquitin-mediated pathway, suggesting that pUL21a underwent proteasome-dependent, ubiquitin-independent degradation. A UL21a deletion virus was attenuated in primary human newborn foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs) and embryonic lung fibroblasts (MRC-5), whereas a marker-rescued virus and mutant viruses lacking the neighboring or overlapping genes UL20, UL21, or UL21.5-UL23 replicated at wild-type levels. The growth defect of UL21a-deficient virus in MRC-5 cells was more pronounced than that in HFFs. At a high multiplicity of infection, the UL21a deletion virus synthesized viral proteins with wild-type kinetics but had a two- to threefold defect in viral DNA replication. More importantly, although pUL21a was not detected in the virion, progeny virions produced by the mutant virus were approximately 10 times less infectious than wild-type virus, suggesting that UL21a is required for HCMV to establish efficient productive infection. We conclude that UL21a encodes a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> cytoplasmic protein and facilitates HCMV replication in fibroblasts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MNRAS.462..352G"><span>SMA observations towards the compact, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bipolar water maser outflow in the LkHα234 region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Curiel, S.; Anglada, G.; Gómez, J. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Patel, N. A.; Trinidad, M. A.</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations towards the LkHα234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of ˜5 arcsec (˜4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between ˜200 and ˜375 au and masses in the ˜0.08-0.3 M⊙ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r ≲ 135 au) circumstellar disc with a mass of ˜0.02 M⊙. This source is powering a compact (˜4000 au), low radial velocity (˜7 km s-1) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the `large-scale' counterpart of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, episodic, bipolar outflow observed through H2O masers at much smaller scales (˜180 au), and that has been created by the accumulation of the ejection of several episodic collimated events of material. The circumstellar gas around VLA 2 and VLA 3 is hot (˜130 K) and exhibits velocity gradients that could trace rotation. There is a bridge of warm and dense molecular gas connecting VLA 2 and VLA 3. We discuss the possibility that this bridge could trace a stream of gas between VLA 3 and VLA 2, increasing the accretion rate on to VLA 2 to explain why this source has an important outflow activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22012015"><span><span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> STAR-FORMING GIANT CLUMPS IN COSMOLOGICAL SIMULATIONS OF z Almost-Equal-To 2 DISKS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Genel, Shy; Genzel, Reinhard; Foerster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Sternberg, Amiel; Johansson, Peter H.; Dave, Romeel; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Burkert, Andreas E-mail: genzel@mpe.mpg.de E-mail: amiel@wise.tau.ac.il E-mail: oser@usm.lmu.de E-mail: phjohans@astro.helsinki.fi E-mail: oppenheimer@strw.leidenuniv.nl</p> <p>2012-01-20</p> <p>Many observed massive star-forming z Almost-Equal-To 2 galaxies are large disks that exhibit irregular morphologies, with Almost-Equal-To 1 kpc, Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8}-10{sup 10}M{sub o-dot} clumps. We present the largest sample to date of high-resolution cosmological smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations that zoom-in on the formation of individual M{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 10.5}M{sub o-dot} galaxies in Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 12}M{sub o-dot} halos at z Almost-Equal-To 2. Our code includes strong stellar feedback parameterized as momentum-driven galactic winds. This model reproduces many characteristic features of this observed class of galaxies, such as their clumpy morphologies, smooth and monotonic velocity gradients, high gas fractions (f{sub g} Almost-Equal-To 50%), and high specific star formation rates ({approx}>1 Gyr{sup -1}). In accord with recent models, giant clumps (M{sub clump} Almost-Equal-To (5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8}-10{sup 9})M{sub o-dot}) form in situ via gravitational instabilities. However, the galactic winds are critical for their subsequent evolution. The giant clumps we obtain are <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and are disrupted by wind-driven mass loss. They do not virialize or migrate to the galaxy centers as suggested in recent work neglecting strong winds. By phenomenologically implementing the winds that are observed from high-redshift galaxies and in particular from individual clumps, our simulations reproduce well new observational constraints on clump kinematics and clump ages. In particular, the observation that older clumps appear closer to their galaxy centers is reproduced in our simulations, as a result of inside-out formation of the disks rather than inward clump migration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...14.9729Y"><span>How sensitive is the recovery of stratospheric ozone to changes in concentrations of very <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> bromocarbons?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, X.; Abraham, N. L.; Archibald, A. T.; Braesicke, P.; Keeble, J.; Telford, P.; Warwick, N. J.; Pyle, J. A.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Naturally produced very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> substances (VSLS), like bromocarbons, account for almost a quarter of the current stratospheric inorganic bromine, Bry. Following VSLS oxidation, bromine radicals (Br and BrO) can catalytically destroy ozone. The extent to which possible increases in surface emissions or transport of these VSLS bromocarbons to the stratosphere could counteract the effect of halogen reductions under the Montreal Protocol is an important policy question. Here by using a chemistry-climate model, UM-UKCA, we investigate the impact of a hypothetical increase in VSLS on ozone and how that impact depends on the background concentrations of chlorine and bromine. Our model experiments indicate that for a ~5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the local ozone loss in the lowermost stratosphere of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) may reach up to 10% in the annual mean; the ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) is smaller (4-6%). There is more ozone loss following an increase in VSLS burden under a high stratospheric chlorine background than under a low chlorine background indicating the importance of the inter-halogen reactions. For example, the rate of decline of the stratospheric ozone concentration as a function of Bry is higher by about 30-40% when stratospheric Cly is ~3 ppb (present day) compared with Cly of ~0.8 ppb (apre-industrial or projected future situation). Although bromine plays an important role in destroying ozone, inorganic chlorine is the dominant halogen compound. Even if bromine levels from natural VSLS were to increase significantly later this century, changes in the concentration of ozone will be dominated by the recovery of anthropogenic chlorine. Our calculation suggests that for a 5 ppt increase in Bry from VSLS, the Antarctic ozone hole recover date could be delayed by approximately 7 years.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6950977','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6950977"><span>Studies of neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> far from stability at TRISTAN</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Gill, R.L.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>The ISOL facility, TRISTAN, is a user facility located at Brookhaven National Laboratory's High Flux Beam Reactor. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span>, neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, far from stability, are produced by thermal neutron fission of /sup 235/U. An extensive array of experimental end stations are available for nuclear structure studies. These studies are augmented by a variety of long-lived ion sources suitable for use at a reactor facility. Some recent results at TRISTAN are presented as examples of using an ISOL facility to study series of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, whereby an effective means of conducting nuclear structure investigations is available.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=Chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3DChlorine"><span>On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dchlorine','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000011657&hterms=chlorine&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D50%26Ntt%3Dchlorine"><span>On the Relation between Stratospheric Chlorine/Bromine Loading and <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Tropospheric Source Gases. Appendix D</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Sze, Nien-Dak; Scott, Courtney J.; Weisenstein, Debra K.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Current methods for estimating the concentrations of inorganic chlorine/bromine species Cl(y)/Br(y) in the stratosphere due to decomposition of tropospheric source gases assume that the Cl(y)/Br(y) concentration in the stratosphere is determined mainly by the balance between production from in situ oxidation of the source gases in the stratosphere and removal by transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) out of the stratosphere. The rationale being that for source gases whose lifetimes are of the order of several months or longer the concentration of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere is small because they are produced at a relatively slow rate and also removed efficiently by washout processes. As a result of the small concentration, the rate at which Cl(y)/Br(y) is transported to the stratosphere is expected to be small compared to the in situ stratospheric production. Thus the transport of Cl(y)/Br(y) from the troposphere contributes little to the stratospheric concentration. In contrast, the origin of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) from reactive source gases with tropospheric lifetimes comparable to the washout lifetime of Cl(y)/Br(y) (of the order of 10-30 days) in the troposphere is distinctly different. The in situ source in the stratosphere is expected to be significantly smaller because only a small portion of the source gas is expected to survive the troposphere to be transported into this region. At the same time these <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> source gases produce appreciable amounts of Cl(y)/Br(y) in the troposphere such that transport to the stratosphere offers a larger source for stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) than in situ production. Thus, for reactive source species, simple methods of estimating the concentration of stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) that ignore the tropospheric contribution will seriously underestimate the loading. Therefore estimation of the stratospheric Cl(y)/Br(y) loading requires not only measurements of tropospheric source gases but also measurements of Cl(y)/Br(y) at the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3811835"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Effector CD8 T Cells Induced by Genetically Attenuated Malaria Parasite Vaccination Express CD11c</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A.; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y.; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K.; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8+ T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8+ T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8+ T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3+ CD8b+ T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are predominantly CD11ahi CD44hi CD62L−, indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c+ CD8+ T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c− CD8+ T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8+ T cells. Coculture of CD11c+, but not CD11c−, CD8+ T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8+ T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c+ CD8+ T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8+ T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c+ CD8+ T cells are primarily KLRG1+ CD127− terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1− CD127+ memory precursor effector cells are CD11c− CD8+ T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected hepatocytes. PMID:23980113</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22227744"><span>Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980113','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23980113"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> effector CD8 T cells induced by genetically attenuated malaria parasite vaccination express CD11c.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cooney, Laura A; Gupta, Megha; Thomas, Sunil; Mikolajczak, Sebastian; Choi, Kimberly Y; Gibson, Claire; Jang, Ihn K; Danziger, Sam; Aitchison, John; Gardner, Malcolm J; Kappe, Stefan H I; Wang, Ruobing</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Vaccination with a single dose of genetically attenuated malaria parasites can induce sterile protection against sporozoite challenge in the rodent Plasmodium yoelii model. Protection is dependent on CD8(+) T cells, involves perforin and gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and is correlated with the expansion of effector memory CD8(+) T cells in the liver. Here, we have further characterized vaccine-induced changes in the CD8(+) T cell phenotype and demonstrated significant upregulation of CD11c on CD3(+) CD8b(+) T cells in the liver, spleen, and peripheral blood. CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are predominantly CD11a(hi) CD44(hi) CD62L(-), indicative of antigen-experienced effector cells. Following in vitro restimulation with malaria-infected hepatocytes, CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells expressed inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers, including IFN-γ, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 (IL-2), perforin, and CD107a. CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells, on the other hand, expressed negligible amounts of all inflammatory cytokines and cytotoxicity markers tested, indicating that CD11c marks multifunctional effector CD8(+) T cells. Coculture of CD11c(+), but not CD11c(-), CD8(+) T cells with sporozoite-infected primary hepatocytes significantly inhibited liver-stage parasite development. Tetramer staining for the immunodominant circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-specific CD8(+) T cell epitope demonstrated that approximately two-thirds of CSP-specific cells expressed CD11c at the peak of the CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cell response, but CD11c expression was lost as the CD8(+) T cells entered the memory phase. Further analyses showed that CD11c(+) CD8(+) T cells are primarily KLRG1(+) CD127(-) terminal effectors, whereas all KLRG1(-) CD127(+) memory precursor effector cells are CD11c(-) CD8(+) T cells. Together, these results suggest that CD11c marks a subset of highly inflammatory, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, antigen-specific effector cells, which may play an important role in eliminating infected</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ApJ...502..192D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998ApJ...502..192D"><span>Gamma-Ray Bursts from Evolved Galactic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Ozernoy, L. M.</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>A new cosmological scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is proposed. In our scenario, a highly evolved central core in the dense galactic nucleus is formed, containing a subsystem of compact stellar remnants (CSRs), such as neutron stars and black holes. Those subsystems result from the dynamical evolution of dense central stellar clusters in the galactic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> through merging of stars, thereby forming (as has been realized by many authors) the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> massive stars and then CSRs. We estimate the rate of random CSR collisions in the evolved galactic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> by taking into account, in a procedure similar to that of Quinlan & Shapiro, the dissipative encounters of CSRs, mainly due to radiative losses of gravitational waves, which result in the formation of intermediate <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> binaries, with further coalescence of the companions to produce GRBs. We also consider how the possible presence of a central supermassive black hole, formed in a highly evolved galactic nucleus, influences the CSR binary formation. This scenario does not postulate ad hoc a required number of tight binary neutron stars in the galaxies. Instead, it gives, for the most realistic parameters of the evolved <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, the expected rate of GRBs consistent with the observed one, thereby explaining the GRB appearance as a natural part of the dynamical evolution of galactic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. In addition, this scenario provides an opportunity for a cosmological GRB recurrence, previously considered to be a distinctive feature of GRBs of a local origin only. We also discuss some other observational tests of the proposed scenario.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyS...92e4004R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017PhyS...92e4004R"><span>Toward lifetime and g factor measurements of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> states in the vicinity of 208Pb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ralet, D.; Georgiev, G.; E Stuchbery, A.; Clément, E.; Lemasson, A.; Michelagnoli, C.; Rejmund, M.; Atanasova, L.; Balabanski, D. L.; Bocchi, G.; Carroll, R.; Dewald, A.; Dudouet, J.; Fornal, B.; de France, G.; Franchoo, S.; Fransen, C.; Müller-Gatermann, C.; Goasduff, A.; Gadea, A.; Jacquot, B.; John, P. R.; Kocheva, D.; Konstantinopoulos, T.; Korichi, A.; Kusoglu, A.; Lenzi, S. M.; Leoni, S.; Ljungvall, J.; Lozeva, R.; Maj, A.; Navin, A.; Perez, R.; Pietralla, N.; Shand, C.; Stezowski, O.; Yordanov, D.</p> <p>2017-05-01</p> <p>The multi-nucleon transfer reaction mechanism was used to produce and study <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> in the vicinity of 208Pb. This mass region is a test case for the nuclear shell model. The mass identification of the fragments was performed with the large acceptance magnetic spectrometer VAMOS++ coupled to the AGATA γ-tracking array. This experiment aimed to determine both lifetimes and gyromagnetic ratios of excited states with the Cologne plunger device. The analysis indicates promising results with the possibility to determine several new lifetimes in this region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3734','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/3734"><span>New Neutron Rich <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> Near {sup 208}Pb</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Aeystoe, J.; Andreyev, A.; Evensen, A.-H.; Hoff, P.; Huhta, M.; Huyse, M.; ISOLDE Collaboration; Jokinen, A.; Karny, M.; Kugler, E.; Kurpeta, J.; Lettry, J.; Nieminen, A.; Plochocki, A.; Ramdhane, M.; Ravn, H.; Rykaczewski, K.; Szerypo, J.; VanDuppen, P.; Walter, G.; Woehr, A.</p> <p>1998-11-13</p> <p>The level properties near the stable doubly-magic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> formed the experimental grounds for the theoretical description of nuclear structure. However with a departure from the beta-stability line, the classical well-established shell structure might be modified. In particular, it may even vanish for extremely exotic neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> near the neutron-drip line. Presently, it is impossible to verify such predictions by a direct experimental studies of these exotic objects. However, one may try to observe and understand the evolution of the nuclear structure while departing in the experiment as far as possible from the stable <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. An extension of experimental nuclear structure studies towards the <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> characterized by high neutron excess is crucial for such verifications as well as for the {tau}-process nucleosynthesis scenario. Heavy neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, south-east of doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb, were always very difficult to produce and investigate. The <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> like {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Pb or {sup 210}Tl marked the border line of known <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> from the beginning of the radioactivity era for over ninety years. To illustrate the difficulties, one can refer to the experiments employing the on-line mass separator technique. A spallation of heavy targets like {sup 232}Th and {sup 238}U by high-energy protons was proven as a source of heavy neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The isotopes near and beyond doubly-magic {sup 208}Pb were produced too. However, such studies often suffered from an isobaric contamination of much more strongly produced and efficiently released elements like francium or radon and their decay products. A new experimental technique, based on the pulsed release element selective method recently developed at the PS Booster-ISOLDE at CERN [7,8,9] greatly reduces the contamination of these very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> {alpha}-emitters (Z {ge} 84) for the isobaric mass chains A=215 to A=218.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987QuEle..17.1415D"><span>NEW ACTIVE MEDIA AND ELEMENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS: Influence of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers on the lifetime of a metastable level of neodymium in silicate glasses</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dzhibladze, M. I.; Lazarev, L. E.</p> <p>1987-11-01</p> <p>It was found that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> color centers formed in neodymium-activated silicate glasses under the action of the violet part of the pump spectrum increased the lifetime of a neodymium metastable level by more than an order of magnitude in needle-shaped waveguide lasers. The highly efficient suppression of superradiance and a strong increase in the gain of the active element were due to stimulated decay of the color centers accompanying absorption of photons emitted by the neodymium.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..199E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AtmEn..92..199E"><span>Russian policy on methane emissions in the oil and gas sector: A case study in opportunities and challenges in reducing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Evans, Meredydd; Roshchanka, Volha</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, 21 times as powerful as carbon dioxide in contributing to climate change on a ton-for-ton basis. Methane, along with other <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> forcers such as black carbon and tropospheric ozone, could play an important role in addressing global climate change. This stems both from their overall effect on climate systems, and from their concentrated impact in the short term. Because reducing emissions of such <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> pollutants may have a large near-term impact in slowing climate change, the United States and other countries have come together to cooperate under the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to Reduce <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Climate Pollutants, and other partnerships such as the Global Methane Initiative. For global impact, the success of such partnerships depends on their ability to scale up project-specific emission reductions. This paper assesses options and challenges for scaling based on a case study of Russia's oil and gas sector. We examine the challenges to achieving far-reaching emission reductions, successes of companies to date, how Russia has sought to influence methane emissions through its environmental fine system, and options for helping companies achieve large-scale emission reductions in the future through simpler and clearer incentives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24946731"><span>Pd0-mediated rapid cross-coupling reactions, the rapid C-[11C]methylations, revolutionarily advancing the syntheses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> PET molecular probes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Suzuki, Masaaki; Doi, Hisashi; Koyama, Hiroko; Zhang, Zhouen; Hosoya, Takamitsu; Onoe, Hirotaka; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Positron emission tomography is a noninvasive method for monitoring drug (or diagnostic) behavior and its localization on the target molecules in the living systems, including the human body, using a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radionuclide. New methodologies for introducing representative <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides, (11)C and (18)F, into the carbon frameworks of biologically active organic compounds have been established by developing rapid C-[(11)C]methylations and C-[(18)F]fluoromethylations using rapid Pd(0)-mediated cross-coupling reactions between [(11)C]methyl iodide (sp(3)-hybridized carbon) and an excess amount of organotributylstannane or organoboronic acid ester having sp(2) (phenyl, heteroaromatic, or alkenyl), sp(alkynyl), or sp(3) (benzyl and cinnamyl)-hybridized carbons; and [(18)F]fluoromethyl halide (iodide or bromide) and an organoboronic acid ester, respectively. These rapid reactions provide a firm foundation for an efficient and general synthesis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (11)C- or (18)F-labeled PET molecular probes to promote in vivo molecular imaging studies. Copyright © 2014 The Chemical Society of Japan and Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.HE001H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015APS..DNP.HE001H"><span>The influence of s states near threshold on the structure of light <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hoffman, Calem</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>A recent work identified the role of neutron s states, and their proximity to the neutron separation threshold, on the ordering of the 1s1 / 2 and 0d5 / 2 single-particle levels in light <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. A simple Woods-Saxon potential was used to reproduce the systematic data available for these two levels with great success by accounting for the s state binding energy. This talk will explore other noticeable trends in light <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> involving neutron s states and utilizing simple potential models determine the role binding energy plays. The trends and calculations will aim to provide descriptions of data and predictions of yet to be found two-particle two-hole excited states in N = 8 and 10 <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> ranging from Z = 4-9, as well as the energies of mirror states in <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> Al and Na isotopes. Results will be compared with state-of-the-art calculations. Possible future measurements capable of probing these predictions will be discussed as well. This material is based upon work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics, under Contract Number DE-AC02-06CH11357.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.KD007C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013APS..DNP.KD007C"><span>Spectroscopy of Mirror <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> in the Upper-fp Shell Using GRETINA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clark, Roderick; Henry, Thomas; Bentley, Michael; E11025 Gretina@Msu Collaboration</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Isospin symmetry breaking in <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> of the upper-fp shell has been investigated in a recent experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) at Michigan State University (MSU). A 78Kr primary beam (with energy 150 MeV.A) was fragmented on a Be target to produce a cocktail of secondary beams, including 66As, 65Ge, and 64Ga, which were selected with the A1900 separator. These secondary beams were in turn fragmented at the target position of S800 magnetic spectrograph, which was used to identify <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> reaction products including 62,63Ga, 63Ge, and 65As. Gamma-rays emitted from excited states in these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> were detected with GRETINA, which comprises 28 highly-segmented, tapered hexagonal, close-packed HPGe and is a first generation gamma-ray tracking array. Many new states and transitions have been identified in these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> of the upper-fp shell, including a candidate for the T = 1 2+ state in 62Ga. Preliminary results from the analysis of this data will be presented and the implications for our understanding of isospin-symmetry breaking effects will be discussed. This work supported in part by the United States Department of Energy under grant no. DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NuPhA.368..153S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1981NuPhA.368..153S"><span>Alpha decay of <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> isotopes with 52 ≦ Z ≦ 55, including the new isotopes 106Te (T {1}/{2} = 60 μ s) and 110Xe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schardt, D.; Batsch, T.; Kirchner, R.; Klepper, O.; Kurcewicz, W.; Roeckl, E.; Tidemand-Petersson, P.</p> <p>1981-09-01</p> <p>Using 58Ni( 58Ni,. xpγn) reactions and on-line mass separation, the α-decays of very <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> isotopes of tellurium, iodine, xenon and cesium were studied. The new isotopes 106Te (T {1}/{2} = 60 -+μ s) and 110Xe were identified by their α-lines of 4160 ± 30 keV and 3737 ± 30 keV energy, respectively, with the genetic relationship between the two successive α-decays being verified experimentally, while for several other α-decaying isotopes more precise data were obtained. The observed α-decay properties are discussed within the systematics of energy and reduced width.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhRvC..43.1066F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1991PhRvC..43.1066F"><span>Decay studies of <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> near the Z=64 subshell: 142Dy, 140,142Tb, 140,142Gd, 140,142Eu, 142Sm, and 142Pm</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Firestone, R. B.; Gilat, J.; Nitschke, J. M.; Wilmarth, P. A.; Vierinen, K. S.</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>The electron-capture and β+-decay branchings (EC/β+) and delayed proton decays of A=142 isotopes with 61<=Z<=66 and A=140 isotopes with 63<=Z<=65 were investigated with the OASIS facility on-line at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory SuperHILAC. Electron capture and positron-decay emission probabilities have been determined for 142Pm and 142Sm decays, and extensive decay schemes have been constructed for 142Eug(2.34+/-0.12 s), 142Gd(70.2+/-0.6 s), 140Eu(1.51+/-0.02 s), and 140Gd(15.8+/-0.4 s). Decay schemes for the new isotopes 142Tbg(597+/-17 ms), 142Tbm(303+/-17 ms), 142Dy(2.3+/-0.3 s), 140Eum(125+/-2 ms), and 140Tb(2.4+/-0.2 s) are also presented. We have assigned γ rays to these isotopes on the basis of γγ and xγ coincidences, and from half-life determinations. Electron-capture and β+-decay branchings were measured for each decay, and β-delayed proton branchings were determined for 142Dy, 142Tb, and 140Tb decays. QEC values, derived from the measured EC/β+ branchings and the level schemes are compared with those from the Wapstra and Audi mass evaluation and the Liran and Zeldes mass calculation. The systematics of the N=77 isomer decays are discussed, and the intense 0+-->1+ and 1+-->0+ ground-state beta decays are compared with shell-model predictions for simple spin-flip transitions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatPh..11.1042H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatPh..11.1042H"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> 244Pu points to compact binary mergers as sites for heavy r-process nucleosynthesis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hotokezaka, Kenta; Piran, Tsvi; Paul, Michael</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The origin of heavy elements produced through rapid neutron capture (`r-process’) by seed <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is one of the current nucleosynthesis mysteries. Core collapse supernovae (cc-SNe; ref. ) and compact binary mergers are considered as possible sites. The first produces small amounts of material at a high event rate whereas the latter produces large amounts in rare events. Radioactive elements with the right lifetime can break the degeneracy between high-rate/low-yield and low-rate/high-yield scenarios. Among radioactive elements, most interesting is 244Pu (half-life of 81 million years), for which both the current accumulation of live 244Pu particles accreted via interstellar particles in the Earth’s deep-sea floor and the Early Solar System (ESS) abundances have been measured. Interestingly, the estimated 244Pu abundance in the current interstellar medium inferred from deep-sea measurements is significantly lower than that corresponding to the ESS measurements. Here we show that both the current and ESS abundances of 244Pu are naturally explained within the low-rate/high-yield scenario. The inferred event rate remarkably agrees with compact binary merger rates estimated from Galactic neutron star binaries and from short gamma-ray bursts. Furthermore, the ejected mass of r-process elements per event agrees with both theoretical and observational macronova/kilonova estimates.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/934718"><span>Climate response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.</p> <p>2007-03-26</p> <p>We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4794617"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J.; Vendetti, Jann E.; Ellingson, Ryan A.; Trowbridge, Cynthia D.; Hirano, Yayoi M.; Trathen, Danielle Y.; Rodriguez, Albert K.; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G.; Valdés, Ángel A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23671077"><span>182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-05-28</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of <5 × 10(-6), possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22561662','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22561662"><span>Changes in oxidative stress parameters in relation to age, growth and reproduction in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus reared in its natural environment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guerra, C; Zenteno-Savín, T; Maeda-Martínez, A N; Philipp, E E R; Abele, D</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>Increase in oxidative damage and decrease in cellular maintenance is often associated with aging, but, in marine ectotherms, both processes are also strongly influenced by somatic growth, maturation and reproduction. In this study, we used a single cohort of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> catarina scallop Argopecten ventricosus, to investigate the effects of somatic growth, reproduction and aging on oxidative damage parameters (protein carbonyls, TBARS and lipofuscin) and cellular maintenance mechanisms (antioxidant activity and apoptosis) in scallops, caged in their natural environment. The concentrations of protein carbonyls and TBARS increased steeply during the early period of fast growth and during reproduction in one-year-old scallops. However, oxidative damage was transient, and apoptotic cell death played a pivotal role in eliminating damage in gill, mantle and muscle tissues of young scallops. Animals were able to reproduce again in the second year, but the reduced intensity of apoptosis impaired subsequent removal of damaged cells. In late survivors low antioxidant capacity and apoptotic activity together with a fast accumulation of the age pigment lipofuscin was observed. Rates of oxygen consumption and oxidative stress markers were strongly dependent on somatic growth and reproductive state but not on temperature. Compared to longer-lived bivalves, A. ventricosus seems more susceptible to oxidative stress with higher tissue-specific protein carbonyl levels and fast accumulation of lipofuscin in animals surviving the second spawning. Superoxide dismutase activity and apoptotic cell death intensity were however higher in this <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> scallop than in longer-lived bivalves. The life strategy of this <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and intensely predated scallop supports rapid somatic growth and fitness as well as early maturation at young age at the cost of fast cellular degradation in second year scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3670341"><span>182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes in the early Solar System</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of <5 × 10−6, possibly reflecting their formation before canonical CAIs. Thus, FUN CAIs may provide a unique window into the earliest Solar System, including the origin of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163664','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26163664"><span>Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Larvae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Krug, Patrick J; Vendetti, Jann E; Ellingson, Ryan A; Trowbridge, Cynthia D; Hirano, Yayoi M; Trathen, Danielle Y; Rodriguez, Albert K; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G; Valdés, Ángel A</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> larvae, which led to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010NIMPA.624..101K"><span>Freshly induced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity as a measure of fission rates in lightly re-irradiated spent fuel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kröhnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M. F.; Chawla, R.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>A new measurement technique has been developed to determine fission rates in burnt fuel, following re-irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The development has been made in the frame of the LIFE@PROTEUS program at the Paul Scherrer Institute, which aims at characterizing the interfaces between fresh and highly burnt fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. To discriminate against the high intrinsic gamma-ray activity of the burnt fuel, the proposed measurement technique uses high-energy gamma-rays, above 2000 keV, emitted by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products freshly produced in the fuel. To demonstrate the feasibility of this technique, a fresh UO 2 sample and a 36 GWd/t burnt UO 2 sample were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their gamma-ray activities were recorded directly after irradiation. For both fresh and the burnt fuel samples, relative fission rates were derived for different core positions, based on the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 142La (2542 keV), 89Rb (2570 keV), 138Cs (2640 keV) and 95Y (3576 keV) gamma-ray lines. Uncertainties on the inter-position fission rate ratios were mainly due to the uncertainties on the net-area of the gamma-ray peaks and were about 1-3% for the fresh sample, and 3-6% for the burnt one. Thus, for the first time, it has been shown that the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gamma-ray activity, induced in burnt fuel by irradiation in a zero-power reactor, can be used as a quantitative measure of the fission rate. For both fresh and burnt fuel, the measured results agreed, within the uncertainties, with Monte Carlo (MCNPX) predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ChPhB..25e0701M"><span>Daily variation of radon gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21207617','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21207617"><span>First results using a new technology for measuring masses of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides with very high accuracy: The MISTRAL program at ISOLDE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Monsanglant, C.; Audi, G.; Conreur, G.; Cousin, R.; Doubre, H.; Jacotin, M.; Henry, S.; Kepinski, J.-F.; Lunney, D.; Saint Simon, M. de; Thibault, C.; Toader, C.; Bollen, G.; Lebee, G.; Scheidenberger, C.; Borcea, C.; Duma, M.; Kluge, H.-J.; Le Scornet, G.</p> <p>1999-11-16</p> <p>MISTRAL is an experimental program to measure masses of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides (T{sub 1/2} down to a few ms), with a very high accuracy (a few 10{sup -7}). There were three data taking periods with radioactive beams and 22 masses of isotopes of Ne, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, and Ti were measured. The systematic errors are now under control at the level of 8x10{sup -7}, allowing to come close to the expected accuracy. Even for the very weakly produced {sup 30}Na (1 ion at the detector per proton burst), the final accuracy is 7x10{sup -7}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7065457"><span>Sister chromatid exchange induced by <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> monoadducts produced by the bifunctional agents mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen. [CHO cells</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Linnainmaa, K.; Wolff, S.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>To see if DNA crosslinks are involved in the induction of sister chromated exchange (SCE), Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to two bifunctional alkylating agents,mitomycin C and 8-methoxypsoralen, and their monofunctional derivatives, decarbamoyl mitomycin C and angelicin. The data indicates that monoadducts, rather than crosslinks, are responsible for SCE formation. Furthermore, all agents but angelicin produced <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> lesions that led to SCEs in the first period of DNA replication after treatment (twin SCEs). In contrast, angelicin, like methyl methanesulfonate and N-acetoxyacetylaminofluorene, produced lesions that lasted more than one cycle, indicating that several different types of DNA lesions are capable of SCE induction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJMPE..10..209M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001IJMPE..10..209M"><span>Strongly Enhanced Low Energy α-Particle Decay in Heavy Actinide <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> and Long-Lived Superdeformed and Hyperdeformed Isomeric States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marinov, A.; Gelberg, S.; Kolb, D.; Weil, J. L.</p> <p></p> <p>Unidentified low energy and very enhanced α-particle groups have been observed in various actinide fractions produced via secondary reactions in a CERN W target which had been irradiated with 24-GeV protons. In particular, 5.14, 5.27 and 5.53 MeV α-particle groups with corresponding half-lives of 3.8+/-1.0 y, 625+/-84 d and 26+/-7d, have been seen in Bk, Es and Lr-No sources, respectively. The measured energies are a few MeV lower than the known ground state to ground state α-decays in the corresponding <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> actinide <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The half-lives are 104 to 107 shorter than expected from energy versus lifetime relationship for such low-energy α-particles in this region of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The deduced evaporation residue cross sections are in the mb region, about 104 times higher than expected. Not only is it impossible to identify these α-decays with any known activity in the whole nuclear chart, but they also could not be due to hypothetically unknown isomeric states in various conceivable <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, nor due to unknown isomeric states in the rare-earth region. Based on the fact that in other experiments we have found isomeric states in the second and third minima of the potential for other heavy ion reaction products, one can now understand in a quantitative way, both the unusual low energies, the unusual enhanced lifetimes and the unusual large production cross sections, in terms of production of similar isomeric states in appropriate actinide isotopes. Some consequences regarding the production of the long-lived superheavy elements are also discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..947..383E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AIPC..947..383E"><span>TOF-Bρ Mass Measurement of Neutron Rich <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> at the NSCL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Estradé, Alfredo; Matoš, Milan; Amthor, Matthew A.; Bazin, Daniel; Becerril, Ana D.; Elliot, Thom J.; Gade, Alexandra; Galaviz, Daniel; Lorusso, Giuseppe; Pereira, Jorge; Portillo, Mauricio; Rogers, Andrew; Schatz, Hendrik; Shapira, Dan; Smith, Edward; Stolz, Andreas; Wallace, Mark S.</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Experimental knowledge of nuclear masses of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is important for understanding nuclear structure far from the valley of β-stability, and as a direct input into astrophysical models. In the case of astrophysical processes involving neutron rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, such as nucleosynthesis during the r-process and the evolution of matter in the crust of an accreting neutron star, we are mostly limited to using theoretical mass models. The time of flight (TOF) mass measurement technique allows measuring very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. It has been effectively applied using the fast fragment beams produced at the A1900 fragment separator at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab (NSCL) to reach masses very far from stability. We describe a recent mass measurement experiment in the neutron rich Fe region performed at the NSCL, and present preliminary results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JChPh.146h1101D"><span>Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y.</p> <p>2017-02-01</p> <p>Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1267025','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1267025"><span>A generalized method for characterization of <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>239</sup>Pu content using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Knowles, Justin R.; Skutnik, Steven E.; Glasgow, David C.; Kapsimalis, Roger J.</p> <p>2016-06-23</p> <p>Rapid non-destructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis laboratory has developed a generalized non-destructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission products and capitalizes off of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a holistic characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% error have been conducted on standards of <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>239</sup>Pu as low as 12 nanograms in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing <sup>235</sup>U and <sup>239</sup>Pu have been characterized as low as 229 nanograms of fissile mass with less than 12% error. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. Furthermore, it is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation sources, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28249449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28249449"><span>Communication: Low-energy free-electron driven molecular engineering: In situ preparation of intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Davis, Daly; Sajeev, Y</p> <p>2017-02-28</p> <p>Molecular modification induced through the resonant attachment of a low energy electron (LEE) is a novel approach for molecular engineering. In this communication, we explore the possibility to use the LEE as a quantum tool for the in situ preparation of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> molecules. Using ab initio quantum chemical methods, this possibility is best illustrated for the in situ preparation of the intrinsically <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> carbon-carbon covalent dimer of CO from a glyoxal molecule. The chemical conversion of glyoxal to the covalent dimer of CO is initiated and driven by the resonant capture of a near 11 eV electron by the glyoxal molecule. The resulting two-particle one-hole (2p-1h) negative ion resonant state (NIRS) of the glyoxal molecule undergoes a barrierless radical dehydrogenation reaction and produces the covalent dimer of CO. The autoionization electron spectra from the 2p-1h NIRS at the dissociation limit of the dehydrogenation reaction provides access to the electronic states of the CO dimer. The overall process is an example of a catalytic electron reaction channel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27178214','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27178214"><span>The requirements of yeast Hsp70 of SSA family for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> and abnormal proteins.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Do Hee; Sherman, Michael Y; Goldberg, Alfred L</p> <p>2016-06-17</p> <p>Cytoplasmic Hsp70s of SSA family, especially Ssa1p, are involved in the degradation of a variety of misfolded proteins in yeast. However the importance of other Ssa proteins in this process is unclear. To clarify the role(s) of individual Ssa proteins in proteolysis, we measured the breakdown of various cell proteins in mutants lacking different Ssa proteins. In mutants lacking Ssa1p and Ssa2p, the proteasomal degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins was reduced, which was not restored fully by the over-expression of Ssa1p. By contrast, the degradation of stable cellular proteins did not require Ssa proteins. The degradation of the cytosolic model substrates (Ub-P-β-gal and R-β-gal) and their ubiquitylation were inhibited by the inactivation of Ssa proteins. In addition, Ssa1p and the co-chaperone Ydj1p are indispensable for the intracellular degradation of a mutant secretory protein, Siiyama variant of human antitrypsin. Our findings indicate that both Ssa1p and Ssa2p are essential for the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> proteins and the requirements of Ssa proteins and the co-chaperones widely vary depending on the conformations and folding status of the substrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28898860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28898860"><span>Direct detection of the triphenylpyrylium-derived <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates in the photocatalyzed degradation of acetaminophen, acetamiprid, caffeine and carbamazepine.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Martinez-Haya, R; Gomis, J; Arques, A; Amat, A M; Miranda, M A; Marin, M L</p> <p>2017-09-09</p> <p>Advanced oxidation processes are useful methodologies to accomplish abatement of contaminants; however, elucidation of the reaction mechanisms is hampered by the difficult detection of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> primary key species involved in the photocatalytic processes. Nevertheless, herein the combined use of an organic photocatalyst such as triphenylpyrylium (TPP(+)) and photophysical techniques based on emission and absorption spectroscopy allowed monitoring the photocatalyst-derived <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> intermediates. This methodology has been applied to the photocatalyzed degradation of different pollutants, such as acetaminophen, acetamiprid, caffeine and carbamazepine. First, photocatalytic degradation of a mixture of the pollutants showed that acetaminophen was the most easily photodegraded, followed by carbamazepine and caffeine, being the abatement of acetamiprid almost negligible. This process was accompanied by mineralization, as demonstrated by trapping of carbon dioxide using barium hydroxide. Then, emission spectroscopy measurements (steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence) allowed demonstrating quenching of the singlet excited state of TPP(+). Laser flash photolysis experiments with absorption detection showed that oxidation of contaminants is accompanied by TPP(+) reduction, with formation of a pyranyl radical (TPP), that constituted a fingerprint of the redox nature of the occurring process. The relative amounts of TPP detected was also correlated with the efficiency of the photodegradation process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22053849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22053849"><span>Development of radioactive ion beam production systems for Tokai Radioactive Ion Acceleration Complex--High temperature ion source for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Sato, T. K.; Matsuda, M.; Ichikawa, S.; Jeong, S. C.</p> <p>2010-02-15</p> <p>We have developed a new ion source system in the isotope separator on-line at Japan Atomic Energy Agency, for separation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes produced by proton-induced fission of {sup 238}U. The ion source system is a forced electron beam induced arc discharge version E type ion source with a target container. We successfully operated this system at 2000 deg. C as a result of reductions in volume of the ion source and the target container, introduction of heating method by electron bombardment, and improvement to the heat shield. This new ion source system was tested using {sup 238}U of 640 mg/cm{sup 2} with a proton primary beam of 30 MeV, 350 nA. Release times were measured for Kr, In, and Xe. The values of release times are 2.6 s for Kr, 1.8 s for In, and 4.6 s for Xe. In this work, the ion source system enabled us to mass-separate <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotopes such as {sup 93}Kr(T{sub 1/2}=1.286 s), {sup 129}In(T{sub 1/2}=0.61 s), and {sup 141}Xe(T{sub 1/2}=1.73 s) with intensity of 10{sup 3} ions/s.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166341','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/166341"><span>Heavy <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> far from stability in the N < 126, Z > 82 region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Back, B.B.; Blumenthal, D.J.; Carpenter, M.P.</p> <p>1995-08-01</p> <p>There are long-standing calculations suggesting that <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> in the N < 126, Z > 82 region far from stability exhibit deformation effects. Away from stability an observable permanent quadrupole deformation should be achieved but, as yet, there is no experimental evidence for such an effect. A series of experiments was performed to assess the production of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> in this region and to study their structure. These experiments were performed using gamma-ray spectroscopy to investigate the low-lying level schemes and alpha-particle spectroscopy in order to isolate fine structure in the decay. The low-lying level structure of the <span class="hlt">neutron-deficient</span> isotope {sup 202}Rn was studied, for the first time, using the {sup 181}Ta({sup 27}Al,6n) and {sup 192}Pt({sup 16}O,6n) reactions. Gamma-ray transitions between excited states in {sup 202}Rn were identified by mass tagging the Fragment Mass Analyzer and by observation of coincident X rays. Transitions in {sup 203}Rn were also identified. The level scheme deduced from these data is consistent with the systematics of light radon isotopes below the N = 126 shell closure and with theoretical calculations indicating that the ground-state shape should not be strongly deformed at N = 116.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91f4605P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhRvC..91f4605P"><span>Observation of mass-asymmetric fission of mercury <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> in heavy ion fusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Prasad, E.; Hinde, D. J.; Ramachandran, K.; Williams, E.; Dasgupta, M.; Carter, I. P.; Cook, K. J.; Jeung, D. Y.; Luong, D. H.; McNeil, S.; Palshetkar, C. S.; Rafferty, D. C.; Simenel, C.; Wakhle, A.; Khuyagbaatar, J.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Lommel, B.; Kindler, B.</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Background: Mass-asymmetric fission has been observed in low energy fission of 180Hg . Calculations predicted the persistence of asymmetric fission in this region even at excitation energies of 30-40 MeV. Purpose: To investigate fission mass distributions by populating different isotopes of Hg using heavy ion fusion reactions. Methods: Fission fragment mass-angle distributions have been measured for two reactions, 40Ca+142Nd and 13C+182W , populating 182Hg and 195Hg , respectively, using the Heavy Ion Accelerator Facility and CUBE spectrometer at the Australian National University. Measurements were made at beam energies around the capture barrier for the two reactions and mass ratio distributions were obtained using the kinematic reconstruction method. Results: Asymmetric fission has been observed following the population of 182Hg at an excitation energy of 22.8 MeV above the saddle point. A symmetric peaked mass ratio distribution was observed for 195Hg <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> at a similar excitation energy above the saddle point. Conclusions: Mass-asymmetric fission has been observed in <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> Hg <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> populated via heavy ion fusion for the first time. The results are consistent with observations from beta-delayed fission measurements and provide a proof-of-principle for expanding experimental studies of the influence of shell effects on the fission processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvC..84d4617Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011PhRvC..84d4617Z"><span>Production of heavy and superheavy neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> in neutron capture processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Mishustin, I. N.; Greiner, Walter</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>The neutron capture process is considered as an alternative method for production of superheavy (SH) <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. Strong neutron fluxes might be provided by nuclear reactors and nuclear explosions in the laboratory frame and by supernova explosions in nature. All these cases are discussed in the paper. There are two gaps of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> (one is the well-known fermium gap and the other one is located in the region of Z=106-108 and N˜170) which impede the formation of SH <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> by rather weak neutron fluxes realized at available nuclear reactors. We find that in the course of multiple (rather “soft”) nuclear explosions these gaps may be easily bypassed, and thus, a measurable amount of the neutron-rich long-living SH <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> located at the island of stability may be synthesized. Existing pulsed reactors do not allow one to bypass these gaps. We formulate requirements for the pulsed reactors of the next generation that could be used for production of long-living SH <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. Natural formation of SH <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> (in supernova explosions) is also discussed. The yield of SH <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> relative to lead is estimated to be about 10-12, which is not beyond the experimental sensitivity for a search of SH elements in cosmic rays.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=33567','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=33567"><span>Active galactic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fabian, Andrew C.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Active galactic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> are the most powerful, long-lived objects in the Universe. Recent data confirm the theoretical idea that the power source is accretion into a massive black hole. The common occurrence of obscuration and outflows probably means that the contribution of active galactic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> to the power density of the Universe has been generally underestimated. PMID:10220363</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008PhDT.......100K"><span>Development of a system for real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kiser, Matthew R.</p> <p></p> <p>Over the past 200 years, the Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2) concentration has increased by more than 35%, and climate experts predict that CO2 levels may double by the end of this century. Understanding the mechanisms of resource management in plants is fundamental for predicting how plants will respond to the increase in atmospheric CO 2. Plant productivity sustains life on Earth and is a principal component of the planet's system that regulates atmospheric CO2 concentration. As such, one of the central goals of plant science is to understand the regulatory mechanisms of plant growth in a changing environment. <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> positron-emitting radiotracer techniques provide time-dependent data that are critical for developing models of metabolite transport and resource distribution in plants and their microenvironments. To better understand the effects of environmental changes on resource transport and allocation in plants, we have developed a system for real-time measurements of rnetabolite transport in plants using <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radio-tracers. This thesis project includes the design, construction, and demonstration of the capabilities of this system for performing real-time measurements of metabolite transport in plants. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radiotracer system described in this dissertation takes advantage of the combined capabilities and close proximity of two research facilities at. Duke University: the Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) and the Duke University Phytotron, which are separated by approximately 100 meters. The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting radioisotopes are generated using the 10-MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator located in the main TUNL building, which provides the capability of producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> positron-emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 (11C: 20 minute half-life), nitrogen-13 (13N; 10 minute half-life), fluorine-18 (18F; 110 minute half-life), and oxygen-15 (15O; 2 minute half-life). The radioisotopes may</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013cgrs.conf..481M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013cgrs.conf..481M"><span>The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Exotic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> (anasen)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Matos, M.; Blackmon, J. C.; Gardiner, H. E.; Linhardt, L. E.; Macon, K. T.; Mondello, L. L.; Baby, L.; Johnson, E.; Koshchiy, E.; Rogachev, G.; Wiedenhöver, I.; Bardayan, D. W.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Experimental information about most reactions involving <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is limited. New facilities aim to provide wider access to unstable isotopes, but the limited intensities require more efficient and selective techniques and devices. The Array for Nuclear Astrophysics Studies with Exotic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> (ANASEN) is a charged-particle detector array designed primarily for studies of reactions important in the αp- and rp- processes with proton-rich exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The array consists of 40 silicon-strip detectors backed with CsI scintillators. The detectors cover an area of about 1300 cm2 providing essentially complete solid angle coverage for the reactions of interest with good energy and position resolution. ANASEN also includes a position-sensitive annular gas proportional counter that allows it to be used as an active gas target/detector. ANASEN is designed for direct measurement of (α,p) re-actions in inverse kinematics as well as for studies of proton elastic and inelastic scattering, (p, γ) reactions and transfer reactions. The array is being developed by Louisiana State University and Florida State University. Presently it is located at the RESOLUT radioacitve ion beam facility at FSU, where the first experiments are being performed. In the future, the array will be used at the ReA3 facility at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26240413','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26240413"><span>Isolation of <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl</p> <p>2015-08-03</p> <p>The isolation of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is often the first step in studying processes such as nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling, subcellular localization of proteins, and protein-chromatin or nuclear protein-protein interactions in response to diverse stimuli. Therefore, rapidly obtaining <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> from cells with relatively high purity and minimal subcellular contamination, protein degradation, or postharvesting modification is highly desirable. Historically, the isolation of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> involved a homogenization step followed by centrifugation through high-density glycerol or sucrose. Although clean <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with little cytoplasmic contamination can be prepared using this method, it is typically time consuming and can allow protein degradation, protein modification, and leaching of components from the <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> to occur. We have developed a rapid and simple fractionation method that is based on the selective dissolution of the cytoplasmic membrane (but not the nuclear membrane) using a low concentration of a nonionic detergent and rapid centrifugation steps. Here we describe important considerations when isolating <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> from cells, introduce our rapid method, and compare this method to a more traditional protocol for isolating <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, noting the strengths and limitations of each approach.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784185','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/784185"><span>First Results Using a New Technology for Measuring Masses of Very <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Nuclides with Very High Accuracy: the MISTRAL Program at ISOLDE</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>C. Monsanglant; C. Toader; G. Audi; G. Bollen; C. Borcea; G. Conreur; R. Cousin; H. Doubre; M. Duma; M. Jacotin; S. Henry; J.-F. Kepinski; H.-J. Kluge; G. Lebee; G. Le Scornet; D. Lunney; M. de Saint Simon; C. Scheidenberger; C. Thibault</p> <p>1999-12-31</p> <p>MISTRAL is an experimental program to measure masses of very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclides (T{sub 1/2} down to a few ms), with a very high accuracy (a few 10{sup -7}). There were three data taking periods with radioactive beams and 22 masses of isotopes of Ne, Na{clubsuit}, Mg, Al{clubsuit}, K, Ca, and Ti were measured. The systematic errors are now under control at the level of 8x10{sup -7}, allowing to come close to the expected accuracy. Even for the very weakly produced {sup 30}Na (1 ion at the detector per proton burst), the final accuracy is 7x10{sup -7}.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5885849"><span>Direct determination of nuclear polarization produced by beam-foil interaction for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>. beta. emitter /sup 12/B</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nojiri, Y.; Deutch, B.I.</p> <p>1983-07-18</p> <p>Nuclear polarization P of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ..beta.. emitter /sup 12/B was produced by the beam-foil interaction and directly determined via asymmetric ..beta.. decay. For a single tilted foil, at boron energy E/sub B/ = 1.0 MeV, Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 1.82(14)%. This was enhanced to Vertical BarPVertical Bar = 4.69(46)% by stacking four tilted foils. The dependence of P vs E/sub B/ was observed for a single tilted foil in the range of E/sub B/ = 0.6 to 1.3 MeV. The sign of P followed that of the tilt angle and was consistent with predictions from electron-density-gradient models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JFuE...29..421S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JFuE...29..421S"><span>Design a 10 kJ IS Mather Type Plasma Focus for Solid Target Activation to Produce <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Adlparvar, S.; Sheibani, S.; Elahi, M.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Zirak, A. R.; Alhooie, S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Khalaj, M. M.; Khanchi, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Kashani, A.; Zahedi, F.</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>A 10 kJ (15 kV, 88 μF) IS (Iranian Sun) Mather type plasma focus device has been studied to determine the activity of a compound exogenous carbon solid target through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The produced 13N is a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope with a half-life of 9.97 min and threshold energy of 0.28 MeV. The results indicate that energetic deuterons impinging on the solid target can produce yield of = 6.7 × 10-5 with an activity of A = 6.8 × 104 Bq for one plasma focus shut and A ν = 4 × 105 Bq for 6 shut per mint when the projectile maximum deuterons energy is E max = 3 MeV.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6992109','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6992109"><span>Osteosarcoma risk after simultaneous incorporation of the long-lived radionuclide sup 227 Ac and the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide sup 227 Th</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mueller, W.A.M.; Murray, A.B.; Linzner, U.; Luz, A. )</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>The effect of injection of 1.85 kBq/kg of the long-lived radionuclide {sup 227}Ac on the induction of osteosarcomas in female NMRI mice by different dose levels (18.5, 74, and 185 kBq/kg) of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 227}Th was investigated. The highest absolute osteosarcoma incidence was observed with the highest doses of {sup 227}Th. Addition of {sup 227}Ac resulted in an additional osteosarcoma incidence only at the lowest dose of {sup 227}Th and did not affect the osteosarcoma incidence resulting from higher doses of {sup 227}Th. The longest times to tumor appearance were observed with {sup 227}Ac alone. The latent period in two different age groups (4 weeks and 10-12 weeks) appeared to be similar following injection with combined doses of {sup 227}Th and {sup 227}Ac but different after injection of each radionuclide alone.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22356691"><span>Triggering collapse of the presolar dense cloud core and injecting <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes with a shock wave. III. Rotating three-dimensional cloud cores</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2014-06-10</p> <p>A key test of the supernova triggering and injection hypothesis for the origin of the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes is to reproduce the inferred initial abundances of these isotopes. We present here the most detailed models to date of the shock wave triggering and injection process, where shock waves with varied properties strike fully three-dimensional, rotating, dense cloud cores. The models are calculated with the FLASH adaptive mesh hydrodynamics code. Three different outcomes can result: triggered collapse leading to fragmentation into a multiple protostar system; triggered collapse leading to a single protostar embedded in a protostellar disk; or failure to undergo dynamic collapse. Shock wave material is injected into the collapsing clouds through Rayleigh-Taylor fingers, resulting in initially inhomogeneous distributions in the protostars and protostellar disks. Cloud rotation about an axis aligned with the shock propagation direction does not increase the injection efficiency appreciably, as the shock parameters were chosen to be optimal for injection even in the absence of rotation. For a shock wave from a core-collapse supernova, the dilution factors for supernova material are in the range of ∼10{sup –4} to ∼3 × 10{sup –4}, in agreement with recent laboratory estimates of the required amount of dilution for {sup 60}Fe and {sup 26}Al. We conclude that a type II supernova remains as a promising candidate for synthesizing the solar system's <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes shortly before their injection into the presolar cloud core by the supernova's remnant shock wave.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22395693"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> species detection of nitrous acid by external-cavity quantum cascade laser based quartz-enhanced photoacoustic absorption spectroscopy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Yi, Hongming; Maamary, Rabih; Fertein, Eric; Chen, Weidong; Gao, Xiaoming; Sigrist, Markus W.</p> <p>2015-03-09</p> <p>Spectroscopic detection of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) at 1254.85 cm{sup −1} was realized by off-beam coupled quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS) in conjunction with an external cavity quantum cascade lasers (EC-QCL). High sensitivity monitoring of HONO was performed within a very small gas-sample volume (of ∼40 mm{sup 3}) allowing a significant reduction (of about 4 orders of magnitude) of air sampling residence time which is highly desired for accurate quantification of chemically reactive <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> species. Calibration of the developed QEPAS-based HONO sensor was carried out by means of lab-generated HONO samples whose concentrations were determined by direct absorption spectroscopy involving a ∼109.5 m multipass cell and a distributed feedback QCL. A minimum detection limit (MDL) of 66 ppbv (1 σ) HONO was achieved at 70 mbar using a laser output power of 50 mW and 1 s integration time, which corresponded to a normalized noise equivalent absorption coefficient of 3.6 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} W/Hz{sup 1/2}. This MDL was down to 7 ppbv at the optimal integration time of 150 s. The corresponding 1σ minimum detected absorption coefficient is ∼1.1 × 10{sup −7 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 3 ppbv) in 1 s and ∼1.1 × 10{sup −8 }cm{sup −1} (MDL ∼ 330 pptv) in 150 s, respectively, with 1 W laser power.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=radioactive+AND+decay&pg=2&id=EJ187340','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=radioactive+AND+decay&pg=2&id=EJ187340"><span>Exotic Light <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cerny, Joseph; Poskanzer, Arthur M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Among the light elements, <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with unequal numbers of protons and neutrons are highly unstable. Some survive just long enough to be detected and exhibit unusual regimes of radioactive decay. ( Autor/MA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ187340.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ187340.pdf"><span>Exotic Light <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cerny, Joseph; Poskanzer, Arthur M.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Among the light elements, <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with unequal numbers of protons and neutrons are highly unstable. Some survive just long enough to be detected and exhibit unusual regimes of radioactive decay. ( Autor/MA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AREPS..16..273A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1988AREPS..16..273A"><span>Observations of cometary <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>A'Hearn, M. F.</p> <p></p> <p>Attempts to observe cometary <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and to determine fundamental physical parameters relevant to the relationship between comets and asteroids are reviewed. It has been found that cometary <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, at least of periodic comets, are bigger and blacker than generally thought as recently as five years ago. Geometric albedos may be typically three percent and typical radii are probably of order 5 km. <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> of periodic comets are probably highly prolate unless they are both oblate and rotating about one of the major axes. P/Halley images provide convincing evidence of the existence of mantles discussed in many models. Numerous pieces of evidence suggest a connection between cometary <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and A-A asteroids of types D and C.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1340283','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/1340283"><span>Charge radii of <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> <math display='inline'><mrow><mmultiscripts><mrow><mi>Fe</mi></mrow><mprescripts/><none/><mrow><mn>52</mn><mo>,</mo><mn>53</mn></mrow></mmultiscripts></mrow></math> produced by projectile fragmentation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Minamisono, K.; Rossi, D. M.; Beerwerth, R.; Fritzsche, S.; Garand, D.; Klose, A.; Liu, Y.; MaaB, B.; Mantica, P. F.; Miller, A. J.; Muller, P.; Nazarewicz, W.; Nortershauser, W.; Olsen, E.; Pearson, M. R.; Reinhard, P. -G.; Saperstein, E. E.; Sumithrarachchi, C.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.</p> <p>2016-12-15</p> <p>Bunched-beam collinear laser spectroscopy is performed on <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> <sup>52,53</sup>Fe prepared through in-flight separation followed by a gas stopping. This novel scheme is a major step to reach nuclides far from the stability line in laser spectroscopy. Differential mean-square charge radii δ$\\langle$r<sup>2</sup>$\\rangle$ of <sup>52,53</sup>Fe are determined relative to stable <sup>56</sup>Fe as δ$\\langle$r2$\\rangle$<sup>56,52</sup>=$-$0.034(13) fm<sup>2</sup> and δ$\\langle$r<sup>2</sup>$\\rangle$56,53=$-$0.218(13) fm<sup>2</sup>, respectively, from the isotope shift of atomic hyperfine structures. The multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method is used to calculate atomic factors to deduce δ$\\langle$r<sup>2</sup>$\\rangle$. The values of δ$\\langle$r<sup>2</sup>$\\rangle$ exhibit a minimum at the N=28 neutron shell closure. The nuclear density functional theory with Fayans and Skyrme energy density functionals is used to interpret the data. As a result, the trend of δ$\\langle$r<sup>2</sup>$\\rangle$ along the Fe isotopic chain results from an interplay between single-particle shell structure, pairing, and polarization effects and provides important data for understanding the intricate trend in the δ$\\langle$r<sup>2</sup>$\\rangle$ of closed-shell Ca isotopes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940023412','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940023412"><span>Radiations from hot <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Malik, F. Bary</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The investigation indicates that <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with excitation energy of a few hundred MeV to BeV are more likely to radiate hot nuclear clusters than neutrons. These daughter clusters could, furthermore, de-excite emitting other hot <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, and the chain continues until these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> cool off sufficiently to evaporate primarily neutrons. A few GeV excited <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> could radiate elementary particles preferentially over neutrons. Impact of space radiation with materials (for example, spacecraft) produces highly excited <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> which cool down emitting electromagnetic and particle radiations. At a few MeV excitation energy, neutron emission becomes more dominant than gamma-ray emission and one often attributes the cooling to take place by successive neutron decay. However, a recent experiment studying the cooling process of 396 MeV excited Hg-190 casts some doubt on this thinking, and the purpose of this investigation is to explore the possibility of other types of nuclear emission which might out-compete with neutron evaporation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008pun..conf.....K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008pun..conf.....K"><span>Physics of Unstable <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Khoa, Dao Tien; Egelhof, Peter; Gales, Sydney; Giai, Nguyen Van; Motobayashi, Tohru</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p>Studies at the RIKEN RI beam factory / T. Motobayashi -- Dilute nuclear states / M. Freer -- Studies of exotic systems using transfer reactions at GANIL / D. Beaumel et al. -- First results from the Magnex large-acceptance spectrometer / A. Cunsolo et al. -- The ICHOR project and spin-isospin physics with unstable beams / H. Sakai -- Structure and low-lying states of the [symbol]He exotic nucleus via direct reactions on proton / V. Lapoux et al. -- Shell gap below [symbol]Sn based on the excited states in [symbol]Cd and [symbol]In / M. Górska -- Heavy neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> produced in the fragmentation of a [symbol]Pb beam / Zs. Podolyák et al. -- Breakup and incomplete fusion in reactions of weakly-bound <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> / D.J. Hinde et al. -- Excited states of [symbol]B and [symbol]He and their cluster aspect / Y. Kanada-En'yo et al. -- Nuclear reactions with weakly-bound systems: the treatment of the continuum / C. H. Dasso, A. Vitturi -- Dynamic evolution of three-body decaying resonances / A. S. Jensen et al. -- Prerainbow oscillations in [symbol]He scattering from the Hoyle state of [symbol]C and alpha particle condensation / S. Ohkubo, Y. Hirabayashi -- Angular dispersion behavior in heavy ion elastic scattering / Q. Wang et al. -- Microscopic optical potential in relativistic approach / Z.Yu. Ma et al. -- Exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> studied in direct reactions at low momentum transfer - recent results and future perspectives at fair / P. Egelhof -- Isotopic temperatures and symmetry energy in spectator fragmentation / M. De Napoli et al. -- Multi-channel algebraic scattering theory and the structure of exotic compound <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> / K. Amos et al. -- Results for the first feasibility study for the EXL project at the experimental storage ring at GSI / N. Kalantar-Nayestanaki et al. -- Coulomb excitation of ISOLDE neutron-rich beams along the Z = 28 chain / P. Van Duppen -- The gamma decay of the pygmy resonance far from stability and the GDR at finite temperature / G. Benzoni et al</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A53D0207S"><span><span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1613982P"><span>The very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> ozone depleting substance CHBr3 (bromoform): Revised UV absorption spectrum, atmospheric lifetime and ozone depletion potential</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Papanastasiou, Dimitrios K.; McKeen, Stuart A.; Burkholder, James B.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>CHBr3 (bromoform) is a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> atmospheric trace gas primarily of natural origin that represents a source of reactive bromine (Bry; Br + BrO) in the troposphere as well as the stratosphere. The transport of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> brominated species, and their brominated degradation products, to the stratosphere is known to be particularly impactful to stratospheric ozone due to the high efficiency of ozone destruction cycles involving bromine. Evaluating the impact of CHBr3 on stratospheric ozone requires not only a thorough understanding of its emissions, but also its atmospheric loss processes, which are primarily UV photolysis and reaction with the OH radical. The total global lifetime of CHBr3 is ~24 days and is mostly governed by its photolytic loss. Therefore, accurate CHBr3 UV absorption cross section data for wavelengths (Λ) in the actinic region, greater than 290 nm, are needed to calculate its photolysis loss rate. Currently, there is a single study (Moortgat et al., Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 1993; Vol. 17) that reports CHBr3 UV absorption cross sections and their temperature dependence in a wavelength and temperature range applicable for atmospheric photolysis rate calculations. However, there are indications that the reported longer wavelength cross section data, in the Moortgrat et al. study, might be subject to systematic errors which possibly lead to erroneous CHBr3 atmospheric photolysis rate calculations and a misleading picture of its impact on stratospheric ozone. In this study, UV absorption cross sections, σ(Λ,T), for CHBr3 were measured at wavelengths between 300 and 345 nm at temperatures between 260 and 330 K using cavity ring-down spectroscopy. A thorough investigation of possible sources of systematic error in the measurements is presented. The present UV absorption cross sections at longer wavelength (>310 nm) are systematically lower compared to currently recommended values for use in atmospheric models, with the deviation being</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-hubble-view-wolf-rayet-stars-intense-and-short-lived_18731205164_o.html','SCIGOVIMAGE-NASA'); return false;" href="https://images.nasa.gov/#/details-hubble-view-wolf-rayet-stars-intense-and-short-lived_18731205164_o.html"><span>Intense and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://images.nasa.gov/">NASA Image and Video Library</a></p> <p></p> <p>2015-06-29</p> <p>This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope picture shows a galaxy named SBS 1415+437 or SDSS CGB 12067.1, located about 45 million light-years from Earth. SBS 1415+437 is a Wolf–Rayet galaxy, a type of starbursting galaxy with an unusually high number of extremely hot and massive stars known as Wolf–Rayet stars. These stars can be around 20 times as massive as the Sun, but seem to be on a mission to shed surplus mass as quickly as possible — they blast substantial winds of particles out into space, causing them to dwindle at a rapid rate. A typical star of this type can lose a mass equal to that of our Sun in just 100 000 years! These massive stars are also incredibly hot, with surface temperatures some 10 to 40 times that of the Sun, and very luminous, glowing at tens of thousands to several million times the brightness of the Sun. Many of the brightest and most massive stars in the Milky Way are Wolf–Rayet stars. Because these stars are so intense they do not last very long, burning up their fuel and blasting their bulk out into the cosmos on very short timescale ‒ only a few hundred thousand years. Because of this it is unusual to find more than a few of these stars per galaxy — except in Wolf–Rayet galaxies, like the one in this image.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S43E..07F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.S43E..07F"><span><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Supershear Rupture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fukuyama, E.; Xu, S.; Yamashita, F.; Mizoguchi, K.; Takizawa, S.; Kawakata, H.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Fukuyama and Olsen (2002) computed the supershear rupture initiation, propagation and termination process due to a passage of high stress drop area (called asperity) using a boundary integral equation method. They found that supershear rupture continued to propagate after the passage through high stress drop area but it died after a certain propagation distance, which depends on the elastic energy released at the high stress drop area. Here, we could reproduce a similar phenomenon in the laboratory. We conducted large-scale biaxial friction experiments using a pair of meter-scaled metagabbro rock specimens (VP=6.9km/s, VS=3.6km/s) at the National Research institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED). We observed several stick slip rupture events that initiated close to an asperity and immediately became supershear ruptures. But after propagating certain distance they died out and co-existing subshear ruptures became prominent. If we look into details, during the supershear rupture, we could see a sequence of rupture acceleration, its short rest and re-acceleration. This feature reminds us of a sequential breakage of small high stress patches as predicted by Fukuyama and Madariaga (2000). These observations might be interpreted under a concept of energy balance where the energy transmission from strain energy released by the asperity to fracture energy consumed at the crack tip was not instantaneously balanced in space. This could be related to the fact that earthquake rupture velocity is rather smooth reported from the finite fault analysis of large earthquakes with seismic waveforms. References Fukuyama, E. and R. Madariaga (2000) Dynamic propagation and interaction of a rupture front on a planar fault, PAGEOPH, 257, 1959-1979. Fukuyama, E. and K.B. Olsen (2002) A condition for super-shear rupture propagation in a heterogeneous stress field, PAGEOPH, 159, 2047-2056.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACP....14.3557W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and Southeast Asia during 2009-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLB-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ∼100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ACPD...1329947W"><span>Very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes measured by the CARIBIC observatory over the North Atlantic, Africa and South-East Asia during 2009-2013</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wisher, A.; Oram, D. E.; Laube, J. C.; Mills, G. P.; van Velthoven, P.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> organic brominated compounds make up a significant part (~20%) of the organic bromine budget in the atmosphere. Emissions of these compounds are highly variable and there are limited measurements, particularly in the extra-tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere and tropical troposphere. Measurements of five <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bromomethanes (VSLB) were made in air samples collected on the CARIBIC project aircraft over three flight routes; Germany to Venezuela/Columbia during 2009-2011, Germany to South Africa during 2010 and 2011 and Germany to Thailand/Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia during 2012 and 2013. In the tropical troposphere, as the most important entrance region to the stratosphere, we observe a total mean organic bromine derived from these compounds across all flights at 10-12 km altitude of 3.4 ± 1.5 ppt. Individual mean tropical tropospheric mixing ratios across all flights were 0.43, 0.74, 0.14, 0.23 and 0.11 ppt for CHBr3, CH2Br2, CHBr2Cl, CHBrCl2 and CH2BrCl respectively. The highest levels of VSLS-derived bromine (4.20 ± 0.56 ppt) were observed in flights between Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur indicating that the South China Sea is an important source region for these compounds. Across all routes, CHBr3 and CH2Br2 accounted for 34% (4.7-71) and 48% (14-73) respectively of total bromine derived from the analysed VSLB in the tropical mid-upper troposphere totalling 82% (54-89). In samples collected between Germany and Venezuela/Columbia, we find decreasing mean mixing ratios with increasing potential temperature in the extra-tropics. Tropical mean mixing ratios are higher than extra-tropical values between 340-350 K indicating that rapid uplift is important in determining mixing ratios in the lower tropical tropopause layer in the West Atlantic tropics. O3 was used as a tracer for stratospherically influenced air and we detect rapidly decreasing mixing ratios for all VSLB above ~100 ppb O3 corresponding to the extra-tropical tropopause layer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGS22A..03L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUSMGS22A..03L"><span>Increased Concentrations of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.</p> <p>2007-05-01</p> <p>The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395529-renewed-search-short-lived-sn-early-solar-system-hydride-generation-mc-icpms-high-sensitivity-te-isotopic-analysis','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395529-renewed-search-short-lived-sn-early-solar-system-hydride-generation-mc-icpms-high-sensitivity-te-isotopic-analysis"><span>A renewed search for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 126 Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; ...</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence mostly in the form of <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> radionuclidespresent in the early Solar System are potentially consistent with this hypothesis but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of Sn-126 is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (Sn-126 -> Te-126 t(1/2) = 235 ky) the discovery of extant Sn-126 would provide unequivocal proof ofmore » supernova input to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of Sn-126 by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te-an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system when coupled to a MC-ICPMS enables highprecision Te isotopic analyses on samples with < 10 ng of Te. We used this technique to analyze Te from a unique set of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios facilitating the search for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope Sn-126. This sample set shows no evidence of live Sn-126 implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/859189"><span>IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell</p> <p>2005-07-11</p> <p>For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..331B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017GeCoA.201..331B"><span>A renewed search for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 126Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Souders, Amanda K.; Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Marks, Naomi E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System, many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence, mostly in the form of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides present in the early Solar System, are potentially consistent with this hypothesis, but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of 126Sn is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (126Sn→126Te, t1/2 = 235 ky), the discovery of extant 126Sn would provide unequivocal proof of supernova input to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of 126Sn by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus, here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te-an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system, when coupled to a MC-ICPMS, enables high-precision Te isotopic analyses on samples with <10 ng of Te. We used this technique to analyze Te from a unique set of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios, facilitating the search for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 126Sn. This sample set shows no evidence of live 126Sn, implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However, based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te, as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395502-renewed-search-short-lived-sn-early-solar-system-hydride-generation-mc-icpms-high-sensitivity-te-isotopic-analysis','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1395502-renewed-search-short-lived-sn-early-solar-system-hydride-generation-mc-icpms-high-sensitivity-te-isotopic-analysis"><span>A renewed search for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 126 Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGES</a></p> <p>Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; ...</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System, many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence, mostly in the form of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides present in the early Solar System, are potentially consistent with this hypothesis, but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of 126Sn is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (126Sn→126Te, t1/2 = 235 ky), the discovery of extant 126Sn would provide unequivocal proof of supernova inputmore » to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of 126Sn by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus, here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te—an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system, when coupled to a MC-ICPMS, enables high-precision Te isotopic analyses on samples with <10 ng of Te. We used this technique to analyze Te from a unique set of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios, facilitating the search for the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> isotope 126Sn. This sample set shows no evidence of live 126Sn, implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However, based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te, as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016PhLB..757..426B"><span>The possibility to measure the magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles (charm and beauty baryons) at LHC and FCC energies using the phenomenon of spin rotation in crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baryshevsky, V. G.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The use of spin rotation effect in bent crystals for measuring the magnetic moment of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles in the range of LHC and FCC energies is considered. It is shown that the estimated number of produced baryons that are captured into a bent crystal grows as ∼γ 3 / 2 with increasing particle energy. Hence it may be concluded that the experimental measurement of magnetic moments of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> particles using the spin rotation effect is feasible at LHC and higher energies (for LHC energies, e.g., the running time required for measuring the magnetic moment of Λc+ is 2 ÷ 16 hours).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ARNPS..63..383H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ARNPS..63..383H"><span>Search for Superheavy <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamilton, J. H.; Hofmann, S.; Oganessian, Y. T.</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>We describe the discoveries of new superheavy <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> (a) with Z=107-112 produced in cold fusion reactions between 208Pb and 209Bi and beams of A > 50 and (b) with Z=113-118 in hot fusion reactions between actinide <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and 48Ca. We also discuss the facilities used in these measurements. We compare the behavior of the β-decay energies and half-lives, spontaneous fission half-lives, cross sections, and excitation functions with expectations from theoretical calculations. Finally, we outline future research directions, including studies of the detailed properties of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> synthesized at higher yields, searches for new elements with Z=119 and 120, and developments of new facilities.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969704','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/969704"><span>Scattering Of Light <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R</p> <p>2009-12-15</p> <p>The exact treatment of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJMPE..2640001B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017IJMPE..2640001B"><span>The shapes of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bertsch, G. F.</p> <p></p> <p>Gerry Brown initiated some early studies on the coexistence of different nuclear shapes. The subject has continued to be of interest and is crucial for understanding nuclear fission. We now have a very good picture of the potential energy surface with respect to shape degrees of freedom in heavy <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, but the dynamics remain problematic. In contrast, the early studies on light <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> were quite successful in describing the mixing between shapes. Perhaps a new approach in the spirit of the old calculations could better elucidate the character of the fission dynamics and explain phenomena that current theory does not model well.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyU...55..137K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PhyU...55..137K"><span>Disintegration of comet <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ksanfomality, Leonid V.</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>The breaking up of comets into separate pieces, each with its own tail, was seen many times by astronomers of the past. The phenomenon was in sharp contrast to the idea of the eternal and unchangeable celestial firmament and was commonly believed to be an omen of impending disaster, especially for comets with tails stretching across half the sky. It is only now that we have efficient enough space exploration tools to see comet <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and even - in the particular case of small comet Hartley-2 in 2010 - to watch their disintegration stage. There are also other suspected candidates for disintegration in the vast family of comet <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> and other Solar System bodies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......219B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990PhDT.......219B"><span>Low-Temperature Nuclear Orientation Studies of <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> Far from Stability</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brown, Daniel Edward</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. In recent years, Low Temperature Nuclear Orientation (LTNO) has become an important technique in the study of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> far from stability. LTNO experiments can yield information about magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments and about level schemes and electromagnetic decay properties. The theory of LTNO is reviewed. Often the most interesting <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> have short halflives (<2 hours) and must be produced "on site" by nuclear reactions before undergoing mass selection and direct implantation into cold equipment. At CERN, a new facility (NICOLE) has recently been set up at the ISOLDE -3 isotope separator and a description of this system is given. One of the major current interests in nuclear physics is to study transitional <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> which lie between well known regions of spherical and deformed <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The <span class="hlt">neutron</span> <span class="hlt">deficient</span> Tellurium and Iodine isotopes are examples of such <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. In both cases, the influence of a pi g_{9/2} intruder orbital is expected to be strong at low excitation energies and at A ~ 120. The ^ {120}Te decay scheme has been investigated in detail by LTNO supported by gamma-gamma coincidences and conversion electron spectroscopy. An interpretation of the level scheme using an IBM-2 calculation which allows for mixing between the ground state and a (4p-2h) intruder state is made. The success of this calculation provides strong evidence for the existence of the intruder configuration in ^{120}Te. In addition, the relative electric quadrupole moments of the ground states in ^{120-123}I have been measured. The absence of a measurable quadrupole moment in ^{120}I ^{g} supports the idea that this state is the spherical companion of the coexisting, well deformed pi g_{9/2} isomer. The trend in quadrupole moments also provides strong evidence for the existence of an N = 64 sub shell gap which is needed to explain the corresponding magnetic dipole moments. The light Platinum</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015ACP....15.8889M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Mills, G. E.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a byproduct of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focused on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health and vegetation impacts, but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve owing to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner. The review shows that there remain a number of clear challenges for ozone such as explaining surface trends, incorporating new chemical understanding, ozone-climate coupling, and a better assessment of impacts. There is a clear and present need to treat ozone across the range of scales, a transboundary issue, but with an emphasis on the hemispheric scales. New observational opportunities are offered both by satellites and small sensors that bridge the scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014ACPD...1432709M"><span>Tropospheric ozone and its precursors from the urban to the global scale from air quality to <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcer</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Monks, P. S.; Archibald, A. T.; Colette, A.; Cooper, O.; Coyle, M.; Derwent, R.; Fowler, D.; Granier, C.; Law, K. S.; Stevenson, D. S.; Tarasova, O.; Thouret, V.; von Schneidemesser, E.; Sommariva, R.; Wild, O.; Williams, M. L.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Ozone holds a certain fascination in atmospheric science. It is ubiquitous in the atmosphere, central to tropospheric oxidation chemistry, yet harmful to human and ecosystem health as well as being an important greenhouse gas. It is not emitted into the atmosphere but is a by-product of the very oxidation chemistry it largely initiates. Much effort is focussed on the reduction of surface levels of ozone owing to its health impacts but recent efforts to achieve reductions in exposure at a country scale have proved difficult to achieve due to increases in background ozone at the zonal hemispheric scale. There is also a growing realisation that the role of ozone as a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate pollutant could be important in integrated air quality climate-change mitigation. This review examines current understanding of the processes regulating tropospheric ozone at global to local scales from both measurements and models. It takes the view that knowledge across the scales is important for dealing with air quality and climate change in a synergistic manner.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...844..113B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017ApJ...844..113B"><span>Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. V. Nonisothermal Collapse Regime</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.</p> <p>2017-08-01</p> <p>Recent meteoritical analyses support an initial abundance of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) 60Fe that may be high enough to require nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova, followed by rapid incorporation into primitive meteoritical components, rather than a scenario where such isotopes were inherited from a well-mixed region of a giant molecular cloud polluted by a variety of supernovae remnants and massive star winds. This paper continues to explore the former scenario, by calculating three-dimensional, adaptive mesh refinement, hydrodynamical code (FLASH 2.5) models of the self-gravitational, dynamical collapse of a molecular cloud core that has been struck by a thin shock front with a speed of 40 km s-1, leading to the injection of shock front matter into the collapsing cloud through the formation of Rayleigh-Taylor fingers at the shock-cloud intersection. These models extend the previous work into the nonisothermal collapse regime using a polytropic approximation to represent compressional heating in the optically thick protostar. The models show that the injection efficiencies of shock front materials are enhanced compared to previous models, which were not carried into the nonisothermal regime, and so did not reach such high densities. The new models, combined with the recent estimates of initial 60Fe abundances, imply that the supernova triggering and injection scenario remains a plausible explanation for the origin of the SLRIs involved in the formation of our solar system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798159','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27798159"><span><span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Antigen Recognition but Not Viral Infection at a Defined Checkpoint Programs Effector CD4 T Cells To Become Protective Memory.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bautista, Bianca L; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; McKinstry, K Kai; Strutt, Tara M; Vong, Allen M; Jones, Michael C; Kuang, Yi; Mott, Daniel; Swain, Susan L</p> <p>2016-11-15</p> <p>Although memory CD4 T cells are critical for effective immunity to pathogens, the mechanisms underlying their generation are still poorly defined. We find that following murine influenza infection, most effector CD4 T cells undergo apoptosis unless they encounter cognate Ag at a defined stage near the peak of effector generation. Ag recognition at this memory checkpoint blocks default apoptosis and programs their transition to long-lived memory. Strikingly, we find that viral infection is not required, because memory formation can be restored by the addition of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, Ag-pulsed APC at this checkpoint. The resulting memory CD4 T cells express an enhanced memory phenotype, have increased cytokine production, and provide protection against lethal influenza infection. Finally, we find that memory CD4 T cell formation following cold-adapted influenza vaccination is boosted when Ag is administered during this checkpoint. These findings imply that persistence of viral Ag presentation into the effector phase is the key factor that determines the efficiency of memory generation. We also suggest that administering Ag at this checkpoint may improve vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525...55B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JHyd..525...55B"><span>Combining radon, <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium isotopes and hydrodynamic modeling to assess submarine groundwater discharge from an anthropized semiarid watershed to a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baudron, Paul; Cockenpot, Sabine; Lopez-Castejon, Francisco; Radakovitch, Olivier; Gilabert, Javier; Mayer, Adriano; Garcia-Arostegui, José Luis; Martinez-Vicente, David; Leduc, Christian; Claude, Christelle</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>In highly anthropized watersheds, surface water tributaries may carry unexpected high quantities of radon and radium to coastal lagoons. Investigating submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) with radionuclide tracers is therefore a complex task. In order to quantify SGD and decipher the influence of the different water sources, we combined a radon (222Rn) and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radium (223Ra, 224Ra) survey with the hydrodynamic modeling of a lagoon. We applied it to the Mar Menor lagoon (SE Spain) where surface water tributaries and undocumented emissaries carry water from groundwater drainage and brines from groundwater desalinization. We identified the areas of influence of the plume of radionuclides from the river, located major areas of SGD and proposed a location for two submarine emissaries. Porewater, i.e. interstitial water from underlying sediments, was found to be the most representative SGD end member, compared to continental groundwater collected from piezometers. Mass balances in winter and summer seasons provided yearly SGD fluxes of water of 0.4-2.2 ṡ 108 m3/y (222Rn), 4.4-19.0 ṡ 108 m3/y (224Ra) and 1.3 ṡ 108 m3/y (223Ra, measured in winter only). Tidal pumping was identified as a main driver for recirculated saline groundwater, while fresh submarine groundwater discharge from the aquifer ranged between 2% and 23% of total SGD.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21766191"><span>Metabolic rate and membrane fatty acid composition in birds: a comparison between long-living parrots and <span class="hlt">short-living</span> fowl.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Montgomery, Magdalene K; Hulbert, A J; Buttemer, William A</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Both basal metabolic rate (BMR) and maximum lifespan potential (MLSP) vary with body size in mammals and birds and it has been suggested that these are mediated through size-related variation in membrane fatty acid composition. Whereas the physical properties of membrane fatty acids affect the activity of membrane proteins and, indirectly, an animal's BMR, it is the susceptibility of those fatty acids to peroxidation which influence MLSP. Although there is a correlation between body size and MLSP, there is considerable MLSP variation independent of body size. For example, among bird families, Galliformes (fowl) are relatively <span class="hlt">short-living</span> and Psittaciformes (parrots) are unusually long-living, with some parrot species reaching maximum lifespans of more than 100 years. We determined BMR and tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition in seven tissues from three species of parrots with an average MLSP of 27 years and from two species of quails with an average MLSP of 5.5 years. We also characterised mitochondrial phospholipids in two of these tissues. Neither BMR nor membrane susceptibility to peroxidation corresponded with differences in MLSP among the birds we measured. We did find that (1) all birds had lower n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid content in mitochondrial membranes compared to those of the corresponding tissue, and that (2) irrespective of reliance on flight for locomotion, both pectoral and leg muscle had an almost identical membrane fatty acid composition in all birds.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27709992"><span>Leadership emergence over time in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25405926"><span>Climate impacts of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers versus CO2 from biodiesel: a case of the EU on-road sector.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lund, Marianne T; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S</p> <p>2014-12-16</p> <p>Biofuels are proposed to play an important role in several mitigation strategies to meet future CO2 emission targets for the transport sector but remain controversial due to significant uncertainties in net impacts on environment, society, and climate. A switch to biofuels can also affect <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs), which provide significant contributions to the net climate impact of transportation. We quantify the radiative forcing (RF) and global-mean temperature response over time to EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs and the impact of 20% (B20) and 100% (B100) replacement of fossil diesel by biodiesel. SLCFs are compared to impacts of on-road CO2 using different approaches from existing literature to account for biodiesel CO2. Given the best estimates for changes in emissions when replacing fossil diesel with biodiesel, the net positive RF from EU on-road fossil diesel SLCFs of 3.4 mW/m(2) is reduced by 15% and 80% in B20 and B100, respectively. Over time the warming of SLCFs is likely small compared to biodiesel CO2 impacts. However, SLCFs may be relatively more important for the total warming than in the fossil fuel case if biodiesel from feedstock with very short rotation periods and low land-use-change impacts replaces a high fraction of fossil diesel.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011QuRes..76...83S"><span>The origin and disappearance of the late Pleistocene-early Holocene <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> coastal wetlands along the Carmel coast, Israel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sivan, Dorit; Greenbaum, Noam; Cohen-Seffer, Ronit; Sisma-Ventura, Guy; Almogi-Labin, Ahuva</p> <p></p> <p>The formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> backswamps along the Carmel coast of Israel coincides with the rapid global sea-level rise during the late Pleistocene-early Holocene transition. The current study shows that the wetland phenomena originated around 10,000 yr ago and dried up shortly before the local Pre-Pottery Neolithic humans settled on the wetland dark clay sediments 9430 cal yr BP. Palaeontological and stable-isotope data were used in this study to elucidate previously published sedimentological reconstruction obtained from a core drilled into the western trough of the Carmel coastal plain. The water body contained typical brackish calcareous fauna, with variable numerical abundance and low species richness of ostracods and foraminifera. The δ 18O and δ 13C of the ostracod Cyprideis torosa show close similarity to the present Pleistocene coastal aquifer isotopic values. This study therefore concludes that the wetlands were shallow-water bodies fed by groundwater, with no evidence of sea-water mixing. It seems that they developed as the result of high groundwater levels, transportation of sediments landward, and deposition of sand bars at the paleo-river mouths. It is still not fully understood why these wetlands deteriorated abruptly and disappeared within less than 1000 yr.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.7812K"><span>Diurnal variation climatology of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions (ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl) derived from SMILES NICT data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kreyling, Daniel; Sagawa, Hideo; Kasai, Yasuko</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We present a diurnal variation climatology for <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> at atmospheric compositions, such as ClO, BrO, HO2 and HOCl, as well as for longer life time species, like O3 and HCl from observations of unprecedented sensitivity with the Superconducting SubMIllimeter wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES), which is installed on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) at the International Space Station (ISS). With its non sun synchronous orbit, SMILES measurements comprise observations at all local times. The target altitude range is between lower stratosphere and mesopause. Differences in diurnal variation chemistry of strato-, and mesospheric BrO and ClO of the diurnal climatology are presented. The data employed is produced by the SMILES level 2 retrieval algorithm version 2.1.5 at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). The SMILES climatology data sets are available via the SMILES data distribution homepage in NICT at https://smiles-p6.nict.go.jp/products/research_latitude-longitude.jsf</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25554783"><span>Reaction dynamics. Extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H</p> <p>2015-01-02</p> <p>The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22518725"><span>DISTRIBUTIONS OF LONG-LIVED RADIOACTIVE <span class="hlt">NUCLEI</span> PROVIDED BY STAR-FORMING ENVIRONMENTS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Fatuzzo, Marco; Adams, Fred C.</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> play an important role in planetary evolution by providing an internal heat source, which affects planetary structure and helps facilitate plate tectonics. A minimum level of nuclear activity is thought to be necessary—but not sufficient—for planets to be habitable. Extending previous work that focused on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, this paper considers the delivery of long-lived radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> to circumstellar disks in star forming regions. Although the long-lived nuclear species are always present, their abundances can be enhanced through multiple mechanisms. Most stars form in embedded cluster environments, so that disks can be enriched directly by intercepting ejecta from supernovae within the birth clusters. In addition, molecular clouds often provide multiple episodes of star formation, so that nuclear abundances can accumulate within the cloud; subsequent generations of stars can thus receive elevated levels of radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> through this distributed enrichment scenario. This paper calculates the distribution of additional enrichment for {sup 40}K, the most abundant of the long-lived radioactive <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. We find that distributed enrichment is more effective than direct enrichment. For the latter mechanism, ideal conditions lead to about 1 in 200 solar systems being directly enriched in {sup 40}K at the level inferred for the early solar nebula (thereby doubling the abundance). For distributed enrichment from adjacent clusters, about 1 in 80 solar systems are enriched at the same level. Distributed enrichment over the entire molecular cloud is more uncertain, but can be even more effective.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986SciAm.255a..80H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1986SciAm.255a..80H"><span>Exotic atomic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hamilton, J. H.; Maruhn, J. A.</p> <p>1986-07-01</p> <p>From the study of <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> with abundances of neutrons and protons (N numbers and Z numbers) quite different from those found in nature, it has been possible to gain new views of motions and structures within nuclear matter. Based on the spherical shell model of the nucleus proposed by Mayer and Jensen in 1949 and the collective model of nuclear deformation proposed in 1952 by Bohr and Mottelson, it has come to be possible to decide what shape or shapes a nucleus must have for a given set of N and Z numbers. It turns out that not only spherical <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> are possible but also prolate and oblate spheroids (football and discus shaped), triaxial (like a partially deflated football), and even pear- or peanut-shaped. A significant experimental tool in such studies is the ISOL or Isotope-Separator, On-Line, which makes possible the construction of energy level diagrams from the study of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> created when particles from accelerators strike various kinds of foil. The significance of magic numbers and super-magic numbers (particular combinations of N and Z) for the stability of various exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is considered. International facilities engaged in such studies are noted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spin+AND+polarization&id=EJ198615','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spin+AND+polarization&id=EJ198615"><span>Physics with Polarized <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, William J.; Clegg, Thomas B.</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>Discusses recent advances in polarization techniques, specifically those dealing with polarization of atomic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, and how polarized beams and targets are produced. These techniques have greatly increased the scope of possible studies, and provided the tools for testing fundamental symmetries and the spin dependence of nuclear forces. (GA)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RaPC..123..109L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016RaPC..123..109L"><span>Determination of the cross section for (n,p) reaction with producing <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> on the 162,163Dy isotopes at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Luo, Junhua; Feng, Zhifu; An, Li; Jiang, Li; He, Long</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Activation cross-sections for the 162Dy(n,p)162Tb and 163Dy(n,p)163Tb reactions have been measured by means of the activation technique and a coaxial HPGe γ-ray detector at 13.5 and 14.8 MeV. The fast neutrons were produced via the 3H(d,n)4He reaction on Pd-300 neutron generator. The natural high-purity Dy2O3 powder was used as target material. Theoretical excitation functions were calculated using the nuclear-reaction codes EMPIRE-3.2 Malta and TALYS-1.6 with default parameters, at neutron energies varying from the reaction threshold to 20 MeV. The results were also discussed and compared with some corresponding values found in the literature, with the comprehensive evaluation data in ENDF/B-VII.1 and JENDF-4.0 libraries, and with the estimates obtained from a published empirical formula based on the statistical model with Q-value dependence and odd-even effects taken into consideration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cosmic+AND+rays&pg=2&id=EJ179738','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=cosmic+AND+rays&pg=2&id=EJ179738"><span>Energetic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span>, Superdensity and Biomedicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baldin, A. M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>High-energy, relativistic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> were first observed in cosmic rays. Studing these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> has provided an opportunity for analyzing the composition of cosmic rays and for experimentally verifying principles governing the behavior of nuclear matter at high and super-high temperatures. Medical research using accelerated <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is suggested.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cosmic+AND+rays&pg=2&id=EJ179738','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cosmic+AND+rays&pg=2&id=EJ179738"><span>Energetic <span class="hlt">Nuclei</span>, Superdensity and Biomedicine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Baldin, A. M.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>High-energy, relativistic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> were first observed in cosmic rays. Studing these <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> has provided an opportunity for analyzing the composition of cosmic rays and for experimentally verifying principles governing the behavior of nuclear matter at high and super-high temperatures. Medical research using accelerated <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> is suggested.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JGR...10426625F"><span>An examination of chemistry and transport processes in the tropical lower stratosphere using observations of long-lived and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> compounds obtained during STRAT and POLARIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Flocke, F.; Herman, R. L.; Salawitch, R. J.; Atlas, E.; Webster, C. R.; Schauffler, S. M.; Lueb, R. A.; May, R. D.; Moyer, E. J.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Scott, D. C.; Blake, D. R.; Bui, T. P.</p> <p>1999-11-01</p> <p>A suite of compounds with a wide range of photochemical lifetimes (3 months to several decades) was measured in the tropical and midlatitude upper troposphere and lower stratosphere during the Stratospheric Tracers of Atmospheric Transport (STRAT) experiment (fall 1995 and winter, summer, and fall 1996) and the Photochemistry of Ozone Loss in the Arctic Region in Summer (POLARIS) deployment in late summer 1997. These species include various chlorofluorocarbons, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, and halons measured in whole air samples and CO measured in situ by tunable diode laser spectroscopy. Mixing ratio profiles of long-lived species in the tropical lower stratosphere are examined using a one-dimensional (1-D) photochemical model that includes entrainment from the extratropical stratosphere and is constrained by measured concentrations of OH. Profiles of tracers found using the 1-D model agree well with all the observed tropical profiles for an entrainment time scale of 8.5-4+6 months, independent of altitude between potential temperatures of 370 and 500 K. The tropical profile of CO is used to show that the annually averaged ascent rate profile, on the basis of a set of radiative heating calculations, is accurate to approximately ±44%, a smaller uncertainty than found by considering the uncertainties in the radiative model and its inputs. Tropical profiles of ethane and C2Cl4 reveal that the concentration of Cl is higher than expected on the basis of photochemical model simulations using standard gas phase kinetics and established relationships between total inorganic chlorine and CFC-11. Our observations suggest that <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> organic chlorinated compounds and HCl carried across the tropical tropopause may provide an important source of inorganic chlorine to the tropical lower stratosphere that has been largely unappreciated in previous studies. The entrainment timescale found here is considerably less than the value found by a similar study that focused on</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMGP12A..07L"><span>Dating the Laschamp Excursion: Why Speleothems are Valuable Tools for Constraining the Timing and Duration of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Geomagnetic Events</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lascu, I.; Feinberg, J. M.; Dorale, J. A.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R. L.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> geomagnetic events are reflections of geodynamo behavior at small length scales. A rigorous documentation of the anatomy, timing, duration, and frequency of centennial-to-millennial scale geomagnetic events can be invaluable for theoretical and numerical geodynamo models, and for the understanding the finer dynamics of the Earth's core. A critical ingredient for characterizing such geomagnetic instabilities are tightly constrained age models that enable high-resolution magnetostratigraphies. Here we focus on a North American speleothem geomagnetic record of the Laschamp excursion, which was the first geomagnetic excursion recognized and described in the paleomagnetic record, and remains the most studied event of its kind. The geological significance of the Laschamp lies chiefly in the fact that it constitutes a global time-synchronous geochronological marker. The Laschamp excursion occurred around the time of the demise of Homo neanderthalensis, in conjunction with high-amplitude, rapid climatic oscillations leading into the Last Glacial Maximum, and precedes a major supervolcano eruption in the Mediterranean. Thus, the precise determination of the timing and duration of the Laschamp would help in elucidating major scientific questions situated at the intersection of geology, paleoclimatology, and anthropology. Here we present a geomagnetic record from a stalagmite collected in Crevice Cave, Missouri, which we have dated using a combination of high-precision 230Th ages and annual layer counting using confocal microscopy. We have found a maximum duration for the Laschamp that spans the interval 42,250-39,700 years BP, and an age of 41,100 ± 350 years BP for the height of the excursion. During this period relative paleointensity decreased by an order of magnitude and the virtual geomagnetic pole was located at southerly latitudes. Our chronology provides the first robust bracketing for the Laschamp excursion, and improves on previous age determinations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21708276"><span>Phylogeny, genetic variability and colour polymorphism of an emerging animal model: the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> annual Nothobranchius fishes from southern Mozambique.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dorn, A; Ng'oma, E; Janko, K; Reichwald, K; Polačik, M; Platzer, M; Cellerino, A; Reichard, M</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Nothobranchius are a group of small, extremely <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> killifishes living in temporary savannah pools in Eastern Africa and that survive annual desiccation of their habitat as dormant eggs encased in dry mud. One mitochondrial (COI) and three nuclear (CX32.2, GHITM, PNP) loci were used to investigate the phylogenetic relationship of Nothobranchius species from southern and central Mozambique. This group shows marked variation in captive lifespan at both the inter- and intraspecific levels; lifespan varies from a few months to over a year. As their distribution encompasses a steep gradient between semi-arid and humid habitats, resulting in contrasting selection pressures on evolution of lifespan and associated life history traits, Mozambican Nothobranchius spp. have recently become a model group in studies of ageing, age-related disorders and life history evolution. Consequently, intraspecific genetic variation and male colour morph distribution was also examined in the recovered clades. Using Bayesian species tree reconstruction and single loci analyses, three large clades were apparent and their phylogenetic substructure was revealed at the inter- and intra-specific levels within those clades. The Nothobranchius furzeri and Nothobranchius orthonotus clades were strongly geographically structured. Further, it was demonstrated that male colour has no phylogenetic signal in N. furzeri, where colour morphs are sympatric, but is associated with two reciprocally monophyletic groups in Nothobranchius rachovii clade, where colour morphs are parapatric. Finally, our analysis showed that a polymorphism in the Melanocortin1 receptor gene (which controls pigmentation in many vertebrates and was a candidate gene of male colouration in N. furzeri) is unrelated to colour phenotypes of the study species. Our results raise significant implications for future comparative studies of the species and populations analysed in the present work.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JFuE...30..111S"><span>Preliminary Results of IS Plasma Focus as a Breeder of <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radioisotopes 12C(d,n)13N</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadat Kiai, S. M.; Elahi, M.; Adlparvar, S.; Shahhoseini, E.; Sheibani, S.; Ranjber akivaj, H.; Alhooie, S.; Safarien, A.; Farhangi, S.; Aghaei, N.; Amini, S.; Khalaj, M. M.; Zirak, A. R.; Dabirzadeh, A. A.; Soleimani, J.; Torkzadeh, F.; Mousazadeh, M. M.; Moradi, K.; Abdollahzadeh, M.; Talaei, A.; Zaeem, A. A.; Moslehi, A.; Kashani, A.; Babazadeh, A. R.; Bagiyan, F.; Ardestani, M.; Roozbahani, A.; Pourbeigi, H.; Tajik Ahmadi, H.; Ahmadifaghih, M. A.; Mahlooji, M. S.; Mortazavi, B. N.; Zahedi, F.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>Modified IS (Iranian Sun) plasma focus (10 kJ,15 kV, 94 μF, 0.1 Hz) has been used to produce the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope 13N (half-life of 9.97 min) through 12C(d,n)13N nuclear reaction. The filling gas was 1.5-3 torr of hydrogen (60%) deuterium (40%) mixture. The target was solid nuclear grade graphite with 5 mm thick, 9 cm width and 13 in length. The activations of the exogenous target on average of 20 shots (only one-third acceptable) through 10-13 kV produced the 511 keV gamma rays. Another peak found at the 570 keV gamma of which both was measured by a NaI portable gamma spectrometer calibrated by a 137Cs 0.25 μCi sealed reference source with its single line at 661.65 keV and 22Na 0.1 μCi at 511 keV. To measure the gamma rays, the graphite target converts to three different phases; solid graphite, powder graphite, and powder graphite in water solution. The later phase approximately has a doubled activity with respect to the solid graphite target up to 0.5 μCi of 511 keV and 1.1 μCi of 570 keV gamma lines were produced. This increment in activity was perhaps due to structural transformation of graphite powder to nano-particles characteristic in liquid water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28585973','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28585973"><span>Impact on <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs) from a realistic land-use change scenario via changes in biogenic emissions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Scott, C E; Monks, S A; Spracklen, D V; Arnold, S R; Forster, P M; Rap, A; Carslaw, K S; Chipperfield, M P; Reddington, C L S; Wilson, C</p> <p>2017-08-24</p> <p>More than one quarter of natural forests have been cleared by humans to make way for other land-uses, with changes to forest cover projected to continue. The climate impact of land-use change (LUC) is dependent upon the relative strength of several biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects. In addition to affecting the surface albedo and exchanging carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture with the atmosphere, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), altering the formation of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> climate forcers (SLCFs) including aerosol, ozone (O3) and methane (CH4). Once emitted, BVOCs are rapidly oxidised by O3, and the hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO3) radicals. These oxidation reactions yield secondary organic products which are implicated in the formation and growth of aerosol particles and are estimated to have a negative radiative effect on the climate (i.e. a cooling). These reactions also deplete OH, increasing the atmospheric lifetime of CH4, and directly affect concentrations of O3; the latter two being greenhouse gases which impose a positive radiative effect (i.e. a warming) on the climate. Our previous work assessing idealised deforestation scenarios found a positive radiative effect due to changes in SLCFs; however, since the radiative effects associated with changes to SLCFs result from a combination of non-linear processes it may not be appropriate to scale radiative effects from complete deforestation scenarios according to the deforestation extent. Here we combine a land-surface model, a chemical transport model, a global aerosol model, and a radiative transfer model to assess the net radiative effect of changes in SLCFs due to historical LUC between the years 1850 and 2000.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017JSAES..73..191D"><span>The development of miocene extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin in the Andean broken foreland: The Conglomerado Los Patos, Northwestern Argentina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>del Papa, Cecilia E.; Petrinovic, Ivan A.</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>The Conglomerado Los Patos is a coarse-grained clastic unit that crops out irregularly in the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley in the Puna, Northwestern Argentina. It covers different units of the Cretaceous-Paleogene Salta Group by means of an angular unconformity and, in turn, is overlaid in angular unconformity by the Viscachayoc Ignimbrite (13 ± 0.3 Ma) or by late Miocene tuffs. Three lithofacies have been identified in the Corte Blanco locality; 1) Bouldery matrix-supported conglomerate (Gmm); 2) Clast-supported conglomerate (Gch) and 3) Imbricated clast-supported conglomerate (Gci). The stratigraphic pattern displays a general fining upward trend. The sedimentary facies association suggests gravitational flow processes and sedimentation in alluvial fan settings, from proximal to medial fan positions, together with a slope decrease upsection. Provenance studies reveal sediments sourced from Precambrian to Ordovician units located to the southwest, except for volcanic clasts in the Gmm facies that shows U/Pb age of 14.5 ± 0.5 Ma. This new age represents the maximum depositional age for the Conglomerado Los Patos, and it documents that deposition took place simultaneously during a period of increased tectonic and volcanic activity in the area. The structural analysis of the San Antonio de los Cobres Valley and the available thermochronological ages, indicate active N-S main thrusts and NW-SE transpressive and locally normal faults during the middle Miocene. In this context, we interpret the Conglomerado Los Patos to represent sedimentation in a small, extensional and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> basin associated with the compressional Andean setting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4388629"><span>Stepwise Catalytic Mechanism via <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Intermediate Inferred from Combined QM/MM MERP and PES Calculations on Retaining Glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Koča, Jaroslav</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals. PMID:25849117</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.3236H"><span>Time-series variations of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011ApJ...731L..28J"><span>Formation of the <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radionuclide 36Cl in the Protoplanetary Disk During Late-stage Irradiation of a Volatile-rich Reservoir</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Krot, Alexander N.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36Cl-36S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 μm), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR 36Cl (τ 1/2 ~ 3 × 105 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36Cl/35Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) × 10-5, is the highest 36Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26Al (26Al/27Al <= 3.9 × 10-6) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26Al and other SLRs (10Be, 53Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21392413"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. I. VARIED SHOCK SPEEDS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.; Ipatov, Sergei I.; Myhill, Elizabeth A.; Vanhala, Harri A. T. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.ed E-mail: elizabeth.myhill@marymount.ed</p> <p>2010-01-10</p> <p>The discovery of decay products of a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotope (SLRI) in the Allende meteorite led to the hypothesis that a supernova shock wave transported freshly synthesized SLRI to the presolar dense cloud core, triggered its self-gravitational collapse, and injected the SLRI into the core. Previous multidimensional numerical calculations of the shock-cloud collision process showed that this hypothesis is plausible when the shock wave and dense cloud core are assumed to remain isothermal at approx10 K, but not when compressional heating to approx1000 K is assumed. Our two-dimensional models with the FLASH2.5 adaptive mesh refinement hydrodynamics code have shown that a 20 km s{sup -1} shock front can simultaneously trigger collapse of a 1 M{sub sun} core and inject shock wave material, provided that cooling by molecular species such as H{sub 2}O, CO, and H{sub 2} is included. Here, we present the results for similar calculations with shock speeds ranging from 1 km s{sup -1} to 100 km s{sup -1}. We find that shock speeds in the range from 5 km s{sup -1} to 70 km s{sup -1} are able to trigger the collapse of a 2.2 M{sub sun} cloud while simultaneously injecting shock wave material: lower speed shocks do not achieve injection, while higher speed shocks do not trigger sustained collapse. The calculations continue to support the shock-wave trigger hypothesis for the formation of the solar system, though the injection efficiencies in the present models are lower than desired.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25990114"><span>2014 ICHLNRRA intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measuring instruments in the NRPI Prague.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jílek, K; Timková, J</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>During the Eighth International Conference on High Levels of Natural Radiation and Radon Areas held in autumn 2014 at Prague, the third intercomparison of radon/thoron gas and radon <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> decay products measurement instruments was organised by and held at the Natural Radiation Division of the National Radiation Protection Institute (NRPI; SÚRO v.v.i.) in Prague. The intercomparison was newly focussed also on continuous monitors with active sampling adapters capable to distinguish radon/thoron gas in their mix field.The results of radon gas measurements carried out in the big NRPI radon chamber indicated very well an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 80 % of all the exposed instruments. The results of equilibrium equivalent concentration continuous monitors indicated an average deviation of up to 5 % from the reference NRPI value for 40 % of all the exposed instruments and their ~8-10 % shift compared with the NRPI. The results of investigated ambient conditions upon response of exposed continuous monitors indicated influence of aerosol changes upon response of radon monitors with an active air sampling adapters through the filter, only. The exposures of both radon/thoron gas discriminative continuous monitors and passive detectors have been indicated inconsistent results: on one hand, their excellent agreement up to several per cent for both the gases, and on the other hand, systematic unsatisfactory differences up to 40 %. Additional radon/thoron exercises are recommended to improve both the instruments themselves and quality of their operators.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016P%26SS..125...43E"><span>The Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data (MUTED): A database to support the identification of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Erkeling, G.; Luesebrink, D.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Heyer, T.; Jaumann, R.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Images of Mars taken by spacecraft in the last few decades indicate that the landscape has changed and that current processes are continuously changing the surface. The modifications of the landscape are caused by exogenic processes including eolian activity, mass movement, the growth and retreat of the polar caps, glacial processes and crater-forming impacts. In particular the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on board Mars Express (MEx) and the Context Camera (CTX) on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) cover large areas at high resolution and thus are particularly well-suited to detect the extent and origin of surface changes on Mars. Multi-temporal observations of variable features on Mars became possible by the increasing number of repeated image acquisitions of the same surface areas. To support the investigation of surface changes that represents a key element in martian research, we developed MUTED, the "Multi-Temporal Database of Planetary Image Data", which is a tool for the identification of the spatial and multi-temporal coverage of planetary image data from Mars. Using MUTED, scientists are able to identify the location, number, and time range of acquisitions of overlapping images from, for example, HRSC and CTX. MUTED also includes images from other planetary datasets such as those of the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), and the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE). The database supports the identification and analysis of surface changes and <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> surface processes on Mars based on fast automatic planetary image database queries. From the multi-temporal planetary image database and investigations based on multi-temporal observations we will better understand the interactions between the surface of Mars and external forces, including the atmosphere. MUTED is available for the planetary scientific community via the webpage of the Institut für Planetologie (IfP) Muenster.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21855546"><span>The prolactin response to an acute stressor in relation to parental care and corticosterone in a <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schmid, Baptiste; Chastel, Olivier; Jenni, Lukas</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Prolactin plays an important role in mediating parental care in birds, but little is known about changes in prolactin levels when animals disrupt their reproductive behaviour during emergency life-history stages. We investigated the variation of prolactin levels with breeding stage, sex, body condition and as a response to a standardized acute stressor in a small <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> bird, the Eurasian hoopoe Upupa epops under natural field conditions. We found higher baseline levels of prolactin in females during the brooding phase than in their mates which feed them and their chicks at this stage. Moreover, this is the first report of a differential prolactin stress-response between sexes with contrasting parental care within a breeding phase. Capture, handling and restraint induced a clear decrease of prolactin levels which was less pronounced in females at the very early stage of brooding compared to females in later stages. In contrast, the prolactin stress response in males remained nearly constant over the breeding stages and was stronger than in females. Baseline levels of prolactin, but not handling-induced levels, were positively correlated with body condition. We found a weak relationship between the decrease in prolactin due to acute handling stress and handling-induced levels of corticosterone. Taken together, both baseline and stress response levels of prolactin were related to the amount of parental care, although we found no relationship with reproductive success. It appears that the response to an acute stressor in prolactin levels is finely tuned to parental duties and investment. Hence, prolactin appears to be involved in mediating the trade-off between current reproduction versus self-maintenance and future reproduction.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562732"><span>FORMATION OF THE <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIONUCLIDE {sup 36}Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.</p> <p>2011-04-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S-isotope abundance in wadalite (<15 {mu}m), a secondary chlorine-bearing mineral found in calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) in the Allende CV chondrite, to decipher the origin of the SLR {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 3 x 10{sup 5} yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from {sup 26}Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial {sup 36}Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio of (1.81 {+-} 0.13) x 10{sup -5}, is the highest {sup 36}Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of {sup 36}Cl in wadalite and the absence of {sup 26}Al ({sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al {<=} 3.9 x 10{sup -6}) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of {sup 36}Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of {sup 36}Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of {sup 26}Al and other SLRs ({sup 10}Be, {sup 53}Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that {sup 36}Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, {sup 36}Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFM.A13I..04F"><span>Brick Kiln Emissions Quantified with the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory During the <span class="hlt">Short</span> <span class="hlt">Lived</span> Climate Forcing (SLCF) 2013 Campaign in Guanajuato Mexico</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fortner, E.; Knighton, W. B.; Herndon, S.; Roscioli, J. R.; Zavala, M.; Onasch, T. B.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kolb, C. E.; Molina, L. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Brick kiln emissions are suspected to be a major source of atmospheric black carbon (BC) in developing countries; and black carbon's role as a <span class="hlt">short</span> <span class="hlt">lived</span> climate forcing (SLCF) pollutant is widely recognized. The SLCF-Mexico brick kiln study was conducted from 12-17 March 2013 in Mexico's Guanajuato state. Three different types of brick kilns were investigated (MK2, traditional, and traditional three tier) providing data on the effects of different kiln designs on particle and gas phase emissions. The BC and gaseous combustion emissions from these kilns were measured during both the fire stage and the subsequent smoldering stage with real-time instruments deployed on the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory, and quantified utilizing flux tracer gases released adjacent to the brick kiln. This method allows examination of the brick kiln plume's evolution as it transits downwind from the source. Particulate measurements conducted by the mobile laboratory included the multi angle absorption photometer (MAAP) to measure black carbon mass, cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPSext) monitor to measure extinction and soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) measurements of black carbon. The SP-AMS instrument combines the ability to measure black carbon with the ability to determine the chemical composition of the other particulate matter (PM) components associated with black carbon particles. The variance of PM chemical composition will be examined as a function of burning stage and kiln type and compared to other black carbon PM sources. Gas phase exhaust species measured included CO, CO2, NOx, SO2, CH4, C2H6, as well as a variety of VOCs (acetonitrile, benzene etc.) measured with a PTR-MS instrument. All of these measurements will be examined to construct emission ratios evaluating how these vary with different kiln types and different firing conditions. The evolution of particulate matter and gas phase species as they transit away from the source will also be examined.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27582048','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27582048"><span>FUdR extends the lifespan of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> AP endonuclease mutant in Caenorhabditis elegans in a fertility-dependent manner.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kato, Yuichi; Miyaji, Masahiro; Zhang-Akiyama, Qiu-Mei</p> <p>2017-03-17</p> <p>The anticancer drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and its metabolite 5-fluoro-2'-deoxyuridine (FUdR) inhibit thymidylate synthase and induce uracil bases in DNA. FUdR is commonly used for inhibiting fertility when measuring the lifespan of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. However, it is not known whether DNA damage induced by FUdR affects lifespan. EXO-3 is an apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease in C. elegans, and we reported previously that deletion of the exo-3 gene causes reproductive abnormalities and decreased lifespan. In this study, we found that FUdR extended the lifespan of exo-3 mutants. We measured the lifespan of multiple germline mutants to examine whether this lifespan extension effect was dependent on fertility. In the presence of a fem-1 mutation, which causes a deficiency in sperm production, FUdR did not extend the lifespan of the exo-3 mutant. In glp-1 mutants, which do not develop gonads, the exo-3 mutant was not <span class="hlt">short-lived</span>, and FUdR did not extend its lifespan. These results suggest that the lifespan extension effect of FUdR depends on fertility and the presence of gonads. fem-3 mutants, which do not produce oocytes, had increased lifespan in the presence of FUdR, independent of the exo-3 mutation. It is possible that the fem-3 mutant was susceptible to the lifespan extension effect of FUdR. From these results, we suggest that FUdR affects the lifespan of C. elegans in two ways: by interfering with fertility, which extends lifespan, and by inducing DNA base damage, which reduces lifespan.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27106819','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27106819"><span>Bottom-Up Mechanisms Generate the Same Temporal Pattern of Attack by a Specialist and a Generalist Caterpillar on <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Campos, Wellington G; Teixeira, Natália C; Valim, Janete O S; Guedes, Raul Narciso C; Oliveira, Maria Goreti A</p> <p>2016-04-22</p> <p>The local population dynamics of insect herbivores in ephemeral patches of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> plants are poorly known. We investigated whether a specialist and a generalist caterpillar exhibit contrasting temporal patterns of attack during plant development and also assessed bottom-up forces related to plant ontogeny that govern such population trends. Immature stages of the polyphagous Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) and the oligophagous Plutella xylostella (L.) were sampled throughout the development of cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) crops. We measured protein and glucosinolate contents and insect performance with regard to plant age and leaf strata. The populations of both caterpillar species changed in close parallel throughout plant development, and a nonlinear temporal pattern of egg laying was reproduced in sequential population patterns of the larval stages until pupation. Reduced protein availability and insect performance coincided with a decline in egg laying and subsequent larval abundance in mature plants. By standardizing the plant size, we found that young and nutritious plants support proportionately more insects than large and mature plants. In our models of the population oscillations, the interaction between plant size and quality provided a strong causal explanation for the densities of both oligophagous and polyphagous caterpillars. Patches of fast-growing herbaceous plants are very common worldwide in the form of crop fields, and a generalized temporal pattern of attack may be widespread among caterpillars, regardless of their feeding specialization. Our results highlight the role of bottom-up forces in shaping the population dynamics of caterpillars in such systems. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013ApJ...770...51B"><span>Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting <span class="hlt">Short-lived</span> Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. II. Varied Shock Wave and Cloud Core Parameters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A.</p> <p>2013-06-01</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of ~10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605293','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3605293"><span>The transcript catalogue of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri provides insights into age-dependent changes of mRNA levels</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background The African annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri has over recent years been established as a model species for ageing-related studies. This is mainly based on its exceptionally short lifespan and the presence of typical characteristics of vertebrate ageing. To substantiate its role as an alternative vertebrate ageing model, a transcript catalogue is needed, which can serve e.g. as basis for identifying ageing-related genes. Results To build the N. furzeri transcript catalogue, thirteen cDNA libraries were sequenced using Sanger, 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina technologies yielding about 39 Gb. In total, 19,875 protein-coding genes were identified and annotated. Of these, 71% are represented by at least one transcript contig with a complete coding sequence. Further, transcript levels of young and old fish of the strains GRZ and MZM-0403, which differ in lifespan by twofold, were studied by RNA-seq. In skin and brain, 85 differentially expressed genes were detected; these have a role in cell cycle control and proliferation, inflammation and tissue maintenance. An RNA-seq experiment for zebrafish skin confirmed the ageing-related relevance of the findings in N. furzeri. Notably, analyses of transcript levels between zebrafish and N. furzeri but also between N. furzeri strains differed largely, suggesting that ageing is accelerated in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> N. furzeri strain GRZ compared to the longer-lived strain MZM-0403. Conclusions We provide a comprehensive, annotated N. furzeri transcript catalogue and a first transcriptome-wide insight into N. furzeri ageing. This data will serve as a basis for future functional studies of ageing-related genes. PMID:23496936</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23496936','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23496936"><span>The transcript catalogue of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> fish Nothobranchius furzeri provides insights into age-dependent changes of mRNA levels.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Petzold, Andreas; Reichwald, Kathrin; Groth, Marco; Taudien, Stefan; Hartmann, Nils; Priebe, Steffen; Shagin, Dmitry; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias</p> <p>2013-03-16</p> <p>The African annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri has over recent years been established as a model species for ageing-related studies. This is mainly based on its exceptionally short lifespan and the presence of typical characteristics of vertebrate ageing. To substantiate its role as an alternative vertebrate ageing model, a transcript catalogue is needed, which can serve e.g. as basis for identifying ageing-related genes. To build the N. furzeri transcript catalogue, thirteen cDNA libraries were sequenced using Sanger, 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina technologies yielding about 39 Gb. In total, 19,875 protein-coding genes were identified and annotated. Of these, 71% are represented by at least one transcript contig with a complete coding sequence. Further, transcript levels of young and old fish of the strains GRZ and MZM-0403, which differ in lifespan by twofold, were studied by RNA-seq. In skin and brain, 85 differentially expressed genes were detected; these have a role in cell cycle control and proliferation, inflammation and tissue maintenance. An RNA-seq experiment for zebrafish skin confirmed the ageing-related relevance of the findings in N. furzeri. Notably, analyses of transcript levels between zebrafish and N. furzeri but also between N. furzeri strains differed largely, suggesting that ageing is accelerated in the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> N. furzeri strain GRZ compared to the longer-lived strain MZM-0403. We provide a comprehensive, annotated N. furzeri transcript catalogue and a first transcriptome-wide insight into N. furzeri ageing. This data will serve as a basis for future functional studies of ageing-related genes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22127138"><span>TRIGGERING COLLAPSE OF THE PRESOLAR DENSE CLOUD CORE AND INJECTING <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> RADIOISOTOPES WITH A SHOCK WAVE. II. VARIED SHOCK WAVE AND CLOUD CORE PARAMETERS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Boss, Alan P.; Keiser, Sandra A. E-mail: keiser@dtm.ciw.edu</p> <p>2013-06-10</p> <p>A variety of stellar sources have been proposed for the origin of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radioisotopes that existed at the time of the formation of the earliest solar system solids, including Type II supernovae (SNe), asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and super-AGB stars, and Wolf-Rayet star winds. Our previous adaptive mesh hydrodynamics models with the FLASH2.5 code have shown which combinations of shock wave parameters are able to simultaneously trigger the gravitational collapse of a target dense cloud core and inject significant amounts of shock wave gas and dust, showing that thin SN shocks may be uniquely suited for the task. However, recent meteoritical studies have weakened the case for a direct SN injection to the presolar cloud, motivating us to re-examine a wider range of shock wave and cloud core parameters, including rotation, in order to better estimate the injection efficiencies for a variety of stellar sources. We find that SN shocks remain as the most promising stellar source, though planetary nebulae resulting from AGB star evolution cannot be conclusively ruled out. Wolf-Rayet (WR) star winds, however, are likely to lead to cloud core shredding, rather than to collapse. Injection efficiencies can be increased when the cloud is rotating about an axis aligned with the direction of the shock wave, by as much as a factor of {approx}10. The amount of gas and dust accreted from the post-shock wind can exceed that injected from the shock wave, with implications for the isotopic abundances expected for a SN source.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22139969"><span>A LOWER INITIAL ABUNDANCE OF <span class="hlt">SHORT-LIVED</span> {sup 41}Ca IN THE EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM AND ITS IMPLICATIONS FOR SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Liu, Ming-Chang; Chaussidon, Marc; Srinivasan, Gopalan; McKeegan, Kevin D.</p> <p>2012-12-20</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclide {sup 41}Ca plays an important role in constraining the immediate astrophysical environment and the formation timescale of the nascent solar system due to its extremely short half-life (0.1 Myr). Nearly 20 years ago, the initial ratio of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca in the solar system was determined to be (1.41 {+-} 0.14) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8}, primarily based on two Ca-Al-rich Inclusions (CAIs) from the CV chondrite Efremovka. With an advanced analytical technique for isotopic measurements, we reanalyzed the potassium isotopic compositions of the two Efremovka CAIs and inferred the initial ratios of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca to be (2.6 {+-} 0.9) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} and (1.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} (2{sigma}), a factor of 7-10 lower than the previously inferred value. Considering possible thermal processing that led to lower {sup 26}Al/{sup 27}Al ratios in the two CAIs, we propose that the true solar system initial value of {sup 41}Ca/{sup 40}Ca should have been {approx}4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}. Synchronicity could have existed between {sup 26}Al and {sup 41}Ca, indicating a uniform distribution of the two radionuclides at the time of CAI formation. The new initial {sup 41}Ca abundance is 4-16 times lower than the calculated value for steady-state galactic nucleosynthesis. Therefore, {sup 41}Ca could have originated as part of molecular cloud materials with a free decay time of 0.2-0.4 Myr. Alternative possibilities, such as a last-minute input from a stellar source and early solar system irradiation, could not be definitively ruled out. This underscores the need for more data from diverse CAIs to determine the true astrophysical origin of {sup 41}Ca.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.5426D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.5426D"><span>Comment on “Li and Be isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: Evidence for the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be and for the possible presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide 7Be in the early solar system,” by M. Chaussidon, F. Robert, and K.D. McKeegan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Desch, S. J.; Ouellette, N.</p> <p>2006-11-01</p> <p>Recently Chaussidon et al. reported isotopic measurements of the Allende meteorite Ca, Al-rich inclusion (CAI) 3529-41 that they claim as evidence that live 7Be was incorporated into this CAI at the time of its formation [Chaussidon, M., Robert, F., McKeegan, K.D., 2006. Li and Be isotopic variations in an Allende CAI: evidence for the in situ decay of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 10Be and for the possible presence of the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> nuclide 7Be in the early solar system. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta70, 224-245]. They claim their data show excesses of 7Li/ 6Li above the chondritic value, and that the 7Li/ 6Li excesses correlate linearly with 9Be/ 6Li, implying that the excess 7Li arose from the decay of 7Be ( t1/2 = 53 days). In this Comment we dispute this claim. We show that the authors did not statistically analyze their data correctly, and that a linear correlation between 7Li/ 6Li and 9Be/ 6Li can in fact be ruled out. We show that the authors over-corrected for the effects of spallogenic Li, and in fact no statistically significant excesses of 7Li above chondritic ratios exist. Finally, we show that many of the spots in Allende 3529-41 that the authors counted as isotopically undisturbed show evidence of isotopic disturbance. We demonstrate that while their data support the late addition of isotopically light Li in spots with low Be/Li, their data are otherwise consistent with constant 7Li/ 6Li at near-chondritic levels. The data do not provide support for live 7Be in the early Solar System.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DNP.GD002N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006APS..DNP.GD002N"><span>Exotic phenomena in <span class="hlt">nuclei</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Neff, Thomas; Feldmeier, Hans; Roth, Robert</p> <p>2006-10-01</p> <p>In the Fermionic Molecular Dynamics (FMD) model the nuclear many-body system is described using Slater determinants with Gaussian wave-packets as single-particle states. The flexibility of the FMD wave functions allows for a consistent description of shell model like structures, deformed states, cluster structures as well as halos. An effective interaction derived from the realistic Argonne V18 interaction using the Unitary Correlation Operator Method is used for all <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. Results for <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> in the p-shell will be presented. Halo features are present in the Helium isotopes, cluster structures are studied in Beryllium and Carbon isotopes. The interplay between shell structure and cluster structures in the ground and the Hoyle state in ^12C will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DNP2WB002H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS..DNP2WB002H"><span><span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> and Fundamental Symmetries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haxton, Wick</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Nuclei</span> provide marvelous laboratories for testing fundamental interactions, often enhancing weak processes through accidental degeneracies among states, and providing selection rules that can be exploited to isolate selected interactions. I will give an overview of current work, including the use of parity violation to probe unknown aspects of the hadronic weak interaction; nuclear electric dipole moment searches that may shed light on new sources of CP violation; and tests of lepton number violation made possible by the fact that many <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> can only decay by rare second-order weak interactions. I will point to opportunities in both theory and experiment to advance the field. Based upon work supported in part by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics and SciDAC under Awards DE-SC00046548 (Berkeley), DE-AC02-05CH11231 (LBNL), and KB0301052 (LBNL).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.312d2009C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JPhCS.312d2009C"><span>Studies of neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> using the CPT mass spectrometer at CARIBU</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaudhuri, A.; Bertone, P. F.; Buchinger, F.; Caldwell, S.; Clark, J. A.; Crawford, J. E.; Deibel, C. M.; Gulick, S.; Lascar, D.; Levand, A. F.; Li, G.; Savard, G.; Segel, R. E.; Sharma, K. S.; Sternberg, M. G.; Sun, T.; Van Schelt, J.</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The nucleosynthetic path of the astrophysical r-process and the resulting elemental abundances depend on neutron-separation energies which can be determined from the masses of the <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> along the r-process reaction path. Due to the current lack of experimental data, mass models are often used. The mass values provided by the mass models are often too imprecise or disagree with each other. Therefore, direct high-precision mass measurements of neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> are necessary to provide input parameters to the calculations and help refine the mass models. The Californium Rare Isotope Breeder Upgrade (CARIBU) facility of Argonne National Laboratory will provide experiments with beams of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>. The Canadian Penning Trap (CPT) mass spectrometer has been relocated to the CARIBU low-energy beam line to extend measurements of the neutron-rich <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> into the mostly unexplored region along the r-process path. This will allow precise mass measurements (~ 10 keV/c2) of more than a hundred very neutron-rich isotopes that have not previously been measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhG...37j3101G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010JPhG...37j3101G"><span>TOPICAL REVIEW: Shapes and collectivity of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> via low-energy Coulomb excitation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Görgen, Andreas</p> <p>2010-10-01</p> <p>The way in which an atomic nucleus responds to excitations, whether by promoting individual nucleons into higher shells or by collective rotation or vibration, reveals many details of the underlying nuclear structure. The response of the nucleus is closely related to its macroscopic shape. Low-energy Coulomb excitation provides a well-understood means of exciting atomic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>, allowing the measurement of static and dynamic electromagnetic moments as a probe of the nuclear wavefunctions. Owing to the availability of radioactive heavy-ion beams with energies near the Coulomb barrier, it is now possible to study the shape and collectivity of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> far from β stability (the so-called exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span>), providing a particularly stringent test of modern theoretical nuclear structure models. This review gives an introduction to the experimental techniques related to low-energy Coulomb excitation with radioactive ion beams and summarizes the results that were obtained over the last 10 years for a wide variety of exotic <span class="hlt">nuclei</span> at various laboratories employing the isotope separation on-line technique.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C11B0449B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AGUFM.C11B0449B"><span>Constraining the Time-Scale of Interaction of Sea Ice Sediments and Surface Sea Water in the Arctic Ocean Using <span class="hlt">Short-Lived</span> Radionuclide Tracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baskaran, M.; Andersson, P. S.; Jweda, J.; Dahlqvist, R.; Ketterer, M. E.</p> <p>2007-12-01</p> <p>We measured the activities of <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> radionuclides (Th-234, Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Cs-137, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228) and concentrations of several elements (Be, Pb, Fe, Al, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn) on a suite of ice-rafted sediments (IRS) collected during BERINGIA-2005 in the Western Arctic Ocean. A suite of water samples were also collected and analyzed for particulate and dissolved Be-7, Po-210, Pb-210, Th-234, Ra-226 and Ra-228. The activities of Be-7 and Pb-210 in the IRS are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the source sediments. Presence of excess Th-234 in the IRS indicates that the removal of Th-234 from surface seawater took place on time scales comparable to the mean-life of Th-234. While the Po-210/Pb-210 activity ratios in the source sediments (1.0) and the atmospheric depositional input (~0.1) are known, varying ratios of 0.78 to 1.0 were found in the IRS. This ratio can be utilized to obtain the residence time of the IRS in sea ice. The activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in all the IRS is nearly constant (within a factor of 1.6) and are comparable to the benthic sediments in the source region. The activities of atmospherically-delivered radionuclides, Be-7 and Pb-210, in IRS varied by factors of ~4.5 and 9, respectively, and this variation is attributed to differences in the extent of interaction of surface water with IRS and differences in the mean-lives of these nuclides. While significant enrichment of Be-7 and Pb-210 has been found, there is no enrichment of stable Pb or Be. The Al-normalized enrichment factor for elements measured (Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb and Be) indicate that there is no significant enrichment of these elements, with Al-normalized enrichment factors less than 1.3.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V11D..01R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AGUFM.V11D..01R"><span>Early Earth differentiation processes investigated through the <span class="hlt">short-lived</span> 146Sm-142Nd and 182Hf-182W isotope systems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rizo Garza, H. L.; Walker, R. J.; Carlson, R.; Touboul, M.; Horan, M. F.; Puchtel, I. S.; Boyet, M.; Rosing, M. T.</p> <p>2016-12-01</p> <p>The earliest history of Earth is difficult to capture due to the scarcity and high degrees of alteration of ancient terrains. Neverthe