Science.gov

Sample records for short-pulse excited dielectric

  1. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, H. X. E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn Zu, X. T. E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn Xiang, X.; Zheng, W. G.; Yuan, X. D.; Sun, K. E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn; Gao, F.

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  2. Time of flight emission spectroscopy of laser produced nickel plasma: Short-pulse and ultrafast excitations

    SciTech Connect

    Smijesh, N.; Chandrasekharan, K.; Joshi, Jagdish C.; Philip, Reji

    2014-07-07

    We report the experimental investigation and comparison of the temporal features of short-pulse (7 ns) and ultrafast (100 fs) laser produced plasmas generated from a solid nickel target, expanding into a nitrogen background. When the ambient pressure is varied in a large range of 10⁻⁶Torr to 10²Torr, the plume intensity is found to increase rapidly as the pressure crosses 1 Torr. Time of flight (TOF) spectroscopy of emission from neutral nickel (Ni I) at 361.9 nm (3d⁹(²D) 4p → 3d⁹(²D) 4s transition) reveals two peaks (fast and slow species) in short-pulse excitation and a single peak in ultrafast excitation. The fast and slow peaks represent recombined neutrals and un-ionized neutrals, respectively. TOF emission from singly ionized nickel (Ni II) studied using the 428.5 nm (3p⁶3d⁸(³P) 4s→ 3p⁶3d⁹ 4s) transition shows only a single peak for either excitation. Velocities of the neutral and ionic species are determined from TOF measurements carried out at different positions (i.e., at distances of 2 mm and 4 mm, respectively, from the target surface) on the plume axis. Measured velocities indicate acceleration of neutrals and ions, which is caused by the Coulomb pull of the electrons enveloping the plume front in the case of ultrafast excitation. Both Coulomb pull and laser-plasma interaction contribute to the acceleration in the case of short-pulse excitation. These investigations provide new information on the pressure dependent temporal behavior of nickel plasmas produced by short-pulse and ultrafast laser pulses, which have potential uses in applications such as pulsed laser deposition and laser-induced nanoparticle generation.

  3. Simple Short-Pulse CO2 Laser Excited by Longitudinal Discharge without High-Voltage Switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Jitsuno, Takahisa; Akitsu, Tetsuya

    2012-05-01

    We have developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser without a high-voltage switch. The laser produces a short laser pulse similar to those from TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. This system, which is the simplest short-pulse CO2 laser yet constructed, includes a pulsed power supply, a high-speed step-up transformer, a storage capacitor, and a laser tube. At high pressure (4.2 kPa and above), a rapid discharge produces a short laser pulse with a sharp spike pulse. In mixed gas (CO2: N2: He = 1: 1: 2) at a pressure of 9.0 kPa, the laser pulse contains a spike pulse of 218 ns and has a pulse tail length of 16.7 μs.

  4. Optical damage performance measurements of multilayer dielectric gratings for high energy short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, D.; Carr, C. W.; Negres, R. A.; Hackel, R. P.; Stanion, K. A.; Cross, D. A.; Guss, G.; Nissen, J. D.; Luthi, R.; Fair, J. E.; Britten, J. A.; Haefner, C.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the laser damage resistance of multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings used in the pulse compressors for high energy, high peak power laser systems such as the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) Petawatt laser on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our study includes measurements of damage threshold and damage density (ρ(Φ)) with picosecond laser pulses at 1053 nm under relevant operational conditions. Initial results indicate that sparse defects present on the optic surface from the manufacturing processes are responsible for damage initiation at laser fluences below the damage threshold indicated by the standard R-on-1 test methods, as is the case for laser damage with nanosecond pulse durations. As such, this study supports the development of damage density measurements for more accurate predictions on the damage performance of large area optics.

  5. Coherent excitation of a two-state system by a train of short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitanov, Nikolay V.; Knight, Peter L.

    1995-09-01

    A theoretical nonperturbative study of the coherent excitation of a two-state system by N consecutive equally spaced identical pulses is presented. General relations between the evolution matrix elements in the cases of one and N pulses are obtained in a closed form. For pulse envelopes allowing analytical solutions, these relations enable analytical treatment of pulse-train excitation; for pulses that can only be treated numerically, they shorten the computations by a factor of N. The relations show that the multiple-pulse excitation of a two-state system can be considered as a quantum analog of the diffraction grating. The interaction dynamics substantially depends on the way the train is produced because the phase shift that is accumulated by the probability amplitudes due to the free evolution of the system during and between the pulses differs. In the limit of weak excitation, the results recover earlier conclusions based on perturbative treatments. Simple formulas are derived for the conditions for complete population inversion (CPI) and complete population return (CPR), which differ from the single-pulse ones. These general results are applied to four particular cases that allow analytical solutions: resonant, rectangular, Rosen-Zener, and Allen-Eberly pulses. A common feature in all these cases is that the number and the amplitude of oscillations in the state populations increase with the number of pulses, while their width decreases. For rectangular pulses, CPI is possible below a given value of the ratio between the detuning and the pulse area; this value increases nearly linearly with the number of pulses. For the Rosen-Zener model, CPI is found to be possible for two and more pulses, while it is impossible for a single non-resonant pulse. It is shown that for a given number of pulses there is an upper limit on the detuning for which CPI can be observed; this limit increases logarithmically with the number of pulses. For the Allen-Eberly model, CPR is

  6. Short pulse neutron generator

    SciTech Connect

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  7. Short-pulsed diode lasers as an excitation source for time-resolved fluorescence applications and confocal laser scanning microscopy in PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Matthias; Meier, Thomas H.; El-Tayeb, Tarek A. A.; Kemkemer, Ralf; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Rueck, Angelika C.

    2001-11-01

    This article describes a setup for subcellular time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence lifetime measurements using a confocal laser scanning microscope in combination with a short pulsed diode laser for fluorescence excitation and specimen illumination. The diode laser emits pulses at 398 nm wavelength with 70 ps full width at half maximum (FWHM) duration. The diode laser can be run at a pulse repetition rate of 40 MHz down to single shot mode. For time resolved spectroscopy a spectrometer setup consisting of an Czerny Turner spectrometer and a MCP-gated and -intensified CCD camera was used. Subcellular fluorescence lifetime measurements were achieved using a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) module instead of the spectrometer setup. The capability of the short pulsed diode laser for fluorescence imaging, fluorescence lifetime measurements and time-resolved spectroscopy in combination with laser scanning microscopy is demonstrated by fluorescence analysis of several photosensitizers on a single cell level.

  8. Comparative study of low-pressure rare-gas fluoride/chloride lasers excited by a short-pulse electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Suda, A.; Kumagai, H.; Izawa, S.; Obara, M.

    1988-08-15

    Output characteristics of the short-pulse electron-beam excited ArF (193 nm), KrF (248 nm), XeF (351 nm), KrCl (222 nm), and XeCl (308 nm) lasers were experimentally investigated at the same time on the same device for various mixtures all pumped at a high excitation rate of 2.3 MW/cm/sup 3/. The optimum pressure of rare gas forming its rare-gas halide excimer increased for the sequence of ArF, KrCl, KrF, XeCl, and XeF, indicating that rare-gas halides were more quenched by the heavier rare gases, such as Xe, even at near-atmospheric pressures. At nearly atmospheric pressures the Ar-buffered mixtures gave higher laser energy than Ne-buffered mixtures except for the XeF laser. Through a series of measurements, the ArF laser showed the best result on the output energy of 96 J (5 J/l-script ) with an intrinsic efficiency of 3.4%.

  9. Short pulse test set

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    This report discusses the construction and operation of the Short Pulse Test Set that has been built for the U.S. Army Missile Command for the purpose of applying short (25 to 100 nanosecond), high voltage pulses to electronic explosive devices (EEDs) in both the pin-to-pin and pins-to-case mode. The test set employs the short pulse generating techniques first described in the Franklin Institute Research Laboratories (now Franklin Research Center) Report I-C3410, 'Pins-to-Case Short Pulse Sensitivity Studies for the Atlas DC Switch', December 1974. This report, authored by Ramie H. Thompson, was prepared for Picatinny Arsenal under contract DAAA21-72C-0766. The test set described herein utilizes a computer controlled high speed digitizer to monitor the pulse voltage and current and provides software to process and display these data.

  10. SHORT PULSE STRETCHER

    DOEpatents

    Branum, D.R.; Cummins, W.F.

    1962-12-01

    >A short pulse stretching circuit capable of stretching a short puise to enable it to be displayed on a relatively slow sweeping oscilloscope is described. Moreover, the duration of the pulse is increased by charging a capacitor through a diode and thereafter discharging the capacitor at such time as is desired. In the circuit the trigger pulse alone passes through a delay line, whereas the main signal passes through the diode only, and results in over-all circuit losses which are proportional to the low losses of the diode only. (AEC)

  11. High-pressure dielectric barrier discharge Xenon lamps generating short pulses of high-peak-power VUV radiation (172nm) with high pulse-to-pulse reproducibility.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Robert; Ward, Barry; Mildren, Richard; Kane, Deborah

    2003-10-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) are used to efficiently generate radiation in the ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions (88nm-350nm) by forming rare-gas and rare-gas halide excimers in a transient plasma. Usually, DBD lamps generate the light output quasi-continuously or in bursts with a high degree of stochastic or random variability in the instantaneous UV/VUV intensity. However, regular pulses of high-peak-power UV/VUV, with high pulse-to-pulse reproducibility, are of interest for applications in biology, surface treatment and cleaning, and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Such pulses can be generated from spatially homogeneous plasmas in a Xe DBD when the discharge is driven by uni-polar voltage pulses of short duration ( 100ns)^1. In the present study, we will report Xe DBD lamp performance and VUV output pulse characteristics for gas pressures up to 2.5bar and excitation conditions tailored for high-peak-power output. The experimental results will be compared to theoretical results from a detailed 1-D computer model of the spatio-temporal evolution of the plasma kinetics and Xe species population densities. ^1R.P.Mildren and R.J.Carman, J.Phys.D, 34, L1-L6, (2001)

  12. Numerical Investigation on Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharges Driven by Combined rf and Short-Pulse Sources in Co-Axial Electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi; Sun, Ji-zhong; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Wang, De-zhen

    Atmospheric-pressure discharges driven by combined rf and short-pulse sources in co-axial electrodes were investigated in this work using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. It demonstrated that the plasma intensity in the rf discharge could be enhanced drastically when an additional low-duty-ratio pulse source was applied to the discharge. The study investigated how the plasma density varied with the voltage amplitude of the pulse source. Results showed that the discharge mode turned into glow mode as the pulse amplitude exceeded a critical value. Two cases were investigated on the premise that the outer electrode was electrically grounded: in the first case the positive pulse was applied to the inner electrode while in the second case the negative pulse was used instead, and the spatial discharge characteristics were compared.

  13. Short-pulse laser materials processing

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Myers, B.R.; Banks, P.S.; Honea, E.C.

    1997-06-18

    While there is much that we have learned about materials processing in the ultrashort-pulse regime, there is an enormous amount that we don`t know. How short does the pulse have to be to achieve a particular cut (depth, material, quality)? How deep can you cut? What is the surface roughness? These questions are clearly dependent upon the properties of the material of interest along with the short-pulse interaction physics. From a technology standpoint, we are asked: Can you build a 100 W average power system ? A 1000 W average power system? This proposal seeks to address these questions with a combined experimental and theoretical program of study. Specifically, To develop an empirical database for both metals and dielectrics which can be used to determine the pulse duration and wavelength necessary to achieve a specific machining requirement. To investigate Yb:YAG as a potential laser material for high average power short-pulse systems both directly and in combination with titanium doped sapphire. To develop a conceptual design for a lOOW and eventually 5OOW average power short-pulse system.

  14. Dynamics of short-pulse generation via spectral filtering from intensely excited gain-switched 1.55-μm distributed-feedback laser diodes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Yoshita, Masahiro; Sato, Aya; Ito, Takashi; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2013-05-06

    Picosecond-pulse-generation dynamics and pulse-width limiting factors via spectral filtering from intensely pulse-excited gain-switched 1.55-μm distributed-feedback laser diodes were studied. The spectral and temporal characteristics of the spectrally filtered pulses indicated that the short-wavelength component stems from the initial part of the gain-switched main pulse and has a nearly linear down-chirp of 5.2 ps/nm, whereas long-wavelength components include chirped pulse-lasing components and steady-state-lasing components. Rate-equation calculations with a model of linear change in refractive index with carrier density explained the major features of the experimental results. The analysis of the expected pulse widths with optimum spectral widths was also consistent with the experimental data.

  15. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R J; Clark, D S; Kemp, A J; Lasinski, B F; Tabak, M

    2008-02-11

    facility, called HiPER, designed to demonstrate FI. Our design work has focused on the NIF, which is the only facility capable of forming a full-scale hydro assembly, and could be adapted for full-scale FI by the conversion of additional beams to short-pulse operation.

  16. Spontaneous decay of an excited atom in an absorbing dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, S.; Knöll, L.; Welsch, D.-G.

    1999-11-01

    Starting from the quantized version of Maxwell's equations for the electromagnetic field in an arbitrary linear Kramers-Kronig dielectric, the Heisenberg equations of motion for a two-level atom resonantly coupled to the radiation field in the presence of dispersive and absorbing dielectric bodies are derived. The theory is applied to the problem of spontaneous decay of excited atoms in absorbing media. The decay rate is calculated for the (Glauber-Lewenstein) real-cavity model, and a comparison with the recently studied (Clausius-Mosotti) virtual-cavity model [S. Scheel, L. Knöll, D.-G. Welsch, and S. M. Barnett, Phys. Rev. A 60, 1590 (1999)] is given. It is shown that owing to nonradiative decay associated with absorption, the rate of spontaneous decay sensitively depends on the cavity radius, particularly when the atomic transition frequency approaches an absorption band of the medium. Only when the effect of absorption is fully disregarded, is the familiar local-field correction factor recovered.

  17. An integrable coupled short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bao-Feng

    2012-03-01

    An integrable coupled short pulse (CSP) equation is proposed for the propagation of ultra-short pulses in optical fibers. Based on two sets of bilinear equations to a two-dimensional Toda lattice linked by a Bäcklund transformation, and an appropriate hodograph transformation, the proposed CSP equation is derived. Meanwhile, its N-soliton solutions are given by the Casorati determinant in a parametric form. The properties of one- and two-soliton solutions are investigated in detail. Same as the short pulse equation, the two-soliton solution turns out to be a breather type if the wave numbers are complex conjugate. We also illustrate an example of soliton-breather interaction.

  18. GSFC short pulse radar, JONSWAP-75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Walton, W. T.; Eckerman, J.; Kutz, R. L.; Dombrowski, M.; Kalshoven, J. E., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    In September 1975, the Goddard Space Flight Center operated a short pulse radar during ocean wave measuring experiments off the coast of West Germany in the North Sea. The experiment was part of JONSWAP-75. The radar system and operations during the experiment are described along with examples of data.

  19. RF synchronized short pulse laser ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Fuwa, Yasuhiro Iwashita, Yoshihisa; Tongu, Hiromu; Inoue, Shunsuke; Hashida, Masaki; Sakabe, Shuji; Okamura, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Atsushi

    2016-02-15

    A laser ion source that produces shortly bunched ion beam is proposed. In this ion source, ions are extracted immediately after the generation of laser plasma by an ultra-short pulse laser before its diffusion. The ions can be injected into radio frequency (RF) accelerating bucket of a subsequent accelerator. As a proof-of-principle experiment of the ion source, a RF resonator is prepared and H{sub 2} gas was ionized by a short pulse laser in the RF electric field in the resonator. As a result, bunched ions with 1.2 mA peak current and 5 ns pulse length were observed at the exit of RF resonator by a probe.

  20. Electromagnetic Pulses at Short-Pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Throop, A; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2007-08-28

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is a known issue for short-pulse laser facilities, and will also be an issue for experiments using the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The ARC diagnostic uses four NIF beams that are compressed to picosecond durations for backlighting ignition capsules and other applications. Consequently, we are working to understand the EMP due to high-energy (MeV) electrons escaping from targets heated by short-pulse lasers. Our approach is to measure EMP in the Titan short-pulse laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to employ that data to establish analysis and simulation capabilities. We have installed a wide variety of probes inside and outside the Titan laser chamber. We have high-frequency B-dots and D-dots, a photodiode, and fast current-viewing and integrating current transformers. The probe outputs are digitized by 10 and 20 Gsample/s oscilloscopes. The cables and oscilloscopes are well shielded to reduce noise. Our initial measurement campaign has yielded data useful mainly from hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We currently are supplementing our high-frequency probes with lower-frequency ones to obtain better low-frequency data. In order to establish analysis and simulation capabilities we are modeling the Titan facility using various commercial and LLNL numerical electromagnetic codes. We have simulated EMP generation by having a specified number of electrons leave the target and strike the chamber wall and other components in the chamber. This short impulse of electrons has a corresponding broad spectrum, exciting high-frequency structure in the resulting EMP. In this paper, we present results of our initial measurement campaign and comparisons between the measurements and simulations.

  1. Electromagnetic Pulses at Short-Pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C G; Throop, A; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2008-02-04

    Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) is a known issue for short-pulse laser facilities, and will also be an issue for experiments using the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The ARC diagnostic uses four NIF beams that are compressed to picosecond durations for backlighting ignition capsules and other applications. Consequently, we are working to understand the EMP due to high-energy (MeV) electrons escaping from targets heated by short-pulse lasers. Our approach is to measure EMP in the Titan short-pulse laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and to employ that data to establish analysis and simulation capabilities. We have installed a wide variety of probes inside and outside the Titan laser chamber. We have high-frequency B-dot and D-dot probes, a photodiode, and fast current-viewing and integrating current transformers. The probe outputs are digitized by 10 and 20 Gsample/s oscilloscopes. The cables and oscilloscopes are well shielded to reduce noise. Our initial measurement campaign has yielded data useful mainly from several hundreds of MHz to several GHz. We currently are supplementing our high-frequency probes with lower-frequency ones to obtain better low-frequency data. In order to establish analysis and simulation capabilities we are modeling the Titan facility using various commercial and LLNL numerical electromagnetics codes. We have simulated EMP generation by having a specified number of electrons leave the target and strike the chamber wall and other components in the chamber. This short impulse of electrons has a correspondingly broad spectrum, exciting high-frequency structure in the resulting EMP. In this paper, we present results of our initial measurement campaign and comparisons between the measurements and simulations.

  2. van der Waals interactions between excited-state atoms and dispersive dielectric surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichet, M.; Schuller, F.; Bloch, D.; Ducloy, M.

    1995-02-01

    van der Waals interactions between atoms and dielectric surfaces are reinvestigated. To describe the nonretarded interaction potential between a dispersive dielectric surface and an atom in an arbitrary internal energy state, we derive a general expression in terms of an integral, over real frequency, of the combined atom and surface polarizabilities. It is shown that, for excited atoms, the expression is equivalent to the one obtained by Wylie and Sipe [Phys. Rev. A 32, 2030 (1985)]. We thus demonstrate how to extend this approach to excited atoms interacting with birefringent dielectrics. For isotropic dielectrics, a method of integration in closed form allows us to derive an approximate formula for the van der Waals interaction constant in terms of resonance frequencies and oscillator strengths of both the atom and the dielectric. Frequency-dependent ``dielectric reflection'' coefficients are introduced for virtual atomic dipole couplings either in absorption or in emission. In absorption, the reflection coefficient is always positive and smaller than unity. In emission, it may take arbitrary values, positive or negative (corresponding to van der Waals repulsion). Such a behavior is shown to be related to resonant excitation exchange between the atomic system and the dielectric medium, when an atomic transition frequency gets in resonance with a dielectric absorption band. Numerical calculations performed for the cesium-sapphire system are shown to be in good agreement with data obtained by selective-reflection spectroscopy. Finally, experimental tests of the birefringent character of the sapphire response are discussed.

  3. A Bright Neutron Source Driven by a Short Pulse Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus

    2012-10-01

    Neutrons are a unique tool to alter and diagnose material properties, and to exciting nuclear reactions, for many applications. Accelerator based spallation sources provide high neutron fluxes for research, but there is a growing need for more compact sources with higher peak brightness, whether fast or moderated neutrons. Intense lasers promise such as source, readily linkable to other experimental facilities, or deployable outside a laboratory setting. We present experimental results on the first short-pulse laser-driven neutron source powerful enough for radiography. A novel laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism (Breakout Afterburner), operating in the relativistic transparency regime, is used. Based on the mechanism's advantages, a laser-driven deuteron beam is used to achieve a new record in laser-neutron production, in numbers, energy and directionality. This neutron beam is a highly directional pulse < 1 ns at ˜ 1 cm from the target, with a flux > 40/2̂, and thus suitable for imaging applications with high temporal resolution. The beam contained, for the first time, neutrons with energies of up to 150 MeV. Thus using short pulse lasers, it is now possible to use the resulting hard x-rays and neutrons of different energies to radiograph an unknown object and to determine its material composition. Our data matches the simulated data for our test samples.

  4. Site correlation effects in the dynamics of iron impurities Fe2+ / Fe3+ and antisite defects Nb4+ Li / Nb5+ Li after a short-pulse excitation in LiNb O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicero, J.; Carrascosa, M.; García, G.; Agulló-López, F.

    2005-12-01

    The correlation effects between excitation and trapping sites after light excitation in a Li-deficient Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal have been quantitatively analyzed. They appear as a direct consequence of the thermally activated random transport (hopping) of electrons (free polarons) by using a Monte Carlo approach. The physical consequences of those effects, not present in usual coherent band-transport analyses, are explored and discussed in the light of available experiment. In particular, nonexponential decay kinetics for the evolution of electrons trapped at antisites (small polarons) are predicted.

  5. Short-pulse Laser Processing of CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Rudolf; Freitag, Christian; Kononenko, Taras V.; Hafner, Margit; Onuseit, Volkher; Berger, Peter; Graf, Thomas

    Short-pulse lasers allow processing of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) with very high quality, i.e. showing thermal damage in the range of only a few micrometers. Due to the usually high intensities and the short interaction times of such short pulses, only a small fraction of the incident laser energy is converted to residual heat which does not contribute to the ablation process. However, if the next pulse arrives before the material had time to cool down, i.e. this residual thermal energy did not sufficiently flow out of the interaction region, it encounters material which is still hot. This remaining energy and temperature is summing up during the sequence of pulses and is commonly referred to as "heat accumulation". Thermal damage in addition to the damage created by the process itself is induced, if the resulting temperature sum exceeds the damage temperatures of either the fibre or the plastic. The current paper presents the influence of the laser parameters such as pulse energy and repetition rate on this heat accumulation. An analytical model was used to describe the heat accumulation for different laser parameters. It describes the heat accumulation process and allows estimating the maximum number of pulses allowed at the same place before a detrimental temperature increase occurs.

  6. Precision short-pulse damage test station utilizing optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Wattellier, B; Nielsen, N; Molander, W; Stuart, B; Pennington, D; Barty, C J

    2004-03-22

    The next generation of high-energy petawatt (HEPW)-class lasers will utilize multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings for pulse compression, due to their high efficiency and high damage threshold for picosecond pulses. The peak power of HEPW lasers will be determined by the aperture and damage threshold of the final dielectric grating in the pulse compressor and final focusing optics. We have developed a short-pulse damage test station for accurate determination of the damage threshold of the optics used on future HEPW lasers. Our damage test station is based on a highly stable, high-beam-quality optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier (OPCPA) operating at 1053 nm at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. We present the design of our OPCPA system pumped by a commercial Q-switched pump laser and the results of the full system characterization. Initial short-pulse damage experiments in the far field using our system have been performed.

  7. Modeling of Ultra-Short-Pulse Reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Bruce I.

    1998-11-01

    Pulsed reflectometry offers the prospect of making space and time-resolved measurements of the radial profiles of both the electron density and the vector magnetic field in the midplane of a device, from which the current profile can be inferred if the device is toroidally symmetric and has a weak up-down asymmetry at the midplane. Detailed modeling of the use of ultra-short-pulse reflectometry to diagnose radial electron density and magnetic field strength profiles has been undertaken with a suite of one and two-dimensional, wave-equation-solving simulation codes and analytical calculations.(B. I. Cohen, L. L. LoDestro, E. B. Hooper, and T. A. Casper, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 40), 75 (1998). The reflectometry simulations are coupled to the CORSICA equilibrium and transport code to allow realistic plasma density and magnetic profiles to be used. The simulations show that pulsed reflectometry is a relatively robust technique for inferring density and magnetic profiles. A new innovation is the demonstration that the linear mode conversion of extraordinary modes to ordinary modes induced by magnetic shear can be diagnosed with reflectometry from which the magnetic pitch angle can be inferred.(B. I. Cohen, E. B. Hooper, M. C. Spang, and C. W. Domier, "Theoretical Aspects of the Use of Pulsed Reflectometry in a Spheromak Plasma," (June, 1998), submitted to Rev. Sci. Instrum.) Some of the characteristics of fluctuations are also revealed by reflectometry. Simulation examples of applications of ultra-short-pulsed reflectometry to the SSPX spheromak experiment at Livermore are presented.

  8. Ventricular fibrillation threshold of rapid short pulses.

    PubMed

    Walcott, Gregory P; Kroll, Mark W; Ideker, Raymond E

    2011-01-01

    The risk of VF (ventricular fibrillation) from continuous AC utility (50/60 Hz) power has been well quantified and is reflected in accepted standards. Similarly, the required charge for a single pulse delivered during the T-wave of the ECG is also quantified. However, there are no studies that deal with the VF risk of a train of multiple short pulses such as those used in electric fences and conducted electrical weapons (CEWs). We studied 5 swine with an electrode placed through the anterior chest such that the tip was 10 mm from the epicardium. A return electrode was attached remotely to the lower abdomen. Five-second trains of 100 μs pulses at rates of 10-70 PPS (pulses per second) were delivered with gradually increasing charges until VF was induced. The VF threshold was also determined for 60 Hz AC current. As expected, the VF charge threshold decreased with increasing rates. For pulse rates between 10-30 PPS, the aggregate current (= charge • pulse rate) was constant at the VF threshold. The VF threshold in terms of AC RMS current was 7.4 ± 1.9 times the aggregate current VF threshold for the rapid short pulses. These results may have utility for setting safety standards for electric fences and for CEWs such as TASER® CEWs. This also allows for the risk assessment of CEWs by comparison to international electrical safety standards. The output of these weapons appears to be well below the VF risk limits as set by these standards.

  9. On Acceptable Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    NAWCWD TP 8791 On Acceptable Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields by Francis X. Canning, PhD Physics...prepared in response to a request to study the effects of exposure to short pulses of electromagnetic fields. The author is a physicist at the Naval... Exposures to Short Pulses of Electromagnetic Fields (U) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER N/A 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S

  10. Status Of The Dielectric Wall Accelerator For Proton Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Watson, James A.; Blackfield, Don T.; Nelson, Scott D.; Poole, Brian R.; Stanley, Joel R.; Sullivan, James S.

    2011-06-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA) offers the potential to produce a high gradient linear accelerator for proton therapy and other applications. The current status of the DWA for proton therapy will be reviewed. Recent progress in SiC photoconductive switch development will be presented. There are serious beam transport challenges in the DWA arising from short pulse excitation of the wall. Solutions to these transport difficulties will be discussed.

  11. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L.

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  12. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  13. A new method to produce short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germer, Rudolf

    2005-03-01

    If a coaxial cable or a strip line has an open end, then the incoming signal is reflected there. Due to the propagation velocity, an incoming rectangular pulse has a length in space which depends on its length in time. If the pulse length is twice the cable length, then after the reflection at the end, the pulse energy is distributed in an electrical field along the cable. Input and output current are compensating. At this time, it is possible to take out the energy simultanously through several switched connections at the same time. The result is a shorter pulse of much higher power which can drive a load of low impedance or with the pulse transformer presented at the 25th ICHSPP give a short pulse of very high voltage. This concentration in time of the electrical energy is planed to be used for x-ray flash systems. If the input pulse is not rectangular, then it is possible to take off the energy at the time of best peak power. Bei einem Bandleiter oder Koaxialkabel mit offenem Ende wird das auf der Leitung laufende Signal reflektiert. Die Ausdehnung eines Rechteckimpulses auf einer solchen Leitung entspricht seiner Dauer und der Ausbreitungsgeschwindigkeit auf der Leitung. Wenn die Impulsausdehnung doppelt so gross ist wie die Leitungslange, dann kann die gesamte Energie des Impulses nach der Reflexion im elektrischen Feld gespeichert sein, Eingangs und Reflexionsstrom kompensieren sich. Zu dieser Zeit ist es moglich, fast die ganze Energie gleichzeitig seitlich durch einen ausgedehnten oder mit mehreren einzelnen Schaltern an einen niederohmigen Verbraucher weiterzuleiten oder mit einem Impulstransformator ( gezeigt auf dem 25. ICHSPP ) an dessen Impedanz anzupassen. Der Ausgangsimpuls ist sehr kurz und von vervielfachter Leistung. Diese zeitliche Energiekonzentration soll spater fur Rontgenbltzsysteme verwendet werden. Im Falle eines nicht rechteckformigen Eingangsimpulses kann die Energie wahrend der hochsten Spitzenleistung entnommen werden.

  14. The source of THz radiation based on dielectric waveguide excited by sequence of electron bunches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmark, A. M.; Kanareykin, A. D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a new method for excitation of THz Cherenkov radiation in a dielectric waveguide by relativistic electron bunches. A sequence of bunches generates monochromatic radiation. The frequency of radiation is defined by the distance between the bunches. The studies were carried by using the newly updated BBU-3000 code which permits taking into account a number of additional options: an external quadrupole focusing system, group velocity of the wakefield, and the dielectric material loss factor. In this paper, we present our algorithm for optimizing the number and sequential positions of bunches for generation of narrow band high power THz radiation.

  15. The diagnostics of ultra-short pulse laser-produced plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Since the invention of the laser, coherent light has been used to break down solid or gaseous material and transform it into a plasma. Over the last three decades two things have changed. Due to multiple advancements and design of high power lasers it is now possible to increase the electric and magnetic field strength that pushed the electron motion towards the regime of relativistic plasma physics. Moreover, due to the short pulse duration of the driving laser the underlying physics has become so transient that concepts like thermal equilibrium (even a local one) or spatial isotropy start to fail. Consequently short pulse laser-driven plasmas have become a rich source of new phenomena that we are just about beginning to explore. Such phenomena, like particle acceleration, nuclear laser-induced reactions, the generation of coherent secondary radiation ranging from THz to high harmonics and the production of attosecond pulses have excited an enormous interest in the study of short pulse laser plasmas. The diagnostics of such ultra-short pulse laser plasmas is a challenging task that involves many and different techniques compared to conventional laser-produced plasmas. While this review cannot cover the entire field of diagnostics that has been developed over the last years, we will try to give a summarizing description of the most important techniques that are currently being used.

  16. Dielectric function for a model of laser-excited GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, Lorin X.

    2001-02-15

    We consider a model for the ultrashort pulsed-laser excitation of GaAs in which electrons are excited from the top of the valence band to the bottom of the conduction band. The linear optical response of this excited system in the visible and near-UV is calculated by solving a statically screened Bethe-Salpeter equation. Single-particle electron energies and wave functions are taken from ab initio electronic structure calculations. The screened electron-hole interaction W is calculated with a model dielectric function which includes the excited carriers. Though band-gap renormalization is neglected, dramatic changes are observed in the shape of {epsilon}{sub 2}({omega}) due to Pauli blocking and the enhanced screening of W. We estimate the error incurred in the static screening approximation by performing static screening calculations with the assumption that the excited carriers respond too slowly to screen W.

  17. Wakefield Excitation by a Sequence of Electron Bunches in a Rectangular Waveguide Lined with Dielectric Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Kiselev, V. A.; Linnik, A. F.; Onishchenko, I. N.; Onishchenko, N. I.; Sotnikov, G. V.; Uskov, V. V.; Marshall, T. C.

    2006-11-27

    A rectangular dielectric-lined metallic structure was studied that has an advantage over a cylindrical structure from the possibility of exciting by a sequence of bunches many equally-spaced modes, thereby building up a larger mode-locked wakefield. A rectangular vacuum copper waveguide was lined with two dielectric slabs, the size of which was calculated to provide resonant excitation of the fundamental LSM mode by a sequence of bunches with repetition frequency f0=2805 MHz, produced by linear resonant electron accelerator (4.5 MeV, number of bunches 6.103, diameter 1cm, duration 60 ps each, distance between bunches 300 ps, number of electrons in each bunch 109). The waveguide has cross section 85 mm x 180 mm, and Teflon ({epsilon} 2.1) plates were placed along the smaller sides of the waveguide, their thickness from the calculation being 22 mm. In experiments, the length of the resonator was 535mm. We found that the total wakefield is three times larger than the fundamental mode; thus a greater number of excited modes was excited compared with the cylindrical case, for which this ratio was only 1.5. We found considerably more energy loss of electron bunches for the resonator case compared with the waveguide case.

  18. Double resonant excitation of the second harmonic of terahertz raditation in dielectric-graphene layered metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapoport, Yu; Grimalsky, V.; Lavrinenko, A. V.; Boardman, A.

    2017-09-01

    Excitation of the second harmonic of THz radiation is investigated theoretically in the planar multilayered structure dielectric-graphene-dielectric-graphene-…. It is studied the case of the oblique incidence of the s-polarized fundamental wave, where the electric field is parallel to the interfaces, and generation of the p-type second harmonic wave occurs. The original concept is proposed to employ the double resonance arrangement for the effective generation of the second harmonic. The double resonant case can be realized when a high-permittivity dielectric is at the input of the structure and the vacuum is at the output. The high efficiency is demonstrated; the second harmonic reflectance coefficient is ≥0.01 under realistic values of the collision frequency in graphene >1012 s-1. Such a great efficiency, which is four-five orders of magnitude higher than reported for the graphene-dielectric structures previously, is proposed for the first time. To compute the nonlinear surface currents, two approaches were used, the kinetic and the hydrodynamic. A qualitative agreement between two approaches, proven in the present modeling, ensures an applicability of the results.

  19. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, J.S.

    1994-08-02

    A method of producing a long output pulse from a short pump pulse is disclosed, using an elongated amplified fiber having a doped core that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding. A seed beam of the longer wavelength is injected into the core at one end of the fiber and a pump pulse of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding at the other end of the fiber. The counter-propagating seed beam and pump pulse will produce an amplified output pulse having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse through the fiber plus the length of the pump pulse. 3 figs.

  20. Long pulse production from short pulses

    DOEpatents

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A method of producing a long output pulse (SA) from a short pump pulse (P), using an elongated amplified fiber (11) having a doped core (12) that provides an amplifying medium for light of one color when driven into an excited state by light of a shorter wavelength and a surrounding cladding 13. A seed beam (S) of the longer wavelength is injected into the core (12) at one end of the fiber (11) and a pump pulse (P) of the shorter wavelength is injected into the cladding (13) at the other end of the fiber (11). The counter-propagating seed beam (S) and pump pulse (P) will produce an amplified output pulse (SA) having a time duration equal to twice the transit time of the pump pulse (P) through the fiber (11) plus the length of the pump pulse (P).

  1. Electronic excitations in a dielectric continuum solvent with quantum Monte Carlo: Acrolein in water

    SciTech Connect

    Floris, Franca Maria Amovilli, Claudio; Filippi, Claudia

    2014-01-21

    We investigate here the vertical n → π{sup *} and π → π{sup *} transitions of s-trans-acrolein in aqueous solution by means of a polarizable continuum model (PCM) we have developed for the treatment of the solute at the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) level of the theory. We employ the QMC approach which allows us to work with highly correlated electronic wave functions for both the solute ground and excited states and, to study the vertical transitions in the solvent, adopt the commonly used scheme of considering fast and slow dielectric polarization. To perform calculations in a non-equilibrium solvation regime for the solute excited state, we add a correction to the global dielectric polarization charge density, obtained self consistently with the solute ground-state wave function by assuming a linear-response scheme. For the solvent polarization in the field of the solute in the ground state, we use the static dielectric constant while, for the electronic dielectric polarization, we employ the solvent refractive index evaluated at the same frequency of the photon absorbed by the solute for the transition. This choice is shown to be better than adopting the most commonly used value of refractive index measured in the region of visible radiation. Our QMC calculations show that, for standard cavities, the solvatochromic shifts obtained with the PCM are underestimated, even though of the correct sign, for both transitions of acrolein in water. Only by reducing the size of the cavity to values where more than one electron is escaped to the solvent region, we regain the experimental shift for the n → π{sup *} case and also improve considerably the shift for the π → π{sup *} transition.

  2. Medical applications of ultra-short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B M; Marion, J E

    1999-06-08

    The medical applications for ultra short pulse lasers (USPLs) and their associated commercial potential are reviewed. Short pulse lasers offer the surgeon the possibility of precision cutting or disruption of tissue with virtually no thermal or mechanical damage to the surrounding areas. Therefore the USPL offers potential improvement to numerous existing medical procedures. Secondly, when USPLs are combined with advanced tissue diagnostics, there are possibilities for tissue-selective precision ablation that may allow for new surgeries that cannot at present be performed. Here we briefly review the advantages of short pulse lasers, examine the potential markets both from an investment community perspective, and from the view. of the technology provider. Finally nominal performance and cost requirements for the lasers, delivery systems and diagnostics and the present state of development will be addressed.

  3. Oscillatory penetration of near-fields in plasmonic excitation at metal-dielectric interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S. C.; Kang, J. H.; Park, Q-H.; Krishna, S.; Brueck, S. R. J.

    2016-01-01

    The electric field immediately below an illuminated metal-film that is perforated with a hole array on a dielectric consists of direct transmission and scattering of the incident light through the holes and evanescent near-field from plasmonic excitations. Depending on the size and shape of the hole apertures, it exhibits an oscillatory decay in the propagation direction. This unusual field penetration is explained by the interference between these contributions, and is experimentally confirmed through an aperture which is engineered with four arms stretched out from a simple circle to manipulate a specific plasmonic excitation available in the metal film. A numerical simulation quantitatively supports the experiment. This fundamental characteristic will impact plasmonics with the near-fields designed by aperture engineering for practical applications. PMID:27090841

  4. Oscillatory penetration of near-fields in plasmonic excitation at metal-dielectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. C.; Kang, J. H.; Park, Q.-H.; Krishna, S.; Brueck, S. R. J.

    2016-04-01

    The electric field immediately below an illuminated metal-film that is perforated with a hole array on a dielectric consists of direct transmission and scattering of the incident light through the holes and evanescent near-field from plasmonic excitations. Depending on the size and shape of the hole apertures, it exhibits an oscillatory decay in the propagation direction. This unusual field penetration is explained by the interference between these contributions, and is experimentally confirmed through an aperture which is engineered with four arms stretched out from a simple circle to manipulate a specific plasmonic excitation available in the metal film. A numerical simulation quantitatively supports the experiment. This fundamental characteristic will impact plasmonics with the near-fields designed by aperture engineering for practical applications.

  5. Analysis and applications of one-dimensional periodic dielectric gratings under plane wave excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coves, A.; San Blas, A. A.; Gimeno, B.; Andres, Miguel V.; Boria, Vincente E.; Vidal, Antonio M.

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we analyze the frequency response of one-dimensional periodic dielectric gratings under plane wave excitation using a vectorial modal method in combination with the Generalized Scattering Matrix Technique. A very fast and efficient CAD tool has been developed for the analysis of the scattering of such structures, which allows modifying all the electrical and geometrical parameters, as grating period, thickness, frequency, polarization and angle of incidence. We show that ideal reflection (band-stop) filters with high efficiency can be designed by combining guided-mode resonance effects in periodic dielectric gratings with antireflection effects of thin-film structures, providing a symmetrical line shape with near-zero reflectivity over appreciable frequency bands adjacent to the resonance frequency. A reflection filter example employing common dielectric materials illustrates bandwidth control by grating modulation. Moreover, it is shown that the resonance frequency of the filter can be controlled by the angle of incidence. Finally, it is shown a double-band reflection filter using a structure with two gratings with different periods, with the center frequencies determined by the resonances of the individual single-layer waveguide gratings.

  6. Dimensionality of electronic excitations in organic semiconductors: A dielectric function approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Nelson, Jenny; Bradley, Donal D. C.; Etchegoin, Pablo G.

    2007-12-01

    We present a detailed investigation on the effective dimensionality (associated with the degree of delocalization) of electronic excitations in thin organic films using the dielectric function as obtained from ellipsometry. To this end, we study first the best analytical representation of the optical dielectric function of these materials and compare different approaches found in the literature: (i) the harmonic oscillator approximation, (ii) the standard critical-point model (SCP), (iii) the model dielectric function (MDF), and (iv) the Forouhi-Bloomer model. We use these models to analyze variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry raw data for a thin poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene) (PFO) film deposited on quartz (taken as an archetypal sample). The superiority of the SCP model for PFO films and a wide range of other spin-coated conjugated polymers (and guest-molecules in polymers) is demonstrated. Moreover, we show how the SCP model can be used to gain physical information on the microscopic structure. As an example, we show that the delocalization of excitons decreases for nonconjugated polymers, such as polymethylmethacrylate and polyimide, while the conjugation length and exciton delocalization are, respectively, enhanced in cases where a planar conformation (e.g., β phase of PFO) or a high degree of crystallinity [e.g., poly(3-hexylthiophene)] is achieved. As an additional example, we employ the SCP excitonic model to investigate the temperature dependence of the dielectric function of crystalline and glassy PFO films. We propose that the SCP excitonic model should be adopted as the standard choice to model the optical properties of polymer thin films from ellipsometry data.

  7. Dynamics of atomic spin-orbit-state wave packets produced by short-pulse laser photodetachment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, S. M. K.; Gribakin, G. F.

    2016-11-01

    We analyze the experiment by Hultgren et al. [Phys. Rev. A 87, 031404 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevA.87.031404] on orbital alignment and quantum beats in coherently excited atomic fine-structure manifolds produced by short-pulse laser photodetachment of C-,Si-,and Ge- negative ions, and derive a formula that describes the beats. Analysis of the experimental data enables us to extract the noncoherent background contribution for each species, and indicates the need for a full density-matrix treatment of the problem.

  8. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High Energy, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Messerly, M; Phan, H; Siders, C; Beach, R; Barty, C

    2007-06-21

    We are developing a fiber laser system for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal for these systems as they are highly reliable and enable long term stable operation.

  9. Approximate analytical solution for waveguide excitation of a plane dielectric layer by a Gaussian beam at frustrated total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Serdyuk, Vladimir; Rudnitsky, Anton

    2015-05-01

    We present an approximate 2D asymptotic analytic theory of light field excitation in a plane thin dielectric layer under conditions of frustrated total internal reflection, when an inclined Gaussian beam, falling from a triangular prism, excites a decaying field in air spacing between a prism and a plane dielectric. Ignoring the radiation scattering on the sharp edges of a prism, we have obtained the formulas that allow us to compute spatial structures of an electromagnetic field in every point of space and to estimate the integral efficiency of waveguide mode excitation in a plane dielectric layer and the total energy of a reflected beam. It is shown that the width of an initial Gaussian beam has an effect on waveguide mode intensity.

  10. Theoretical estimation of nonlinear optical force on dielectric spherical particles of arbitrary size under femtosecond pulsed excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, Anita; De, Arijit K.

    2017-08-01

    Experimental evidence indicates that high-repetition-rate ultrafast pulsed excitation is more efficient in optical trapping of dielectric nanoparticles as compared with continuous-wave excitation at the same average power. The physics behind the different nature of force under these two excitation conditions remained deceptive until quite recently when it was theoretically explained, in the dipole limit, as a combined effect of (1) repetitive instantaneous momentum transfer and (2) optical Kerr nonlinearity. The role of optical Kerr effect was theoretically studied for larger dielectric spherical particles, in the ray optics limit, also. However, a theoretical underpinning is yet to be established as to whether the effect of optical nonlinearity is omnipresent across different particle sizes, which we investigate here. Using localized approximation of generalized Lorenz-Mie theory, we theoretically analyze the nature of force (and potential) and provide a detailed comparative discussion between this generalized scattering formulation with dipole scattering formulation for dielectric nanoparticles.

  11. Instantaneous charge and dielectric response to terahertz pulse excitation in TTF-CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomi, Hiroki; Yamagishi, Naoto; Mase, Tomohito; Inagaki, Takeshi J.; Takahashi, Akira

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of exact numerical calculations of the dielectric properties of tetrathiafulvalene-p -chloranil (TTF-CA) using the extended Hubbard model. The electronic polarization P¯el of the ionic ground state is obtained by directly calculating the adiabatic flow of current. The direction of P¯el is opposite to polarization P¯ion owing to ionic displacement, and | P¯el| is much larger than | P¯ion| , showing that, in the ionic phase, TTF-CA is an electric ferroelectric. Furthermore, we numerically calculate the dynamics induced by THz pulse excitation. In the ionic phase, there exists an almost exact linear relationship between Δ ρ (t ) and E (t ) , and between Δ Pel(t ) and E (t ) in the realistic range of the excitation magnitude, where Δ ρ (t ) [Δ Pel(t ) ] is the charge transfer (electric polarization) variation induced by the THz pulse and E (t ) is the electric field of the pulse at time t . The absolute value of Δ ρ (t ) in the neutral phase is much smaller than that in the ionic phase. These results are consistent with those of experiments and originate from the adiabatic nature of the THz pulse excited state.

  12. Microwave short-pulse bed-level detector. Annual report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Balanis, C.A.; Delauder, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    A short-pulse microwave system for measuring the bed-level within a fluidized-bed combustor, has been designed, built, and laboratory tested on static beds. The system is a short-pulse radar which operates in the frequency region of 6.75 to 10.95 GHz as a time-domain measurement system. Laboratory measurements of static bed-levels, for smooth and corrugated surfaces of metal plates and limestone sand, agree to an average of 2.0% of the actual heights. Additionally, the system was tested with a dielectric thermal protector, which did not compromise the accuracy of the measurements. Analytical models have been formulated to provide insight into the operation of the system on a wide range of simulated targets without the necessity of performing expensive and difficult laboratory experiments. Two formulations have been used to describe electromagnetic scattering by a rough surface as a function of frequency: the space harmonic model and the physical optics model. A reconstruction technique has been devised which uses the scattering models and the spectrum of the transmitted pulse to synthesize the reflected pulse. The data generated by the models compare well to previously published data and to experimental results.

  13. Ab Initio Simulation of Electrical Currents Induced by Ultrafast Laser Excitation of Dielectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Georg; Lemell, Christoph; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Sato, Shunsuke A.; Tong, Xiao-Min; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2014-08-01

    We theoretically investigate the generation of ultrafast currents in insulators induced by strong few-cycle laser pulses. Ab initio simulations based on time-dependent density functional theory give insight into the atomic-scale properties of the induced current signifying a femtosecond-scale insulator-metal transition. We observe the transition from nonlinear polarization currents during the laser pulse at low intensities to tunnelinglike excitation into the conduction band at higher laser intensities. At high intensities, the current persists after the conclusion of the laser pulse considered to be the precursor of the dielectric breakdown on the femtosecond scale. We show that the transferred charge sensitively depends on the orientation of the polarization axis relative to the crystal axis, suggesting that the induced charge separation reflects the anisotropic electronic structure. We find good agreement with very recent experimental data on the intensity and carrier-envelope phase dependence [A. Schiffrin et al., Nature (London) 493, 70 (2013)].

  14. Tunable THz radiation source from dielectric loaded waveguide excited by nonrelativistic electron bunch trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiwei; He, Zhigang; Lu, Yalin; Huang, Ruixuan; Liu, Weihao; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin

    2016-10-01

    We propose a novel scheme to generate a tunable narrow-band THz radiation. In this scheme, a train of laser pulses with THz repetition rate is used to drive a photocathode direct current (DC) gun, leading to the emission of a train of electron bunches. The electron bunch train is subsequently accelerated by the gun field and applied to selectively excite one of the modes in the dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) structure, which is located downstream the DC gun. Thanks to the tunability of the repetition rate of laser pulses and the gun voltage, a tunable narrow-band THz radiation source can be obtained. This proposed source has the advantages of compactness, robustness and relatively high power.

  15. Transient thermal and nonthermal electron and phonon relaxation after short-pulsed laser heating of metals

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, Ashutosh; Hopkins, Patrick E.

    2015-12-07

    Several dynamic thermal and nonthermal scattering processes affect ultrafast heat transfer in metals after short-pulsed laser heating. Even with decades of measurements of electron-phonon relaxation, the role of thermal vs. nonthermal electron and phonon scattering on overall electron energy transfer to the phonons remains unclear. In this work, we derive an analytical expression for the electron-phonon coupling factor in a metal that includes contributions from equilibrium and nonequilibrium distributions of electrons. While the contribution from the nonthermal electrons to electron-phonon coupling is non-negligible, the increase in the electron relaxation rates with increasing laser fluence measured by thermoreflectance techniques cannot be accounted for by only considering electron-phonon relaxations. We conclude that electron-electron scattering along with electron-phonon scattering have to be considered simultaneously to correctly predict the transient nature of electron relaxation during and after short-pulsed heating of metals at elevated electron temperatures. Furthermore, for high electron temperature perturbations achieved at high absorbed laser fluences, we show good agreement between our model, which accounts for d-band excitations, and previous experimental data. Our model can be extended to other free electron metals with the knowledge of the density of states of electrons in the metals and considering electronic excitations from non-Fermi surface states.

  16. Application of Yb:YAG short pulse laser system

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Crane, John K.; Telford, Steve; Perry, Michael D.

    2004-07-06

    A diode pumped, high power (at least 20W), short pulse (up to 2 ps), chirped pulse amplified laser using Yb:YAG as the gain material is employed for material processing. Yb:YAG is used as the gain medium for both a regenerative amplifier and a high power 4-pass amplifier. A single common reflective grating optical device is used to both stretch pulses for amplification purposes and to recompress amplified pulses before being directed to a workpiece.

  17. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    SciTech Connect

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  18. Filamentation of a relativistic short pulse laser in a plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Naveen; Tripathi, V. K.; Sawhney, B. K.

    2006-06-01

    An intense short pulse laser propagating through a plasma undergoes filamentation instability under the combined effects of relativistic mass variation and ponderomotive force-induced electron density depression. These two nonlinearities superimpose each other. In a tenuous plasma, the filament size scales as {\\sim}( c / \\omega _p\\; a_0 ) \\sqrt 2 \\gamma _0^{1/2} , where ω p is the plasma frequency, a0 is the normalized laser amplitude and γ 0 is the relativistic gamma factor.

  19. PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-08-27

    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  20. Self-induced transparency of an extremely short pulse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    An extremely short pulse propagation in a resonant medium is properly described by a closed form steady-state analytic solution. The usual slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) is not made. Instead, different assumptions with respect to pulse speed and pulse duration are used, and any possible nonresonant loss is ignored. This study indicates that the results obtained by the SVEA approach are much better than they have been intuitively expected to be.

  1. Short-pulsed, electric-discharge degradation of toxic and sludge wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Rosocha, L.A.; Bystritskii, V.M.; Wessel, F.J.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project funded by the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project was a collaborative effort with the University of California at Irvine (UCI), which was the lead project performer. Short-pulse, electric-discharge streamers were used to degrade aromatic and chlorinated compounds in water aerosols. An atomizer supplies 10--50 {micro}m aerosol droplets to a discharge chamber containing thin wires that are driven by electric pulses of 50--90 kV amplitude, 50--150 ns pulse duration, and 100 Hz repetition rate. The combination of a high electric field, large H{sub 2}O dielectric constant and atomization provide efficient degradation of organic molecules including: paranitrophenol, di-chlorophenol and perchloroethylene. The specific energy input for degradation of a pollutant molecule depends on the particular compound, its concentration, and the operational parameters of the discharge.

  2. Influence of excitation pulse duration of dielectric barrier discharges on biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, J.; Omairi, T.; Mertens, N.; Helmke, A.; Emmert, S.; Viöl, W.

    2013-04-01

    Two dielectric barrier discharges created in atmospheric pressure air were compared to investigate influences of excitation pulse duration on plasma parameters. A plasma source with a pulsed excitation and pulse durations in the µs range as well as a source with pulse durations in the ns range were investigated. An aluminum plate with skin lipids of the stratum corneum on the one hand and an aluminum needle without lipids for operating in the single filamentary mode on the other hand were used as opposite electrodes. The optical emission spectroscopy was arranged to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures by comparing experimental with simulated spectra. Vibrational temperatures were calculated in a range 2200-2600 K, rotational temperatures were measured from 300 up to 600 K. In addition, the electron temperatures (7-15 eV) and the reduced electric fields (280-800 Td) were estimated. Electric parameters were detected by both current and voltage measurements with a resulting range 200-500 mW of dissipated power.

  3. Plasmonic Excitations of 1D Metal-Dielectric Interfaces in 2D Systems: 1D Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Daniel R.; Menabde, Sergey G.; Yu, Sunkyu; Park, Namkyoo

    2014-04-01

    Surface plasmon-polariton (SPP) excitations of metal-dielectric interfaces are a fundamental light-matter interaction which has attracted interest as a route to spatial confinement of light far beyond that offered by conventional dielectric optical devices. Conventionally, SPPs have been studied in noble-metal structures, where the SPPs are intrinsically bound to a 2D metal-dielectric interface. Meanwhile, recent advances in the growth of hybrid 2D crystals, which comprise laterally connected domains of distinct atomically thin materials, provide the first realistic platform on which a 2D metal-dielectric system with a truly 1D metal-dielectric interface can be achieved. Here we show for the first time that 1D metal-dielectric interfaces support a fundamental 1D plasmonic mode (1DSPP) which exhibits cutoff behavior that provides dramatically improved light confinement in 2D systems. The 1DSPP constitutes a new basic category of plasmon as the missing 1D member of the plasmon family: 3D bulk plasmon, 2DSPP, 1DSPP, and 0D localized SP.

  4. Short-Pulse Laser-Matter Computational Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Town, R; Tabak, M

    2004-11-02

    For three days at the end of August 2004, 55 plasma scientists met at the Four Points by Sheraton in Pleasanton to discuss some of the critical issues associated with the computational aspects of the interaction of short-pulse high-intensity lasers with matter. The workshop was organized around the following six key areas: (1) Laser propagation/interaction through various density plasmas: micro scale; (2) Anomalous electron transport effects: From micro to meso scale; (3) Electron transport through plasmas: From meso to macro scale; (4) Ion beam generation, transport, and focusing; (5) ''Atomic-scale'' electron and proton stopping powers; and (6) K{alpha} diagnostics.

  5. Conservation laws of the generalized short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Yu-Fu

    2015-02-01

    We show that the generalized short pulse equation is nonlinearly self-adjoint with differential substitution. Moreover, any adjoint symmetry is a differential substitution of nonlinear self-adjointness, and vice versa. Consequently, the general conservation law formula is constructed and new conservation laws for some special cases are found. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11301012 and 11271363), the Excellent Young Teachers Program of North China University of Technology (Grant No. 14058) and the Doctoral Fund of North China University of Technology (Grant No. 41).

  6. Making Relativistic Positrons Using Ultra-Intense Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H; Wilks, S; Bonlie, J; Chen, C; Chen, S; Cone, K; Elberson, L; Gregori, G; Liang, E; Price, D; Van Maren, R; Meyerhofer, D D; Mithen, J; Murphy, C V; Myatt, J; Schneider, M; Shepherd, R; Stafford, D; Tommasini, R; Beiersdorfer, P

    2009-08-24

    This paper describes a new positron source produced using ultra-intense short pulse lasers. Although it has been studied in theory since as early as the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2 x 10{sup 10} positrons per steradian ejected out the back of {approx}mm thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short ({approx}1 ps) ultra-intense ({approx}1 x 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process, and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser based positron source with its unique characteristics may complements the existing sources using radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  7. Making relativistic positrons using ultraintense short pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Hui; Wilks, S. C.; Bonlie, J. D.; Chen, S. N.; Cone, K. V.; Elberson, L. N.; Price, D. F.; Schneider, M. B.; Shepherd, R.; Stafford, D. C.; Tommasini, R.; Van Maren, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gregori, G.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Myatt, J.

    2009-12-15

    This paper describes a new positron source using ultraintense short pulse lasers. Although it has been theoretically studied since the 1970s, the use of lasers as a valuable new positron source was not demonstrated experimentally until recent years, when the petawatt-class short pulse lasers were developed. In 2008 and 2009, in a series of experiments performed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a large number of positrons were observed after shooting a millimeter thick solid gold target. Up to 2x10{sup 10} positrons/s ejected at the back of approximately millimeter thick gold targets were detected. The targets were illuminated with short (approx1 ps) ultraintense (approx1x10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2}) laser pulses. These positrons are produced predominantly by the Bethe-Heitler process and have an effective temperature of 2-4 MeV, with the distribution peaking at 4-7 MeV. The angular distribution of the positrons is anisotropic. For a wide range of applications, this new laser-based positron source with its unique characteristics may complement the existing sources based on radioactive isotopes and accelerators.

  8. Short pulse generation by laser slicing at NSLSII

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Blednykh, A.; Guo, W.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Shaftan, T.; Tchoubar, O.; Wang, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.

    2011-03-28

    We discuss an upgrade R&D project for NSLSII to generate sub-pico-second short x-ray pulses using laser slicing. We discuss its basic parameters and present a specific example for a viable design and its performance. Since the installation of the laser slicing system into the storage ring will break the symmetry of the lattice, we demonstrate it is possible to recover the dynamical aperture to the original design goal of the ring. There is a rapid growth of ultrafast user community interested in science using sub-pico-second x-ray pulses. In BNL's Short Pulse Workshop, the discussion from users shows clearly the need for a sub-pico-second pulse source using laser slicing method. In the proposal submitted following this workshop, NSLS team proposed both hard x-ray and soft x-ray beamlines using laser slicing pulses. Hence there is clearly a need to consider the R&D efforts of laser slicing short pulse generation at NSLSII to meet these goals.

  9. An integrated CMOS detection system for optical short-pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Gun; Hong, Nam-Pyo; Choi, Young-Wan

    2014-03-01

    We present design of a front-end readout system consisting of charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) and pulse shaper for detection of stochastic and ultra-small semiconductor scintillator signal. The semiconductor scintillator is double sided silicon detector (DSSD) or avalanche photo detector (APD) for high resolution and peak signal reliability of γ-ray or X-ray spectroscopy. Such system commonly uses low noise multichannel CSA. Each CSA in multichannel includes continuous reset system based on tens of MΩ and charge-integrating capacitor in feedback loop. The high value feedback resistor requires large area and huge power consumption for integrated circuits. In this paper, we analyze these problems and propose a CMOS short pulse detection system with a novel CSA. The novel CSA is composed of continuous reset system with combination of diode connected PMOS and 100 fF. This structure has linearity with increased input charge quantity from tens of femto-coulomb to pico-coulomb. Also, the front-end readout system includes both slow and fast shapers for detecting CSA output and preventing pile-up distortion. Shaping times of fast and slow shapers are 150 ns and 1.4 μs, respectively. Simulation results of the CMOS detection system for optical short-pulse implemented in 0.18 μm CMOS technology are presented.

  10. Monitoring the sea surface with a short pulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A solution is presented for the scattering of short pulses from a stochastic, corrugated surface relative to the sea for the case of a narrow-beam transmitting antenna pointing near nadir. The spectrum of the received power and its time history are calculated and this solution is used to show that a measure of the variance of the surface ordinant can be obtained from the backscattered power. Included explicitly in the analysis is the finite nature of the source and the role of the small-scale wave structure (capillary wave range). It is shown that when sufficiently short pulses are transmitted, one can obtain a measure of the variance of the large scale surface ordinant from either the temporal spacing of the peaks in the returned power or from the envelope of the spectrum of the received power. Assuming an appropriate model for the statistics and spectrum of the surface ordinate, the variance can be used to compute the wind speed and the significant wave height of the surface.

  11. Transient Self-Amplified Cerenkov Radiation with a Short Pulse Electron Beam

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Blackfield, D T; Camacho, J F

    2009-01-22

    An analytic and numerical examination of the slow wave Cerenkov free electron maser is presented. We consider the steady state amplifier configuration as well as operation in the selfamplified spontaneous emission (SASE) regime. The linear theory is extended to include electron beams that have a parabolic radial density inhomogeneity. Closed form solutions for the dispersion relation and modal structure of the electromagnetic field are determined in this inhomogeneous case. To determine the steady state response, a macro-particle approach is used to develop a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations for the amplitude and phase of the electromagnetic wave, which are solved in conjunction with the particle dynamical equations to determine the response when the system is driven as an amplifier with a time harmonic source. We then consider the case in which a fast rise time electron beam is injected into a dielectric loaded waveguide. In this case, radiation is generated by SASE, with the instability seeded by the leading edge of the electron beam. A pulse of radiation is produced, slipping behind the leading edge of the beam due to the disparity between the group velocity of the radiation and the beam velocity. Short pulses of microwave radiation are generated in the SASE regime and are investigated using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The nonlinear dynamics are significantly more complicated in the transient SASE regime when compared with the steady state amplifier model due to the slippage of the radiation with respect to the beam. As strong self-bunching of the electron beam develops due to SASE, short pulses of superradiant emission develop with peak powers significantly larger than the predicted saturated power based on the steady state amplifier model. As these superradiant pulses grow, their pulse length decreases and forms a series of soliton-like pulses. Comparisons between the linear theory, macro-particle model, and PIC simulations are

  12. Simultaneously coherent excitation of multi-modes THz radiation from dielectric loaded waveguide by pre-bunched electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Biaobin; Lu, Yalin; He, Zhigang; Li, Weiwei; Jia, Qika; Wang, Lin

    2017-02-01

    The cylindrical dielectric loaded waveguide (DLW) supports a discrete set of modes, which can be excited by electron beam passing through the structure, and the high-order modes can be the harmonics of the fundamental one by properly choosing the parameters of the DLW. By using a train of electron bunches, repeated at the fundamental frequency of the DLW, as the driving source, coherent and simultaneous excitation of multi-modes can be expected. With this proposed scheme, multi-color narrow-band THz radiation with high pulse power and high frequency can be obtained simultaneously.

  13. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling short pulse duration shock initiation of solid explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Tarver, C.M.; Hallquist, J.O.; Erickson, L.M.

    1985-06-27

    The chemical reaction rate law in the ignition and growth model of shock initiation and detonation of solid explosives is modified so that the model can accurately simulate short pulse duration shock initiation. The reaction rate law contains three terms to model the ignition of hot spots by shock compression, the slow growth of reaction from these isolated hot spots, and the rapid completion of reaction as the hot spots coalesce. Comparisons for PBX 9404 between calculated and experimental records are presented for the electric gun mylar flyer plate system, the minimum priming charge test, embedded manganin pressure and particle velocity gauges, and VISAR particle velocity measurements for a wide variety of input pressures, rise times and pulse durations. The ignition and growth model is now a fully developed phenomenological tool that can be applied with confidence to almost any hazard, vulnerability or explosive performance problem. 27 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-11-03

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x{prime} = x {minus} V{sub g}t, t{prime} = t, where V{sub g} is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency).

  16. Short pulse generation and high speed communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Honglei

    Ultrahigh-speed optical time-division-multiplexing (TDM) transmission technologies are essential to construct ultrahigh-speed all-optical networks needed in the multimedia era. In order to realize high-speed optical TDM systems, ultra-short pulses should be generated. In this dissertation, the gain switching and mode locking techniques have been analyzed and used to produce ultra- short pulses. Gain-switched pulses with a width of ~18ps have been obtained. The theoretical analysis on gain-switching phenomena has been carried out. A new approach for the simulation of the spectrum of a gain- switched laser has been developed. The principle of mode locking has been discussed. ~6.5ps, pulses have been obtained from a monolithic mode-locked distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) laser, which are the shortest pulses from the actively mode- locked DBR lasers as we know. ~1.1ps pulses have been achieved from a colliding-pulse mode-locked (CPM) laser. The operation principle of CPM lasers has been discussed. Pulse compression using dispersion-compensating fiber has been applied in order to get shorter pulses. The semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) plays a very important role in TDM systems. The cross gain modulation (XGM) measurements on a 2-section SOA, using both cw and pulsed pump and probe beams, have been performed. A theoretical analysis has been carried out. Wavelength conversion and fiber transmission experiments have been achieved at different bit rates. The basic idea of TDM system has been discussed. Multiplexing has been achieved using fibers. Demulitplexing has been demonstrated using XGM in SOA, four-wave mixing (FWM) in SOA, and cascaded modulators. The operation principles have been discussed in detail. The FWM experiments between two optical pulses have been performed.

  17. New constraints for low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter: fundamental consequences from classical and quantum dielectric theory.

    PubMed

    Chantler, C T; Bourke, J D

    2015-11-18

    We present new constraints for the transportation behaviour of low-momentum electronic excitations in condensed matter systems, and demonstrate that these have both a fundamental physical interpretation and a significant impact on the description of low-energy inelastic electron scattering. The dispersion behaviour and characteristic lifetime properties of plasmon and single-electron excitations are investigated using popular classical, semi-classical and quantum dielectric models. We find that, irrespective of constrained agreement to the well known high-momentum and high-energy Bethe ridge limit, standard descriptions of low-momentum electron excitations are inconsistent and unphysical. These observations have direct impact on calculations of transport properties such as inelastic mean free paths, stopping powers and escape depths of charged particles in condensed matter systems.

  18. Miniaturized X-ray Generation by Pyroelectric Effect using Short Pulse Laser

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    1 Report of AOARD Program CONTRACT NO: FA23861014160 Miniaturized X-ray Generation by Pyroelectric Effect using Short Pulse Laser...induced currents by short- pulse high-power laser irradiation II-1: Experiments and results II-2: Theoretical calculations ~Analysis of currents...effect using short pulse laser aiming at miniaturized X-ray generator 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA23861014160 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  19. Liouville Correspondence Between the Short-Pulse Hierarchy and the Sine-Gordon Hierarchy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Jing; Liu, Xiaochuan; Qu, Changzheng

    2016-12-01

    The Liouville correspondence between the short-pulse integrable hierarchy and the sine-Gordon integrable hierarchy is studied. It is shown that the transformation relating the short-pulse equation with the sine-Gordon equation also establishes the correspondence between their flows and Hamiltonian conservation laws in respective hierarchy. This proposes an alternative approach to derive the Hamiltonian conservation laws of the short-pulse equation from the known ones of the classical sine-Gordon equation.

  20. Ultra-Short Pulsed Laser Engineered Metal-Glass Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stalmashonak, Andrei; Seifert, Gerhard; Abdolvand, Amin

    Glasses and other dielectrics containing metallic nanoparticles are very promising materials for applications in optoelectronics due to their unique linear and non-linear optical properties. These properties are dominated by the strong surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the metal nanoparticles. The SPR occurs when the electron and light waves couple with each other at a metal-dielectric interface. These are regarded as the collective oscillation of the nanoparticle (NP) electrons.

  1. Computational design of short pulse laser driven iron opacity experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. E.; London, R. A.; Goluoglu, S.; Whitley, H. D.

    2017-02-01

    The resolution of current disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations would benefit from the experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Iron's complex ionic structure and large contribution to the opacity in the radiative zone of the sun make iron a good candidate for validation. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat buried layer targets to plasma conditions comparable to the radiative zone of the sun, and the frequency dependent opacity can be inferred from the target's measured x-ray emission. Target and laser parameters must be optimized to reach specific plasma conditions and meet x-ray emission requirements. The HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser irradiance and target dimensions on the plasma conditions, x-ray emission, and inferred opacity of iron and iron-magnesium buried layer targets. It was determined that plasma conditions are dominantly controlled by the laser energy and the tamper thickness. The accuracy of the inferred opacity is sensitive to tamper emission and optical depth effects. Experiments at conditions relevant to the radiative zone of the sun would investigate the validity of opacity theories important to resolving disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations.

  2. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Madison E.; London, Richard A.; Goluoglu, Sedat; Whitley, Heather D.

    2015-11-01

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the transport of radiation in systems such as inertial confinement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would benefit from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat targets to higher temperatures and densities than long pulse lasers and pulsed power machines, thus potentially enabling access to emission spectra at conditions relevant to solar models. In order to ensure that the relevant plasma conditions are accessible and that an emission measurement is practical, we use computational design of experiments to optimize the target characteristics and laser conditions. Radiation-hydrodynamic modeling, using HYDRA, is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser irradiance, target dimensions, and dopant dilution on the plasma conditions and emission of an iron opacity target. Several optimized designs reaching temperatures and densities relevant to the radiative zone of the sun will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  3. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Ching-Hung

    1992-12-31

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.

  4. Computational design of short pulse laser driven iron opacity experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, M. E.; London, R. A.; Goluoglu, S.; ...

    2017-02-23

    Here, the resolution of current disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations would benefit from the experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Iron's complex ionic structure and large contribution to the opacity in the radiative zone of the sun make iron a good candidate for validation. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat buried layer targets to plasma conditions comparable to the radiative zone of the sun, and the frequency dependent opacity can be inferred from the target's measured x-ray emission. Target and laser parameters must be optimized to reach specific plasma conditions and meet x-ray emissionmore » requirements. The HYDRA radiation hydrodynamics code is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser irradiance and target dimensions on the plasma conditions, x-ray emission, and inferred opacity of iron and iron-magnesium buried layer targets. It was determined that plasma conditions are dominantly controlled by the laser energy and the tamper thickness. The accuracy of the inferred opacity is sensitive to tamper emission and optical depth effects. Experiments at conditions relevant to the radiative zone of the sun would investigate the validity of opacity theories important to resolving disagreements between solar parameters calculated from models and observations.« less

  5. Overview of LANL short-pulse ion acceleration activities

    SciTech Connect

    Flippo, Kirk A.; Schmitt, Mark J.; Offermann, Dustin; Cobble, James A.; Gautier, Donald; Kline, John; Workman, Jonathan; Archuleta, Fred; Gonzales, Raymond; Hurry, Thomas; Johnson, Randall; Letzring, Samuel; Montgomery, David; Reid, Sha-Marie; Shimada, Tsutomu; Gaillard, Sandrine A.; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Bussman, Michael; Kluge, Thomas; Cowan, Thomas E.; Rassuchine, Jenny M.; Lowenstern, Mario E.; Mucino, J. Eduardo; Gall, Brady; Korgan, Grant; Malekos, Steven; Adams, Jesse; Bartal, Teresa; Chawla, Surgreev; Higginson, Drew; Beg, Farhat; Nilson, Phil; Mac Phee, Andrew; Le Pape, Sebastien; Hey, Daniel; Mac Kinnon, Andy; Geissel, Mattias; Schollmeier, Marius; Stephens, Rich

    2009-12-02

    An overview of Los Alamos National Laboratory's activities related to short-pulse ion acceleration is presented. LANL is involved is several projects related to Inertial Confinement Fusion (Fast Ignition) and Laser-Ion Acceleration. LANL has an active high energy X-ray backlighter program for radiographing ICF implosions and other High Energy Density Laboratory Physics experiments. Using the Trident 200TW laser we are currently developing high energy photon (>10 keV) phase contrast imaging techniques to be applied on Omega and the NIF. In addition we are engaged in multiple programs in laser ion acceleration to boost the ion energies and efficiencies for various potential applications including Fast Ignition, active material interrogation, and medical applications. Two basic avenues to increase ion performance are currently under study: one involves ultra-thin targets and the other involves changing the target geometry. We have recently had success in boosting proton energies above 65 MeV into the medical application range. Highlights covered in the presentation include: The Trident Laser System; X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging for ICF and HEDLP; Improving TNSA Ion Acceleration; Scaling Laws; Flat Targets; Thin Targets; Cone Targets; Ion Focusing;Trident; Omega EP; Scaling Comparisons; and, Conclusions.

  6. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincuzzi, G.; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-01

    Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm-2). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s-1 to 25 m s-1. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s-1 and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  7. Adaptive optics for ultra short pulsed lasers in UHV environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deneuville, Francois; Ropert, Laurent; Sauvageot, Paul; Theis, Sébastien

    2015-02-01

    ISP SYSTEM has developed an electro-mechanical deformable mirror compatible with Ultra High Vacuum environment, suitable for ultra short pulsed lasers. The design of the MD-AME deformable mirror is based on force application on numerous locations. μ-AME actuators are driven by stepper motors, and their patented special design allows controlling the force with a very high accuracy. Materials and assembly method have been adapted to UHV constraints and the performances were evaluated on a first application for a beam with a diameter of 250mm. A Strehl ratio above 0.9 was reached for this application. Optical aberrations up to Zernike order 5 can be corrected with a very low residual error as for standard MD-AME mirror. Amplitude can reach up to several hundreds of μm for low order corrections. Hysteresis is lower than 0.1% and linearity better than 99%. Contrary to piezo-electric actuators, the μ-AME actuators avoid print-through effects and they permit to keep the mirror shape stable even unpowered, providing a high resistance to electro-magnetic pulses. The deformable mirror design allows changing easily an actuator or even the membrane if needed, in order to improve the facility availability. They are designed for circular, square or elliptical aperture from 30mm up to 500mm or more, with incidence angle from 0° to 45°. They can be equipped with passive or active cooling for high power lasers with high repetition rate.

  8. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed.

  9. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  10. Photoconductive Semiconductor Switch Technology for Short Pulse Electromagnetics and Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Denison, Gary J.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; O'Malley, Martin W.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1999-08-05

    High gain photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) are being used to produce high power electromagnetic pulses foc (1) compact, repetitive accelerators, (2) ultra-wide band impulse sources, (3) precision gas switch triggers, (4) optically-activated firesets, and (5) high power optical pulse generation and control. High power, sub-nanosecond optical pulses are used for active optical sensors such as compact optical radars and range-gated hallistic imaging systems. Following a brief introduction to high gain PCSS and its general applications, this paper will focus on PCSS for optical pulse generation and control. PCSS technology can be employed in three distinct approaches to optical pulse generation and control: (1) short pulse carrier injection to induce gain-switching in semiconductor lasers, (2) electro-optical Q-switching, and (3) optically activated Q-switching. The most significant PCSS issues for these applications are switch rise time, jitter, and longevity. This paper will describe both the requirements of these applications and the most recent results from PCSS technology. Experiments to understand and expand the limitations of high gain PCSS will also be described.

  11. Covert situational awareness with handheld ultrawideband short-pulse radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Mark A.; Nag, Soumya; Payment, Tim

    2001-08-01

    Law enforcement and emergency services all face the difficult task of determining the locations of people within a building. A handheld radar able to detect motion through walls and other obstructions has been developed to fill this need. This paper describes the attributes and difficulties of the radar design and includes test results of the radar's performance. This discussion begins by summarizing key user requirements and the electromagnetic losses of typical building materials. Ultra-wideband (UWB) short pulse radars are well suited for a handheld sensor primarily because of their inherit time isolation in high clutter environments and their capability to achieve high resolution at low spectral center frequencies. There are also constraints that complicate the system design. Using a technique referred to as time-modulation allows the radars to reject range ambiguities and enhances electromagnetic compatibility with similar radars and ambient systems. An outline of the specifications of the radar developed and a process diagram on how it generates a motion map showing range and direction of the people moving within structures is included. Images are then presented to illustrate its performance. The images include adults, child, and a dog. The test results also include data showing the radar's performance through a variety of building materials.

  12. Direct excitation of the Tamm plasmon-polaritons on a dielectric Bragg reflector coated with a metal film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Y.-G.; Hu, W.-L.; Fang, Y.-T.

    2013-09-01

    Tamm plasmon-polariton is a surface state or surface wave formed at the boundary between a metal and a dielectric Bragg reflector. In order to directly excite the Tamm plasmon-polaritons with unit transmission, we design a structure of Bragg reflector coated with a metal film. Through the Bloch theorem of periodic structures and transfer matrix method, we deduce the existence conditions of the Tamm plasmon-polaritons. For a a finite structure, the Tamm plasmon-polaritons can be excited, which is dependent on the thickness of metal, the period number of the Bragg reflector, the incident direction and frequency. On proper conditions, a perfect transmission for the Tamm plasmon-polariton mode can be achieved without the use of attenuated total reflection prism coupling or diffraction grating.

  13. SLIM, Short-pulse Technology for High Gradient Induction Accelerators

    SciTech Connect

    Arntz, Floyd; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; Krasnykh, A.; /SLAC

    2008-12-16

    A novel short-pulse concept (SLIM) suited to a new generation of a high gradient induction particle accelerators is described herein. It applies advanced solid state semiconductor technology and modern microfabrication techniques to a coreless induction method of charged particle acceleration first proven on a macro scale in the 1960's. Because this approach avoids use of magnetic materials there is the prospect of such an accelerator working efficiently with accelerating pulses in the nanosecond range and, potentially, at megahertz pulse rates. The principal accelerator section is envisioned as a stack of coreless induction cells, the only active element within each being a single, extremely fast (subnanosecond) solid state opening switch: a Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD). Each coreless induction cell incorporates an electromagnetic pulse compressor in which inductive energy developed within a transmission-line feed structure over a period of tens of nanoseconds is diverted to the acceleration of the passing charge packet for a few nanoseconds by the abrupt opening of the DSRD switch. The duration of this accelerating output pulse--typically two-to-four nanoseconds--is precisely determined by a microfabricated pulse forming line connected to the cell. Because the accelerating pulse is only nanoseconds in duration, longitudinal accelerating gradients approaching 100 MeV per meter are believed to be achievable without inciting breakdown. Further benefits of this approach are that, (1) only a low voltage power supply is required to produce the high accelerating gradient, and, (2) since the DSRD switch is normally closed, voltage stress is limited to a few nanoseconds per period, hence the susceptibility to hostile environment conditions such as ionizing radiation, mismatch (e.g. in medical applications the peak beam current may be low), strong electromagnetic noise levels, etc is expected to be minimal. Finally, we observe the SLIM concept is not limited to linac

  14. High temperature, high density opacity measurements using short pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; James, S. F.; Brown, C. R. D.; Williams, B. M.; Guymer, T.; Hill, M.; Morton, J.; Chapman, D.; Shepherd, R.; Dunn, J.; Brown, G.; Schneider, M.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chung, H. K.; Harris, J. W. O.; Upcraft, L.; Smith, C. C.; Lee, R. W.

    2010-08-01

    Heating of thin foil targets by a high power laser at intensities of 1017 -1019W/cm2 has been studied as a method for producing high temperature, high density samples to investigate X-ray opacity and equation of state. The targets were plastic (parylene N) foils with a buried microdot of a sample material, which was either aluminium, germanium or a mixture of germanium and titanium mixture of germanium and titanium. L-shell and K-shell spectra were taken using crystal spectrometers recording onto film and an ultrafast X-ray streak camera coupled to a conical focussing crystal with a time resolution of 1ps. The conditions in the microdot were inferred by comparing the measured spectra to synthetic spectra produced by the time-dependent collisional-radiative (CR) models FLY and FLYCHK. The data were also compared to simulated spectra from a number of opacity codes assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Temperature and density gradients were taken into account in the comparisons. The sample conditions, inferred from the CR modelling using FLYCHK, were 800±100eV and 1.5±0.5g/cc, in the germanium/titanium samples and 600+50/-150eV, 3-4g/cc in the pure germanium or aluminium samples. The higher densities were achieved by using a combination of long and short pulses to compress and heat the foils respectively. The experimental results and comparisons to predicted spectra are presented and discussed.

  15. Determination of excitation profile and dielectric function spatial nonuniformity in porous silicon by using WKB approach.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Yurkevich, Igor V; Canham, Leigh T; Loni, Armando; Kaplan, Andrey

    2014-11-03

    We develop an analytical model based on the WKB approach to evaluate the experimental results of the femtosecond pump-probe measurements of the transmittance and reflectance obtained on thin membranes of porous silicon. The model allows us to retrieve a pump-induced nonuniform complex dielectric function change along the membrane depth. We show that the model fitting to the experimental data requires a minimal number of fitting parameters while still complying with the restriction imposed by the Kramers-Kronig relation. The developed model has a broad range of applications for experimental data analysis and practical implementation in the design of devices involving a spatially nonuniform dielectric function, such as in biosensing, wave-guiding, solar energy harvesting, photonics and electro-optical devices.

  16. Integrable semi-discretization of a multi-component short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bao-Feng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2015-04-01

    In the present paper, we mainly study the integrable semi-discretization of a multi-component short pulse equation. First, we briefly review the bilinear equations for a multi-component short pulse equation proposed by Matsuno [J. Math. Phys. 52, 123702 (2011)] and reaffirm its N-soliton solution in terms of pfaffians. Then by using a Bäcklund transformation of the bilinear equations and defining a discrete hodograph (reciprocal) transformation, an integrable semi-discrete multi-component short pulse equation is constructed. Meanwhile, its N-soliton solution in terms of pfaffians is also proved.

  17. Short-pulse laser formation of monatomic metallic glass in tantalum nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yong; Sun, Zheng; Shen, Yaogen

    2017-01-01

    The short-pulse laser heating of a tantalum nanowire is simulated by a hybrid method coupling the two-temperature model into the molecular dynamics. It is shown that the monatomic metallic glasses can be formed by short-pulse lasers. The critical cooling rate for vitrifying the pure metallic liquids in tantalum nanowire is estimated to be on the order of 1013 K s-1. Further simulations with different laser parameters and heated spot size are performed, demonstrating that the short-pulse laser quenching is a robust and promising alternative to the vitrification of monatomic metallic liquids into glassy state.

  18. Formation of a strong electric field resulting in the excitation of microplasma discharges at the edge of a dielectric film on a metal in a plasma flow

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, V. A. Sakharov, A. S.; Konyzhev, M. E.

    2016-06-15

    Results are presented from experimental and analytical studies of the processes resulting in the excitation of microplasma discharges (MPDs) on a metal surface partially covered with a thin dielectric film under the action of an external plasma flow in vacuum. It is shown experimentally that MPDs are excited at the interface between the open metal surface and the region covered by the dielectric film. The probability of MPD excitation is investigated as a function of the thickness of the dielectric film deposited on the metal. It is found that, for a film thickness of 1 μm, the probability of MPD excitation is close to unity. As the film thickness decreases below ~10 nm or increases above ~10 μm, the probability of MPD excitation is reduced by more than two orders of magnitude. A two-dimensional kinetic numerical code is developed that allows one to model the processes of Debye sheath formation and generation of a strong electric field near the edge of a finite-thickness dielectric film on a metal surface in a plasma flow for different configurations of the film edge. It is shown that the maximum value of the tangential component of the electric field is reached at the film edge and amounts to E{sub max} ≈ |φ{sub 0}|/2d (where φ{sub 0} < 0 is the electric potential applied to the metal and d is the film thickness), which for typical conditions of experiments on the excitation of MPDs on metal surfaces (φ{sub 0} ≈–400 V, d ≈ 1 μm) yields E{sub max} ≈ 2 MV/cm. The results of kinetic simulations confirm the qualitative idea about the mechanism of the formation of a strong electric field resulting in the excitation of MPDs at the edge of a dielectric film on a metal surface in a plasma flow and agree with experimental data.

  19. Multi-phase ionization dynamics of carbon thin film irradiated by high power short pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahito, Daiki; Kishimoto, Yasuaki

    2017-10-01

    The ionization dynamics of a carbon thin film irradiated by a high power short pulse laser in the range of 1019-20 W/cm2 are studied using the extended particle-based integrated code (EPIC), which includes atomic and collisional processes. Two types of ionization dynamics exhibiting different spatio-temporal structures are found to predominantly regulate the process, and arise depending on the laser amplitude. The first is a fast convective propagation for charge states up to C4+, which keeps a steep ionization front. The velocity of the front is of the order of the speed of light. The front formation results from the localized longitudinal electrostatic field and associated field ionization, which in turn propagates inside the film. This convective propagation is triggered when the laser field becomes high enough that electron bunches accelerated by the laser ponderomotive force reach relativistic energies and penetrate inside the film across the surface. The second dynamics is a fast non-diffusive propagation of ionization showing a long plasma density scale length for C5+ and C6+. This process results predominantly from electron impact ionization by high energy electron bunches successively produced by the laser. These electron bunches also excite wake fields that propagate inside the film and contribute to ionizing the film to higher charge states, i.e., C5+ and C6+, especially near the front surface. The effect of field ionization loss, which sensitively influences the ionization dynamics in the relatively low laser power regime, is also discussed.

  20. Interference effects in the UV(VUV)-excited luminescence spectroscopy of thin dielectric films.

    PubMed

    Buntov, Evgeny; Zatsepin, Anatoly

    2013-05-01

    The problem of exciting UV and VUV light interference affecting experimental photoluminescence excitation spectra is analysed for the case of thin transparent films containing arbitrarily distributed emission centres. A numerical technique and supplied software aimed at modelling the phenomenon and correcting the distorted spectra are proposed. Successful restoration results of the experimental synchrotron data for ion-implanted silica films show that the suggested method has high potential.

  1. Space Debris-de-Orbiting by Vaporization Impulse using Short Pulse Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Early, J; Bibeau, C; Claude, P

    2003-09-16

    Space debris constitutes a significant hazard to low earth orbit satellites and particularly to manned spacecraft. A quite small velocity decrease from vaporization impulses is enough to lower the perigee of the debris sufficiently for atmospheric drag to de-orbit the debris. A short pulse (picosecond) laser version of the Orion concept can accomplish this task in several years of operation. The ''Mercury'' short pulse Yb:S-FAP laser being developed at LLNL for laser fusion is appropriate for this task.

  2. Short pulse fiber lasers mode-locked by carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Shinji; Martinez, Amos; Xu, Bo

    2014-12-01

    One and two dimensional forms of carbon, carbon nanotubes and graphene, have interesting and useful, not only electronic but also photonic, properties. For fiber lasers, they are very attractive passive mode lockers for ultra-short pulse generation, since they have saturable absorption with inherently fast recovery time (<1 ps). In this paper, we review the photonic properties of graphene and CNT and our recent works on fabrication of fiber devices and applications to ultra-short pulse mode-locked fiber lasers.

  3. The effects of nanoparticles and organic additives with controlled dispersion on dielectric properties of polymers: Charge trapping and impact excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanhui; Wu, Ke; Bell, Michael; Oakes, Andrew; Ratcliff, Tyree; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt; Benicewicz, Brian C.; Schadler, Linda S.

    2016-08-01

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation into the effects of nanoparticles and organic additives on the dielectric properties of insulating polymers using reinforced silicone rubber as a model system. TiO2 and ZrO2 nanoparticles (d = 5 nm) were well dispersed into the polymer via a bimodal surface modification approach. Organic molecules with the potential of voltage stabilization were further grafted to the nanoparticle to ensure their dispersion. These extrinsic species were found to provide deep traps for charge carriers and exhibited effective charge trapping properties at a rather small concentration (˜1017 cm-3). The charge trapping is found to have the most significant effect on breakdown strength when the electrical stressing time is long enough that most charges are trapped in the deep states. To establish a quantitative correlation between the trap depth and the molecular properties, the electron affinity and ionization energy of each species were calculated by an ab initio method and were compared with the experimentally measured values. The correlation however remains elusive and is possibly complicated by the field effect and the electronic interactions between different species that are not considered in this computation. At high field, a super-linear increase of current density was observed for TiO2 filled composites and is likely caused by impact excitation due to the low excitation energy of TiO2 compared to ZrO2. It is reasoned that the hot charge carriers with energies greater than the excitation energy of TiO2 may excite an electron-hole pair upon collision with the NP, which later will be dissociated and contribute to free charge carriers. This mechanism can enhance the energy dissipation and may account for the retarded electrical degradation and breakdown of TiO2 composites.

  4. The effects of nanoparticles and organic additives with controlled dispersion on dielectric properties of polymers: Charge trapping and impact excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yanhui Schadler, Linda S.; Wu, Ke; Ratcliff, Tyree; Lanzillo, Nicholas A.; Breneman, Curt; Bell, Michael; Oakes, Andrew; Benicewicz, Brian C.

    2016-08-07

    This work presents a comprehensive investigation into the effects of nanoparticles and organic additives on the dielectric properties of insulating polymers using reinforced silicone rubber as a model system. TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} nanoparticles (d = 5 nm) were well dispersed into the polymer via a bimodal surface modification approach. Organic molecules with the potential of voltage stabilization were further grafted to the nanoparticle to ensure their dispersion. These extrinsic species were found to provide deep traps for charge carriers and exhibited effective charge trapping properties at a rather small concentration (∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −3}). The charge trapping is found to have the most significant effect on breakdown strength when the electrical stressing time is long enough that most charges are trapped in the deep states. To establish a quantitative correlation between the trap depth and the molecular properties, the electron affinity and ionization energy of each species were calculated by an ab initio method and were compared with the experimentally measured values. The correlation however remains elusive and is possibly complicated by the field effect and the electronic interactions between different species that are not considered in this computation. At high field, a super-linear increase of current density was observed for TiO{sub 2} filled composites and is likely caused by impact excitation due to the low excitation energy of TiO{sub 2} compared to ZrO{sub 2}. It is reasoned that the hot charge carriers with energies greater than the excitation energy of TiO{sub 2} may excite an electron-hole pair upon collision with the NP, which later will be dissociated and contribute to free charge carriers. This mechanism can enhance the energy dissipation and may account for the retarded electrical degradation and breakdown of TiO{sub 2} composites.

  5. The excitation and detection of a leaky surface electromagnetic wave on a high-index dielectric grating in a prism-coupler geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, I.; Maradudin, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    A periodically corrugated interface between vacuum and a high-index dielectric medium supports a p-polarized leaky surface electromagnetic wave whose sagittal plane is perpendicular to the generators of the interface. This wave is bound to the surface in the vacuum region, but radiates into the high-index dielectric medium. We study the excitation of this wave by p-polarized light incident from a prism on whose planar base the highindex dielectric medium in the form of a film is bonded. The unilluminated surface of the film is periodically corrugated, and is in contact with vacuum. Peaks and dips in the dependence of several low-order diffraction efficiencies on the angle of incidence (Wood anomalies) are the signatures of the excitation of the surface wave.

  6. Space and surface charge excitation of a slanted dielectric interface between two electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Seidel, D.B.; Levinson, C.L.

    1982-09-01

    The two-dimensional, electrostatic problem of a planar dielectric interface between two perfectly conducting plates has been solved numerically. The solution allows for an arbitrary interface angle relative to the plates as well as arbitrary distributions of both charge within the volume and surface charge along the interface. The problem is treated by first converting the governing differential equations to a pair of coupled integral equations using Green's function techniques, then solving these integral equations numerically using moment methods. This report details this solution and shows some sample results. This work was motivated by the need to understand the physics of dielectric breakdown by flashover in high voltage insulator applications. Of particular interest is the physics associated with Magnetic Flashover Inhibition (MFI), a possible method of significantly increasing insulator breakdown strength above that possible using currently proven technologies. A solution of this type has several apparent advantages over existing techniques for treating this type of problem and is currently being adapted for use in an existing two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code.

  7. Electromagnetic fields and currents excited by dipoles normal to the conducting surface of dielectric loaded bodies of revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozzaim, Cengiz

    1999-12-01

    A modulated laser beam incident upon a conducting surface can cause electrons to be emitted in such a way that the resulting electromagnetic radiation is closely approximated by that from a distribution of electric dipoles normal to the surface. A major goal of this research has been to develop an understanding of the coupling of electromagnetic energy from the modulated laser light to objects and to the medium surrounding the object. Specific attention is focused upon coupling of the laser-induced electromagnetic field to structures which exhibit some of the characteristics of symmetric antennas. A method is presented for computing the signal caused by a modulated laser beam at a load impedance terminating a coaxial waveguide whose center conductor protrudes into a thin-wall cylindrical tube. The tube is open at one end and, on the other, it has a planar bottom through which the coax center conductor protrudes. Two case are treated: one in which the cavity is empty (free space) and a second in which it is partially filled with a dielectric insert. The excitation is the signal radiated by electrons emitted from the conducting surface by an impinging laser beam, modulated in such a way that the electrons at the surface oscillate harmonically in time. The computations are based on a procedure involving the formulation and numerical solution of integral equations plus utilization of the reciprocity theorem. A model was fabricated and experimental data were obtained to corroborate the results obtained from theory and numerical analysis. A similar analysis was conducted to determine the axial electric field at the focal point of the common parabolic reflector antenna illuminated by the laser-induced dipoles, but no experiments were performed in this case. It has been found that for the dipole excitation, penetration and coupling results are markedly different from those expected for more traditional excitations.

  8. A short pulse, high rep-rate microdischarge VUV source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Jacob; Fierro, Andrew; Dickens, James; Neuber, Andreas; CenterPulsed Power; Power Electronics Team

    2013-09-01

    A MOSFET based high voltage pulser is utilized to excite a microdischarge (MD), or microdischarge array (MDA) with pulsed voltages of up to 1 kV, with risetime and FWHM on the order of 10 ns and 30 ns, respectively. Additionally, the pulser is capable of pulsing at rep-rates in excess of 35 MHz. However, for these experiments the rep-rate was set on the order of 1 MHz, so as to limit excess energy deposition into the background gas and optimize the energy efficiency of VUV generation. Using VUV capable spectral diagnostics, the VUV emission of the MDs for various pressures (50-800 + Torr) and gases, focused on argon, argon-hydrogen mixtures, and neon-hydrogen mixtures (all of which provide strong emission at λ < 130 nm) is studied, for pulsed, MHz rep-rated excitation. Using a photomultiplier tube the time dependent behavior of the VUV emission is characterized and compared to results from transient fluid modeling of the MDA. For instance, the MDA turn-on time is recorded to be about 15 ns, which matches the full plasma development time in the model, and the MDA self- capacitance largely determines the turn-off behavior. This research was supported by an AFOSR grant on the Physics of Distributed Plasma Discharges and fellowships from the National Physical Sciences Consortium, supported by Sandia National Laboratories.

  9. Temporal resolution and temporal integration of short pulses at the auditory periphery of echolocating animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimskaya-Korsakova, L. K.

    2004-05-01

    To explain the temporal integration and temporal resolution abilities revealed in echolocating animals by behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, the peripheral coding of sounds in the high-frequency auditory system of these animals is modeled. The stimuli are paired pulses similar to the echolocating signals of the animals. Their duration is comparable with or smaller than the time constants of the following processes: formation of the firing rate of the basilar membrane, formation of the receptor potentials of internal hair cells, and recovery of the excitability of spiral ganglion neurons. The models of auditory nerve fibers differ in spontaneous firing rate, response thresholds, and abilities to reproduce small variations of the stimulus level. The formation of the response to the second pulse of a pair of pulses in the multitude of synchronously excited high-frequency auditory nerve fibers may occur in only two ways. The first way defined as the stochastic mechanism implies the formation of the response to the second pulse as a result of the responses of the fibers that did not respond to the first pulse. This mechanism is based on the stochastic nature of the responses of auditory nerve fibers associated with the spontaneous firing rate. The second way, defined as the repeatition mechanism, implies the appearance of repeated responses in fibers that already responded to the first pulse but suffered a decrease in their response threshold after the first spike generation. This mechanism is based on the deterministic nature of the responses of fibers associated with refractoriness. The temporal resolution of pairs of short pulses, which, according to the data of behavioral experiments, is about 0.1 0.2 ms, is explained by the formation of the response to the second pulse through the stochastic mechanism. A complete recovery of the response to the second pulse, which, according to the data of electrophysiological studies of short-latency evoked brainstem

  10. Measurement of the dipole moments of excited states and photochemical transients by microwave dielectric absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Fessenden, R.W.; Carton, P.M.; Shimamori, H.; Scalano, J.C.

    1982-09-16

    Time-resolved changes in microwave dielectric absorption have been used to study transients formed by laser flash photolysis. Details of the method and apparatus are given. Applications both to the measurements of the dipole moments of transients and to decay kinetics are given. The dipole moments of the lowest triplet states of a number of aromatic compounds (mostly ketones) have been measured in benzene solution at room temperature. States of n..pi..* character generally possess smaller dipole moments than the corresponding ground states while states of ..pi pi..* character (for example, fluorenone) have larger values than the ground state. The triplets of 4-(dimethylamino)benzaldehyde and 4,4'-bis(dimethylamino)benzophenone have rather high values of dipole moment (10.5 and 8.4 D, respectively) showing their charge-transfer character. The triplet state of benzil was found to have zero or near-zero dipole moment, thus confirming that the triplet state is of a transstructure. 7 figures, 1 table.

  11. Intrinsic spin dynamics in optically excited nanoscale magnetic tunnel junction arrays restored by dielectric coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaris, M.; Yahagi, Y.; Mahato, B. K.; Dhuey, S.; Cabrini, S.; Nikitin, V.; Stout, J.; Hawkins, A. R.; Schmidt, H.

    2016-11-01

    We report the all-optical observation of intrinsic spin dynamics and extraction of magnetic material parameters from arrays of sub-100 nm spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory (STT-MRAM) devices with a CoFeB/MgO interface. To this end, the interference of surface acoustic waves with time-resolved magneto-optic signals via magneto-elastic coupling was suppressed using a dielectric coating. The efficacy of this method is demonstrated experimentally and via modeling on a nickel nanomagnet array. The magnetization dynamics for both coated nickel and STT-MRAM arrays shows a restored field-dependent Kittel mode from which the effective damping can be extracted. We observe an increased low-field damping due to extrinsic contributions from magnetic inhomogeneities and variations in the nanomagnet shape, while the intrinsic Gilbert damping remains unaffected by patterning. The data are in excellent agreement with a local resonance model and have direct implications for the design of STT-MRAM devices as well as other nanoscale spintronic technologies.

  12. Uniform dielectric barrier discharge with nanosecond pulse excitation for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayan, Halim

    For some period of time the use of plasma in medicine has been limited to thermal discharges for cauterization and dissection. The effects of thermal plasma on tissue are entirely related to local heating. Non-thermal plasma, on the other hand, can have many different modes of interaction with tissue. It has been recently demonstrated that direct treatment of smooth surfaces by non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in air is highly effective in killing pathogens. Moreover, DBD can create different sub-lethal and selective effects. These results hold significant promise for medical applications such as sterilization of wound surfaces. However, a typical DBD in air can be highly non-uniform, particularly on topographically non-uniform surfaces such as in most living tissues. This creates significant limitations for use of DBDs in wound care and other biomedical applications. In this thesis, a novel non-thermal plasma system, namely nanosecond-pulsed DBD, has been developed and investigated to address this important limitation. Nanosecond-pulsed DBD is shown to be uniform in air at atmospheric pressure and much more effective in killing bacteria than conventional DBDs, particularly on topographically non-uniform surfaces. Thus, this new plasma system is potentially convenient for in vivo and hospital sterilization cases.

  13. A rapidly-tuned, short-pulse-length, high-repetition-rate CO{sub 2} laser for IR dial

    SciTech Connect

    Zaugg, T.; Thompson, D.; Leland, W.T.; Busch, G.

    1997-08-01

    Analysis of noise sources in Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) in the infrared region of the spectrum indicates that the signal-to-noise ratio for direct detection can be improved if multiple-wavelength, short-pulse-length beams are transmitted and received at high repetition rates. Atmospheric effects can be minimized, albedo can be rapidly scanned, and uncorrelated speckle can be acquired at the maximum possible rate. A compact, rugged, RF-excited waveguide laser can produce 15 nanosecond pulses at a 100 kHz rate with sufficient energy per pulse to reach the speckle limit of the signal-to-noise ratio. A high-repetition-rate laser has been procured and will be used to verify these signal and noise scaling relationships at high repetition rates. Current line-tuning devices are mechanical and are capable of switching lines at a rate up to a few hundred Hertz. Acousto-optic modulators, deflectors or tunable filters can be substituted for these mechanical devices in the resonator of a CO{sub 2} laser and used to rapidly line-tune the laser across the 9 and 10 micron bands at a rate as high as 100 kHz. Several configurations for line tuning using acousto-optic and electro-optic devices with and without gratings are presented. The merits of and constraints on each design are also discussed. A pair of large aperture, acousto-optic deflectors has been purchased and the various line-tuning designs will be evaluated in a conventional, glass tube, CO{sub 2} laser, with a view to incorporation into the high-repetition-rate, waveguide laser. A computer model of the dynamics of an RF-excited, short-pulse-length, high-repetition-rate waveguide laser has been developed. The model will be used to test the consequences of various line-tuning designs.

  14. Excitation of THz hybrid modes in an elliptical dielectric rod waveguide with a cold collisionless unmagnetized plasma column by an annular electron beam

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmani, Z. Safari, S.; Heidari-Semiromi, E.

    2016-06-15

    The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves propagating in an elliptical plasma waveguide with a cold collisionless unmagnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is studied analytically. The frequency spectrum of the hybrid waves and the growth rate for excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam (TAREEB) is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, geometrical dimensions, plasma frequency, accelerating voltage, and current density of TAREEB on the growth rate and frequency spectra of the waveguide will be investigated.

  15. Molecular π pulses: Population inversion with positively chirped short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jianshu; Bardeen, Christopher J.; Wilson, Kent R.

    2000-08-01

    Detailed theoretical analysis and numerical simulation indicate that nearly complete electronic population inversion of molecular systems can be achieved with intense positively chirped broadband laser pulses. To provide a simple physical picture, a two-level model is used to examine the condition for the so-called π pulses and a four-level model is designed to demonstrate for molecular systems the correlation between the sign of the chirp and the excited state population. The proposed molecular π pulse is the combined result of vibrational coherence in the femtosecond regime and adiabatic inversion in the picosecond regime. Numerical results for a displaced oscillator, for LiH and for I2, show that the proposed molecular π pulse scheme is robust with respect to changes in field parameters such as the linear positive chirp rate, field intensity, bandwidth, and carrier frequency, and is stable with respect to thermal and condensed phase conditions including molecular rotation, rovibronic coupling, and electronic dephasing.

  16. Stabilization of CO2 laser short-pulse oscillation by tickle pulse for dot processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Daisaku; Sakurada, Noriyo; Ishii, Yoshio; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    Image drawing using a laser system has been attempted by Segmented Pixel Drawing (SPD) method and Laser Plastic Coloring (LPC) method in our laboratory. Laser dot processing by a short pulse oscillation of a CO2 laser is used for these laser methods. Stable short pulse oscillation is required for an accurate image drawing. That oscillation has a tendency to be unstable because of its long oscillation interval. A tickle pulse is known as one of a technique which is conventionally used for a continuous pulse oscillation of a CO2 laser in order to make rising rate of laser oscillation quick. In this study, this tickle pulse has been improved and applied to the short pulse oscillation in order to stable short pulse oscillation and high accurate laser dot processing. In the result, processed dots are appeared bigger with less variation in their sizes with the improved tickle pulse case compared with the conventional case. Short pulse oscillation is stabilized by these improved tickle pulse. Reproducibility and accuracy ofthe SPD method and LPC method might be realized by this stabilized dot processing.

  17. Voyager Uranus encounter 0.2lbf T/VA short pulse test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The attitude control thrusters on the Voyager spacecraft were tested for operation at electrical pulse widths of less than the current 10-millisecond minimum to reduce impulse bit and, therefore, reduce image smear of pictures taken during the Uranus encounter. Thrusters with the identical configuration of the units on the spacecraft were fired in an altitude chamber to characterize impulse bit and impulse bit variations as a function of electrical pulse widths and to determine if the short pulses decreased thruster life. Pulse widths of 4.0 milliseconds provide approximately 45 percent of the impulse provided by a 10-ms pulse, and thruster-to-thruster and pulse-to-pulse variation is approximately plus or minus 10 percent. Pulse widths shorter than 4 ms showed wide variation, and no pulse was obtained at 3 ms. Three thrusters were each subjected to 75,000 short pulses of 4 ms or less without performance degradation. A fourth thruster exhibited partial flow blockage after 13,000 short pulses, but this was attributed to prevous test history and not short pulse exposure. The Voyager attitude control thrusters should be considered flight qualified for short pulse operation at pulse widths of 4.0 ms or more.

  18. Dielectric surface flashover at atmospheric conditions under high-power microwave excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Neuber, Andreas A.; Krile, John T.; Edmiston, Greg F.; Krompholz, Hermann G.

    2007-05-15

    Due to recent advances in the peak output power densities and pulse widths of high-power microwave (HPM) devices, the ability to radiate this power into the atmosphere is limited by surface plasma formation at the vacuum-air interface. Very little is known about this window flashover under HPM excitation at 'air' side pressures from atmospheric down to approximately 90 Torr, and this paper reports one such study at 2.85 GHz and MW/cm{sup 2} pulsed power densities. Due to the high ({approx}600 GHz at standard temperature and pressure) elastic collision frequencies of the electrons with the neutral gas molecules and added energy-loss channels through molecule excitation, proven concepts of vacuum flashover, such as multipactoring electrons, have to be abandoned. The observed flashover field is roughly a factor 3 higher in SF{sub 6} compared to air, which is consistent with unipolar volume breakdown data. Quantitative comparisons of HPM flashover data with results from a recently developed computer code are given.

  19. Large-Area Short-Pulse Surface Discharges for Laser Excitation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    V. M. Borisov, F. I. Vysikaylo, and 0. B. Khristoforov , High Temp. 21, 635 (1983) [Teplofiz. Vys. Temp. 1, 844 (1983...Tarasenko, and A. I. Fedorov, Soy. Phys. Tech. Phys. ?a, 704 (1980). * 22. V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, A. M. Davidovskii, and 0. B. Khristoforov ...Soy. J. Quan- tum Electron. ii, 42 (1981). 23. V. Yu. Baranov, V. M. Borisov, and 0. B. Khristoforov , Soy. J. Quantum Electron. ii, 93 (1981). 24. A

  20. Short-pulse excitation of microwave plasma for efficient diamond growth

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Hideaki Chayahara, Akiyoshi; Mokuno, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-29

    To realize a variety of potential applications of diamonds, particularly in the area of power electronics, it is indispensable to improve their growth efficiency. Most conventional approaches have tried to achieve this simply by increasing the gas temperature; however, this makes it difficult to grow large diamond crystals. To improve the growth efficiency while lowering the gas temperature, we propose that using a pulse-modulated microwave plasma with a sub-millisecond pulse width can enhance the power efficiency of the growth rate of single-crystal diamonds. We found that using a sub-millisecond pulse-mode discharge could almost double the growth rate obtained using continuous mode discharge for a fixed average microwave power and gas pressure. A comparison between experimental observations of the optical emission spectra of the discharge and a numerical simulation of the gas temperature suggests that a decrease in the gas temperature was achieved, and highlights the importance of electron-dominated reactions for obtaining the enhancement of the growth rate. This result will have a large impact in the area of diamond growth because it enables diamond growth to be more power efficient at reduced temperatures.

  1. Simultaneous time-space resolved reflectivity and interferometric measurements of dielectrics excited with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Lechuga, M.; Haahr-Lillevang, L.; Siegel, J.; Balling, P.; Guizard, S.; Solis, J.

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous time-and-space resolved reflectivity and interferometric measurements over a temporal span of 300 ps have been performed in fused silica and sapphire samples excited with 800 nm, 120 fs laser pulses at energies slightly and well above the ablation threshold. The experimental results have been simulated in the frame of a multiple-rate equation model including light propagation. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the reflectivity and the interferometric measurements at 400 nm clearly shows that the two techniques interrogate different material volumes during the course of the process. While the former is sensitive to the evolution of the plasma density in a very thin ablating layer at the surface, the second yields an averaged plasma density over a larger volume. It is shown that self-trapped excitons do not appreciably contribute to carrier relaxation in fused silica at fluences above the ablation threshold, most likely due to Coulomb screening effects at large excited carrier densities. For both materials, at fluences well above the ablation threshold, the maximum measured plasma reflectivity shows a saturation behavior consistent with a scattering rate proportional to the plasma density in this fluence regime. Moreover, for both materials and for pulse energies above the ablation threshold and delays in the few tens of picoseconds range, a simultaneous "low reflectivity" and "low transmission" behavior is observed. Although this behavior has been identified in the past as a signature of femtosecond laser-induced ablation, its origin is alternatively discussed in terms of the optical properties of a material undergoing strong isochoric heating, before having time to substantially expand or exchange energy with the surrounding media.

  2. Ultra-short pulsed millimeter-wave laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas

    2000-10-01

    High peak power pulses of 1.22-mm wavelength radiation have recently been obtained from a novel cavity-dumped far-infrared optically-pumped laser^1. Smooth reproducible pulses with the following characteristics have been routinely obtained: peak power=25-kW, pulsewidth (FWHM)=5-ns, repetition rate=10 pps. (This compares favorably to typical far-infrared, cavity-dumped output - 11-kW, 30-ns, 1 pps - available from the University of California - Santa Barbara Free Electron Laser). The pumping laser is a grating-tuned, hybrid TEA CO2 laser providing 1J / pulse at the 9P32 transition. The far-infrared gain medium is isotopic (C^13) methyl flouride. Experiments are underway for using the novel source to resonantly excite coherent pulses of 250-GHz longitudinal acoustic phonons in silicon doping superlattices. ^1 Thomas E. Wilson, "Modeling the high-speed switching of far-infrared radiation by photoionization in a semiconductor", Phys. Rev. B 59 (20), 12996 (1999).

  3. Short-pulse CO₂ laser with longitudinal tandem discharge tube.

    PubMed

    Uno, K; Akitsu, T; Jitsuno, T

    2014-10-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a tandem discharge tube. The tandem scheme was constituted of two 30-cm long discharge tubes connected with an intermediate electrode. Two parts, each consisting of a charged capacitance and a 30-cm long discharge tube, were electrically connected in parallel and switched by a spark gap. The tandem scheme produced a short laser pulse like that of a TEA-CO2 laser with a charging voltage of -24.8 kV, which was smaller than the -40.0 kV charging voltage of our previous CO2 laser. At a gas pressure of 3.8 kPa, the spike pulse width was 145 ns, the pulse tail length was 58.8 μs, the output energy was 52.0 mJ, and the spike pulse energy was 2.4 mJ. We also investigated the dependence of the laser pulse and the discharge voltage on gas pressure.

  4. An Overview of High Energy Short Pulse Technology for Advanced Radiography of Laser Fusion Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Barty, C J; Key, M; Britten, J; Beach, R; Beer, G; Brown, C; Bryan, S; Caird, J; Carlson, T; Crane, J; Dawson, J; Erlandson, A C; Fittinghoff, D; Hermann, M; Hoaglan, C; Iyer, A; Jones, L; Jovanovic, I; Komashko, A; Landen, O; Liao, Z; Molander, W; Mitchell, A; Moses, E; Nielsen, N; Nguyen, H; Nissen, J; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Risinger, L; Rushford, M; Skulina, K; Spaeth, M; Stuart, B; Tietbohl, G; Wattellier, B

    2004-06-18

    The technical challenges and motivations for high-energy, short-pulse generation with NIF-class, Nd:glass laser systems are reviewed. High energy short pulse generation (multi-kilojoule, picosecond pulses) will be possible via the adaptation of chirped pulse amplification laser techniques on the NIF. Development of meter-scale, high efficiency, high-damage-threshold final optics is a key technical challenge. In addition, deployment of HEPW pulses on NIF is constrained by existing laser infrastructure and requires new, compact compressor designs and short-pulse, fiber-based, seed-laser systems. The key motivations for high energy petawatt pulses on NIF is briefly outlined and includes high-energy, x-ray radiography, proton beam radiography, proton isochoric heating and tests of the fast ignitor concept for inertial confinement fusion.

  5. Single and repetitive short-pulse high-power microwave window breakdown

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.; Tang, C. X.; Shao, H.; Chen, C. H.; Huang, W. H.

    2010-05-15

    The mechanisms of high-power microwave breakdown for single and repetitive short pulses are analyzed. By calculation, multipactor saturation with electron density much higher than the critical plasma density is found not to result in microwave cutoff. It is local high pressure about Torr class that rapid plasma avalanche and final breakdown are realized in a 10-20 ns short pulse. It is found by calculation that the power deposited by saturated multipactor and the rf loss of protrusions are sufficient to induce vaporizing surface material and enhancing the ambient pressure in a single short pulse. For repetitive pulses, the accumulation of heat and plasma may respectively carbonize the surface material and lower the repetitive breakdown threshold.

  6. Theoretical and experimental studies of ultra-short pulsed laser drilling of steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalowski, Andreas; Qin, Yuan; Weber, Rudolf; Graf, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Methods for the machining of metals based on the use of ultra-short pulsed laser radiation continue to gain importance in industrial production technology. Theoretical considerations and experimental studies on laser drilling of steel are discussed. The applicability of geometrical optics to calculate the absorbed energy distribution inside small blind holes is investigated theoretically. A model for melt transport during ultra-short pulsed drilling is proposed and verified experimentally. It confirms that helical drilling is advantageous for machining burr-free holes.

  7. Defocusing complex short-pulse equation and its multi-dark-soliton solution.

    PubMed

    Feng, Bao-Feng; Ling, Liming; Zhu, Zuonong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a complex short-pulse equation of both focusing and defocusing types, which governs the propagation of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear optical fibers. It can be viewed as an analog of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in the ultrashort-pulse regime. Furthermore, we construct the multi-dark-soliton solution for the defocusing complex short-pulse equation through the Darboux transformation and reciprocal (hodograph) transformation. One- and two-dark-soliton solutions are given explicitly, whose properties and dynamics are analyzed and illustrated.

  8. Defocusing complex short-pulse equation and its multi-dark-soliton solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Bao-Feng; Ling, Liming; Zhu, Zuonong

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a complex short-pulse equation of both focusing and defocusing types, which governs the propagation of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear optical fibers. It can be viewed as an analog of the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in the ultrashort-pulse regime. Furthermore, we construct the multi-dark-soliton solution for the defocusing complex short-pulse equation through the Darboux transformation and reciprocal (hodograph) transformation. One- and two-dark-soliton solutions are given explicitly, whose properties and dynamics are analyzed and illustrated.

  9. Measurement of lake ice thickness with a short-pulse radar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Mueller, R. A.; Schertler, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Measurements of lake ice thickness were made during March 1975 at the Straits of Mackinac by using a short-pulse radar system aboard an all-terrain vehicle. These measurements were compared with ice thicknesses determined with an auger. Over 25 sites were explored which had ice thicknesses in the range 29 to 60 cm. The maximum difference between radar and auger measurements was less than 9.8 percent. The magnitude of the error was less than + or - 3.5 cm. The NASA operating short-pulse radar system used in monitoring lake ice thickness from an aircraft is also described.

  10. Surface excitations in electron spectroscopy. Part I: dielectric formalism and Monte Carlo algorithm.

    PubMed

    Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M

    2013-05-01

    The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Surface excitations in electron spectroscopy. Part I: dielectric formalism and Monte Carlo algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Salvat-Pujol, F; Werner, W S M

    2013-01-01

    The theory describing energy losses of charged non-relativistic projectiles crossing a planar interface is derived on the basis of the Maxwell equations, outlining the physical assumptions of the model in great detail. The employed approach is very general in that various common models for surface excitations (such as the specular reflection model) can be obtained by an appropriate choice of parameter values. The dynamics of charged projectiles near surfaces is examined by calculations of the induced surface charge and the depth- and direction-dependent differential inelastic inverse mean free path (DIIMFP) and stopping power. The effect of several simplifications frequently encountered in the literature is investigated: differences of up to 100% are found in heights, widths, and positions of peaks in the DIIMFP. The presented model is implemented in a Monte Carlo algorithm for the simulation of the electron transport relevant for surface electron spectroscopy. Simulated reflection electron energy loss spectra are in good agreement with experiment on an absolute scale. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23794766

  12. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, S G; Barty, C P J; Betts, S M; Brown, W J; Crane, J K; Cross, R R; Fittinghoff, D N; Gibson, D J; Hartemann, F V; Kuba, J; LaSage, G P; Rosenzweig, J B; Slaughter, D R; Springer, P T; Tremaine, A M

    2003-07-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10{sup 20} photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}. Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations.

  13. Influence of the excitation frequency on the density of helium metastable atoms in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisvert, J.-S.; Sadeghi, N.; Margot, J.; Massines, F.

    2017-01-01

    Diffuse dielectric barrier discharges in atmospheric-pressure helium can be sustained over a wide range of excitation frequencies (from, but not restricted, 25 kHz to 15 MHz). The aim of the present paper is to identify the specific characteristics of the discharge modes that can be sustained in this frequency range, namely, the atmospheric-pressure Townsend-like discharge (APTD-L) mode, the atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) mode, the Ω mode, the hybrid mode, and the RF-α mode. This is achieved experimentally, by measuring the density of helium metastable atoms, which are known to play a driving role on the discharge kinetics. This density is measured by means of two absorption spectroscopy methods, one using a spectral lamp and the other one using a diode laser as a light source. The first one provides the time-averaged atom densities in the singlet He(21S) and triplet He(23S) metastable states, while with the second one we access the time-resolved density of He(23S) atoms. Time-averaged measurements indicate that the He(23S) density is relatively low in the APTD-L, the Ω and the RF-α modes ( <4 ×1016 m-3 ) slightly higher in the APGD mode ( 2 -7 ×1016 m-3 ), and still higher ( >1 ×1017 m-3 ) in the hybrid mode. The hybrid mode is exclusively observed for frequencies from 0.2 to 3 MHz. However, time-resolved density measurement shows that at 1 MHz and below, the hybrid mode is not continuously sustained. Instead, the discharge oscillates between the Ω and the hybrid mode with a switching frequency about the kilohertz. This explains the significantly lower power required to sustain the plasma as compared to above 1 MHz.

  14. Simulations of High-Intensity Short-Pulse Lasers Incident on Reduced Mass Targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Frank W.

    This thesis presents the results of a series of fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of reduced mass targets with pre-plasma subjected to high-intensity short-pulse lasers. The simulations are performed in one, two, and three dimensions. The results of these simulations show that the creation of an electrostatic collisionless ion shock in the preplasma controls the creation of an above solid density ion perturbation in the target bulk, and this determines the reduced mass target heating and deformation. The ion perturbation is initiated by a population of high-energy electrons that rapidly spread throughout the target and reflux. The perturbation spreads longitudinally and transversely through the target and results in compression followed by the destruction of the target. This deformation requires a kinetic treatment due to the generation of non-equilibrium particle distributions and the role of ballistic electrons and ions. Kinetic and fluid simulations are compared and both exhibit the basic features of the above solid density ion perturbation, but the magnitude of the effect and the speed of propagation vary significantly between the two methods. Kinetic simulations do not naturally include equation-of-state physics and other aspects of the problem. Both approaches are complementary. The requirements on spatial resolution, particle count, and other numerical parameters are addressed in this work. From these simulations, the behavior of the reduced mass targets is found to vary significantly depending on the laser focal spot size or the intensity of the laser pulse. This occurs even if the energy and power of the laser pulses are held constant. The number of dimensions used in the particle-in-cell simulations has been observed to have a significant effect on late-time heating of the target, but not during or shortly after laser excitation. This is due to the representation of the equilibration process as the initial population of laser heated

  15. Resonant frequency of microstrip antennas calculated from TE-excitation of an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1979-01-01

    The calculation of currents induced by a plane wave normally incident upon an infinite strip embedded in a grounded dielectric slab is used to infer the resonant width (or frequency) of rectangular microstrip antennas. By placing the strip inside the dielectric, the effect of a dielectric cover of the same material as the substrate can be included in the calculation of resonant frequency. A comparison with measured results indicated agreement of 1 percent or better for rectangular microstrip antennas constructed on Teflon-fiberglass substrate.

  16. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  17. A novel multi-component generalization of the short pulse equation and its multisoliton solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Yoshimasa

    2011-12-01

    We propose a novel multi-component system of nonlinear equations that generalizes the short pulse (SP) equation describing the propagation of ultra-short pulses in optical fibers. By means of the bilinear formalism combined with a hodograph transformation, we obtain its multisoliton solutions in the form of a parametric representation. Notably, unlike the determinantal solutions of the SP equation, the proposed system is found to exhibit solutions expressed in terms of pfaffians. The proof of the solutions is performed within the framework of an elementary theory of determinants. The reduced 2-component system deserves a special consideration. In particular, we show by establishing a Lax pair that the system is completely integrable. The properties of solutions such as loop solitons and breathers are investigated in detail, confirming their solitonic behavior. A variant of the 2-component system is also discussed with its multisoliton solutions.

  18. Comment on "Defocusing complex short-pulse equation and its multi-dark-soliton solution"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssoufa, Saliou; Kuetche, Victor K.; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2017-08-01

    In their recent paper, Feng et al. [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052227 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052227] proposed a complex short-pulse equation of both focusing and defocusing types. They studied in detail the defocusing case and derived its multi-dark-soliton solutions. Nonetheless, from a physical viewpoint in order to better and deeply understand their genuine implications, we find it useful to provide a real and proper background for the derivation of the previous evolution system while showing that the expression of the nonlinear electric polarization the above authors used in their scheme is not suitable for getting the defocusing complex short-pulse equation.

  19. Modelling K shell spectra from short pulse heated buried microdot targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoarty, D. J.; Sircombe, N.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; Hobbs, L. M. R.; James, S. F.; Morton, J.; Hill, E.; Jeffery, M.; Harris, J. W. O.; Shepherd, R.; Marley, E.; Magee, E.; Emig, J.; Nilsen, J.; Chung, H. K.; Lee, R. W.; Rose, S. J.

    2017-06-01

    K shell X-ray emission measurements have been used to diagnose plasma conditions in short-pulse heated buried microdot targets on the Orion high power laser. These experiments have been used to validate simulations of short pulse laser-solid interaction that combine hybrid PIC modelling of the laser absorption with radiation-hydrodynamics simulations including an electron transport model. Comparison of these simulations with streaked K shell spectroscopy show the importance of including radial gradients in fitting the spectra. An example is presented of the emission of sulphur from a 50 μm diameter microdot sample buried in a plastic foil. Previously agreement between simulation and experiment was obtained only by treating the absorbed energy, electron temperature and beam divergence as fitting parameters. The good agreement obtained in this work used the measured laser energy and laser pulse length and calculated the laser-solid target interaction from first principles.

  20. Feasibility study on a short-pulsed IR wavelength for effective calculus fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook

    2015-05-01

    Laser-induced lithotripsy has been used for a minimally-invasive surgery to treat kidney-stone disease associated with urinary obstruction. A short-pulsed Tm:YAG laser (λ = 2.01 µm) was developed to improve fragmentation efficiency and was evaluated with a Ho:YAG laser (λ = 2.12 μm) as to its ablation feature and mass removal rate. Application of a train of sub-microsecond pulses with a lower energy at a frequency of 500 Hz created multiple events of cavitation that accompanied strong acoustic transients. During Tm:YAG irradiation, both high light absorption and secondary photomechanical impacts readily fragmented the calculus into small pieces (< 3 mm) and removed them 130 times faster than photothermal Ho:YAG lithotripsy. The proposed short-pulsed Tm:YAG approach may be an effective lithotripter for treating calculus disease.

  1. Multi-soliton solutions and the Cauchy problem for a two-component short pulse system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhaqilao, Z.; Hu, Qiaoyi; Qiao, Zhijun

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we study multi-soliton solutions and the Cauchy problem for a two-component short pulse system. For the multi-soliton solutions, we first derive an N-fold Darboux transformation from the Lax pair of the two-component short pulse system, which is expressed in terms of the quasideterminant. Then by virtue of the N-fold Darboux transformation we obtain multi-loop and breather soliton solutions. In particular, one-, two-, three-loop soliton, and breather soliton solutions are discussed in detail with interesting dynamical interactions and shown through figures. For the Cauchy problem, we first prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution with an estimate of the analytic lifespan, and then investigate the continuity of the data-to-solution map in the space of an analytic function.

  2. Simulation studies of vapor bubble generation by short-pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Amendt, P.; London, R.A.; Strauss, M.

    1997-10-26

    Formation of vapor bubbles is characteristic of many applications of short-pulse lasers in medicine. An understanding of the dynamics of vapor bubble generation is useful for developing and optimizing laser-based medical therapies. To this end, experiments in vapor bubble generation with laser light deposited in an aqueous dye solution near a fiber-optic tip have been performed. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations have been developed to understand and extrapolate results from these experiments. Comparison of two-dimensional simulations with the experiment shows excellent agreement in tracking the bubble evolution. Another regime of vapor bubble generation is short-pulse laser interactions with melanosomes. Strong shock generation and vapor bubble generation are common physical features of this interaction. A novel effect of discrete absorption by melanin granules within a melanosome is studied as a possible role in previously reported high Mach number shocks.

  3. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents

    PubMed Central

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems. PMID:27381552

  4. Ultra-short pulse laser deep drilling of C/SiC composites in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhui; Zhang, Litong; Liu, Yongsheng; Cheng, Guanghua; Zhang, Qing; Hua, Ke

    2013-06-01

    Ultra-short pulse laser machining is an important finishing technology for high hardness materials. In this study, it demonstrated that the ultra-short pulse laser can be used to drill the film cooling holes and square holes in aero-engine turbine blades made of C/SiC composites. Both the edges and bottoms of the drilling holes are covered with small particles. The following factors have a great effect on drilling holes according to this work: (1) circular holes can be processed only at a relative small helical lines spacing. (2) With the increase of laser scanning speed, the depth of holes reduces while the diameter rarely changes. (3) Through the holes of high aspect ratio can be obtained via high processing power.

  5. Simulation studies of vapor bubble generation by short-pulse lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amendt, Peter A.; London, Richard A.; Strauss, Moshe; Glinsky, Michael E.; Maitland, Duncan J.; Celliers, Peter M.; Visuri, Steven R.; Bailey, David S.; Young, David A.; Ho, Darwin; Lin, Charles P.; Kelly, Michael W.

    1998-01-01

    Formation of vapor bubbles is characteristic of many applications of short-pulse lasers in medicine. An understanding of the dynamics of vapor bubble generation is useful for developing and optimizing laser-based medical therapies. To this end, experiments in vapor bubble generation with laser light deposited in an aqueous dye solution near a fiber-optic tip have been performed. Numerical hydrodynamic simulations have been developed to understand and extrapolate results from these experiments. Comparison of two-dimensional simulations with the experiment shows excellent agreement in tracking the bubble evolution. Another regime of vapor bubble generation is short-pulse laser interactions with melanosomes. Strong shock generation and vapor bubble generation are common physical features of this interaction. A novel effect of discrete absorption by melanin granules within a melanosome is studied as a possible role in previously reported high Mach number shocks [Lin and Kelly, SPIE 2391, 294 (1995)].

  6. Two-color monochromatic x-ray imaging with a single short-pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, H.; Daykin, T.; McLean, H. S.; Chen, H.; Patel, P. K.; Ping, Y.; Pérez, F.

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous monochromatic crystal imaging at 4.5 and 8.0 keV with x-rays produced by a single short-pulse laser is presented. A layered target consisting of thin foils of titanium and copper glued together is irradiated by the 50 TW Leopard short-pulse laser housed at the Nevada Terawatt Facility. Laser-accelerated MeV fast electrons transmitting through the target induce Kα fluorescence from both foils. Two energy-selective curved crystals in the imaging diagnostic form separate monochromatic images on a single imaging detector. The experiment demonstrates simultaneous two-color monochromatic imaging of the foils on a single detector as well as Kα x-ray production at two different photon energies with a single laser beam. Application of the diagnostic technique to x-ray radiography of a high density plasma is also presented.

  7. Nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, Y.; Rozenberg, S.; Halstuch, A.; Ishaaya, A. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the nonlinear wave interactions between short pulses of different spatio-temporal extents. Unlike the well-understood mixing of quasi-monochromatic waves, this configuration is highly non-intuitive due to the complex coupling between the spatial and temporal degrees of freedom of the interacting pulses. We illustrate the process intuitively with transitions between different branches of the dispersion curves and interpret it in terms of spectral exchange between the interacting pulses. We verify our interpretation with an example whereby a spectrally-narrow pulse “inherits” the wide spectrum of a pump pulse centered at a different wavelength, using exact numerical simulations, as well as a simplified coupled mode analysis and an asymptotic analytical solution. The latter also provides a simple and intuitive quantitative interpretation. The complex wave mixing process studied here may enable flexible spatio-temporal shaping of short pulses and is the starting point of the study of more complicated systems.

  8. Electron acceleration in relativistic plasma waves generated by a single frequency short-pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Coverdale, C.A.; Darrow, C.B.; Decker, C.D.; Mori, W.B.; Tzeng, K.C., Clayton, C.E.; Marsh, K.A.; Joshi, C.

    1995-04-27

    Experimental evidence for the acceleration of electrons in a relativistic plasma wave generated by Raman forward scattering (SRS-F) of a single-frequency short pulse laser are presented. A 1.053 {mu}m, 600 fsec, 5 TW laser was focused into a gas jet with a peak intensity of 8{times}10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. At a plasma density of 2{times}10{sup 19} cm{sup {minus}3}, 2 MeV electrons were detected and their appearance was correlated with the anti-Stokes laser sideband generated by SRS-F. The results are in good agreement with 2-D PIC simulations. The use of short pulse lasers for making ultra-high gradient accelerators is explored.

  9. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2009-10-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  10. Assessment and Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Impacts at Short-pulse Laser Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Jr., C G; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-02-04

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  11. Study of Non-LTE Spectra Dependence on Target Mass in Short Pulse Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Back, C. A.; Giraldez, E.; Phommarine, S.; Audbert, P.; Baton, S. D.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Guillou, P.; Barbrel, B.; Gauci, E.; Koenig, M.; Gremillet, L.; Lecherbourg, L.; Rousseaux, C.

    2007-08-02

    Backlight sources created from short pulse lasers are useful probes of high energy density plasmas because of their short duration and brightness. Recent work has shown that the production of K{alpha} radiation can be manipulated by the size and geometry of the targets. Empirical relationships suggest that the electron reflux in the target plays an important role in the heating of these targets to create x-ray backlight sources.

  12. Superconducting Cavity Design for Short-Pulse X-Rays at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    G.J. Waldschmidt, R. Nassiri, G. Cheng, R.A. Rimmer, H. Wang

    2011-03-01

    Superconducting cavities have been analyzed for the short-pulse x-ray (SPX) project at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). Due to the strong damping requirements in the APS storage ring, single-cell superconducting cavities have been designed. The geometry has been optimized for lower-order and higher-order mode damping, reduced peak surface magnetic fields, and compact size. The integration of the cavity assembly, with dampers and waveguide input coupler, into a cryomodule will be discussed.

  13. Short-pulse, compressed ion beams at the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Seidl, P. A.; Barnard, J. J.; Davidson, R. C.; ...

    2016-05-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with 1-mm beam spot size within 2.5 ns full-width at half maximum. The ion kinetic energy is 1.2 MeV. To enable the short pulse duration and mm-scale focal spot radius, the beam is neutralized in a 1.5-meter-long drift compression section following the last accelerator cell. A short-focal-length solenoid focuses the beam in the presence of the volumetric plasma that is near the target. In the accelerator, the line-charge density increases due to the velocity ramp imparted onmore » the beam bunch. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including select topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Below the transition to melting, the short beam pulses offer an opportunity to study the multi-scale dynamics of radiation-induced damage in materials with pump-probe experiments, and to stabilize novel metastable phases of materials when short-pulse heating is followed by rapid quenching. First experiments used a lithium ion source; a new plasma-based helium ion source shows much greater charge delivered to the target.« less

  14. Accurate modeling of antennas for radiating short pulses, FDTD analysis and experimental measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, James G.; Smith, Glenn S.

    1993-01-01

    Antennas used to radiate short pulses often require different design rules that those that are used to radiate essentially time-harmonic signals. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method is a very flexible numerical approach that can be used to treat a variety of electromagnetic problems in the time domain. It is well suited to the analysis and design of antennas for radiating short pulses; however, several advances had to be made before the method could be applied to this problem. In this paper, we will illustrate the use of the FDTD method with two antennas designed for the radiation of short pulses. The first is a simple, two-dimensional geometry, and open-ended parallel-plate waveguide, while the second is a three-dimensional, rotationally symmetric geometry, a conical monopole fed through an image by a coaxial transmission line. Both antennas are 'optimized' according to given criteria by adjusting geometrical parameters and including resistive loading that varies continuously with position along the antenna. The predicted performance for the conical monopole antenna is compared with experimental measurements; this verifies the optimization and demonstrates the practicality of the design.

  15. Dual wavelength laser damage mechanisms in the ultra-short pulse regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyamfi, Mark; Costella, Marion; Willemsen, Thomas; Jürgens, Peter; Mende, Mathias; Jensen, Lars; Ristau, Detlev

    2016-12-01

    New ultrashort pulse laser systems exhibit an ever increasing performance which includes shorter pulses and higher pulse energies. Optical components used in these systems are facing increasing requirements regarding their durability, and therefore understanding of the damage mechanism is crucial. In the ultra-short pulse regime electron ionization processes control the damage mechanisms. For the single wavelength, single pulse regime the Keldysh [1] and the Drude model [2] allow a quantitative description of these ionization processes. However, in this model, the electrical field is restricted to a single wavelength, and therefore it cannot be applied in the case of irradiation with two pulses at different wavelengths. As frequency conversion is becoming more common in ultra-short pulse applications, further research is needed in this field to predict the damage resistance of optical components. We investigate the damage behavior of high reflective mirrors made of different metal oxide materials under simultaneous exposure to ultra-short pulses at the wavelengths 387.5 nm and 775 nm, respectively.

  16. Short-pulse, compressed ion beams at the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, P. A.; Barnard, J. J.; Davidson, R. C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D.; Ji, Q.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Persaud, A.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.

    2016-05-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with 1-mm beam spot size within 2.5 ns full-width at half maximum. The ion kinetic energy is 1.2 MeV. To enable the short pulse duration and mm-scale focal spot radius, the beam is neutralized in a 1.5-meter-long drift compression section following the last accelerator cell. A short-focal-length solenoid focuses the beam in the presence of the volumetric plasma that is near the target. In the accelerator, the line-charge density increases due to the velocity ramp imparted on the beam bunch. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including select topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Below the transition to melting, the short beam pulses offer an opportunity to study the multi-scale dynamics of radiation-induced damage in materials with pump-probe experiments, and to stabilize novel metastable phases of materials when short-pulse heating is followed by rapid quenching. First experiments used a lithium ion source; a new plasma-based helium ion source shows much greater charge delivered to the target.

  17. Short-pulse, compressed ion beams at the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Seidl, P. A.; Barnard, J. J.; Davidson, R. C.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Grote, D.; Ji, Q.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Persaud, A.; Waldron, W. L.; Schenkel, T.

    2016-05-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with 1-mm beam spot size within 2.5 ns full-width at half maximum. The ion kinetic energy is 1.2 MeV. To enable the short pulse duration and mm-scale focal spot radius, the beam is neutralized in a 1.5-meter-long drift compression section following the last accelerator cell. A short-focal-length solenoid focuses the beam in the presence of the volumetric plasma that is near the target. In the accelerator, the line-charge density increases due to the velocity ramp imparted on the beam bunch. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including select topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Below the transition to melting, the short beam pulses offer an opportunity to study the multi-scale dynamics of radiation-induced damage in materials with pump-probe experiments, and to stabilize novel metastable phases of materials when short-pulse heating is followed by rapid quenching. First experiments used a lithium ion source; a new plasma-based helium ion source shows much greater charge delivered to the target.

  18. All-solid-state repetitive semiconductor opening switch-based short pulse generator.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Liu, Guozhi

    2009-09-01

    The operating characteristics of a semiconductor opening switch (SOS) are determined by its pumping circuit parameters. SOS is still able to cut off the current when pumping current duration falls to the order of tens of nanoseconds and a short pulse forms simultaneously in the output load. An all-solid-state repetitive SOS-based short pulse generator (SPG100) with a three-level magnetic pulse compression unit was successfully constructed. The generator adopts magnetic pulse compression unit with metallic glass and ferrite cores, which compresses a 600 V, 10 mus primary pulse into short pulse with forward pumping current of 825 A, 60 ns and reverse pumping current of 1.3 kA, 30 ns. The current is sent to SOS in which the reverse pumping current is interrupted. The generator is capable of providing a pulse with the voltage of 120 kV and duration of 5-6 ns while output load being 125 Omega. The highest repetition rate is up to 1 kHz.

  19. Treatment surfaces with atomic oxygen excited in dielectric barrier discharge plasma of O{sub 2} admixed to N{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Shun'ko, E. V.; Belkin, V. S.

    2012-06-15

    This paper describes the increase in surface energy of substrates by their treatment with gas composition generated in plasmas of DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge) in O2 admixed with N2. Operating gas dissociation and excitation was occurred in plasmas developed in two types of reactors of capacitively-coupled dielectric barrier configurations: coaxial cylindrical, and flat rectangular. The coaxial cylindrical type comprised an inner cylindrical electrode encapsulated in a ceramic sheath installed coaxially inside a cylindrical ceramic (quartz) tube passing through an annular outer electrode. Components of the flat rectangular type were a flat ceramic tube of a narrow rectangular cross section supplied with two flat electrodes mounted against one another outside of the long parallel walls of this tube. The operating gas, mixture of N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}, was flowing in a completely insulated discharge gap formed between insulated electrodes of the devices with an average velocity of gas inlet of about 7 to 9 m/s. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma was excited in the operating gaps with a bipolar pulse voltage of about 6 kV for 2 ms at 50 kHz repetition rate applied to the electrodes of the coaxial device, and of about 14 kV for 7 ms at 30 kHz repetition rate for the flat linear device. A lifetime of excited to the 2s{sup 2}2p{sup 4}({sup 1}S{sub 0}) state in DBD plasma and streaming to the surfaces with a gas flow atomic oxygen, responsible presumably for treating surfaces, exceeded 10 ms in certain cases, that simplified its separation from DBD plasma and delivery to substrates. As it was found in particular, surfaces of glass and some of polymers revealed significant enhancement in wettability after treatment.

  20. FY05 LDRD Final ReportTime-Resolved Dynamic Studies using Short Pulse X-Ray Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, A; Dunn, J; van Buuren, T; Budil, K; Sadigh, B; Gilmer, G; Falcone, R; Lee, R; Ng, A

    2006-02-10

    Established techniques must be extended down to the ps and sub-ps time domain to directly probe product states of materials under extreme conditions. We used short pulse ({le} 1 ps) x-ray radiation to track changes in the physical properties in tandem with measurements of the atomic and electronic structure of materials undergoing fast laser excitation and shock-related phenomena. The sources included those already available at LLNL, including the picosecond X-ray laser as well as the ALS Femtosecond Phenomena beamline and the SSRL based sub-picosecond photon source (SPPS). These allow the temporal resolution to be improved by 2 orders of magnitude over the current state-of-the-art, which is {approx} 100 ps. Thus, we observed the manifestations of dynamical processes with unprecedented time resolution. Time-resolved x-ray photoemission spectroscopy and x-ray scattering were used to study phase changes in materials with sub-picosecond time resolution. These experiments coupled to multiscale modeling allow us to explore the physics of materials in high laser fields and extreme non-equilibrium states of matter. The ability to characterize the physical and electronic structure of materials under extreme conditions together with state-of-the-art models and computational facilities will catapult LLNL's core competencies into the scientific world arena as well as support its missions of national security and stockpile stewardship.

  1. SiO2-glass drilling by short-pulse CO2 laser with controllable pulse-tail energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Watanabe, Miyu; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-03-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse with the almost same spike-pulse energy of about 0.8 mJ and the controllable pulse-tail energy of 6.33-23.08 mJ. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance and a spark-gap switch. The dependence of SiO2 glass drilling on the fluence and the number was investigated by four types of short-pulse CO2 lasers. In this work, the effective short laser pulse with the spike pulse energy of 0.8 mJ for SiO2 glass drilling was the laser pulse with the pulse tail energy of 19.88 mJ, and produces the drilling depth per the fluence of 124 μm/J/cm2.

  2. Excitation and tuning of Fano-like cavity plasmon resonances in dielectric-metal core-shell resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ping; Wan, Mingjie; Wu, Wenyang; Chen, Zhuo; Wang, Zhenlin

    2016-05-01

    Fano resonances have been realized in plasmonic systems and have found intriguing applications, in which, however, precisely controlled symmetry breaking or particular arrangement of multiple constituents is usually involved. Although simple core-shell type architectures composed of a spherical dielectric core and a concentric metallic shell layer have been proposed as good candidates that support inherent Fano resonances, these theoretical predictions have rarely seen any detailed experimental investigation. Here, we report on the experimental investigation of the magnetic and electric-based multipolar plasmonic Fano resonances in the dielectric-metal core-shell resonators that are formed by wrapping a nearly perfect metal shell layer around a dielectric sphere. We demonstrate that these Fano resonances originate from the interference between the Mie cavity and sphere plasmon resonances. Moreover, we present that the variation on either the dielectric core size or core refractive index allows for easily tuning the observed Fano resonances over a wide spectral range. Our findings are supported by excellent agreement with analytical calculations, and offer unprecedented opportunities for realizing ultrasensitive bio-sensors, lasing and nonlinear optical devices.Fano resonances have been realized in plasmonic systems and have found intriguing applications, in which, however, precisely controlled symmetry breaking or particular arrangement of multiple constituents is usually involved. Although simple core-shell type architectures composed of a spherical dielectric core and a concentric metallic shell layer have been proposed as good candidates that support inherent Fano resonances, these theoretical predictions have rarely seen any detailed experimental investigation. Here, we report on the experimental investigation of the magnetic and electric-based multipolar plasmonic Fano resonances in the dielectric-metal core-shell resonators that are formed by wrapping a

  3. Backscatter RCS for TE and TM excitations of dielectric-filled cavity-backed apertures in two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goggans, Paul M.; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    1991-08-01

    Transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) scattering from dielectric-filled, cavity-backed apertures in two-dimensional bodies are treated using the method of moments technique to solve a set of combined-field integral equations for the equivalent induced electric and magnetic currents on the exterior of the scattering body and on the associated aperture. Results are presented for the backscatter radar cross section (RCS) versus the electrical size of the scatterer for two different dielectric-filled cavity-backed geometries. The first geometry is a circular cylinder of infinite length which has an infinite length slot aperture along one side. The cavity inside the cylinder is dielectric filled and is also of circular cross section. The two cylinders (external and internal) are of different radii and their respective longitudinal axes are parallel but not collocated. The second is a square cylinder of infinite length which has an infinite length slot aperture along one side. The cavity inside the square cylinder is dielectric-filled and is also of square cross section.

  4. Backscatter RCS for TE and TM excitations of dielectric-filled cavity-backed apertures in two-dimensional bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goggans, Paul M.; Shumpert, Thomas H.

    1991-01-01

    Transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic (TM) scattering from dielectric-filled, cavity-backed apertures in two-dimensional bodies are treated using the method of moments technique to solve a set of combined-field integral equations for the equivalent induced electric and magnetic currents on the exterior of the scattering body and on the associated aperture. Results are presented for the backscatter radar cross section (RCS) versus the electrical size of the scatterer for two different dielectric-filled cavity-backed geometries. The first geometry is a circular cylinder of infinite length which has an infinite length slot aperture along one side. The cavity inside the cylinder is dielectric filled and is also of circular cross section. The two cylinders (external and internal) are of different radii and their respective longitudinal axes are parallel but not collocated. The second is a square cylinder of infinite length which has an infinite length slot aperture along one side. The cavity inside the square cylinder is dielectric-filled and is also of square cross section.

  5. Experimental and Analytical Investigation of Cemented Tungsten Carbide Ultra-Short Pulse Laser Ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, J. P. Calderón; Daniel, C.; Emmelmann, C.

    Ultra-short pulse laser processing of hard materials, such as cemented tungsten carbide, requires an accurate and agile experimental and analytical investigation to obtain adequate information and setting parameters to maximize ablation rate. Therefore, this study presents a systematic approach which, first, experimentally searches for the variables with the most significant influence on the objective using a design of experiments method; and second, analyzes by means of existing ablation theory the interaction of the material and laser taking into account the Beer-Lambert law and incubation effect.Therefore, this places a basis for future analytical-experimental validation of the examined material.

  6. Exploitation of stimulated Raman scattering in short-pulse fiber amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shian; Takamido, Tetsuji; Imai, Shinji; Wise, Frank

    2010-07-15

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) generally limits the performance of short-pulse fiber amplifiers. We present the results of experiments that show that, under some conditions, SRS can extend the performance of amplifiers limited by nonlinear phase accumulation. The Stokes spectrum can be free of distortions arising from self-phase modulation and can circumvent the gain-narrowing limit of the amplifier. The generation of 1 microJ and 90 fs pulses from a single-mode fiber amplifier illustrates the potential of the process.

  7. Adiabatic propagation of short pulses under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipkin, V G; Timofeev, I V

    2000-02-28

    The spatial and temporal dynamics of two short pulses propagating in an optically dense medium of resonant three-level {Lambda}-atoms is investigated numerically and analytically. The maximum coherence for the Raman transition due to coherent population trapping. It is shown that, at the initial stage of propagation, the waveforms of such pulses only slightly change along the length of the medium, which may considerably exceed the length of linear absorption for a single weak pulse. As the length of the absorbing medium increases, the energy of the probe (first) pulse is completely transferred into the second (control) pulse. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  8. Strong Field Molecular Ionization in the Impulsive Limit: Freezing Vibrations with Short Pulses.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Péter; Tagliamonti, Vincent; Zhao, Arthur; Rozgonyi, Tamás; Ruckenbauer, Matthias; Marquetand, Philipp; Weinacht, Thomas

    2016-02-12

    We study strong-field molecular ionization as a function of pulse duration. Experimental measurements of the photoelectron yield for a number of molecules reveal competition between different ionization continua (cationic states) which depends strongly on pulse duration. Surprisingly, in the limit of short pulse duration, we find that a single ionic continuum dominates the yield, whereas multiple continua are produced for longer pulses. Using calculations which take vibrational dynamics into account, we interpret our results in terms of nuclear motion and nonadiabatic dynamics during the ionization process.

  9. Numerical investigation of short-pulse laser radiation propagation in a turbulent atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Banakh, V A; Gerasimova, L O; Smalikho, I N

    2015-03-31

    An algorithm is presented for the numerical simulation of short-pulse optical radiation propagation in a turbulent atmosphere on the basis of the solution to the parabolic wave equation for the complex spectral amplitude of the wave field by the split-step method. We present examples of the use of this algorithm for simulating the propagation of a pulsed coherent spatially limited beam and a plane wave. It is shown that in the regime of strong optical turbulence the relative variance of fluctuations of energy density of femtosecond radiation becomes much smaller than the relative variance of the intensity of cw radiation. (laser radiation scattering)

  10. High mode volume self filtering unstable resonator applied to a short pulse XeCl laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luches, A.; Nassisi, V.; Perrone, M. R.; Radiotis, E.

    1989-05-01

    A high mode volume non confocal self filtering unstable resonator has been applied to a short pulse XeCl laser. Such a resonator made up of a concave mirror (focal length is 25 cm) and a convex mirror (focal length is -25 cm), has a magnification | M|=34 and a cavity length of 151 cm. A nearly diffraction limited laser beam of 5.5 mJ, 10 ns duration and with a brightness of 2.5×10 13 W cm -2 sr -1 has been obtained. These results are compared to those obtained with another self-filtering unstable resonator having the same resonator length but | M|=10.

  11. Exploitation of stimulated Raman scattering in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shian; Takamido, Tetsuji; Imai, Shinji; Wise, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) generally limits the performance of short-pulse fiber amplifiers. We present the results of experiments that show that, under some conditions, SRS can extend the performance of amplifiers limited by nonlinear phase accumulation. The Stokes spectrum can be free of distortions arising from self-phase modulation and can circumvent the gain-narrowing limit of the amplifier. The generation of 1 μJ and 90 fs pulses from a single-mode fiber amplifier illustrates the potential of the process. PMID:20634842

  12. Heat accumulation in ultra-short pulsed scanning laser ablation of metals.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Franziska; Michalowski, Andreas; Kiedrowski, Thomas; Nolte, Stefan

    2015-01-26

    High average laser powers can have a serious adverse impact on the ablation quality in ultra-short pulsed laser material processing of metals. With respect to the scanning speed, a sharp transition between a smooth, reflective and an uneven, dark ablated surface is observed. Investigating the influence of the sample temperature, it is experimentally shown that this effect stems from heat accumulation. In a numerical heat flow simulation, the critical scanning speed indicating the change in ablation quality is determined in good agreement with the experimental data.

  13. Silicon nanoparticle formation by short pulse electrochemical etching in the transition regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nychyporuk, T.; Lysenko, V.; Gautier, B.; Barbier, D.

    2006-11-01

    Controlled formation of a monolayer or doublelayer of laterally separated Si nanoparticles at the surface of Si wafers with the use of short pulse anodization in the transition regime is reported and compared with two other anodization regimes: nanopore formation and electropolishing. The initial stages of the dynamics of the nanoparticle formation are studied in detail by means of atomic force microscopy. Detailed structural analysis of the height and surface density of the nanoparticles with respect to anodization current density, electrolyte composition, and anodization time has been performed.

  14. Electron Dynamics During High-Power, Short-Pulsed Laser Interactions with Solids and Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-28

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0234 Electron Dynamics During High-Power, Short-Pulsed Laser Interactions with Solids and Interfaces Patrick Hopkins...1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 28-05-2016 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 01-02-2013 - 31-01-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Electron ...PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Patrick E. Hopkins 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  15. Short-pulse Calorimetric Load for High Power Millimeter-wave Beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandini, F.; Bruschi, A.; Cirant, S.; Gittini, G.; Granucci, G.; Muzzini, V.; Sozzi, C.; Spinicchia, N.

    2007-02-01

    A spherical compact matched load, for high vacuum operation suited for short pulses (2 MW, 0.1 s) precise measurement has been designed to test high power gyrotrons Bruschi, Gandini, Muzzini, Spinicchia, Cirant, Gittini, Granucci, Mellera, Nardone, Simonetto, and Sozzi (Fusion Eng. Des. 56 57:649 654, 2001); Bruschi, Cirant, Gandini, Granucci, Mellera, Muzzini, Nardone, Simonetto, Sozzi, and Spinicchia (Nucl. Fusion 43:1513 1519, 2003); Bruschi, Cirant, Gandini, Gittini, Granucci, Mellera, Muzzini, Nardone, Simonetto, Sozzi, Spinicchia, Angella, and Signorelli (Development of CW and short-pulse calorimetric loads for high power millimeter-wave Beams, 23rd Symposium on Fusion Technology, September 20 24, 2004, Venice, Italy). In order to enhance the power handling capability of the load and to reduce the operation problems that may arise from an excessive reflection from the load, a ray tracing code has been written to model the power distribution on the inner surface and the pattern of the reflected radiation. The outcome of this code has been used to select a more convenient profile for the spreading mirror of the load and to optimize a pre-load specially conceived to minimize the power reflected fraction.

  16. Diode-pumped ultra-short-pulse solid-state lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, E.; Sorokina, I. T.; Wintner, E.

    2001-01-01

    Many materials are good candidates for diode-pumped ultra-short-pulse lasers: several transition-metal-ion-doped crystals can or could support extremely short fs pulses. This goal, so far, has only been reached by Cr3+:LiSAF, but there are good chances for other crystals like Cr4+:YAG having its bandwidth within the third communication window, and the high-yield Cr2+:ZnSe with its impressive bandwidth in the near IR. Rare-earth-ion-doped media deliver only sub-ps pulses but allow unprecedented and scalable high average powers, like a SESAM mode-locked Yb:YAG thin-disk laser described recently. In all ranges of pulse durations there are fascinating applications ready for widespread employment as soon as compact, reliable and moderately priced ultra-short-pulse systems will be available for the non-laser-skilled user. The highest impact in the near future is attributed to microstructuring of materials and processing of biological samples, including dental enamel, by ps and sub-ps pulses, and optical coherence tomography needing pulses in the 10-fs regime at very modest average powers.

  17. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong

    2012-01-15

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  18. Characteristics of High Energy Ka and Bremsstrahlung Sources Generated by Short Pulse Petawatt Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H; Izumi, N; Key, M H; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Patel, P K; Phillips, T W; Zhang, B B

    2004-04-13

    We have measured the characteristics of high energy K{alpha} sources created with the Vulcan Petawatt laser at RAL and the JanUSP laser at LLNL. High energy x-ray backlighters will be essential for radiographing High-Energy-Density Experimental Science (HEDES) targets for NIF projects especially to probe implosions and high areal density planar samples. Hard K{alpha} x-ray photons are created through relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after irradiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. For our Vulcan experiment, we employed a CsI scintillator/CCD camera for imaging and a CCD camera for single photon counting. We measured the Ag K{alpha} source (22 keV) size using a pinhole array and the K{alpha} flux using a single photon counting method. We also radiographed a high Z target using the high energy broadband x-rays generated from these short pulse lasers. This paper will present results from these experiments.

  19. Advanced concepts for high-power, short-pulse CO2 laser development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Daniel F.; Hasson, Victor; von Bergmann, Hubertus; Chen, Yu-hsin; Schmitt-Sody, A.; Penano, Joseph R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers are dominated by solid-state technology, which typically operates in the near-infrared. Efforts to extend this technology to longer wavelengths are meeting with some success, but the trend remains that longer wavelengths correlate with greatly reduced power. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is capable of delivering high energy, 10 micron wavelength pulses, but the gain structure makes operating in the ultra-short pulse regime difficult. The Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory are developing a novel CO2 laser designed to deliver ~1 Joule, ~1 picosecond pulses, from a compact gain volume (~2x2x80 cm). The design is based on injection seeding an unstable resonator, in order to achieve high energy extraction efficiency, and to take advantage of power broadening. The unstable resonator is seeded by a solid state front end, pumped by a custom built titanium sapphire laser matched to the CO2 laser bandwidth. In order to access a broader range of mid infrared wavelengths using CO2 lasers, one must consider nonlinear frequency multiplication, which is non-trivial due to the bandwidth of the 10 micron radiation.

  20. Design of the plasma grid for a short pulse negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, C.; Li, D.; Chen, D.; Zhao, P.; Xu, Q.; Liao, Z.

    2017-08-01

    An experimental setup of a radio frequency (RF) driven negative hydrogen ion source has been developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The setup without cesium oven and an extraction system had been completed and the plasma was ignited in the driver successfully in 2014. An extraction system with small area (5540 mm2) for short pulse (˜ 4 s) was designed to extract the negative hydrogen ions. Generally, the plasma grid temperature is controlled to reach 150 °C by the cooling channels inside the grid. But another method that we could use the PG current to raise the temperature is being considered only for the short pulse condition. An experiment was introduced to prove the feasibility of this method. A magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid is required to reduce the electron temperature and suppress the co-extraction electrons. The filter field homogeneity has been studied in detail by finite element method. There have been significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity by means of the grid geometry optimization.

  1. GINGER simulations of short-pulse effects in the LEUTL FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Z.; Fawley, W.M.

    2001-07-01

    While the long-pulse, coasting beam model is often used in analysis and simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs), many current SASE demonstration experiments employ relatively short electron bunches whose pulse length is on the order of the radiation slippage length. In particular, the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL at the Advanced Photon Source has recently lased and nominally saturated in both visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength regions with a sub-ps pulse length that is somewhat shorter than the total slippage length in the 22-m undulator system. In this paper we explore several characteristics of the short pulse regime for SASE FELs with the multidimensional, time-dependent simulation code GINGER, concentrating on making a direct comparison with the experimental results from LEUTL. Items of interest include the radiation gain length, pulse energy, saturation position, and spectral bandwidth. We address the importance of short-pulse effects when scaling the LEUTL results to proposed x-ray FELs and also briefly discuss the possible importance of coherent spontaneous emission at startup.

  2. Characterization of a novel, short pulse laser-driven neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, D.; Falk, K.; Guler, N.; Devlin, M.; Favalli, A.; Fernandez, J. C.; Gautier, D. C.; Haight, R.; Hamilton, C. E.; Hegelich, B. M.; Johnson, R. P.; Merrill, F.; Schoenberg, K.; Shimada, T.; Taddeucci, T.; Tybo, J. L.; Wender, S. A.; Wilde, C. H.; Wurden, G. A.; Deppert, O.; and others

    2013-05-15

    We present a full characterization of a short pulse laser-driven neutron source. Neutrons are produced by nuclear reactions of laser-driven ions deposited in a secondary target. The emission of neutrons is a superposition of an isotropic component into 4π and a forward directed, jet-like contribution, with energies ranging up to 80 MeV. A maximum flux of 4.4 × 10{sup 9} neutrons/sr has been observed and used for fast neutron radiography. On-shot characterization of the ion driver and neutron beam has been done with a variety of different diagnostics, including particle detectors, nuclear reaction, and time-of-flight methods. The results are of great value for future optimization of this novel technique and implementation in advanced applications.

  3. The implementation and data analysis of an interferometer for intense short pulse laser experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jaebum; Baldis, Hector A.; Chen, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present an interferometry setup and the detailed fringe analysis method for intense short pulse (SP) laser experiments. The interferometry scheme was refined through multiple campaigns to investigate the effects of pre-plasmas on energetic electrons at the Jupiter Laser Facility at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The interferometer used a frequency doubled (${\\it\\lambda}=0.527~{\\rm\\mu}\\text{m}$) 0.5 ps long optical probe beam to measure the pre-plasma density, an invaluable parameter to better understand how varying pre-plasma conditions affect the characteristics of the energetic electrons. The hardware of the diagnostic, data analysis and example data are presented. The diagnostic setup and the analysis procedure can be employed for any other SP laser experiments and interferograms, respectively.

  4. Short Pulse Laser Absorption and Energy Partition at Relativistic Laser Intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, R; Chen, H; Ping, Y; Dyer, G; Wilks, S; Chung, H; Kemp, A; Hanson, S; Widmann, K; Fournier, K; Faenov, A; Pikuz, T; Niles, A; Beiersdorfer, P

    2007-02-27

    We have performed experiments at the COMET and Calisto short pulse laser facilities to make the first comprehensive measurements of the laser absorption and energy partition in solid targets heated with an ultrashort laser pulse focused to relativistic laser intensities (>10 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}). The measurements show an exceedingly high absorption for P polarized laser-target interactions above 10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}. Additionally, the hot electron population is observed to markedly increase at the same intensity range. An investigation of the relaxation process was initiated u using time sing time-resolved K{sub {alpha}} spectroscopy. Measurements of the time time-resolved K{sub {alpha}} radiation suggest a 10-20 ps relativistic electron relaxation time. However modeling difficulties of these data are apparent and a more detailed investigation on this subject matter is warranted.

  5. Modeling of Dense Plasma Effects in Short-Pulse Laser Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Timothy; Golovkin, Igor; Macfarlane, Joseph; Prism Computational Sciences, Madison, WI Team

    2016-10-01

    Warm and Hot Dense Matter produced in short-pulse laser experiments can be studied with new high resolving power x-ray spectrometers. Data interpretation implies accurate modeling of the early-time heating dynamics and the radiation conditions that are generated. Producing synthetic spectra requires a model that describes the major physical processes that occur inside the target, including the hot-electron generation and relaxation phases and the effect of target heating. An important issue concerns the sensitivity of the predicted K-line shifts to the continuum lowering model that is used. We will present a set of PrismSPECT spectroscopic simulations using various continuum lowering models: Hummer/Mihalas, Stewart-Pyatt, and Ecker-Kroll and discuss their effect on the formation of K-shell features. We will also discuss recently implemented models for dense plasma shifts for H-like, He-like and neutral systems.

  6. High ion charge states in a high-current, short-pulse, vacuum ARC ion sources

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, A.; Brown, I.; MacGill, R.; Dickinson, M.

    1996-08-01

    Ions of the cathode material are formed at vacuum arc cathode spots and extracted by a grid system. The ion charge states (typically 1-4) depend on the cathode material and only little on the discharge current as long as the current is low. Here the authors report on experiments with short pulses (several {mu}s) and high currents (several kA); this regime of operation is thus approaching a more vacuum spark-like regime. Mean ion charge states of up to 6.2 for tungsten and 3.7 for titanium have been measured, with the corresponding maximum charge states of up to 8+ and 6+, respectively. The results are discussed in terms of Saha calculations and freezing of the charge state distribution.

  7. Monte Carlo simulation of wave sensing with a short pulse radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.; Davisson, L. D.; Kutz, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    A Monte Carlo simulation is used to study the ocean wave sensing potential of a radar which scatters short pulses at small off-nadir angles. In the simulation, realizations of a random surface are created commensurate with an assigned probability density and power spectrum. Then the signal scattered back to the radar is computed for each realization using a physical optics analysis which takes wavefront curvature and finite radar-to-surface distance into account. In the case of a Pierson-Moskowitz spectrum and a normally distributed surface, reasonable assumptions for a fully developed sea, it has been found that the cumulative distribution of time intervals between peaks in the scattered power provides a measure of surface roughness. This observation is supported by experiments.

  8. Short pulse radar used to measure sea surface wind speed and SWH. [Significant Wave Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, D. L.; Mennella, R. A.; Walsh, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    A joint airborne measurement program is being pursued by NRL and NASA Wallops Flight Center to determine the extent to which wind speed and sea surface significant wave height (SWH) can be measured quantitatively and remotely with a short pulse (2 ns), wide-beam (60 deg), nadir-looking 3-cm radar. The concept involves relative power measurements only and does not need a scanning antenna, Doppler filters, or absolute power calibration. The slopes of the leading and trailing edges of the averaged received power for the pulse limited altimeter are used to infer SWH and surface wind speed. The interpretation is based on theoretical models of the effects of SWH on the leading edge shape and rms sea-surface slope on the trailing-edge shape. The models include the radar system parameters of antenna beam width and pulsewidth.

  9. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  10. Characterization of a heat flux sensor using short pulse laser calibration.

    PubMed

    Löhle, Stefan; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Batsale, Jean-Christophe; Enouf, Olivier; Dubard, Jimmy; Filtz, Jean-Remy

    2007-05-01

    A method to calibrate classical heat flux sensors is presented. The classical approach to measure the temperature inside a known material by using a thermocouple fails when the measurement time is very short. In this work the surface heat flux is determined by solving the inverse heat conduction problem using a noninteger identified system as a direct model for the estimation process. Using short pulse laser calibration measurements the crucial design aspects of the sensor that play a significant role when assuming one-dimensional, semi-infinite heat transfer have been accounted for. The theoretical approach as well as the calibration results are presented and comparisons to the classical approach and results from finite element modeling are shown. It is concluded that the new method ameliorate the heat flux sensor significantly and extend its application to very short measurement times.

  11. Detection of Avalanche Victims Using Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamma, Walid A.; Mende, Howard; Barrie, Greg; Robinson, Robert

    A short-pulse UWB radar system for search and rescue (SAR) operations of snow avalanche victims has been studied through numerical simulation and measurements. The FDTD method was used to model the radar system, the snow, and a realistic human phantom model buried in snow. A 0.5-ns UWB pulse with f0 = 2 GHz is used to illuminate the buried phantom from an array of nine transmitters. The reflected signals were received on a planer array and were processed using the time projection technique to generate ISAR images in the x-z and x-y planes. Farr impulse antennas were also used to measure reflected signals off buried targets, including a human phantom in snow. In both simulation and measurements, the removal of the background reflections (data with no buried targets) was a requirement to improve the dynamic range and toisolate the reflected signals due to buried targets.

  12. Short-pulsed laser transport in two-dimensional scattering media by natural element method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Xie, Ming; Tan, He-Ping

    2014-04-01

    The natural element method (NEM) is extended to solve transient radiative transfer (TRT) in two-dimensional semitransparent media subjected to a collimated short laser irradiation. The least-squares (LS) weighted residuals approach is employed to spatially discretize the transient radiative heat transfer equation. First, for the case of the refractive index matched boundary, LSNEM solutions to TRT are validated by comparison with results reported in the literature. Effects of the incident angle on time-resolved signals of transmittance and reflectance are investigated. Afterward, the accuracy of this algorithm for the case of the refractive index mismatched boundary is studied. Finally, the LSNEM is extended to study the TRT in a two-dimensional semitransparent medium with refractive index discontinuity irradiated by the short pulse laser. The effects of scattering albedo, optical thickness, scattering phase function, and refractive index on transmittance and reflectance signals are investigated. Several interesting trends on the time-resolved signals are observed and analyzed.

  13. The evolution of ultra-intense, short-pulse lasers in underdense plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, C.D.; Mori, W.B.; Tzeng, K.C.

    1995-11-03

    The propagation of short-pulse lasers through underdense plasmas at ultra-high intensities (I {>=}10{sup 19}W/cm) is examined. The pulse evolution is found to be significantly different than it is for moderate intensities. Rather than beam breakup from self-modulation, Raman forward scattering and laser hose instabilities the behavior is dominated by leading edge erosion. A differential equation which describes local pump depletion is derived and used to analyze the formation and evolution of the erosion. This pulse erosion is demonstrated with one dimensional particle in cell (PIC) simulations. In addition, two dimensional simulations are presented which show pulse erosion along with other effects such as channeling and diffraction.

  14. Control of Brillouin short-pulse seed amplification by chirping the pump pulse

    SciTech Connect

    Lehmann, G.; Spatschek, K. H.

    2015-04-15

    Seed amplification via Brillouin backscattering of a long pump pulse is considered. Similar to Raman amplification, several obstructive effects may occur during short-pulse Brillouin amplification. One is the spontaneous Raman backscattering of the pump before interacting with the seed. Preforming the plasma and/or chirping the pump will reduce unwanted pump backscattering. Optimized regions for low-loss pump propagation were proposed already in conjunction with Raman seed amplification. Hence, the influence of the chirp of the pump during Brillouin interaction with the seed becomes important and will be considered here. Both, the linear as well as the nonlinear evolution phases of the seed caused by Brillouin amplification under the action of a chirped pump are investigated. The amplification rate as well as the seed profiles are presented as function of the chirping rate. Also the dependence of superradiant scaling rates on the chirp parameter is discussed.

  15. Comparison of short pulse generation schemes for a soft x-ray free electron laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, I. P. S.; Bartolini, R.

    2011-03-01

    In this paper we study the performance of two complementary short pulse generation schemes as applied to a soft x-ray free electron laser. The first scheme, recently proposed by Saldin et al., makes use of a laser pulse consisting of only a few optical cycles to give an energy chirp to a short section of an electron bunch and tapers the main radiator undulator in order to compensate the chirped region. The second scheme investigated takes a low-charge, high brightness electron bunch and compresses it to ˜1fs in order to operate in the so-called “single-spike” regime. We perform start-to-end simulations of both these schemes, assess the sensitivity of each scheme to realistic jitter sources, and provide a direct comparison of the respective strengths and drawbacks.

  16. Integrable multi-component generalization of a modified short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuno, Yoshimasa

    2016-11-01

    We propose a multi-component generalization of the modified short pulse (SP) equation which was derived recently as a reduction of Feng's two-component SP equation. Above all, we address the two-component system in depth. We obtain the Lax pair, an infinite number of conservation laws and multisoliton solutions for the system, demonstrating its integrability. Subsequently, we show that the two-component system exhibits cusp solitons and breathers for which the detailed analysis is performed. Specifically, we explore the interaction process of two cusp solitons and derive the formula for the phase shift. While cusp solitons are singular solutions, smooth breather solutions are shown to exist, provided that the parameters characterizing the solutions satisfy certain conditions. Last, we discuss the relation between the proposed system and existing two-component SP equations.

  17. Development of ultra-short pulse VUV laser system for nanoscale processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katto, Masahito; Zushi, Hironari; Nagaya, Wataru; Harano, Shinya; Matsumoto, Ryota; Yokotani, Atushi; Kaku, Masanori; Kubodera, Shoichi; Miyanaga, Noriaki

    2010-11-01

    We have developed intense vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation sources for advanced material processing, such as photochemical surface reactions and precise processing on a nanometer scale. We have constructed a new VUV laser system to generate sub-picosecond pulses at the wavelength of 126 nm. A seed VUV pulse was generated in Xe as the 7th harmonic of a 882-nm Ti:sapphire laser. The optimum conversion was achieved at the pressure of 1.2 Torr. The seed pulse will be amplified by the Ar2^{*} media generated by an optical-field-induced ionization Ar plasma produced by the Ti:sapphire laser. We have obtained a gain coefficient of g=0.16 cm-1. Our developing system will provide VUV ultra-short pulses with sub-μJ energy at a repetition rate of 1 kHz.

  18. Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Banakh, V A; Smalikho, I N

    2014-09-22

    Fluctuations of energy density of short-pulse optical radiation in the turbulent atmosphere have been studied based on numerical solution of the parabolic wave equation for the complex spectral amplitude of the wave field by the split-step method. It has been shown that under conditions of strong optical turbulence, the relative variance of energy density fluctuations of pulsed radiation of femtosecond duration becomes much less than the relative variance of intensity fluctuations of continuous-wave radiation. The spatial structure of fluctuations of the energy density with a decrease of the pulse duration becomes more large-scale and homogeneous. For shorter pulses the maximal value of the probability density distribution of energy density fluctuations tends to the mean value of the energy density.

  19. High Energy X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T; Clark, E; Eagleton, R; Edwards, R

    2003-09-02

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy at 22 keV is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  20. Epithermal Neutron Source for Neutron Resonance Spectroscopy (NRS) using High Intensity, Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Higginson, D P; McNaney, J M; Swift, D C; Bartal, T; Hey, D S; Pape, S L; Mackinnon, A; Mariscal, D; Nakamura, H; Nakanii, N; Beg, F N

    2010-04-22

    A neutron source for neutron resonance spectroscopy (NRS) has been developed using high intensity, short pulse lasers. This measurement technique will allow for robust measurements of interior ion temperature of laser-shocked materials and provide insight into equation of state (EOS) measurements. The neutron generation technique uses protons accelerated by lasers off of Cu foils to create neutrons in LiF, through (p,n) reactions with {sup 7}Li and {sup 19}F. The distribution of the incident proton beam has been diagnosed using radiochromic film (RCF). This distribution is used as the input for a (p,n) neturon prediction code which is compared to experimentally measured neutron yields. From this calculation, a total fluence of 1.8 x 10{sup 9} neutrons is infered, which is shown to be a reasonable amount for NRS temperature measurement.

  1. Osteoblast behavior on various ultra short pulsed laser deposited surface coatings.

    PubMed

    Qu, Chengjuan; Myllymaa, Sami; Prittinen, Juha; Koistinen, Arto P; Lappalainen, Reijo; Lammi, Mikko J

    2013-04-01

    Ultra short pulsed laser deposition technique was utilized to create amorphous diamond, alumina and carbon nitride, and two different titania coatings on silicon wafers, thus producing five different surface deposited films with variable physico-chemical properties. The surface characterizations, including the roughness, the contact angle and the zeta potential measurements were performed before we tested the growth properties of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells on these surfaces (three separate experiments). The average roughness and hydrophobicity were the highest on titania-deposited surfaces, while carbon nitride was the most hydrophilic one. Osteoblasts on all surfaces showed a flattened, spread-out morphology, although on amorphous diamond the cell shape appeared more elongated than on the other surfaces. On rough titania, the area covered by the osteoblasts was smaller than on the other ones. Cell proliferation assay did not show any statistically significant differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Reduced Maxwell-Duffing description of extremely short pulses in nonresonant media.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, Elena V; Maimistov, Andrei I; Caputo, Jean-Guy

    2005-05-01

    The propagation of extremely short pulses of an electromagnetic field (electromagnetic spikes) is considered in the framework of a model wherein the material medium is represented by anharmonic oscillators with cubic nonlinearities (Duffing model) and waves can propagate only in the right direction. The system of reduced Maxwell-Duffing equations admits two families of exact analytical solutions in the form of solitary waves. These are bright spikes propagating on a zero background, and bright and dark spikes propagating on a nonzero background. We find that these steady-state pulses are stable in terms of boundedness of the Hamiltonian. Direct simulations demonstrate that these pulses are very robust against perturbations. We find that a high-frequency modulated electromagnetic pulse evolves into a breather-like one. Conversely, a low frequency pulse transforms into a quasiharmonic wave.

  3. Bremsstrahlung Dose Yield for High-Intensity Short-Pulse Laser–Solid Experiments

    DOE PAGES

    Liang, Taiee; Bauer, Johannes M.; Liu, James C.; ...

    2016-12-01

    A bremsstrahlung source term has been developed by the Radiation Protection (RP) group at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for high-intensity short-pulse laser–solid experiments between 1017 and 1022 W cm–2. This source term couples the particle-in-cell plasma code EPOCH and the radiation transport code FLUKA to estimate the bremsstrahlung dose yield from laser–solid interactions. EPOCH characterizes the energy distribution, angular distribution, and laser-to-electron conversion efficiency of the hot electrons from laser–solid interactions, and FLUKA utilizes this hot electron source term to calculate a bremsstrahlung dose yield (mSv per J of laser energy on target). The goal of this paper is tomore » provide RP guidelines and hazard analysis for high-intensity laser facilities. In conclusion, a comparison of the calculated bremsstrahlung dose yields to radiation measurement data is also made.« less

  4. Bremsstrahlung Dose Yield for High-Intensity Short-Pulse Laser–Solid Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Taiee; Bauer, Johannes M.; Liu, James C.; Rokni, Sayed H.

    2016-12-01

    A bremsstrahlung source term has been developed by the Radiation Protection (RP) group at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory for high-intensity short-pulse laser–solid experiments between 1017 and 1022 W cm–2. This source term couples the particle-in-cell plasma code EPOCH and the radiation transport code FLUKA to estimate the bremsstrahlung dose yield from laser–solid interactions. EPOCH characterizes the energy distribution, angular distribution, and laser-to-electron conversion efficiency of the hot electrons from laser–solid interactions, and FLUKA utilizes this hot electron source term to calculate a bremsstrahlung dose yield (mSv per J of laser energy on target). The goal of this paper is to provide RP guidelines and hazard analysis for high-intensity laser facilities. In conclusion, a comparison of the calculated bremsstrahlung dose yields to radiation measurement data is also made.

  5. Process Properties of Electronic High Voltage Discharges Triggered by Ultra-short Pulsed Laser Filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvecek, Kristian; Gröschel, Benjamin; Schmidt, Michael

    Remote processing of metallic workpieces by techniques based on electric arc discharge or laser irradiation for joining or cutting has a long tradition and is still being intensively investigated in present-day research. In applications that require high power processing, both approaches exhibit certain advantages and disadvantages that make them specific for a given task. While several hybrid approaches exist that try to combine the benefits of both techniques, none were as successful in providing a fixed electric discharge direction as discharges triggered by plasma filaments generated by ultra-short pulsed lasers. In this work we investigate spatial and temporal aspects of laser filament guided discharges and give an upper time delay between the filament creation and the electrical build-up of a dischargeable voltage for a successful filament triggered discharge.

  6. Detection limits of organic compounds achievable with intense, short-pulse lasers.

    PubMed

    Miles, Jordan; De Camillis, Simone; Alexander, Grace; Hamilton, Kathryn; Kelly, Thomas J; Costello, John T; Zepf, Matthew; Williams, Ian D; Greenwood, Jason B

    2015-06-21

    Many organic molecules have strong absorption bands which can be accessed by ultraviolet short pulse lasers to produce efficient ionization. This resonant multiphoton ionization scheme has already been exploited as an ionization source in time-of-flight mass spectrometers used for environmental trace analysis. In the present work we quantify the ultimate potential of this technique by measuring absolute ion yields produced from the interaction of 267 nm femtosecond laser pulses with the organic molecules indole and toluene, and gases Xe, N2 and O2. Using multiphoton ionization cross sections extracted from these results, we show that the laser pulse parameters required for real-time detection of aromatic molecules at concentrations of one part per trillion in air and a limit of detection of a few attomoles are achievable with presently available commercial laser systems. The potential applications for the analysis of human breath, blood and tissue samples are discussed.

  7. A novel generation scheme of ultra-short pulse trains with multiple wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yulong; Hu, Hui; Feng, Huan; Li, Lu; Han, Biao; Wen, Yu; Wang, Yishan; Si, Jinhai; Xie, Xiaoping; Wang, Weiqiang

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel scheme based on active mode locking combined with four-wave mixing (FWM) to generate ultra-short pulse trains at high repetition rate with multiple wavelengths for applications in various fields. The obtained six wavelengths display high uniformity both in temporal and frequency domain. Pulses at each wavelength are mode locked with pulse duration of 44.37 ps, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 47.89 dB, root-mean-square (RMS) timing jitter of 552.7 fs, and the time-bandwidth product of 0.68 at repetition rate of 1 GHz. The experimental results show this scheme has promising usage in optical communications, optical networks, and fiber sensing.

  8. All-reflective, highly accurate polarization rotator for high-power short-pulse laser systems.

    PubMed

    Keppler, S; Hornung, M; Bödefeld, R; Kahle, M; Hein, J; Kaluza, M C

    2012-08-27

    We present the setup of a polarization rotating device and its adaption for high-power short-pulse laser systems. Compared to conventional halfwave plates, the all-reflective principle using three zero-phase shift mirrors provides a higher accuracy and a higher damage threshold. Since plan-parallel plates, e.g. these halfwave plates, generate postpulses, which could lead to the generation of prepulses during the subsequent laser chain, the presented device avoids parasitic pulses and is therefore the preferable alternative for high-contrast applications. Moreover the device is easily scalable for large beam diameters and its spectral reflectivity can be adjusted by an appropriate mirror coating to be well suited for ultra-short laser pulses.

  9. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    SciTech Connect

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10/sup 12/ watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10/sup 9/ watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10/sup 16/ W/cm/sup 2/. Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs.

  10. Two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S. H.; Tai, L. C.; Liu, Y. L.; Ang, L. K.; Koh, W. S.

    2011-02-15

    Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations were performed to study the effect of the displacement current and the self-magnetic field on the space charge limited current density or the Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow with a propagation distance of {zeta} and an emitting width of W from the classical regime to the relativistic regime. Numerical scaling of the two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law was constructed and it scales with ({zeta}/W) and ({zeta}/W){sup 2} at the classical and relativistic regimes, respectively. Our findings reveal that the displacement current can considerably enhance the space charge limited current density as compared to the well-known two-dimensional electrostatic Child-Langmuir law even at the classical regime.

  11. Optical coherence tomography in material deformation by using short pulse laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eun Seo; Kwak, Wooseop; Shin, Yongjin; Kim, Youngseop; Jung, Woonggyu; Ahn, Yeh-Chan; Chen, Zhongping; Jeong, Eun Joo; Kim, Chang-Seok

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of OCT imaging for the investigation of samples, which are processed by the short pulse laser. The use of short pulse lasers in various material processing have provided the advantages such as a high peak power and a small heat affected zone over conventional methods based on mechanical treatment. However, due to the improper application of the lasers, the unwanted surface or structural deformation of materials and the thermal damages around an irradiation spot can be caused. Thus, the real-time monitoring/evaluation of laser processing performance in-situ is needed to prevent the excessive deformation of the material and to determine optimal processing conditions. As a standard method to investigation of the material processing by using the lasers, the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) or the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of a physically cleaved surface is used although sample damages are given during the cleaving and polishing process. In this paper, we utilized the OCT advantages such as high resolution and non-invasive investigation to evaluate the laser processing performance. OCT images for the deformation monitoring of the ABS plastic present correlation with images obtained from conventional investigation methods. OCT images of the maxillary bone clearly show the difference in the pit formation of the biological sample at different irradiation conditions. We prove the potential of OCT for the evaluation of laser-processed various samples. Integrating OCT system into a laser processing system, we can visualize the effect of laser-based treatments in clinical and industrial fields.

  12. High-energy ultra-short pulse thin-disk lasers: new developments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Knut; Klingebiel, Sandro; Schultze, Marcel; Tesseit, Catherine Y.; Bessing, Robert; Häfner, Matthias; Prinz, Stefan; Sutter, Dirk; Metzger, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    We report on the latest developments at TRUMPF Scientific Lasers in the field of ultra-short pulse lasers with highest output energies and powers. All systems are based on the mature and industrialized thin-disk technology of TRUMPF. Thin Yb:YAG disks provide a reliable and efficient solution for power and energy scaling to Joule- and kW-class picosecond laser systems. Due to its efficient one dimensional heat removal, the thin-disk exhibits low distortions and thermal lensing even when pumped under extremely high pump power densities of 10kW/cm². Currently TRUMPF Scientific Lasers develops regenerative amplifiers with highest average powers, optical parametric amplifiers and synchronization schemes. The first few-ps kHz multi-mJ thin-disk regenerative amplifier based on the TRUMPF thindisk technology was developed at the LMU Munich in 20081. Since the average power and energy have continuously been increased, reaching more than 300W (10kHz repetition rate) and 200mJ (1kHz repetition rate) at pulse durations below 2ps. First experiments have shown that the current thin-disk technology supports ultra-short pulse laser solutions >1kW of average power. Based on few-picosecond thin-disk regenerative amplifiers few-cycle optical parametric chirped pulse amplifiers (OPCPA) can be realized. These systems have proven to be the only method for scaling few-cycle pulses to the multi-mJ energy level. OPA based few-cycle systems will allow for many applications such as attosecond spectroscopy, THz spectroscopy and imaging, laser wake field acceleration, table-top few-fs accelerators and laser-driven coherent X-ray undulator sources. Furthermore, high-energy picosecond sources can directly be used for a variety of applications such as X-ray generation or in atmospheric research.

  13. Wideband rhombic dielectric resonator antenna with CPW slot excitation for IEEE 802.11a/HiperLAN application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhar, Sayantan; Ghatak, Rowdra; Gupta, Bhaskar; Poddar, Dipak R.

    2013-09-01

    A wideband dielectric resonator antenna (DRA) using a CPW-fed inductive slot is proposed in this article. The DRA provides a simple design that exhibits a wide impedance bandwidth of about 26.8% (5.18-6.68 GHz). This is achieved by gradually rotating a square DRA by 45° to generate a rhombic DRA of dimensions 25 × 25 × 5 mm3. DRA structures with different rotation angles have also been studied to provide a comparative study into which orientation offers the best bandwidth. This structure results in the splitting up of the ? mode, and with suitable selection of the resonator dimensions, these modes can be brought close enough to yield wideband resonance characteristic. The proposed antenna has a realised gain of about 5.5 dBi over the entire band. The antenna covers the IEEE 802.11a, HiperLAN and UNII bands.

  14. Two-dimensional simulation of argon dielectric barrier discharge excited by a Gaussian voltage at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yonggang; Wang, Jing; Li, Jing; Lei, Bingying; Tang, Jie; Wang, Yishan; Li, Yongfang; Zhao, Wei; Duan, Yixiang

    2017-04-01

    A two-dimensional self-consistent fluid model was employed to investigate the spatiotemporal characteristics of discharges in atmospheric pressure argon (Ar) dielectric barrier discharge driven by a Gaussian voltage. The simulation results show that a discharge with multiple current pulses occurs each half-cycle in the gas gap. A transition from the Townsend mode to the glow mode is observed with the increasing applied voltage each half-cycle at a lower driving frequency (7.5 kHz). It is also found that the glow mode survives all the discharge phases at a higher driving frequency (12.5 kHz and 40 kHz). The change in the discharge mode with the driving frequency mainly lies in the fact that a lot of charged particles created in the discharge gap have no enough time to drift and diffuse around, and then these particles are assembled in the discharge space at higher frequency. Additionally, the spatial distributions of the electron density indicate that a center-advantage discharge is ignited at the driving frequencies of interest, resulting in the radial non-uniformity of discharge because of the edge effects. However, this overall non-uniformity is weakened with the driving frequency increased to 40 kHz, at which concentric ring patterns are observed. These distinct behaviors are mainly attributed to the fact that many charged particles generated are trapped in the gas gap and then accumulated to make the extension along the radial direction due to the charged particles transport and diffusion, and that the effective overlapping of a large number of avalanches induced by the increased "seed" electron density with the driving frequency. Meanwhile, the surface charged particles accumulated on the dielectric barriers are also shown to play a role in the formation of the discharge structure.

  15. STATUS OF THE DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Chen, Y; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Carroll, J; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Guethlein, G; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Selenes, K; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-04-22

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system is capable of accelerating any charge to mass ratio particle. Applications of high gradient proton and electron versions of this accelerator will be discussed. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  16. Femtosecond plasmon and photon wave packets excited by a high-energy electron on a metal or dielectric surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenny, Benjamin J. M.; Polman, Albert; García de Abajo, F. Javier

    2016-10-01

    Swift electrons generate coherent transition radiation (TR) when crossing a material surface, as well as surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) when the material is metallic. We present analytical and numerical calculations that describe the time- and space-dependent electric fields of TR and SPPs induced by 30-300 keV electrons on a Drude metal surface. The generated SPPs form wave packets a few-hundred femtoseconds in duration, depending on the material permittivity. High-frequency components close to the plasmon resonance are strongly damped, causing the wave packets to shift to lower frequencies as they propagate further. TR is emitted to the far field as ultrashort wave packets consisting of just a few optical cycles, with an intensity and angle dependence that is determined by the material permittivity. The excitation reaches its peak amplitude within a few femtoseconds and then drops off strongly for longer times. From a correlation between material permittivity and the calculated emission behavior, we determine qualitative predictions of the TR evolution for any given material. The results presented here provide key insights into the mechanisms enabling swift electrons to serve as nanoscale optical excitation sources.

  17. Complex characterization of short-pulse propagation through InAs/InP quantum-dash optical amplifiers: from the quasi-linear to the two-photon-dominated regime.

    PubMed

    Capua, Amir; Saal, Abigael; Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gadi; Reithmaier, Johann Peter; Yvind, Kresten

    2012-01-02

    We describe direct measurements at a high temporal resolution of the changes experienced by the phase and amplitude of an ultra-short pulse upon propagation through an inhomogenously broadened semiconductor nanostructured optical gain medium. Using a cross frequency-resolved optical gating technique, we analyze 150 fs-wide pulses propagating along an InP based quantum dash optical amplifier in both the quasi-linear and saturated regimes. For very large electrical and optical excitations, a second, trailing peak is generated and enhanced by a unique two-photon-induced amplification process.

  18. Mitigation of Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Effects from Short-Pulse Lasers and Fusion Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, D C; Throop, A; Brown, Jr., C G; Kimbrough, J; Stowell, M L; White, D A; Song, P; Back, N; MacPhee, A; Chen, H; DeHope, W; Ping, Y; Maddox, B; Lister, J; Pratt, G; Ma, T; Tsui, Y; Perkins, M; O'Brien, D; Patel, P

    2009-03-06

    Our research focused on obtaining a fundamental understanding of the source and properties of EMP at the Titan PW(petawatt)-class laser facility. The project was motivated by data loss and damage to components due to EMP, which can limit diagnostic techniques that can be used reliably at short-pulse PW-class laser facilities. Our measurements of the electromagnetic fields, using a variety of probes, provide information on the strength, time duration, and frequency dependence of the EMP. We measure electric field strengths in the 100's of kV/m range, durations up to 100 ns, and very broad frequency response extending out to 5 GHz and possibly beyond. This information is being used to design shielding to mitigate the effects of EMP on components at various laser facilities. We showed the need for well-shielded cables and oscilloscopes to obtain high quality data. Significant work was invested in data analysis techniques to process this data. This work is now being transferred to data analysis procedures for the EMP diagnostics being fielded on the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In addition to electromagnetic field measurements, we measured the spatial and energy distribution of electrons escaping from targets. This information is used as input into the 3D electromagnetic code, EMSolve, which calculates time dependent electromagnetic fields. The simulation results compare reasonably well with data for both the strength and broad frequency bandwidth of the EMP. This modeling work required significant improvements in EMSolve to model the fields in the Titan chamber generated by electrons escaping the target. During dedicated Titan shots, we studied the effects of varying laser energy, target size, and pulse duration on EMP properties. We also studied the effect of surrounding the target with a thick conducting sphere and cube as a potential mitigation approach. System generated EMP (SGEMP) in coaxial cables does not appear to be a significant at Titan. Our results

  19. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the Trident laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guler, N.; Volegov, P.; Favalli, A.; Merrill, F. E.; Falk, K.; Jung, D.; Tybo, J. L.; Wilde, C. H.; Croft, S.; Danly, C.; Deppert, O.; Devlin, M.; Fernandez, J.; Gautier, D. C.; Geissel, M.; Haight, R.; Hamilton, C. E.; Hegelich, B. M.; Henzlova, D.; Johnson, R. P.; Schaumann, G.; Schoenberg, K.; Schollmeier, M.; Shimada, T.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Taddeucci, T.; Wender, S. A.; Wurden, G. A.; Roth, M.

    2016-10-01

    Emerging approaches to short-pulse laser-driven neutron production offer a possible gateway to compact, low cost, and intense broad spectrum sources for a wide variety of applications. They are based on energetic ions, driven by an intense short-pulse laser, interacting with a converter material to produce neutrons via breakup and nuclear reactions. Recent experiments performed with the high-contrast laser at the Trident laser facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated a laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism operating in the regime of relativistic transparency, featuring a volumetric laser-plasma interaction. This mechanism is distinct from previously studied ones that accelerate ions at the laser-target surface. The Trident experiments produced an intense beam of deuterons with an energy distribution extending above 100 MeV. This deuteron beam, when directed at a beryllium converter, produces a forward-directed neutron beam with ˜5 × 109 n/sr, in a single laser shot, primarily due to deuteron breakup. The neutron beam has a pulse duration on the order of a few nanoseconds with an energy distribution extending from a few hundreds of keV to almost 80 MeV. For the experiments on neutron-source spot-size measurements, our gated neutron imager was setup to select neutrons in the energy range of 2.5-35 MeV. The spot size of neutron emission at the converter was measured by two different imaging techniques, using a knife-edge and a penumbral aperture, in two different experimental campaigns. The neutron-source spot size is measured ˜1 mm for both experiments. The measurements and analysis reported here give a spatial characterization for this type of neutron source for the first time. In addition, the forward modeling performed provides an empirical estimate of the spatial characteristics of the deuteron ion-beam. These experimental observations, taken together, provide essential yet unique data to benchmark and verify theoretical work into the

  20. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the TRIDENT Laser Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Guler, Nevzat; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Favalli, Andrea; ...

    2016-10-17

    Emerging approaches to short-pulse laser-driven neutron production offer a possible gateway to compact, low cost, and intense broad spectrum sources for a wide variety of applications. They are based on energetic ions, driven by an intense short-pulse laser, interacting with a converter material to produce neutrons via breakup and nuclear reactions. Recent experiments performed with the high-contrast laser at the Trident laser facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated a laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism operating in the regime of relativistic transparency, featuring a volumetric laser-plasma interaction. This mechanism is distinct from previously studied ones that accelerate ions at themore » laser-target surface. The Trident experiments produced an intense beam of deuterons with an energy distribution extending above 100 MeV. This deuteron beam, when directed at a beryllium converter, produces a forward-directed neutron beam with ~5x109 n/sr, in a single laser shot, primarily due to deuteron breakup. The neutron beam has a pulse duration on the order of a few nanoseconds with an energy distribution extending from a few hundreds of keV to almost 80 MeV. For the experiments on neutron-source spot-size measurements, our gated neutron imager was setup to select neutrons in the energy range of 2.5 to 35 MeV. The spot size of neutron emission at the converter was measured by two different imaging techniques, using a knife-edge and a penumbral aperture, in two different experimental campaigns. The neutron-source spot size is measured ~1 mm for both experiments. The measurements and analysis reported here give a spatial characterization for this type of neutron source for the first time. In addition, the forward modeling performed provides an empirical estimate of the spatial characteristics of the deuteron ion-beam. Finally, these experimental observations, taken together, provide essential yet unique data to benchmark and verify theoretical

  1. Neutron imaging with the short-pulse laser driven neutron source at the TRIDENT Laser Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Guler, Nevzat; Volegov, Petr Lvovich; Favalli, Andrea; Merrill, Frank Edward; Falk, Katerina; Jung, D.; Tybo, Joshua L.; Wilde, Carl Huerstel; Croft, Stephen; Danly, Christopher R.; Deppert, O.; Devlin, Matthew James; Fernandez, Juan Carlos; Gautier, Donald Cort; Geissel, M; Haight, Robert Cameron; Hamilton, Christopher Eric; Hegelich, Bjorn Manuel; Henzlova, Daniela; Johnson, Randall Philip; Schaumann, G.; Schoenberg, Kurt Francis; Schollmeier, M.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Swinhoe, Martyn Thomas; Taddeucci, Terry Nicholas; Wender, Stephen Arthur; Wurden, Glen Anthony; Roth, Markus

    2016-10-17

    Emerging approaches to short-pulse laser-driven neutron production offer a possible gateway to compact, low cost, and intense broad spectrum sources for a wide variety of applications. They are based on energetic ions, driven by an intense short-pulse laser, interacting with a converter material to produce neutrons via breakup and nuclear reactions. Recent experiments performed with the high-contrast laser at the Trident laser facility of Los Alamos National Laboratory have demonstrated a laser-driven ion acceleration mechanism operating in the regime of relativistic transparency, featuring a volumetric laser-plasma interaction. This mechanism is distinct from previously studied ones that accelerate ions at the laser-target surface. The Trident experiments produced an intense beam of deuterons with an energy distribution extending above 100 MeV. This deuteron beam, when directed at a beryllium converter, produces a forward-directed neutron beam with ~5x109 n/sr, in a single laser shot, primarily due to deuteron breakup. The neutron beam has a pulse duration on the order of a few nanoseconds with an energy distribution extending from a few hundreds of keV to almost 80 MeV. For the experiments on neutron-source spot-size measurements, our gated neutron imager was setup to select neutrons in the energy range of 2.5 to 35 MeV. The spot size of neutron emission at the converter was measured by two different imaging techniques, using a knife-edge and a penumbral aperture, in two different experimental campaigns. The neutron-source spot size is measured ~1 mm for both experiments. The measurements and analysis reported here give a spatial characterization for this type of neutron source for the first time. In addition, the forward modeling performed provides an empirical estimate of the spatial characteristics of the deuteron ion-beam. Finally, these experimental observations, taken together, provide essential yet unique data to benchmark and verify theoretical

  2. Analysis of temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Xie, Xinglong; Zhu, Jianqiang; Zhu, Haidong; Yang, Qingwei; Kang, Jun; Guo, Ailin; Gao, Qi

    2014-11-01

    In extremely intense laser system used for plasma physics experiments, temporal contrast is an important property of the ultra-short pulse. In this paper, we theoretically study the temporal contrast degradation due to wave front deviation in large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system. Two-step focusing fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm with the coordinate transform based on Fresnel approximation in space domain and Fourier integral transform method in time domain were used to simulate the focusing process spatially and temporally, in which the spatial distribution of ultra-short pulse temporal contrast characteristics at the focal spot is related to the wave front in large aperture off-axis parabolic mirror focusing optical system. Firstly, temporal contrast degradation due to wave front noise with higher spatial frequency is analyzed and appropriate evaluation parameter for large aperture ultra-short pulse focusing system is put forward from the perspective of temporal contrast. Secondly, the influence of wave front distortion with lower spatial frequency on temporal contrast is revealed comparing different degradation characteristics of various aberrations. At last, a method by controlling and optimizing the wave front to prevent temporal contrast degradation in large aperture ultra-short laser system is proposed, which is of great significance for high temporal contrast petawatt laser facilities.

  3. Optical short pulse generation at high repetition rate over 80 GHz from a monolithic passively modelocked DBR laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arahira, S.; Matsui, Y.; Kunii, T.; Oshiba, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    1993-05-01

    Optical short pulses at high repetition rate over 80 GHz were successfully generated using a monolithically fabricated passively modelocked distributed Bragg reflector laser diode for the first time. By using linear fibre compression, a transform-limited optical pulse train with a duration of 2.7 ps was obtained. The pulse envelope closely matched a sech(sup 2) waveform.

  4. Pulsewidth-dependent damage measurements of dielectric materials

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Herman, S.; Shore, B.W.; Perry, M.D.

    1994-06-01

    The application of chirped pulse amplification to short-pulse lasers has led to a dramatic increase in the number of high-power, sub-picosecond laser systems. Accordingly, knowledge of the short-pulse damage thresholds of optical components and the scaling of the damage thresholds with pulsewidth has become increasingly important. The development of high energy, (e.g, kilojoule class) short-pulse lasers is contingent on the ability to produce optical components capable of withstanding high fluence nanosecond and femtosecond pulses. In this paper, the authors report on their measurements of the front-surface damage threshold of many different dielectric materials including widows, multilayer mirrors, and diffraction gratings over the pulsewidth range of 0.1 to 3,000 ps.

  5. Resistance and recovery of river biofilms receiving short pulses of Triclosan and Diuron.

    PubMed

    Proia, L; Morin, S; Peipoch, M; Romaní, A M; Sabater, S

    2011-08-01

    The effects of the herbicide Diuron (DIU) and the bactericide Triclosan (TCS) were assessed on laboratory-grown stream biofilms. Four week-old biofilms were exposed in mesocosms to 48-hours of short pulses of either DIU or TCS. The direct and indirect effects of each toxicant on the biofilms, and the subsequent recovery of the biofilms, were evaluated according to structural and functional biomarkers. These parameters were analyzed immediately before exposure, immediately after exposure, and 9 and 16days post-exposure. DIU caused an increase in diatom mortality (+79%), which persisted until the end of the experiment. TCS also affected diatom mortality (+41%), although the effect did not appear until 1week post-exposure. TCS caused an increase in bacterial mortality (+45%); however, this parameter returned to normal values 1week post-exposure. TCS compromised the cellular integrity of the green alga Spirogyra sp., whereas DIU did not. TCS also strongly inhibited phosphate uptake (-71%), which did not return to normal values until 2weeks post-exposure. DIU directly affected algae, but barely affected the heterotrophs, whereas TCS seriously impaired bacteria (direct effect) as well as autotrophs (indirect effect). However, the biofilms recovered their normal structure and function within only a few days to a few weeks. These findings demonstrate the capacity of biofilms to cope with periodic inputs of toxicants, but also the risks associated to repeated exposure or multi-contamination in aquatic ecosystems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Theoretical analysis of saturation and limit cycles in short pulse FEL oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Piovella, N.; Chaix, P.; Jaroszynski, D.

    1995-12-31

    We derive a model for the non linear evolution of a short pulse oscillator from low signal up to saturation in the small gain regime. This system is controlled by only two independent parameters: cavity detuning and losses. Using a closure relation, this model reduces to a closed set of 5 non linear partial differential equations for the EM field and moments of the electron distribution. An analysis of the linearised system allows to define and calculate the eigenmodes characterising the small signal regime. An arbitrary solution of the complete nonlinear system can then be expanded in terms of these eigenmodes. This allows interpreting various observed nonlinear behaviours, including steady state saturation, limit cycles, and transition to chaos. The single mode approximation reduces to a Landau-Ginzburg equation. It allows to obtain gain, nonlinear frequency shift, and efficiency as functions of cavity detuning and cavity losses. A generalisation to two modes allows to obtain a simple description of the limit cycle behaviour, as a competition between these two modes. An analysis of the transitions to more complex dynamics is also given. Finally, the analytical results are compared to the experimental data from the FELIX experiment.

  7. Development of the dense plasma focus for short-pulse applications

    DOE PAGES

    Bennett, N.; Blasco, M.; Breeding, K.; ...

    2017-01-05

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) has long been considered a compact source for pulsed neutrons and has traditionally been optimized for the total neutron yield. Here, we describe the efforts to optimize the DPF for short-pulse applications by introducing a reentrant cathode at the end of the coaxial plasma gun. We reduced the resulting neutron pulse widths by an average of 21±921±9% from the traditional long-drift DPF design. Pulse widths and yields achieved from deuterium-tritium fusion at 2 MA are 61.8±30.761.8±30.7 ns FWHM and 1.84±0.49×10121.84±0.49×1012 neutrons per shot. Simulations were conducted concurrently to elucidate the DPF operation and confirm themore » role of the reentrant cathode. Furthermore, a hybrid fluid-kinetic particle-in-cell modeling capability demonstrates correct sheath velocities, plasma instabilities, and fusion yield rates. Consistent with previous findings that the DPF is dominated by beam-target fusion from superthermal ions, we estimate that the thermonuclear contribution is at the 1% level.« less

  8. Large Area and Short Pulsed Shock Initiation of A TATB/HMX Mixed Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Guiji; Sun, Chengwei; Chen, Jun; Liu, Cangli; Tan, Fuli; Zhang, Ning

    2007-06-01

    The large area and short pulsed shock initiation experiment on a plastic bonded mixed explosive of TATB(80%) and HMX(15%) has been performed with an electric gun where a mylar flyer of 19mm in diameter and 0.05˜0.30mm in thickness is launched by an electrically exploding metallic bridge foil. The cylindrical explosive specimens (φ16mm x 8mm in size) were initiated by the mylar flyers in thickness of 0.07˜0.20mm, which induced shock pressure in specimen was of duration ranging 0.029˜0.109μs. The experimental data were treated with the DRM(Delayed Robbins-Monro) procedure and to provide the threshold of shock pressure P 13.73˜5.23GPa. The shock initiation criterion of the explosive specimen is (P/GPa)^1.451(τ/μs) = 1.2. Meanwhile the criterion in 100% probability in the experiment is (P/GPa)^1.8(τ/μs) = 2.63. In addition, the 30^o wedged specimen was tested and the shock to detonation transition (SDT) process emerging on its inclined surface was diagnosed with a device consisting of multiple optical fiber probe, optoelectronic transducer and digital oscilloscope. The POP plot of the explosive has been gained from above SDT data.

  9. Large Area and Short-Pulse Shock Initiation of a Tatb/hmx Mixed Explosive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guiji, Wang; Chengwei, Sun; Jun, Chen; Cangli, Liu; Jianheng, Zhao; Fuli, Tan; Ning, Zhang

    2007-12-01

    The large area and short-pulse shock initiation experiments on the plastic bonded mixed explosive of TATB(80%) and HMX(15%) have been performed with an electric gun where a Mylar flyer of 10-19 mm in diameter and 0.05˜0.30 mm in thickness was launched by an electrically exploding metallic bridge foil. The cylindrical explosive specimens (Φ16 mm×8 mm in size) were initiated by the Mylar flyers in thickness of 0.07˜0.20 mm, which induced shock pressure in specimen was of duration ranging from 0.029 to 0.109 μs. The experimental data were treated with the DRM(Delayed Robbins-Monro) procedure and to provide the initiation threshold of flyer velocities at 50% probability are 3.398˜1.713 km/s and that of shock pressure P 13.73˜5.23 GPa, respectively for different pulse durations. The shock initiation criteria of the explosive specimen at 50% and 100% probabilities are yielded. In addition, the 30° wedged sample was tested and the shock to detonation transition (SDT) process emerging on its inclined surface was diagnosed with a device consisting of multiple optical fiber probe, optoelectronic transducer and digital oscilloscope. The POP plot of the explosive has been gained from above SDT data.

  10. Why Are Short Pulses More Efficient in Tissue Erosion Using Pulsed Cavitational Ultrasound Therapy (Histotripsy)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tzu-Yin; Maxwell, Adam D.; Park, Simone; Xu, Zhen; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Cain, Charles A.

    2010-03-01

    Histotripsy produces mechanical tissue fractionation through controlled cavitation. The histotripsy induced tissue erosion is more efficient with shorter (i.e., 3-6 cycles) rather than longer (i.e. 24 cycles) pulses. In this study, we investigated the reasons behind this observation by studying dynamics of the cavitating bubble clouds and individual bubbles during and after a therapy pulse. Bubble clouds were generated at a gel-water interface using 5 to 30-cycle 1 MHz pulses at P-/P+>19/125-MPa pressure and 1-kHz pulse repetition frequency. The evolution of the overall bubble cloud and individual bubbles were studied using high speed photography. Results show that: 1) within the first 10-15 cycles, the overall cloud grew to its maximum size; the individual bubbles underwent violent expansion and collapse, and grew in size with each cycle of ultrasound; 2) between the 15th cycle and the end of the pulse, the overall cloud size did not change even if further cycles of ultrasound were delivered; the individual bubbles no longer underwent violent collapse; 3) after the pulse, the overall cloud gradually dissolved; the individual bubbles may coalesce into larger bubbles for 0-40 μs, and then gradually dissolved. These observations suggest that violent growth and collapse of individual bubbles occur within the first few cycles of ultrasound pulse most often. This may explain why extremely short pulses are more energy efficient in histotripsy-induced tissue erosion.

  11. Fiber Laser Front Ends for High-Energy Short Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J W; Liao, Z M; Mitchell, S; Messerly, M; Beach, R; Jovanovic, I; Brown, C; Payne, S A; Barty, C J

    2005-01-18

    We are developing an all fiber laser system optimized for providing input pulses for short pulse (1-10ps), high energy ({approx}1kJ) glass laser systems. Fiber lasers are ideal solutions for these systems as they are highly reliable and once constructed they can be operated with ease. Furthermore, they offer an additional benefit of significantly reduced footprint. In most labs containing equivalent bulk laser systems, the system occupies two 4'x8' tables and would consist of 10's if not a 100 of optics which would need to be individually aligned and maintained. The design requirements for this application are very different those commonly seen in fiber lasers. High energy lasers often have low repetition rates (as low as one pulse every few hours) and thus high average power and efficiency are of little practical value. What is of high value is pulse energy, high signal to noise ratio (expressed as pre-pulse contrast), good beam quality, consistent output parameters and timing. Our system focuses on maximizing these parameters sometimes at the expense of efficient operation or average power. Our prototype system consists of a mode-locked fiber laser, a compressed pulse fiber amplifier, a ''pulse cleaner'', a chirped fiber Bragg grating, pulse selectors, a transport fiber system and a large flattened mode fiber amplifier. In our talk we will review the system in detail and present theoretical and experimental studies of critical components. We will also present experimental results from the integrated system.

  12. Characteristics of high energy Kα and Bremsstrahlung sources generated by short pulse petawatt lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.-S.; Izumi, N.; Key, M. H.; Koch, J. A.; Landen, O. L.; Patel, P. K.; Phillips, T. W.; Zhang, B. B.

    2004-10-01

    We have measured the characteristics of high energy Kα sources created with the Vulcan Petawatt laser at RAL and the JanUSP laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. High energy x-ray backlighters will be essential for radiographing high energy-density experimental science targets for NIF projects especially to probe implosions and high areal density planar samples. Hard Kα x-ray photons are created through relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after irradiated by short pulse high intensity lasers. For our Vulcan experiment, we employed a CsI scintillator charge coupled device (CCD) camera for imaging and a CCD camera for single photon counting. We have directly measured the 22 keV Ag Kα source size using the RAL petawatt laser and performed knife-edge measurements of a 40 keV Sm Kα source using the JanUSP laser. The measured source sizes are both ˜60 μm full width half maximum. We have also measured the Ag Kα conversion efficiencies. At laser intensities of 1×1018 W/cm2 range, the conversion efficiency at 22 keV is ˜1×10-4.

  13. Investigation of energy partitioning from Leopard short-pulse laser interactions in mass limited targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, B.; Sawada, H.; Yabuuchi, T.; McLean, H.; Patel, P.; Beg, F.

    2013-10-01

    The energy distribution in the interaction of a high-intensity, short-pulse laser with a mass limited target was investigated by simultaneously collecting x-ray and particle data. The Leopard laser system at the Nevada Terawatt Facility delivered 15 J of energy in a 350 fs pulse duration. With a beam spot size limited to within 8 μm, the target interaction achieved a peak intensity of 1019 W/cm2 at 20° incidence. The size of the Cu foil targets was varied from 2-20 μm in thickness and from 50 by 50 μm to 2000 by 2000 μm in surface area. A Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer and a spherical crystal imager were used to measure 7.5-9.5 keV x-rays and 8.05 keV monochromatic x-ray images respectively. The escaping electrons and protons in the rear were monitored with a magnet-based electron spectrometer and radiochromic film. Preliminary results show both a decrease of the K β/K α ratio and a stronger He α emission for smaller sized targets, less than 250 by 250 μm. The detailed analyses of the K α images and particle data will be presented.

  14. Calibration and Characterization of Single Photon Counting Cameras for Short-Pulse Laser Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maddox, B R; Park, H; Remington, B A; McKernan, M

    2008-05-05

    The photon counting efficiency of various CCD based cameras was studied as a function of x-ray energy and exposure. A pair of Spectral Instruments Model 800 CCD cameras fitted with 16 {micro}m thick back-illuminated CCDs were calibrated at low x-ray energy using two well established histogram methods, a standard pixel for pixel histogram and the single pixel event histogram method. In addition, two new thick substrate CCDs were evaluated for use at high energy. One was a commercially available Princeton Instruments LCX1300 deep depletion CCD camera while the other was a custom designed 650 {micro}m thick partially depleted CCD fitted to a SI 800 camera body. It is shown that at high x-ray energy, only a pixel-summing algorithm was able to derive spectral data due to the spreading of x-ray events over many pixels in the thicker substrate CCDs. This paper will describe the different algorithms used to extract spectra and the absolute detection efficiencies using these algorithms. These detectors will be very useful to detect high-energy x-ray photons from high-intensity short pulse laser interactions.

  15. Preliminary characterization of ultra-short pulse laser-produced miniature hohlraum XUV sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvey, A.; Vargas, M.; Montier, L.; Nees, J.; Hou, B.; Maksimchuk, A.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Krushelnick, K.

    2012-10-01

    Experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) allow the radiative properties of dense, high-temperature matter to be studied at previously unreachable regimes, but are limited by cost and system availability. A scaled down system using ultra-short laser pulses and delivering energy to a much smaller hohlraum could be capable of reaching comparable energy densities and depositing the energy before the wall material ablation closes the cavity. The Lambda Cubed laser system at University of Michigan--a high-power (0.3 TW), short pulse (30fs), 500 Hz repetition rate tabletop laser system-is used to machine 20-100 micron diameter cavities in copper targets. These cavities are machined with low laser powers, and then shot in situ with a single full power pulse. The emitted radiation is analyzed with an XUV spectrometer. This method may allow studies such as opacity measurements using plasma and radiation with the temperatures comparable to NIF type hohlraums, but with a significantly higher repetition rate and in a university scale system.

  16. High speed ultra short pulse fiber ring laser using photonic crystal fiber nonlinear optical loop mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shaozhen; Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2012-06-01

    A scheme to generate high speed optical pulse train with ultra short pulse width is proposed and experimentally studied. Two-step compression is used in the scheme: 20 GHz and 40 GHz pulse trains generated from a rational harmonic actively mode-locked fiber ring laser is compressed to a full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of ~ 1.5 ps using adiabatic soliton compression with dispersion shifted fibers (DSF). The pulse trains then undergo a pedestal removal process by transmission through a cascaded two photonic crystal fiber (PCF)-nonlinear optical loop mirrors (NOLM) realized using a double-ring structure. The shortest output pulse width obtained was ~ 610 fs for 20 GHz pulse train and ~ 570 fs for 40 GHz pulse train. The signal to noise ratio of the RF spectrum of the output pulse train is larger than 30 dB. Theoretical simulation of the NOLM transmission is conducted using split-step Fourier method. The results show that two cascaded NOLMs can improve the compression result compared to that for a single NOLM transmission.

  17. Bremsstrahlung measurements for characterization of intense short-pulse, laser produced fast electrons with OMEGA EP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daykin, Tyler; Sawada, Hiroshi; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Pandit, Rishi; Chen, Cliff; Beg, Farhat; Chen, Hui; McLean, Harry; Patel, Pravesh; Tommasini, Riccardo

    2016-10-01

    Understanding relativistic fast electron generation and transport inside solids is important for applications such as generation of high energy x-ray sources and fast ignition. An experiment was carried out to study the scaling of the fast electron spectrum and bremsstrahlung generation in multi-pico second laser interactions using 1 ps and 10 ps OMEGA EP short-pulse beam to generate fast electrons at a similar peak intensity of 5x1018 W/cm2. The bremsstrahlung produced by collisions of the fast electrons with background ions was recorded using differential filter stacked spectrometers. A preliminary analysis with a Monte Carlo Code ITS shows that the electrons injection having an electron slope 1.8 MeV matched well with the high energy component of the 1 ps and 10 ps bremsstrahlung measurements. Details of the data analysis and modeling with Monte Carlo and a hybrid particle-in-cell codes will be presented at the conference. Work supported by the UNR Office of the Provost and by DOE/OFES under Contract No. DE-SC0008827. This collaborative work was partially supported under the auspices of the US DOE by LLNL under Contracts No. DE-AC52-07NA27344 and No. DE-FG-02-05ER54834.

  18. Development of a 1 J short pulse tunable TEA CO2 laser with high energy stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Reghu, T.; Biswas, A. K.; Bhargav, Pankaj; Pakhare, J. S.; Kumar, Shailesh; Verma, Abrat; Mandloi, Vagesh; Kukreja, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    The design, development and operational characteristics of a 1 J, repetitively pulsed, line tunable TEA CO2 laser producing nearly tail free short pulses (~170 ns) suitable for laser isotope separation is discussed. Tail free short laser pulses were generated by employing a nitrogen lean gaseous active medium. Use of an indigenously developed stable pulsed power supply, uniform and intense UV spark pre-ionization and optimum gas purging with catalytic regeneration to control the deleterious oxygen accumulation helps generate laser pulses with high energy stability. Integration of a sensitive arc detection system allows long term arc-free operation of the laser and protects it from catastrophic failure. Laser pulses in more than 90 lines in 10.6 μm and 9.6 μm bands of CO2 laser spectrum with energy about 1 J in as many as 50 lines could be generated with a typical efficiency of about 4%. A typical pulse to pulse energy stability of ±1.4% was obtained during one hour of continuous operation of the TEA CO2 laser at 75 Hz.

  19. Four-wave mixing and generation of short pulses in multimode class B laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahanpanah, J.; Moradi, H.

    2013-04-01

    The linear and nonlinear amplification features of an optical signal by a multimode class B laser have been discussed. The four-wave mixing process between the cavity central mode and the amplified input signal produces a sequence of satellite lines. It is demonstrated that short pulses can be formed by phase beating the satellite lines. In the linear regime, the laser amplifier acts like a three-mode free-running laser where the oscillations of two right and left adjacent modes are substituted by those of the amplified input signal and its image satellite line. In the nonlinear regime, two more symmetrical adjacent satellite lines are first added to the cavity electric field components and then the frequency of the cavity central mode is shifted towards the image satellite lines. At the same time, the number of central-mode photons is gradually decreased by raising the input signal strength. The central-mode photons are ultimately reduced to zero, where an injection-locking phenomenon takes place. Finally, we derive a heuristic conservation relation between the input energies to the laser by sum of the pumping and injected signals, and those distributed between the signal and image satellite lines and spontaneous emission radiation.

  20. Short-pulse and short-wavelength ablation of semiconductor materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, Andreas; Bauer, Thorsten; Temme, Thorsten; Wagner, Thilo

    2001-06-01

    Increasing miniaturization and integration of multiple functions into portable electronic devices and sensors ask for smaller electrical components. Conventional abrasive processes often reach their technological limit resulting in the demand for alternative technologies with increased precision and performance. Lasers have been proven to be a suitable tool for micromachining, but often suffering the disadvantage of heat or shock affected zones around the machined structures. To be feasible as an industrial solution, new approaches have to provide very high precision and process stability with minimal collateral damage. Presently, two different approaches for laser machining of semiconductor materials are being investigated. Although the interaction mechanism is completely different as described within this paper, both are regarded as promising technologies: ultrashort-pulse and short wavelength laser machining. Femtosecond laser machining has been used for a variety of applications, showing the advantage of non-thermal ablation of many kinds of materials. Due to the short pulse duration and the high intensities multi-photon absorption allows to overcome the bandgap of semiconductors while not affecting the bulk material. Due to the short wavelength excimer lasers as well as fluorine lasers provide the general ability to generate small spot sizes and emit photons with higher energies compared to the bandgap of the material, e.g. of silicon. Both technologies will be discussed and compared, and applications for micromachining of silicon will be presented.

  1. A theory for optical wavelength control in short pulse free electron laser oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkenson, Wade F.

    1993-06-01

    The future safety of the U.S. Navy warship depends on the development of a directed energy self-defense system to keep pace with the ever-improving technology of anti-ship missiles. Two candidates are reviewed. The free electron laser (FEL) has the most advantages, but a chemical laser proposed by TRW is ready for installation on existing ships. Initial testing of issues related to directed energy use at sea can be conducted with the chemical laser. When the technology of the FEL matures, it can replace the chemical laser to provide the best possible defense in the shortest period of time. Continuous tunability is a key advantage of the FEL over the conventional laser. But since the output wavelength is dependent on electron energy, it is subject to random fluctuations originating from the beam source. At the Stanford University Superconducting (SCA) Free Electron Laser (FEL) Facility, the effects are minimized through negative feedback by changing the input electron energy proportional to the observed wavelength drift. The process is simulated by modifying a short pulse FEL numerical program to allow the resonant wavelength to vary over many passes. The physical effects behind optical wavelength control are explained. A theory for the preferential nature of the FEL to follow the resonant wavelength from longer to shorter wavelengths is presented. Finally, the response of the FEL to a rapidly changing resonant wavelength is displayed as a transfer function for the system.

  2. Invited paper: Short pulse generation in mid-IR fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Darren D.

    2014-12-01

    Mode-locked fiber lasers emitting short pulses of light at wavelengths of 2 μm and longer are reviewed. Rare-earth doped silica and fluoride fiber lasers operating in the mode-locked regime in the mid-IR (2-5 μm) have attracted attention due to their usefulness to spectroscopy, nonlinear optics, laser surgery, remote sensing and ranging to name a few. While silica fiber lasers are fundamentally limited to emission wavelengths below 2.2 μm, fluoride fiber lasers can reach to nearly 4 μm. The relative infancy of fluoride fibers as compared to silica fibers means the field has work to do to translate the mode-locking techniques to systems beyond 2 μm. However, with the recent demonstration of a stable, mode-locked 3 μm fiber laser, the possibility of achieving high performance 3 μm class mode-locked fiber lasers looks promising.

  3. Calibration and characterization of single photon counting cameras for short-pulse laser experiments.

    PubMed

    Maddox, B R; Park, H S; Remington, B A; McKernan, M

    2008-10-01

    The x-ray photon counting efficiency of various charged-coupled device (CCD) based cameras was studied as a function of photon energy and exposure. A pair of Spectral Instruments model 800 CCD cameras fitted with 16 microm thick back-illuminated CCDs were calibrated at low x-ray energy using two well established histogram methods. In addition, two new thick substrate CCDs were evaluated for use at high energy. One was a commercially available Princeton Instruments PI-LCX1300 deep depletion CCD camera, while the other used a custom designed 650 microm thick partially depleted CCD fitted to a Spectral Instruments model 800 camera body. It is shown that at high x-ray energy, a pixel-summing algorithm is necessary to reconstruct the x-ray spectra in the thicker substrate CCDs. This paper will describe the different algorithms used to extract spectra and the absolute detection efficiencies using these algorithms. These detectors and algorithms will be very useful in detecting high-energy x-ray photons from high-intensity short-pulse laser interactions.

  4. Short-pulse excimer laser performances and its applications: I. ophthamology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybylski, Marius; Simon, Gabriel

    1997-05-01

    A new very small powerful air-cooled excimer laser (193, 248, 308 nm) with metal-ceramic technology was developed by ATL Lasertechnik in Germany. The laser won 1995 Prize for the best innovation awarded by German federal states of Berlin & Brandenburg. The pulse energy of 10 - 20 mJ at high rep rates (200 - 500 Hz) from an active volume of only 1 cm3 are reached. The raw laser beam produces energy density of > 100 mJ/cm2 which is comparable to the performance of standard (large) excimer lasers. Its very short pulse length (3 ns), permits extremely high peak power density (30 MW/cm2). The ATLEX SP laser uses a new type of pre-ionization technique providing high beam homogeneity at low discharge voltages. Small footprint and weight, low operation costs opens up new industrial (micro-machining) and biomedical applications. Recently the ATLEX SP laser (193 nm) has been used for corneal refractive surgery. The setup consists of splitting a 193 nm laser beam into couples of beams which simultaneously ablates the corneal surface in a symmetrical scan-like fashion. Refractive changes up to 20 diopters were realized. Results of an analysis by corneal topography showed homogeneous ablation throughout the entire ablation zone.

  5. Exploring polygon scanner head capabilities for ultra-short pulse laser texturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mincuzzi, G.; Fleureau, M.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-03-01

    The combination of both, fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power lasers, represents an interesting technological solution for surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser to gain a foothold into industrial environment for commercial purposes. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when the average power exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists of texturing surfaces with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a polygon scanning head which is able to deflect the laser beam with unprecedented speed. Here we show that over stainless steel, it is possible to obtain different surface textures (in particular ripples, micro grooves and spikes) by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a fast and accurate polygonal scanner head at relatively low fluence (0.11 J·cm-2). The evolution of the Laser induced surface structures morphology is shown when varying the scan speed between 25 m·s-1 and 90 m·s-1. Two different wavelengths have been utilised for the process λ= 1030 nm and λ = 515 nm and the difference of the results obtained have been highlighted. Moreover, a full structures morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out for all the textured surfaces. Finally, by increasing the number of successive surface scans is possible to tailor the surface reflectivity. As a result an average reflectivity value of < 5% over the visible range has been extracted from a blackened stainless steel surface.

  6. Creation of Pure Frozen Gas Targets for Ion Acceleration using Short Pulse Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCary, Edward; Stehr, Florian; Jiao, Xuejing; Quevedo, Hernan; Franke, Philip; Agustsson, Ronald; Oshea, Finn; Berry, Robert; Chao, Dennis; Woods, Kayley; Gautier, Donald; Letzring, Sam; Hegelich, Bjorn

    2015-11-01

    A system for shooting interchangeable frozen gas targets was developed at the University of Texas and will be tested at Los Alamos National Lab. A target holder which can hold up to five substrates used for target growing was cryogenically cooled to temperatures below 14 K. The target substrates consist of holes with diameters ranging from 15 μm-500 μm and TEM grids with micron scale spacing, across which films of ice are frozen by releasing small amounts of pure gas molecules directly into the vacuum target chamber. Frozen gas targets comprised of simple molecules like methane and single element gasses like hydrogen and deuterium will provide novel target configuations that will be compared with laser plasma interaction simulations. The targets will be shot with the ultra-intense short-pulse Trident laser. Accelerated ion spectra will be characterized using a Thomson Parabola with magnetic field strength of 0.92T and electric field strength of 30kV. Hydrogen targets will be additionally characterized using stacks of copper which become activated upon exposure to energetic protons resulting in a beta decay signal which be imaged on electron sensitive imaging plates to provide an energy spectrum and spacial profile of the proton beam. Details of target creation and pre-shot characterization will be presented.

  7. Lattice Boltzmann method for short-pulsed laser transport in a multi-layered medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2015-04-01

    We construct a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for transient radiative transfer in one-dimensional multi-layered medium with distinct refractive index in each layer. The left boundary is irradiated normally by a short-pulsed laser. The Fresnel interfaces conditions, which incorporate reflection and refraction, are used at the boundaries and the interfaces. Based on the Fresnel's law and Snell's law, the interfacial intensity formulas are introduced. The collimated and diffuse intensities are treated individually. At a transient time step, the collimated component is first solved by LBM and then embedded into the transient radiative transfer equation as a source term. To keep the consistency of the directions in all the layers, angular interpolation of the intensities at the interfaces is adopted. The transient radiative transfer in a two-layer medium is first investigated, and the time-resolved results are validated by comparing with those by the Monte Carlo method (MCM). Of particular interest, the angular intensities along the slab at different times are presented to illustrate a variety of interesting phenomena, and the discontinuous nature of the intensity at the interfaces is discussed. The effects of various parameters on the time-resolved signals are examined.

  8. Derivation of magnetic fields on a metal cylinder excited by longitudinal and transverse magnetic dipole transmitters: I. Cylinder in unbounded dissipative dielectric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Robert

    2015-09-01

    We derive new and exact analytical and convergent integral representations for the frequency-dependent complex magnetic fields Hz(a, ϕ, z) and Hϕ(a, ϕ, z) excited by oscillating point magnetic dipole transmitters on the surface of an infinitely long metal cylinder of radius a in an unbounded dissipative dielectric medium. Hz(a, ϕ, z) is calculated for a longitudinally oriented magnetic dipole parallel to the cylinder axis and Hϕ(a, ϕ, z) for a transversely oriented magnetic dipole perpendicular to the axis. The solutions are relevant to the computation of phase shifts and attenuations measured by electromagnetic propagation logging tools, which have oscillating longitudinal and transverse magnetic dipole transmitters either on a metal drill collar or on a cylindrical antenna pad. The integral representations can be readily evaluated using simple numerical integration algorithms, e.g., Simpson's rule, to accurately compute the complex magnetic fields on the cylinder surface. A second paper will address the two-layer cylindrical media problem.

  9. Derivation of the magnetic field on a metal cylinder excited by a longitudinal magnetic dipole transmitter: II. Cylinder in a two-layer dissipative dielectric medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freedman, Robert

    2016-11-01

    We derive an exact convergent analytical solution for the complex frequency-dependent magnetic field on the surface of an infinitely long and perfectly conducting metal cylinder situated in a cylindrically layered dissipative medium. The inhomogeneous medium consists of two exterior cylindrical layers that are concentric with the cylinder. The magnetic field on the cylinder is excited by a longitudinally oriented oscillating magnetic dipole transmitter on the cylinder surface. An exact analytical solution to this problem has not been previously published and is of theoretical as well as practical importance, e.g., in modeling the responses of electromagnetic wave propagation well logging tools. It is shown that the magnetic field on the cylinder surface can be expressed as a real-axis integral; however, the integrand oscillates rapidly and diverges for large values of the integration variable. The real-axis integral is replaced by the sum of two convergent branch line integrals and a sum over the residues of the complex poles in the integrand of the real-axis integral. The poles correspond physically to waveguide modes that propagate with discrete wave numbers. A pole search algorithm is developed to locate the positions of the poles and compute their residues. Phase shifts and attenuations of the magnetic field between receivers for a 1.1 GHz well logging tool are computed to elucidate the pole spectra and the relative contributions of the waveguide modes and the branch cut integrals for different thicknesses of the innermost dielectric layer and for different layer properties.

  10. Characterization of dielectric materials

    DOEpatents

    King, Danny J.; Babinec, Susan; Hagans, Patrick L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Payzant, Edward A.; Daniel, Claus; Sabau, Adrian S.; Dinwiddie, Ralph B.; Armstrong, Beth L.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wood, III, David L.; Nembhard, Nicole S.

    2017-06-27

    A system and a method for characterizing a dielectric material are provided. The system and method generally include applying an excitation signal to electrodes on opposing sides of the dielectric material to evaluate a property of the dielectric material. The method can further include measuring the capacitive impedance across the dielectric material, and determining a variation in the capacitive impedance with respect to either or both of a time domain and a frequency domain. The measured property can include pore size and surface imperfections. The method can still further include modifying a processing parameter as the dielectric material is formed in response to the detected variations in the capacitive impedance, which can correspond to a non-uniformity in the dielectric material.

  11. Cutting and drilling of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) by 70W short pulse nanosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeschke, Peter; Stolberg, Klaus; Bastick, Stefan; Ziolkowski, Ewa; Roehner, Markus; Suttmann, Oliver; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2014-02-01

    Continuous carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are recognized as having a significant lightweight construction potential for a wide variety of industrial applications. However, a today`s barrier for a comprehensive dissemination of CFRP structures is the lack of economic, quick and reliable manufacture processes, e.g. the cutting and drilling steps. In this paper, the capability of using pulsed disk lasers in CFRP machining is discussed. In CFRP processing with NIR lasers, carbon fibers show excellent optical absorption and heat dissipation, contrary to the plastics matrix. Therefore heat dissipation away from the laser focus into the material is driven by heat conduction of the fibres. The matrix is heated indirectly by heat transfer from the fibres. To cut CFRP, it is required to reach the melting temperature for thermoplastic matrix materials or the disintegration temperature for thermoset systems as well as the sublimation temperature of the reinforcing fibers simultaneously. One solution for this problem is to use short pulse nanosecond lasers. We have investigated CFRP cutting and drilling with such a laser (max. 7 mJ @ 10 kHz, 30 ns). This laser offers the opportunity of wide range parameter tuning for systematic process optimization. By applying drilling and cutting operations based on galvanometer scanning techniques in multi-cycle mode, excellent surface and edge characteristics in terms of delamination-free and intact fiber-matrix interface were achieved. The results indicate that nanosecond disk laser machining could consequently be a suitable tool for the automotive and aircraft industry for cutting and drilling steps.

  12. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-01

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments' sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  13. Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Snavely, R.A.; Da Silva, L.B.; Eder, D.C.; Matthews, D.L.; Moon, S.J.

    1997-11-10

    Pumping of proposed inner-shell photo-ionized (ISPI) x-ray lasers places stringent requirements on the optical pump source. We investigate these requirements for an example x-ray laser (XRL) in Carbon lasing on the 2p-1s transition at 45 A. Competing with this lasing transition is the very fast Auger decay rate out of the upper lasing state, such that the x-ray laser would self-terminate on a femto- second time scale. XRL gain may be demonstrated if pump energy is delivered in a time short when compared to the Auger rate. The fast self-termination also demands that we sequentially pump the length of the x-ray laser at the group velocity of the x-ray laser. This is the classical traveling wave requirement. It imposes a condition on the pumping source that the phase angle of the pump laser be precisely de- coupled from the pulse front angle. At high light intensities, this must be performed with a vacuum grating delay line. We will also include a discussion of issues related to pump energy delivery, i.e. pulse-front curvature, temporal blurring and puke fidelity. An all- reflective optical system with low aberration is investigated to see if it fulfills the requirements. It is expected that these designs together with new high energy (>1J) ultra-short pulse (< 40 fs) pump lasers now under construction may fulfill our pump energy conditions and produce a tabletop x-ray laser.

  14. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    DOE PAGES

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; ...

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared tomore » the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.« less

  15. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  16. New laser glass for short pulsed laser applications: the BLG80 (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Simi A.

    2017-03-01

    For achieving highest peak powers in a solid state laser (SSL) system, significant energy output and short pulses are necessary. For mode-locked lasers, it is well-known from the Fourier theorem that the largest gain bandwidths produce the narrowest pulse-widths; thus are transform limited. For an inhomogeneously broadened line width of a laser medium, if the intensity of pulses follow a Gaussian function, then the resulting mode-locked pulse will have a Gaussian shape with the emission bandwidth/pulse duration relationship of pulse ≥ 0.44?02/c. Thus, for high peak power SSL systems, laser designers incorporate gain materials capable of broad emission bandwidths. Available energy outputs from a phosphate glass host doped with rare-earth ions are unparalleled. Unfortunately, the emission bandwidths achievable from glass based gain materials are typically many factors smaller when compared to the Ti:Sapphire crystal. In order to overcome this limitation, a hybrid "mixed" laser glass amplifier - OPCPA approach was developed. The Texas petawatt laser that is currently in operation at the University of Texas-Austin and producing high peak powers uses this hybrid architecture. In this mixed-glass laser design, a phosphate and a silicate glass is used in series to achieve a broader bandwidth required before compression. Though proven, this technology is still insufficient for the future compact petawatt and exawatt systems capable of producing high energies and shorter pulse durations. New glasses with bandwidths that are two and three times larger than what is now available from glass hosts is needed if there is to be an alternative to Ti:Sapphire for laser designers. In this paper, we present new materials that may meet the necessary characteristics and demonstrate the laser and emission characteristics these through the internal and external studies.

  17. Surface Characterization and Short-term Adhesion to Zirconia after Ultra-short Pulsed Laser Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; Jansen, Patrick; Wehner, Martin; Dohrn, Andreas; Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Meyer-Lueckel, Hendrik

    To evaluate the suitability of an ultra-short pulsed laser (USPL) to treat zirconia ceramic surfaces and increase their adhesion to dual-curing resin cement. Twenty 10 × 10 × 5 mm³ blocks were prepared from a zirconia ceramic (Y-TZP). The specimens were polished and randomly assigned to four groups (n = 5) which received the following surface treatments: sandblasting (SB) with Al₂O₃ particles and silica coating (SC) with SiO₂ particles as positive controls; two groups received USPL irradiation, one with 10 scan repetitions (L10) and the other with 20 (L20). Laser irradiation was performed at 1030 nm, 2.3 J/cm², 6 ps pulse duration. The ceramic blocks were duplicated in composite resin and cemented with a dual-curing resin cement. Half of the blocks were then stored in water (37°C) for 24 h and the other half for 1 month. At each time, 40 to 60 sticks per group were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. Data were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test (α = 0.05). Laser-treated zirconia presented statistically significantly higher roughness than did SB and SC. After 24 h, the highest bond strength means (MPa) were achieved by L10 (42.3 ± 10.8) and L20 (37.9 ± 14.4), and both of them were statistically significantly higher than SB (22.0 ± 5.3) and SC (20.8 ± 7.1) (p < 0.05). After 1 month of storage, L10- and L20-treated zirconia still showed significantly higher bond strengths than did SB- and SC-treated zirconia (p < 0.05). USPL irradiation significantly increases bond strength of zirconia ceramic to dual-curing resin cement and might be an alternative for improving adhesion to this material.

  18. K-(alpha) Radiography at 20-100 keV Using Short-Pulse Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H S; Chambers, D; Clarke, R; Eagleton, R; Giraldez, E; Goldsack, T; Heathcote, R; Izumi, N; Key, M; King, J; Koch, J; Landen, O L; Mackinnon, A; Nikroo, A; Patel, P; Pasley, J; Remington, B; Robey, H; Snavely, R; Steinman, D; Stephenson, R; Stoeckl, C; Storm, M; Tabak, M; Theobald, W; Town, R J

    2005-08-29

    X-ray radiography is an important tool for diagnosing and imaging planar and convergent hydrodynamics phenomena for laser experiments. Until now, hydrodynamics experiments at Omega and NIF utilize E{sub x-ray} < 9 keV backlighter x-rays emitted by thermal plasmas. However, future experiments will need to diagnose larger and denser targets and will require x-ray probes of energies from 20-100 keV and possibly up to 1 MeV. Hard K-{alpha} x-ray photons can be created through high-energy electron interactions in the target material after irradiation by petawatt-class high-intensity-short-pulse lasers with > 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2}. We have performed several experiments on the JanUSP, and the Vulcan 100TW, and Vulcan Petawatt lasers to understand K-{alpha} sources and to test radiography concepts. 1-D radiography using an edge-on foil and 2-D radiography using buried wires and cone-fiber targets were tested. We find that 1-D thin edge-on foils can have imaging resolution better than 10 {micro}m. Micro volume targets produce bright sources with measured conversion efficiency from laser energy to x-ray photons of {approx} 1 x 10{sup -5}. This level of conversion may not be enough for 2-D point projection radiography. A comparison of our experimental measurements of small volume sources with the LSP/PIC simulation show similar K-{alpha} creation profiles but discrepancy in absolute yields.

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPACT PHOTO-INJECTOR WITH RFFOCUSING LENS FOR SHORT PULSE ELECTRON SOURCE APPLICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Grabenhofer, Alexander; Eaton, Douglas W.

    2013-09-01

    For development of compact ultrafast electron source system, we are currently designing a short-pulse RF-gun with RF focusing structure by means of a series of comprehensive modeling analysis processes. EM design of a 2.5 cell resonant cavity with input coupler, acceleration dynamics of photo-emitted electron bunch, EM design of RF-lens with input coupler, and phasespace analysis of focused electron bunch are systematically examined with multi-physics simulators. All the features of the 2.856 GHz cavity geometry were precisely engineered for acceleration energies ranging from 100 keV to 500 keV (safety limited) to be powered by our 5 MW S-band klystron. The klystron (Thales TH2163) and modulator system (ScandiNova K1 turnkey system) were successfully installed and tested. Performance tests of the klystron system show peak output power > 5 MW, as per operation specifications. At the quasi-relativistic energies, the electron source is capable of generating 100fC – 1 pC electron bunch with pulse duration close to 30 fs – 1 ps and transverse size of a few hundred microns. PIC simulations have shown that the electron bunch undergoes fast RF acceleration, rapidly reaching the desired energies, which can be controlled by tuning RF injection phase and input driving power. It has been shown that it is possible to also focus/compress the bunch longitudinally using a RF-lens, which would allow us to control the temporal resolution of the system as well. While our primary analysis has been performed on a 2.5 cell design, we are also looking into half-cell (single cavity) design that is expected to provide the same range of beam energy with a simple configuration.

  20. Short-pulse laser amplification and saturation using stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, E. S.; Ren, J.; Kwan, T. J. T.; Schmitt, M. J.; Lundquist, P. B.; Sarkisyan, S.; Nelson-Melby, E.

    2010-11-01

    Recent theoretical and experimental work has focused on using backward-stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) in plasmas as a means of laser pulse amplification and compression [1,2,3]. We present initial computational and experimental work on SRS amplification in a capillary-discharge generated Xe plasma. The experimental set-up uses a 200 ps pump pulse with an 800 nm wavelength seeded by a 100 fs pulse from a broadband source and counter-propagates the pulses through a plasma of length 1 cm and diameter 0.1 cm. Results from initial experiments characterizing the plasma and on short-pulse amplification will be presented. Additionally, we present results from calculations using pF3d [4], and discuss the role of SRS saturation and determine the possible significance of electron trapping with a model implemented in pF3d [5]. [1] G. Shvets, N. J. Fisch, A. Pukhov, and J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 4879 (1998). [2] V. M. Malkin, G. Shvets, and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4448 (1999). [3] R. K. Kirkwood, E. Dewald, and C. Niemann, et al., Phys. Plasmas 14 113109 (2007). [4] R. L. Berger, B. F. Lasinski, T. B. Kaiser, et al., Phys. Fluids B 5 2243 (1993). [5] H. X. Vu, D. F. DuBois, and B. Bezzerides, Phys. Plasmas 14 012702 (2007). Supported by US DOE and LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-10-04787

  1. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X. Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-15

    Candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) have been identified using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm{sup 2} to 20 × 20 mm{sup 2}. This increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. A first effort was undertaken to group decoupled moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  2. Conceptual moderator studies for the Spallation Neutron Source short-pulse second target station

    SciTech Connect

    Gallmeier, F. X.; Lu, W.; Riemer, B. W.; Zhao, J. K.; Herwig, K. W.; Robertson, J. L.

    2016-06-14

    We identified candidate moderator configurations for a short-pulse second target station (STS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) using a global optimizer framework built around the MCNPX particle transport code. Neutron brightness metrics were selected as the figure-of-merit. We assumed that STS would use one out of six proton pulses produced by an SNS accelerator upgraded to operate at 1.3 GeV proton energy, 2.8 MW power and 60 Hz repetition rate. The simulations indicate that the peak brightness can be increased by a factor of 5 and 2.5 on a per proton pulse basis compared to the SNS first target station for both coupled and decoupled para-hydrogen moderators, respectively. Additional increases by factors of 3 and 2 were demonstrated for coupled and decoupled moderators, respectively, by reducing the area of neutron emission from 100 × 100 mm2 to 20 × 20 mm2. Furthermore, this increase in brightness has the potential to translate to an increase of beam intensity at the instruments’ sample positions even though the total neutron emission of the smaller moderator is less than that of the larger. This is especially true for instruments with small samples (beam dimensions). The increased fluxes in the STS moderators come at accelerated poison and de-coupler burnout and higher radiation-induced material damage rates per unit power, which overall translate into lower moderator lifetimes. Our first effort decoupled group moderators into a cluster collectively positioning them at the peak neutron production zone in the target and having a three-port neutron emission scheme that complements that of a cylindrical coupled moderator.

  3. Method of synchronization measurement via spatial-spectral interference in coherent combination of multi-channel ultra-short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. L.; Zuo, Y. L.; Wu, Z. H.; Wang, X.; Mu, J.; Yu, H. Y.; Zhao, D.; Zhu, Q. H.; Su, J. Q.; Zhou, K. N.; Zhou, S.; Feng, X.; Zhang, S.; Liu, H. Z.

    2017-08-01

    Spatial-spectral interference fringes contain information on the time delay between pulses. By extracting the slope of the equiphase line in the spatial-spectral interference fringes, a large range and high-precision detection of the time delay is realized. Theoretical analysis is given. An experiment demonstrates the fundamental process for obtaining the time delay between two femtosecond pulses. In the current experiment the measurement range is from 0.4 fs to hundreds of fs. This method was first proposed for synchronization measurement of coherent combination of ultra-short pulses in a multi-channel system. The method can be applied at large scales in an ultra-short pulse laser facility.

  4. Ultra-short pulse laser micro patterning with highest throughput by utilization of a novel multi-beam processing head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homburg, Oliver; Jarczynski, Manfred; Mitra, Thomas; Brüning, Stephan

    2017-02-01

    In the last decade much improvement has been achieved for ultra-short pulse lasers with high repetition rates. This laser technology has vastly matured so that it entered a manifold of industrial applications recently compared to mainly scientific use in the past. Compared to ns-pulse ablation ultra-short pulses in the ps- or even fs regime lead to still colder ablation and further reduced heat-affected zones. This is crucial for micro patterning when structure sizes are getting smaller and requirements are getting stronger at the same time. An additional advantage of ultra-fast processing is its applicability to a large variety of materials, e.g. metals and several high bandgap materials like glass and ceramics. One challenge for ultra-fast micro machining is throughput. The operational capacity of these processes can be maximized by increasing the scan rate or the number of beams - parallel processing. This contribution focuses on process parallelism of ultra-short pulsed lasers with high repetition rate and individually addressable acousto-optical beam modulation. The core of the multi-beam generation is a smooth diffractive beam splitter component with high uniform spots and negligible loss, and a prismatic array compressor to match beam size and pitch. The optical design and the practical realization of an 8 beam processing head in combination with a high average power single mode ultra-short pulsed laser source are presented as well as the currently on-going and promising laboratory research and micro machining results. Finally, an outlook of scaling the processing head to several tens of beams is given.

  5. Short-pulse Laser Induced Transient Structure Formation and Ablation Studied with Time-resolved Coherent XUV-scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Sokolowski-Tinten, Klaus; Shymanovich, Uladzimir; Barty, Anton; Chapman, Henry; Bajt, Sasa; Schulz, Joachim; Boutet, Sebastien; Bogan, Mike; Bostedt, Christoph; Marchesini, Stefano; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Frank, Matthias; Stojanovic, Nikola; Duesterer, Stefan; Redlin, Harald; Treusch, Rolf; Bonse, Joern; Rosandi, Yudi; Urbassek, Herbert M.; Tobey, Ra'anan

    2010-10-08

    The structural dynamics of short-pulse laser irradiated surfaces and nano-structures has been studied with nm spatial and ultrafast temporal resolution by means of single-shot coherent XUV-scattering techniques. The experiments allowed us to time-resolve the formation of laser-induced periodic surface structures, and to follow the expansion and disintegration of nano-objects during laser ablation.

  6. Modeling target bulk heating resulting from ultra-intense short pulse laser irradiation of solid density targets

    SciTech Connect

    Antici, P.; Gremillet, L.; Grismayer, T.; Audebert, P.; Mančic, A.; Fuchs, J.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C. A.

    2013-12-15

    Isochoric heating of solid-density matter up to a few tens of eV is of interest for investigating astrophysical or inertial fusion scenarios. Such ultra-fast heating can be achieved via the energy deposition of short-pulse laser generated electrons. Here, we report on experimental measurements of this process by means of time- and space-resolved optical interferometry. Our results are found in reasonable agreement with a simple numerical model of fast electron-induced heating.

  7. Recrystallization and grain growth behavior of rolled tungsten under VDE-like short pulse high heat flux loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Greuner, H.; Böswirth, B.; Krieger, K.; Luo, G.-N.; Xu, H. Y.; Fu, B. Q.; Li, M.; Liu, W.

    2013-02-01

    Short pulse heat loads expected for vertical displacement events (VDEs) in ITER were applied in the high heat flux (HHF) test facility GLADIS at IPP-Garching onto samples of rolled W. Pulsed neutral beams with the central heat flux of 23 MW/m2 were applied for 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 s, respectively. Rapid recrystallization of the adiabatically loaded 3 mm thick samples was observed when the pulse duration was up to 1.0 s. Grains grew markedly following recrystallization with increasing pulse length. The recrystallization temperature and temperature dependence of the recrystallized grain size were also investigated. The results showed that the recrystallization temperature of the W grade was around 2480 °C under the applied heat loading condition, which was nearly 1150 °C higher than the conventional recrystallization temperature, and the grains were much finer. A linear relationship between the logarithm of average grain size (ln d) and the inverse of maximum surface temperature (1/Tmax) was found and accordingly the activation energy for grain growth in temperature evolution up to Tmax in 1.5 s of the short pulse HHF load was deduced to be 4.1 eV. This provided an effective clue to predict the structure evolution under short pulse HHF loads.

  8. The short pulse carbon dioxide laser versus the colorado needle tip with electrocautery for upper and lower eyelid blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Rokhsar, Cameron K; Ciocon, David H; Detweiler, Susan; Fitzpatrick, Richard E

    2008-02-01

    Various techniques for blepharoplasty have been described, including those performed with the assistance of the short pulse carbon dioxide laser and those performed with the assistance of the Colorado microdissection needle attached to an electrocautery unit. Although the superiority of the carbon dioxide laser to cold steel has been demonstrated for the performance of eyelid blepharoplasty, no studies have ever compared the carbon dioxide laser to the Colorado needle. This is a paired comparison study in which 12 healthy patients underwent bilateral blepharoplasty of their upper and/or lower eyelids by a single surgeon. For each patient, a short pulse carbon dioxide laser was used on one side, and a Colorado needle attached to an electrocautery unit was used on the other. Intraoperative times were recorded. At five post-operative visits patients were evaluated for post-operative healing parameters including edema, erythema, scar width, and bruising. Finally, excised tissue was assessed histologically for thermal damage. Comparing both techniques, no difference in patient or physician-measured parameters of healing were noted up to 1 month post-operatively. However, Colorado needle assisted blepharoplasty resulted in slightly shorter intraoperative times. It also resulted in less thermal damage on a histologic level, although these differences were not clinically significant. For the performance of blepharoplasty, the Colorado needle tip with electrocautery offers benefits equivalent to those of the short pulsed CO2 laser but has the advantage of shorter intraoperative times and lower cost.

  9. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Chad M.; Perricone, Matthew J.; Faraone, Kevin M.; Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  10. Short pulse laser stretcher-compressor using a single common reflective grating

    DOEpatents

    Erbert, Gaylen V.; Biswal, Subrat; Bartolick, Joseph M.; Stuart, Brent C.; Telford, Steve

    2004-05-25

    The present invention provides an easily aligned, all-reflective, aberration-free pulse stretcher-compressor in a compact geometry. The stretcher-compressor device is a reflective multi-layer dielectric that can be utilized for high power chirped-pulse amplification material processing applications. A reflective grating element of the device is constructed: 1) to receive a beam for stretching of laser pulses in a beam stretcher beam path and 2) to also receive stretched amplified pulses to be compressed in a compressor beam path through the same (i.e., common) reflective multilayer dielectric diffraction grating. The stretched and compressed pulses are interleaved about the grating element to provide the desired number of passes in each respective beam path in order to achieve the desired results.

  11. Development of high damage threshold optics for petawatt-class short-pulse lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, B.C.; Perry, M.D.; Boyd, R.D.

    1995-02-22

    The authors report laser-induced damage threshold measurements on pure and multilayer dielectrics and gold-coated optics at 1053 and 526 nm for pulse durations, {tau}, ranging from 140 fs to 1 ns. Damage thresholds of gold coatings are limited to 500 mJ/cm{sup 2} in the subpicosecond range for 1053-nm pulses. In dielectrics, qualitative differences in the morphology of damage and a departure from the diffusion-dominated {tau}1/2 scaling indicate that damage results from plasma formation and ablation for {tau}{le}10 ps and from conventional melting and boiling for {tau}>50 ps. A theoretical model based on electron production via multiphoton ionization, Joule heating, and collisional (avalanche) ionization is in quantitative agreement with both the pulsewidth and wavelength scaling of experimental results.

  12. Dielectric controlled excited state relaxation pathways of a representative push-pull stilbene: a mechanistic study using femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique.

    PubMed

    Rafiq, Shahnawaz; Sen, Pratik

    2013-02-28

    Femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique was employed to reinvestigate the intriguing dependence of fluorescence quantum yield of trans-4-dimethylamino-4(')-nitrostilbene (DNS) on dielectric properties of the media. In polar solvents, such as methanol and acetonitrile, the two time components of the fluorescence transients were assigned to intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) dynamics and to the depletion of the ICT state to the ground state via internal conversion along the torsional coordinate of nitro moiety. The viscosity independence of the first time component indicates the absence of any torsional coordinate in the charge transfer process. In slightly polar solvent (carbon tetrachloride) the fluorescence transients show a triple exponential behavior. The first time component was assigned to the formation of the ICT state on a 2 ps time scale. Second time component was assigned to the relaxation of the ICT state via two torsion controlled channels. First channel involves the torsional motion about the central double bond leading to the trans-cis isomerization via a conical intersection or avoided crossing. The other channel contributing to the depopulation of ICT state involves the torsional coordinates of dimethylanilino and∕or nitrophenyl moieties and leads to the formation of a conformationally relaxed state, which subsequently relaxes back to the ground state radiatively, and is responsible for the high fluorescence quantum yield of DNS in slightly polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, toluene, etc. The excited singlet state which is having a dominant π-π∗ character may also decay via intersystem crossing to the n-π∗ triplet manifold and thus accounts for the observed triplet yield of the molecule in slightly polar solvents.

  13. Dielectric controlled excited state relaxation pathways of a representative push-pull stilbene: A mechanistic study using femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafiq, Shahnawaz; Sen, Pratik

    2013-02-01

    Femtosecond fluorescence up-conversion technique was employed to reinvestigate the intriguing dependence of fluorescence quantum yield of trans-4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene (DNS) on dielectric properties of the media. In polar solvents, such as methanol and acetonitrile, the two time components of the fluorescence transients were assigned to intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) dynamics and to the depletion of the ICT state to the ground state via internal conversion along the torsional coordinate of nitro moiety. The viscosity independence of the first time component indicates the absence of any torsional coordinate in the charge transfer process. In slightly polar solvent (carbon tetrachloride) the fluorescence transients show a triple exponential behavior. The first time component was assigned to the formation of the ICT state on a 2 ps time scale. Second time component was assigned to the relaxation of the ICT state via two torsion controlled channels. First channel involves the torsional motion about the central double bond leading to the trans-cis isomerization via a conical intersection or avoided crossing. The other channel contributing to the depopulation of ICT state involves the torsional coordinates of dimethylanilino and/or nitrophenyl moieties and leads to the formation of a conformationally relaxed state, which subsequently relaxes back to the ground state radiatively, and is responsible for the high fluorescence quantum yield of DNS in slightly polar solvents such as carbon tetrachloride, toluene, etc. The excited singlet state which is having a dominant π-π* character may also decay via intersystem crossing to the n-π* triplet manifold and thus accounts for the observed triplet yield of the molecule in slightly polar solvents.

  14. Short-pulse, high-energy radiation generation from laser-wakefield accelerated electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumaker, Will

    2013-10-01

    Recent experimental results of laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of ~GeV electrons driven by the 200TW HERCULES and the 400TW ASTRA-GEMINI laser systems and their subsequent generation of photons, positrons, and neutrons are presented. In LWFA, high-intensity (I >1019 W /cm2), ultra-short (τL < 1 / (2 πωpe)) laser pulses drive highly nonlinear plasma waves which can trap ~ nC of electrons and accelerate them to ~GeV energies over ~cm lengths. These electron beams can then be converted by a high-Z target via bremsstrahlung into low-divergence (< 20 mrad) beams of high-energy (<600 MeV) photons and subsequently into positrons via the Bethe-Heitler process. By increasing the material thickness and Z, the resulting Ne+ /Ne- ratio can approach unity, resulting in a near neutral density plasma jet. These quasi-neutral beams are presumed to retain the short-pulse (τL < 40 fs) characteristic of the electron beam, resulting in a high peak density of ne- /e+ ~ 1016 cm-3 , making the source an excellent candidate for laboratory study of astrophysical leptonic jets. Alternatively, the electron beam can be interacted with a counter-propagating, ultra-high intensity (I >1021 W /cm2) laser pulse to undergo inverse Compton scattering and emit a high-peak brightness beam of high-energy photons. Preliminary results and experimental sensitivities of the electron-laser beam overlap are presented. The high-energy photon beams can be spectrally resolved using a forward Compton scattering spectrometer. Moreover, the photon flux can be characterized by a pixelated scintillator array and by nuclear activation and (γ,n) neutron measurements from the photons interacting with a secondary solid target. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed using FLUKA to support the yield estimates. This research was supported by DOE/NSF-PHY 0810979, NSF CAREER 1054164, DARPA AXiS N66001-11-1-4208, SF/DNDO F021166, and the Leverhulme Trust ECF-2011-383.

  15. Compact Short-Pulsed Electron Linac Based Neutron Sources for Precise Nuclear Material Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesaka, M.; Tagi, K.; Matsuyama, D.; Fujiwara, T.; Dobashi, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Harada, H.

    2015-10-01

    An X-band (11.424GHz) electron linac as a neutron source for nuclear data study for the melted fuel debris analysis and nuclear security in Fukushima is under development. Originally we developed the linac for Compton scattering X-ray source. Quantitative material analysis and forensics for nuclear security will start several years later after the safe settlement of the accident is established. For the purpose, we should now accumulate more precise nuclear data of U, Pu, etc., especially in epithermal (0.1-10 eV) neutrons. Therefore, we have decided to modify and install the linac in the core space of the experimental nuclear reactor "Yayoi" which is now under the decommission procedure. Due to the compactness of the X-band linac, an electron gun, accelerating tube and other components can be installed in a small space in the core. First we plan to perform the time-of-flight (TOF) transmission measurement for study of total cross sections of the nuclei for 0.1-10 eV energy neutrons. Therefore, if we adopt a TOF line of less than 10m, the o-pulse length of generated neutrons should be shorter than 100 ns. Electronenergy, o-pulse length, power, and neutron yield are ~30 MeV, 100 ns - 1 micros, ~0.4 kW, and ~1011 n/s (~103 n/cm2/s at samples), respectively. Optimization of the design of a neutron target (Ta, W, 238U), TOF line and neutron detector (Ce:LiCAF) of high sensitivity and fast response is underway. We are upgrading the electron gun and a buncher to realize higher current and beam power with a reasonable beam size in order to avoid damage of the neutron target. Although the neutron flux is limited in case of the X-band electron linac based source, we take advantage of its short pulse aspect and availability for nuclear data measurement with a short TOF system. First, we form a tentative configuration in the current experimental room for Compton scattering in 2014. Then, after the decommissioning has been finished, we move it to the "Yayoi" room and perform

  16. Return current and proton emission from wire targets interacting with an intense short pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beg, Farhat

    2004-05-01

    One of the important characteristics of short pulse high intensity laser-solid interactions is the generation of energetic charged particles, which result from the very efficient conversion of laser energy into hot electrons. Since the electrons in the electric field of the laser have relativistic quiver motions, the temperature of the hot electron distribution of the plasma produced at such extreme intensities can become very high. A large number of hot electrons (1013-1014) having an average energy of the order of 1-2 MeV can be generated as intensities exceed 1019 Wcm-2. Since the resulting beam current exceeds the Alfvén limit, a neutralizing return current of cold plasma electrons moving in the opposite direction is produced. Another source of return current is that due to the escape of very energetic electrons from the target, which then creates a large electrostatic potential due to charge separation. These return currents can cause significant ohmic heating. In addition escaping electrons establish the large electrostatic fields, accelerating a large number of protons from the target with energies of 10's of MeV. The experiments reported here were performed at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory with the VULCAN laser facility at intensity greater than 5 x1019 Wcm-2 on wire targets. In some shots an additional wire or foil was placed nearby. The laser was blocked by the main wire target so that no laser light reached the additional wire or foil. Three main observations were made: (i) a Z-pinch was driven in the wire due to the return current, (ii) optical transition radiation (OTR) at 2w was generated and (iii) energetic proton emission was observed. The wire targets were observed to be ohmically heated and were m=0 unstable. The OTR emission is likely due to electron bunches accelerated by the ponderomotive force of the laser. The proton emission was in a form of thin disk perpendicular to the wire and centered on the wire at the laser focus. Proton

  17. Comparison of Single Event Transients Generated by Short Pulsed X-Rays, Lasers and Heavy Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Cardoza, David; LaLumondiere, Stephen D.; Tockstein, Michael A.; Brewe, Dale L.; Wells, Nathan P.; Koga, Rokutaro; Gaab, K. M.; Lotshaw, William T.; Moss, Steven C.

    2014-12-01

    We report an experimental study of the transients generated by pulsed x-rays, heavy ions, and different laser wavelengths in a Si p-i-n photodiode. We compare the charge collected by all of the excitation methods to determine the equivalent LET for pulsed x-rays relative to heavy ions. Our comparisons show that pulsed x-rays from synchrotron sources can generate a large range of equivalent LET and generate transients similar to those excited by laser pulses and heavy ion strikes. We also look at how the pulse width of the transients changes for the different excitation methods. We show that the charge collected with pulsed x-rays is greater than expected as the x-ray photon energy increases. Combined with their capability of focusing to small spot sizes and of penetrating metallization, pulsed x-rays are a promising new tool for high resolution screening of SEE susceptibility

  18. Atomistic simulation study of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a transparent overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Eaman T.; Shugaev, Maxim; Wu, Chengping; Lin, Zhibin; Hainsey, Robert F.; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2014-05-01

    The distinct characteristics of short pulse laser interactions with a metal target under conditions of spatial confinement by a solid transparent overlayer are investigated in a series of atomistic simulations. The simulations are performed with a computational model combining classical molecular dynamics (MD) technique with a continuum description of the laser excitation, electron-phonon equilibration, and electronic heat transfer based on two-temperature model (TTM). Two methods for incorporation of the description of a transparent overlayer into the TTM-MD model are designed and parameterized for Ag-silica system. The material response to the laser energy deposition is studied for a range of laser fluences that, in the absence of the transparent overlayer, covers the regimes of melting and resolidification, photomechanical spallation, and phase explosion of the overheated surface region. In contrast to the irradiation in vacuum, the spatial confinement by the overlayer facilitates generation of sustained high-temperature and high-pressure conditions near the metal-overlayer interface, suppresses the generation of unloading tensile wave, decreases the maximum depth of melting, and prevents the spallation and explosive disintegration of the surface region of the metal target. At high laser fluences, when the laser excitation brings the surface region of the metal target to supercritical conditions, the confinement prevents the expansion and phase decomposition characteristic for the vacuum conditions leading to a gradual cooling of the hot compressed supercritical fluid down to the liquid phase and eventual solidification. The target modification in this case is limited to the generation of crystal defects and the detachment of the metal target from the overlayer.

  19. High-power radio frequency pulse generation and extration based on wakefield excited by an intense charged particle beam in dielectric-loaded waveguides.

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, F.; High Energy Physics; Illinois Inst. of Tech

    2009-07-24

    Power extraction using a dielectric-loaded (DL) waveguide is a way to generate high-power radio frequency (RF) waves for future particle accelerators, especially for two-beam-acceleration. In a two-beam-acceleration scheme, a low-energy, high-current particle beam is passed through a deceleration section of waveguide (decelerator), where the power from the beam is partially transferred to trailing electromagnetic waves (wakefields); then with a properly designed RF output coupler, the power generated in the decelerator is extracted to an output waveguide, where finally the power can be transmitted and used to accelerate another usually high-energy low-current beam. The decelerator, together with the RF output coupler, is called a power extractor. At Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA), we designed a 7.8GHz power extractor with a circular DL waveguide and tested it with single electron bunches and bunch trains. The output RF frequency (7.8GHz) is the sixth harmonic of the operational frequency (1.3GHz) of the electron gun and the linac at AWA. In single bunch excitation, a 1.7ns RF pulse with 30MW of power was generated by a single 66nC electron bunch passing through the decelerator. In subsequent experiments, by employing different splitting-recombining optics for the photoinjector laser, electron bunch trains were generated and thus longer RF pulses could be successfully generated and extracted. In 16-bunch experiments, 10ns and 22ns RF pulses have been generated and extracted; and in 4-bunch experiments, the maximum power generated was 44MW with 40MW extracted. A 26GHz DL power extractor has also been designed to test this technique in the millimeter-wave range. A power level of 148MW is expected to be generated by a bunch train with a bunch spacing of 769ps and bunch charges of 20nC each. The arrangement for the experiment is illustrated in a diagram. Higher-order-mode (HOM) power extraction has also been explored in a dual-frequency design. By using a bunch

  20. Time growth rate and field profiles of hybrid modes excited by a relativistic elliptical electron beam in an elliptical metallic waveguide with dielectric rod

    SciTech Connect

    Jazi, B.; Rahmani, Z.; Abdoli-Arani, A.; Heidari-Semiromi, E.

    2012-10-15

    The dispersion relation of guided electromagnetic waves propagating in an elliptical metallic waveguide with a dielectric rod driven by relativistic elliptical electron beam (REEB) is investigated. The electric field profiles and the growth rates of the waves are numerically calculated by using Mathieu functions. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, accelerating voltage, and current density of REEB on the growth rate are presented.

  1. Heat generation caused by ablation of dental restorative materials with an ultra short pulse laser (USPL) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Andreas; Wehry, Richard; Brede, Olivier; Frentzen, Matthias; Schelle, Florian

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess heat generation in dental restoration materials following laser ablation using an Ultra Short Pulse Laser (USPL) system. Specimens of phosphate cement (PC), ceramic (CE) and composite (C) were used. Ablation was performed with an Nd:YVO4 laser at 1064 nm and a pulse length of 8 ps. Heat generation during laser ablation depended on the thickness of the restoration material. A time delay for temperature increase was observed in the PC and C group. Employing the USPL system for removal of restorative materials, heat generation has to be considered.

  2. A short-pulse K(a)-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements.

    PubMed

    Puranen, Mikko; Eskelinen, Pekka

    2008-10-01

    A portable K(a)-band instrumentation radar for foliage attenuation measurements has been designed. It uses direct dielectric resonator oscillator multiplier pulse modulation giving a half power pulse width of 17 ns. The dual conversion scalar receiver utilizes either a digital storage oscilloscope in envelope detection format or a special gated comparator arrangement providing 1 m resolution and associated led seven segment display for data analysis. The calibrated dynamic range is better than 37 dB with an equivalent noise floor of 0.005 dBsm at 25 m test range distance. First experiments indicate an effective beamwidth close to 1 degree. The total weight is below 5 kg and the unit can be mounted on a conventional photographic tripod. Power is supplied from a 12 V/6 A h sealed lead acid battery giving an operating time in excess of 10 h.

  3. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film.

    PubMed

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-01-15

    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2.

  4. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-01

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent’ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent’ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.ZETFA70044-4510 50, 1393 (1966) PerelomovPopovTerent’ev[Sov. Phys. JETPSPHJAR0038-5646 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1×1013 and 1×1015W/cm2. The Xe+-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p6 S2 state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  5. Wavelength and intensity dependence of short pulse laser xenon double ionization between 500 and 2300 nm.

    PubMed

    Gingras, G; Tripathi, A; Witzel, B

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1 x 10(13) and 1 x 10(15) W/cm2. The Xe+-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p6 2S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  6. Frequency entanglement characterization of short-pulse pumped SPDC biphoton source with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yiwei; Dong, Ruifang; Li, Baihong; Quan, Runai; Wang, Mengmeng; Hou, Feiyan; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Shougang

    2017-06-01

    Frequency entangled biphoton sources have played an important role in quantum information. There are two key characteristics which determine the extent of their applications: the spectral indistinguishability and the degree of frequency entanglement. Previously, the spectral indistinguishability of the biphoton state is measured by the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference visibility, whereas the degree of frequency entanglement is normally characterized with independent spectral measurements. However, these two quantum features have not been successfully measured with a single experimental setup. In this paper, we deduce the temporal distribution of a short-pulse pumped type-II spontaneous parametric down converted (SPDC) biphoton source and its relevant temporal entanglement parameter R t for operationally quantifying the degree of frequency entanglement. Furthermore, we theoretically and experimentally demonstrate, due to the inherent group delay, the difference between the signal and idler photons at the exit of the type-II nonlinear crystal, resulting in a HOM-shape dip at both sides of the center fringed envelope of the MZ interferometric coincidence diagram. By measuring the HOM-shape dip depth, the separation between the two sideband dips as well as the MZ fringed envelope width, both the spectral indistinguishability and the temporal entanglement parameter can thus be simultaneously quantified. This implementation provides us a unified and convenient method to characterize the frequency entanglement of the short-pulse pumped biphotons.

  7. Determination of mean surface position and sea state from the radar return of a short-pulse satellite altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Using the specular point theory of scatter from a very rough surface, the average backscatter cross section per unit area per radar cell width is derived for a cell located at a given height above the mean sea surface. This result is then applied to predict the average radar cross section observed by a short-pulse altimeter as a function of time for two modes of operation: pulse-limited and beam-limited configurations. For a pulse-limited satellite altimeter, a family of curves is calculated showing the distortion of the leading edge of the receiver output signal as a function of sea state (i.e., wind speed). A signal processing scheme is discussed that permits an accurate determination of the mean surface position--even in high seas--and, as a by-product, the estimation of the significant seawave height (or wind speed above the surface). Comparison of these analytical results with experimental data for both pulse-limited and beam-limited operation lends credence to the model. Such a model should aid in the design of short-pulse altimeters for accurate determination of the geoid over the oceans, as well as for the use of such altimeters for orbital sea-state monitoring.

  8. Short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases bond strength of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cersosimo, Maria Cecília Pereira; Matos, Adriana Bona; Couto, Roberta Souza D.'Almeida; Marques, Márcia Martins; de Freitas, Patricia Moreira

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser on the adhesion of composite resin to sound and eroded dentin (SD and ED). Forty-six samples of occlusal dentine, obtained from human molars, had half of their surface protected, while the other half was submitted to erosive cycles. Afterward, 23 samples were irradiated with Er:YAG laser, resulting in four experimental groups: SD, sound irradiated dentine (SID-Er:YAG, 50 μs, 2 Hz, 80 mJ, and 12.6 J/cm2), ED, and eroded irradiated dentin (EID-erosion + Er:YAG laser). A self-etching adhesive system was used, and then cylinders of composite resin were prepared. A microshear bond strength test was performed after 24 h storage (n=20). The morphology of SD and ED, with or without Er:YAG laser irradiation, was evaluated under scanning electron microscopy (n=3). Bond strength values (MPa) were subjected to analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. Statistically significant differences were found among the experimental groups: SD (9.76±3.39 B), SID (12.77±5.09 A), ED (5.12±1.72 D), and EID (7.62±3.39 C). Even though erosion reduces the adhesion to dentin, the surface irradiation with a short-pulse Er:YAG laser increases adhesion to both ED and SD.

  9. Temporal and spatial temperature distribution in the glabrous skin of rats induced by short-pulse CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Pen-Li; Hsu, Shu-Shen; Tsai, Meng-Li; Jaw, Fu-Shan; Wang, An-Bang; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-11-01

    Pain is a natural alarm that aids the body in avoiding potential danger and can also present as an important indicator in clinics. Infrared laser-evoked potentials can be used as an objective index to evaluate nociception. In animal studies, a short-pulse laser is crucial because it completes the stimulation before escape behavior. The objective of the present study was to obtain the temporal and spatial temperature distributions in the skin caused by the irradiation of a short-pulse laser. A fast speed infrared camera was used to measure the surface temperature caused by a CO2 laser of different durations (25 and 35 ms) and power. The measured results were subsequently implemented with a three-layer finite element model to predict the subsurface temperature. We found that stratum corneum was crucial in the modeling of fast temperature response, and escape behaviors correlated with predictions of temperature at subsurface. Results indicated that the onset latency and duration of activated nociceptors must be carefully considered when interpreting physiological responses evoked by infrared irradiation.

  10. Assessment of the limits to peak power of 1100nm broad area single emitter diode lasers under short pulse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Crump, P.; Pietrzak, A.; Schultz, C.; Klehr, A.; Hoffmann, T.; Liero, A.; Ginolas, A.; Einfeldt, S.; Bugge, F.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.

    2009-02-01

    High power diode lasers are the root source of optical energy in all high performance laser systems. As their performance advances, diode lasers are increasingly taking the place of other sources. Short pulse, sub-microsecond-class, high power lasers are important for many applications but historically, diode lasers have not been able to reach high enough peak pulse powers with adequate reliability, limited by physical effects such as facet failure. By combining robust facet passivation with thick super large optical cavity waveguides, greatly increased optical output power can be achieved. We present here the results of a study using commercial high current short pulse sources (>200A, <500ns) to assess the performance and endurance limits of high power broad area devices. We find that our lasers can be driven with a peak power density of over 110MWcm-2 without failure for more than 3×107 pulses. For example, on testing to 240A, single emitter 200μm stripe 1100nm broad area devices reach 124W (46μJ) without failure, and 60μm stripes reach 88W. In practice, high injection effects such as carrier accumulation in waveguide typically limit peak power. We review these remaining limitations, and discuss how they can be overcome.

  11. Extreme states of matter in solids under short-pulse laser irradiation: a molecular-dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorazo, Patrick; Lewis, Laurent J.; Meunier, Michel

    2004-03-01

    The thermodynamic pathways through which a silicon target---initially in a hot, highly pressurized state---dilutes into vacuum as a result of short-pulse laser irradiation, are thoroughly investigated. This is accomplished by (1) using a combined molecular-dynamics and Monte Carlo approach to describe atom and carrier dynamics, respectively, and (2) following the thermodynamic evolution of the system during heating, expansion, and cooling [1]. Our results indicate a pulse duration upper limit for phase explosion in metals and semiconductors of ˜ 10-11s. For longer pulses, fragmentation, as originally proposed by Perez and Lewis for fs irradiation [1], remains the only relevant ablation mechanism [2]. Fragmentation can thus be viewed as the missing link in short-pulse laser ablation as it explains (1) the disappearance of Newton rings in the fs regime far from the ablation threshold, and (2) the matter removal dynamics with ``long''(> 10-11s) pulse durations. [1] D. Perez and L. J. Lewis, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 255504(2002); [2] P. Lorazo, L. J. Lewis, and M. Meunier, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 225502 (2003).

  12. Impact of Pre-Plasma on Fast Electron Generation and Transport from Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peebles, J.; McGuffey, C.; Krauland, C.; Jarrott, L. C.; Sorokovikova, A.; Qiao, B.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Beg, F. N.; Wei, M. S.; Park, J.; Link, A.; Chen, H.; McLean, H. S.; Wagner, C.; Minello, V.; McCary, E.; Meadows, A.; Spinks, M.; Gaul, E.; Dyer, G.; Hegelich, B. M.; Martinez, M.; Donovan, M.; Ditmire, T.

    2014-10-01

    We present the results and analysis from recent short pulse laser matter experiments using the Texas Petawatt Laser to study the impact of pre-plasma on fast electron generation and transport. The experimental setup consisted of 3 separate beam elements: a main, high intensity, short pulse beam for the interaction, a secondary pulse of equal intensity interacting with a separate thin foil target to generate protons for side-on proton imaging and a third, low intensity, wider beam to generate a varied scale length pre-plasma. The main target consisted of a multilayer planar Al foil with a buried Cu fluor layer. The electron beam was characterized with multiple diagnostics, including several bremsstrahlung spectrometers, magnetic electron spectrometers and Cu-K α imaging. The protons from the secondary target were used to image the fields on the front of the target in the region of laser plasma interaction. Features seen in the interaction region by these protons will be presented along with characteristics of the generated electron beam. This work performed under the auspices of the US DOE under Contracts DE-FOA-0000583 (FES, NNSA).

  13. Vaporization and recondensation dynamics of indocyanine green-loaded perfluoropentane droplets irradiated by a short pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jaesok; Chen, Xucai; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.; Kim, Kang

    2016-12-01

    Phase-transition droplets have been proposed as promising contrast agents for ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging. Short pulse laser activated perfluorocarbon-based droplets, especially when in a medium with a temperature below their boiling point, undergo phase changes of vaporization and recondensation in response to pulsed laser irradiation. Here, we report and discuss the vaporization and recondensation dynamics of perfluoropentane droplets containing indocyanine green in response to a short pulsed laser with optical and acoustic measurements. To investigate the effect of temperature on the vaporization process, an imaging chamber was mounted on a temperature-controlled water reservoir and then the vaporization event was recorded at 5 million frames per second via a high-speed camera. The high-speed movies show that most of the droplets within the laser beam area expanded rapidly as soon as they were exposed to the laser pulse and immediately recondensed within 1-2 μs. The vaporization/recondensation process was consistently reproduced in six consecutive laser pulses to the same area. As the temperature of the media was increased above the boiling point of the perfluoropentane, the droplets were less likely to recondense and remained in a gas phase after the first vaporization. These observations will help to clarify the underlying processes and eventually guide the design of repeatable phase-transition droplets as a photoacoustic imaging contrast agent.

  14. Optical design of the Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    PubMed Central

    Reininger, R.; Keavney, D. J.; Borland, M.; Young, L.

    2013-01-01

    The Short Pulse X-ray facility planned for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade will provide two sectors with photon beams having picosecond pulse duration. The Short Pulse Soft X-ray Spectroscopy (SPSXS) beamline will cover the 150–2000 eV energy range using an APS bending magnet. SPSXS is designed to take full advantage of this new timing capability in addition to providing circular polarized radiation. Since the correlation between time and electron momentum is in the vertical plane, the monochromator disperses in the horizontal plane. The beamline is designed to maximize flux and preserve the time resolution by minimizing the number of optical components. The optical design allows the pulse duration to be varied from 1.5 to 100 ps full width at half-maximum (FWHM) without affecting the energy resolution, and the resolution to be changed with minimal effect on the pulse duration. More than 109 photons s−1 will reach the sample with a resolving power of 2000 and a pulse duration of ∼2 ps for photon energies between 150 and 1750 eV. The spot size expected at the sample position will vary with pulse duration and exit slit opening. At 900 eV and at a resolving power of 2000 the spot will be ∼10 µm × 10 µm with a pulse duration of 2.3 ps FWHM. PMID:23765311

  15. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    PubMed

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A

    2008-10-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  16. Transformation of the frequency-modulated continuous-wave field into a train of short pulses by resonant filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhmuratov, R. N.

    2017-03-01

    The resonant filtering method transforming the frequency-modulated radiation field into a train of short pulses is proposed to be applied in the optical domain. Effective frequency modulation can be achieved by using an electro-optic modulator. Due to frequency modulation, a narrow-spectrum cw radiation field is seen by the resonant filter as a comb of equidistant spectral components separated by the modulation frequency. Tuning a narrow-bandwidth filter in resonance with the n th spectral component of the comb transforms the radiation field into bunches of pulses, with n pulses in each bunch. The transformation is explained by the interference of the coherently scattered resonant component of the field with the whole comb. Constructive interference results in the formation of pulses, while destructive interference is seen as dark windows between pulses. It is indicated that the optimal thickness of the resonant filter is several orders of magnitude smaller than the necessary thickness of the dispersive filters used before in the optical domain to produce short pulses from the frequency-modulated field.

  17. Photodarkening kinetics in a high-power YDFA versus CW or short-pulse seed conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Alain; Vinçont, Cyril; Boullet, Johan

    2017-02-01

    We propose an innovating model to describe the kinetics of competing photo-darkening and photo-bleaching phenomena in high-power, Ytterbium-Doped-Fibre-Amplifiers. This model makes use of aggregated species of trivalent Ytterbium and divalent ions, which operate as primarily efficient color-centers. This ensures multi-photon excitation, partly from the pump and partly from the signal. The fit of numerical computations with dedicated experiments help to validate our theoretical assumptions, in the definition of the involved physics. Potential applications of this study include further discussions for the selection of processing options with fibre-manufacturers and the optimization of operating conditions.

  18. Laser induced damage in multilayer dielectric gratings due to ultrashort laser pulses. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Stuart, B.C.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-07-11

    Chirped pulse amplification is increasingly used to produce intense ultrashort laser pulses. When high-efficiency gratings are the dispersive element, as in the LLNL Petawatt laser, their susceptibility to laser induced damage constitutes a limitation on the peak intensities that can be reached. To obtain robust gratings, it is necessary to understand the causes of short-pulse damage, and to recognize the range of design options for high efficiency gratings. Metal gratings owe their high efficiency to their high conductivity. To avoid the inevitable light absorption that accompanies conductivity, we have developed designs for high efficiency rejection gratings that use only transparent dielectric materials. These combine the reflectivity of a multi-layer dielectric stack with a diffraction grating. We report here our present understanding of short-pulse laser induced damage, as it applies to dielectric gratings.

  19. Laser induced damage in multilayer dielectric gratings due to ultrashort laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Shore, B.W.; Stuart, B.C.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M.; Perry, M.D.

    1995-05-26

    Chirped pulse amplification is increasingly used to produce intense ultrashort laser pulses. When high-efficiency gratings are the dispersive element, as in the LLNL Petawatt laser, their susceptibility to laser induced damage constitutes a limitation on the peak intensities that can be reached. To obtain robust gratings, it is necessary to understand the causes of short-pulse damage, and to recognize the range of design options for high efficiency gratings. Metal gratings owe their high efficiency to their high conductivity. To avoid the inevitable light absorption that accompanies conductivity, we have developed designs for high efficiency reflection gratings that use only transparent dielectric materials. These combine the reflectivity of a multilayer dielectric stack with a diffraction grating. We report here our present understanding of short-pulse laser induced damage, as it applies to dielectric gratings.

  20. Channels of energy redistribution in short-pulse laser interactions with metal targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.; Ivanov, Dmitriy S.

    2005-07-01

    The kinetics and channels of laser energy redistribution in a target irradiated by a short, 1 ps, laser pulse is investigated in computer simulations performed with a model that combines molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with a continuum description of the laser excitation and relaxation of the conduction band electrons, based on the two-temperature model (TTM). The energy transferred from the excited electrons to the lattice splits into several parts, namely the energy of the thermal motion of the atoms, the energy of collective atomic motions associated with the relaxation of laser-induced stresses, the energy carried away from the surface region of the target by a stress wave, the energy of quasi-static anisotropic stresses, and, at laser fluences above the melting threshold, the energy transferred to the latent heat of melting and then released upon recrystallization. The presence of the non-thermal channels of energy redistribution (stress wave and quasi-static stresses), not accounted for in the conventional TTM model, can have important implications for interpretation of experimental results on the kinetics of thermal and mechanical relaxation of a target irradiated by a short laser pulse as well as on the characteristics of laser-induced phase transformations. The fraction of the non-thermal energy in the total laser energy partitioning increases with increasing laser fluence.

  1. Superdirective dielectric nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnok, Alexander E.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Belov, Pavel A.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce the novel concept of superdirective nanoantennas based on the excitation of higher-order magnetic multipole moments in subwavelength dielectric nanoparticles. Our superdirective nanoantenna is a small Si nanosphere containing a notch, and is excited by a dipole located within the notch. In addition to extraordinary directivity, this nanoantenna demonstrates efficient radiation steering at the nanoscale, resulting from the subwavelength sensitivity of the beam radiation direction to variation of the source position inside the notch. We compare our dielectric nanoantenna with a plasmonic nanoantenna of similar geometry, and reveal that the nanoantenna's high directivity in the regime of transmission is not associated with strong localization of near fields in the regime of reception. Likewise, the absence of hot spots inside the nanoantenna leads to low dissipation in the radiation regime, so that our dielectric nanoantenna has significantly smaller losses and high radiation efficiency of up to 70%.

  2. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wen, Liewei; Yang, Sihua; Zhong, Junping; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Da

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor. In addition to be a MRI contrast agent for tumor localization, HSA-SPIO can absorb pulsed microwave energy and transform it into shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is expected to be a sensitive and accurate representation of the HSA-SPIO accumulation in tumor. More importantly, owing to the selective retention of HSA-SPIO in tumor tissues and strong TA shockwave at the cellular level, HSA-SPIO induced TA effect under microwave-pulse radiation can be used to highly-efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, ultra-short pulsed microwave with high excitation efficiency and deep penetrability in biological tissues makes TA therapy a highly-efficient anti-tumor modality on the versatile platform. Overall, HSA-SPIO mediated MRI and TA imaging would offer more comprehensive diagnostic information and enable dynamic visualization of nanoagents in the tumorous tissue thereby tumor-targeted therapy.

  3. Thermoacoustic Imaging and Therapy Guidance based on Ultra-short Pulsed Microwave Pumped Thermoelastic Effect Induced with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Liewei; Yang, Sihua; Zhong, Junping; Zhou, Quan; Xing, Da

    2017-01-01

    Multifunctional nanoparticle-mediated imaging and therapeutic techniques are promising modalities for accurate localization and targeted treatment of cancer in clinical settings. Thermoacoustic (TA) imaging is highly sensitive to detect the distribution of water, ions or specific nanoprobes and provides excellent resolution, good contrast and superior tissue penetrability. TA therapy is a potential non-invasive approach for the treatment of deep-seated tumors. In this study, human serum albumin (HSA)-functionalized superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle (HSA-SPIO) is used as a multifunctional nanoprobe with clinical application potential for MRI, TA imaging and treatment of tumor. In addition to be a MRI contrast agent for tumor localization, HSA-SPIO can absorb pulsed microwave energy and transform it into shockwave via the thermoelastic effect. Thereby, the reconstructed TA image by detecting TA signal is expected to be a sensitive and accurate representation of the HSA-SPIO accumulation in tumor. More importantly, owing to the selective retention of HSA-SPIO in tumor tissues and strong TA shockwave at the cellular level, HSA-SPIO induced TA effect under microwave-pulse radiation can be used to highly-efficiently kill cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth. Furthermore, ultra-short pulsed microwave with high excitation efficiency and deep penetrability in biological tissues makes TA therapy a highly-efficient anti-tumor modality on the versatile platform. Overall, HSA-SPIO mediated MRI and TA imaging would offer more comprehensive diagnostic information and enable dynamic visualization of nanoagents in the tumorous tissue thereby tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:28638483

  4. Generation of fluorescent CdSe nanocrystals by short-pulse laser fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zholudov, Yu. T.; Sajti, C. L.; Slipchenko, N. N.; Chichkov, B. N.

    2015-12-01

    A simple liquid-phase laser fragmentation approach, resulting in the rapid transformation of CdSe microcrystals into colloidal quantum dots (QDs), is presented. Laser fragmentation is achieved by irradiating a CdSe suspension in dimethylformamide with intense infrared, picosecond laser pulses followed by surface passivation with oleylamine or different types of phosphines. The generated QDs reveal perfect colloidal stability preventing agglomeration and precipitation, and show characteristic QD absorption and fluorescence characteristics, whereas their emission properties strongly depend on the surface states and applied capping ligands. These QDs show distinct photoemission under 405-nm single-photon and 800-nm multi-photon excitations in the 560- to 610-nm spectral region corresponding to the QDs size of about 1.5-2 nm in diameter which is confirmed by transmission electron microscopy.

  5. A microwave dielectric resonant oscillatory circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigov, A. S.; Shvartsburg, A. B.

    2016-07-01

    Bias currents in a thin dielectric nonconducting torus are investigated, and the resonant mode of excitation of these currents is established. The similarity of the frequency spectrum of such a dielectric element to the spectra of a classical Thomson oscillatory circuit and a metamaterial with negative permittivity is demonstrated. The resonant frequency of electromagnetic oscillations of the ring dielectric circuit and magnetic and electric fields of such a circuit under resonant excitation are determined.

  6. Dielectric barrier discharges applied for optical spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, S.; Schütz, A.; Klute, F. D.; Kratzer, J.; Franzke, J.

    2016-09-01

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges for optical spectrometric detection in analytical chemistry. In contrast to usual discharges with a direct current the electrodes are separated by at least one dielectric barrier. There are two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges: they can serve as dissociation and excitation devices as well as ionization sources, respectively. This article portrays various application fields of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry used for elemental and molecular detection with optical spectrometry.

  7. Short-pulse generation at 10 μm in an active cw-injected ring laser cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdet, Gilbert L.

    2003-09-01

    Continuous coherent light conversion in a train of short pulses with good efficiency is possible with a multipass interferometer in which the frequency is shifted at every pass with an acousto-optic frequency shifter. This technique allows one to generate a spectrum made of equidistant components, interferences of which build intense light pulses. Unfortunately, both the width and efficiency of the pulses are limited by the losses undergone by the waves traveling through the interferometer cavity. Improvement of the pulse duration, the peak intensity, and the contrast can be expected in such an experiment when an amplifier is set up inside the cavity. I report on theoretical computations related to this apparatus and apply this theoretical model to a high-pressure CO2 amplifier.

  8. Simulation of the short pulse effects in the start-up from noise in high-gain FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, S.J.; Kim, K.J.

    1995-12-31

    The spatio-temporal evolution of high-gain free electron lasers from noise is investigated by 1-D simulation calculation. To understand the discrepancy between the experimental result and theoretical prediction of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the strong slippage effect in the short pulse electron beam and the coherent bunched beam effect are considered. When the length over which the electron density varies significantly is comparable or smaller than the FEL wavelength, the initial noise level would be increased due to the enhanced coherence between electrons. With a proper computer modeling of the start-up from noise including the energy spread, the overall performance and characteristics of SASE are studied. This work will be helpful to increase the credibility of the simulation calculation to predict the SASE performance in all wave-length regions.

  9. An analysis of short pulse and dual frequency radar techniques for measuring ocean wave spectra from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1980-01-01

    Scanning beam microwave radars were used to measure ocean wave directional spectra from satellites. In principle, surface wave spectral resolution in wave number can be obtained using either short pulse (SP) or dual frequency (DF) techniques; in either case, directional resolution obtains naturally as a consequence of a Bragg-like wave front matching. A four frequency moment characterization of backscatter from the near vertical using physical optics in the high frequency limit was applied to an analysis of the SP and DF measurement techniques. The intrinsic electromagnetic modulation spectrum was to the first order in wave steepness proportional to the large wave directional slope spectrum. Harmonic distortion was small and was a minimum near 10 deg incidence. NonGaussian wave statistics can have an effect comparable to that in the second order of scattering from a normally distributed sea surface. The SP technique is superior to the DF technique in terms of measurement signal to noise ratio and contrast ratio.

  10. Method for determining the position, angle and other injection parameters of a short pulsed beam in the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.; Ahrens, L.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the effort to improve the monitoring of the injection process at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), we have developed a beam diagnostics package which processes the signals from the plates of a pick-up electrode (PUE) located near the injection region of the AGS and provides measurements of the position and angle (with respect to the equilibrium orbit) of the injected beam at the stripping foil where the incident H/sup -/ beam is converted into protons. In addition the package provides measurements of the tune and chromaticity of the AGS at injection, and a measurement of the momentum spread of the injected beam. Since these parameters are obtained for a short-pulsed beam at injection we shall refer to the diagnostics package as PIP which stands for Pulsed Injection Parameters.

  11. Remote profiling of lake ice using an S-band short pulse radar aboard an all-terrain vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D. W.; Mueller, R. A.; Schertler, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    An airborne short-pulse radar system to measure ice thickness was designed. The system supported an effort to develop an all-weather Great Lakes Ice Information System to aid in extending the winter navigation season. Experimental studies into the accuracy and limitations of the system are described. A low power version was operated from an all-terrain vehicle on the Straits of Mackinac during March 1975. The vehicle allowed rapid surveying of large areas and eliminated the ambiguity in location between the radar system and the ground truth ice auger team. It was also possible to the effects of snow cover, surface melt water, pressure ridging, and ice type upon the accuracy of the system. Over 25 sites were explored which had ice thicknesses from 29 to 60 cm. The maximum radar overestimate was 9.8 percent, while the maximum underestimate was 6.6 percent. The average error of the 25 measurements was 0.1 percent.

  12. Isochoric heating of hot dense matter by magnetization of fast electrons produced by ultra-intense short pulse irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentoku, Y.; Kemp, A.; Bakeman, M.; Presura, R.; Cowan, T. E.

    2006-06-01

    Ultra-intense short-pulse lasers are important tools for creating short-lived high energy plasmas, however to date, it has not been possible, with this method, to create several hundred eV solid density matter because of the rapid transport of the laser-generated hot electrons throughout the target volume. We propose a new way to isochorically heat matter at solid density to extreme temperatures by magnetic confinement of laser-generated hot electrons for several picoseconds by application of a multi-MG external field. In advance of an experiment at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF), using a 100 TW-class laser, which will be synchronized to a 1MA Z-pinch machine, we have performed theoretical studies using a collisional particle-in-cell codes PICLS, which is optimized for a study of isochoric heating of solid density plasmas.

  13. Multi-soliton, multi-breather and higher order rogue wave solutions to the complex short pulse equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Liming; Feng, Bao-Feng; Zhu, Zuonong

    2016-07-01

    In the present paper, we are concerned with the general analytic solutions to the complex short pulse (CSP) equation including soliton, breather and rogue wave solutions. With the aid of a generalized Darboux transformation, we construct the N-bright soliton solution in a compact determinant form, the N-breather solution including the Akhmediev breather and a general higher order rogue wave solution. The first and second order rogue wave solutions are given explicitly and analyzed. The asymptotic analysis is performed rigorously for both the N-soliton and the N-breather solutions. All three forms of the analytical solutions admit either smoothed-, cusped- or looped-type ones for the CSP equation depending on the parameters. It is noted that, due to the reciprocal (hodograph) transformation, the rogue wave solution to the CSP equation can be a smoothed, cusponed or a looped one, which is different from the rogue wave solution found so far.

  14. Self-consistent particle-in-cell modelling of short pulse absorption and transport for high energy density physics experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, M. G.; Arber, T. D.; Sircombe, N. J.

    2016-03-01

    In order for detailed, solid density particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to run within a reasonable time frame, novel approaches to modelling high density material must be employed. For the purposes of modelling high intensity, short pulse laser-plasma interactions, however, these approaches must be consistent with retaining a full PIC model in the low-density laser interaction region. By replacing the standard Maxwell field solver with an electric field update based on a simplified Ohm's law in regions of high electron density, it is possible to access densities at and above solid without being subject to the standard grid and time step constraints. Such a model has recently been implemented in the PIC code EPOCH. We present the initial results of a detailed two-dimensional simulation performed to compare the adapted version of the code with recent experimental results from the Orion laser facility.

  15. Remote sensing of atmospheric pressure and sea state from satellites using short-pulse multicolor laser altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, C. S.; Tsai, B. M.; Abshire, J. B.

    1983-01-01

    Short pulse multicolor laser ranging systems are currently being developed for satellite ranging applications. These systems use Q-switched pulsed lasers and streak tube cameras to provide timing accuracies approaching a few picoseconds. Satellite laser ranging systems was used to evaluate many important geophysical phenomena such as fault motion, polar motion and solid earth tides, by measuring the orbital perturbations of retroreflector equipped satellites. Some existing operational systems provide range resolution approaching a few millimeters. There is currently considerable interest in adapting these highly accurate systems for use as airborne and satellite based altimeters. Potential applications include the measurement of sea state, ground topography and atmospheric pressure. This paper reviews recent progress in the development of multicolor laser altimeters for use in monitoring sea state and atmospheric pressure.

  16. 20-100 keV K(alpha) X-Ray Source Generation by Short Pulse High Intensity Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Park, H-S; Koch, J A; Landen, O L; Phillips, T W; Goldsack, T

    2003-08-22

    We are studying the feasibility of utilizing K{alpha} x-ray sources in the range of 20 to 100 keV as a backlighters for imaging various stages of implosions and high areal density planar samples driven by the NIF laser facility. The hard x-ray K{alpha} sources are created by relativistic electron plasma interactions in the target material after a radiation by short pulse high intensity lasers. In order to understand K{alpha} source characteristics such as production efficiency and brightness as a function of laser parameters, we have performed experiments using the 10 J, 100 fs JanUSP laser. We utilized single-photon counting spectroscopy and x-ray imaging diagnostics to characterize the K{alpha} source. We find that the K{alpha} conversion efficiency from the laser energy is {approx} 3 x 10{sup -4}.

  17. Properties of High-Frequency Sub-Wavelength Ripples on Stainless Steel 304L under Ultra Short Pulse Laser Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitko, V. S.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Veld, A. J. Huis in `t.; Skolski, J. Z. P.; Obona, J. V.; Ocelík, V.; De Hosson, J. T. M.

    The paper concentrates on surface texturing on sub-micro meter scale with ultra short laser pulses that has several applications, e.g. changing the hydrophilic/hydrophobic performance, optical or tribological properties of materials. In general, the formations of wavy structures, or ripples on a surface irradiated by short pulse lasers has been observed experimentally since 1965, and are usually referred to as Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS). Generally Low Spatial Frequency LIPSS (LSFL) and High Spatial Frequency LIPSS (HSFL) are observed. The existing theoretical models do not describe the origin, nor growth of the ripples satisfactorily. That is why the experimental approach still plays a leading role in the investigation of ripple formation. In this paper we study the development of HSFL and LSFL as a result of picosecond laser pulses on a surface of stainless steel. Influences of number of pulses and pulse overlap on ripples growth were examined.

  18. Investigating short-pulse shock initiation in HMX-based explosives with reactive meso-scale simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Springer, H. K.; Tarver, C. M.; Reaugh, J. E.; May, C. M.

    2014-05-01

    We performed reactive meso-scale simulations of short-pulse experiments to study the influence of flyer velocity and pore structure on shock initiation of LX-10 (95wt% HMX, 5wt% Viton A). Our calculations show that the reaction evolution fit a power law relationship in time and increases with increasing porosity, decreasing pore size, and increasing flyer velocity. While heterogeneous shock initiation modes, dependent on hot spot mechanisms, are predicted at lower flyer velocities, mixed heterogeneous-homogeneous shock initiation modes, less dependent on hot spots, are predicted at higher velocities. These studies are important because they enable the development of predictive shock initiation models that incorporate complex microstructure and can be used to optimize performance-safety characteristics of explosives.

  19. High-power Waveguide Dampers for the Short-Pulse X-Ray Project at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Waldschmidt, G J; Liu, J; Middendorf, M E; Nassiri, A; Smith, T L; Wu, G; Henry, J; Mammosser, J D; Rimmer, R A; Wiseman, M

    2012-07-01

    High-power waveguide dampers have been designed and prototyped for the Short-Pulse X-ray (SPX) cavities at the Advanced Photon Source. The cavities will operate at 2.815 GHz and utilize the TM110 dipole mode. As a result, higher-order (HOM) and lower-order mode (LOM) in-vacuum dampers have been designed to satisfy the demanding broadband damping requirements in the APS storage ring. The SPX single-cell cavity consists of two WR284 waveguides for damping the HOMs and one WR284 waveguide for primarily damping the LOM where up to 2kW will be dissipated in the damping material. The damper designs and high-power experimental results will be discussed in this paper.

  20. The new methods of treatment for age-related macular degeneration using the ultra-short pulsed laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Yumiko; Awazu, Kunio; Suzuki, Sachiko; Ohshima, Tetsuro; Sawa, Miki; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Tano, Yasuo; Ohji, Masahito

    2007-02-01

    The non-invasive methods of treatments have been studying for the improvement of quality of life (QOL) of patients undergoing treatment. A photodynamic therapy (PDT) is one of the non-invasive treatments. PDT is the methods of treatment using combination of a laser and a photosensitizer. PDT has few risks for patients. Furthermore, PDT enables function preservation of a disease part. PDT has been used for early cancer till now, but in late years it is applied for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). AMD is one of the causes of vision loss in older people. However, PDT for AMD does not produce the best improvement in visual acuity. The skin photosensivity by an absorption characteristic of a photosensitizer is avoided. We examined new PDT using combination of an ultra-short pulsed laser and indocyanine green (ICG).

  1. Laser Processing of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics - Release of Carbon Fiber Segments During Short-pulsed Laser Processing of CFRP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Juergen; Brodesser, Alexander; Hustedt, Michael; Bluemel, Sven; Jaeschke, Peter; Kaierle, Stefan

    Cutting and ablation using short-pulsed laser radiation are promising technologies to produce or repair CFRP components with outstanding mechanical properties e.g. for automotive and aircraft industry. Using sophisticated laser processing strategies and avoiding excessive heating of the workpiece, a high processing quality can be achieved. However, the interaction of laser radiation and composite material causes a notable release of hazardous substances from the process zone, amongst others carbon fiber segments or fibrous particles. In this work, amounts and geometries of the released fiber segments are analyzed and discussed in terms of their hazardous potential. Moreover, it is investigated to what extent gaseous organic process emissions are adsorbed at the fiber segments, similar to an adsorption of volatile organic compounds at activated carbon, which is typically used as filter material.

  2. Short-pulse controlled optical switch using external cavity based single mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode.

    PubMed

    Nakarmi, Bikash; Hoai, Tran Quoc; Won, Yong-Hyub; Zhang, Xuping

    2014-06-30

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme for short pulse controlled all-optical switch using external cavity based single mode Fabry- Pérot laser diode (SMFP-LD). The proposed scheme consists of control unit and switching unit as two essential blocks. The basic principle of the proposed scheme is the optical bistability property of SMFP-LD for the control unit and the suppression of the dominant beam of SMFP-LD with injection locking for the switching unit. We also present the analysis of hysteresis width and rising/falling time with change in wavelength detuning which helps to find the optimum wavelength detuning value and power of light beams at different stages of the proposed scheme that gives wide input dynamic power range, high ON/OFF contrast ratio, and low rising/falling time. Input data of 10 Gb/s Non Return to Zero (NRZ) signal is switched at output ports depending upon the control signal generated by the control unit, which comprises of optical SR latch. Output waveforms, clear eye diagrams with extinction ratio of about 11 dB, rising/falling time of about 30 ps and 40 ps, and bit error rate (BER) are measured to validate proposed scheme. No noise floor is observed at output ports up to BER of 10-(12) and the maximum power penalty recorded is about 1.7 dB at a BER of 10-(9) which shows good performance of the proposed short pulse controlled optical switch using SMFP-LDs.

  3. Bilayer Bismuth Selenide nanoplatelets based saturable absorber for ultra-short pulse generation (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yanhua; Xie, Hanhan; Jiang, Guobao; Miao, Lili; Wang, Ke; Tang, Siying; Yu, Xuefeng; Zhang, Han; Bao, Qiaoliang

    2017-07-01

    Based on an efficient and bottom-up synthesis technique, Bismuth Selenide (Bi2Se3) nanoplatelets with uniform morphology and average thickness down to 3-7 nm had been fabricated. Its nonlinear absorption property under high power excitation had been well characterized by our Z-scan measurement system at different illumination wavelengths, and we found that the as-fabricated bi-layer Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets show unique nonlinear optical responses, that is, with a saturable optical intensity of 32 GW/cm2 (resp. 3.7 MW/cm2) and a modulation depth of 88% (resp. 36%) at 800 nm (resp. 1565 nm). By implementing its saturable absorption property, we designed an optical saturable absorber device based on bilayer Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets through deposited them onto the end-facet of optical fiber. The as-fabricated optical saturable absorber device allows for the generation of mode-locking pulses at 1571 nm with pulse duration of 579 fs and a repetition rate of 12.54 MHz at a pump power of 160 mW. The method on fabricating ultrathin Bi2Se3 nanoplatelets may pave a new way to massive production of large-area topological insulator thin films that can be used in two-dimensional layered materials related photonics device.

  4. Time-resolved microscopy using variable probe wavelengths for ultra-short pulse interaction (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergner, Klaus; Kumkar, Malte; Tünnermann, Andreas; Nolte, Stefan; Seyfarth, Brian

    2017-03-01

    Glass processing with ultrashort laser pulses allow for different material modifications, ranging from smooth refractive index changes which can be used for the generation of waveguides up to large disruptions due to accumulates stress for glass separation. These disruptions, generated by a dense electron plasma, are favored for glass dicing applications. To tailor the resulting material response a fundamental understanding of the laser/material interaction is of interest. Therefore, we analyze the spatio-temporal evolution of free carriers induced by ultrashort laser pulses using a pump-probe setup with high temporal and spatial resolution and various probe wavelengths. Single laser pulses with 1026nm wavelength, 6ps (FWHM) pulse duration and 200μJ pulse energy were applied to fused silica, Borofloat 33 and Gorilla glass. Electron densities around 1 x 1020cm-3 in the focal plane and 1 x 1019cm-3 in front of the focus are obtained, independent from the glass type used. The free carriers slowly decay within several ns, while the decay time depends on both the maximum electron densities reached and glass species. In this process a part of the excited electrons relax within several 10ps into a long-living stage where a transient effect is observed. Here, various probe wavelengths show differences in the recorded signal. A further carrier relaxation leads to permanent (stress, voids) and non-stable (color center) modifications crucial for precise glass dicing applications.

  5. Interaction of a finite train of short pulses with an atomic ladder system

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, H. U.; Lomsadze, B.; Trachy, M. L.; Veshapidze, G.; Fehrenbach, C. W.; DePaola, B. D.

    2010-10-15

    When a train of optical pulses interacts with a medium, the time between pulses and the pulse-to-pulse phase jump have a profound effect on the outcome of the interaction. For a near-infinite train of regularly separated pulses having a constant pulse-to-pulse phase jump, as in the output of a frequency comb laser interacting with a ladder system, excitation of that system has been previously calculated and compared with experiment. In that case, the number of pulses in the train is very large, and the energy per pulse is very small. In the present work, the other extreme is experimentally examined: A small number of regularly spaced optical pulses are made to interact with a three-level ladder system in atomic rubidium. The pulses have been amplified, possibly placing the interactions into a nonperturbative regime. The experimental results are compared to a simple intuitive model and found to be in good general agreement. However, some aspects of the experimental results seem to be at odds with the simple model.

  6. Short-pulse photoassociation in rubidium below the D{sub 1} line

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Christiane P.; Kosloff, Ronnie; Masnou-Seeuws, Francoise

    2006-04-15

    Photoassociation of two ultracold rubidium atoms and the subsequent formation of stable molecules in the singlet ground and lowest triplet states is investigated theoretically. The method employs laser pulses inducing transitions via excited states correlated to the 5S+5P{sub 1/2} asymptote. Weakly bound molecules in the singlet ground or lowest triplet state can be created by a single pulse while the formation of more deeply bound molecules requires a two-color pump-dump scenario. More deeply bound molecules in the singlet ground or lowest triplet state can be produced only if efficient mechanisms for both pump and dump steps exist. While long-range 1/R{sup 3} potentials allow for efficient photoassociation, stabilization is facilitated by the resonant spin-orbit coupling of the 0{sub u}{sup +} states. Molecules in the singlet ground state bound by a few wave numbers can thus be formed. This provides a promising first step toward ground-state molecules which are ultracold in both translational and vibrational degrees of freedom.

  7. Short-pulse CO2 laser with longitudinal tandem discharge tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, K.; Akitsu, T.; Jitsuno, T.

    2014-10-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a tandem discharge tube. The tandem scheme was constituted of two 30-cm long discharge tubes connected with an intermediate electrode. Two parts, each consisting of a charged capacitance and a 30-cm long discharge tube, were electrically connected in parallel and switched by a spark gap. The tandem scheme produced a short laser pulse like that of a TEA-CO2 laser with a charging voltage of -24.8 kV, which was smaller than the -40.0 kV charging voltage of our previous CO2 laser. At a gas pressure of 3.8 kPa, the spike pulse width was 145 ns, the pulse tail length was 58.8 μs, the output energy was 52.0 mJ, and the spike pulse energy was 2.4 mJ. We also investigated the dependence of the laser pulse and the discharge voltage on gas pressure.

  8. Short-pulse cross-phase modulation in an electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feizpour, Amir; Dmochowski, Greg; Steinberg, Aephraim M.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been proposed as a way to greatly enhance cross-phase modulation, with the possibility of leading to few-photon-level optical nonlinearities [Schmidt and Imamoglu, Opt. Lett. 21, 1936 (1996), 10.1364/OL.21.001936]. This enhancement grows as the transparency window width, ΔEIT, is narrowed. Decreasing ΔEIT, however, has been shown to increase the response time of the nonlinear medium. This suggests that, for a given pulse duration, the nonlinearity would diminish once the window width became narrower than this pulse bandwidth. We show that this is not the case: the peak phase shift saturates but does not decrease. We show that in the regimes of most practical interest—narrow EIT windows perturbed by short signal pulses—the enhancement offered by EIT is not only in the magnitude of the nonlinear phase shift but also in its increased duration. That is, for the case of signal pulses much shorter (temporally) than the inverse EIT bandwidth, the narrow window serves to prolong the effect of the passing signal pulse, leading to an integrated phase shift that grows linearly with 1 /ΔEIT ; this continued growth of the integrated phase shift improves the detectability of the phase shift, in principle, without bound. For many purposes, it is this detectability which is of more interest than the absolute magnitude of the peak phase shift. We present analytical expressions based on a linear time-invariant model that accounts for the temporal behavior of the cross-phase modulation for several parameter ranges of interest. We conclude that in order to optimize the detectability of the EIT-based cross-phase shift, one should use the narrowest possible EIT window and a signal pulse that is as broadband as the excited-state linewidth and detuned by half a linewidth.

  9. Pulse compression below 40fs at 1μm: The first step towards a short-pulse, high-energy beam line at LULI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaowei; Zou, Jiping; Martin, Luc; Simon, Francois; Lopez-Martens, Rodrigo; Audebert, Patrick

    2010-08-01

    We present the upgrading project ELFIE (Equipement Laser de Forte Intensité et Energie) based on the "100TW" mixed Nd:glass CPA laser system at 1μm at LULI, which includes an energy enhancement and the development of a short-pulse, high-energy, good temporal contrast beam line (50fs/5J). We report the first experimental step towards the short-pulse, high-energy beam line: spectral broadening above 60nm from 7nm and temporal pulse compression below 40fs from 300fs at 1μm through a Krypton-filled hollow fiber compressor.

  10. A single dielectric nanolaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tsung-Yu; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2016-09-01

    To conquer Ohmic losses from metal and enhance pump absorption efficiency of a nanolaser based on surface plasmon polariton, we theoretically calculate the first magnetic and electric scattering coefficient of a dielectric sphere under a plane wave excitation with a dielectric constant of around 12. From this calculation, we could retrieve both negative effective permittivity and permeability of the sphere simultaneously at frequencies around 153 THz in the aids of Lewin's theory and the power distribution clearly demonstrate the expected negative Goos-Hänchen effect, which usually occurred in a negative refractive waveguide, thus creating two energy vortices to trap incident energy and then promoting the pump absorption efficiency. Meanwhile, a magnetic lasing mode at 167.3 THz is demonstrated and reveals a magnetic dipole resonance mode and a circulating energy flow within the dielectric sphere, providing a possible stopped light feedback mechanism to enable the all-dielectric nanolaser. More importantly, the corresponding mode volume is reduced to 0.01λ3 and a gain threshold of 5.1×103 is obtained. To validate our design of all-dielectric nanolaser, we employ finite-difference-time-domain simulation software to examine the behavior of the nanolaser. From simulation, we could obtain a pinned-down population inversion of 0.001 and a lasing peak at around 166.5 THz, which is very consistent with the prediction of Mie theory. Finally, according to Mie theory, we can regard the all-dielectric nanolaser as the excitation of material polariton and thus could make an analogue between lasing modes of the dielectric and metallic nanoparticles.

  11. Characterisation of virus transport and attenuation in epikarst using short pulse and prolonged injection multi-tracer testing.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Raymond M; Sinreich, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Attenuation processes controlling virus fate and transport in the vadose zone of karstified systems can strongly influence groundwater quality. This research compares the breakthrough of two bacteriophage tracers (H40/1 and T7), with contrasting properties, at subsurface monitoring points following application onto an overlying composite sequence of thin organic soil and weathered limestone (epikarst). Short pulse multi-tracer test results revealed that T7 (Source concentration, Co=1.8x10(6)pfu/mL) and H40/1 (Co=5.9x10(6)pfu/mL) could reach sampling points 10 m below ground less than 30 min after tracer application. Contrasting deposition rates, determined from simulated tracer responses, reflected the potential of the ground to differentially attenuate viruses. Prolonged application of both T7 (Co=2.3x10(4)pfu/mL) and H40/1 (Co=1.3x10(5)pfu/mL) over a five hour period during a subsequent test, in which ionic strength levels observed at monitoring points rose consistently, corresponded to a rapid rise in T7 levels, followed by a gradual decline before the end of tracer injection; this reflected reaction-limited deposition in the system. T7's response contrasted with that of H40/1, whose concentration remained constant over a three hour period before declining dramatically prior to the end of tracer injection. Subsequent application of lower ionic strength tracer-free flush water generated a rapid rise in H40/1 levels and a more gradual release of T7. Results highlight the benefits of employing prolonged injection multi-tracer tests for identifying processes not apparent from conventional short pulse tests. Study findings demonstrate that despite rapid transport rates, the epikarst is capable of physicochemical filtration of viruses and their remobilization, depending on virus type and hydrochemical conditions. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism and influencing factors on critical pulse width of oil-immersed polymer insulators under short pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liang; Su, Jian Cang; Li, Rui; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Zheng, Lei; Yu, Bin Xiong; Wu, Xiao Long; Zhang, Xi Bo; Pan, Ya Feng

    2015-04-01

    The critical pulse width (τc) is a pulse width at which the surface flashover threshold (Ef) is equal to the bulk breakdown threshold (EBD) for liquid-polymer composite insulation systems, which is discovered by Zhao et al. [Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Shenzhen, China, 2013), Vol. 2, pp. 854-857]. In this paper, the mechanism of τc is interpreted in perspective of the threshold and the time delay (td) of surface flashover and bulk breakdown, respectively. It is found that two changes appear as the pulse width decreases which are responsible for the existence of τc: (1) EBD is lower than Ef; (2) td of bulk breakdown is shorter than td of surface flashover. In addition, factors which have influences on τc are investigated, such as the dielectric type, the insulation length, the dielectric thickness, the dielectrics configuration, the pulse number, and the liquid purity. These influences of factors are generalized as three types if τc is expected to increase: (1) factors causing EBD to decrease, such as increasing the pulse number or employing a dielectric of lower EBD; (2) factors causing Ef to increase, such as complicating the insulator's configuration or increasing the liquid purity; (3) factors causing EBD and Ef to increase together, but Ef increases faster than EBD, such as decreasing the dielectric thickness or the insulation length. With the data in references, all the three cases are verified experimentally. In the end, a general method based on τc for solid insulation design is presented and the significance of τc on solid insulation design and on solid demolition are discussed.

  13. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    DOE PAGES

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; ...

    2017-05-09

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV,more » of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.« less

  14. Numerical simulation of high-power virtual-cathode reflex triode driven by repetitive short pulse electron gun

    SciTech Connect

    Yovchev, I.G.; Spassovsky, I.P.; Nikolov, N.A.; Dimitrov, D.P.; Messina, G.; Raimondi, P.; Barroso, J.J.; Correa, R.A.

    1996-06-01

    A virtual-cathode reflex triode is investigated by numerical simulations. A trapezoidal in shape voltage pulse with an amplitude of 300 kV is applied to the solid cathode of the device to drive the cathode negative. The electron beam-to-microwave power conversion efficiency {epsilon}, calculated for the pulse flat top with a duration {tau}{sub ft} = 1.2 ns is approximately the same (about 1.5--2%) as well as for a long flat top ({tau}{sub ft} = 4 ns). The simulations show a 10--15% increase of {epsilon} at {tau}{sub ft} shortening to 0.6 ns. However, this occurs when the anode mesh transparency is high (80--90%). Considerable enhancement of the efficiency (about four times) for {tau}{sub ft} = 0.6 ns has been calculated if the cathode side surface is brought near to the anode tube (from {approx}0.5% at cathode radius R{sub c} = 1.6 cm to {approx}2% at R{sub c} = 3.8 cm). The obtained results would find an application for the design of virtual-cathode reflex triode devices driven by a short pulse and high repetition rate electron gun.

  15. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  16. Transition from interpulse to afterglow plasmas driven by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Shail; Sahu, Debaprasad; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2012-08-01

    In the power-off phase, plasmas generated by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field show a transitive nature from interpulse to afterglow as a function of pulse duration tw = 20-200 μs. The ionized medium can be driven from a highly non equilibrium to an equilibrium state inside the pulses, thereby dictating the behavior of the plasma in the power-off phase. Compared to afterglows, interpulse plasmas observed for tw < 50 μs are characterized by a quasi-steady-state in electron density that persists for ˜ 20-40 μs even after the end of the pulse and has a relatively slower decay rate (˜ 4.3 × 104 s-1) of the electron temperature, as corroborated by optical measurements. The associated electron energy probability function indicates depletion in low energy electrons which appear at higher energies just after the end of the pulse. The transition occurs at tw ˜ 50 μs as confirmed by time evolution of integrated electron numbers densities obtained from the distribution function.

  17. Investigation of stimulated raman scattering using short-pulse diffraction limited laser beam near the instability threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Kline, John L; Montgomery, David S; Flippo, Kirk A; Rose, Harvey A; Yin, L; Albright, B J; Johnson, R P; Shimada, T; Bowers, K; Rousseaux, C; Tassin, V; Baton, S D; Amiranoff, F; Hardin, R A

    2008-01-01

    Short pulse laser plasma interaction experiments using diffraction limited beams provide an excellent platform to investigate the fundamental physics of Stimulated Raman Scattering. Detailed understanding of these laser plasma instabilities impacts the current inertial confinement fusion ignition designs and could potentially impact fast ignition when higher energy lasers are used with longer pulse durations ( > 1 kJ and> 1 ps). Using short laser pulses, experiments can be modeled over the entire interaction time of the laser using particle-in-cell codes to validate our understanding quantitatively. Experiments have been conducted at the Trident laser facility and the LULI (Laboratoire pour l'Utilisation des Lasers Intenses) to investigate stimulated Raman scattering near the threshold of the instability using 527 nm and 1059 nm laser light respectively with 1.5-3.0 ps pulses. In both experiments, the interaction beam was focused into a pre-ionized He gas-jet plasma. Measurements of the reflectivity as a function of intensity and k{lambda}{sub D} were completed at the Trident laser facility. At LULI, a 300 fs Thomson scattering probe is used to directly measure the density fluctuations of the driven electron plasma and ion acoustic waves. Work is currently underway comparing the results of the experiments with simulations using the VPIC [K. J. Bowers, et at., Phys. Plasmas, 15 055703 (2008)] particle-in-cell code. Details of the experimental results are presented in this manuscript.

  18. The Description of Extremely Short Pulses in Non-Resonant Media in Frame of Maxwell-Duffing-Type Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazantseva, Elena V.

    The propagation of extremely short pulses of electromagnetic field (electromagnetic spikes) is considered in the framework of a model where the material medium is represented by anharmonic oscillators with cubic nonlinearities (Duffing model) and waves can propagate in both directions. The system of total Maxwell-Duffing equations admits two families of exact analytical solutions in the form of solitary waves. The single-cycle electromagnetic pulse propagation in a medium whose dispersion and nonlinear properties are described by the cubic-quintic Duffing model (oscillator with third- and fifth-order anharmonicity). A system of equations governing the evolution of a unidirectional electromagnetic wave is analyzed without using the approximation of slowly varying envelopes. Three types of solutions of this system describing stationary propagation of a pulse in such a medium are found. When the signs of the anharmonicity constants are different, the amplitude of a steady-state pulse is limited, but its energy may grow on account of an increase in its duration.

  19. Magneto acoustic tomography with short pulsed magnetic field for in-vivo imaging of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariappan, Leo; Shao, Qi; Jiang, Chunlan; Yu, Kai; Ashkenazi, Shai; Bischof, John C; He, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Nanoparticles are widely used as contrast and therapeutic agents. As such, imaging modalities that can accurately estimate their distribution in-vivo are actively sought. We present here our method Magneto Acoustic Tomography (MAT), which uses magnetomotive force due to a short pulsed magnetic field to induce ultrasound in the magnetic nanoparticle labeled tissue and estimates an image of the distribution of the nanoparticles in-vivo with ultrasound imaging resolution. In this study, we image the distribution of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (IONP) using MAT method. In-vivo imaging was performed on live, nude mice with IONP injected into LNCaP tumors grown subcutaneously within the hind limb of the mice. Our experimental results indicate that the MAT method is capable of imaging the distribution of IONPs in-vivo. Therefore, MAT could become an imaging modality for high resolution reconstruction of MNP distribution in the body. Many magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging. In this study, the authors investigated the use of ultrasound to detect the presence of MNPs by magneto acoustic tomography. In-vivo experiments confirmed the imaging quality of this new approach, which hopefully would provide an alternative method for accurate tumor detection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. NF-κB signalling and cell fate decisions in response to a short pulse of tumour necrosis factor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Robin E. C.; Qasaimeh, Mohammad A.; Xia, Xianfang; Juncker, David; Gaudet, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    In tissues and tumours, cell behaviours are regulated by multiple time-varying signals. While in the laboratory cells are often exposed to a stimulus for the duration of the experiment, in vivo exposures may be much shorter. In this study, we monitored NF-κB and caspase signalling in human cancer cells treated with a short pulse of Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNF). TNF is an inflammatory cytokine that can induce both the pro-survival NF-κB-driven gene transcription pathway and the pro-apoptotic caspase pathway. We find that a few seconds of exposure to TNF is sufficient to activate the NF-κB pathway in HeLa cells and induce apoptotic cell death in both HeLa and Kym-1 cells. Strikingly, a 1-min pulse of TNF can be more effective at killing than a 1-hour pulse, indicating that in addition to TNF concentration, duration of exposure also coordinates cell fate decisions. PMID:28004761

  1. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    PubMed

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  2. Transition from interpulse to afterglow plasmas driven by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shail; Sahu, Debaprasad; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2012-08-15

    In the power-off phase, plasmas generated by repetitive short-pulse microwaves in a multicusp magnetic field show a transitive nature from interpulse to afterglow as a function of pulse duration t{sub w} = 20-200 {mu}s. The ionized medium can be driven from a highly non equilibrium to an equilibrium state inside the pulses, thereby dictating the behavior of the plasma in the power-off phase. Compared to afterglows, interpulse plasmas observed for t{sub w} < 50 {mu}s are characterized by a quasi-steady-state in electron density that persists for {approx} 20-40 {mu}s even after the end of the pulse and has a relatively slower decay rate ({approx} 4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} s{sup -1}) of the electron temperature, as corroborated by optical measurements. The associated electron energy probability function indicates depletion in low energy electrons which appear at higher energies just after the end of the pulse. The transition occurs at t{sub w} {approx} 50 {mu}s as confirmed by time evolution of integrated electron numbers densities obtained from the distribution function.

  3. Broadband local dielectric spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labardi, M.; Lucchesi, M.; Prevosto, D.; Capaccioli, S.

    2016-05-01

    A route to extend the measurement bandwidth of local dielectric spectroscopy up to the MHz range has been devised. The method is based on a slow amplitude modulation at a frequency Ω of the excitation field oscillating at a frequency ω and the coherent detection of the modulated average electric force or force gradient at Ω. The cantilever mechanical response does not affect the measurement if Ω is well below its resonant frequency; therefore, limitations on the excitation field frequency are strongly reduced. Demonstration on a thin poly(vinyl acetate) film is provided, showing its structural relaxation spectrum on the local scale up to 45 °C higher than glass temperature, and nanoscale resolution dielectric relaxation imaging near conductive nanowires embedded in the polymer matrix was obtained up to 5 MHz frequency, with no physical reason to hinder further bandwidth extension.

  4. Analysis of Ar plasma jets induced by single and double dielectric barrier discharges at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judée, F.; Merbahi, N.; Wattieaux, G.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-09-01

    The aim is the comparison of different plasma parameters of single and double dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet configurations (S-DBD and D-DBD) which are potentially usable in biomedical applications. Both configurations are studied in terms of electric field distribution, electrical discharge characteristics, plasma parameters (estimated by optical emission spectroscopy analysis), and hydrodynamics of the plasma jet for electrical parameters of power supplies corresponding to an applied voltage of 10 kV, pulse duration of 1 μs, frequency of 9.69 kHz, and Ar flow of 2 l/min. We observed that the D-DBD configuration requires half the electrical power one needs to provide in the S-DBD case to generate a plasma jet with similar characteristics: excitation temperature around 4700 K, electron density around 2.5 × 1014 cm-3, gas temperature of about 320 K, a relatively high atomic oxygen concentration reaching up to 1000 ppm, the presence of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (nitric oxide, hydroxyl radical, and atomic oxygen), and an irradiance in the UV-C range of about 20 μW cm-2. Moreover, it has been observed that D-DBD plasma jet is more sensitive to short pulse durations, probably due to the charge accumulation over the dielectric barrier around the internal electrode. This results in a significantly longer plasma length in the D-DBD configuration than in the S-DBD one up to a critical flow rate (2.25 l/min) before the occurrence of turbulence in the D-DBD case. Conversely, ionization wave velocities are significantly higher in the S-DBD setup (3.35 × 105 m/s against 1.02 × 105 m/s for D-DBD), probably due to the higher electrostatic field close to the high voltage electrode in the S-DBD plasma jet.

  5. Investigation of Vacuum Insulator Surface Dielectric Strength with Nanosecond Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Nunnally, W C; Krogh, M; Williams, C; Trimble, D; Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G

    2003-06-03

    The maximum vacuum insulator surface dielectric strength determines the acceleration electric field gradient possible in a short pulse accelerator. Previous work has indicated that higher electric field strengths along the insulator-vacuum interface might be obtained as the pulse duration is decreased. In this work, a 250 kV, single ns wide impulse source was applied to small diameter, segmented insulators samples in a vacuum to evaluate the multi-layer surface dielectric strength of the sample construction. Resonances in the low inductance test geometry were used to obtain unipolar, pulsed electric fields in excess of 100 MV/m on the insulator surface. The sample construction, experimental arrangement and experimental results are presented for the initial data in this work. Modeling of the multi-layer structure is discussed and methods of improving insulator surface dielectric strength in a vacuum are proposed.

  6. Coaxial short pulsed laser

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, M.A.; Davies, T.J.

    1975-08-01

    This invention relates to a laser system of rugged design suitable for use in a field environment. The laser itself is of coaxial design with a solid potting material filling the space between components. A reservoir is employed to provide a gas lasing medium between an electrode pair, each of which is connected to one of the coaxial conductors. (auth)

  7. Direct electron-impact mechanism of excitation of mercury monobromide in a double-pulse dielectric-barrier-discharge HgBr lamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datsyuk, V. V.; Izmailov, I. A.; Naumov, V. V.; Kochelap, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    In a nonequlibrium plasma of a gas-discharge HgBr lamp, the terminal electronic state of the HgBr(B-X) radiative transition with a peak wavelength of 502 nm remains populated for a relatively long time and is repeatedly excited to the B state in collisions with plasma electrons. This transfer of the HgBr molecules from the ground state X to the excited state B is the main mechanism of formation of the light-emitting molecules especially when the lamp is excited by double current pulses. According to our simulations, due to the electron-induced transitions between HgBr(X) and HgBr(B), the output characteristics of the DBD lamp operating in a double-pulse regime are better than those of the lamp operating in a single-pulse regime. In the considered case, the peak power is calculated to increase by a factor of about 2 and the lamp efficiency increases by about 50%.

  8. Mechanism and influencing factors on critical pulse width of oil-immersed polymer insulators under short pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Liang Li, Rui; Zheng, Lei; Su, Jian Cang; Cheng, Jie; Yu, Bin Xiong; Wu, Xiao Long; Zhang, Xi Bo; Pan, Ya Feng; Zeng, Bo

    2015-04-15

    The critical pulse width (τ{sub c}) is a pulse width at which the surface flashover threshold (E{sub f}) is equal to the bulk breakdown threshold (E{sub BD}) for liquid-polymer composite insulation systems, which is discovered by Zhao et al. [Annual Report Conference on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena (IEEE Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation Society, Shenzhen, China, 2013), Vol. 2, pp. 854–857]. In this paper, the mechanism of τ{sub c} is interpreted in perspective of the threshold and the time delay (t{sub d}) of surface flashover and bulk breakdown, respectively. It is found that two changes appear as the pulse width decreases which are responsible for the existence of τ{sub c}: (1) E{sub BD} is lower than E{sub f}; (2) t{sub d} of bulk breakdown is shorter than t{sub d} of surface flashover. In addition, factors which have influences on τ{sub c} are investigated, such as the dielectric type, the insulation length, the dielectric thickness, the dielectrics configuration, the pulse number, and the liquid purity. These influences of factors are generalized as three types if τ{sub c} is expected to increase: (1) factors causing E{sub BD} to decrease, such as increasing the pulse number or employing a dielectric of lower E{sub BD}; (2) factors causing E{sub f} to increase, such as complicating the insulator's configuration or increasing the liquid purity; (3) factors causing E{sub BD} and E{sub f} to increase together, but E{sub f} increases faster than E{sub BD}, such as decreasing the dielectric thickness or the insulation length. With the data in references, all the three cases are verified experimentally. In the end, a general method based on τ{sub c} for solid insulation design is presented and the significance of τ{sub c} on solid insulation design and on solid demolition are discussed.

  9. Model development and experimental validation for analyzing initial transients of irradiation of tissues during thermal therapy using short pulse lasers.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Mohit; Miller, Stephanie; Mitra, Kunal

    2015-11-01

    Short pulse lasers with pulse durations in the range of nanoseconds and shorter are effective in the targeted delivery of heat energy for precise tissue heating and ablation. This photothermal therapy is useful where the removal of cancerous tissue sections is required. The objective of this paper is to use finite element modeling to demonstrate the differences in the thermal response of skin tissue to short-pulse and continuous wave laser irradiation in the initial stages of the irradiation. Models have been developed to validate the temperature distribution and heat affected zone during laser irradiation of excised rat skin samples and live anesthetized mouse tissue. Excised rat skin samples and live anesthetized mice were subjected to Nd:YAG pulsed laser (1,064 nm, 500 ns) irradiation of varying powers. A thermal camera was used to measure the rise in surface temperature as a result of the laser irradiation. Histological analyses of the heat affected zone created in the tissue samples due to the temperature rise were performed. The thermal interaction of the laser with the tissue was quantified by measuring the thermal dose delivered by the laser. Finite element geometries of three-dimensional tissue sections for continuum and vascular models were developed using COMSOL Multiphysics. Blood flow was incorporated into the vascular model to mimic the presence of discrete blood vessels and contrasted with the continuum model without blood perfusion. The temperature rises predicted by the continuum and the vascular models agreed with the temperature rises observed at the surface of the excised rat tissue samples and live anesthetized mice due to laser irradiation respectively. The vascular model developed was able to predict the cooling produced by the blood vessels in the region where the vessels were present. The temperature rise in the continuum model due to pulsed laser irradiation was higher than that due to continuous wave (CW) laser irradiation in the

  10. Study of energy partitioning in mass limited targets using the 50 TW Leopard short-pulse laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Brandon; Sawada, Hiroshi; Sentoku, Yasuhiko; Yabuuchi, Toshinori; Chen, Hui; Park, J.-B.; McClean, Harry; Patel, Prav; Beg, Farhat

    2014-10-01

    Mass limited Cu targets were used to study the energy distribution in the interaction of an ultra-intense, short-pulse laser by measuring characteristic x-rays and energetic particles. At the Nevada Terawatt Facility, Leopard delivered 15 J to an 8 μm spot size in a 350 fs pulse, achieving a peak intensity of 1019 W/cm2 at 20° incidence. The 2 μm thick Cu foil targets varied in size from 1 mm2 to 75 μm by 60 μm. A spherical crystal imager and a Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer were used to measure 8.05 keV monochromatic x-ray images and 7.5-9.5 keV x-rays respectively. A magnet-based electron spectrometer in the rear monitored escaping electrons. Results show a decrease in the absolute yield of both escaped electrons and Cu K-shell x-rays as targets sizes are reduced, while He α emission remains nearly constant. In the smallest target, a bulk temperature of about 150 eV was inferred from the ratio of K β to K α. The interaction of the Leopard laser with the targets was simulated with 2-D implicit Particle-in-cell code PICLS. Comparisons of the simulation and experiment will be presented. This work was supported by the DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science under Fusion Science Center, and the National Nuclear Security Administration under cooperative agreements DE-FC52-06NA27616 and DE-NA0002075. T.Y. was supported by Japan/U.S. Cooperation.

  11. Precise ablation of dental hard tissues with ultra-short pulsed lasers. Preliminary exploratory investigation on adequate laser parameters.

    PubMed

    Bello-Silva, Marina Stella; Wehner, Martin; Eduardo, Carlos de Paula; Lampert, Friedrich; Poprawe, Reinhart; Hermans, Martin; Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of introducing ultra-short pulsed lasers (USPL) in restorative dentistry by maintaining the well-known benefits of lasers for caries removal, but also overcoming disadvantages, such as thermal damage of irradiated substrate. USPL ablation of dental hard tissues was investigated in two phases. Phase 1--different wavelengths (355, 532, 1,045, and 1,064 nm), pulse durations (picoseconds and femtoseconds) and irradiation parameters (scanning speed, output power, and pulse repetition rate) were assessed for enamel and dentin. Ablation rate was determined, and the temperature increase measured in real time. Phase 2--the most favorable laser parameters were evaluated to correlate temperature increase to ablation rate and ablation efficiency. The influence of cooling methods (air, air-water spray) on ablation process was further analyzed. All parameters tested provided precise and selective tissue ablation. For all lasers, faster scanning speeds resulted in better interaction and reduced temperature increase. The most adequate results were observed for the 1064-nm ps-laser and the 1045-nm fs-laser. Forced cooling caused moderate changes in temperature increase, but reduced ablation, being considered unnecessary during irradiation with USPL. For dentin, the correlation between temperature increase and ablation efficiency was satisfactory for both pulse durations, while for enamel, the best correlation was observed for fs-laser, independently of the power used. USPL may be suitable for cavity preparation in dentin and enamel, since effective ablation and low temperature increase were observed. If adequate laser parameters are selected, this technique seems to be promising for promoting the laser-assisted, minimally invasive approach.

  12. Plasma Start-up Experiments Using the Lower Hybrid Wave Excited by a Dielectric Loaded Waveguide Array Antenna on the TST-2 Spherical Tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakatsuki, Takuma; Ejiri, Akira; Takase, Yuichi; Furui, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Takahiro; Hiratsuka, Junichi; Kakuda, Hidetoshi; Kato, Kunihiko; Nakanishi, Ayaka; Oosako, Takuya; Shinya, Takahiro; Sonehara, Masateru; Togashi, Hiro; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Kasahara, Hiroshi; Kumazawa, Ryuhei; Saito, Kenji; Seki, Tetsuo; Shimpo, Fujio; Nagashima, Yoshihiko

    2012-10-01

    Plasma current start-up experiments were performed on the TST-2 spherical tokamak (R= 0.38 m, a = 0.25 m, Bt = 0.3 T, Ip = 0.1 MA) using the lower hybrid wave (LHW) at f = 200 MHz. A waveguide array antenna consisting of four dielectric (alumina, ɛr = 10.0) loaded waveguides was used. The coupling characteristics of this antenna were investigated by low power experiments (PFWD< 5 kW). The measured characteristics were qualitatively consistent with those predicted by calculations using a finite element method solver package (COMSOL). The experimentally observed reflection coefficient is large (greater than 36 % averaged over four waveguides), and there are large differences in reflectivities in neighboring waveguides. It was necessary to take into account of the private limiter surrounding the antenna in order to reproduce these features. Non-inductive plasma current start-up to 6 kA has been demonstrated using 20 kW of LHW power. In this experiment, the reflection coefficient was very high because the initial plasma density was much lower than the predicted optimum plasma density.

  13. A Xenon dielectric barrier discharge lamp (172nm) with a fast-pulse voltage driver: Influence of the voltage waveform on plasma kinetic issues and light output.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, Robert; Ward, Barry; Mildren, Richard; Kane, Deborah

    2003-10-01

    An important class of vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) excimer lamps based on high pressure rare-gas and rare-gas halogen mixtures utilize the dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) to generate a transient, non-equilibrium plasma that yields high electrical to VUV conversion efficiency. Recent interest has focussed on the use of pulsed voltage excitation techniques (rather than conventional AC sinusoidal waveforms) to alter the physical appearance of the DBD "micro-discharges" from filamentary (AC) to semi-diffuse, conical or homogeneous (pulsed), whilst at the same time dramatically improving the lamp performance and VUV efficiency^1,2. We report results from a combined experimental/computer modelling study of a short-pulse excited co-axial DBD Xe lamp to investigate the influence of the pulsed voltage waveform on the discharge structure, lamp performance, VUV output, and electrical efficiency. The underlying plasma kinetics issues relating to lamp performance, including parasitic collisional processes that act to quench key xenon species population densities, are examined in detail. ^1 Vollkommer F and Hitzschke, US patent 5604410 (1997) ^2 R.P.Mildren and R.J.Carman, J.Phys.D, 34, L1-L6 (2001)

  14. Enhancing caries resistance with a short-pulsed CO2 9.3-μm laser: a laboratory study (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Rechmann, Beate M.; Groves, William H.; Le, Charles; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia L.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this laboratory study was to test whether irradiation with a new 9.3µm microsecond short-pulsed CO2-laser enhances enamel caries resistance with and without additional fluoride applications. 101 human enamel samples were divided into 7 groups. Each group was treated with different laser parameters (Carbon-dioxide laser, wavelength 9.3µm, 43Hz pulse-repetition rate, pulse duration between 3μs to 7μs (1.5mJ/pulse to 2.9mJ/pulse). Using a pH-cycling model and cross-sectional microhardness testing determined the mean relative mineral loss delta Z (∆Z) for each group. The pH-cycling was performed with or without additional fluoride. The CO2 9.3μm short-pulsed laser energy rendered enamel caries resistant with and without additional fluoride use.

  15. Dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Meyer, C; Müller, S; Gurevich, E L; Franzke, J

    2011-06-21

    The present review reflects the importance of dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry. Special about this discharge is-and in contrast to usual discharges with direct current-that the plasma is separated from one or two electrodes by a dielectric barrier. This gives rise to two main features of the dielectric barrier discharges; it can serve as dissociation and excitation device and as ionization mechanism, respectively. The article portrays the various application fields for dielectric barrier discharges in analytical chemistry, for example the use for elemental detection with optical spectrometry or as ionization source for mass spectrometry. Besides the introduction of different kinds of dielectric barrier discharges used for analytical chemistry from the literature, a clear and concise classification of dielectric barrier discharges into capacitively coupled discharges is provided followed by an overview about the characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge concerning discharge properties and the ignition mechanism.

  16. Mechanisms and kinetics of short pulse laser-induced destruction of silver-containing nanoparticles in multicomponent silicate photo-thermo-refractive glass.

    PubMed

    Lumeau, Julien; Glebov, Leonid B

    2014-11-01

    Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is a photosensitive multi-component silicate glass that is commercially used for the recording of volume holographic elements and finds many applications in advanced laser systems. Refractive index decrement in this glass is observed after UV exposure followed by thermal development. This procedure also causes the appearance of Ag-containing particles that can then be optically bleached by using the second harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser. Despite the broad usage of this method, its mechanisms are still unclear. In this paper, a systematic study of the short pulse laser-induced destruction of Ag-containing particles' kinetics versus incident energy per pulse and dosage is presented. We show that no bleaching of Ag-containing particles occurs for an energy density in laser pulses below 0.1  J/cm2 while above 1  J/cm2, the efficiency of bleaching saturates. Efficiency of bleaching depends on the type of particles to be bleached (Ag, AgBr…). Using a simple model of short pulse laser interaction with nanoparticles embedded in glass, the temperature of the Ag-containing particles reached during the laser interaction is shown to be large enough to produce complete dissipation of these particles which is expected to be the main mechanism of short pulse laser-induced destruction of Ag-containing particles.

  17. Directional spectra of ocean waves from microwave backscatter: A physical optics solution with application to the short-pulse and two-frequency measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1979-01-01

    Two simple microwave radar techniques that are potentially capable of providing routine satellite measurements of the directional spectrum of ocean waves were developed. One technique, the short pulse technique, makes use of very short pulses to resolve ocean surface wave contrast features in the range direction; the other technique, the two frequency correlation technique makes use of coherency in the transmitted waveform to detect the large ocean wave contrast modulation as a beat or mixing frequency in the power backscattered at two closely separated microwave frequencies. A frequency domain analysis of the short pulse and two frequency systems shows that the two measurement systems are essentially duals; they each operate on the generalized (three frequency) fourth-order statistical moment of the surface transfer function in different, but symmetrical ways, and they both measure the same directional contrast modulation spectrum. A three dimensional physical optics solution for the fourth-order moment was obtained for backscatter in the near vertical, specular regime, assuming Gaussian surface statistics.

  18. A treatise on the interaction of molecular systems with short-pulsed highly-intense external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Amit K.; Adhikari, Satrajit; Baer, Michael

    2010-11-01

    In this review, we consider two gauges: one, the field-free gauge, is formed by the field-free electronic eigenstates and the other, the field-dressed gauge, is formed by the field-dressed electronic basis set. The field-free gauge is used, of course, in the case of time-independent systems but then it is also the more common one to be used in the case of molecular systems exposed to external fields. This gauge is conceptually simple and therefore numerically friendly - two features which make it versatile for numerical application. The field-dressed gauge is, eventually, more involved but yields deeper insight which might lead to a better understanding of the complicated interaction between a molecular system and external fields. In addition, these features can be exploited to develop efficient and reliable approximations that may save CPU (computer processing unit) time in numerical applications. These two gauges are the main topics of the present review. Once the general derivation of the two gauges is completed, two additional issues are discussed: (i) we extend these gauges to include external fields formed by non-classical photon-state distributions (also known as non-coherent Fock-state distributions). These photon state distributions, recently considered for the first time for molecular systems [A.K. Paul, S. Adhikari, M. Baer, R. Baer, Phys. Rev. A 81 (2010) 013412], are interesting on their own footing. Although here they mainly serve as a vehicle to test the above-mentioned novel approximations, we also devote part of the review to studying the importance of non-coherent Fock states for obtaining an unbiased correct understanding of the interaction of molecular systems with strong, short-pulsed laser fields. For this purpose, we study the photo-dissociation process of H2+ and show (a) that the approximations, recently introduced, diminish the CPU time by about one order of magnitude with minimal loss of accuracy and (b) indeed non-coherent Fock states

  19. Electromagnetic response of buried cylindrical structures for line current excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Ponti, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    arbitrary arrangements of cylinders in the soil. As future work, the presented analysis, carried out in the spectral domain, will be extended to a time-domain solution following an approach analogous to the one developed in [6] for pulsed plane-wave excitation. [1] M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by a Finite Set of Perfectly Conducting Cylinders Buried in a Dielectric Half-Space: a Spectral-Domain Solution," IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 53(2), 719-727, 2005. [2] M. Di Vico, F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by Buried Dielectric Cylindrical Structures," Radio Science, vol. 40(6), RS6S18, 2005. [3] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, "Scattering by Perfectly-Conducting Cylinders Buried in a Dielectric Slab through the Cylindrical Wave Approach," IEEE Transactions Antennas and Propagation, vol. 57(4), 1208-1217, 2009. [4] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, and G. Schettini, "Accurate Wire-Grid Modeling of Buried Conducting Cylindrical Scatterers," Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation (Special Issue on "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar"), vol. 27(3), pp. 199-207, 2012. [5] F. Frezza, L. Pajewski, C. Ponti, G. Schettini, and N. Tedeschi, "Electromagnetic Scattering by a Metallic Cylinder Buried in a Lossy Medium with the Cylindrical Wave Approach," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 10(1), pp. 179-183, 2013. [6] F. Frezza, P. Martinelli, L. Pajewski, and G. Schettini, "Short-Pulse Electromagnetic Scattering from Buried Perfectly-Conducting Cylinders," IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 4(4), pp. 611-615, 2007.

  20. Comparison of the 585 nm pulse dye laser and the short pulsed CO2 laser in the treatment of striae distensae in skin types IV and VI.

    PubMed

    Nouri, K; Romagosa, R; Chartier, T; Bowes, L; Spencer, J M

    1999-05-01

    Striae distensae, or stretch marks, are a very common cosmetic problem. The successful management of stretch marks has long been a source of frustration and curiosity for both the clinician and the researcher. Recent studies suggest lasers may have a role in their management. As yet, no study has reported on the effects of either of these lasers in the treatment of stretch marks on persons with skin types 4 to 6. To assess the efficacy of short pulsed CO2 laser and pulsed dye laser for the treatment of stretch marks in skin types 4, 5, and 6. Four patients were initially enrolled in the study. All were female with abdominal stretch marks, present for a range of 8 to 19 years. The patients had skin types ranging from 4 to 6. The test area consisted of a stretch mark long enough to be divided into three contiguous 2 cm sections, labeled A, B, and C. Section A served as the short pulsed CO2 test site, section B served as a control, while section C served as the 585 nm pulsed dye site. Patients were seen for evaluation after 1 week, then every 4 weeks for a total of 20 weeks. Patients were evaluated subjectively by the investigators, and the patients' own self-evaluation was reported as well. Following the 585 nm pulse dye laser, at 20 week follow-up patients with type 4 skin showed no improvement, while type 6 skin showed hyperpigmentation. The short pulsed CO2 test site showed persistent erythema in type 4 skin and marked hyperpigmentation in type 6 skin. For patients with types 4, 5, and 6 skin, laser treatment of striae should be avoided or used with great caution.

  1. Nonablative acne scar reduction after a series of treatments with a short-pulsed 1,064-nm neodymium:YAG laser.

    PubMed

    Lipper, Graeme M; Perez, Maritza

    2006-08-01

    Effective treatment of facial acne scarring presents a major challenge. Nonablative lasers and radiofrequency devices work by thermally stimulating dermal collagen remodeling, thereby softening acne scars in a minimally invasive fashion. One such laser, a 1,064-nm short-pulsed Nd:YAG, uses rapidly scanned low-energy infrared pulses to heat the dermis selectively through the normal dermal microvasculature. In this pilot study, the safety and efficacy of a novel short-pulsed Nd:YAG laser were investigated for the treatment of moderate to severe facial acne scarring. Nine of 10 enrolled patients with moderate to severe facial acne scarring received eight sequential 1,064-nm Nd:YAG treatments (laser parameters 14 J/cm2, 0.3 milliseconds, 5-mm spot size, 7-Hz pulse rate, 2,000 pulses per side of face). Patients were graded for the presence and severity of three scar morphologies: superficial (rolling), medium-depth (boxcar), and deep (ice pick). Outcome measures included blinded evaluation of before and after photographs by three physician observers (scar severity score) and patient self-assessment. Acne scarring improved in 100% of the nine patients completing the study. Scar severity scores improved by a mean of 29.36% (95% confidence interval, 16.93%-41.79%; p = .006); 89% of patients noted greater than 10% scar improvement. No treatment-related adverse events were seen. Our findings support the use of a short-pulsed, low-fluence 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser as a safe, effective treatment for facial acne scarring. Scar improvement was noted in all treated subjects with minimal discomfort and no downtime. This protocol appears to be most effective at reducing scar depth and softening scar contours. A laser upgrade needed for the study was provided to the authors at a reduced price.

  2. Ion explosion and multi-mega-electron-volt ion generation from an underdense plasma layer irradiated by a relativistically intense short-pulse laser.

    PubMed

    Yamagiwa, M; Koga, J; Tsintsadze, L N; Ueshima, Y; Kishimoto, Y

    1999-11-01

    Ion acceleration and expansion in the interaction of a relativistically intense short-pulse laser with an underdense plasma layer are investigated. Ion and electron dynamics are studied by a two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation with the real mass ratio. It is shown that the longitudinal electric field induced by electron evacuation due to a large ponderomotive force or light pressure can accelerate ions to several MeV in the direction of the laser propagation. It is after the laser completely passes through the plasma layer that the ion explosion starts to be significant.

  3. High-peak-power, short-pulse-width, LD end-pumped, passively Q-switched Nd:YAG 946 nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Renpeng; Yu, Xin; Ma, Yufei; Li, Xudong; Chen, Deying; Yu, Junhua

    2012-10-01

    High-peak-power, short-pulse-width diode pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser in passively Q-switching operation with Cr4+:YAG is reported. The highest average output power reaches 3.4 W using the Cr4+:YAG with initial transmissivity T0=95%. When the T0=90% Cr4+:YAG is employed, the maximum peak power of 31.4 kW with a pulse width of 8.3 ns at 946 nm is generated.

  4. Optical design of the short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy time-angle correlated diffraction beamline at the Advanced Photon Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reininger, R.; Dufresne, E. M.; Borland, M.; Beno, M. A.; Young, L.; Kim, K.-J.; Evans, P. G.

    2013-05-01

    The short pulse x-ray imaging and microscopy beamline is one of the two x-ray beamlines that will take full advantage of the short pulse x-ray source in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) upgrade. A horizontally diffracting double crystal monochromator which includes a sagittally focusing second crystal will collect most of the photons generated when the chirped electron beam traverses the undulator. A Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system after the monochromator will deliver to the sample a beam which has an approximately linear correlation between time and vertical beam angle. The correlation at the sample position has a slope of 0.052 ps/μrad extending over an angular range of 800 μrad for a cavity deflection voltage of 2 MV. The expected time resolution of the whole system is 2.6 ps. The total flux expected at the sample position at 10 keV with a 0.9 eV energy resolution is 5.7 × 1012 photons/s at a spot having horizontal and vertical full width at half maximum of 33 μm horizontal by 14 μm vertical. This new beamline will enable novel time-dispersed diffraction experiments on small samples using the full repetition rate of the APS.

  5. Dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles in bilinear elastic-plastic media, and the implications to short-pulsed laser surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brujan, E.-A.

    2005-01-01

    The dynamics of shock waves and cavitation bubbles generated by short laser pulses in water and elastic-plastic media were investigated theoretically in order to get a better understanding of their role in short-pulsed laser surgery. Numerical simulations were performed using a spherical model of bubble dynamics which include the elastic-plastic behaviour of the medium surrounding the bubble, compressibility, viscosity, density and surface tension. Breakdown in water produces a monopolar acoustic signal characterized by a compressive wave. Breakdown in an elastic-plastic medium produces a bipolar acoustic signal, with a leading positive compression wave and a trailing negative tensile wave. The calculations revealed that consideration of the tissue elasticity is essential to describe the bipolar shape of the shock wave emitted during optical breakdown. The elastic-plastic response of the medium surrounding the bubble leads to a significant decrease of the maximum size of the cavitation bubble and pressure amplitude of the shock wave emitted during bubble collapse, and shortening of the oscillation period of the bubble. The results are discussed with respect to collateral damage in short-pulsed laser surgery.

  6. All-dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  7. All-dielectric metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahani, Saman; Jacob, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    The ideal material for nanophotonic applications will have a large refractive index at optical frequencies, respond to both the electric and magnetic fields of light, support large optical chirality and anisotropy, confine and guide light at the nanoscale, and be able to modify the phase and amplitude of incoming radiation in a fraction of a wavelength. Artificial electromagnetic media, or metamaterials, based on metallic or polar dielectric nanostructures can provide many of these properties by coupling light to free electrons (plasmons) or phonons (phonon polaritons), respectively, but at the inevitable cost of significant energy dissipation and reduced device efficiency. Recently, however, there has been a shift in the approach to nanophotonics. Low-loss electromagnetic responses covering all four quadrants of possible permittivities and permeabilities have been achieved using completely transparent and high-refractive-index dielectric building blocks. Moreover, an emerging class of all-dielectric metamaterials consisting of anisotropic crystals has been shown to support large refractive index contrast between orthogonal polarizations of light. These advances have revived the exciting prospect of integrating exotic electromagnetic effects in practical photonic devices, to achieve, for example, ultrathin and efficient optical elements, and realize the long-standing goal of subdiffraction confinement and guiding of light without metals. In this Review, we present a broad outline of the whole range of electromagnetic effects observed using all-dielectric metamaterials: high-refractive-index nanoresonators, metasurfaces, zero-index metamaterials and anisotropic metamaterials. Finally, we discuss current challenges and future goals for the field at the intersection with quantum, thermal and silicon photonics, as well as biomimetic metasurfaces.

  8. Optoacoustic measurement of vibrational-translational /V-T/ rates using a short pulse CO2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique for measuring the V-T transfer rates of polyatomic species based on the optoacoustic effect discovered by Bell, Tyndall, and Rontgen (1881) is investigated experimentally. The technique makes use of a coincidental resonance between one of the molecules vibration rotation bands and a CO2 laser line. By this absorption, the molecules can be excited to a known vibrational mode. Since typical time constants for V-T transfer are about 0.00001 sec torr, this method can be used in the pressure region up to 1 torr. The results obtained for CH3F agree with the measurements performed by other techniques.

  9. Combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging of cavitation events induced by short pulses of high-intensity ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Gateau, Jérôme; Aubry, Jean-François; Pernot, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël

    2011-01-01

    The activation of natural gas nuclei to induce larger bubbles is possible using short ultrasonic excitations of high amplitude, and is required for ultrasound cavitation therapies. However, little is known about the distribution of nuclei in tissues. Therefore, the acoustic pressure level necessary to generate bubbles in a targeted zone and their exact location are currently difficult to predict. In order to monitor the initiation of cavitation activity, a novel all-ultrasound technique sensitive to single nucleation events is presented here. It is based on combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging over a large volume and with the same multi-element probe. Bubble nucleation was induced with a focused transducer (660kHz, f#=1) driven by a high power (up to 300 W) electric burst of one to two cycles. Detection was performed with a linear array (4–7MHz) aligned with the single-element focal point. In vitro experiments in gelatin gel and muscular tissue are presented. The synchronized passive detection enabled radio-frequency data to be recorded, comprising high-frequency coherent wave fronts as signatures of the acoustic emissions linked to the activation of the nuclei. Active change detection images were obtained by subtracting echoes collected in the unucleated medium. These indicated the appearance of stable cavitating regions. Thanks to the ultrafast frame rate, active detection occurred as soon as 330 μs after the high amplitude excitation and the dynamics of the induced regions were studied individually. PMID:21429844

  10. Combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging of cavitation events induced by short pulses of high-intensity ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Gateau, Jérôme; Aubry, Jean-François; Pernot, Mathieu; Fink, Mathias; Tanter, Mickaël

    2011-03-01

    The activation of natural gas nuclei to induce larger bubbles is possible using short ultrasonic excitations of high amplitude, and is required for ultrasound cavitation therapies. However, little is known about the distribution of nuclei in tissues. Therefore, the acoustic pressure level necessary to generate bubbles in a targeted zone and their exact location are currently difficult to predict. To monitor the initiation of cavitation activity, a novel all-ultrasound technique sensitive to single nucleation events is presented here. It is based on combined passive detection and ultrafast active imaging over a large volume using the same multi-element probe. Bubble nucleation was induced using a focused transducer (660 kHz, f-number = 1) driven by a high-power electric burst (up to 300 W) of one to two cycles. Detection was performed with a linear array (4 to 7 MHz) aligned with the single-element focal point. In vitro experiments in gelatin gel and muscular tissue are presented. The synchronized passive detection enabled radio-frequency data to be recorded, comprising high-frequency coherent wave fronts as signatures of the acoustic emissions linked to the activation of the nuclei. Active change detection images were obtained by subtracting echoes collected in the unnucleated medium. These indicated the appearance of stable cavitating regions. Because of the ultrafast frame rate, active detection occurred as quickly as 330 μs after the high-amplitude excitation and the dynamics of the induced regions were studied individually.

  11. Observation of ultrafast temporal evolution of symmetry in short-pulsed laser induced transient states of matter (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnett, Joy; Krzyzanowska, Halina; Baydin, Andrey; Tolk, Norman H.

    2017-02-01

    In condensed matter physics, ultrafast photoexcitation has been shown to result in modification of macroscopic material properties, sometimes involving phase changes, on a subpicosecond time scale. In semiconductors, irreversible non-thermal solid-to-liquid structural transitions have been demonstrated at high laser fluences. In the pump-probe experiments reported here, we observe a striking continuously varying low-fluence pump-induced time-dependent structural symmetry modification in intrinsic gallium arsenide (GaAs) using a probe that produces femtosecond polarization-resolved second harmonic generation (f-PRSHG) data. SHG spectroscopy is particularly suited to monitor symmetry changes since its magnitude is governed by the nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor whose elements are determined by the underlying material symmetry. Conceptually, these experiments seek to provide insight into the details of the time evolution of symmetry arising from laser induced transient states of matter in GaAs. Overall, the basic explanation of these experimental observations is that as a result of the photoinduced electronic excitation, many electrons, including bond electrons are excited to higher states. This results in subpicosecond changes in the local anharmonic potential and produces a changing nonlinear polarization response thus accounting for the nonthermal time dependent symmetry changes. Clearly, our approach may be easily extended to many different crystalline materials with different levels of defects, dopants and stresses to fully characterize the time dependent behavior of laser induced transient states in material systems.

  12. A short pulse (7 {mu}s FWHM) and high repetition rate (dc-5kHz) cantilever piezovalve for pulsed atomic and molecular beams

    SciTech Connect

    Irimia, Daniel; Dobrikov, Dimitar; Kortekaas, Rob; Voet, Han; Janssen, Maurice H. M.; Ende, Daan A. van den; Groen, Wilhelm A.

    2009-11-15

    In this paper we report on the design and operation of a novel piezovalve for the production of short pulsed atomic or molecular beams. The high speed valve operates on the principle of a cantilever piezo. The only moving part, besides the cantilever piezo itself, is a very small O-ring that forms the vacuum seal. The valve can operate continuous (dc) and in pulsed mode with the same drive electronics. Pulsed operation has been tested at repetition frequencies up to 5 kHz. The static deflection of the cantilever, as mounted in the valve body, was measured as a function of driving field strength with a confocal microscope. The deflection and high speed dynamical response of the cantilever can be easily changed and optimized for a particular nozzle diameter or repetition rate by a simple adjustment of the free cantilever length. Pulsed molecular beams with a full width at half maximum pulse width as low as 7 {mu}s have been measured at a position 10 cm downstream of the nozzle exit. This represents a gas pulse with a length of only 10 mm making it well matched to for instance experiments using laser beams. Such a short pulse with 6 bar backing pressure behind a 150 {mu}m nozzle releases about 10{sup 16} particles/pulse and the beam brightness was estimated to be 4x10{sup 22} particles/(s str). The short pulses of the cantilever piezovalve result in a much reduced gas load in the vacuum system. We demonstrate operation of the pulsed valve with skimmer in a single vacuum chamber pumped by a 520 l/s turbomolecular pump maintaining a pressure of 5x10{sup -6} Torr, which is an excellent vacuum to have the strong and cold skimmed molecular beam interact with laser beams only 10 cm downstream of the nozzle to do velocity map slice imaging with a microchannel-plate imaging detector in a single chamber. The piezovalve produces cold and narrow ({Delta}v/v=2%-3%) velocity distributions of molecules seeded in helium or neon at modest backing pressures of only 6 bar. The low gas

  13. A short pulse (7 μs FWHM) and high repetition rate (dc-5kHz) cantilever piezovalve for pulsed atomic and molecular beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irimia, Daniel; Dobrikov, Dimitar; Kortekaas, Rob; Voet, Han; van den Ende, Daan A.; Groen, Wilhelm A.; Janssen, Maurice H. M.

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we report on the design and operation of a novel piezovalve for the production of short pulsed atomic or molecular beams. The high speed valve operates on the principle of a cantilever piezo. The only moving part, besides the cantilever piezo itself, is a very small O-ring that forms the vacuum seal. The valve can operate continuous (dc) and in pulsed mode with the same drive electronics. Pulsed operation has been tested at repetition frequencies up to 5 kHz. The static deflection of the cantilever, as mounted in the valve body, was measured as a function of driving field strength with a confocal microscope. The deflection and high speed dynamical response of the cantilever can be easily changed and optimized for a particular nozzle diameter or repetition rate by a simple adjustment of the free cantilever length. Pulsed molecular beams with a full width at half maximum pulse width as low as 7 μs have been measured at a position 10 cm downstream of the nozzle exit. This represents a gas pulse with a length of only 10 mm making it well matched to for instance experiments using laser beams. Such a short pulse with 6 bar backing pressure behind a 150 μm nozzle releases about 1016 particles/pulse and the beam brightness was estimated to be 4×1022 particles/(s str). The short pulses of the cantilever piezovalve result in a much reduced gas load in the vacuum system. We demonstrate operation of the pulsed valve with skimmer in a single vacuum chamber pumped by a 520 l/s turbomolecular pump maintaining a pressure of 5×10-6 Torr, which is an excellent vacuum to have the strong and cold skimmed molecular beam interact with laser beams only 10 cm downstream of the nozzle to do velocity map slice imaging with a microchannel-plate imaging detector in a single chamber. The piezovalve produces cold and narrow (Δv /v=2%-3%) velocity distributions of molecules seeded in helium or neon at modest backing pressures of only 6 bar. The low gas load of the cantilever

  14. A short pulse (7 micros FWHM) and high repetition rate (dc-5 kHz) cantilever piezovalve for pulsed atomic and molecular beams.

    PubMed

    Irimia, Daniel; Dobrikov, Dimitar; Kortekaas, Rob; Voet, Han; van den Ende, Daan A; Groen, Wilhelm A; Janssen, Maurice H M

    2009-11-01

    In this paper we report on the design and operation of a novel piezovalve for the production of short pulsed atomic or molecular beams. The high speed valve operates on the principle of a cantilever piezo. The only moving part, besides the cantilever piezo itself, is a very small O-ring that forms the vacuum seal. The valve can operate continuous (dc) and in pulsed mode with the same drive electronics. Pulsed operation has been tested at repetition frequencies up to 5 kHz. The static deflection of the cantilever, as mounted in the valve body, was measured as a function of driving field strength with a confocal microscope. The deflection and high speed dynamical response of the cantilever can be easily changed and optimized for a particular nozzle diameter or repetition rate by a simple adjustment of the free cantilever length. Pulsed molecular beams with a full width at half maximum pulse width as low as 7 micros have been measured at a position 10 cm downstream of the nozzle exit. This represents a gas pulse with a length of only 10 mm making it well matched to for instance experiments using laser beams. Such a short pulse with 6 bar backing pressure behind a 150 microm nozzle releases about 10(16) particles/pulse and the beam brightness was estimated to be 4x10(22) particles/(s str). The short pulses of the cantilever piezovalve result in a much reduced gas load in the vacuum system. We demonstrate operation of the pulsed valve with skimmer in a single vacuum chamber pumped by a 520 l/s turbomolecular pump maintaining a pressure of 5x10(-6) Torr, which is an excellent vacuum to have the strong and cold skimmed molecular beam interact with laser beams only 10 cm downstream of the nozzle to do velocity map slice imaging with a microchannel-plate imaging detector in a single chamber. The piezovalve produces cold and narrow (Delta v/v=2%-3%) velocity distributions of molecules seeded in helium or neon at modest backing pressures of only 6 bar. The low gas load of the

  15. Two-dimensional time-resolved ultra-high speed imaging of K-alpha emission from short-pulse-laser interactions to observe electron recirculation

    DOE PAGES

    Nagel, S. R.; Chen, H.; Park, J.; ...

    2017-04-04

    Time resolved x-ray images with 7 ps resolution are recorded on relativistic short-pulse laser-plasma experiments using the dilation x-ray imager, a high-speed x-ray framing camera, sensitive to x-rays in the range of ≈1-17 keV. Furthermore, this capability enables a series of 2D x-ray images to be recorded at picosecond scales, which allows for the investigation of fast electron transport within the target with unprecedented temporal resolution. With an increase in the Kα-emission spot size over time we found that targets were thinner than the recirculation limit and is absent for thicker targets. Together with the observed polarization dependence of themore » spot size increase, this indicates that electron recirculation is relevant for the x-ray production in thin targets.« less

  16. Study of silver K{alpha} and bremsstrahlung radiation from short-pulse laser-matter interactions with applications for x-ray radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Westover, B.; Beg, F. N.; MacPhee, A.; Chen, C.; Hey, D.; Maddox, B.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; Ma, T.

    2010-08-15

    Measurements of K{alpha} radiation yield and x-ray bremsstrahlung emission from thin-foil silver targets are presented. The targets were irradiated by a short pulse laser with intensities from 5x10{sup 16} to 10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2} at 40 ps. Single hit charge-coupled device detectors, differential filter-stack detectors, and a crystal spectrometer were used to investigate the angular distribution of the K{alpha} and bremsstrahlung x-rays. This study is the first to use a broadband detector to estimate the absolute numbers of K{alpha} photons and to determine K{alpha} to bremsstrahlung ratios. The relevance of this work in the context of x-ray diffraction and x-ray radiography is discussed.

  17. Formation of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles in the surface layer of a silicon target during short-pulse carbon ion implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remnev, G. E.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Naiden, E. P.; Saltymakov, M. S.; Stepanov, A. V.; Shtan'ko, V. F.

    2009-04-01

    Synthesis of silicon carbide and diamond nanoparticles is studied during short-pulse implantation of carbon ions and protons into a silicon target. The experiments are carried out using a TEMP source of pulsed powerful ion beams based on a magnetically insulated diode with radial magnetic field B r . The beam parameters are as follows: the ion energy is 300 keV, the pulse duration is 80 ns, the beam consists of carbon ions and protons, and the ion current density is 30 A/cm2. Single-crystal silicon wafers serve as a target. SiC nanoparticles and nanodiamonds form in the surface layer of silicon subjected to more than 100 pulses. The average coherent domain sizes in the SiC particles and nanodiamonds are 12-16 and 8-9 nm, respectively.

  18. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wei Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  19. Hard-tissue drilling by short-pulse CO2 laser with controllable pulse-tail energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Sasaki, Tatsufumi; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-02-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse with the almost same spike-pulse energy of about 0.8 mJ and the controllable pulse-tail energy of 0-21.26 mJ. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance and a spark-gap switch. In single-shot irradiation using these laser pulses, the dependence of the drilling depth of dry ivory samples on the fluence was investigated. The drilling depth increased with the fluence in the same laser pulse waveform. In this work, the effective short laser pulse for the hard tissue drilling was the laser pulse with the spike pulse energy of 0.87 mJ and the pulse tail energy of 6.33 mJ that produced the drilling depth of 28.1 μm at the fluence of 3.48 J/cm2 and the drilling depth per the fluence of 7.27 μm/J/cm2.

  20. Spatially and Temporally Resolved Atomic Oxygen Measurements in Short Pulse Discharges by Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lempert, Walter; Uddi, Mruthunjaya; Mintusov, Eugene; Jiang, Naibo; Adamovich, Igor

    2007-10-01

    Two Photon Laser Induced Fluorescence (TALIF) is used to measure time-dependent absolute oxygen atom concentrations in O2/He, O2/N2, and CH4/air plasmas produced with a 20 nanosecond duration, 20 kV pulsed discharge at 10 Hz repetition rate. Xenon calibrated spectra show that a single discharge pulse creates initial oxygen dissociation fraction of ˜0.0005 for air like mixtures at 40-60 torr total pressure. Peak O atom concentration is a factor of approximately two lower in fuel lean (φ=0.5) methane/air mixtures. In helium buffer, the initially formed atomic oxygen decays monotonically, with decay time consistent with formation of ozone. In all nitrogen containing mixtures, atomic oxygen concentrations are found to initially increase, for time scales on the order of 10-100 microseconds, due presumably to additional O2 dissociation caused by collisions with electronically excited nitrogen. Further evidence of the role of metastable N2 is demonstrated from time-dependent N2 2^nd Positive and NO Gamma band emission spectroscopy. Comparisons with modeling predictions show qualitative, but not quantitative, agreement with the experimental data.

  1. Coupling characteristics between slot plasmonic mode and dielectric waveguide mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuai; Liu, Fang; Wan, Ruiyuan; Huang, Yidong

    2010-12-01

    A hybrid coupler composed of a slot plasmonic waveguide and a dielectric waveguide is proposed and its coupling characteristics are analyzed. The simulation results show that the ultra-small mode of the slot plasmonic waveguide can be excited efficiently by the dielectric waveguide mode within the coupling length of just several microns, which provides an interface between the slot plasmonic devices and dielectric devices. Meanwhile, based on this hybrid the coupler, a highly integrated refractive index sensor could be realized.

  2. The Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, George J.; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Sampayan, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    The Dielectric Wall Accelerator (DWA), a class of induction accelerators, employs a novel insulating beam tube to impress a longitudinal electric field on a bunch of charged particles. The surface flashover characteristics of this tube may permit the attainment of accelerating gradients on the order of 100 MV/m for accelerating pulses on the order of a nanosecond in duration. A virtual traveling wave of excitation along the tube is produced at any desired speed by controlling the timing of pulse generating modules that supply a tangential electric field to the tube wall. Because of the ability to control the speed of this virtual wave, the accelerator is capable of handling any charge to mass ratio particle; hence it can be used for electrons, protons and any ion. The accelerator architectures, key technologies and development challenges will be described.

  3. Thin-ribbon tapered coupler for dielectric waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, C.; Otoshi, T. Y.; Shimabukuro, F. I.

    1994-01-01

    A recent discovery shows that a high-dielectric constant, low-loss, solid material can be made into a ribbon-like waveguide structure to yield an attenuation constant of less than 0.02 dB/m for single-mode guidance of millimeter/submillimeter waves. One of the crucial components that must be invented in order to guarantee the low-loss utilization of this dielectric-waveguide guiding system is the excitation coupler. The traditional tapered-to-a-point coupler for a dielectric rod waveguide fails when the dielectric constant of the dielectric waveguide is large. This article presents a new way to design a low-loss coupler for a high- or low-dielectric constant dielectric waveguide for millimeter or submillimeter waves.

  4. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse operating at high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianhui; Uno, Kazuyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2016-11-01

    A short-pulse longitudinally excited CO2 laser operating at a high repetition rate was developed. The discharge tube was made of a 45 cm-long or 60 cm-long dielectric tube with an inner diameter of 16 mm and two metallic electrodes at the ends of the tube. The optical cavity was formed by a ZnSe output coupler with a reflectivity of 85% and a high-reflection mirror. Mixed gas (CO2:N2:He = 1:1:2) was flowed into the discharge tube. A high voltage of about 33 kV with a rise time of about 200 ns was applied to the discharge tube. At a repetition rate of 300 Hz and a gas pressure of 3.4 kPa, the 45 cm-long discharge tube produced a short laser pulse with a laser pulse energy of 17.5 mJ, a spike pulse energy of 0.2 mJ, a spike width of 153 ns, and a pulse tail length of 90 μs. The output power was 5.3 W. The laser pulse waveform did not depend on the repetition rate, but the laser beam profile did. At a low repetition rate of less than 50 Hz, the laser beam had a doughnut-like shape. However, at a high repetition rate of more than 150 Hz, the discharge concentrated at the center of the discharge tube, and the intensity at the center of the laser beam was higher. The laser beam profile depended on the distribution of the discharge. An output power of 7.0 W was achieved by using the 60 cm-long tube.

  5. Dielectric metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Jason

    While plasmonics metasurfaces have seen much development over the past several years, they still face throughput limitations due to ohmic losses. On the other hand, dielectric resonators and associated metasurfaces can eliminate the issue of ohmic loss while still providing the freedom to engineer the optical properties of the composite. In this talk, I will present our recent efforts to harness this freedom using metasurfaces formed from silicon and fabricated using CMOS-compatible techniques. Operating in the telecommunications band, I will discuss how we have used this platform to realize a number of novel functionalities including wavefront control, near-perfect reflection, and high quality factor resonances. In many cases the optical performance of these silicon-based metasurfaces can surpass their plasmonic counterparts. Furthermore, for some cases the surfaces are more amenable to large-area fabrication techniques.

  6. A multiband absorber with dielectric-dielectric-metal structure in the infrared regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yan-Lin; Zhao, Yan; Lu, He-Ping

    2016-10-01

    We report a multiband absorber with dielectric-dielectric-metal structure in the infrared regime. The simulation results show that that near-perfect absorption is originated from the guide mode resonance and surface plasmonic polaritons (SPPs) excitation. Furthermore, the absorption peaks of this multiband absorber can be tuned by changing the incidence angle or scaling the microstructure dimensions. The results of this study have possible future potential applications in thermal emitter and sensor.

  7. Femtosecond optomagnetism in dielectric antiferromagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bossini, D.; Rasing, Th

    2017-02-01

    Optical femtosecond manipulation of magnetic order is attractive for the development of new concepts for ultrafast magnetic recording. Theoretical and experimental investigations in this research area aim at establishing a physical understanding of magnetic media in light-induced non-equilibrium states. Such a quest requires one to adjust the theory of magnetism, since the thermodynamical concepts of elementary excitations and spin alignment determined by the exchange interaction are not applicable on the femtosecond time-scale after the photo-excitation. Here we report some key milestones concerning the femtosecond optical control of spins in dielectric antiferromagnets, whose spin dynamics is by nature faster than that of ferromagnets and can be triggered even without any laser heating. The recent progress of the opto-magnetic effect in the sub-wavelength regime makes this exciting research area even more promising, in terms of both fundamental breakthroughs and technological perspectives.

  8. Influence of irradiation by a novel CO2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser on sealant bond strength.

    PubMed

    Rechmann, P; Sherathiya, K; Kinsel, R; Vaderhobli, R; Rechmann, B M T

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate whether irradiation of enamel with a novel CO2 9.3-μm short-pulsed laser using energies that enhance caries resistance influences the shear bond strength of composite resin sealants to the irradiated enamel. Seventy bovine and 240 human enamel samples were irradiated with a 9.3-μm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with four different laser energies known to enhance caries resistance or ablate enamel (pulse duration from 3 μs at 1.6 mJ/pulse to 43 μs at 14.9 mJ/pulse with fluences between 3.3 and 30.4 J/cm(2), pulse repetition rate between 4.1 and 41.3 Hz, beam diameter of 0.25 mm and 1-mm spiral pattern, and focus distance of 4-15 mm). Irradiation was performed "freehand" or using a computerized, motor-driven stage. Enamel etching was achieved with 37% phosphoric acid (Scotchbond Universal etchant, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN). As bonding agent, Adper Single Bond Plus was used followed by placing Z250 Filtek Supreme flowable composite resin (both 3M ESPE). After 24 h water storage, a single-plane shear bond test was performed (UltraTester, Ultradent Products, Inc., South Jordan, UT). All laser-irradiated samples showed equal or higher bond strength than non-laser-treated controls. The highest shear bond strength values were observed with the 3-μs pulse duration/0.25-mm laser pattern (mean ± SD = 31.90 ± 2.50 MPa), representing a significant 27.4% bond strength increase over the controls (25.04 ± 2.80 MPa, P ≤ 0.0001). Two other caries-preventive irradiation (3 μs/1 mm and 7 μs/0.25 mm) and one ablative pattern (23 μs/0.25 mm) achieved significantly increased bond strength compared to the controls. Bovine enamel also showed in all test groups increased shear bond strength over the controls. Computerized motor-driven stage irradiation did not show superior bond strength values over the clinically more relevant freehand irradiation. Enamel

  9. High gradient insulator technology for the dielectric wall accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S.; Caporaso, G.; Carder, B.

    1995-04-27

    Insulators composed of finely spaced alternating layers of dielectric and metal are thought to minimize secondary emission avalanche (SEA) growth. Most data to date was taken with small samples (order 10 cm{sup 2} area) in the absence of an ion or electron beam. The authors have begun long pulse (>1 {mu}s) high voltage testing of small hard seal samples. Further, they have performed short pulse (20 ns) high voltage testing of moderate scale bonded samples (order 100 cm{sup 2} area) in the presence of a 1 kA electron beam. Results thus far indicate a 1.0 to 4.0 increase in the breakdown electric field stress is possible with this technology.

  10. Absolute measurements of short-pulse, long-pulse, and capsule-implosion backlighter sources at x-ray energies greater than 10 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maddox, Brian

    2010-11-01

    Laser-generated x-ray backlighters with x-ray energies > 10 keV are becoming essential diagnostic tools for many high energy density experiments. Examples include studies of high areal density cores for ignition designs, mid- to high-Z capsule implosion experiments, absolute equation of state experiments, dynamic diffraction under extreme pressures, and the study of material strength. Significant progress has been made recently using short pulse lasers, coupled to metal foil targets [1], and imploding capsules for producing high energy backlighters. Measuring the absolute x-ray flux and spectra from these sources is required for quantitative analysis of experimental data and for the design and planning of future experiments. We have performed an extensive series of experiments to measure the absolute x-ray flux and spectra on the Titan, Omega, Omega-EP, and NIF laser systems, employing single-photon-counting detectors, crystal spectrometers, and multichannel differential filtering (Ross-pair) and filter stack bremsstrahlung spectrometers. Calibrations were performed on these instruments [2] enabling absolute measurements of backlighter spectra to be made from 10 keV to 1 MeV. Various backlighter techniques that generate either quasi-monochromatic sources or broadband continuum sources will be presented and compared. For Molybdenum Kα backlighters at x-ray energy of ˜17 keV we measure conversion efficiencies of 1.3x10-4 using 1 μm wavelength short-pulse lasers at an intensity of ˜1x10^17 W/cm^2. This is a factor of ˜2 high than using 0.3 μm wavelength long-pulse lasers at an intensity of ˜1x10^16 W/cm^2. Other types of backlighter targets include capsule implosion backlighters that can generate a very bright ``white-light'' continuum x-ray source and high-Z gas filled capsules that generate a quasi-line-source of x rays. We will present and compare the absolute laser energy to x-ray conversion efficiencies for these different backlighter techniques and give

  11. Multimode directionality in all-dielectric metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuanqing; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kostinski, Sarah V.; Odit, Mikhail; Kapitanova, Polina; Qiu, Min; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate that spectrally diverse multiple magnetic dipole resonances can be excited in all-dielectric structures lacking rotational symmetry, in contrast to conventionally used spheres, disks, or spheroids. Such multiple magnetic resonances arise from hybrid Mie-Fabry-Perot modes, and can constructively interfere with induced electric dipole moments, thereby leading to novel multifrequency unidirectional scattering. Here we focus on elongated dielectric nanobars, whose magnetic resonances can be spectrally tuned by their aspect ratios. Based on our theoretical results, we suggest all-dielectric multimode metasurfaces and verify them in proof-of-principle microwave experiments. We also believe that the demonstrated property of multimode directionality is largely responsible for the best efficiency of all-dielectric metasurfaces that were recently shown to operate across multiple telecom bands.

  12. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue. PMID:28295027

  13. Improved shear wave motion detection using coded excitation for transient elastography.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Nian; Diao, Xian-Fen; Lin, Hao-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yu; Shen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Si-Ping; Qin, Zheng-Di; Chen, Xin

    2017-03-15

    Transient elastography (TE) is well adapted for use in studying liver elasticity. However, because the shear wave motion signal is extracted from the ultrasound signal, the weak ultrasound signal can significantly deteriorate the shear wave motion tracking process and make it challenging to detect the shear wave motion in a severe noise environment, such as within deep tissues and within obese patients. This paper, therefore, investigated the feasibility of implementing coded excitation in TE for shear wave detection, with the hypothesis that coded ultrasound signals can provide robustness to weak ultrasound signals compared with traditional short pulse. The Barker 7, Barker 13, and short pulse were used for detecting the shear wave in the TE application. Two phantom experiments and one in vitro liver experiment were done to explore the performances of the coded excitation in TE measurement. The results show that both coded pulses outperform the short pulse by providing superior shear wave signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), robust shear wave speed measurement, and higher penetration intensity. In conclusion, this study proved the feasibility of applying coded excitation in shear wave detection for TE application. The proposed method has the potential to facilitate robust shear elasticity measurements of tissue.

  14. Pulsed electrical breakdown of a void-filled dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. A.; Lagasse, R. R.; Schroeder, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    We report breakdown strengths in a void-filled dielectric material, epoxy containing 48 vol % hollow glass microballoon filler, which is stressed with unipolar voltage pulses of the order of 10 μs duration. The microballoon voids had mean diameters of approximately 40 μm and contained SO2 gas at roughly 30% atmospheric pressure. This void-filled material displays good dielectric strength (of the order of 100 kV mm-1) under these short-pulse test conditions. Results from a variety of electrode geometries are reported, including arrangements in which the electric stress is highly nonuniform. Conventional breakdown criteria based on mean or peak electric stress do not account for these data. A statistics-based predictive breakdown model is developed, in which the dielectric is divided into independent, microballoon-sized "discharge cells" and the spontaneous discharge of a single cell is presumed to launch full breakdown of the composite. We obtain two empirical parameters, the mean and standard deviation of the spontaneous discharge field, by fitting breakdown data from two electrode geometries having roughly uniform fields but with greatly differing volumes of electrically stressed material. This model accounts for many aspects of our data, including the inherent statistical scatter and the dependence on the stressed volume, and it provides informative predictions with electrode geometries giving highly nonuniform fields. Issues related to computational spatial resolution and cutoff distance are also discussed.

  15. High-resolution measurements of the spatial and temporal evolution of megagauss magnetic fields created in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, Gourab Singh, Prashant Kumar; Adak, Amitava; Lad, Amit D.; Kumar, G. Ravindra

    2014-01-15

    A pump-probe polarimetric technique is demonstrated, which provides a complete, temporally and spatially resolved mapping of the megagauss magnetic fields generated in intense short-pulse laser-plasma interactions. A normally incident time-delayed probe pulse reflected from its critical surface undergoes a change in its ellipticity according to the magneto-optic Cotton-Mouton effect due to the azimuthal nature of the ambient self-generated megagauss magnetic fields. The temporal resolution of the magnetic field mapping is typically of the order of the pulsewidth, limited by the laser intensity contrast, whereas a spatial resolution of a few μm is achieved by this optical technique. High-harmonics of the probe can be employed to penetrate deeper into the plasma to even near-solid densities. The spatial and temporal evolution of the megagauss magnetic fields at the target front as well as at the target rear are presented. The μm-scale resolution of the magnetic field mapping provides valuable information on the filamentary instabilities at the target front, whereas probing the target rear mirrors the highly complex fast electron transport in intense laser-plasma interactions.

  16. The Influence of High-Power Ion Beams and High-Intensity Short-Pulse Implantation of Ions on the Properties of Ceramic Silicon Carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabyshev, A. V.; Konusov, F. V.; Pavlov, S. K.; Remnev, G. E.

    2016-02-01

    The paper is focused on the study of the structural, electrical and optical characteristics of the ceramic silicon carbide before and after irradiation in the regimes of the high-power ion beams (HPIB) and high-intensity short-pulse implantation (HISPI) of carbon ions. The dominant mechanism of transport of charge carriers, their type and the energy spectrum of localized states (LS) of defects determining the properties of SiC were established. Electrical and optical characteristics of ceramic before and after irradiation are determined by the biographical and radiation defects whose band gap (BG) energy levels have a continuous energetic distribution. A dominant p-type activation component of conduction with participation of shallow acceptor levels 0.05-0.16 eV is complemented by hopping mechanism of conduction involving the defects LS with a density of 1.2T017-2.4T018 eV-Am-3 distributed near the Fermi level.The effect of radiation defects with deep levels in the BG on properties change dominates after HISPI. A new material with the changed electronic structure and properties is formed in the near surface layer of SiC after the impact of the HPIB.

  17. POPULATION KINETICS MODELING FOR NON-LTE AND NON-MAXWELLIAN PLASMAS GENERATED IN FINITE TEMPERATURE DENSE MATTER EXPERIMENTS ARISING FROM SHORT PULSE X-RAY SOURCE

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H; Lee, R W; Morgan, W L

    2003-12-23

    The short pulse x-ray sources will provide a major advance in dense matter studies important to understand implosion physics for ICF as a generator of warm dense matter or a probe of finite temperature dense matter. The interaction of such a high-energy photon pulse with the initially solid matter creates highly transient states of plasmas initially whose relaxation processes are of interest to the equation of states or spectral properties of these matter. For these plasmas, assumptions such as LTE population distributions or Maxwellian electron energy distributions should be tested by employing a method that does not make these assumption a priori. Our goal is to present a model that can be used to simulate the electron distributions, the ionization balance and the spectral output of transient systems generated in the future ICF experiments. We report on the progress in developing a non-LTE atomic population kinetics code integrated with Boltzmann equation solver to provide a self-consistent time-dependent solution of the level populations and the particle energy distributions.

  18. K{sub α} and bremsstrahlung x-ray radiation backlighter sources from short pulse laser driven silver targets as a function of laser pre-pulse energy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrott, L. C.; Mariscal, D.; McGuffey, C.; Beg, F. N.; Kemp, A. J.; Divol, L.; Chen, C.; Hey, D.; Maddox, B.; Hawreliak, J.; Park, H.-S.; Remington, B.; MacPhee, A.; Westover, B.; Suggit, M.; Wei, M. S.

    2014-03-15

    Measurements of silver K-shell and bremsstrahlung emission from thin-foil laser targets as a function of laser prepulse energy are presented. The silver targets were chosen as a potential 22 keV backlighter source for the National Ignition Facility Experiments. The targets were irradiated by the Titan laser with an intensity of 8 × 10{sup 17} W/cm{sup 2} with 40 ps pulse length. A secondary nanosecond timescale laser pulse with controlled, variable energy was used to emulate the laser prepulse. Results show a decrease in both K{sub α} and bremsstrahlung yield with increasing artificial prepulse. Radiation hydrodynamic modeling of the prepulse interaction determined that the preplasma and intact target fraction were different in the three prepulse energies investigated. Interaction of the short pulse laser with the resulting preplasma and target was then modeled using a particle-in-cell code PSC which explained the experimental results. The relevance of this work to future Advanced Radiographic Capability laser x-ray backlighter sources is discussed.

  19. Short-pulse MOPA fiber laser with kilowatt average power and multi-megawatt peak power, applying advanced XLMA fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinger, R.; Grundmann, F.-P.; Hapke, C.; Kallage, P.; Rath, W.; Ruppik, S.

    2017-03-01

    High power short pulse fiber lasers are applied in industry for many ablation processes or various surface treatments, and there is a huge demand for such lasers but with higher average power, higher pulse energy and higher peak power. This contribution presents a high peak- and average- power fiber laser with selectable pulse durations between 10 ns and 100 ns, where more than 150 mJ pulse energy has been achieved at a repetition rate of 10 kHz. In addition, for a laser pulse with 30 ns pulse duration a maximum peak power of more than 3.5 MW at more than 1 kW average output power have been demonstrated. These results could be achieved by applying extra-large mode area (XLMA) gain fibers (fiber core <100 μm) in the fiber amplifiers and using pulse shape capabilities of the seed laser, only. Stable and safe operation of the fiber laser have been shown with power densities up to 3 GW/cm² in the gain fiber. In order to protect the fiber laser to be affected by back reflections from the workpiece, a newly designed optical isolator with more than 30 dB isolation has been implemented.

  20. Effect of pulse to pulse interactions on ultra-short pulse laser drilling of steel with repetition rates up to 10 MHz.

    PubMed

    Finger, Johannes; Reininghaus, Martin

    2014-07-28

    We report on the effect of pulse to pulse interactions during percussion drilling of steel using high power ps-laser radiation with repetition rates of up to 10 MHz and high average powers up to 80 W. The ablation rate per pulse is measured as a function of the pulse repetition rate for four fluences ranging from 500 mJ/cm2 up to 1500 mJ/cm2. For every investigated fluence an abrupt increase of the ablation rate per pulse is observed at a distinctive repetition rate. The onset repetition rate for this effect is strongly dependent on the applied pulse fluence. The origin of the increase of the ablation rate is attributed to the emergence of a melt based ablation processes, as Laser Scanning Microscopy (LSM) images show the occurrence of melt ejected material surrounding the drilling holes. A semi empirical model based on classical heat conduction including heat accumulation as well as pulse-particle interactions is applied to enable quantitative conclusions on the origin of the observed data. In agreement with previous studies, the acquired data confirm the relevance of these two effects for the fundamental description of materials processing with ultra-short pulsed laser radiation at high repetition rates and high average power.

  1. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1993-01-01

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shockwave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more.

  2. Ultra-short pulse generator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1993-12-28

    An inexpensive pulse generating circuit is disclosed that generates ultra-short, 200 picosecond, and high voltage 100 kW, pulses suitable for wideband radar and other wideband applications. The circuit implements a nonlinear transmission line with series inductors and variable capacitors coupled to ground made from reverse biased diodes to sharpen and increase the amplitude of a high-voltage power MOSFET driver input pulse until it causes non-destructive transit time breakdown in a final avalanche shock wave diode, which increases and sharpens the pulse even more. 5 figures.

  3. Broadband excitation in solid-state NMR of paramagnetic samples using Delays Alternating with Nutation for Tailored Excitation ('Para-DANTE')

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnevale, Diego; Vitzthum, Veronika; Lafon, Olivier; Trébosc, Julien; Amoureux, Jean-Paul; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey

    2012-11-01

    This Letter shows that interleaved sequences of short pulses in the manner of 'Delays Alternating with Nutation for Tailored Excitation' (DANTE) with N = 1, 2, 3 … equidistant pulses per rotor period extending over K rotor periods can be used to excite, invert or refocus a large number of spinning sidebands of spin-1/2 nuclei in paramagnetic samples where hyperfine couplings lead to very broad spectra that extend over more than 1 MHz. The breadth of the response is maintained for rf-field amplitudes as low as 30 kHz since it results from cumulative effects of individual pulses with very short durations.

  4. Cryogenic exciter

    DOEpatents

    Bray, James William [Niskayuna, NY; Garces, Luis Jose [Niskayuna, NY

    2012-03-13

    The disclosed technology is a cryogenic static exciter. The cryogenic static exciter is connected to a synchronous electric machine that has a field winding. The synchronous electric machine is cooled via a refrigerator or cryogen like liquid nitrogen. The static exciter is in communication with the field winding and is operating at ambient temperature. The static exciter receives cooling from a refrigerator or cryogen source, which may also service the synchronous machine, to selected areas of the static exciter and the cooling selectively reduces the operating temperature of the selected areas of the static exciter.

  5. Ultra-short pulse delivery at high average power with low-loss hollow core fibers coupled to TRUMPF's TruMicro laser platforms for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumbach, S.; Pricking, S.; Overbuschmann, J.; Nutsch, S.; Kleinbauer, J.; Gebs, R.; Tan, C.; Scelle, R.; Kahmann, M.; Budnicki, A.; Sutter, D. H.; Killi, A.

    2017-02-01

    Multi-megawatt ultrafast laser systems at micrometer wavelength are commonly used for material processing applications, including ablation, cutting and drilling of various materials or cleaving of display glass with excellent quality. There is a need for flexible and efficient beam guidance, avoiding free space propagation of light between the laser head and the processing unit. Solid core step index fibers are only feasible for delivering laser pulses with peak powers in the kW-regime due to the optical damage threshold in bulk silica. In contrast, hollow core fibers are capable of guiding ultra-short laser pulses with orders of magnitude higher peak powers. This is possible since a micro-structured cladding confines the light within the hollow core and therefore minimizes the spatial overlap between silica and the electro-magnetic field. We report on recent results of single-mode ultra-short pulse delivery over several meters in a lowloss hollow core fiber packaged with industrial connectors. TRUMPF's ultrafast TruMicro laser platforms equipped with advanced temperature control and precisely engineered opto-mechanical components provide excellent position and pointing stability. They are thus perfectly suited for passive coupling of ultra-short laser pulses into hollow core fibers. Neither active beam launching components nor beam trackers are necessary for a reliable beam delivery in a space and cost saving packaging. Long term tests with weeks of stable operation, excellent beam quality and an overall transmission efficiency of above 85 percent even at high average power confirm the reliability for industrial applications.

  6. Transcriptional Dynamics Elicited by a Short Pulse of Notch Activation Involves Feed-Forward Regulation by E(spl)/Hes Genes

    PubMed Central

    Housden, Ben E.; Fu, Audrey Q.; Krejci, Alena; Bernard, Fred; Fischer, Bettina; Tavaré, Simon; Russell, Steven; Bray, Sarah J.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic activity of signaling pathways, such as Notch, is vital to achieve correct development and homeostasis. However, most studies assess output many hours or days after initiation of signaling, once the outcome has been consolidated. Here we analyze genome-wide changes in transcript levels, binding of the Notch pathway transcription factor, CSL [Suppressor of Hairless, Su(H), in Drosophila], and RNA Polymerase II (Pol II) immediately following a short pulse of Notch stimulation. A total of 154 genes showed significant differential expression (DE) over time, and their expression profiles stratified into 14 clusters based on the timing, magnitude, and direction of DE. E(spl) genes were the most rapidly upregulated, with Su(H), Pol II, and transcript levels increasing within 5–10 minutes. Other genes had a more delayed response, the timing of which was largely unaffected by more prolonged Notch activation. Neither Su(H) binding nor poised Pol II could fully explain the differences between profiles. Instead, our data indicate that regulatory interactions, driven by the early-responding E(spl)bHLH genes, are required. Proposed cross-regulatory relationships were validated in vivo and in cell culture, supporting the view that feed-forward repression by E(spl)bHLH/Hes shapes the response of late-responding genes. Based on these data, we propose a model in which Hes genes are responsible for co-ordinating the Notch response of a wide spectrum of other targets, explaining the critical functions these key regulators play in many developmental and disease contexts. PMID:23300480

  7. Expression of heat shock proteins 70 and 47 in tissues following short-pulse laser irradiation: assessment of thermal damage and healing.

    PubMed

    Sajjadi, Amir Yousef; Mitra, Kunal; Grace, Michael

    2013-10-01

    In order to develop effective laser-based therapeutics, the extent of laser-induced damage must be quantified for given laser parameters. Therefore, we want to determine the spatiotemporal expression patterns of heat shock proteins, both to understand the roles of heat shock proteins in laser-induced tissue damage and repair and to develop heat shock proteins as tools to illustrate the extent of laser-induced damage and wound healing following irradiation. We exposed anesthetized mice to the focused beam of a short-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm; 200 ns pulsewidth) for 15s, while measuring temperature distribution in the skin using an infrared thermal camera. Following irradiation, we examined expression of HSP47 and HSP70 over time (0-24h) as indicators of the heat shock response and recovery from damage in the laser-irradiated region. Expression patterns of HSP70 and HSP47 as detected by immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy delineate the extent of damage and the process of healing in tissue. Both HSP70 and HSP47 were expressed in dermis and epidermis following laser irradiation, and the spatial and temporal changes in HSP expression patterns define the laser-induced thermal damage zone and the process of healing in tissues. HSP70 may define biochemically the thermal damage zone in which cells are targeted for destruction, and HSP47 may illustrate the process of recovery from thermally induced damage. Studying the effects of different laser parameters on the expression of HSPs will allow development of effective laser therapies that provide accurate and precise tissue ablation and may promote rapid wound healing following laser-based surgery. Copyright © 2013 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of short pulse laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy for automotive component manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlShaer, A. W.; Li, L.; Mistry, A.

    2014-12-01

    Laser welding of aluminium alloys typically results in porosity in the fusion zones, leading to poor mechanical and corrosion performances. Mechanical and chemical cleaning of surfaces has been used previously to remove contaminants for weld joint preparations. However, these methods are slow, ineffective (e.g. due to hydrogen trapping) or lead to environmental hazards. This paper reports the effects of short pulsed laser surface cleaning on porosity formation and reduction in laser welding of AC-170PX (AA6014) aluminium sheets (coated with Ti/Zr and lubricated using a dry lubricant AlO70) with two types of joints: fillet edge and flange couch, using an AA4043 filler wire for automotive component assembly. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction during laser welding using a filler wire has not been reported before. In this work, porosity and weld fusion zone geometry were examined prior to and after laser cleaning. The nanosecond pulsed Nd:YAG laser cleaning was found to reduce porosity significantly in the weld fusion zones. For the fillet edge welds, porosity was reduced to less than 0.5% compared with 10-80% without laser cleaning. For flange couch welds, porosity was reduced to 0.23-0.8% with laser cleaning from 0.7% to 4.3% without laser cleaning. This has been found to be due to the elimination of contaminations and oxide layers that contribute to the porosity formation. The laser cleaning is based on thermal ablation. This research focuses on porosity reduction in laser welding of aluminium alloy. Weld quality was investigated for two joints, fillet edge and flange couch joints. The effect of laser cleaning on porosity reduction after welding was investigated. It was found that laser cleaning reduced porosity less than 1% in both joints. Weld dimensions and strength were evaluated and discussed for both types of joints.

  9. Generation of nanocrystalline surface layer in short pulse laser processing of metal targets under conditions of spatial confinement by solid or liquid overlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Shih, Cheng-Yu; Karim, Eaman T.; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2017-09-01

    The effect of spatial confinement by a solid or liquid overlayer on short pulse laser-induced surface microstructure modification is investigated in a series of large-scale atomistic simulations performed for Ag targets irradiated in the regime of melting and resolidification, below the thresholds for laser spallation and ablation. For Ag targets with free surfaces, the formation of a nanocrystalline region with random crystallographic grain orientation is observed under irradiation conditions leading to the generation of numerous sub-surface voids that slow down the solidification process. When no voids are generated, the resolidification produces grains misoriented with respect to the bulk of the target by just several degrees and separated from each other by low angle grain boundaries or dislocation walls. The presence of a liquid or solid overlayer suppresses nucleation of sub-surface voids, provides an additional pathway for cooling through the heat conduction to the overlayer, and facilitates the formation of nanocrystalline structure in a region of the metal target adjacent to the overlayer. Moreover, the stabilizing effect of the solid overlayer may result in an incomplete melting of metal in the vicinity of the interface, making it possible for grains growing from the interface to retain ;memory; of the target orientation and to produce nanocrystalline interfacial region with small misorientation of grains with respect to the bulk of the target. In all simulations, the nanocrystalline layers generated by laser processing of single crystal Ag targets are characterized by a high density of stacking faults, twin boundaries, and point defects produced in the course of the rapid resolidification.

  10. Simultaneous two-photon excitation of photodynamic therapy agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachter, Eric A.; Partridge, W. P., Jr.; Fisher, Walter G.; Dees, Craig; Petersen, Mark G.

    1998-07-01

    The spectroscopic and photochemical properties of several photosensitive compounds are compared using conventional single-photon excitation (SPE) and simultaneous two-photon excitation (TPE). TPE is achieved using a mode-locked titanium:sapphire laser, the near infrared output of which allows direct promotion of non-resonant TPE. Excitation spectra and excited state properties of both type I and type II photodynamic therapy (PDT) agents are examined. In general, while SPE and TPE selection rules may be somewhat different, the excited state photochemical properties are equivalent for both modes of excitation. In vitro promotion of a two-photon photodynamic effect is demonstrated using bacterial and human breast cancer models. These results suggest that use of TPE may be beneficial for PDT, since the technique allows replacement of visible or ultraviolet excitation with non- damaging near infrared light. Further, a comparison of possible excitation sources for TPE indicates that the titanium:sapphire laser is exceptionally well suited for non- linear excitation of PDT agents in biological systems due to its extremely short pulse width and high repetition rate; these features combine to effect efficient PDT activation with minimal potential for non-specific biological damage.

  11. Multiscale Model for the Dielectric Permittivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Madrid, Agustín; Lapas, Luciano C.; Rubí, J. Miguel

    2017-02-01

    We present a generalisation of the Debye relaxation model for the dielectric permittivity in the case in which the global relaxation process is the result of many elementary excitations. The relaxation dynamics is in this case non-Markovian. In the case of many events, for which the central limit theorem holds and Gaussianity as well as the assumption of independency are both plausible, the global relaxation time is given by a log-normal function. The hierarchy of relaxation times leads to a generalised expression of the dielectric permittivity.

  12. Dielectric loss against piezoelectric power harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Junrui; Shu-Hung Chung, Henry; Liao, Wei-Hsin

    2014-09-01

    Piezoelectricity is one of the most popular electromechanical transduction mechanisms for constructing kinetic energy harvesting systems. When a standard energy harvesting (SEH) interface circuit, i.e., bridge rectifier plus filter capacitor, is utilized for collecting piezoelectric power, the previous literature showed that the power conversion can be well predicted without much consideration for the effect of dielectric loss. Yet, as the conversion power gets higher by adopting power-boosting interface circuits, such as synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI), the neglect of dielectric loss might give rise to deviation in harvested power estimation. Given the continuous progress on power-boosting interface circuits, the role of dielectric loss in practical piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH) systems should receive attention with better evaluation. Based on the integrated equivalent impedance network model, this fast track communication provides a comprehensive study on the susceptibility of harvested power in PEH systems under different conditions. It shows that, dielectric loss always counteracts piezoelectric power harvesting by causing charge leakage across piezoelectric capacitance. In particular, taking corresponding ideal lossless cases as references, the counteractive effect might be aggravated under one of the five conditions: larger dielectric loss tangent, lower vibration frequency, further away from resonance, weaker electromechanical coupling, or using power-boosting interface circuit. These relationships are valuable for the study of PEH systems, as they not only help explain the role of dielectric loss in piezoelectric power harvesting, but also add complementary insights for material, structure, excitation, and circuit considerations towards holistic evaluation and design for practical PEH systems.

  13. Coupling of phonon-polariton modes at dielectric-dielectric interfaces by the ATR technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocoletzi, G. H.; Olvera Hernández, J.; Martínez Montes, G.

    1989-08-01

    We report the calculated ATR dispersion relation of the interface phonon-polariton modes in the prism-dielectric-dielectric configuration. Comparison of electromagnetic dispersion relations (EMDR) with the ATR dispersion relations are presented for three different interfaces: I) GaAs/GaP, II) CdF2/CaF2 and III) CaF2/GaP in two propagation windows, using the Otto and Kretschmann geometries for p-polarized light. We have studied the three cases using angle and frequency scans for each window and geometry. The results indicate that it is possible to excite and detect phonon-polariton modes at the dielectric-dielectric interface.

  14. High average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse laser beam delivery using large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fiber.

    PubMed

    Peng, Xiang; Mielke, Michael; Booth, Timothy

    2011-01-17

    We demonstrate high average power, high energy 1.55 μm ultra-short pulse (<1 ps) laser delivery using helium-filled and argon-filled large mode area hollow core photonic band-gap fibers and compare relevant performance parameters. The ultra-short pulse laser beam-with pulse energy higher than 7 μJ and pulse train average power larger than 0.7 W-is output from a 2 m long hollow core fiber with diffraction limited beam quality. We introduce a pulse tuning mechanism of argon-filled hollow core photonic band-gap fiber. We assess the damage threshold of the hollow core photonic band-gap fiber and propose methods to further increase pulse energy and average power handling.

  15. Laser-Matter Interaction in Dielectrics: Insight from Picosecond-Pulsed Second-Harmonic Generation in Periodically Poled LiTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louchev, Oleg A.; Wada, Satoshi; Panchenko, Vladislav Ya.

    2017-08-01

    We develop a modified two-temperature (2T) model of laser-matter interaction in dielectrics based on experimental insight from picosecond-pulsed high-frequency temperature-controlled second-harmonic (515 nm) generation in periodically poled stoichiometric LiTaO3 crystal and required for computational treatment of short-pulsed nonlinear optics and materials processing applications. We show that the incorporation of an extended set of recombination-kinetics-related energy-release and heat-exchange processes following short-pulsed photoionization by two-photon absorption of the second harmonic allows accurate simulation of the electron-lattice relaxation dynamics and electron-lattice temperature evolution in LiTaO3 crystal in nonlinear laser-frequency conversion. Our experimentally confirmed model and detailed simulation study show that two-photon ionization with the recombination mechanism via ion-electron-lattice interaction followed by a direct transfer of the recombination energy to the lattice is the main laser-matter energy-transfer pathway responsible for the majority of the crystal lattice heating (approximately 90%) continuing for approximately 50 ps after laser-pulse termination and competing with effect of electron-phonon energy transfer from the free electrons. This time delay is due to a recombination bottleneck which hinders faster relaxation to thermal equilibrium in photoionized dielectric crystal. Generally, our study suggests that in dielectrics photoionized by short-pulsed radiation with intensity range used in nonlinear laser-frequency conversion, the electron-lattice relaxation period is defined by the recombination-stage bottleneck of a few tens of picoseconds and not by the time of the electron-phonon energy transfer. This modification of the 2T model can be applied to a broad range of processes involving laser-matter interactions in dielectrics and semiconductors for charge density reaching the range of 1021- 1022 cm-3 .

  16. Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gennady Shvets; Nathaniel J. Fisch; and Alexander Pukhov

    2001-08-30

    Generation of accelerating plasma waves using two counter-propagating laser beams is considered. Colliding-beam accelerator requires two laser pulses: the long pump and the short timing beam. We emphasize the similarities and differences between the conventional laser wakefield accelerator and the colliding-beam accelerator (CBA). The highly nonlinear nature of the wake excitation is explained using both nonlinear optics and plasma physics concepts. Two regimes of CBA are considered: (i) the short-pulse regime, where the timing beam is shorter than the plasma period, and (ii) the parametric excitation regime, where the timing beam is longer than the plasma period. Possible future experiments are also outlined.

  17. Generation of Subsurface Voids, Incubation Effect, and Formation of Nanoparticles in Short Pulse Laser Interactions with Bulk Metal Targets in Liquid: Molecular Dynamics Study.

    PubMed

    Shih, Cheng-Yu; Shugaev, Maxim V; Wu, Chengping; Zhigilei, Leonid V

    2017-08-03

    The ability of short pulse laser ablation in liquids to produce clean colloidal nanoparticles and unusual surface morphology has been employed in a broad range of practical applications. In this paper, we report the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations aimed at revealing the key processes that control the surface morphology and nanoparticle size distributions by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. The simulations of bulk Ag targets irradiated in water are performed with an advanced computational model combining a coarse-grained representation of liquid environment and an atomistic description of laser interaction with metal targets. For the irradiation conditions that correspond to the spallation regime in vacuum, the simulations predict that the water environment can prevent the complete separation of the spalled layer from the target, leading to the formation of large subsurface voids stabilized by rapid cooling and solidification. The subsequent irradiation of the laser-modified surface is found to result in a more efficient ablation and nanoparticle generation, thus suggesting the possibility of the incubation effect in multipulse laser ablation in liquids. The simulations performed at higher laser fluences that correspond to the phase explosion regime in vacuum reveal the accumulation of the ablation plume at the interface with the water environment and the formation of a hot metal layer. The water in contact with the metal layer is brought to the supercritical state and provides an environment suitable for nucleation and growth of small metal nanoparticles from metal atoms emitted from the hot metal layer. The metal layer itself has limited stability and can readily disintegrate into large (tens of nanometers) nanoparticles. The layer disintegration is facilitated by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of the interface between the higher density metal layer decelerated by the pressure from the lighter supercritical water. The nanoparticles emerging

  18. Generation of Subsurface Voids, Incubation Effect, and Formation of Nanoparticles in Short Pulse Laser Interactions with Bulk Metal Targets in Liquid: Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The ability of short pulse laser ablation in liquids to produce clean colloidal nanoparticles and unusual surface morphology has been employed in a broad range of practical applications. In this paper, we report the results of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations aimed at revealing the key processes that control the surface morphology and nanoparticle size distributions by pulsed laser ablation in liquids. The simulations of bulk Ag targets irradiated in water are performed with an advanced computational model combining a coarse-grained representation of liquid environment and an atomistic description of laser interaction with metal targets. For the irradiation conditions that correspond to the spallation regime in vacuum, the simulations predict that the water environment can prevent the complete separation of the spalled layer from the target, leading to the formation of large subsurface voids stabilized by rapid cooling and solidification. The subsequent irradiation of the laser-modified surface is found to result in a more efficient ablation and nanoparticle generation, thus suggesting the possibility of the incubation effect in multipulse laser ablation in liquids. The simulations performed at higher laser fluences that correspond to the phase explosion regime in vacuum reveal the accumulation of the ablation plume at the interface with the water environment and the formation of a hot metal layer. The water in contact with the metal layer is brought to the supercritical state and provides an environment suitable for nucleation and growth of small metal nanoparticles from metal atoms emitted from the hot metal layer. The metal layer itself has limited stability and can readily disintegrate into large (tens of nanometers) nanoparticles. The layer disintegration is facilitated by the Rayleigh–Taylor instability of the interface between the higher density metal layer decelerated by the pressure from the lighter supercritical water. The nanoparticles

  19. Chirp excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaneja, Navin

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes the design of broadband chirp excitation pulses. We first develop a three stage model for understanding chirp excitation in NMR. We then show how a chirp π pulse can be used to refocus the phase of the chirp excitation pulse. The resulting magnetization still has some phase dispersion in it. We show how a combination of two chirp π pulses instead of one can be used to eliminate this dispersion, leaving behind a small residual phase dispersion. The excitation pulse sequence presented here allows exciting arbitrary large bandwidths without increasing the peak rf-amplitude. Experimental excitation profiles for the residual HDO signal in a sample of 99.5 % D2O are displayed as a function of resonance offset. Although methods presented in this paper have appeared elsewhere, we present complete analytical treatment that elucidates the working of these methods.

  20. Ultrafast polychromatic ionization of dielectric solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jürgens, P.; Jupé, M.; Gyamfi, M.; Ristau, D.

    2016-12-01

    characteristics of the ultra-short pulse (USP) laser damage.

  1. Exciter switch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeak, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    A new exciter switch assembly has been installed at the three DSN 64-m deep space stations. This assembly provides for switching Block III and Block IV exciters to either the high-power or 20-kW transmitters in either dual-carrier or single-carrier mode. In the dual-carrier mode, it provides for balancing the two drive signals from a single control panel located in the transmitter local control and remote control consoles. In addition to the improved switching capabilities, extensive monitoring of both the exciter switch assembly and Transmitter Subsystem is provided by the exciter switch monitor and display assemblies.

  2. Inducing transparency with large magnetic response and group indices by hybrid dielectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cheng-Kuang; Lai, Yueh-Chun; Yang, Yu-Hang; Chen, Chia-Yun; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2012-03-26

    We present metamaterial-induced transparency (MIT) phenomena with enhanced magnetic fields in hybrid dielectric metamaterials. Using two hybrid structures of identical-dielectric-constant resonators (IDRs) and distinct-dielectric-constant resonators (DDRs), we demonstrate a larger group index (ng~354), better bandwidth-delay product (BDP~0.9) than metallic-type metamaterials. The keys to enable these properties are to excite either the trapped mode or the suppressed mode resonances, which can be managed by controlling the contrast of dielectric constants between the dielectric resonators in the hybrid metamaterials.

  3. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  4. Resonant dielectric metamaterials

    DOEpatents

    Loui, Hung; Carroll, James; Clem, Paul G; Sinclair, Michael B

    2014-12-02

    A resonant dielectric metamaterial comprises a first and a second set of dielectric scattering particles (e.g., spheres) having different permittivities arranged in a cubic array. The array can be an ordered or randomized array of particles. The resonant dielectric metamaterials are low-loss 3D isotropic materials with negative permittivity and permeability. Such isotropic double negative materials offer polarization and direction independent electromagnetic wave propagation.

  5. Dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Zhu, Jian; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-11-01

    Electromechanical instability, a significant phenomenon in dielectric elastomers, has been well studied in the literature. However, most previous work was based on the assumption that dielectric elastomers undergo quasi-static deformation. This letter investigates the dynamic electromechanical instability of a dielectric elastomer balloon which renders four types of oscillation subject to a parametric combination of DC and AC voltages. The simulated oscillations show that dynamic electromechanical instability occurs within quite a large range of excitation frequency, in the form of snap-through or snap-back, when the DC and AC voltages reach critical values. The balloon is at its most susceptible to dynamic electromechanical instability when the superharmonic, harmonic or subharmonic resonance is excited. Taking all excitation parameters into account, this letter analyzes the global critical condition which triggers the dynamic electromechanical instability of the balloon.

  6. Magnetically coupled electromagnetically induced transparency analogy of dielectric metamaterial

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fuli He, Xuan; Zhao, Qian; Lan, Chuwen; Zhou, Ji; Zhang, Weihong Qiu, Kepeng

    2014-03-31

    In this manuscript, we experimentally demonstrate magnetically coupled electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) analogy effect inside dielectric metamaterial. In contrast to previous studies employed different metallic topological microstructures to introduce dissipation loss change, barium strontium titanate, and calcium titanate (CaTiO{sub 3}) are chosen as the bright and dark EIT resonators, respectively, due to their different intrinsic dielectric loss. Under incident magnetic field excitation, dielectric metamaterial exhibits an EIT-type transparency window around 8.9 GHz, which is accompanied by abrupt change of transmission phase. Numerical calculations show good agreement with experiment spectra and reveal remarkably increased group index, indicating potential application in slow light.

  7. Polarization and incidence insensitive dielectric electromagnetically induced transparency metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuli; Zhao, Qian; Zhou, Ji; Wang, Shengxiang

    2013-08-26

    In this manuscript, we demonstrate numerically classical analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) with a windmill type metamaterial consisting of two dumbbell dielectric resonator. With proper external excitation, dielectric resonators serve as EIT bright and dark elements via electric and magnetic Mie resonances, respectively. Rigorous numerical analyses reveal that dielectric metamaterial exhibits sharp transparency peak characterized by large group index due to the destructive interference between EIT bright and dark resonators. Furthermore, such EIT transmission behavior keeps stable property with respect to polarization and incidence angles.

  8. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Polygalov, Eugene; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions.

  9. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  10. Perfect coupling of light to a periodic dielectric/metal/dielectric structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhengling E-mail: shiqiangli2013@u.northwestern.edu; Li, Shiqiang E-mail: shiqiangli2013@u.northwestern.edu; Chang, R. P. H.; Ketterson, John B.

    2014-07-21

    Using the finite difference time domain method, it is demonstrated that perfect coupling can be achieved between normally incident light and a periodic dielectric/metal/dielectric structure. The structure serves as a diffraction grating that excites modes related to the long range surface plasmon and short range surface plasmon modes that propagate on continuous metallic films. By optimizing the structural dimensions, perfect coupling is achieved between the incident light and these modes. A high Q of 697 and an accompanying ultrasharp linewidth of 0.8 nm are predicted for a 10 nm silver film for optimal conditions.

  11. Spontaneous emission in dielectric nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pukhov, K. K.; Basiev, T. T.; Orlovskii, Yu. V.

    2008-09-01

    An analytical expression is obtained for the radiative-decay rate of an excited optical center in an ellipsoidal dielectric nanoparticle (with sizes much less than the wavelength) surrounded by a dielectric medium. It is found that the ratio of the decay rate A nano of an excited optical center in the nanoparticle to the decay rate A bulk of an excited optical center in the bulk sample is independent of the local-field correction and, therefore, of the adopted local-field model. Moreover, the expression implies that the ratio A nano/ A bulk for oblate and prolate ellipsoids depends strongly on the orientation of the dipole moment of the transition with respect to the ellipsoid axes. In the case of spherical nanoparticles, a formula relating the decay rate A nano and the dielectric parameters of the nanocomposite and the volumetric content c of these particles in the nanocomposite is derived. This formula reduces to a known expression for spherical nanoparticles in the limit c ≪ 1, while the ratio A nano/ A bulk approaches unity as c tends to unity. The analysis shows that the approach used in a number of papers {H. P. Christensen, D. R. Gabbe, and H. P. Jenssen, Phys. Rev. B 25, 1467 (1982); R. S. Meltzer, S. P. Feofilov, B. Tissue, and H. B. Yuan, Phys. Rev. B 60, R14012 (1999); R. I. Zakharchenya, A. A. Kaplyanskii, A. B. Kulinkin, et al., Fiz. Tverd. Tela 45, 2104 (2003) [Phys. Solid State 45, 2209 (2003)]; G. Manoj Kumar, D. Narayana Rao, and G. S. Agarwal, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 203903 (2003); Chang-Kui Duan, Michael F. Reid, and Zhongqing Wang, Phys. Lett. A 343, 474 (2005); K. Dolgaleva, R. W. Boyd, and P. W. Milonni, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 24, 516 (2007)}, for which the formula for A nano is derived merely by substituting the bulk refractive index by the effective refractive index of the nanocomposite must be revised, because the resulting ratio A nano/ A bulk turns out to depend on the local-field model. The formulas for the emission and absorption cross

  12. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet emission (λ  =  60-120 nm) from a high pressure DBD-excited helium plasma: formation mechanisms of the fast component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, R. J.; Ganesan, R.; Kane, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    We report time and wavelength resolved studies of the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) emission from a windowless dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in helium. Short-pulse voltage excitation is utilised to clearly resolve the fast and slow temporal components of the Hopfield continuum between λ  =  60-120 nm. Experimental results and theoretical modelling of the spectral distributions indicate that the two components of the VUV emission must originate from the same radiating molecular state—\\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{A}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) , and that two distinct pumping mechanisms populate this state. The time evolution of the fast component is found to correlate with that from the (0,0) molecular transition \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{E}}1}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}-~{{\\text{A}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) (λ  =  513.4 nm). Thus the \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{A}}1}{}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) state is initially rapidly pumped via radiative cascade from higher \\text{He}2\\ast(n=3) molecular states. In addition, the observed band emissions from the molecular \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{E}}1}{{\\Pi}\\text{g}}\\right) v=0 and \\text{He}2\\ast≤ft({{\\text{F}}1}Σ\\text{u}+\\right) v=0 states and the line emissions from the atomic He*(n  =  3) states all exhibit similar temporal behaviour during the discharge excitation period. Our results are consistent with the recent report of Frost et al (J. Phys. B 34 1569 2001) concerning the existence of a so-called ‘neglected channel’ to fast \\text{He}2\\ast production from He*(n  =  3) atomic state precursors.

  13. Terahertz Artificial Dielectric Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendis, Rajind; Nagai, Masaya; Wang, Yiqiu; Karl, Nicholas; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2016-03-01

    We have designed, fabricated, and experimentally characterized a lens for the THz regime based on artificial dielectrics. These are man-made media that mimic properties of naturally occurring dielectric media, or even manifest properties that cannot generally occur in nature. For example, the well-known dielectric property, the refractive index, which usually has a value greater than unity, can have a value less than unity in an artificial dielectric. For our lens, the artificial-dielectric medium is made up of a parallel stack of 100 μm thick metal plates that form an array of parallel-plate waveguides. The convergent lens has a plano-concave geometry, in contrast to conventional dielectric lenses. Our results demonstrate that this lens is capable of focusing a 2 cm diameter beam to a spot size of 4 mm, at the design frequency of 0.17 THz. The results further demonstrate that the overall power transmission of the lens can be better than certain conventional dielectric lenses commonly used in the THz regime. Intriguingly, we also observe that under certain conditions, the lens boundary demarcated by the discontinuous plate edges actually resembles a smooth continuous surface. These results highlight the importance of this artificial-dielectric technology for the development of future THz-wave devices.

  14. Demonstration of short pulse laser heating of solid targets to temperatures of 600eV at depths exceeding 30μm using the Orion high power laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hobbs, L. M. R.; Hoarty, D. J.; Allan, P.; Brown, C. R. D.; Hill, M. P.; James, S. F.; Shepherd, R.; Lancaster, K. L.; Gray, R. J.; Wagenaars, E.; Dance, R. J.; Rossall, A. K.; Culfa, O.; Woolsey, N. C.

    2012-10-01

    The recently completed Orion laser at AWE in the UK has the capability of delivering a petaWatt short pulse at 1.06μm in two of its twelve laser beams. In the experiments described one of the short pulse beams was converted to 2nd harmonic at sub-aperture delivering 3x10^20W/cm^2 (100J of 0.53μm light in 0.5ps) onto plastic foils (parylene N) with embedded tracer layers of aluminium. The target heating profile was recorded on a shot by shot basis by changing the depth of the plastic overcoat between the laser and the buried aluminium layer and recording the aluminium K-shell emission spectra. These spectra were then compared to the FLY atomic kinetics and line-shape code to infer the conditions in the target. Temperatures of 600eV were recorded through a plastic depth in excess of 30μm. In contrast to this similar experiments conducted with the Orion short pulse beam operating at wavelength 1.06μm at energy of 500J (˜10^21W/cm^2) produced heating through only 5μm of plastic. The importance of the improved pulse contrast in 2nd harmonic operation in solid target heating is clear from these results. The data are also compared to results from similar experiments conducted on the VULCAN petaWatt laser using 1.06μm light but with improved pulse contrast.

  15. Exciting Pools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Bradford L.

    1975-01-01

    Advocates the creation of swimming pool oscillations as part of a general investigation of mechanical oscillations. Presents the equations, procedure for deriving the slosh modes, and methods of period estimation for exciting swimming pool oscillations. (GS)

  16. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator for Flow Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opaits, Dmitry, F.

    2012-01-01

    This report is Part II of the final report of NASA Cooperative Agreement contract no. NNX07AC02A. It includes a Ph.D. dissertation. The period of performance was January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2010. Part I of the final report is the overview published as NASA/CR-2012- 217654. Asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators driven by nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage are studied experimentally. This produces non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. The approach consisted of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low voltages. In view of practical applications certain questions have been also addressed, such as electrodynamic effects which accompany scaling of the actuators to real size models, and environmental effects of ozone production by the plasma actuators.

  17. Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator for flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opaits, Dmitry Florievich

    Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena are being widely studied for aerodynamic applications. The major effects of these phenomena are heating of the gas, body force generation, and enthalpy addition or extraction, [1, 2, 3]. In particular, asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuators are known to be effective EHD device in aerodynamic control, [4, 5]. Experiments have demonstrated their effectiveness in separation control, acoustic noise reduction, and other aeronautic applications. In contrast to conventional DBD actuators driven by sinusoidal voltages, we proposed and used a voltage profile consisting of nanosecond pulses superimposed on dc bias voltage. This produces what is essentially a non-self-sustained discharge: the plasma is generated by repetitive short pulses, and the pushing of the gas occurs primarily due to the bias voltage. The advantage of this non-self-sustained discharge is that the parameters of ionizing pulses and the driving bias voltage can be varied independently, which adds flexibility to control and optimization of the actuators performance. Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in a quiescent room air by a single DBD actuator. A new approach for non-intrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the Schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and 2-D numerical fluid modeling. During the experiments, it was found that DBD performance is severely limited by surface charge accumulation on the dielectric. Several ways to mitigate the surface charge were found: using a reversing DC bias potential, three-electrode configuration, slightly conductive dielectrics, and semi conductive coatings. Force balance measurements proved the effectiveness of the suggested configurations and advantages of the new voltage profile (pulses+bias) over the traditional sinusoidal one at relatively low

  18. Dielectric bow-tie nanocavity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Qijing; Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling

    2013-12-15

    We propose a novel dielectric bow-tie (DBT) nanocavity consisting of two opposing tip-to-tip triangle semiconductor nanowires, whose end faces are coated by silver nanofilms. Based on the advantages of the dielectric slot and tip structures, and the high reflectivity of the silver mirror, light can be confined in this nanocavity with low loss. We demonstrate that at 4.5 K (300 K) around the resonance wavelength of 1550 nm, the mode excited in this nanocavity has a deep subwavelength mode volume of 2.8×10(-4) μm³ and a high quality factor of 4.9×10(4) (401.3), corresponding to an ultrahigh Purcell factor of 1.6×10(7) (1.36×10(5)). This DBT nanocavity may find applications for integrated nanophotonic circuits, such as high-efficiency single photon sources, thresholdless nanolasers, and strong coupling in cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments.

  19. Improved Dielectric Films For Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S.; Lewis, Carol R.; Cygan, Peter J.; Jow, T. Richard

    1994-01-01

    Dielectric films made from blends of some commercially available high-dielectric-constant cyanoresins with each other and with cellulose triacetate (CTA) have both high dielectric constants and high breakdown strengths. Dielectric constants as high as 16.2. Films used to produce high-energy-density capacitors.

  20. Fabrication of Polyurethane Dielectric Actuators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    a summary of a 3 year Technology Investment Fund Project entitled “Dielectric Polymer Actuators for Active/ Passive Vibration Isolation”, which was...completed in March 2005. The purpose of this project was to investigate dielectric polymer materials for potential use in active/ passive vibration...devices and systems based on dielectric polymer actuators. Keywords: dielectric actuators, electroactive polymers , Technology Investment Fund 1

  1. Dielectric relaxation of CdSe nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Sayantani; Dutta, Alo; Ghosh, Binita; Banerjee, Sourish; Sinha, T. P.

    2014-11-01

    Nanoparticles of cadmium selenide (CdSe) have been synthesized by soft chemical route using mercaptoethanol as a capping agent. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscope measurements show that the prepared sample belongs to sphalerite structure with the average particle size of 25 nm. The band gap of the material is found to be 2.1 eV. The photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the sample are measured at various excitation wavelengths. The PL spectra appear in the visible region, and the emission feature depends on the wavelength of the excitation. Impedance spectroscopy is applied to investigate the dielectric relaxation of the sample in a temperature range from 323 to 473 K and in a frequency range from 42 Hz to 1.1 MHz. The complex impedance plane plot has been analyzed by an equivalent circuit consisting of two serially connected R-CPE units, each containing a resistance (R) and a constant phase element (CPE). The dielectric relaxation of the sample is investigated in the electric modulus formalism. The temperature dependent relaxation times obey the Arrhenius law. The Havriliak-Negami model is used to investigate the dielectric relaxation mechanism in the sample. The frequency dependent conductivity spectra are found to obey the power law.

  2. Picosecond laser damage performance assessment of multilayer dielectric gratings in vacuum.

    PubMed

    Alessi, David A; Carr, C Wren; Hackel, Richard P; Negres, Raluca A; Stanion, Kenneth; Fair, James E; Cross, David A; Nissen, James; Luthi, Ronald; Guss, Gabe; Britten, Jerald A; Gourdin, William H; Haefner, Constantin

    2015-06-15

    Precise assessment of the high fluence performance of pulse compressor gratings is necessary to determine the safe operational limits of short-pulse high energy lasers. We have measured the picosecond laser damage behavior of multilayer dielectric (MLD) diffraction gratings used in the compression of chirped pulses on the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) kilojoule petawatt laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). We present optical damage density measurements of MLD gratings using the raster scan method in order to estimate operational performance. We also report results of R-on-1 tests performed with varying pulse duration (1-30 ps) in air, and clean vacuum. Measurements were also performed in vacuum with controlled exposure to organic contamination to simulate the grating use environment. Results show sparse defects with lower damage resistance which were not detected by small-area damage test methods.

  3. Dielectric elastomer switches for smart artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Benjamin M.; Calius, Emilio P.; Inamura, Tokushu; Xie, Sheng Q.; Anderson, Iain A.

    2010-08-01

    Some of the most exciting possibilities for dielectric elastomer artificial muscles consist of biologically inspired networks of smart actuators working towards common goals. However, the creation of these networks will only be realised once intelligence and feedback can be fully distributed throughout an artificial muscle device. Here we show that dielectric elastomer artificial muscles can be built with intrinsic sensor, control, and driver circuitry, bringing them closer in capability to their natural analogues. This was achieved by exploiting the piezoresistive behaviour of the actuator's highly compliant electrodes using what we have called the dielectric elastomer switch. We developed suitable switching material using carbon loaded silicone grease and experimentally demonstrated the primitives required for self-sensing actuators and digital computation, namely compliant electromechanical NAND gates and oscillator circuits. We anticipate that dielectric elastomer switches will reduce the need for bulky and rigid external circuitry as well as provide the simple distributed intelligence required for soft, biologically inspired networks of actuators. Examples include many-degree-of-freedom robotic hearts, intestines, and manipulators; wearable assistive devices; smart sensor skins and fabrics; and ultimately new types of artificial muscle embedded, electromechanical computers.

  4. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Sanders, David M.; Sampayan, Stephen; Slenes, Kirk; Stoller, H. M.

    2009-11-10

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  5. Static Dielectric Breakdown Strength of Condensed Heterogeneous High Explosives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    3-1 TRIPLE JUNCTION . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * * * .3-2 SURFACE FLASHOVER ...enhancement at dielectric interfaces, surface flashover , humidity, surrounding atmosphere, temperature, pressure, and excitation time), which are...discussed in Chapter 3. To obtain meaningful critical field strengths, it is necessary to suppress surface flashover around the insulator sides and

  6. Excitation of the Uller-Zenneck electromagnetic surface waves in the prism-coupled configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasheed, Mehran; Faryad, Muhammad

    2017-08-01

    A configuration to excite the Uller-Zenneck surface electromagnetic waves at the planar interfaces of homogeneous and isotropic dielectric materials is proposed and theoretically analyzed. The Uller-Zenneck waves are surface waves that can exist at the planar interface of two dissimilar dielectric materials of which at least one is a lossy dielectric material. In this paper, a slab of a lossy dielectric material was taken with lossless dielectric materials on both sides. A canonical boundary-value problem was set up and solved to find the possible Uller-Zenneck waves and waveguide modes. The Uller-Zenneck waves guided by the slab of the lossy dielectric material were found to be either symmetric or antisymmetric and transmuted into waveguide modes when the thickness of that slab was increased. A prism-coupled configuration was then successfully devised to excite the Uller-Zenneck waves. The results showed that the Uller-Zenneck waves are excited at the same angle of incidence for any thickness of the slab of the lossy dielectric material, whereas the waveguide modes can be excited when the slab is sufficiently thick. The excitation of Uller-Zenneck waves at the planar interfaces with homogeneous and all-dielectric materials can usher in new avenues for the applications for electromagnetic surface waves.

  7. Band Excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    DOE PAGES

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; ...

    2015-03-13

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standardmore » ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. In conclusion, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.« less

  8. Band Excitation Kelvin probe force microscopy utilizing photothermal excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Liam; Jesse, Stephen; Balke, Nina; Rodriguez, Brian J.; Kalinin, Sergei; Li, Qian

    2015-03-13

    A multifrequency open loop Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) approach utilizing photothermal as opposed to electrical excitation is developed. Photothermal band excitation (PthBE)-KPFM is implemented here in a grid mode on a model test sample comprising a metal-insulator junction with local charge-patterned regions. Unlike the previously described open loop BE-KPFM, which relies on capacitive actuation of the cantilever, photothermal actuation is shown to be highly sensitive to the electrostatic force gradient even at biases close to the contact potential difference (CPD). PthBE-KPFM is further shown to provide a more localized measurement of true CPD in comparison to the gold standard ambient KPFM approach, amplitude modulated KPFM. In conclusion, PthBE-KPFM data contain information relating to local dielectric properties and electronic dissipation between tip and sample unattainable using conventional single frequency KPFM approaches.

  9. Dielectric friction effects on rotational reorientation of three cyanine dyes in n-alcohol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laitinen, Eira; Korppi-Tommola, Jouko; Linnanto, Juha

    1997-11-01

    We have estimated the effect of dielectric friction on the rotational correlation times of three cationic cyanine dyes. Dielectric corrections were evaluated by using the Stokes-Einstein-Debye hydrodynamic continuum model including the dielectric friction for DiIC2, DiIC6, and DiIC14 in different n-alcohol solutions at room temperature. The dielectric corrections were done to cis and trans conformations of the cyanine dyes. For the trans conformations, which were found more stable than cis conformations, the dielectric model seemed to be more properly suited. The ground and excited state dipole moments for the calculations were evaluated from ab initio molecular orbital calculations and for the excited state experimentally from the Lippert-Mataga plots.

  10. Room temperature optical anisotropy of a LaMnO3 thin-film induced by ultra-short pulse laser

    SciTech Connect

    Munkhbaatar, Purevdorj; Marton, Zsolt; Tsermaa, Bataarchuluun; Choi, Woo Seok; Seo, Sung Seok A.; Kim, Jin Seung; Nakagawa, Naoyuki; Hwang, H. Y.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Myung-Whun, Kim

    2015-03-04

    Ultra-short laser pulse induced optical anisotropy of LaMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates were observed by irradiation with a femto-second laser pulse with the fluence of less than 0.1 mJ/cm2 at room temperature. The transmittance and reflectance showed different intensities for different polarization states of the probe pulse after pump pulse irradiation. The theoretical optical transmittance and re ectance that assumed an orbital ordering of the 3d eg electrons in Mn3+ ions resulted in an anisotropic time dependent changes similar to those obtained from the experimental results, suggesting that the photo-induced optical anisotropy of LaMnO3 is a result of photo-induced symmetry breaking of the orbital ordering for an optically excited state.

  11. Room temperature optical anisotropy of a LaMnO3 thin-film induced by ultra-short pulse laser

    DOE PAGES

    Munkhbaatar, Purevdorj; Marton, Zsolt; Tsermaa, Bataarchuluun; ...

    2015-03-04

    Ultra-short laser pulse induced optical anisotropy of LaMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates were observed by irradiation with a femto-second laser pulse with the fluence of less than 0.1 mJ/cm2 at room temperature. The transmittance and reflectance showed different intensities for different polarization states of the probe pulse after pump pulse irradiation. The theoretical optical transmittance and re ectance that assumed an orbital ordering of the 3d eg electrons in Mn3+ ions resulted in an anisotropic time dependent changes similar to those obtained from the experimental results, suggesting that the photo-induced optical anisotropy of LaMnO3 is a result ofmore » photo-induced symmetry breaking of the orbital ordering for an optically excited state.« less

  12. Excited Delirium

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Asia; Ahern, Terence L.; Henderson, Sean O.

    2011-01-01

    Excited (or agitated) delirium is characterized by agitation, aggression, acute distress and sudden death, often in the pre-hospital care setting. It is typically associated with the use of drugs that alter dopamine processing, hyperthermia, and, most notably, sometimes with death of the affected person in the custody of law enforcement. Subjects typically die from cardiopulmonary arrest, although the cause is debated. Unfortunately an adequate treatment plan has yet to be established, in part due to the fact that most patients die before hospital arrival. While there is still much to be discovered about the pathophysiology and treatment, it is hoped that this extensive review will provide both police and medical personnel with the information necessary to recognize and respond appropriately to excited delirium. PMID:21691475

  13. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Lewin, Paul

    2011-08-01

    In 2011, the biennial meeting of the Dielectrics Group of the IOP, Dielectrics 2011, was held for the first time in a number of years at the University of Kent at Canterbury. This conference represents the most recent in a long standing series that can trace its roots back to a two-day meeting that was held in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales. In the intervening 43 years, this series of meetings has addressed many topics, including dielectric relaxation, high field phenomena, biomaterials and even molecular electronics, and has been held at many different venues within the UK. However, in the early 1990s, a regular venue was established at the University of Kent at Canterbury and, it this respect, this year's conference can be considered as "Dielectrics coming home". The format for the 2011 meeting followed that established at Dielectrics 2009, in breaking away from the concept of a strongly themed event that held sway during the mid 2000s. Rather, we again adopted a general, inclusive approach that was based upon four broad technical areas: Theme 1: Insulation/HV Materials Theme 2: Dielectric Spectroscopy Theme 3: Modelling Dielectric Response Theme 4: Functional Materials The result was a highly successful conference that attracted more than 60 delegates from eight countries, giving the event a truly international flavour, and which included both regular and new attendees; it was particularly pleasing to see the number of early career researchers at the meeting. Consequently, the organizing committee would like to thank our colleagues at the IOP, the invited speakers, our sponsors and all the delegates for making the event such a success. Finally, we look forward to convening again in 2013, when we will be returning to The University of Reading. Prof Alun Vaughan and Prof Paul Lewin, Editors

  14. Voiced Excitations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    for purposes of vocoding in high noise environments: Task 1: Estimation of voiced excitation functions using skin surface vibration...High Noise Environments. The work on “ Voiced Excitations” shows that the surface vibrations of neck skin, during voicing , carry a great deal of...5 in this report). For field use, it may be better to obtain data from another location on the neck or face. A pressure function of voiced speech is

  15. Excited baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, N.C.

    1986-01-01

    The status of the theory of the low-energy approach to hadron structure is reviewed briefly by surveying a few relevant models. A few examples of tests needed to sort out the predictions of different models pertaining to the quark-gluon structure of hadrons are discussed, and given the resulting physics objectives, a few experimental options for excited baryon research at CFBAF are suggested. (LEW)

  16. Hard-core flashlamp for blue-green laser excitation

    SciTech Connect

    Han, K.S.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, J.H. )

    1988-10-01

    A hard-core flashlamp (HCF) which has a coaxial geometry and an array of inverse pinches was evaluated for blue-green laser excitation. The short pulses ({lt}0.5{mu}s) surface discharges were produced across the core insulator of teflon and alumina. The spectral irradiance of the HCF depends on argon fill gas pressure and the core insulating material. The maximum radiative output of the HCF lies in the region of 340--400 nm (the absorption band of LD 490). An LD490 dye laser pumped by a HCF prototype device had an output of 0.9mJ with a pulse width of 0.5{mu}{ital s} (FWHM).

  17. Experimental study on the dielectric properties of polyacrylate dielectric elastomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiang, Junhua; Chen, Hualing; Li, Bo

    2012-02-01

    The dielectric constant of elastomeric dielectric material is an essential physical parameter, whose value may affect the electromechanical deformation of a dielectric elastomer actuator. Since the dielectric constant is influenced by several external factors as reported before, and no certain value has been confirmed to our knowledge, in the present paper, on the basis of systematical comparison of recent past literature, we conducted extensive works on the measurement of dielectric properties of VHB films, involving five influencing factors: prestretch (both equal and unequal biaxial), electrical frequency, electrode material, stress relaxation time and temperature. Experimental results directly show that the dielectric response changes according to these factors, based on which we investigate the significance of each factor, especially the interaction of two external conditions on the dielectric constant of deformable dielectric, by presenting a physical picture of the mechanism of polarization.

  18. Emittance of short-pulsed high-current ion beams formed from the plasma of the electron cyclotron resonance discharge sustained by high-power millimeter-wave gyrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razin, S.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Sidorov, A.; Skalyga, V.

    2014-02-01

    We present experimental results on measuring the emittance of short-pulsed (≤100 μs) high-current (80-100 mA) ion beams of heavy gases (Nitrogen, Argon) formed from a dense plasma of an ECR source of multiply charged ions (MCI) with quasi-gas-dynamic mode of plasma confinement in a magnetic trap of simple mirror configuration. The discharge was created by a high-power (90 kW) pulsed radiation of a 37.5-GHz gyrotron. The normalized emittance of generated ion beams of 100 mA current was (1.2-1.3) π mm mrad (70% of ions in the beams). Comparing these results with those obtained using a cusp magnetic trap, it was concluded that the structure of the trap magnetic field lines does not exert a decisive influence on the emittance of ion beams in the gas-dynamic ECR source of MCI.

  19. Experimental demonstration of superdirective dielectric antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnok, Alexander E.; Filonov, Dmitry S.; Belov, Pavel A.; Simovski, Constantin R.; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-03-31

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally a simple approach for achieving superdirectivity of emitted radiation for electrically small antennas based on a spherical dielectric resonator with a notch excited by a dipole source. Superdirectivity is achieved without using complex antenna arrays and for a wide range of frequencies. We also demonstrate the steering effect for a subwavelength displacement of the source. Finally, unlike previously known superdirective antennas, our design has significantly smaller losses, at the operation frequency radiation efficiency attains 80%, and matching holds in the 3%-wide frequency band without any special matching technique.

  20. Controllable and enhanced nanojet effects excited by surface plasmon polariton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Dongquan; Pei, Hanzhang; Jiang, Yongyuan; Sun, Xiudong

    2013-04-01

    Nanojet effects excited by surface plasmon polariton at the shadow-side surfaces of dielectric microdisks positioned on gold films are reported. The surface plasmon nanojet can propagate over several optical wavelengths while still maintaining a subwavelength full-width at half-maximum transverse. Due to the nature of surface plasmon wave, the electric field of the highly confined nanojet at metal-dielectric interface is enhanced by about 30 times. By varying thickness of the dielectric microdisk, the formation of surface plasmon polariton nanojet can be flexibly controlled. The surface plasmon polariton nanojet shows great promise for enhanced Raman scattering and integrated plasmonic circuits.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime excitation cytometry by kinetic dithering.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenyan; Vacca, Giacomo; Castillo, Maryann; Houston, Kevin D; Houston, Jessica P

    2014-07-01

    Flow cytometers are powerful high-throughput devices that capture spectroscopic information from individual particles or cells. These instruments provide a means of multi-parametric analyses for various cellular biomarkers or labeled organelles and cellular proteins. However, the spectral overlap of fluorophores limits the number of fluorophores that can be used simultaneously during experimentation. Time-resolved parameters enable the quantification of fluorescence decay kinetics, thus circumventing common issues associated with intensity-based measurements. This contribution introduces fluorescence lifetime excitation cytometry by kinetic dithering (FLECKD) as a method to capture multiple fluorescence lifetimes using a hybrid time-domain approach. The FLECKD approach excites fluorophores by delivering short pulses of light to cells or particles by rapid dithering and facilitates measurement of complex fluorescence decay kinetics by flow cytometry. Our simulations demonstrated a resolvable fluorescence lifetime value as low as 1.8 ns (±0.3 ns) with less than 20% absolute error. Using the FLECKD instrument, we measured the shortest average fluorescence lifetime value of 2.4 ns and found the system measurement error to be ±0.3 ns (SEM), from hundreds of monodisperse and chemically stable fluorescent microspheres. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect two distinct excited state lifetimes from fluorophores in single cells using FLECKD. This approach presents a new ability to resolve multiple fluorescence lifetimes while retaining the fluidic throughput of a cytometry system. The ability to discriminate more than one average fluorescence lifetime expands the current capabilities of high-throughput and intensity-based cytometry assays as the need to tag one single cell with multiple fluorophores is now widespread.

  2. Fluorescence lifetime excitation cytometry by kinetic dithering

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wenyan; Vacca, Giacomo; Castillo, Maryann; Houston, Kevin D; Houston, Jessica P

    2014-01-01

    Flow cytometers are powerful high-throughput devices that capture spectroscopic information from individual particles or cells. These instruments provide a means of multi-parametric analyses for various cellular biomarkers or labeled organelles and cellular proteins. However, the spectral overlap of fluorophores limits the number of fluorophores that can be used simultaneously during experimentation. Time-resolved parameters enable the quantification of fluorescence decay kinetics, thus circumventing common issues associated with intensity-based measurements. This contribution introduces fluorescence lifetime excitation cytometry by kinetic dithering (FLECKD) as a method to capture multiple fluorescence lifetimes using a hybrid time-domain approach. The FLECKD approach excites fluorophores by delivering short pulses of light to cells or particles by rapid dithering and facilitates measurement of complex fluorescence decay kinetics by flow cytometry. Our simulations demonstrated a resolvable fluorescence lifetime value as low as 1.8 ns (±0.3 ns) with less than 20% absolute error. Using the FLECKD instrument, we measured the shortest average fluorescence lifetime value of 2.4 ns and found the system measurement error to be ±0.3 ns (SEM), from hundreds of monodisperse and chemically stable fluorescent microspheres. Additionally, we demonstrate the ability to detect two distinct excited state lifetimes from fluorophores in single cells using FLECKD. This approach presents a new ability to resolve multiple fluorescence lifetimes while retaining the fluidic throughput of a cytometry system. The ability to discriminate more than one average fluorescence lifetime expands the current capabilities of high-throughput and intensity-based cytometry assays as the need to tag one single cell with multiple fluorophores is now widespread. PMID:24668857

  3. Dielectric Constant of Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendelson, Kenneth S.; Ackmann, James J.

    1997-03-01

    We have used a finite element method to calculate the dielectric constant of a cubic array of spheres. Extensive calculations support preliminary conclusions reported previously (K. Mendelson and J. Ackmann, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 41), 657 (1996).. At frequencies below 100 kHz the real part of the dielectric constant (ɛ') shows oscillations as a function of the volume fraction of suspension. These oscillations disappear at low conductivities of the suspending fluid. Measurements of the dielectric constant (J. Ackmann, et al., Ann. Biomed. Eng. 24), 58 (1996). (H. Fricke and H. Curtis, J. Phys. Chem. 41), 729 (1937). are not sufficiently sensitive to show oscillations but appear to be consistent with the theoretical results.

  4. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjiloucas, Sillas; Blackburn, John

    2013-11-01

    This volume records the 42nd Dielectrics Group Proceedings of the Dielectrics Conference that took place at the University of Reading UK from 10-12 April 2013. The meeting is part of the biennial Dielectrics series of the Dielectrics Group, and formerly Dielectrics Society, and is organised by the Institute of Physics. The conference proceedings showcase some of the diversity and activity of the Dielectrics community worldwide, and bring together contributions from academics and industrial researchers with a diverse background and experiences from the Physics, Chemistry and Engineering communities. It is interesting to note some continuing themes such as Insulation/HV Materials, Dielectric Spectroscopy, Dielectric Measurement Techniques and Ferroelectric materials have a growing importance across a range of technologically important areas from the Energy sector to Materials research, Semiconductor and Electronics industries, and Metrology. We would like to thank all of our colleagues and friends in the Dielectrics community who have supported this event by contributing manuscripts and participating in the event. The conference has provided excellent networking opportunities for all delegates. Our thanks go also to our theme chairs: Dr Stephen Dodd (University of Leicester) on Insulation/HV Materials, Professor Darryl Almond (University of Bath) on Dielectric Spectroscopy, Dr John Blackburn (NPL) on Dielectric Measurement Techniques and Professor Anthony R West (University of Sheffield) on Ferroelectric Materials. We would also like to thank the other members of the Technical Programme Committee for their support, and refereeing the submitted manuscripts. Our community would also like to wish a full recovery to our plenary speaker Prof John Fothergill (City University London) who was unexpectedly unable to give his talk as well as thank Professor Alun Vaughan for stepping in and giving an excellent plenary lecture in his place at such very short notice. We are also

  5. Dielectric assist accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satoh, D.; Yoshida, M.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2016-01-01

    A higher-order TM02 n mode accelerating structure is proposed based on a novel concept of dielectric loaded rf cavities. This accelerating structure consists of ultralow-loss dielectric cylinders and disks with irises which are periodically arranged in a metallic enclosure. Unlike conventional dielectric loaded accelerating structures, most of the rf power is stored in the vacuum space near the beam axis, leading to a significant reduction of the wall loss, much lower than that of conventional normal-conducting linac structures. This allows us to realize an extremely high quality factor and a very high shunt impedance at room temperature. A simulation of a 5 cell prototype design with an existing alumina ceramic indicates an unloaded quality factor of the accelerating mode over 120 000 and a shunt impedance exceeding 650 M Ω /m at room temperature.

  6. Controlling birefringence in dielectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danner, Aaron J.; Tyc, Tomáš; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Birefringence, from the very essence of the word itself, refers to the splitting of light rays into two parts. In natural birefringent materials, this splitting is a beautiful phenomenon, resulting in the perception of a double image. In optical metamaterials, birefringence is often an unwanted side effect of forcing a device designed through transformation optics to operate in dielectrics. One polarization is usually implemented in dielectrics, and the other is sacrificed. Here we show, with techniques beyond transformation optics, that this need not be the case, that both polarizations can be controlled to perform useful tasks in dielectrics, and that rays, at all incident angles, can even follow different trajectories through a device and emerge together as if the birefringence did not exist at all. A number of examples are shown, including a combination Maxwell fisheye/Luneburg lens that performs a useful task and is achievable with current fabrication materials.

  7. Super Dielectric Materials

    PubMed Central

    Fromille, Samuel; Phillips, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Evidence is provided here that a class of materials with dielectric constants greater than 105 at low frequency (<10−2 Hz), herein called super dielectric materials (SDM), can be generated readily from common, inexpensive materials. Specifically it is demonstrated that high surface area alumina powders, loaded to the incipient wetness point with a solution of boric acid dissolved in water, have dielectric constants, near 0 Hz, greater than 4 × 108 in all cases, a remarkable increase over the best dielectric constants previously measured for energy storage capabilities, ca. 1 × 104. It is postulated that any porous, electrically insulating material (e.g., high surface area powders of silica, titania, etc.), filled with a liquid containing a high concentration of ionic species will potentially be an SDM. Capacitors created with the first generated SDM dielectrics (alumina with boric acid solution), herein called New Paradigm Super (NPS) capacitors display typical electrostatic capacitive behavior, such as increasing capacitance with decreasing thickness, and can be cycled, but are limited to a maximum effective operating voltage of about 0.8 V. A simple theory is presented: Water containing relatively high concentrations of dissolved ions saturates all, or virtually all, the pores (average diameter 500 Å) of the alumina. In an applied field the positive ionic species migrate to the cathode end, and the negative ions to the anode end of each drop. This creates giant dipoles with high charge, hence leading to high dielectric constant behavior. At about 0.8 V, water begins to break down, creating enough ionic species to “short” the individual water droplets. Potentially NPS capacitor stacks can surpass “supercapacitors” in volumetric energy density. PMID:28788298

  8. Sub-5-ps optical pulse generation from a 1.55-µm distributed-feedback laser diode with nanosecond electric pulse excitation and spectral filtering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Sato, Aya; Ito, Takashi; Yoshita, Masahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki

    2012-10-22

    This paper reports generation of sub-5-ps Fourier-transform limited optical pulses from a 1.55-µm gain-switched single-mode distributed-feedback laser diode via nanosecond electric excitation and a simple spectral-filtering technique. Typical damped oscillations of the whole lasing spectrum were observed in the time-resolved waveform. Through a spectral-filtering technique, the initial relaxation oscillation pulse and the following components in the output pulse can be well separated, and the initial short pulse can be selectively extracted by filtering out the short-wavelength components in the spectrum. Short pulses generated by this simple method are expected to have wide potential applications comparable to mode-locking lasers.

  9. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Perry, Michael D.; Britten, Jerald A.; Nguyen, Hoang T.; Boyd, Robert; Shore, Bruce W.

    1999-01-01

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described.

  10. Multilayer dielectric diffraction gratings

    DOEpatents

    Perry, M.D.; Britten, J.A.; Nguyen, H.T.; Boyd, R.; Shore, B.W.

    1999-05-25

    The design and fabrication of dielectric grating structures with high diffraction efficiency used in reflection or transmission is described. By forming a multilayer structure of alternating index dielectric materials and placing a grating structure on top of the multilayer, a diffraction grating of adjustable efficiency, and variable optical bandwidth can be obtained. Diffraction efficiency into the first order in reflection varying between 1 and 98 percent has been achieved by controlling the design of the multilayer and the depth, shape, and material comprising the grooves of the grating structure. Methods for fabricating these gratings without the use of ion etching techniques are described. 7 figs.

  11. A dielectric affinity microbiosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xian; Li, Siqi; Schultz, Jerome S.; Wang, Qian; Lin, Qiao

    2010-01-01

    We present an affinity biosensing approach that exploits changes in dielectric properties of a polymer due to its specific, reversible binding with an analyte. The approach is demonstrated using a microsensor comprising a pair of thin-film capacitive electrodes sandwiching a solution of poly(acrylamide-ran-3-acrylamidophenylboronic acid), a synthetic polymer with specific affinity to glucose. Binding with glucose induces changes in the permittivity of the polymer, which can be measured capacitively for specific glucose detection, as confirmed by experimental results at physiologically relevant concentrations. The dielectric affinity biosensing approach holds the potential for practical applications such as long-term continuous glucose monitoring.

  12. Thermally switchable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Dirk, Shawn M.; Johnson, Ross S.

    2013-04-30

    Precursor polymers to conjugated polymers, such as poly(phenylene vinylene), poly(poly(thiophene vinylene), poly(aniline vinylene), and poly(pyrrole vinylene), can be used as thermally switchable capacitor dielectrics that fail at a specific temperature due to the non-conjugated precursor polymer irreversibly switching from an insulator to the conjugated polymer, which serves as a bleed resistor. The precursor polymer is a good dielectric until it reaches a specific temperature determined by the stability of the leaving groups. Conjugation of the polymer backbone at high temperature effectively disables the capacitor, providing a `built-in` safety mechanism for electronic devices.

  13. Cylindrical plasmonic microcavity and its excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haroyan, Hovhannes

    2015-09-01

    Cylindrical plasmonic microcavity structure is considered. The system consists of a cylindrically curved metallic structure placed above the flat metallic surface, supporting Surface Plasmon Polariton (SPP) propagation, and they are separated by dielectric gap. The active coupling between SPP resonant modes and SPP modes propagating over the flat metallic surface is demonstrated. The excitation efficiency dependence on structure's geometric and electrodynamics parameters of plasmonic microcavity is investigated. The possibility of controlling (or modulating) resonant SPP modes by varying different parameters such as minimal distance between cylindrical metallic and flat surfaces, relative permittivity of the dielectric gap, as well as working wavelengths are shown. The quality factor of metallic (as the metal is chosen gold: Au) cylindrical plasmonic microcavity is estimated Q ≍ 90, for fixed values of working wavelength: λ0=690 nm, relative permittivity of the dielectric media ɛd =3, and the radius of cylinder R=2.5 μm. Considered structure shows strong dependence on the relative permittivity of the dielectric media, the change of third decimal of ɛd brings to the significant change (up to three times) of microcavity excitation efficiency. Such phenomena can be successfully used for sensors construction based on plasmonic structures.

  14. Improving field enhancement of 2D hollow tapered waveguides via dielectric microcylinder coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yongzhu; Xie, Xiangsheng; Li, Li; Chen, Gengyan; Guo, Lina; Lin, Xusheng

    2015-02-01

    We numerically study a novel scheme to improve the field enhancement of 2D hollow tapered waveguides (HTWs). A dielectric microcylinder is embedded into a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) HTW for resonant exciting gap surface plasmons (GSPs), which is different from the lowest propagating mode (TM0) excitation via the conventional fire-end coupling method. The physical mechanism of the field enhancement and the influence of critical parameters such as numerical aperture (NA) of the lens, permittivity of the microcylinder and the incident wavelength are discussed. The substantial improvement of the GSP excitation efficiency via dielectric microcylinder coupling shows potential in designing tapered MIM waveguides for nanofocusing and field enhancement.

  15. Sexual excitement.

    PubMed

    Stoller, R J

    1976-08-01

    Sexual excitement depends on a scenario the person to be aroused has been writing since childhood. The story is an adventure, an autobiography disguised as fiction, in which the hero/heroine hides crucial intrapsychic conflicts, mysteries, screen memories of actual traumatic events and the resolution of these elements into a happy ending, best celebrated by orgasm. The function of the fantasy is to take these painful experiences and convert them to pleasure-triumph. In order to sharpen excitement-the vibration between the fear of original traumas repeating and the hope of a pleasurable conclusion this time-one introduces into the story elements of risk (approximations of the trauma) meant to prevent boredom and safety factors (sub-limnal signals to the storyteller that the risk are not truly dangerous). Sexual fantasy can be studied by means of a person's daydreams (including those chosen in magazines, books, plays, television, movies, and outright pornography), masturbatory behavior, object choice, foreplay, techniques of intercourse, or postcoital behavior.

  16. Bandwidth Enhancement of Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna Using Thin Dielectric Layer Fed by Resonating Slot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Nipun K.; Das, Soma; Vishwakarma, Dinesh K.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna (CDRA) has been designed for X-band frequency range applications with slot feeding. Bandwidth of designed cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna has been enhanced by making the slot to be resonating and inserting very thin low permittivity dielectric layer between the slot and CDRA. Resonating slot excites the closely spaced HEM11δ and HEM21δ mode inside the antenna as well as provides the resonance at the upper side of desired X-band. Low profile low permittivity layer provides the excellent matching of these modes and shift the HEM21δ mode to higher frequency side at 11.25 GHz with better impedance matching. By combining all of three resonances, nearly 85 % increment in impedance Bandwidth has been obtained with reference to non resonating slot excited CDRA. Fractional impedance bandwidth for proposed design is 48 % and average Gain of 6 dB with more than 92 % radiation efficiency has been shown by the antenna throughout the desired band with broadside pattern.

  17. The electromagnetic radiation from simple sources in the presence of a homogeneous dielectric sphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, V. B.

    1973-01-01

    In this research, the effect of a homogeneous dielectric sphere on the electromagnetic radiation from simple sources is treated as a boundary value problem, and the solution is obtained by the technique of dyadic Green's functions. Exact representations of the electric fields in the various regions due to a source located inside, outside, or on the surface of a dielectric sphere are formulated. Particular attention is given to the effect of sphere size, source location, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss on the radiation patterns and directivity of small spheres (less than 5 wavelengths in diameter) using the Huygens' source excitation. The computed results are found to closely agree with those measured for waveguide-excited plexiglas spheres. Radiation patterns for an extended Huygens' source and for curved electric dipoles located on the sphere's surface are also presented. The resonance phenomenon associated with the dielectric sphere is studied in terms of the modal representation of the radiated fields. It is found that when the sphere is excited at certain frequencies, much of the energy is radiated into the sidelobes. The addition of a moderate amount of dielectric loss, however, quickly attenuates this resonance effect. A computer program which may be used to calculate the directivity and radiation pattern of a Huygens' source located inside or on the surface of a lossy dielectric sphere is listed.

  18. Research of the recast layer on implant surface modified by micro-current electrical discharge machining using deionized water mixed with titanium powder as dielectric solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Sung-Long; Lin, Ming-Hong; Huang, Guo-Xin; Wang, Chia-Ching

    2014-08-01

    Surface modification of Ti using micro-current electrical discharge machining (MC-EDM) technology at various working parameters was conducted in the present study. A significant decrease in amount of surface cracks for modified Ti in deionized water mixed with concentration of 3 g/l Ti powder dielectric solvent was determined. Increasing the concentration of Ti powder to 6 g/l, no micro-cracks were observed on the modified Ti surfaces at current 0.1 A for short-pulse durations (≤50 μs). Moreover, the thickness of the recast layer increases with increasing current, pulse duration and concentration. Under the same working parameters, the thickness of recast layers on modified Ti enhances to approximately 4-11 μm in the concentration of 6 g/l Ti powder dielectric solvent. When Ti modified at different working parameters in deionized water mixed with Ti powder dielectric solvent, the TiO phase was observed within the recast layers. It was found that the modified Ti at current 0.1 A for 30 μs and 50 μs in a 6 g/l concentration of Ti powder dielectric solvent generates a hydrophilicity surface. Therefore, adding a suitable concentration of Ti powder into the dielectric solvent not only prevent the formation of surface cracks and micro-cracks, but also raise the wettability on the surfaces of Ti during MC-EDM modifications.

  19. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, L.D.

    1996-12-10

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. 5 figs.

  20. Molds for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    1996-01-01

    Molds for use in making end moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of a cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made.

  1. Electronic quantization in dielectric nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willemsen, T.; Geerke, P.; Jupé, M.; Gallais, L.; Ristau, D.

    2016-12-01

    The scientific background in the field of the laser induced damage processes in optical coatings has been significantly extended during the last decades. Especially for the ultra-short pulse regime a clear correlation between the electronic material parameters and the laser damage threshold could be demonstrated. In the present study, the quantization in nanolaminates is investigated to gain a deeper insight into the behavior of the blue shift of the bandgap in specific coating materials as well as to find approximations for the effective mass of the electrons. The theoretical predictions are correlated to the measurements.

  2. Applications of dielectric barrier discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Falkenstein, Z.

    1998-12-01

    Dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) in oxygen and air are well established for the production of large quantities of ozone and are more recently being applied to a wider range of plasmachemical processes. As an introduction of this type of gas discharge, the main plasmaphysical features of sinusoidal-driven DBDs (transient, non-thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure) will be described, and plasmachemical reaction pathways for the generation of ozone will be briefly discussed. The generation of atomic oxygen for ozone synthesis leads inevitably to the second application of DBDs, the non-thermal oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in dry and humid air. Another application of DBDs is the generation of excited dimers and exiplexes for the production of incoherent (V)UV/visible light. The last and latest application of DBDs is the surface processing near atmospheric pressures. As an example, results of photoresist ashing on Si wafers in an oxygen plasma will be shown as function of gas pressure, gap spacing, and applied frequency. The surface of the etched photoresist is characterized by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The possibility of material deposition with DBDs will also be presented, where DBDs in acetylene lead to fast substrate deposition. Here, only the effects of the gas pressure and gap distance are explored.

  3. Excitation of Accelerating Plasma Waves by Counter-Propagating Laser Beams

    SciTech Connect

    Shvets, Gennady; Fisch, Nathaniel J; Pukhov, Alexander

    2002-04-05

    The conventional approach to exciting high phase velocity waves in plasmas is to employ a laser pulse moving in the direction of the desired particle acceleration. Photon downshifting then causes momentum transfer to the plasma and wave excitation. Novel approaches to plasma wake excitation, colliding-beam accelerator (CBA), which involve photon exchange between the long and short counter-propagating laser beams, are described. Depending on the frequency detuning Dw between beams and duration tL of the short pulse, there are two approaches to CBA. The first approach assumes tL ª 2/wp. Photons exchanged between the beams deposit their recoil momentum in the plasma driving the plasma wake. Frequency detuning between the beams determines the direction of the photon exchange, thereby controlling the phase of the plasma wake. This phase control can be used for reversing the slippage of the accelerated particles with respect to the wake. A variation on the same theme, super-beatwave accelerator, is also described. In the second approach, a short pulse with tL >> 2/wp1 detuned by Dw ~ 2wp from the counter-propagating beam is employed. While parametric excitation of plasma waves by the electromagnetic beatwave at 2wp of two co-propagating lasers was first predicted by Rosenbluth and Liu [M.N. Rosenbluth, C.S. Liu, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29 (1972) 701], it is demonstrated that the two excitation beams can be counter-propagating. The advantages of using this geometry (higher instability growth rate, insensitivity to plasma inhomogeneity) are explained, and supporting numerical simulations presented.

  4. Model of dissipative dielectric elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang Foo, Choon; Cai, Shengqiang; Jin Adrian Koh, Soo; Bauer, Siegfried; Suo, Zhigang

    2012-02-01

    The dynamic performance of dielectric elastomer transducers and their capability of electromechanical energy conversion are affected by dissipative processes, such as viscoelasticity, dielectric relaxation, and current leakage. This paper describes a method to construct a model of dissipative dielectric elastomers on the basis of nonequilibrium thermodynamics. We characterize the state of the dielectric elastomer with kinematic variables through which external loads do work, and internal variables that measure the progress of the dissipative processes. The method is illustrated with examples motivated by existing experiments of polyacrylate very-high-bond dielectric elastomers. This model predicts the dynamic response of the dielectric elastomer and the leakage current behavior. We show that current leakage can be significant under large deformation and for long durations. Furthermore, current leakage can result in significant hysteresis for dielectric elastomers under cyclic voltage.

  5. Enhancement of the stability of a synchronously excited cw dye laser by insertion of a nonlinear absorber

    SciTech Connect

    Gafurov, K.G.; Krindach, D.P.; Nekhaenko, V.A.; Yakovlev, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    An experimental investigation was made of combined mode locking of a cw laser utilizing a mixture of rhodamine 6G (amplifier) and malachite green (absorber). The action of a saturable absorber shortened the output pulses to 700 fsec, widened the range of existence of the short pulses, and appreciably increased the lasing stability compared with synchronous excitation of pure rhodamine 6G. These characteristics of the radiation of a laser with combined mode locking were associated with the saturation dynamics of the gain and the absorption.

  6. Antenna with Dielectric Having Geometric Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudley, Kenneth L. (Inventor); Elliott, Holly A. (Inventor); Cravey, Robin L. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Smith, Jr., Joseph G. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    An antenna includes a ground plane, a dielectric disposed on the ground plane, and an electrically-conductive radiator disposed on the dielectric. The dielectric includes at least one layer of a first dielectric material and a second dielectric material that collectively define a dielectric geometric pattern, which may comprise a fractal geometry. The radiator defines a radiator geometric pattern, and the dielectric geometric pattern is geometrically identical, or substantially geometrically identical, to the radiator geometric pattern.

  7. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, V. Lin, A.; Brettschneider, J.; Fridman, G.; Fridman, A.; Kako, F.; Gabunia, K.; Kelemen, S.; Autieri, M.

    2015-12-15

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue.

  8. Microsecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma stimulation of tissue macrophages for treatment of peripheral vascular disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, V.; Lin, A.; Kako, F.; Gabunia, K.; Kelemen, S.; Brettschneider, J.; Fridman, G.; Fridman, A.; Autieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    Angiogenesis is the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels and normally occurs during the process of inflammatory reactions, wound healing, tissue repair, and restoration of blood flow after injury or insult. Stimulation of angiogenesis is a promising and an important step in the treatment of peripheral artery disease. Reactive oxygen species have been shown to be involved in stimulation of this process. For this reason, we have developed and validated a non-equilibrium atmospheric temperature and pressure short-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge plasma system, which can non-destructively generate reactive oxygen species and other active species at the surface of the tissue being treated. We show that this plasma treatment stimulates the production of vascular endothelial growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and CXCL 1 that in turn induces angiogenesis in mouse aortic rings in vitro. This effect may be mediated by the direct effect of plasma generated reactive oxygen species on tissue.

  9. Unidirectional enhanced spontaneous emission with metallo-dielectric optical antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongming; Lu, Guowei; He, Yingbo; Cheng, Yuqing; Gong, Qihuang

    2017-07-01

    A metallo-dielectric system consisted of two coupled metallic nanoparticles embedded in a planar dielectric antenna is proposed to control the light emission from a localized emitter. Such design integrates the advantages of planar dielectric antenna and plasmonic antenna such as highly localized excitation enhancement, emission direction control, and high collection efficiency. For specific configurations, the antenna can achieve unidirectional and plasmon-enhanced emission from single emitters, simultaneously presenting remarkable collection efficiency up to 96%. We show that the unidirectional effect is mainly determined by the plasmon coupling effect of the plasmonic dimer. The dependences of directivity property on the antenna geometry and emitter's position are also discussed in detail. These findings provide a promising route to realize novel optical devices involving directional and surface enhanced spontaneous emission, e.g. bright single-photon sources with high collection efficiency.

  10. Non-destructive evaluation method employing dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An acoustic nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) measurement method and system for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of materials and structural members novelly employs a loosely mounted dielectric electrostatic ultrasonic transducer (DEUT) to receive and convert ultrasonic energy into an electrical signal which can be analyzed to determine the .beta. of the test material. The dielectric material is ferroelectric with a high dielectric constant .di-elect cons.. A computer-controlled measurement system coupled to the DEUT contains an excitation signal generator section and a measurement and analysis section. As a result, the DEUT measures the absolute particle displacement amplitudes in test material, leading to derivation of the nonlinearity parameter (.beta.) without the costly, low field reliability methods of the prior art.

  11. Effect of Low Sodium, Tetrodotoxin, and Temperature Variation upon Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Guttman, Rita

    1968-01-01

    The lowering of external sodium raised both the constant quantity threshold, Qo, and the rheobase, Io, in both real space-clamped squid axons and the theoretical axon as computed on the basis of the standard Hodgkin-Huxley equations. In both real and theoretical axons the minimum intensity for excitability for short pulses, which occurs at about 15°C, was still present when low sodium replaced seawater. Low sodium did not affect the temperature dependence of the strength-duration relationship in the range, 5° to 25°C. The excitability of tetrodotoxin-treated real axons was found to be more temperature-dependent than that of normal real axons. Also the data on dosage-response to TTX of real axons fit the dose-response relationship of a hypothetical system in which one TTX ion binds reversibly to its receptor to produce a fraction of the inhibitory effect, the curve being identical to a simple adsorption isotherm. The Hodgkin-Huxley equations describe the broad outline of events occurring during excitation quite well. PMID:5654403

  12. Dielectric nanoresonators for light manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhong-Jian; Jiang, Ruibin; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Xie, Ya-Ming; Wang, Jianfang; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2017-07-01

    Nanostructures made of dielectric materials with high or moderate refractive indexes can support strong electric and magnetic resonances in the optical region. They can therefore function as nanoresonators. In addition to plasmonic metal nanostructures that have been widely investigated, dielectric nanoresonators provide a new type of building blocks for realizing powerful and versatile nanoscale light manipulation. In contrast to plasmonic metal nanostructures, nanoresonators made of appropriate dielectric materials are low-cost, earth-abundant and have very small or even negligible light energy losses. As a result, they will find potential applications in a number of photonic devices, especially those that require low energy losses. In this review, we describe the recent progress on the experimental and theoretical studies of dielectric nanoresonators. We start from the basic theory of the electromagnetic responses of dielectric nanoresonators and their fabrication methods. The optical properties of individual dielectric nanoresonators are then elaborated, followed by the coupling behaviors between dielectric nanoresonators, between dielectric nanoresonators and substrates, and between dielectric nanoresonators and plasmonic metal nanostructures. The applications of dielectric nanoresonators are further described. Finally, the challenges and opportunities in this field are discussed.

  13. DIELECTRIC WALL ACCELERATOR TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Sampayan, S; Caporaso, G; Chen, Y; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J

    2007-10-18

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact pulsed power device where the pulse forming lines, switching, and vacuum wall are integrated into a single compact geometry. For this effort, we initiated a extensive compact pulsed power development program and have pursued the study of switching (gas, oil, laser induced surface flashover and photoconductive), dielectrics (ceramics and nanoparticle composites), pulse forming line topologies (asymmetric and symmetric Blumleins and zero integral pulse forming lines), and multilayered vacuum insulator (HGI) technology. Finally, we fabricated an accelerator cell for test on ETAII (a 5.5 MeV, 2 kA, 70 ns pulsewidth electron beam accelerator). We review our past results and report on the progress of accelerator cell testing.

  14. Temperature switchable polymer dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Kholwadwala, Fenil Manish; Johnson, Ross Stefan; Dirk, Shawn M.

    2010-06-01

    Materials with switchable states are desirable in many areas of science and technology. The ability to thermally transform a dielectric material to a conductive state should allow for the creation of electronics with built-in safety features. Specifically, the non-desirable build-up and discharge of electricity in the event of a fire or over-heating would be averted by utilizing thermo-switchable dielectrics in the capacitors of electrical devices (preventing the capacitors from charging at elevated temperatures). We have designed a series of polymers that effectively switch from a non-conductive to a conductive state. The thermal transition is governed by the stability of the leaving group after it leaves as a free entity. Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of a series of precursor polymers that eliminate to form poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV's).

  15. Temperature switchable polymer dielectrics.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Ross Stefan

    2010-08-01

    Materials with switchable states are desirable in many areas of science and technology. The ability to thermally transform a dielectric material to a conductive state should allow for the creation of electronics with built-in safety features. Specifically, the non-desirable build-up and discharge of electricity in the event of a fire or over-heating would be averted by utilizing thermo-switchable dielectrics in the capacitors of electrical devices (preventing the capacitors from charging at elevated temperatures). We have designed a series of polymers that effectively switch from a non-conductive to a conductive state. The thermal transition is governed by the stability of the leaving group after it leaves as a free entity. Here, we present the synthesis and characterization of a series of precursor polymers that eliminate to form poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (PPV's).

  16. Compact Dielectric Wall Accelerator Development For Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy And Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y -; Caporaso, G J; Guethlein, G; Sampayan, S; Akana, G; Anaya, R; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Gower, E; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Hickman, B; Holmes, C; Horner, A; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Pearson, D; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Sanders, D; Stanley, J; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Weir, J

    2009-06-17

    Compact dielectric wall (DWA) accelerator technology is being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The DWA accelerator uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. Its high electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The DWA concept can be applied to accelerate charge particle beams with any charge to mass ratio and energy. Based on the DWA system, a novel compact proton therapy accelerator is being developed. This proton therapy system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources. Applications of the DWA accelerator to problems in homeland security will also be discussed.

  17. A compact linac for intensity modulated proton therapy based on a dielectric wall accelerator.

    PubMed

    Caporaso, G J; Mackie, T R; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y-J; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Reckwerdt, P J; Schmidt, R; Pearson, D; Flynn, R W; Matthews, D; Purdy, J

    2008-06-01

    A novel compact CT-guided intensity modulated proton radiotherapy (IMPT) system is described. The system is being designed to deliver fast IMPT so that larger target volumes and motion management can be accomplished. The system will be ideal for large and complex target volumes in young patients. The basis of the design is the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The DWA uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The IMPT planning system will optimize delivery characteristics. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. Feasibility tests of an optimization system for selecting the position, energy, intensity and spot size for a collection of spots comprising the treatment are underway. A prototype is being designed and concept designs of the envelope and environmental needs of the unit are beginning. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  18. A Compact Linac for Proton Therapy Based on a Dielectric Wall Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Caporaso, G J; Mackie, T R; Sampayan, S; Chen, Y -; Blackfield, D; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Holmes, C; Nelson, S; Paul, A; Poole, B; Rhodes, M; Sanders, D; Sullivan, J; Wang, L; Watson, J; Reckwerdt, P J; Schmidt, R; Pearson, D; Flynn, R W; Matthews, D; Purdy, J

    2007-10-29

    A novel compact CT-guided intensity modulated proton radiotherapy (IMPT) system is described. The system is being designed to deliver fast IMPT so that larger target volumes and motion management can be accomplished. The system will be ideal for large and complex target volumes in young patients. The basis of the design is the dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) system being developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The DWA uses fast switched high voltage transmission lines to generate pulsed electric fields on the inside of a high gradient insulating (HGI) acceleration tube. High electric field gradients are achieved by the use of alternating insulators and conductors and short pulse times. The system will produce individual pulses that can be varied in intensity, energy and spot width. The IMPT planning system will optimize delivery characteristics. The system will be capable of being sited in a conventional linac vault and provide intensity modulated rotational therapy. Feasibility tests of an optimization system for selecting the position, energy, intensity and spot size for a collection of spots comprising the treatment are underway. A prototype is being designed and concept designs of the envelope and environmental needs of the unit are beginning. The status of the developmental new technologies that make the compact system possible will be reviewed. These include, high gradient vacuum insulators, solid dielectric materials, SiC photoconductive switches and compact proton sources.

  19. Dielectric Circuit Board Bonding.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    circuit boards to form subassemblies and the bonding of subassemblies together. The finished circuit may include a bonded-in ground plate of copper...The patent application describes a method and apparatus for bonding of dielectric circuit boards for microwave use, the bonding together of several...wire cloth or the like and may include through- plate holes. The technique includes the build-up of thin films to provide strength, toughness and

  20. Dielectric spectroscopy of polyaniline

    SciTech Connect

    Calleja, R.D.; Matveeva, E.M.

    1993-12-31

    Polyaniline films (PANI) are being considered as attractive new galvanic sources, electrochromic displays, chemical sensors, etc. So far much work has been done to study their optical, electrochemical and electrical properties. However, there are still doubts about the basic electric conductivity mechanisms of PANI. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of water molecules and acid anions on the properties of PANI films by dielectric spectroscopy.