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Sample records for showing upper arm

  1. 22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View showing main anchor arm, as viewed from main cantilever arm looking south. Note upper chord eyebar arrangement. - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  2. 20. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE GATE, SHOWING GATE ARMS, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE GATE, SHOWING GATE ARMS, GATE PIERS, TRUNNION PIN AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  3. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE ARM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE ARM, PIER, TRUNNION PIN AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING NORTH - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  4. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE ARM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE ARM, GATE PIER, TRUNNION PIN AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  5. Iatrogenic Pseudoaneurysm in the Upper Arm: Treatment by Transcatheter Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Maleux, Geert; Stockx, Luc; Brys, Peter; Lammens, Johan; Lacroix, Hendrik; Wilms, Guy; Marchal, Guy

    2000-03-15

    A 32-year-old woman presented with a pulsatile, painful mass in her left upper arm, originating several days after removal of an Ilizarov external fixation. The diagnosis of a pseudoaneurysm was made by medical history and by physical and ultrasonographic examination of the mass. Angiography confirmed the presence of the pseudoaneurysm, originating from a branch of the arteria profunda brachii, and definitive treatment was performed by transcatheter embolization. Clinical follow-up showed absence of pulsation and pain in the upper arm and a gradual volume decrease of the mass lesion.

  6. 4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SHOWING BRIDGE AT UPPER LEFT, UPPER FALLS AND TOP OF MAIN WATERFALL, FACING NORTHEAST - Paradise River First Crossing Bridge, Spanning Paradise River at Narada Falls on Service Road, Longmire, Pierce County, WA

  7. 34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of pier 3, showing supporting main anchor arm and cantilever arm spans, as seen from shore near pier 4, looking north - Williamstown-Marietta Bridge, Spanning Ohio River between Williamstown & Marietta, Williamstown, Wood County, WV

  8. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction

    PubMed Central

    Zamora, S.; Smith, A. B.

    2012-01-01

    Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids. PMID:21653588

  9. Cambrian stalked echinoderms show unexpected plasticity of arm construction.

    PubMed

    Zamora, S; Smith, A B

    2012-01-22

    Feeding arms carrying coelomic extensions of the theca are thought to be unique to crinoids among stemmed echinoderms. However, a new two-armed echinoderm from the earliest Middle Cambrian of Spain displays a highly unexpected morphology. X-ray microtomographic analysis of its arms shows they are polyplated in their proximal part with a dorsal series of uniserial elements enclosing a large coelomic lumen. Distally, the arm transforms into the more standard biserial structure of a blastozoan brachiole. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that this taxon lies basal to rhombiferans as sister-group to pleurocystitid and glyptocystitid blastozoans, drawing those clades deep into the Cambrian. We demonstrate that Cambrian echinoderms show surprising variability in the way their appendages are constructed, and that the appendages of at least some blastozoans arose as direct outgrowths of the body in much the same way as the arms of crinoids.

  10. 43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. DETAIL OF PINNED UPPER CHORD CONNECTION BETWEEN ANCHOR ARM AND SUSPENDED (PANEL 67). VIEW TO NORTH. - Blue Water Bridge, Spanning St. Clair River at I-69, I-94, & Canadian Route 402, Port Huron, St. Clair County, MI

  11. 8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. 320 FOOT LEVEL, SWING ARM NINE SHOWING BACK SIDE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHAMBER (WHITE ROOM). WHITE ROOM MADE CONNECTION WITH CAPSULE ON LAUNCH VEHICLE. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  12. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF ROCKER ARM, SHOWING POCKETS, LUGS, INCLINED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF ROCKER ARM, SHOWING POCKETS, LUGS, INCLINED STOPPING BLOCK AT SHOREWARD END OF TRACK GIRDER - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Seddon Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  13. Modulation of cutaneous reflexes in human upper limb muscles during arm cycling is independent of activity in the contralateral arm.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Timothy J; Zehr, E Paul; Collins, David F

    2005-02-01

    The amplitudes and signs of cutaneous reflexes are modulated during rhythmic movements of the arms and legs (during walking and arm or leg cycling for instance). This reflex modulation is frequently independent of the background muscle activity and may involve central pattern generator (CPG) circuits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the nature and degree of coupling between the upper limbs during arm cycling, with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes. Responses to electrical stimulations of the right, superficial radial nerve (five 1 ms pulses, 300 Hz) were recorded bilaterally in six arm muscles of eight participants during arm cycling involving only the limb ipsilateral to the stimulation, only the limb contralateral to the stimulation, and bilateral movement when the limbs were both in-phase and 180 degrees out of phase. The pattern of cutaneous reflex modulation throughout the arm cycle was independent of the functional state of the limb contralateral to the recording site, irrespective of whether recordings were made ipsilateral or contralateral to the stimulation. Furthermore, cutaneous reflexes were significantly (p<0.05) modulated with arm position in only 8% of cases in which the limb containing the responding muscle was either stationary or being moved passively by the experimenter. The results show that there is relatively weak coupling between the arms with regard to the regulation of cutaneous reflexes during rhythmic, cyclical arm movements. This suggests a loose connection between the CPGs for each arm that regulate muscle activity and reflex amplitude during rhythmic movement.

  14. The lateral upper arm flap: anatomy and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Katsaros, J; Schusterman, M; Beppu, M; Banis, J C; Acland, R D

    1984-06-01

    There is a highly dependable free flap donor site of moderate size on the posterolateral aspect of the distal upper arm. The area is supplied by the posterior radial collateral artery, a direct continuation of the profunda brachii. The flap area is supplied by a direct cutaneous nerve. It can be raised on its own, with underlying tendon, with bone, or with fascia only. This article describes our findings in 32 cadaver dissections and in 23 clinical cases.

  15. 10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. UPSTREAM SIDE OF UPPER MITER GATES SHOWING STOWED LEFT WING OF UPPER GUARD GATE (FAR LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Starved Rock Locks & Dam, Illinois Waterway River mile 231, Peru, La Salle County, IL

  16. 19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING EMERGENCY BULKHEAD STIFFLEG DERRICK TO RIGHT, LOOKING WEST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  17. 3D Measurement of Forearm and Upper Arm during Throwing Motion using Body Mounted Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Hideharu; Sagawa, Koichi; Kuroshima, Kouta; Tsukamoto, Toshiaki; Urita, Kazutaka; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    The aim of this study is to propose the measurement method of three-dimensional (3D) movement of forearm and upper arm during pitching motion of baseball using inertial sensors without serious consideration of sensor installation. Although high accuracy measurement of sports motion is achieved by using optical motion capture system at present, it has some disadvantages such as the calibration of cameras and limitation of measurement place. Whereas the proposed method for 3D measurement of pitching motion using body mounted sensors provides trajectory and orientation of upper arm by the integration of acceleration and angular velocity measured on upper limb. The trajectory of forearm is derived so that the elbow joint axis of forearm corresponds to that of upper arm. Spatial relation between upper limb and sensor system is obtained by performing predetermined movements of upper limb and utilizing angular velocity and gravitational acceleration. The integration error is modified so that the estimated final position, velocity and posture of upper limb agree with the actual ones. The experimental results of the measurement of pitching motion show that trajectories of shoulder, elbow and wrist estimated by the proposed method are highly correlated to those from the motion capture system within the estimation error of about 10 [%].

  18. Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of upper southwest corner, showing representative view of cornice and window ornamentation - Hungarian Sick Benefit Societies Building, 1406-1418 State Street, Bridgeport, Fairfield County, CT

  19. Cross-sectional reference values of upper arm anthropometry of the Khasi tribal adolescents of Meghalaya, India.

    PubMed

    Basu, Debashis; Sun, Deimaphishisha; Banerjee, Indraneel; Singh, Y Momo; Kalita, Jennifer G; Rao, Vadlamudi Raghavendra

    2010-01-01

    The Khasi tribal people in India with their distinct ethnic identity have relative geographic isolation from the rest of the country. Although chronic energy deficiency has been documented in this population, their nutritional status has not been re-evaluated following a decade of economic growth in India. In this study, the nutritional status of an ethno-homogenous sample of contemporary Khasi tribal adolescent cohort of age 11+ to 17+ years in the state of Meghalaya, India has been assessed by cross sectional analysis. This was achieved through the use of the following derived anthropometric measurements - total upper arm area (TUA), upper arm muscle area (UMA), upper arm fat area (UFA), and arm fat index (AFI). A total of 670 adolescents (335 boys; 335 girls) participated in this study. In comparison with North American NHANES 1999-2002 standards, UMA, a measure of upper arm muscle mass, was lower at all age groups in Khasi girls. Conversely, in Khasi boys, AFI, a marker of upper arm fat mass was lower at all age groups, thereby showing a gender dimorphic difference in upper limb muscle and fat proportions. We conclude that in upper arm indirect anthropometry, contemporary Khasi adolescent children remain nutritionally deficient with gender dimorphic muscle and fat proportions.

  20. Reconstruction of a large upper arm defect with muscle sparing latissimus dorsi.

    PubMed

    Cadenelli, Pierfrancesco; Bordoni, Daniele; Ornelli, Matteo; Radaelli, Stefano

    2016-08-23

    Reconstruction of large soft tissue defects in the upper arm represents a challenge for the reconstructive surgeon. The latissimus dorsi flap is widely used and preferred for this latter type of reconstruction due to its reliability and versatility, although sacrificing the entire muscle can lead to higher incidences of postoperative seroma and functional disability. The recent introduction of the perforator-based flap concept has led to an evolution in upper extremity reconstruction by significantly reducing donor-site morbidity and simultaneously ensuring optimal soft tissues coverage. We report a case of a large soft tissue defect of the posterolateral part of the upper arm, consequent to a sarcoma resection, in which a muscle-sparing latissimus dorsi technique was used to obtain total soft tissue coverage. A 2-year follow-up showed a satisfactory functional result and no evidence of recurrence.

  1. 26. Detail, view to northwest of typical upper connection, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Detail, view to northwest of typical upper connection, showing top chord with latticed soffit, laced vertical compression member, diagonal tension members with turnbuckles, latticed top strut, upper sway braces. - Stanislaus River Bridge, Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway at Stanislaus River, Riverbank, Stanislaus County, CA

  2. Effect of 635nm Low-level Laser Therapy on Upper Arm Circumference Reduction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the safety and efficacy of low-level laser therapy as a noninvasive method for reducing upper arm circumference. Design: Randomized, double-blind study whereby healthy subjects (N=40) with a body mass index of 20 to 35kg/m2 received three 20-minute low-level laser therapy (N=20) or sham treatments (N=20) each week for two weeks. Measurements: Upper arm circumference was measured after three and six treatments and two weeks post-treatment. Primary success criterion was the proportion of subjects achieving a combined reduction in arm circumference of ≥1.25cm measured at three equally spaced points between the elbow and the shoulder. Secondary outcomes included total measurement change at each time point and subjective satisfaction ratings. Results: After six treatments, the low-level laser therapy group showed a combined reduction in arm circumference of 3.7cm versus 0.2cm in the sham treatment group (p<0.0001). Significantly more subjects in the low-level laser therapy group (N=12; 60%) achieved ≥1.5cm total decrease in upper arm circumference versus sham-treated subjects (N=0; 0%) (p<0.0005). Low-level laser therapy treatment resulted in a combined reduction in arm circumference of 2.2cm after three treatments and 3.7cm after six treatments (for each, p<0.0001) indicating a progressive and cumulative treatment effect. Body mass index remained unchanged for all subjects. A significantly greater number of subjects in the low-level laser therapy treatment group were satisfied with their results (p<0.05), believed their upper arm appearance improved (p<0.0005), and indicated the results exceeded expectations (p<0.05). The treatments were painless and no adverse events were reported. Conclusion: Noninvasive low-level laser therapy is safe, painless, and effective in reducing upper arm circumference and is associated with a high degree of subject satisfaction. PMID:22468172

  3. 17. VIEW OF NORTH BRIDGE PORTAL, SHOWING ORNAMENTAL UPPER PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF NORTH BRIDGE PORTAL, SHOWING ORNAMENTAL UPPER PORTAL STRUT AND GEOMETRIC DECORATED GUSSET. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  4. 15. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PORTAL, SHOWING ORNAMENTAL UPPER PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. VIEW OF SOUTH BRIDGE PORTAL, SHOWING ORNAMENTAL UPPER PORTAL STRUT AND GUSSETS (FLORAL MOTIF). FACING SOUTHWEST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  5. End of truss showing upper chord, bottom chord rod, compression ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    End of truss showing upper chord, bottom chord rod, compression strut and connector - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  6. 7. VIEW NORTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW NORTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing windows on east and north elevations - Bay City Traction & Electric Company, Power Station, 301 Washington Street, Bay City, Bay County, MI

  7. 9. VIEW SOUTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SOUTHEAST, Interior of Power Station, upper level showing windows on east and south elevations - Bay City Traction & Electric Company, Power Station, 301 Washington Street, Bay City, Bay County, MI

  8. 5. DETAIL OF UPSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING HANDPLACED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL OF UPSTREAM FACE OF UPPER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING HAND-PLACED ROCK RIPRAP AND MASONRY PARAPET WALL. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  9. 22. Detail taken from center of bridge showing upper structure ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail taken from center of bridge showing upper structure and roadway, from northwest. - Brady Street Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at South Twenty-second Street, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  10. INTERIOR OF BUILDING 4, FROM UPPER CATWALK SHOWING BOILERS AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF BUILDING 4, FROM UPPER CATWALK SHOWING BOILERS AND VENTS, FACING EAST - Roosevelt Base, Central Heating Plant, Corner of Colorado Street & Reeves Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 13. DETAIL OF END POST UPPER CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL OF END POST - UPPER CHORD CONNECTION, SHOWING PORTAL STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONAL. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  12. 14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF TYPICAL UPPER CHORD - VERTICAL CONNECTION, SHOWING STRUT, LATERAL BRACING AND DIAGONALS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  13. 11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL OF BRIDGE DECK, SHOWING UPPER CHORDS, VERTICALS, DIAGONALS AND GUARDRAILS. VIEW TO WEST. - Whispering Pines Bridge, Spanning East Verde River at Forest Service Control Road, Payson, Gila County, AZ

  14. 15. Detail of central line of girders, showing upper portion ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail of central line of girders, showing upper portion of pinned connection between channel-span (left) and anchor-span (right) girders; view to southwest. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. Detail of upper east end wall of Express Building, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper east end wall of Express Building, showing brickwork pattern and terra cotta balusters and molding trim. View is to west - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF UPPER PORTION OF GRAND STAIRWAY SHOWING SKY LIGHT, COLUMN CAPITALS AND COFFERED CEILING. PHOTO TAKEN FROM SOUTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Yakima National Guard Armory, 202 South Third Street, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  17. Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of upper portion of southeast corner showing exposed rafters at eaves; camera facing northwest. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Supply Building, Walnut Avenue, southeast corner of Walnut Avenue & Fifth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  18. 6. CREST ROAD ON UPPER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING MASONRY UPSTREAM PARAPET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. CREST ROAD ON UPPER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING MASONRY UPSTREAM PARAPET WALL (LEFT) AND ENTRANCE TO DEER FLAT NAMPA CANAL HEADWORKS (ALSO LEFT). VIEW TO WEST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  19. 8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. TURBINE DECK (UPPER FLOOR) INSIDE STEAM PLANT, SHOWING STEAM TURBINES AND GENERATORS, LOOKING NORTH. November 13, 1990 - Crosscut Steam Plant, North side Salt River near Mill Avenue & Washington Street, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 16. Detail of upper chord / end post connection, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Detail of upper chord / end post connection, showing hip vertical and diagonal. view to east. - Rock House Ford Bridge, Spanning North Moreau River at County Road 39, Russellville, Cole County, MO

  1. 15. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD ON 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD ON 1886 TRUSS, SHOWING ENDPOST, PORTAL STRUT, LATERAL BRACING, HIP VERTICAL AND DIAGONAL, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Sixth Street Viaduct, Spanning Burlington Northern Railroad & Valley Street, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  2. 2. EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, UPPER LEVELS SHOWING ROOF CORNICE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT, UPPER LEVELS SHOWING ROOF CORNICE AND BAY WINDOW UNIT WITH PRESSED TIN SPANDREL - West Lexington Street, Number 314 (Commercial Building), 314 West Lexington Street, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  3. Estimation Method of Body Temperature from Upper Arm Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Arata; Ryu, Kazuteru; Kanai, Nobuyuki

    This paper proposes a method for estimation of a body temperature by using a relation between the upper arm temperature and the atmospheric temperature. Conventional method has measured by armpit or oral, because the body temperature from the body surface is influenced by the atmospheric temperature. However, there is a correlation between the body surface temperature and the atmospheric temperature. By using this correlation, the body temperature can estimated from the body surface temperature. Proposed method enables to measure body temperature by the temperature sensor that is embedded in the blood pressure monitor cuff. Therefore, simultaneous measurement of blood pressure and body temperature can be realized. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the actual body temperature experiment. The proposed method might contribute to reduce the medical staff's workloads in the home medical care, and more.

  4. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm.

    PubMed

    Rayidi, V Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome.

  5. 7. DETAIL OF UPPER SECTIONS OF WEST SIDE SHOWING WHITE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF UPPER SECTIONS OF WEST SIDE SHOWING WHITE INSULATED DUCTWORK VENTILATING CLEAN ROOM AT TOP LEVELS OF MOBILE SERVICE STRUCTURE; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Cape Canaveral Air Station, Launch Complex 17, Facility 28417, East end of Lighthouse Road, Cape Canaveral, Brevard County, FL

  6. View southeast, stone sluice, top of upper standing section, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View southeast, stone sluice, top of upper standing section, showing cement piers over arch in foreground, foot of break at third drop in center, retaining wall to left, barge canal sluice to right - Glens Falls Feeder, Sluice, Along south side of Glens Falls Feeder between locks 10 & 20, Hudson Falls, Washington County, NY

  7. View of the upper part of the Inverted Siphon showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the upper part of the Inverted Siphon showing sandbox at the top of the slope before dropping into the Hot Water (or White) Canyon. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Inverted Siphon, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  8. 17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SHOWING CAPTION AT UPPER RIGHT THAT READS, 'HORSE MESA DAM -5/15/27FLOATING 2-YD. ELECTRICALLY-OPERATED CLAM-SHELL DERRICK UNLOADING GRAVEL SCOWS' May 15, 1927 - Horse Mesa Dam, Salt River, 65 miles East of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF MILL FROM UPPER TAILINGS POND. SHOWS ROASTER ON LEFT EDGE OF VIEW. THE SECONDARY THICKENER No. 7 IS OFF VIEW TO THE RIGHT. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  10. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING RADAR SITE IN UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING RADAR SITE IN UPPER LEFT, BARRACKS IN MIDDLE, AND LAUNCH AREA IN LOWER PORTION OF PHOTO Everett Weinreb, photographer, April 1988 - Los Pinetos Nike Missile Site, Santa Clara Road, Los Angeles National Forest, Sylmar, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. 3. SHOWING STREAM, STORE BUILDING (UPPER LEFT), SPRING HOUSE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SHOWING STREAM, STORE BUILDING (UPPER LEFT), SPRING HOUSE AND BATH HOUSE (NEAR STREAM), SOUTHEAST FRONTS AND SOUTHWEST SIDES (4 x 5 negative; 5 x 7 print) - Salt Sulpher Springs, U.S. Route 219, Salt Sulphur Springs, Monroe County, WV

  12. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW OF THE PANTRY. SHOWING GLAZED UPPER CABINETS. NOTE THE FLOUR BIN IN FOREGROUND (SLIGHTLY AJAR) AND THE WINDOWS AT THE TOP OF THE EXTERIOR WALL. VIEW FACING NORTHEAST. - Hickam Field, Fort Kamehameha Officers' Housing Type Z, 19 Worchester Avenue, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Assessment of hand function after successful replantation of upper limb at arm

    PubMed Central

    Rayidi, V. Koteswara Rao; Velde, Venkata Bhargava; Rao, Narsimha; Babu, N Ram; Sambari, Laxman

    2016-01-01

    In upper arm replantation, a successful anastomosis guarantees the viability and good quality repair determines the overall function of the hand. There is paucity of successful arm replantation case reports in the literature. This is a case report of a successful arm replantation in a four year child with a near total functional outcome. We have used different scores to assess the functional outcome. PMID:28216826

  14. Perforator arteries of the medial upper arm: anatomical basis of a new flap donor site.

    PubMed

    Perignon, D; Havet, E; Sinna, R

    2013-01-01

    The development of perforator flaps' concept based on knowledge on vascular anatomy of the skin represents a major improvement in reconstructive surgery. Succeeding description about vascular territories and anatomical basics of the main donor sites, the study of hidden donor sites, such as medial upper arm, constitutes a new step and an additional refinement. 20 upper limbs of 10 fresh adult cadavers were studied with colored latex injections. The origin and distribution of the perforator arteries of the superior ulnar collateral artery and the brachial artery were investigated. We have noted constant perforator arteries and described the limits of vascular territories of the medial upper arm.

  15. Analysis of upper arm muscle activation using surface electromyography signals during drum playing

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Hyun Ju; Kwon, Chun-Ki; Kang, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Soo Ji

    2016-01-01

    This study measured surface electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii during repeated drum playing with and without a drumstick to better understand activation of the upper arm muscles and inform the use of instrument playing for motor rehabilitation. A total of 40 healthy college students participated in this study. All participants were asked to strike a drum with their hand and with a drumstick at three different levels of stroke: soft, medium, and strong. The stroke order was randomly assigned to participants. A sound level meter was used to record the intensity of the drum playing. Surface electromyography signals were recorded at every hit during drum playing both with and without the drumstick in each of the three stroke conditions. The results demonstrated that the highest muscle activation was observed in both biceps brachii and triceps brachii with strong drum playing with and without the drumstick. A two-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that there was a significant main effect for stroke intensity in muscle activation and produced sound level. While higher activation of the triceps brachii was observed for drum playing without a drumstick, no significant differences were found between the biceps brachii and sound level. This study demonstrated via surface electromyography data that greater muscle activation of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii does not occur with the use of drumsticks in drum playing. With the drum sound controlled, drum playing by hand can be an effective therapeutic intervention for the upper arm muscles. PMID:27419114

  16. Effect of elbow flexion, forearm rotation and upper arm abduction on MVC grip and grip endurance time.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Mohd; Khan, Abid Ali

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was designed to know the effect of upper limb postural deviations on grip strength and grip endurance time. A full factorial design of experiment, i.e., 3 (0°, 45°, 90° abduction angles of upper arm) × 3 (45°, 90°, 135° angles of elbow flexion) × 3 (0°, -60° prone, +60° supine angles of forearm rotation) was used to find the effect of 27 combinations of postures on maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) grip strength and grip endurance time. The results showed that none of the main factors were significant on MVC grip, although there was a change in MVC grip. Grip endurance time significantly decreased with an increase in upper arm abduction. Also, grip endurance significantly increased with the elbow flexion angle and decreased with forearm rotation from neutral. These data will help designers and engineers to improve the workplace and tools to reduce the risk of injuries.

  17. Analysis of reaching movements of upper arm in robot assisted exercises. Kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching single-joint movements.

    PubMed

    Iuppariello, Luigi; D'Addio, Giovanni; Romano, Maria; Bifulco, Paolo; Lanzillo, Bernardo; Pappone, Nicola; Cesarelli, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Robot-mediated therapy (RMT) has been a very dynamic area of research in recent years. Robotics devices are in fact capable to quantify the performances of a rehabilitation task in treatments of several disorders of the arm and the shoulder of various central and peripheral etiology. Different systems for robot-aided neuro-rehabilitation are available for upper limb rehabilitation but the biomechanical parameters proposed until today, to evaluate the quality of the movement, are related to the specific robot used and to the type of exercise performed. Besides, none study indicated a standardized quantitative evaluation of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, so the RMT is still far to be considered a standardised tool. In this paper a quantitative kinematic assessment of robot assisted upper arm reaching movements, considering also the effect of gravity on the quality of the movements, is proposed. We studied a group of 10 healthy subjects and results indicate that our advised protocol can be useful for characterising normal pattern in reaching movements.

  18. Radiesse®: a novel rejuvenation treatment for the upper arms

    PubMed Central

    Amselem, Moisés

    2016-01-01

    Nonsurgical esthetic improvement of the upper arms is a desirable goal for many individuals. Radiesse® (calcium hydroxylapatite) is an effective dermal filler for a number of indications because of its volumizing effect and the ability to stimulate neocollagenesis. No studies have reported on its safety and effectiveness for the treatment of the upper arm. In a prospective, open-label study, 30 subjects seeking improvement in the esthetic appearance of their upper arms received injections with Radiesse® (1.5 mL/arm) at two separate visits, 1 month apart. Subjects returned for a follow-up visit 4 months after the second treatment. The primary endpoint was the degree of overall subject and evaluator (investigators and study nurses) satisfaction assessed using the 5-point Global Satisfaction Scale (ranging from “1” very dissatisfied to “5” very satisfied). Secondary endpoints included assessments of skin quality (flaccidity and volume distribution) using a new Visual Analog Scale for upper arms and overall assessment of treatment using the Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale. All (100%) of both subjects and evaluators were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with treatment. The mean Global Satisfaction Score for investigators and study nurses was 4.60 and for subjects 4.53 (satisfied to very satisfied). Assessments of flaccidity and volume improved significantly compared with baseline at the post-treatment visit and also between visits. Compared with baseline, 77% of subjects were rated as considerably improved (good or great improvement) by the investigator and study nurse; 73% of subjects rated themselves as considerably improved and 43% of these rated a “great improvement.” All stated they would repeat the treatment and recommend it to others. No adverse events were reported. Radiesse® is an effective minimally invasive treatment option for improving upper arm contours and was associated with a 100% satisfaction rate for both subjects and

  19. Numerical analysis of stress distribution in the upper arm tissues under an inflatable cuff: Implications for noninvasive blood pressure measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhipeng; Liang, Fuyou

    2016-10-01

    An inflatable cuff wrapped around the upper arm is widely used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. However, the mechanical interaction between cuff and arm tissues, a factor that potentially affects the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measurement, remains rarely addressed. In the present study, finite element (FE) models were constructed to quantify intra-arm stresses generated by cuff compression, aiming to provide some theoretical evidence for identifying factors of importance for blood pressure measurement or explaining clinical observations. Obtained results showed that the simulated tissue stresses were highly sensitive to the distribution of cuff pressure on the arm surface and the contact condition between muscle and bone. In contrast, the magnitude of cuff pressure and small variations in elastic properties of arm soft tissues had little influence on the efficiency of pressure transmission in arm tissues. In particular, it was found that a thickened subcutaneous fat layer in obese subjects significantly reduced the effective pressure transmitted to the brachial artery, which may explain why blood pressure overestimation occurs more frequently in obese subjects in noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

  20. Two-dimensional myoelectric control of a robotic arm for upper limb amputees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Celani, Natalia M.; Soria, Carlos M.; Orosco, Eugenio C.; di Sciascio, Fernando A.; Valentinuzzi, Max E.

    2007-11-01

    Rehabilitation engineering and medicine have become integral and significant parts of health care services, particularly and unfortunately in the last three or four decades, because of wars, terrorism and large number of car accidents. Amputees show a high rate of rejection to wear prosthetic devices, often because of lack of an adequate period of adaptation. A robotic arm may appear as a good preliminary stage. To test the hypothesis, myoelectric signals from two upper limb amputees and from four normal volunteers were fed, via adequate electronic conditioning and using MATLAB, to an industrial robotic arm. Proportional strength control was used for two degrees of freedom (x-y plane) by means of eight signal features of control (four traditional statistics plus energy, integral of the absolute value, Willison's amplitude, waveform length and envelope) for comparison purposes, and selecting the best of them as final reference. Patients easily accepted the system and learned in short time how to operate it. Results were encouraging so that valuable training, before prosthesis is implanted, appears as good feedback; besides, these patients can be hired as specialized operators in semi-automatized industry.

  1. ArmAssist Robotic System versus Matched Conventional Therapy for Poststroke Upper Limb Rehabilitation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tomić, Tijana J. Dimkić; Savić, Andrej M.; Vidaković, Aleksandra S.; Rodić, Sindi Z.; Isaković, Milica S.; Rodríguez-de-Pablo, Cristina; Keller, Thierry

    2017-01-01

    The ArmAssist is a simple low-cost robotic system for upper limb motor training that combines known benefits of repetitive task-oriented training, greater intensity of practice, and less dependence on therapist assistance. The aim of this preliminary study was to compare the efficacy of ArmAssist (AA) robotic training against matched conventional arm training in subacute stroke subjects with moderate-to-severe upper limb impairment. Twenty-six subjects were enrolled within 3 months of stroke and randomly assigned to the AA group or Control group (n = 13 each). Both groups were trained 5 days per week for 3 weeks. The primary outcome measure was Fugl-Meyer Assessment-Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) motor score, and the secondary outcomes were Wolf Motor Function Test-Functional Ability Scale (WMFT-FAS) and Barthel index (BI). The AA group, in comparison to the Control group, showed significantly greater increases in FMA-UE score (18.0 ± 9.4 versus 7.5 ± 5.5, p = 0.002) and WMFT-FAS score (14.1 ± 7.9 versus 6.7 ± 7.8, p = 0.025) after 3 weeks of treatment, whereas the increase in BI was not significant (21.2 ± 24.8 versus 13.1 ± 10.7, p = 0.292). There were no adverse events. We conclude that arm training using the AA robotic device is safe and able to reduce motor deficits more effectively than matched conventional arm training in subacute phase of stroke. The study has been registered at the ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02729649. PMID:28251157

  2. Movement analysis of upper limb during resistance training using general purpose robot arm "PA10"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Yoshifumi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Suzuki, Takahiro; Hirose, Akinori; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Nobuyuki

    2005-12-01

    In this paper we perform movement analysis of an upper limb during resistance training. We selected sanding training, which is one type of resistance training for upper limbs widely performed in occupational therapy. Our final aims in the future are to quantitatively evaluate the therapeutic effect of upper limb motor function during training and to develop a new rehabilitation training support system. For these purposes, first of all we perform movement analysis using a conventional training tool. By measuring upper limb motion during the sanding training we perform feature abstraction. Next we perform movement analysis using the simulated sanding training system. This system is constructed using the general purpose robot arm "PA10". This system enables us to measure the force/torque exerted by subjects and to easily change the load of resistance. The control algorithm is based on impedance control. We found these features of the upper limb motion during the sanding training.

  3. Redundancy resolution of the human arm and an upper limb exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Byl, Nancy; Abrams, Gary M; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-06-01

    The human arm has 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) while only 6 DOF are required to position the wrist and orient the palm. Thus, the inverse kinematics of an human arm has a nonunique solution. Resolving this redundancy becomes critical as the human interacts with a wearable robot and the inverse kinematics solution of these two coupled systems must be identical to guarantee an seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated by defining the swivel angle, the rotation angle of the plane defined by the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis that connects the shoulder and wrist joints. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture system indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points to the head. Based on these experimental results, a new criterion is formed to resolve the human arm redundancy. This criterion was implemented into the control algorithm of an upper limb 7-DOF wearable robot. Experimental results indicate that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criterion, the error between the predicted and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5°.

  4. An iPhone application for upper arm posture and movement measurements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyun; Grooten, Wilhelmus J A; Forsman, Mikael

    2017-03-06

    There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS-OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were -4.6° and 4.8°. All root mean square differences in arm swings and two simulated work tasks were <6.0°, and all mean correlation coefficients were >0.98. The mean absolute iOS-OTS difference of median angular velocity was <13.1°/s, which was significantly lower than only using an accelerometer (<43.5°/s). The accuracy of this iOS application compares well to that of today's research methods and it can be useful for practical upper arm measurements.

  5. Optimality of Upper-Arm Reaching Trajectories Based on the Expected Value of the Metabolic Energy Cost.

    PubMed

    Taniai, Yoshiaki; Nishii, Jun

    2015-08-01

    When we move our body to perform a movement task, our central nervous system selects a movement trajectory from an infinite number of possible trajectories under constraints that have been acquired through evolution and learning. Minimization of the energy cost has been suggested as a potential candidate for a constraint determining locomotor parameters, such as stride frequency and stride length; however, other constraints have been proposed for a human upper-arm reaching task. In this study, we examined whether the minimum metabolic energy cost model can also explain the characteristics of the upper-arm reaching trajectories. Our results show that the optimal trajectory that minimizes the expected value of energy cost under the effect of signal-dependent noise on motor commands expresses not only the characteristics of reaching movements of typical speed but also those of slower movements. These results suggest that minimization of the energy cost would be a basic constraint not only in locomotion but also in upper-arm reaching.

  6. Associations of Upper Arm and Thigh Circumferences with Dementia and Depression in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported an association between weight loss and cognitive impairment. Changes in anthropometric measurements, such as arm and thigh circumferences, are associated with body mass changes and physical activity. Our aim was to investigate the association of upper arm and thigh circumferences with dementia and depression in the community-dwelling elderly population. Methods In total, 2,498 community residents aged 65 years or over were clinically assessed for dementia using the Korean version of the Community Screening Interview for Dementia. Depression was also assessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3. Arm and thigh circumferences were measured. Complex sample logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations of changes in anthropometric measurements with dementia/depression after controlling for other covariates. Results In the adjusted analyses, there was an independent association between dementia and arm circumference (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.06–1.19). This association was significant in the females (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.05–1.19) but not in males (OR=1.07; 95% CI=0.93–1.28). The association between dementia and thigh circumference was not significant in the adjusted analysis (OR=1.03; 95% CI=0.99–1.07). No significant association was found between either upper arm or thigh circumference and depression. Conclusion In the older female Korean population, decreased upper arm circumference was associated with dementia and may represent a biological marker for this condition. This association may be explained by nutritional deficits or decreased physical activity. PMID:28326112

  7. Complex Tasks by Users With upper-extremity disability Using a 6-DOF Robotic Arm: A Study.

    PubMed

    Al-Halimi, Reem; Moussa, Medhat

    2016-08-26

    In this paper, we report on the results of a study that was conducted to examine how users suffering from severe upper-extremity disabilities can control a 6 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) robotics arm to complete complex activities of daily living. The focus of the study is not on assessing the robot arm but on examining the human-robot interaction patterns. Three participants were recruited. Each participant was asked to perform three tasks: eating three pieces of pre-cut bread from a plate, drinking three sips of soup from a bowl, and opening a right-handed door with lever handle. Each of these tasks was repeated three times. The arm was mounted on the participant's wheelchair, and the participants were free to move the arm as they wish to complete these tasks. Each task consisted of a sequence of modes where a mode is defined as arm movement in one DOF. Results show that participants used a total of 938 mode movements with an average of 75.5 (std 10.2) modes for the eating task, 70 (std 8.8) modes for the soup task, and 18.7 (std 4.5) modes for the door opening task. Tasks were then segmented into smaller subtasks. It was found that there are patterns of usage per participant and per subtask. These patterns can potentially allow a robot to learn from user's demonstration what is the task being executed and by whom and respond accordingly to reduce user effort.

  8. [Hand-arm vibration syndrome and upper limbs diseases in the forest workers of Italia meridionale].

    PubMed

    Fenga, C; Rapisarda, V; Valentino, M; Cacciola, A; Deboli, R; Calvo, A; Germanò, D

    2007-01-01

    Vibration exposure of the hand-arm system is associated with an increased risk of upper-limb vascular, neurological and musculoskeletal lesions, or hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The prevalence of occupational HAVS and upper-limb disorders was studied among 278 Forestry Service workers in Sicily and Calabria. Subjects who used chain-saws (18 weeks/year) had a greater prevalence of peripheral sensory-neural disturbances (28%), upper-limb musculoskeletal disorders (33%) and carpal tunnel syndrome (19%) compared with 260 manual workers from the same Corps not exposed to hand-transmitted vibration. Raynaud's phenomenon was comparable in exposed and control subjects (5.3% vs. 4.7%.) Upper-limb neuropathies were significantly associated with energy-equivalent frequency-weighted acceleration; exposure duration; and cumulative vibration dose (m2/s4h). The variable "years of work with vibrating tools" was strongly associated with peripheral neuropathies; carpal tunnel syndrome; and upper-limb musculotendinous syndromes. Data suggest that in Sicily and Calabria, where the climate is milder than in other areas of Italy, forestry work with hand-held vibrating tools does not entail a greater prevalence of peripheral vascular disorders (Raynaud's phenomenon), while the prevalence of occupational upper-limb neurological and musculoskeletal disorders, in which combined ergonomic and mechanical risk factors have a large pathogenic role, is significantly increased.

  9. Regional anesthesia procedures for shoulder and upper arm surgery upper extremity update--2005 to present.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Ramprasad; Bowens, Clifford

    2012-01-01

    This review of the literature since 2005 assesses developments of RA techniques commonly used for shoulder surgery, and their effectiveness for postoperative analgesia. Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the ISB provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impacts of IA single-injections remain unclear. When combined with GA, ISB can be used in lower volumes and reducing the complications for shoulder and proximal upper extremity. USG ISB and SCB are both effective and safe for shoulder surgery with a low incidence of complications, especially PONS.53 When compared with intravenous patient-controlled opioid analgesia, a perineural LA infusion using a disposable pump with patient-controlled LA bolus function has led to better pain relief and functional recovery while decreasing the need for rescue analgesics and the number of adverse events after ambulatory orthopedic surgery. The most remarkable advance in RA in the past 5 years is the increased usage of USG. Although there are no large-scale prospective studies to show the safety, efficacy, and success and complication rates for USG blocks, USG RA theoretically could have less risk for neurologic symptoms, except for those induced by LA (less likely perineurally, much more likely intraneurally). The next "quantum leap" lies in reducing LA concentrations and augmenting anesthetic-analgesic effects with perineural additives (including clonidine, buprenorphine, and likely low-dose dexamethasone). Since 2005, perineural catheters have been an analgesic option that offers improved pain relief among other benefits, and are now being used at home. It is clear that patients benefit greatly from a single injection and continuous nerve block for postoperative pain management,but the financial and logistical aspects need to be resolved, not to mention the phrenic hemiparesis coin toss. Whether combined

  10. Posture interacts with arm weight support to modulate corticomotor excitability to the upper limb.

    PubMed

    Runnalls, Keith D; Anson, Greg; Byblow, Winston D

    2017-01-01

    The use of arm weight support (WS) to optimize movement quality may be an avenue for improved upper limb stroke rehabilitation; however, the underlying neurophysiological effects of WS are not well understood. Rehabilitation exercises may be performed when sitting or standing, but the interaction of posture with WS has not been examined until now. We explored the effect of posture with WS on corticomotor excitability (CME) in healthy adults. Thirteen participants performed static shoulder abduction in two postures (sitting and standing) at three levels of WS (0, 45, and 90 % of full support). Transcranial magnetic stimulation of primary motor cortex was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in eight upper limb muscles. Stimulus-response (SR) curves were fitted to the MEP data using nonlinear regression. Whole-body posture interacted with WS to influence tonic activity and CME in all muscles examined. SR curve parameters revealed greater CME when standing compared to sitting for upper arm muscles, but lower CME to the shoulder, forearm, and hand. Distal to the shoulder, tonic activity and CME were modulated independent of any explicit differences in task requirements. Overall, these results support a model of integrated upper limb control influenced by whole-body posture and WS. These findings have implications for the application of WS in settings such as upper limb rehabilitation after stroke.

  11. Functional transposition of the latissimus dorsi muscle for biceps reconstruction after upper arm replantation.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Thomas; Wechselberger, Gottfried; Hussl, Heribert; Huemer, Georg M

    2007-01-01

    Major upper arm amputations are often accompanied by different levels of soft-tissue divisions involving crushing, traction, and avulsion injuries to various structures. In these cases the goal is not only the re-establishment of circulation, but also functional outcome. Some patients require further reconstruction for functional restoration of elbow flexion and additional soft tissue coverage. Five patients underwent functional latissimus dorsi transfer for restoration of elbow flexion after successful upper arm replantation at our institution. The transfer was unipolar in four patients and bipolar in one. The patients' ages ranged from seven to 55 years. The time period between replantation and transfer ranged from two weeks to 12 months. All flaps healed well with minimal donor site morbidity. At mean 43-month follow-up (range: 22-65 months), functional results were good with M4 in three patients and M3 in two patients for elbow flexion. The pedicled latissimus dorsi muscle flap is a valuable tool to restore elbow flexion and provide coverage of soft tissue defects after major upper arm replantations.

  12. [Long-term (33 years) result of revascularization of subtotally amputated upper arm].

    PubMed

    Kaczmarzyk, Janusz; Kocieba, Ryszard; Jabłecki, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    Replantations and revascularizations on the level of the arm are performed in the smallest number. The achieved functional results are poor. The paper presents a result achieved in a patient who sustained an avulsion amputation of an upper arm in the year 1974. The first long-term control was made 11 years after the revascularization of the limb which rated the result as III acc. to Chen's score system. The patient was steadily highly motivated for hand rehabilitation process. The second control performed 33 years after the accident proved the increase of sensibility, muscle strength as well as the range of movements. The result was up-graded as II (good). No degenerative changes in hand bones of mutilated hand were found.

  13. Satellite Measurement of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor: Development and Applications and Applications for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brian J. Soden

    2005-01-11

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements from the 6.7 micron channel on GOES (8, 9, 12) and GMS-5 satellites were employed to develop a near real-time UTH product that is now available from the ARM External Data Center (XDC). The UTH product is available in either gridded format (2.0 x 2.0 lat-lon resolution), full-disk pixel resolution, or individual pixel resolution for both the SGP and TWP sites. This product provides the basis for the instrument intercomparison and validation activities (Section 0.2), diurnal analysis and model evaluation (0.3), and cloud lifecycle studies (0.5); and is also an important component of the research proposed here. Full details regarding the retrieval algorithm for the ARM sites can be found in Soden et al. (2004a) and references therein.

  14. SEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qianxiang, Zhou; Chao, Ma; Xiaohui, Zheng

    sEMG analysis of astronaut upper arm during isotonic muscle actions with normal standing posture*1 Introduction Now the research on the isotonic muscle actions by using Surface Electromyography (sEMG) is becoming a pop topic in fields of astronaut life support training and rehabilitations. And researchers paid more attention on the sEMG signal processes for reducing the influence of noise which is produced during monitoring process and the fatigue estimation of isotonic muscle actions with different force levels by using the parameters which are obtained from sEMG signals such as Condition Velocity(CV), Median Frequency(MDF), Mean Frequency(MNF) and so on. As the lucubrated research is done, more and more research on muscle fatigue issue of isotonic muscle actions are carried out with sEMG analysis and subjective estimate system of Borg scales at the same time. In this paper, the relationship between the variable for fatigue based on sEMG and the Borg scale during the course of isotonic muscle actions of the upper arm with different contraction levels are going to be investigated. Methods 13 young male subjects(23.4±2.45years, 64.7±5.43Kg, 171.7±5.41cm) with normal standing postures were introduced to do isotonic actions of the upper arm with different force levels(10% MVC, 30%MVC and 50%MVC). And the MVC which means maximal voluntary contraction was obtained firstly in the experiment. Also the sEMG would be recorded during the experiments; the Borg scales would be recorded for each contraction level. By using one-third band octave method, the fatigue variable (p) based on sEMG were set up and it was expressed as p = i g(fi ) · F (fi ). And g(fi ) is defined as the frequent factor which was 0.42+0.5 cos(π fi /f0 )+0.08 cos(2π fi /f0 ), 0 < FI fi 0, orf0 ≤> f0 . According to the equations, the p could be computed and the relationship between variable p and the Borg scale would be investigated. Results In the research, three kinds of fitted curves between

  15. Musculotendon lengths and moment arms for a three-dimensional upper-extremity model.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Jeffery W; Neptune, Richard R

    2012-06-01

    Generating muscle-driven forward dynamics simulations of human movement using detailed musculoskeletal models can be computationally expensive. This is due in part to the time required to calculate musculotendon geometry (e.g., musculotendon lengths and moment arms), which is necessary to determine and apply individual musculotendon forces during the simulation. Modeling upper-extremity musculotendon geometry can be especially challenging due to the large number of multi-articular muscles and complex muscle paths. To accurately represent this geometry, wrapping surface algorithms and/or other computationally expensive techniques (e.g., phantom segments) are used. This paper provides a set of computationally efficient polynomial regression equations that estimate musculotendon length and moment arms for thirty-two (32) upper-extremity musculotendon actuators representing the major muscles crossing the shoulder, elbow and wrist joints. Equations were developed using a least squares fitting technique based on geometry values obtained from a validated public-domain upper-extremity musculoskeletal model that used wrapping surface elements (Holzbaur et al., 2005). In general, the regression equations fit well the original model values, with an average root mean square difference for all musculotendon actuators over the represented joint space of 0.39 mm (1.1% of peak value). In addition, the equations reduced the computational time required to simulate a representative upper-extremity movement (i.e., wheelchair propulsion) by more than two orders of magnitude (315 versus 2.3 s). Thus, these equations can assist in generating computationally efficient forward dynamics simulations of a wide range of upper-extremity movements.

  16. Cross-arm replantation for traumatic bilateral upper extremity amputations: a case report.

    PubMed

    Liang, Kailu; Zhong, Gang; Yin, Jiahui; Xiang, Zhou; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo

    2011-02-01

    A 40-year-old woman had her right extremity avulsed at the proximal upper arm level and the wrist and hand of her left extremity irretrievably injured in a traffic accident. The right distal forearm was surgically amputated and replanted onto the stump of the left distal forearm. New strategy for nerve repair was applied and the function recovery of the cross-replanted hand was favorable. We thought that cross-extremity replantation was indicated when the patient suffered from bilateral total or subtotal amputation at different levels and orthotopic replantation was impossible.

  17. Mid-upper arm circumference is associated with biochemically determined nutritional status indicators among adolescent girls in Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Kulathinal, Sangita; Freese, Riitta; Korkalo, Liisa; Ismael, Carina; Mutanen, Marja

    2016-08-01

    Biochemically determined nutritional status measurements in low-income countries are often too expensive. Therefore, we hypothesized that some anthropometrical or functional measurements (handgrip) could reflect nutritional status measured by specific biochemical indicators. We did a population-based study from 1 urban area and 2 rural districts in Zambézia Province of Mozambique. The participants (n=386) were non-pregnant adolescent girls between 15 and 18 years of age. 96% had a normal BMI-for-age score. Weight and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were highly correlated (r>0.8) with each other and with total body muscle mass, body mass index (BMI), and with waist circumference, as well as with skinfolds (r>0.6). Upper and total arm lengths were correlated (r>0.7) with height and with each other, and right and left handgrip were correlated only with each other, as were triceps and subscapular skinfolds (r>0.7). Serum albumin correlated negatively with waist circumference (P<.001) and positively with MUAC (P=.007). Stepwise regressions showed that waist circumference, MUAC, weight, and handgrip were important nutritional status indicators in the models using hemoglobin, serum albumin, ferritin, zinc, and plasma retinol concentrations as dependent variables. MUAC could be a valuable anthropometric marker of the overall nutritional status of adolescent girls in low-income countries. When nutrition transition proceeds, waist circumference together with MUAC could form tools for the prediction of worsening of nutritional status.

  18. 20. DETaIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETaIL VIEW OF UPPER EAST WALL CONTROL STATION, SHOWING EMERGENCY BULKHEAD STIFFLEG DERRICK, MAIN LOCK PEDESTRIAN BRIDGE, RECESSES FOR MAIN LOCK LIFT GATE, AND TILE GAUGES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 27, Granite City, Madison County, IL

  19. The effects of arm movement on reaction time in patients with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Marzieh; Talebian, Saeed; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Maroufi, Nader; Ahmadi, Amir; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Emrani, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Myofascial pain syndrome is a significant source of mechanical pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm movement on reaction time in females with latent and active upper trapezius myofascial trigger point. Methods: In this interventional study, a convenience sample of fifteen women with one active MTP, fifteen women with one latent MTP in the upper trapezius, and fifteen normal healthy women were participated. Participants were asked to stand for 10 seconds in an erect standing position. Muscle reaction times were recorded including anterior deltoid (AD), cervical paraspinal (CP) lumbar paraspinal (LP), both of upper trapezius (UT), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and medial head of gastrocnemius (GcM). Participants were asked to flex their arms in response to a sound stimulus preceded by a warning sound stimulus. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA Test. Results: There was significant differences in motor time and reaction time between active and control groups (p< 0.05) except for GcM. There was no significant difference in motor time between active and passive groups except for UT without MTP and SCM (p< 0.05). Also, there were no significant differences in motor times between latent MTP and control groups. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in premotor times between the three groups. Conclusion: The present study shows that patients with active MTP need more time to react to stimulus, but patients with latent MTP are similar to healthy subjects in the reaction time. Patients with active MTP had less compatibility with environmental stimulations, and they responded to a specific stimulation with variability in Surface Electromyography (SEMG). PMID:26913258

  20. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD/ENDPOST CONNECTION, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER CHORD/ENDPOST CONNECTION, SHOWING HIP VERTICAL, DIAGONAL AND PORTAL STRUT, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Santa Fe Bridge, Spanning South Fork of Salt River at County Road 24, Santa Fe, Monroe County, MO

  1. Comparison between Flail Arm Syndrome and Upper Limb Onset Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Clinical Features and Electromyographic Findings

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Byung-Nam; Choi, Seong Hye; Rha, Joung-Ho; Kang, Sa-Yoon; Lee, Kwang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Flail arm syndrome (FAS), an atypical presentation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), is characterized by progressive, predominantly proximal, weakness of upper limbs, without involvement of the lower limb, bulbar, or respiratory muscles. When encountering a patient who presents with this symptomatic profile, possible diagnoses include upper limb onset ALS (UL-ALS), and FAS. The lack of information regarding FAS may make differential diagnosis between FAS and UL-ALS difficult in clinical settings. The aim of this study was to compare clinical and electromyographic findings from patients diagnosed with FAS with those from patients diagnosed with UL-ALS. To accomplish this, 18 patients with FAS and 56 patients with UL-ALS were examined. Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups pertaining to the rate of fasciculation, patterns of predominantly affected muscles, and the Medical Research Council scale of the weakest muscle. The presence of upper motor neuron signs and lower motor neuron involvement evidenced through electromyography showed no significant between-group differences. PMID:25258573

  2. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments.

    PubMed

    Chan, Irene H L; Fong, Kenneth N K; Chan, Dora Y L; Wang, Apple Q L; Cheng, Eddy K N; Chau, Pinky H Y; Chow, Kathy K Y; Cheung, Hobby K Y

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1); immediately after training (T2); and at a 3-week follow-up (T3) by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone.

  3. Effects of Arm Weight Support Training to Promote Recovery of Upper Limb Function for Subacute Patients after Stroke with Different Levels of Arm Impairments

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Irene H. L.; Chan, Dora Y. L.; Wang, Apple Q. L.; Cheng, Eddy K. N.; Chau, Pinky H. Y.; Chow, Kathy K. Y.; Cheung, Hobby K. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of arm weight support training using the ArmeoSpring for subacute patients after stroke with different levels of hemiplegic arm impairments. Methods. 48 inpatients with subacute stroke, stratified into 3 groups from mild to severe upper extremity impairment, were engaged in ArmeoSpring training for 45 minutes daily, 5 days per week for 3 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Evaluations were conducted at three measurement occasions: immediately before training (T1); immediately after training (T2); and at a 3-week follow-up (T3) by a blind rater. Results. Shoulder flexion active range of motion, Upper Extremity Scores in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), and Vertical Catch had the greatest differences in gain scores for patients between severe and moderate impairments, whereas FMA Hand Scores had significant differences in gain scores between moderate and mild impairments. There was no significant change in muscle tone or hand-path ratios between T1, T2, and T3 within the groups. Conclusion. Arm weight support training is beneficial for subacute stroke patients with moderate to severe arm impairments, especially to improve vertical control such as shoulder flexion, and there were no adverse effects in muscle tone. PMID:27517053

  4. [Upper-extremity amputation in tumours of the shoulder and upper arm--experiences of the Vienna Bone Tumour Registry].

    PubMed

    Funovics, P T; Dominkus, M; Kotz, R

    2008-02-01

    Malignant lesions of the bones and soft tissues require radical or wide resection to achieve adequate therapy. Due to the many developments in terms of adjuvant modalities, diagnostics and surgical expertise today there are several modes of therapy as alternatives to amputation in the treatment of malignant tumours of the shoulder and upper arm. After resection of smaller tumours excellent functional results can be obtained by the use of modular endoprostheses, whereas large neoplasms adjacent to the neurovascular bundle require resection-replantation to allow salvage of the hand. Within the Vienna Bone Tumour Registry, 100 patients out of a total of more than 6500 have been treated for such lesions: 62 received an endoprostheses, 18 resection-replantation and 20 amputation. In cases of primary malignant tumours the incidence of lung metastases was higher in the resection-replantation group (50 %) and amputation group (42 %) than in the prostheses group (11 %), which has been linked to larger tumour size in the former two groups. Radical or wide resections were obtained in 95 % of the prostheses group, as compared to 75 % and 78 % in the amputation group and the resection-replantation group, respectively, due to invasion into the neurovascular bundle. Over time the number of amputations decreased simultaneously with the increase of endoprostheses whereas the number of resection-replantations remained equal at our institution. Amputation today still plays a crucial role in the treatment of intralesionally resected tumours, as surgical contamination can make limb salvage impossible. Therefore, the importance of biopsy in the therapeutical algorithm of bone and soft tissue tumours has to be emphasised again.

  5. Juvenile distal spinal muscular atrophy of upper extremities in Chinese males: a single fibre electromyographic study of arms and legs.

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Y W; Kay, R; Schwartz, M S

    1991-01-01

    Single fibre electromyography (SFEMG) was performed on six young Chinese males with distal spinal muscular atrophy of the upper extremities. Abnormal SFEMG findings of increased fibre density, jitter and blocking were recorded over both arms and legs in all patients, suggesting a more generalised disturbance than would appear clinically. Images PMID:2019844

  6. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt. 1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  8. CROCKETT BARN’S UPPER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. This image shows the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CROCKETT BARN’S UPPER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHEAST. This image shows the construction of the three interior bents, the south end of the loft and stairs, the ladder leading to the cupola, and the dance floor added in 2006. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  9. FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FAST CHOPPER BUILDING, TRA-665. DETAIL SHOWS UPPER AND LOWER LEVEL WALLS OF DIFFERING MATERIALS. NOTE DOORWAY TO MTR TO RIGHT OF CHOPPER BUILDING'S CLIPPED CORNER. CAMERA FACING WEST. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD42-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 3/2004 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  10. Intuitive wireless control of a robotic arm for people living with an upper body disability.

    PubMed

    Fall, C L; Turgeon, P; Campeau-Lecours, A; Maheu, V; Boukadoum, M; Roy, S; Massicotte, D; Gosselin, C; Gosselin, B

    2015-08-01

    Assistive Technologies (ATs) also called extrinsic enablers are useful tools for people living with various disabilities. The key points when designing such useful devices not only concern their intended goal, but also the most suitable human-machine interface (HMI) that should be provided to users. This paper describes the design of a highly intuitive wireless controller for people living with upper body disabilities with a residual or complete control of their neck and their shoulders. Tested with JACO, a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) assistive robotic arm with 3 flexible fingers on its end-effector, the system described in this article is made of low-cost commercial off-the-shelf components and allows a full emulation of JACO's standard controller, a 3 axis joystick with 7 user buttons. To do so, three nine-degree-of-freedom (9-DOF) inertial measurement units (IMUs) are connected to a microcontroller and help measuring the user's head and shoulders position, using a complementary filter approach. The results are then transmitted to a base-station via a 2.4-GHz low-power wireless transceiver and interpreted by the control algorithm running on a PC host. A dedicated software interface allows the user to quickly calibrate the controller, and translates the information into suitable commands for JACO. The proposed controller is thoroughly described, from the electronic design to implemented algorithms and user interfaces. Its performance and future improvements are discussed as well.

  11. Integrated vision-based robotic arm interface for operators with upper limb mobility impairments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An integrated, computer vision-based system was developed to operate a commercial wheelchair-mounted robotic manipulator (WMRM). In this paper, a gesture recognition interface system developed specifically for individuals with upper-level spinal cord injuries (SCIs) was combined with object tracking and face recognition systems to be an efficient, hands-free WMRM controller. In this test system, two Kinect cameras were used synergistically to perform a variety of simple object retrieval tasks. One camera was used to interpret the hand gestures to send as commands to control the WMRM and locate the operator's face for object positioning. The other sensor was used to automatically recognize different daily living objects for test subjects to select. The gesture recognition interface incorporated hand detection, tracking and recognition algorithms to obtain a high recognition accuracy of 97.5% for an eight-gesture lexicon. An object recognition module employing Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF) algorithm was performed and recognition results were sent as a command for "coarse positioning" of the robotic arm near the selected daily living object. Automatic face detection was also provided as a shortcut for the subjects to position the objects to the face by using a WMRM. Completion time tasks were conducted to compare manual (gestures only) and semi-manual (gestures, automatic face detection and object recognition) WMRM control modes. The use of automatic face and object detection significantly increased the completion times for retrieving a variety of daily living objects.

  12. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... and Pivots (Shoulder Screws), in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height...

  13. Non-contact versus contact-based sensing methodologies for in-home upper arm robotic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Howard, Ayanna; Brooks, Douglas; Brown, Edward; Gebregiorgis, Adey; Chen, Yu-Ping

    2013-06-01

    In recent years, robot-assisted rehabilitation has gained momentum as a viable means for improving outcomes for therapeutic interventions. Such therapy experiences allow controlled and repeatable trials and quantitative evaluation of mobility metrics. Typically though these robotic devices have been focused on rehabilitation within a clinical setting. In these traditional robot-assisted rehabilitation studies, participants are required to perform goal-directed movements with the robot during a therapy session. This requires physical contact between the participant and the robot to enable precise control of the task, as well as a means to collect relevant performance data. On the other hand, non-contact means of robot interaction can provide a safe methodology for extracting the control data needed for in-home rehabilitation. As such, in this paper we discuss a contact and non-contact based method for upper-arm rehabilitation exercises that enables quantification of upper-arm movements. We evaluate our methodology on upper-arm abduction/adduction movements and discuss the advantages and limitations of each approach as applied to an in-home rehabilitation scenario.

  14. Cross-sectional reference values for mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and arm fat area of Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Budak, Nurten; Cicek, Betul; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Bayram, Fahri; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish cross-sectional reference values for the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and arm fat area (AFA) of Turkish children and adolescents. In total 5,553 students aged between 6 and 17 years were selected by a multistage sampling method from schools representing city centre, rural and urban areas of Kayseri, Central Anatolia. The MUAC and TSF were measured, and the arm muscle area, arm area, AFA and fat percentage (%) were calculated. The LMS method was employed to calculate the MUAC, TSF and AFA curve parameters. The MUAC, TSF, AFA and fat percentage in each age group were significantly higher in girls than in boys. In boys, the TSF 50th percentile ranged from 7.6 mm at 17 years to 9.0 mm at 11 years; whereas in girls this ranged from 9.4 mm at 6 years to 14.6 mm at 17 years. The MUAC 50th percentile ranged from 17.0 to 23.6 cm in boys, and from 15.6 cm to 20.9 cm in girls. The AFA 50th percentile measurements ranged from 4.5 cm at 6 years to 5.8 cm at 12-14 years in boys; and ranged from 7.2 cm at 6 years to 14.8 cm at 17 years in girls. The percentile distribution was more disperse towards higher TSF and AFA values in boys than in girls.

  15. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The Wind River Basin is a large Laramide (Late Cretaceous through Eocene) structural and sedimentary basin that encompasses about 7,400 square miles in central Wyoming. The basin is bounded by the Washakie Range, Owl Creek, and southern Bighorn Mountains on the north, the Casper arch on the east and northeast, the Granite Mountains on the south, and the Wind River Range on the west. Important conventional and unconventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Mississippian through Tertiary. It has been suggested that various Upper Cretaceous marine shales are the principal hydrocarbon source rocks for many of these accumulations. Numerous source rock studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales throughout the Rocky Mountain region have led to the conclusion that these rocks have generated, or are capable of generating, oil and (or) gas. With recent advances and success in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation there has been an increase in exploration and completion of wells in these marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were traditionally thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters that control hydrocarbon production from shales include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a structural cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Wind River Basin.

  16. Evaluation of the JACO robotic arm: clinico-economic study for powered wheelchair users with upper-extremity disabilities.

    PubMed

    Maheu, Veronique; Frappier, Julie; Archambault, Philippe S; Routhier, François

    2011-01-01

    Many activities of daily living, such as picking up glasses, holding a fork or opening a door, which most people do without thinking, can become insurmountable for people who have upper extremity disabilities. The alternative to asking for human help is to use some assistive devices to compensate their loss of mobility; however, many of those devices are limited in terms of functionality. Robotics may provide a better approach for the development of assistive devices, by allowing greater functionality. In this paper, we present results of a study (n=31) which objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of a new joystick-controlled seven-degree of freedom robotic manipulator and assess its potential economic benefits. Results show that JACO is easy to use as the majority of the participants were able to accomplish the testing tasks on their first attempt. The economic model results inferred that the use of the JACO arm system could potentially reduce caregiving time by 41%. These study results are expected to provide valuable data for interested parties, such as individuals with disabilities, their family or caregivers.

  17. Fish oil supplementation is beneficial on caloric intake, appetite and mid upper arm muscle circumference in children with leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Abu Zaid, Zalina; Shahar, Suzana; Jamal, A Rahman A; Mohd Yusof, Noor Aini

    2012-01-01

    A randomised trial was carried out to determine the effect of supplementation of fish oil among 51 children with leukaemia aged 4 to 12 years on appetite level, caloric intake, body weight and lean body mass. They were randomly allocated into the trial group (TG) and the control group (CG). At baseline, 30.8% of TG subjects and 44.0% of CG subjects were malnourished and 7.7% of subject from TG and 28.0% from CG were classified as stunted. The majority of subjects from TG and CG were in the mild malnutrition category for mid upper arm muscle circumference (MUAMC)-for-age. The TG group showed significant increment in MUAMC (0.13 cm vs -0.09 cm) compared with CG at 8 weeks (p<0.001). There was a significant higher increase for appetite level (0.12±0.33) (p<0.05) and an increasing trend on energy and protein intake in the TG group (213±554 kcal; 3.64 ±26.8 g) than in the CG group. In conclusion, supplementation of fish oil has a positive effect on appetite level, caloric intake and MUAMC among children with leukaemia.

  18. Relationship between Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Body Mass Index in Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Benítez Brito, Néstor; Suárez Llanos, José Pablo; Fuentes Ferrer, Manuel; Oliva García, Jose Gregorio; Delgado Brito, Irina; Pereyra-García Castro, Francisca; Caracena Castellanos, Nieves; Acevedo Rodríguez, Candelaria Xiomara; Palacio Abizanda, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutritional screening is a fundamental aspect of the initial evaluation of the hospitalised patient. Body Mass Index (BMI) in association with other parameters is a good marker of malnutrition (<18.5 kg/m2), but it presents the handicap that the great majority of patients cannot be weighed and measured. For this reason it is necessary to find other indicators that can be measured in these patients. Objectives 1) Analyse the relationship between BMI and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC); 2) establish a cut-off point of MUAC equivalent to BMI <18.5 kg/m2. Materials and Methods The anthropometric data of patients hospitalised over the period 2004–2013 were retrospectively revised. The following variables were collected: weight, height, BMI, MUAC, sex and age. Results 1373 patients were evaluated, who presented a mean weight of: 65.04±15.51 kg; height: 1.66±0.09 m; BMI: 23.48±5.03 kg/m2; MUAC: 26.95±4.50 cm; age: 56.24±16.77. MUAC correlates suitably to BMI by means of the following equation (simple linear regression): BMI = − 0.042 + 0.873 x MUAC (cm) (R2 = 0.609), with a Pearson r value of 0.78 (p<0.001). The area under the curve of MUAC for the diagnosis of malnutrition was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.90–0.94; p<0.001). The MUAC value ≤22.5 cm presented a sensitivity of 67.7%, specificity of 94.5%, and a correct classification of 90%. No significant statistical differences were found in the cut-off point of MUAC for the diagnosis of malnutrition based on sex (p = 0.115) and age (p = 0.694). Conclusions 1) MUAC correlates positively and significantly with BMI. 2) MUAC ≤ 22.5 cm correlates properly with a BMI of <18.5 kg/m2, independent of the age or sex of the patient, although there are other alternatives. MUAC constitutes a useful tool as a marker of malnutrition, fundamentally in patients for whom weight and height cannot be determined. PMID:27494612

  19. Seismic tomography shows that upwelling beneath Iceland is confined to the upper mantle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foulger, G.R.; Pritchard, M.J.; Julian, B.R.; Evans, J.R.; Allen, R.M.; Nolet, G.; Morgan, W.J.; Bergsson, B.H.; Erlendsson, P.; Jakobsdottir, S.; Ragnarsson, S.; Stefansson, R.; Vogfjord, K.

    2001-01-01

    range ??? 100-300 km beneath east-central Iceland. The anomalous body is approximately cylindrical in the top 250 km but tabular in shape at greater depth, elongated north-south and generally underlying the spreading plate boundary. Such a morphological change and its relationship to surface rift zones are predicted to occur in convective upwellings driven by basal heating, passive upwelling in response to plate separation and lateral temperature gradients. Although we cannot resolve structure deeper than ??? 450 km, and do not detect a bottom to the anomaly, these models suggest that it extends no deeper than the mantle transition zone. Such models thus suggest a shallow origin for the Iceland hotspot rather than a deep mantle plume, and imply that the hotspot has been located on the spreading ridge in the centre of the north Atlantic for its entire history, and is not fixed relative to other Atlantic hotspots. The results are consistent with recent, regional full-thickness mantle tomography and whole-mantle tomography images that show a strong, low-wave-speed anomaly beneath the Iceland region that is confined to the upper mantle and thus do not require a plume in the lower mantle. Seismic and geochemical observations that are interpreted as indicating a lower mantle, or core-mantle boundary origin for the North Atlantic Igneous Province and the Iceland hotspot should be re-examined to consider whether they are consistent with upper mantle processes.

  20. Evaluation of the hemodynamics in straight 6-mm and tapered 6- to 8-mm grafts as upper arm hemodialysis vascular access.

    PubMed

    Sarmast, M; Niroomand-Oscuii, H; Ghalichi, F; Samiei, E

    2014-09-01

    The present study is intended to investigate and compare the hemodynamics in two different sizes of hemodialysis arteriovenous grafts for upper arm hemodialysis vascular access: 8-mm tapered to 6-mm at the arterial side and straight 6 mm. A computational simulation approach is presented for this study, which is validated against the available experimental and numerical pressure measurements in the literature. The imposed boundary conditions at the arterial inlet and venous outlet boundaries of the models are physiological velocity and pressure waveforms, respectively. Blood flow fields and distribution patterns of the hemodynamic indices including wall shear stress (WSS) as one of the major hemodynamic parameters of the cardiovascular system and spatial wall shear stress gradient (SWSSG) as an indicator of disturbed flow patterns and hence susceptible sites of lesion developments are analyzed and compared between the two grafts. The tapered 6- to 8-mm graft seemingly is associated with less disturbed flow patterns within the venous anastomosis (VA) and the vein downstream while benefiting from higher blood flow rates within. Also, it shows a definitive advantage in terms of WSS and SWSSG distribution patterns around the VA and throughout the vein downstream with significantly lower values, which reduce the risk of thrombosis formation and stenotic lesion developments. The only disadvantage encountered in using 6- to 8-mm tapered graft is higher values of hemodynamic parameters at the arterial junction attributable to its significantly higher mean blood flow rate within. The results clearly indicate that the tapered 6- to 8-mm graft entirely outperforms straight 6-mm graft hemodynamically as an upper arm hemodialysis vascular access graft and confirms clinical data in the literature, which suggests advantageous use of tapered 6- to 8-mm grafts in the creation of upper arm brachioaxillary hemodialysis vascular access grafts in selected groups of patients with

  1. Vascular Accesses for Haemodialysis in the Upper Arm Cause Greater Reduction in the Carotid-Brachial Stiffness than Those in the Forearm: Study of Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bia, Daniel; Cabrera-Fischer, Edmundo I.; Zócalo, Yanina; Galli, Cintia; Graf, Sebastián; Valtuille, Rodolfo; Pérez-Cámpos, Héctor; Saldías, María; Álvarez, Inés; Armentano, Ricardo L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate in chronically haemodialysed patients (CHPs), if: (1) the vascular access (VA) position (upper arm or forearm) is associated with differential changes in upper limb arterial stiffness; (2) differences in arterial stiffness exist between genders associated with the VA; (3) the vascular substitute (VS) of choice, in biomechanical terms, depends on the previous VA location and CHP gender. Methods. 38 CHPs (18 males; VA in upper arm: 18) were studied. Left and right carotid-brachial pulse wave velocity (PWVc-b) was measured. In in vitro studies, PWV was obtained in ePTFE prostheses and in several arterial and venous homografts obtained from donors. The biomechanical mismatch (BM) between CHP native vessel (NV) and VS was calculated. Results/Conclusions. PWVc-b in upper limbs with VA was lower than in the intact contralateral limbs (P < 0.05), and differences were higher (P < 0.05) when the VA was performed in the upper arm. Differences between PWVc-b in upper limbs with VA (in the upper arm) with respect to intact upper limbs were higher (P < 0.05) in males. Independently of the region in which the VA was performed, the homograft that ensured the minimal BM was the brachial artery. The BM was highly dependent on gender and the location in the upper limb in which the VA was performed. PMID:22567282

  2. Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs in professional drivers of terrain vehicles--a cross sectional study.

    PubMed

    Aström, Charlotte; Rehn, Börje; Lundström, Ronnie; Nilsson, Tohr; Burström, Lage; Sundelin, Gunnevi

    2006-11-01

    This study compares the prevalence of symptoms of Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs, between professional drivers of terrain vehicles and a referent group. 769 male professional drivers of forest machines, snowmobiles, snowgroomers and reindeer herders and 296 randomly selected male referents completed a questionnaire about symptoms of HAVS and musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and the upper limbs. They also gave information about their lifetime exposure duration driving terrain vehicles and their nicotine use. Prevalence odds ratios (POR) were determined and adjusted for age and nicotine use. Results show that there is a relation between exposure to driving terrain vehicles and some of the symptoms of HAVS (POR: 1.2-6.1). Increased odds of musculoskeletal symptoms in neck, shoulders and wrists were also found (POR 1.2-6.4), and it seemed to be related to the cumulative exposure time.

  3. Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) in relation to other indices of nutritional status in Papua New Guinea.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Heywood, P

    1991-03-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) measurements made during the 1982-1983 National Nutrition Survey were compared to other anthropometrics indices of nutritional status and it was found that MUAC was a poor predictor of the other measures. Whilst this does not necessarily imply that MUAC cannot be used to identify children at high risk it is one of a number of considerations which limit its utility in Papua New Guinea. Low MUAC measurements were particularly common in middle-altitude zones, where malnutrition is more frequent; this suggests that MUAC may be more useful in identifying malnourished groups than individuals.

  4. Residual Upper Arm Motor Function Primes Innervation of Paretic Forearm Muscles in Chronic Stroke after Brain-Machine Interface (BMI) Training

    PubMed Central

    Curado, Marco Rocha; Cossio, Eliana Garcia; Broetz, Doris; Agostini, Manuel; Cho, Woosang; Brasil, Fabricio Lima; Yilmaz, Oezge; Liberati, Giulia; Lepski, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal upper arm-forearm muscle synergies after stroke are poorly understood. We investigated whether upper arm function primes paralyzed forearm muscles in chronic stroke patients after Brain-Machine Interface (BMI)-based rehabilitation. Shaping upper arm-forearm muscle synergies may support individualized motor rehabilitation strategies. Methods Thirty-two chronic stroke patients with no active finger extensions were randomly assigned to experimental or sham groups and underwent daily BMI training followed by physiotherapy during four weeks. BMI sessions included desynchronization of ipsilesional brain activity and a robotic orthosis to move the paretic limb (experimental group, n = 16). In the sham group (n = 16) orthosis movements were random. Motor function was evaluated with electromyography (EMG) of forearm extensors, and upper arm and hand Fugl-Meyer assessment (FMA) scores. Patients performed distinct upper arm (e.g., shoulder flexion) and hand movements (finger extensions). Forearm EMG activity significantly higher during upper arm movements as compared to finger extensions was considered facilitation of forearm EMG activity. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to test inter-session reliability of facilitation of forearm EMG activity. Results Facilitation of forearm EMG activity ICC ranges from 0.52 to 0.83, indicating fair to high reliability before intervention in both limbs. Facilitation of forearm muscles is higher in the paretic as compared to the healthy limb (p<0.001). Upper arm FMA scores predict facilitation of forearm muscles after intervention in both groups (significant correlations ranged from R = 0.752, p = 0.002 to R = 0.779, p = 0.001), but only in the experimental group upper arm FMA scores predict changes in facilitation of forearm muscles after intervention (R = 0.709, p = 0.002; R = 0.827, p<0.001). Conclusions Residual upper arm motor function primes recruitment of paralyzed forearm muscles in chronic stroke

  5. Maps showing thermal maturity of Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, Thomas M.; Pawlewicz, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    The Bighorn Basin is one of many structural and sedimentary basins that formed in the Rocky Mountain foreland during the Laramide orogeny, a period of crustal instability and compressional tectonics that began in latest Cretaceous time and ended in the Eocene. The basin is nearly 180 mi long, 100 mi wide, and encompasses about 10,400 mi2 in north-central Wyoming and south-central Montana. The basin is bounded on the northeast by the Pryor Mountains, on the east by the Bighorn Mountains, and on the south by the Owl Creek Mountains). The north boundary includes a zone of faulting and folding referred to as the Nye-Bowler lineament. The northwest and west margins are formed by the Beartooth Mountains and Absaroka Range, respectively. Important conventional oil and gas resources have been discovered and produced from reservoirs ranging in age from Cambrian through Tertiary. In addition, a potential unconventional basin-centered gas accumulation may be present in Cretaceous reservoirs in the deeper parts of the basin. It has been suggested by numerous authors that various Cretaceous marine shales are the principal source rock for these accumulations. Numerous studies of various Upper Cretaceous marine shales in the Rocky Mountain region have led to the general conclusion that these rocks have generated or are capable of generating oil and (or) gas. In recent years, advances in horizontal drilling and multistage fracture stimulation have resulted in increased exploration and completion of wells in Cretaceous marine shales in other Rocky Mountain Laramide basins that were previously thought of only as hydrocarbon source rocks. Important parameters controlling hydrocarbon production from these shale reservoirs include: reservoir thickness, amount and type of organic matter, and thermal maturity. The purpose of this report is to present maps and a cross section showing levels of thermal maturity, based on vitrinite reflectance (Ro), for selected Upper Cretaceous marine

  6. Viscoelastic model for redundancy resolution of the human arm via the swivel angle: applications for upper limb exoskeleton control.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Roldan, Jay Ryan; Li, Zhi; Rosen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    One of the key research efforts associated with a redundant seven degree of freedom (7-DOF) upper limb exoskeleton robot that is mechanically coupled to the human body is to develop high and low level control algorithms that enable the system to become a natural extension of the human body. Improving the synergistic relationship between the exoskeleton and the operator is manifested in part by decreasing the force exchange between the two entities. Such a reduction is accomplished in part by developing criteria for resolving the human arm redundancy. The redundancy may be represented by a swivel angle which is defined as the angular rotation of the elbow around an axis that passes through the shoulder and wrist joints. The proposed criteria for defining the swivel angle takes into account the dynamics of the human arm along with a viscoelastic muscle-like model with variable damping. The swivel angle is estimated using the pseudo-inverse of the Jacobian with a secondary objective function that estimates the desired joint angles during human arm movement. The result is then fed to the muscle model to create a more realistic human motion. The estimated swivel angle is then compared with the actual swivel angle measured experimentally by a motion capture system. Results indicate that the average error between the estimated and measured swivel joint angle is 4.4 degrees (in the range [3.7-6] degrees), which are lower than the kinematically based redundant resolution criterion.

  7. Structural-depth analysis of the Yola Arm of the Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria using high resolution aeromagnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogunmola, J. K.; Ayolabi, E. A.; Olobaniyi, S. B.

    2016-12-01

    The Yola Arm is the east-west trending part of the Upper Benue Trough made up of Cretaceous sediments that are Albian to Maastrichtian in age. This work involves interpreting satellite imagery and aeromagnetic data to map out structures within the basin and estimate the depth to the magnetic basement which could be an aid to further exploratory work in the basin. The SPOT 5 imagery covering the basin was processed and interpreted and lineaments extracted from it. The digital elevation model (DEM) of the area was also used to extract the drainage pattern of the area and as an aid in mapping the lineaments that are visible on the surface. The geomagnetic field of the earth was removed from the aeromagnetic data using the IGRF-12 model. The vertical derivative (VDR) enhanced the high frequency and short wavelength components of the data which could be volcanics. The source parameter imaging (SPI) technique which works well at all magnetic latitudes and the spectral analysis were applied to the data to estimate the sediment thickness within the basin. A low pass filter with a cut-off wavelength of 1000 m was applied to the data to remove the high frequency short wavelength component of the data after which the tilt derivative (TDR) was computed to enhance anomalies that may be faults on the underlying basement. The lineaments from the SPOT 5 data show a predominant NNE-SSW, NE-SW followed by the NNW-SSE with a few N-S and E-W trends and the TDR of the aeromagnetic data show a predominantly NE-SW trend which is the predominant trend in the Benue Trough while a few strike in the N-S,NW-SE, and WNW-ESE direction. This suggests that the basin was subjected to several stress regimes. Differential uplift of the basement fault blocks may have given rise to drape folds observed in the overlying sediments. The depths to the magnetic basement range from about 1 km to about 4.3 km with the deepest part in the eastern part of the Basin. The depth analysis indicates that the

  8. Low Mid-Upper Arm Circumference, Calf Circumference, and Body Mass Index and Mortality in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Heymans, Martijn W.; de Vet, Henrica C. W.; Kruizenga, Hinke M.; Twisk, Jos W.; Visser, Marjolein

    2010-01-01

    Background. Low body mass index is a general measure of thinness. However, its measurement can be cumbersome in older persons and other simple anthropometric measures may be more strongly associated with mortality. Therefore, associations of low mid-upper arm circumference, calf circumference, and body mass index with mortality were examined in older persons. Methods. Data of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, a population-based cohort study in the Netherlands, were used. The present study included community-dwelling persons 65 years and older in 1992–1993 (n = 1,667), who were followed until 2007 for their vital status. Associations between anthropometric measures and 15-year mortality were examined by spline regression models and, below the nadir, Cox regression models, transforming all measures to sex-specific Z scores. Results. Mortality rates were 599 of 826 (73%) in men and 479 of 841 (57%) in women. Below the nadir, the hazard ratio of mortality per 1 standard deviation lower mid-upper arm circumference was 1.79 (95% confidence interval, 1.48–2.16) in men and 2.26 (1.71–3.00) in women. For calf circumference, the hazard ratio was 1.45 (1.22–1.71) in men and 1.30 (1.15–1.48) in women and for body mass index 1.38 (1.17–1.61) in men and 1.56 (1.10–2.21) in women. Excluding deaths within the first 3 years after baseline did not change these associations. Excluding those with a smoking history, obstructive lung disease, or cancer attenuated the associations of calf circumference (men) and body mass index (women). Conclusions. Based on the stronger association with mortality and given a more easy assessment in older persons, mid-upper arm circumference seems a more feasible and valid anthropometric measure of thinness than body mass index in older men and women. PMID:20547497

  9. Brachial Artery Reconstruction in Trauma Using Reversed Arm Vein from the Injured Upper Limb

    PubMed Central

    Harnarayan, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background: Brachial artery repair may be technically challenging with a paucity of guidelines. The use arm vein (AV) from the traumatized limb is herein described. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from 2002 to 2016 on brachial artery injury including age, sex, mechanism/site of injury, and repair technique. Categories included AV and non-arm vein (NAV) groups. One-year outcomes were noted. Results: All 31 cases studied were of men with an age range of 16 to 73 years (mean = 28). Injuries included 13 gunshots, 7 stabbings, 6 glass injuries, 2 dislocated elbows, 1 crush, 1 impalement, and 1 avulsion. Site of injuries included the antecubital region in 25, midbrachial in 5, and proximal brachial in 1, with 4 associated fractures. Repair was done using reversed AV from the traumatized limb in 15 cases and NAV in 16. In the AV group, the adjacent basilic vein was used in 9 cases, the adjacent cephalic vein in 3, and the distal (or wrist area) cephalic vein in 3. The limb salvage rates in the AV versus NAV groups were 100% and 94%, respectively (Fisher’s exact t test, P = 1.00), with no major technique-related complications. Conclusions: The outcomes of using reversed AV from the traumatized limb are equivalent to those of other standard techniques such as primary repair, polytetrafluoroethylene, or reversed great saphenous vein, with a 1-year limb salvage rate of 100%. Additionally, advantages include decreased wound complications, better vein graft--artery caliber match, and shorter operating times while maintaining acceptable patency rates. PMID:27826464

  10. Aircraft measurements of black carbon vertical profiles show upper tropospheric variability and stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Joshua P.; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Samset, Bjørn H.; Dollner, Maximilian; Heimerl, Katharina; Markovic, Milos Z.; Perring, Anne E.; Ziemba, Luke

    2017-01-01

    We present new data sets of black carbon (BC) aerosol mass mixing ratio (MMR) obtained from aircraft missions over North America, Europe, the Arctic, and the outflow region of Saharan Africa before and after trans-Atlantic transport. The data, collected from 2011 to 2013 with single-particle soot photometers, provide new insight into the variability and distribution of BC over global scales and refine understanding of AeroCom global model ensemble performance. The results indicate extensive global-scale longitudinal mixing of BC above altitude pressures as low as 400 hPa. They also constrain the absolute and temporal variability of upper tropospheric BC MMR and point to opportunities for new tests of global aerosol models in the upper troposphere. A comparison to the AeroCom Phase II results generally reinforces previous estimates of the ensemble performance, except that it also strengthens confidence that the ensemble actually is biased high in the Arctic in all seasons.

  11. The responsiveness and correlation between Fugl-Meyer Assessment, Motor Status Scale, and the Action Research Arm Test in chronic stroke with upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xi-Jun; Tong, Kai-Yu; Hu, Xiao-Ling

    2011-12-01

    Responsiveness of clinical assessments is an important element in the report of clinical effectiveness after rehabilitation. The correlation could reflect the validity of assessments as an indication of clinical performance before and after interventions. This study investigated the correlation and responsiveness of Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA), Motor Status Scale (MSS), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and the Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS), which are used frequently in effectiveness studies of robotic upper-extremity training in stroke rehabilitation. Twenty-seven chronic stroke patients were recruited for a 20-session upper-extremity rehabilitation robotic training program. This was a rater-blinded randomized controlled trial. All participants were evaluated with FMA, MSS, ARAT, MAS, and Functional Independent Measure before and after robotic training. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied for the analysis of correlation. The standardized response mean (SRM) and Guyatt's responsiveness index (GRI) were used to analyze responsiveness. Spearman's correlation coefficient showed a significantly high correlation (ρ=0.91-0.96) among FMA, MSS, and ARAT and a fair-to-moderate correlation (ρ=0.40-0.62) between MAS and the other assessments. FMA, MSS, and MAS on the wrist showed higher responsiveness (SRM=0.85-0.98, GRI=1.59-3.62), whereas ARAT showed relatively less responsiveness (SRM=0.22, GRI=0.81). The results showed that FMA or MSS would be the best choice for evaluating the functional improvement in stroke studies on robotic upper-extremity training with high responsiveness and good correlation with ARAT. MAS could be used separately to evaluate the spasticity changes after intervention in terms of high responsiveness.

  12. [Occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders in working populations not exposed to repetitive tasks of the upper arms].

    PubMed

    De Marco, F; Menoni, O; Colombini, D; Occhipinti, E; Vimercati, C

    1996-01-01

    A total of 749 workers (males: 139 aged between 15 and 35 years, and 171 aged over 35 years; females: 176 aged between 15 and 35 years, and 263 aged over 35 years) performing tasks not at risk for work-related musculo-skeletal disorders of the upper limbs (WMSDs) underwent a clinical examination using a standardised method. The "anamnetics cases" were defined on the basis of pain or paraesthesia present for at least one week during the previous 12 months, or appearing at least once a month, and not subsequent to acute trauma. The anamnestic cases among the males amounted to 4.4% (age 15 divided by 35 years) and 12.3% (age > 35); among the females 4.6% (age 15 divided by 35 years) and 14.2% (age > 35). Of the 1498 limbs examined, the prevalent pathologies reported were: suspect narrow chest syndrome: 0.3% among the males > 35 years, 0.6% among the females aged 15 divided by 35 years, 1% among the females > 35 years; scapulo-humeral periarthritis: 0.3% among the males aged > 35 years, 0.3% among the females aged 15 divided by 35 years, 1.3% among the females aged > 35 years; lateral epicondylitis: 0.3% among the males aged > 35 years, 0.2% among the females aged > 35 years; trapezio-metacarpal arthrosis: 0.8% among the females aged > 35 years; wrist-hand tendinitis: 0.9% among the males aged > 35 years, 0.9% among the females aged 15 divided by 35 years; carpal tunnel syndrome: 2.5% among the females aged > 35 years. No disorders were detected outside of the age ranges indicated. Several workers reported more than one disorder. The number of workers with at least one WMSD was: males 0% in the 15 divided by 35 years age range, 3.5% in the > 35 year age range; females 2.3% in the 15 divided by 35 year age range, 7.2% in the > 35 year age range; 3.9% of the total sample population. The prevalences were on average quite low, particularly among the older workers, hence the authors recommend that even minimal prevalences detected in particular work environments should not

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to, Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1633 - Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Burner Assembly Showing Arms and Pivots (Shoulder Screws) in Relation to Portable Frame Allowing Burner Height Adjustment 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633... FLAMMABILITY (OPEN FLAME) OF MATTRESS SETS Pt.1633, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1633—Burner Assembly Showing...

  15. Intersegmental dynamics of 3D upper arm and forearm longitudinal axis rotations during baseball pitching.

    PubMed

    Naito, Kozo; Takagi, Hiroyasu; Yamada, Norimasa; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Maruyama, Takeo

    2014-12-01

    The shoulder internal rotation (IR) and forearm pronation (PR) are important elements for baseball pitching, however, how rapid rotations of IR and PR are produced by muscular torques and inter-segmental forces is not clear. The aim of this study is to clarify how IR and PR angular velocities are maximized, depending on muscular torque and interactive torque effects, and gain a detailed knowledge about inter-segmental interaction within a multi-joint linked chain. The throwing movements of eight collegiate baseball pitchers were recorded by a motion capture system, and induced-acceleration analysis was used to assess the respective contributions of the muscular (MUS) and interactive torques associated with gyroscopic moment (GYR), and Coriolis (COR) and centrifugal forces (CEN) to maximum angular velocities of IR (MIRV) and PR (MPRV). The results showed that the contribution of MUS account for 98.0% of MIRV, while that contribution to MPRV was indicated as negative (-48.1%). It was shown that MPRV depends primarily on the interactive torques associated with GYR and CEN, but the effects of GYR, COR and CEN on MIRV are negligible. In conclusion, rapid PR motion during pitching is created by passive-effect, and is likely a natural movement which arises from 3D throwing movement. Applying the current analysis to IR and PR motions is helpful in providing the implications for improving performance and considering conditioning methods for pitchers.

  16. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  17. Hybrid Neuroprosthesis for the Upper Limb: Combining Brain-Controlled Neuromuscular Stimulation with a Multi-Joint Arm Exoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Florian; Walter, Armin; Spüler, Martin; Naros, Georgios; Rosenstiel, Wolfgang; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Brain-machine interface-controlled (BMI) neurofeedback training aims to modulate cortical physiology and is applied during neurorehabilitation to increase the responsiveness of the brain to subsequent physiotherapy. In a parallel line of research, robotic exoskeletons are used in goal-oriented rehabilitation exercises for patients with severe motor impairment to extend their range of motion (ROM) and the intensity of training. Furthermore, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is applied in neurologically impaired patients to restore muscle strength by closing the sensorimotor loop. In this proof-of-principle study, we explored an integrated approach for providing assistance as needed to amplify the task-related ROM and the movement-related brain modulation during rehabilitation exercises of severely impaired patients. For this purpose, we combined these three approaches (BMI, NMES, and exoskeleton) in an integrated neuroprosthesis and studied the feasibility of this device in seven severely affected chronic stroke patients who performed wrist flexion and extension exercises while receiving feedback via a virtual environment. They were assisted by a gravity-compensating, seven degree-of-freedom exoskeleton which was attached to the paretic arm. NMES was applied to the wrist extensor and flexor muscles during the exercises and was controlled by a hybrid BMI based on both sensorimotor cortical desynchronization (ERD) and electromyography (EMG) activity. The stimulation intensity was individualized for each targeted muscle and remained subthreshold, i.e., induced no overt support. The hybrid BMI controlled the stimulation significantly better than the offline analyzed ERD (p = 0.028) or EMG (p = 0.021) modality alone. Neuromuscular stimulation could be well integrated into the exoskeleton-based training and amplified both the task-related ROM (p = 0.009) and the movement-related brain modulation (p = 0.019). Combining a hybrid BMI with neuromuscular stimulation

  18. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength.

  19. Dynamic proprioceptive target matching behavior in the upper limb: effects of speed, task difficulty and arm/hemisphere asymmetries.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2009-06-08

    Although proprioception consists of static (i.e. position) and dynamic (i.e. movement) components, most studies regarding the matching of proprioceptive targets have focused only on position. Further, these position-matching studies have recently indicated that proprioceptive ability is influenced by several factors including task difficulty and arm preference. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to quantify the matching of dynamic proprioceptive target arm movements under different matching conditions. Using torque motor-driven manipulanda, 11 blindfolded, right-handed adults experienced triangular velocity profiles at 2 different peak speeds (30 degrees /s or 60 degrees /s) with the preferred and non-preferred elbow. Subjects then matched the dynamics of these target movements with either the same (ipsilateral remembered) or opposite (contralateral remembered) elbow. Matching errors were generally larger for the more difficult, contralateral remembered versus ipsilateral remembered task, and for greater target speed conditions. One arm difference was found indicating a non-preferred arm advantage for the matching of average target acceleration in the ipsilateral remembered condition. Overall, these results demonstrate that dynamic proprioceptive feedback-matching performance is influenced by several factors including peak speed, task difficulty and limb preference.

  20. Coupling of upper and lower limb pattern generators during human crawling at different arm/leg speed combinations.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, M J; Ivanenko, Y P; Catavitello, G; La Scaleia, V; Lacquaniti, F

    2013-03-01

    A crawling paradigm was performed by healthy adults to examine inter-limb coupling patterns and to understand how central pattern generators (CPGs) for the upper and lower limbs are coordinated. Ten participants performed hands-and-feet crawling on two separate treadmills, one for the upper limbs and another one for the lower limbs, the speed of each of them being changed independently. A 1:1 frequency relationship was often maintained even when the treadmill speed was not matched between the upper and lower limbs. However, relative stance durations in the upper limbs were only affected by changes of the upper limb treadmill speed, suggesting that although absolute times are adjusted, the relative proportions of stances and swing do not adapt to changes in lower limb treadmill speeds. With large differences between treadmill speeds, changes in upper and lower limb coupling ratio tended to occur when the upper limbs stepped at slower speeds than the lower limbs, but more rarely the other way around. These findings are in sharp contrast with those in the cat, where forelimbs always follow the rhythm of the faster moving hindlimbs. However, the fact that an integer frequency ratio is often maintained between the upper and lower limbs supports evidence of coupled CPG control. We speculate that the preference for the upper limb to decrease step frequency at lower speeds in humans may be due to weaker ascending propriospinal connections and/or a larger influence of cortical control on the upper limbs which allows for an overriding of spinal CPG control.

  1. Comparison of quality-of-life in tongue cancer patients undergoing tongue reconstruction with lateral upper arm free flap and radial forearm free flap

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yujie; Cui, Yaqi; Liao, Guiqing

    2015-01-01

    Surgery entails radical resection, neck dissection and tongue reconstruction has been commonly used in treatment of T2 and T3 tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Although lateral upper arm free flap (LUFF) and radial forearm free flap (RFFF) are similar in texture and thickness, significant differences can be noticed in the donor-site function and surgical demands. In the treatment of T2 and T3 tongue cancer, the choice of either LUFF or RFFF is still not defined.We aim to investigatethe long-term QOL of patients with moderate tongue defect and reconstruction with LUFF or RFFF, based on which to provide clinical suggestion for tongue reconstructions.Sixty-five patients (T2 or T3 stage, 42 underwent tongue reconstruction with RFFF and 23 with LUFF) treated at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hospital of Stomatology, Sun Yat-Sen University from January 2005 to June 2009 were included. The QOL of each patient was determined using the questionnaire designed based on the University of Washington Quality-of-Life (UW-QOL, version 4). The questionnaire was accomplished by a qualified medical staff blinded to the study after telephone communication with each patient. Statistical analysis showed that no significant difference was noticed in the long-term QOL of patients with tongue cancer after tongue reconstruction using LUFF or RFFF, respectively, indicating that similar QOLs were obtained in the long-term follow-up of patients with tongue cancer (T2 or T3 stages) using LUFF and RFFF for reconstruction. PMID:26064380

  2. Using Mid-Upper Arm Circumference to End Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Leads to Higher Weight Gains in the Most Malnourished Children

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Nancy M.; Myatt, Mark; Prudhon, Claudine; Briend, André

    2013-01-01

    Objective The World Health Organization recommends discharging children admitted to nutrition programs treating severe acute malnutrition, with a low mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC <115 mm) when weight gain is >15%. When this recommendation is followed, the most severely malnourished children receive a shorter treatment compared to children that are less severely malnourished. This study assesses whether using MUAC >125 mm as discharge criteria eliminates this effect. Methods and Findings Data from 753 children cured from a Médecins Sans Frontières outpatient nutrition program in Gedaref, North Sudan were analyzed. MUAC >125 mm was used as discharge criteria. Length of stay and percent weight gain of children were compared in relation to nutritional status on admission. Children with low MUAC on admission had a longer duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and also a higher percent weight gain (p = 0.000) than children with higher MUAC. Similar results with weight-for-height z-scores categories were shown with both duration of treatment (p = 0.000) and percent weight gain (p = 0.000). Conclusion This study shows that using MUAC as the discharge criteria eliminates the effect of shorter treatment in most severely malnourished children compared to least severely malnourished, as is observed with percent weight gain. The findings directly address the main concern that has been identified with the current WHO recommendation of using percent weight gain. MUAC could be used as discharge criteria, instead of percent weight gain, as having a longer duration of treatment and a higher percent weight gain for the most malnourished is highly desirable. PMID:23418442

  3. CFH haplotypes and ARMS2, C2, C3, and CFB alleles show association with susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration in Mexicans

    PubMed Central

    Zenteno, Juan Carlos; Fernández-López, Juan Carlos; Rodríguez-Corona, Ulises; Falfán-Valencia, Ramcés; Sebastian, Leticia; Morales, Fabiola; Ochoa-Contreras, Daniel; Carnevale, Alessandra; Silva-Zolezzi, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the contribution of genetic variants of complement factor H (CFH), complement component 2 and 3 (C2 and C3), complement factor B (CFB), and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk in the Mexican Mestizo population. Methods Analysis included 282 unrelated Mexican patients with advanced AMD, 205 healthy controls, and 280 population controls. Stereoscopic fundus images were graded on the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy System (CARMS). We designed a resequencing strategy using primers with M13 adaptor for the 23 exons of the CFH gene in a subgroup of 96 individuals clinically evaluated: 48 AMD cases and 48 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C3 (Arg80Gly and Pro292Leu), C2 (rs547154), CFB (Leu9His), and ARMS2 (Ala69Ser) were genotyped in all patients, healthy and population controls using TaqMan assay. Results All evaluated individuals were Mexican Mestizos, and their genetic ancestry was validated using 224 ancestry informative markers and calculating Fst values. The CFH resequencing revealed 19 SNPs and a common variant in the intron 2 splice acceptor site; three CFH haplotypes inferred from individual genotypes, showed significant differences between cases and controls. The risk alleles in C3 (rs1047286, odds ratio [OR]=2.48, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.64–3.75, p=1.59E-05; rs2230199, OR=2.15, 95% CI=1.48–3.13, p=6.28E-05) and in ARMS2 (rs10490924, OR=3.09, 95% CI=2.48–3.86, p=5.42E-23) were strongly associated with risk of AMD. The protective effect of alleles in C2 (rs547154) and CFB (rs4151667) showed a trend but was not significantly associated after correction for multiple testing. Conclusions Our results show that ARMS2 and C3 are major contributors to advanced AMD in Mexican patients, while the contributions of CFH, C2, and CFB are minor to those of other populations, reveling significant ethnic differences in minor allele

  4. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN, PIER AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING EAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  5. 23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING TRUNNION PIN, GATE ARM AND GATE GAUGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 10, Guttenberg, Clayton County, IA

  6. 16. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE, GATE ARM, TRUNNION PIN AND PIER, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  7. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  8. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES, GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, WITH ROLLER GATE HEADHOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 9, Lynxville, Crawford County, WI

  9. 15. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW OF SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATES AND GATE ARMS, PIERS AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  10. Task based exposure assessment in ergonomic epidemiology: a study of upper arm elevation in the jobs of machinists, car mechanics, and house painters

    PubMed Central

    Svendsen, S; Mathiassen, S; Bonde, J

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To explore the precision of task based estimates of upper arm elevation in three occupational groups, compared to direct measurements of job exposure. Methods: Male machinists (n = 26), car mechanics (n = 23), and house painters (n = 23) were studied. Whole day recordings of upper arm elevation were obtained for four consecutive working days, and associated task information was collected in diaries. For each individual, task based estimates of job exposure were calculated by weighting task exposures from a collective database by task proportions according to the diaries. These estimates were validated against directly measured job exposures using linear regression. The performance of the task based approach was expressed through the gain in precision of occupational group mean exposures that could be obtained by adding subjects with task based estimates to a group of subjects with measured job exposures in a "validation" design. Results: In all three occupations, tasks differed in mean exposure, and task proportions varied between individuals. Task based estimation proved inefficient, with squared correlation coefficients only occasionally exceeding 0.2 for the relation between task based and measured job exposures. Consequently, it was not possible to substantially improve the precision of an estimated group mean by including subjects whose job exposures were based on task information. Conclusions: Task based estimates of mechanical job exposure can be very imprecise, and only marginally better than estimates based on occupation. It is recommended that investigators in ergonomic epidemiology consider the prospects of task based exposure assessment carefully before placing resources at obtaining task information. Strategies disregarding tasks may be preferable in many cases. PMID:15613604

  11. Robotic Arm Unwrapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken shortly after NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander touched down on the surface of Mars, shows the spacecraft's robotic arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier successfully unpeeled. The 'elbow' of the arm can be seen at the top center of the picture, and the biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm.

    The biobarrier is an extra precautionary measure for protecting Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have appeared during the final steps before launch and during the journey to Mars will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy.

    The base of the lander's Meteorological Station can be seen in this picture on the upper left. Because only the base of the station is showing, this image tells engineers that the instrument deployed successfully.

    The image was taken on landing day, May 25, 2008, by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Maps showing ground-water conditions in the upper Verde River area, Yavapai and Coconino counties, Arizona; 1978

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Levings, Gary W.; Mann, Larry J.

    1980-01-01

    The upper Verde River area includes about 3,600 square miles in north-central Arizona. The area is underlain by a regional aquifer that consists of several formations. In places ground water also is present in the igneous rocks and basalt flows and in the alluvium along the channels and flood plains of the streams. Ground-water development has been slight; in 1978 about 8,000 acre-feet of ground water was withdrawn for domestic, public-supply, industrial, and irrigation uses. Information on the maps includes the principal geologic formation that furnishes water to wells and springs, depth to water, altitude of the water level, and chemical quality of the water. Scale 1:125,000. (USGS)

  13. Arm MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... arm MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan uses strong magnets to create pictures of the upper and lower ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  14. Comparison of Mid-Upper Arm Circumference and Weight-for-Height to Diagnose Severe Acute Malnutrition: A Study in Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Amare Worku; Tadesse, Elazar; Berhane, Yemane; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) are two independent anthropometric indicators for diagnosing and admitting children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) for treatment. While severely wasted children are at high risk of mortality, MUAC and WHZ do not always identify the same population of children as having SAM. Understanding how this discrepancy relates to age and sex may provide valuable information for care programmes for children with SAM. Age and sex distribution for differences between children identified as SAM by MUAC and WHZ were examined and the degree of agreement calculated. Children (n = 4297) aged 6–59 months with validated anthropometric measures were recruited from a population-based survey conducted in rural southern Ethiopia. MUAC < 115 mm and WHZ < −3 were used to define severe wasting as per the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. The kappa coefficient (κ) was calculated. There was fair agreement between the MUAC and WHZ definitions of severe wasting in boys (κ = 0.37) and children younger than 24 months (κ = 0.32) but poor agreement in girls (κ = 0.15) and children aged 24 months and above (κ = 0.13). More research is needed on response to treatment and prediction of mortality using different anthropometric measurements in relation to ages and sex of children. PMID:28287482

  15. Ultrasound-Guided Myofascial Trigger Point Injection Into Brachialis Muscle for Rotator Cuff Disease Patients With Upper Arm Pain: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Mi Ri; Chang, Won Hyuk; Choi, Hyo Seon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain. Methods A prospective, randomized, and single-blinded clinical pilot trial was performed at university rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-one patients clinically diagnosed with rotator cuff disease suspected of having brachialis myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) were randomly allocated into two groups. Effect of ultrasound (US)-guided trigger point injection (n=11) and oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) (n=10) was compared by visual analog scale (VAS). Results US-guided trigger point injection of brachialis muscle resulted in excellent outcome compared to the oral NSAID group. Mean VAS scores decreased significantly after 2 weeks of treatment compared to the baseline in both groups (7.3 vs. 4.5 in the injection group and 7.4 vs. 5.9 in the oral group). The decrease of the VAS score caused by injection (ДVAS=-2.8) was significantly larger than caused by oral NSAID (ДVAS=-1.5) (p<0.05). Conclusion In patients with rotator cuff disease, US-guided trigger point injection of the brachialis muscle is safe and effective for both diagnosis and treatment when the cause of pain is suspected to be originated from the muscle. PMID:25379497

  16. Furniture dimensions and postural overload for schoolchildren's head, upper back and upper limbs.

    PubMed

    Batistão, Mariana Vieira; Sentanin, Anna Cláudia; Moriguchi, Cristiane Shinohara; Hansson, Gert-Åke; Coury, Helenice Jane Cote Gil; de Oliveira Sato, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate how the fixed furniture dimensions match with students' anthropometry and to describe head, upper back and upper limbs postures and movements. Evaluation was performed in 48 students from a Brazilian state school. Furniture dimensions were measured with metric tape, movements and postures by inclinometers (Logger Tecknologi, Åkarp, Sweden). Seat height was high for 21% and low for 36% of the students; seat length was short for 45% and long for 9% and table height was high for 53% and low for 28%. Regression analysis showed that seat/popliteal height quotient is explained by 90th percentile of upper back inclination (β=0.410) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=-0.293). For seat/thigh length quotient the significant variables were 90th percentile of upper back velocity (β=-0.282) and 90th percentile of right upper arm elevation (β=0.410). This study showed a relationship between furniture mismatch and postural overload. When the seat height is low students increase upper back left inclination and right upper arm elevation; when the seat is short students decrease the upper back flexion velocity and increase right upper arm elevation.

  17. Map showing contours on top of the upper Cretaceous Mowry Shale, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 4,926 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  18. Map showing structure contours on the top of the upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crysdale, B.L.

    1991-01-01

    This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies (MF) maps showing computer-generated structure contours, isopachs, and cross sections of selected formations in the Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana. The map and cross sections were constructed from information stored in a U.S. Geological Survey Evolution of Sedimentary Basins data base. This data base contains picks of geologic formation and (or) unit tops and bases determined from electric resistivity and gamma-ray logs of 8,592 wells penetrating Tertiary and older rocks in the Powder River basin. Well completion cards (scout tickets) were reviewed and compared with copies of all logs, and formation or unit contacts determined by N. M. Denson, D.L. Macke, R. R. Schumann and others. This isopach map is based on information from 2,429 of these wells that penetrate the Minnelusa Formation and equivalents.

  19. VO2 Max in Variable Type Exercise Among Well-Trained Upper Body Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seals, Douglas R.; Mullin, John P.

    1982-01-01

    The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) of well-trained upper body athletes was compared to that of untrained individuals in four types of exercise: arm cranking, legs only cycling, graded treadmill running, and combined arm cranking and leg cycling. Results of the study showed that well-trained upper body athletes attained a significantly higher…

  20. A comparison of mid upper arm circumference, body mass index and weight loss as indices of undernutrition in acutely hospitalized patients.

    PubMed

    Powell-Tuck, Jeremy; Hennessy, Enid M

    2003-06-01

    A nutritional supplementation trial (Vlaming et al., Clin Nutr 2001; 20: 517) enabled us to assess the nutrition of 1561 patients on emergency admission to hospital. Patients acutely admitted to the 15 relevant medical, surgical and orthopaedic wards were identified. Mid upper arm circumference (MUAC) measurements were obtained in 95% (848 m, 635f) patients. For clinical reasons, Body mass index (BMI) was assessable in only 44% patients (408 m, 285f). Data on three month weight loss were obtainable in 509 patients. These measurements combined to demonstrate that 18.3% of patients were undernourished (At least one of : BMI<20 kg/m(2) or MUAC<25 cm or loss of weight > or =10%). There was a close relationship between BMI and MUAC. Regression equations (excluding age)were for men : BMI=1.01 x MUAC-4.7, (R(2)=0.76), and for women BMI=1.10 x MUAC-6.7, (R(2)=0.76). After adjustment for age, weight loss > or =10% was the most significant of the three as a predictor of mortality. Among patients in whom weight loss was not recorded MUAC was a significant predictor of mortality either alone (P=0.002) or after adjustment for BMI (P=0.007), but BMI was not significant. All three measures, even when adjusted for age and sex, were poor predictors of hospital stay although MUAC was significant in the larger group with a MUAC measure (R(2)=0.7% P<0.001). MUAC correlates closely with BMI, is easier to measure and predicts poor outcome better.

  1. Postural adjustments in arm and leg muscles associated with isodirectional and antidirectional coupling of upper limb movements in the horizontal plane.

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Fausto; Rota, Viviana; Esposti, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The hypothesis that anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) may concur in generating the directional preference experienced during limb coupled movements was tested by measuring the electromyographic and mechanic postural actions elicited when moving: (1) one single arm/hand and, (2) both limbs, iso- or antidirectionally coupled. During fast adduction of the right arm in the horizontal plane (prime mover, pectoralis Major, R: PM) APAs were recorded in the contralateral L: PM as well as in the right ischiocruralis (R: IC) muscle. This last action was associated to a transient increase of Tz (torque around body vertical axis) in the direction opposite to arm rotation. Both the APAs in R: IC and the Tz changes nearly doubled in size when arms were coupled isodirectionally (adduction of one arm and abduction on the other) while they vanished when both arms were simultaneously adducted (antidirectional coupling). Conformably, during rhythmic arm oscillations APAs and Tz were cyclically modulated when movements were isodirectional, the modulation amplitude being strongly enhanced by increasing the movement frequency. When oscillations were antidirectional neither APAs nor Tz changes were observed, even if frequency was incremented. The postural actions linked to unidirectional or cyclic movements of the hand were affected by either coupling or frequency in the same way as arm movements, albeit much smaller in size. In conclusion, during antidirectional movements APAs in prime movers are synergic with voluntary activation and no postural engagement is requested to leg muscles. Conversely, during isodirectional movements, APAs in prime movers conflict with the voluntary commands and a strong, frequency-dependent, postural effort is required to leg muscles. How these factors may co-operate in determining the preference for antidirectional coupling is discussed.

  2. Evolution of robotic arms.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2007-01-01

    The foundation of surgical robotics is in the development of the robotic arm. This is a thorough review of the literature on the nature and development of this device with emphasis on surgical applications. We have reviewed the published literature and classified robotic arms by their application: show, industrial application, medical application, etc. There is a definite trend in the manufacture of robotic arms toward more dextrous devices, more degrees-of-freedom, and capabilities beyond the human arm. da Vinci designed the first sophisticated robotic arm in 1495 with four degrees-of-freedom and an analog on-board controller supplying power and programmability. von Kemplen's chess-playing automaton left arm was quite sophisticated. Unimate introduced the first industrial robotic arm in 1961, it has subsequently evolved into the PUMA arm. In 1963 the Rancho arm was designed; Minsky's Tentacle arm appeared in 1968, Scheinman's Stanford arm in 1969, and MIT's Silver arm in 1974. Aird became the first cyborg human with a robotic arm in 1993. In 2000 Miguel Nicolalis redefined possible man-machine capacity in his work on cerebral implantation in owl-monkeys directly interfacing with robotic arms both locally and at a distance. The robotic arm is the end-effector of robotic systems and currently is the hallmark feature of the da Vinci Surgical System making its entrance into surgical application. But, despite the potential advantages of this computer-controlled master-slave system, robotic arms have definite limitations. Ongoing work in robotics has many potential solutions to the drawbacks of current robotic surgical systems.

  3. [Saarland Growth Study: analyses of body composition of children, aged 3 to 11 years. Measurement of height, weight, girth (abdomen, upper arm, calf) and skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular,suprailiacal, abdominal) and bioelectric impedance (BIA)].

    PubMed

    Weinand, C; Müller, S; Zabransky, S; Danker-Hopfe, H

    2000-01-01

    This study aimed to set up current reference charts of anthropometric data in the Saarland. Only national and international data were available to be compared but no former Saarland charts could be found. In the period between 1994 and 1995 we investigated children of 3 to 11 years in a cross-sectional study. Therefore we measured body height, weight, circumferences, skinfolds and bioelectrical impedance (BIA). No significant gender differences were found for body height and weight. Boys of all groups of age showed bigger abdominal circumferences than girls of the same age. On the other hand upper-arm and calf-girth of younger girls were larger than that from boys. In higher age groups circumferences become rather equal. The skinfolds of Saarland girls are thicker than those of boys. The urban rural comparison indicated no significant differences. Nor was any social divergence found among the aforementioned parameters. Regarding height Saarland children are seen to be similar or somewhat shorter than those examined in national or international studies. By the way, in higher percentiles the children in our study were heavier. Thus high BMI values of our study are bigger compared with former studies. According to the definition of obesity by the ECOG almost 20 to 30% of our children are obese. The older children become the higher is the percentage of obesity. Comparing girls and boys, bioelectrical impedance shows higher values for girls. In higher age classes resistance levels gets smaller, in boys more so than in girls. Body fat estimated by a formula based on BIA test parameters yielded negative values. So we propose the use of sex- and age-specific raw charts of BIA test parameters.

  4. Are we armed with the right data? Pooled individual data review of biomarkers in people with severe upper limb impairment after stroke.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Schmidt, Julia; Lohse, Keith R; Peters, Sue; Bernhardt, Julie; Lannin, Natasha A; Boyd, Lara A

    2017-01-01

    To build an understanding of the neurobiology underpinning arm recovery in people with severe arm impairment due to stroke, we conducted a pooled individual data systematic review to: 1) characterize brain biomarkers; 2) determine relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor outcome; and 3) establish relationship(s) between biomarkers and motor recovery. Three electronic databases were searched up to October 2, 2015. Eligible studies included adults with severe arm impairment after stroke. Descriptive statistics were calculated to characterize brain biomarkers, and pooling of individual patient data was performed using mixed-effects linear regression to examine relationships between brain biomarkers and motor outcome and recovery. Thirty-eight articles including individual data from 372 people with severe arm impairment were analysed. The majority of individuals were in the chronic (> 6 months) phase post stroke (51%) and had a subcortical stroke (49%). The presence of a motor evoked potential (indexed by transcranial magnetic stimulation) was the only biomarker related to better motor outcome (p = 0.02). There was no relationship between motor outcome and stroke volume (cm(3)), location (cortical, subcortical, mixed) or side (left vs. right), and corticospinal tract asymmetry index (extracted from diffusion weighted imaging). Only one study had longitudinal data, thus no data pooling was possible to address change over time (preventing our third objective). Based on the available evidence, motor evoked potentials at rest were the only biomarker that predicted motor outcome in individuals with severe arm impairment following stroke. Given that few biomarkers emerged, this review highlights the need to move beyond currently known biomarkers and identify new indices with sufficient variability and sensitivity to guide recovery models in individuals with severe motor impairments following stroke.

  5. Use of an arm weight-bearing combined with upper-limb reaching apparatus to facilitate motor paralysis recovery in an incomplete spinal cord injury patient: a single case report

    PubMed Central

    Hoei, Takashi; Kawahira, Kazumi; Fukuda, Hidefumi; Sihgenobu, Keizo; Shimodozono, Megumi; Ogura, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Training using an arm weight-bearing device combined with upper-limb reaching apparatus to facilitate motor paralysis recovery, named the “Reaching Robot”, as well as Repetitive Facilitation Exercise were applied to a patient with severe impairment of the shoulder and elbow due to incomplete spinal cord injury and the effects were examined. [Subjects and Methods] A 66-year-old man with incomplete spinal cord injury participated in an upper extremity rehabilitation program involving a Reaching Robot. The program was comprised of active motor suspension, continuous low amplitude neuromuscular electrical stimulation and functional vibratory stimulation, as well as Repetitive Facilitation Exercise combined with continuous low amplitude neuromuscular electrical stimulation. This protocol used a crossover design following an A1-B1-A2-B2. “A” consisted of 2 weeks of Repetitive Facilitation Exercise, and “B” consisted of 2 weeks of Reaching Robot training. [Results] Improvements were observed after all sessions. Active range of motion for shoulder flexion improved after 2 weeks of Reaching Robot sessions only. There were no adverse events. [Conclusion] Reaching Robot training for severe paretic upper-extremity after incomplete spinal cord injury was a safe and effective treatment. Reaching Robot training may be useful for rehabilitation of paretic upper-extremity after incomplete spinal cord injury. PMID:28210068

  6. Oxygen 6156-8 Angstroms Triplet in Chemically Peculiar Stars of the Upper Main Sequence: Do HgMn Stars Show an Oxygen Anomaly?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Yoichi; Takada-Hidai, Masahide; Jugaku, Jun; Sakaue, Akihiko; Sadakane, Kozo

    1999-12-01

    An extensive spectrum-fitting analysis in the lambda ~ 6150 Angstroms region was performed for forty late-B and A chemically peculiar (HgMn, Ap, Am, weak-lined) and normal stars of the upper main sequence, in order to quantitatively establish the abundance of oxygen from the O I 6156-8 triplet and to study its behavior/anomaly for each peculiarity group, where special attention was paid to HgMn-type stars. Magnetic Ap variables (Si or SrCrEu type) generally show a remarkably large oxygen depletion (by ~ -1.6 dex to ~ -0.4 dex relative to the solar abundance), and classical Am stars also show a clear underabundance (by ~ -0.6 dex on the average). In contrast, the oxygen abundance in HgMn stars, exhibiting only a mild deficiency relative to the Sun typically by ~ 0.3-0.4 dex, is not markedly different from the tendency of normal stars, also showing a subsolar abundance ([O/H] =~ -0.2). In view of the recent observational implication that the present solar oxygen abundance is enriched by ~ 0.2-0.3 dex relative to the interstellar gas (from which young stars are formed), and thus unsuitable for the comparison standard, we concluded that the extent of the average O-deficiency in HgMn stars is appreciably reduced down to only ~ 0.1-0.2 dex (i.e., not much different from the initial composition), which contrasts with their well-known drastically large N-depletion. Yet, as can be seen from the delicate and tight O vs. Fe anticorrelation, this marginal deficiency should be real, and thus some physical process simultaneously producing O-depletion/Fe-enrichment must have actually worked in the atmosphere of HgMn stars.

  7. Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Khor, Richard; Duchesne, Gillian; Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret; Williams, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against

  8. On the effect of muscular cocontraction on the 3-D human arm impedance.

    PubMed

    Patel, Harshil; O'Neill, Gerald; Artemiadis, Panagiotis

    2014-10-01

    Humans have the inherent ability to perform highly dexterous tasks with their arms, involving maintenance of posture, movement, and interaction with the environment. The latter requires the human to control the dynamic characteristics of the upper limb musculoskeletal system. These characteristics are quantitatively represented by inertia, damping, and stiffness, which are measures of mechanical impedance. Many previous studies have shown that arm posture is a dominant factor in determining the end point impedance on a horizontal plane. This paper presents the characterization of the end point impedance of the human arm in 3-D space. Moreover, it models the regulation of the arm impedance with muscle cocontraction. The characterization is made by route of experimental trials where human subjects maintained arm posture while their arms were perturbed by a robot arm. Furthermore, the subjects were asked to control the level of their arm muscles' cocontraction, using visual feedback, in order to investigate the effect of muscle cocontraction on the arm impedance. The results of this study show an anisotropic increase of arm stiffness due to muscle cocontraction. These results could improve our understanding of the human arm biomechanics, as well as provide implications for human motor control-specifically the control of arm impedance through muscle cocontraction.

  9. Use of ARM data to test an improved parameterization of upper tropospheric clouds for use in climate models. Final report, December 1, 1991--May 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D.A.; Xu, KuanMan

    1995-03-01

    We have developed new cloud parameterizations, and tested them in an SCM, a CEM, and a full three-dimensional GCM. We have demonstrated the ability to drive the SCM and the CEM with observations similar to those that we are about to receive from ARM. We have used the three-dimensional GCM to investigate some aspects of the role of clouds in climate. The climate simulation, and especially the Earth`s radiation budget, has been substantially improved through use of the new parameterizations.

  10. An arm for a leg: Adapting a robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Franchi, Giulia; Viereck, Ulrich; Platt, Robert; Yen, Sheng-Che; Hasson, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation. An advantage of this approach is versatility: a robotic arm can be attached to almost any point on the body to assist with lower- and upper-extremity rehabilitation. This may be more cost-effective than purchasing and training rehabilitation staff to use several specialized rehabilitation robots. Robotic arms also have a more human-like morphology, which may make them less intimidating or alien to patients. In this study a mechanical interface was developed that allows a fast, secure, and safe attachment between a robotic arm and a human limb. The effectiveness of this interface was assessed by having two healthy subjects walk on a treadmill with and without a robotic arm attached to their legs. The robot's ability to follow the subjects' swinging legs was evaluated at slow and fast walking speeds. Two different control schemes were evaluated: one using the standard manufacturer-provided control algorithm, and another using a custom algorithm that actively compensated for robot-human interaction forces. The results showed that both robot control schemes performed well for slow walking. There were negligible differences between subjects' gait kinematics with and without the robot. During fast walking with the robot, similar results were obtained for one subject; however, the second subject demonstrated noticeable gait modifications. Together, these results show the feasibility of adapting a multipurpose robotic arm for gait rehabilitation.

  11. 6. MOBILE LAUNCHER SIDE 4, SHOWING MILK STOOL AND LUT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. MOBILE LAUNCHER SIDE 4, SHOWING MILK STOOL AND LUT. PROTRUSION ON UPPER RIGHT HAND SIDE OF LUT IS SWING ARM NINE WHICH PROVIDED ACCESS TO CAPSULE OF LAUNCH VEHICLE WHILE ON LAUNCHER. - Mobile Launcher One, Kennedy Space Center, Titusville, Brevard County, FL

  12. 17. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE AND GATE ARM, GATE PIER AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  13. 18. DETAIL VIEW OF NONSUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL VIEW OF NON-SUBMERSIBLE TAINTER GATE, SHOWING GATE AND GATE ARMS, GATE PIER AND DAM BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 8, On Mississippi River near Houston County, MN, Genoa, Vernon County, WI

  14. Robotic arm

    DOEpatents

    Kwech, Horst

    1989-04-18

    A robotic arm positionable within a nuclear vessel by access through a small diameter opening and having a mounting tube supported within the vessel and mounting a plurality of arm sections for movement lengthwise of the mounting tube as well as for movement out of a window provided in the wall of the mounting tube. An end effector, such as a grinding head or welding element, at an operating end of the robotic arm, can be located and operated within the nuclear vessel through movement derived from six different axes of motion provided by mounting and drive connections between arm sections of the robotic arm. The movements are achieved by operation of remotely-controllable servo motors, all of which are mounted at a control end of the robotic arm to be outside the nuclear vessel.

  15. Arm CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... scanners can perform the exam without stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called ...

  16. Surface to subsurface cross sections showing correlation of the Dakota Sandstone, Burro Canyon (?) Formation, and upper part of the Morrison Formation in the Chama-El Vado area, Chama Basin, Rio Arriba County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridgley, Jennie L.

    1987-01-01

    This report shows the correlation of the Dakota Sandstone, Burro Canyon(?) Formation, and the upper part of the Morrison Formation in the Chama basin from E1 Cerro dome, just west of Chama, to El Vado Reservoir. Criteria needed to recognize these formations both at the outcrop and in the subsurface is also included. 

  17. Biofidelity of an original and modified sidiis upper extremity matched cadaver and dummy compression tests.

    PubMed

    Kemper, Andrew R; McNally, Craig; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-01-01

    Approximately 8,000 automobile occupants are killed and 24,000 seriously injured each year in automotive side impact collisions. In order to accurately predict injury of human occupants, the response of automotive side impact anthropometric test dummies must be as biofidelic as possible. The upper arm serves as a load path to the thorax, and the response characteristics of the upper arm can influence the thoracic response in side impact test dummies. Therefore, the purpose of the study is to characterize the compressive response of male and female humeri with all soft tissue attached, an original SIDIIs arm, and a modified SID-IIs arm to evaluate the biofidelity of the side impact dummy arm. A series of compression tests were performed at two dynamic rates, 2.34 m/s and 3.81 m/s, on a total of eight male and female humeri with all soft tissues attached. Matched compression tests were preformed on the original SID-IIs and a modified SID-IIs upper arm segment using a drop tower. The impact direction for all tests was from lateral to medial in order to simulate an automotive side impact collision. In order to correct for the loss in the cadaver arm tissue thickness resulting from the horizontal test orientation, the upper arms of 35 male and 35 female volunteers were measured. The results show that for both rates the modified Sid-IIs arm force vs. compression response was more representative of the cadaver humeri force vs. compression responses than the original Sid-IIs arm. The more realistic response characteristics of the modified Sid-IIs arm could improve the biofidelity of the overall thoracic response in side impact anthropometric test dummies.

  18. Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation.

    PubMed

    Peter, Burkhard; Schiebler, Philipp; Piesbergen, Christoph; Hagl, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower than during holding it up voluntarily (p < .01); the activity in the deltoid was 27% lower (p < .001). Without hypnosis, the muscle activity showed a positive correlation with strain. However, there was no such correlation in the hypnotic condition. Apparently, it is possible to reduce strain and to objectively measure muscle activity in an uplifted arm through hypnotic arm levitation.

  19. [Defect fractures of the upper arm and their treatment in difficult circumstances. 3 case reports from Ethiopian and Somalian provincial hospitals].

    PubMed

    Mandrella, B; Abebaw, T H; Hersi, O N

    1997-02-01

    Gunshot fractures of the extremities often result in large bone defects and disability. The reconstruction of the bone is the essential precondition for a successful rehabilitation. This is a report on three patients who suffered from substantial bone defects of the humerus shaft caused by high-velocity bullets. In one patient the injury happened 3 days before admission, in another patient 5 months before. The third patient had a history of 11 years since the injury with numerous operations, bone grafts included. He presented with an infected non-union. All three patients had a complete radial nerve paralysis right from the beginning, as they have reported. Debridement, sequestrectomy and immobilisation by an external fixator with a device for compression and distraction were the first steps in management, followed by slow compression and, after a free interval, by distraction for 1 mm per day over a period of ca. 4 weeks. After distraction, one patient had early spontaneous callus formation. Two patients received a spongious bone graft, and in one of them decompression of the radial nerve was carried out during the operation for bone grafting. Subsequently, all three patients showed good callus formation. When strong ossification was visible on the X-rays, the fixator was removed and a PoP brace applied. The change from the external fixator to an internal fixation by a plate was not necessary and, under the prevailing conditions, not even possible. The patients were discharged with the brace and encouraged to continue with exercises. When the patients came back for a follow-up examination, the fracture sites were stable and the bones showed good consolidation. In two cases, the function of the radial nerve was nearly completely restored, in the patient with the long history, of course, there was no change. All three patients were free of infection. These three cases show that, even under the unfavourable conditions of civil war and in hospitals of less prosperous

  20. Look at my Arms!

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image shows the hidden spiral arms that were discovered around the galaxy called NGC 4625 (top) by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. An armless companion galaxy called NGC 4618 is pictured below.

    Though the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light, they glow brightly in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    Astronomers do not know why NGC 4618 lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  1. Arm transplantation: prospects and visions.

    PubMed

    Jones, N F; Schneeberger, S

    2009-03-01

    Based on the results of above-elbow replantation, it is possible that above-elbow arm transplantation will be successful and result in a superior functional outcome as defined by the Chen criteria. Above-elbow arm transplantation is probably technically simpler than distal forearm or wrist transplantation, especially since the macroanastomoses do not require microsurgical expertise. However, hand function depends on reinnervation of forearm muscles and the distance for nerves to regenerate for reinnervation of intrinsic muscles of the hand is significant. The vascularized bone marrow transplanted with the arm holds potential to induce chimerism and promote tolerance but could also make the recipient more susceptible to graft-versus-host disease. Prospective trials comparing the functional results after above-elbow arm transplantation with the functional results achieved by the best neuronal-controlled above-elbow prosthesis are warranted and will determine the gold standard of upper-extremity reconstruction.

  2. Comparison of Clinical Characteristics and Treatment Outcomes of Children Selected for Treatment of Severe Acute Malnutrition Using Mid Upper Arm Circumference and/or Weight-for-Height Z-Score

    PubMed Central

    Isanaka, Sheila; Guesdon, Benjamin; Labar, Amy S.; Hanson, Kerstin; Langendorf, Celine; Grais, Rebecca F.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Debate for a greater role of mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) measures in nutritional programming continues, but a shift from therapeutic feeding programs admitting children using MUAC and/or weight-for-height Z (WHZ) to a new model admitting children using MUAC only remains complicated by limited information regarding the clinical profile and response to treatment of children selected by MUAC vs. WHZ. To broaden our understanding of how children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ may differ, we aimed to investigate differences between children identified for therapeutic feeding by MUAC and/or WHZ in terms of demographic, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory and treatment response characteristics. Methods Using secondary data from a randomized trial in rural Niger among children with uncomplicated severe acute malnutrition, we compared children that would be admitted to a therapeutic feeding program that used a single anthropometric criterion of MUAC< 115 mm vs. children that are admitted under current admission criteria (WHZ< -3 and/or MUAC< 115 mm) but would be excluded from a program that used a single MUAC< 115 mm admission criterion. We assessed differences between groups using multivariate regression, employing linear regression for continuous outcomes and log-binomial regression for dichotomous outcomes. Results We found no difference in terms of clinical and laboratory characteristics and discharge outcomes evaluated between children that would be included in a MUAC< 115 mm therapeutic feeding program vs. children that are currently eligible for therapeutic feeding but would be excluded from a MUAC-only program. Conclusions A single anthropometric admission criterion of MUAC < 115 mm did not differentiate well between children in terms of clinical or laboratory measures or program outcomes in this context. If nutritional programming is to use a single MUAC-based criterion for admission to treatment, further research and

  3. Gesture Recognition Based on the Probability Distribution of Arm Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Khairunizam; Sawada, Hideyuki

    The use of human motions for the interaction between humans and computers is becoming an attractive alternative to verbal media, especially through the visual interpretation of the human body motion. In particular, hand gestures are used as non-verbal media for the humans to communicate with machines that pertain to the use of the human gestures to interact with them. This paper introduces a 3D motion measurement of the human upper body for the purpose of the gesture recognition, which is based on the probability distribution of arm trajectories. In this study, by examining the characteristics of the arm trajectories given by a signer, motion features are selected and classified by using a fuzzy technique. Experimental results show that the use of the features extracted from arm trajectories effectively works on the recognition of dynamic gestures of a human, and gives a good performance to classify various gesture patterns.

  4. How to Take a Picture of A Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This movie first shows an artist's animation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander snapping a picture of its arm, then transitions to the actual picture of the arm in its stowed configuration, with its biobarrier unpeeled.

    The arm is still folded up, with its 'elbow' shown at upper left and its scoop at bottom right. The biobarrier is the shiny film seen to the left of the arm in this view.

    The barrier is an extra precaution to protect Mars from contamination with any bacteria from Earth. While the whole spacecraft was decontaminated through cleaning, filters and heat, the robotic arm was given additional protection because it is the only spacecraft part that will directly touch the ice below the surface of Mars.

    Before the arm was heated, it was sealed in the biobarrier, which is made of a trademarked film called Tedlar that holds up to baking like a turkey-basting bag. This ensures that any new bacterial spores that might have come about during the final steps before launch, and during the journey to Mars, will not contact the robotic arm.

    After Phoenix landed, springs were used to pop back the barrier, giving it room to deploy. The arm is scheduled to begin to unlatch on the third Martian day of the mission, or Sol 3 (May 28, 2008).

    This image was taken on Sol 1 (May 26, 2008) by the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Mystery Spiral Arms Explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-04-01

    , of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, noted that the two jets are tipped 30 degrees with respect to the galaxy disk. But if one could vertically project the jets onto the disk, they would line up almost perfectly with the anomalous arms. Figuring that this alignment was not strictly a matter of chance, Wilson, Yang, and Cecil proposed that the jets heat the gas in their line of travel, forming an expanding cocoon. Because the jets lie close to M106's disk, the cocoon heats gas in the disk and generates shock waves, heating the gas to millions of degrees and causing it to radiate brightly in X-rays and other wavelengths. Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 Multiwavelength Animation of NGC 4258 To test this idea, Yang and his colleagues looked at archival spectral observations from XMM-Newton. With XMM-Newton's superb sensitivity, the team could measure the gas temperature in the anomalous arms and also see how strongly X-rays from the gas are absorbed en route by intervening material. "One of the predictions of this scenario is that the anomalous arms will gradually be pushed out of the galactic disk plane by jet-heated gas," says Yang. The XMM-Newton spectra show that X-rays are more strongly absorbed in the direction of the northwest arm than in the southeast arm. The results strongly suggest that the southeast arm is partly on the near side of M106's disk, and the northwest arm is partly on the far side. The scientists noted that these observations show clear consistency with their scenario. Confirmation of this interpretation has recently come from archival observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, whose infrared view shows clear signs that X-ray emission from the northwest arm is being absorbed by warm gas and dust in the galaxy's disk. Moreover, Chandra's superior imaging resolution gives clear indications of gas shocked by interactions with the two jets. Besides addressing the mystery of the anomalous arms, these observations allowed the

  6. [A case of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease presenting with arm levitation as an initial symptom].

    PubMed

    Kamogawa, Kenji; Ninomiya, Satoko; Okuda, Shinya; Matsumoto, Yushi; Tomita, Hitomi; Okamoto, Kensho; Okuda, Bungo

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old, right handed man, developed insidiously with levitation and clumsiness of the right upper limb. His right arm tended to levitate spontaneously, when he was examined. He could put the elevated arm down on command, while the arm resumed to antigravity posture when his attention was diverted. His right arm also exhibited unwilled elevation when performing complex finger movements on the right side. He had a feeling of strangeness of the elevated limb, especially with the eyes closed. In addition to asymmetric limb-kinetic apraxia, combined sensations such as stereognosis were disturbed on the right side. Brain MRI showed high signal lesions predominantly in the left cerebral cortices and basal ganglia. SPECT with (123)I-IMP revealed asymmetric hypoperfusion, predominantly in the left medial frontal and parietal regions. Two months after the onset, levitation of the arm gradually disappeared, with the development of rapidly progressive dementia, frontal signs, dystonia and generalized myoclonus. The diagnosis of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) was made based on the clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. The early manifestation of the patient mimicked corticobasal degeneration which presents with arm levitation or alien hand syndrome. It is suggested that CJD can represent involuntary movements with higher brain dysfunction resembling corticobasal degeneration at the early stage of the illness. Although the underlying mechanism of arm levitation is still unknown, frontal disinhibition and parietal cortical sensory disturbance may contribute to the development of involuntary arm levitation in our patient.

  7. Does Octopus vulgaris have preferred arms?

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-08-01

    Previous behavioral studies in Octopus vulgaris revealed lateralization of eye use. In this study, the authors expanded the scope to investigate arm preferences. The octopus's generalist hunting lifestyle and the structure of their arms suggest that these animals have no need to designate specific arms for specific tasks. However, octopuses also show behaviors, like exploration, in which only single or small groups of arms are involved. Here the authors show that octopuses had a strong preference for anterior arm use to reach for and explore objects, which points toward a task division between anterior and posterior arms. Four out of 8 subjects also showed a lateral bias. In addition, octopuses had a preference for a specific arm to reach into a T maze to retrieve a food reward. These findings give evidence for limb-specialization in an animal whose 8 arms were believed to be equipotential.

  8. A novel robotic system for quantifying arm kinematics and kinetics: description and evaluation in therapist-assisted passive arm movements post-stroke.

    PubMed

    Culmer, P R; Jackson, A E; Makower, S G; Cozens, J A; Levesley, M C; Mon-Williams, M; Bhakta, B

    2011-04-30

    We developed a system for quantitatively measuring arm movement. Our approach provides a method to simultaneously capture upper limb kinetic and kinematic data during assisted passive arm movements. Data are analysed with respect to Cartesian and upper limb coordinate systems to obtain upper limb joint angles and torques. We undertook an evaluation of the system in participants with stroke to show the feasibility of this approach. During rehabilitation after stroke, one aspect of treatment includes the physiotherapist applying assistive forces to move the impaired arm of the patient who remains passive. There is a dearth of published data on the relationship between upper limb kinematics and the underlying forces (kinetics) in this mode of physiotherapy treatment. Such quantitative data are crucial in facilitating research into therapy practice, for example by measuring variation in practice and determining dosage. An experienced therapist prescribed passive movements tailored to the needs of 16 participants with stroke (41-81 years) with a range of anthropometric sizes and motor impairments. Our novel measurement tool recorded kinematic and kinetic data at 100 Hz for 6-11 movements per participant. The kinetic data show that the majority of movements fall within upper limits of 36.7 N in shoulder elevation, 22.4N in shoulder protraction, 4.6 Nm in shoulder abduction, 12.8 Nm in shoulder flexion, 2.4 Nm in shoulder rotation and 5.5 Nm in elbow flexion. These data show the potential of this system to better understand arm movement, in particular to objectively evaluate physical therapy treatments and support development of robotic devices to facilitate upper limb rehabilitation.

  9. Arm position constraints when throwing in three dimensions.

    PubMed

    Hore, J; Watts, S; Tweed, D

    1994-09-01

    1. Overarm throwing is a skilled multijoint movement with potentially many degrees of freedom. Considering only the arm > or = 7 degrees of freedom are involved (shoulder 3, elbow 2, wrist 2). For each arm segment 3 degrees of freedom are potentially required to specify its angular position (orientation) at any moment during a throw. Simplification of the control problem for the CNS would occur if there were constraints on these degrees of freedom. The objective was to determine whether such constraints exist at ball release when throwing at targets in different directions using only the arm. 2. The angular positions in three dimensions of the distal phalanx of the middle finger, the hand, the forearm, and the upper arm were simultaneously recorded with search coils as subjects sat with a fixed trunk and threw balls at nine targets in an approximate +/- 40 degree work space. Ball release was signaled by microswitches on the proximal and distal phalanges of the middle finger (proximal and distal triggers). 3. On throwing at any one target the hand at ball release adopted a similar orientation for each throw, i.e., for a particular vertical and horizontal angular position the hand adopted a similar torsional position. On throwing at targets throughout the work space, angular position (rotation) vectors describing hand positions in space at ball release were confined to a two-dimensional surface rather than a three-dimensional volume. This constraint in hand torsion occurred near and at ball release but not throughout the entire throw. It was not due to mechanical factors because such a surface was not obtained when subjects deliberately twisted their arms when throwing. Thus at ball release during a "natural" throw the hand was constrained to 2 of its possible 3 angular degrees of freedom. 4. The same constraint was also found for finger, forearm, and upper arm angular positions in space at ball release as determined at both the proximal and distal triggers. A

  10. Greater activation of secondary motor areas is related to less arm use after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Kokotilo, Kristen J; Eng, Janice J; Boyd, Lara A; McKeown, Martin J

    2011-01-01

    Background Past studies have identified reorganization of brain activity in relation to motor outcome through standardized laboratory measures, which are quantifiable surrogates for arm use in real-life. In contrast, accelerometers can provide a real-life estimate of arm and hand usage. Methods Ten persons with chronic, subcortical stroke and ten healthy controls of similar age performed a squeeze motor task at 40% maximum voluntary contraction during fMRI. Use of the upper extremity was quantified over 3 consecutive days using wrist accelerometers. Correlations were performed between arm use and peak percent signal change (PSC) during grasp force production in six regions of interest (ROIs): bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), supplementary motor area (SMA) and premotor cortex (PM). Results Results demonstrate that in healthy controls, PSC across all ROIs did not show a relationship between arm use and brain activation during force production. In contrast, after stroke, contralesional PM and M1 showed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) correlation between increasing activation and decreasing paretic arm use, while ipsilesional PM showed a significant correlation (P ≤ 0.05) between increasing activation and decreasing non-paretic arm use. Conclusions The results of this pilot study demonstrate a negative relationship between brain activation and actual arm use after stroke. Larger studies using accelerometers that can detect amount and types of movement may offer further insight into brain reorganization and rehabilitation interventions. PMID:19737873

  11. Core Muscle Activation in One-Armed and Two-Armed Kettlebell Swing.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Vidar; Fimland, Marius S; Gunnarskog, Aril; Jungård, Georg-Andrè; Slåttland, Roy-Andrè; Vraalsen, Øyvind F; Saeterbakken, Atle H

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic activity of rectus abdominis, oblique external, and lower and upper erector spinae at both sides of the truncus in 1-armed and 2-armed kettlebell swing. Sixteen healthy men performed 10 repetitions of both exercises using a 16-kg kettlebell in randomized order. For the upper erector spinae, the activation of the contralateral side during 1-armed swing was 24% greater than that of the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p < 0.001) and 11% greater during 2-armed swing (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the activation in 2-armed swing was 12-16% greater than for the ipsilateral side in 1-armed swing (p < 0.001). For rectus abdominis, however, 42% lower activation of the contralateral side was observed during 1-armed swing compared with ipsilateral sides during 2-armed swing (p = 0.038) and 48% compared with the ipsilateral side during 1-armed swing (p = 0.044). Comparing the different phases of the swing, most differences in the upper erector spinae were found in the lower parts of the movement, whereas for the rectus abdominis, the differences were found during the hip extension. In contrast, similar muscle activity in the lower erector spinae and external oblique between the different conditions was observed (p = 0.055-0.969). In conclusion, performing the kettlebell swing with 1 arm resulted in greater neuromuscular activity for the contralateral side of the upper erector spinae and ipsilateral side of the rectus abdominis, and lower activation of the opposite side of the respective muscles.

  12. Meat supplementation increases arm muscle area in Kenyan schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Charlotte G; Jiang, Luohua; Weiss, Robert E; Grillenberger, Monika; Gewa, Constance A; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Bwibo, Nimrod O

    2013-04-14

    The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0.05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets.

  13. Sensory-Feedback Exoskeletal Arm Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Bin; Massie, Thomas H.; Vayner, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    An electromechanical exoskeletal arm apparatus has been designed for use in controlling a remote robotic manipulator arm. The apparatus, called a force-feedback exoskeleton arm master (F-EAM) is comfortable to wear and easy to don and doff. It provides control signals from the wearer s arm to a robot arm or a computer simulator (e.g., a virtual-reality system); it also provides force and torque feedback from sensors on the robot arm or from the computer simulator to the wearer s arm. The F-EAM enables the wearer to make the robot arm gently touch objects and finely manipulate them without exerting excessive forces. The F-EAM features a lightweight design in which the motors and gear heads that generate force and torque feedback are made smaller than they ordinarily would be: this is achieved by driving the motors to power levels greater than would ordinarily be used in order to obtain higher torques, and by providing active liquid cooling of the motors to prevent overheating at the high drive levels. The F-EAM (see figure) includes an assembly that resembles a backpack and is worn like a backpack, plus an exoskeletal arm mechanism. The FEAM has five degrees of freedom (DOFs) that correspond to those of the human arm: 1. The first DOF is that of the side-to-side rotation of the upper arm about the shoulder (rotation about axis 1). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 1 via drum 1 and a planar four-bar linkage. 2. The second DOF is that of the up-and-down rotation of the arm about the shoulder. The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 2 via drum 2. 3. The third DOF is that of twisting of the upper arm about its longitudinal axis. This DOF is implemented in a cable remote-center mechanism (CRCM). The reflected torque for this DOF is provided by motor 3, which drives the upper-arm cuff and the mechanism below it. A bladder inflatable by gas or liquid is placed between the cuff and the wearer s upper arm to compensate for misalignment

  14. Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.

    PubMed

    Laudner, Kevin G

    2012-03-01

    Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p < 0.05). The football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.

  15. The apparent mass and mechanical impedance of the hand and the transmission of vibration to the fingers, hand, and arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concettoni, Enrico; Griffin, Michael

    2009-08-01

    Although hand-transmitted vibration causes injury and disease, most often evident in the fingers, the biodynamic responses of the fingers, hand, and arm are not yet well understood. A method of investigating the motion of the entire finger-hand-arm system, based on the simultaneous measurement of the biodynamic response at the driving point and the transmissibility to many points on the finger-hand-arm system, is illustrated. Fourteen male subjects participated in an experiment in which they pushed down on a vertically vibrating metal plate with their right forearm pronated and their elbow bent at 90°. The apparent mass and mechanical impedance of the finger-hand-arm system were measured for each of seven different contact conditions between the plate and the fingers and hand. Simultaneously, the vibration of the fingers, hand, and arm was measured at 41 locations using a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer. Transmissibilities showed how the vibration was transmitted along the arm and allowed the construction of spectral operating deflection shapes showing the vibration pattern of the fingers, hand, and arm for each of the seven contact conditions. The vibration patterns at critical frequencies for each contact condition have been used to explain features in the driving point biodynamic responses and the vibration behaviour of the hand-arm system. Spectral operating deflection shapes for the upper limb assist the interpretation of driving point biodynamic responses and help to advance understanding required to predict, explain, and control the various effects of hand-transmitted vibration.

  16. Arm Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of them are in your arm; the humerus, radius and ulna. Your arms are also made up of muscles, joints, tendons and other connective tissue. Injuries to any of these parts of the arm can occur during sports, a fall or an accident. Types of arm injuries ...

  17. Arm swing in human walking: what is their drive?

    PubMed

    Goudriaan, Marije; Jonkers, Ilse; van Dieen, Jaap H; Bruijn, Sjoerd M

    2014-06-01

    Although previous research has studied arm swing during walking, to date, it remains unclear what the contribution of passive dynamics versus active muscle control to arm swing is. In this study, we measured arm swing kinematics with 3D-motion analysis. We used a musculoskeletal model in OpenSim and generated dynamic simulations of walking with and without upper limb muscle excitations. We then compared arm swing amplitude and relative phase during both simulations to verify the extent to which passive dynamics contribute to arm swing. The results confirm that passive dynamics are partly responsible for arm swing during walking. However, without muscle activity, passive swing amplitude and relative phase decrease significantly (both p<0.05), the latter inducing a more in-phase swing pattern of the arms. Therefore, we conclude that muscle activity is needed to increase arm swing amplitude and modify relative phase during human walking to obtain an out-phase movement relative to the legs.

  18. Control and function of arm swing in human walking and running.

    PubMed

    Pontzer, Herman; Holloway, John H; Holloway, John H; Raichlen, David A; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the control and function of arm swing in human walking and running to test the hypothesis that the arms act as passive mass dampers powered by movement of the lower body, rather than being actively driven by the shoulder muscles. We measured locomotor cost, deltoid muscle activity and kinematics in 10 healthy adult subjects while walking and running on a treadmill in three experimental conditions: control; no arms (arms folded across the chest); and arm weights (weights worn at the elbow). Decreasing and increasing the moment of inertia of the upper body in no arms and arm weights conditions, respectively, had corresponding effects on head yaw and on the phase differences between shoulder and pelvis rotation, consistent with the view of arms as mass dampers. Angular acceleration of the shoulders and arm increased with torsion of the trunk and shoulder, respectively, but angular acceleration of the shoulders was not inversely related to angular acceleration of the pelvis or arm. Restricting arm swing in no arms trials had no effect on locomotor cost. Anterior and posterior portions of the deltoid contracted simultaneously rather than firing alternately to drive the arm. These results support a passive arm swing hypothesis for upper body movement during human walking and running, in which the trunk and shoulders act primarily as elastic linkages between the pelvis, shoulder girdle and arms, the arms act as passive mass dampers which reduce torso and head rotation, and upper body movement is primarily powered by lower body movement.

  19. ASSEMBLY AND CHARACTERIZATION OF 8-ARM AND 12-ARM DNA BRANCHED JUNCTIONS

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xing

    2012-01-01

    Branched DNA molecules can be assembled into objects and networks directed by sticky-ended cohesion. The connectivity of these species is limited by the number of arms flanking the branch point. To date, the only branched junctions constructed contain six or fewer arms. We report the construction of DNA branched junctions that contain either 8 or 12 double helical arms surrounding a branch point. The design of the 8-arm junction expoits the limits of a previous approach to thwart branch migration, but the design of the 12-arm junction uses a new to principle achieve this end. The 8-arm junction is stable with 16 nucleotide pairs per arm, but the 12-arm junction has been stabilized by 24 nucleotide pairs per arm. Ferguson analysis of these junctions in combination with three, four, five, and six-arm junctions indicates a linear increase in friction constant as the number of arms increases; the four-arm junction migrates anomalously at 4°C., suggesting stacking of its domains. All strands in both the 8-arm and 12-arm junctions show similar responses to hydroxyl radical autofootprinting analysis, indicating that they lack any dominant stacking structures. The stability of the 12-arm junction demonstrates that the number of arms in a junction is not limited to the case of having adjacent identical base pairs flanking the junction. The ability to construct eight-arm and twelve-arm junctions increases the number of objects, graphs and networks that can be built from branched DNA components. In principle, the stick structure corresponding to cubic close packing is now a possible target for assembly by DNA nanotechnology. PMID:17564446

  20. A virtual reality system for arm and hand rehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhiqiang; Lim, Chee Kian; Chen, I.-Ming; Yeo, Song Huat

    2011-03-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality (VR) system for upper limb rehabilitation. The system incorporates two motion track components, the Arm Suit and the Smart Glove which are composed of a range of the optical linear encoders (OLE) and the inertial measurement units (IMU), and two interactive practice applications designed for driving users to perform the required functional and non-functional motor recovery tasks. We describe the technique details about the two motion track components and the rational to design two practice applications. The experiment results show that, compared with the marker-based tracking system, the Arm Suit can accurately track the elbow and wrist positions. The repeatability of the Smart Glove on measuring the five fingers' movement can be satisfied. Given the low cost, high accuracy and easy installation, the system thus promises to be a valuable complement to conventional therapeutic programs offered in rehabilitation clinics and at home.

  1. The Neanderthal lower arm.

    PubMed

    De Groote, Isabelle

    2011-10-01

    Neanderthal forearms have been described as being very powerful. Different individual features in the lower arm bones have been described to distinguish Neanderthals from modern humans. In this study, the overall morphology of the radius and ulna is considered, and morphological differences among Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic Homo sapiens and recent H. sapiens are described. Comparisons among populations were made using a combination of 3D geometric morphometrics and standard multivariate methods. Comparative material included all available complete radii and ulnae from Neanderthals, early H. sapiens and archaeological and recent human populations, representing a wide geographical and lifestyle range. There are few differences among the populations when features are considered individually. Neanderthals and early H. sapiens fell within the range of modern human variation. When the suite of measurements and shapes were analyzed, differences and similarities became apparent. The Neanderthal radius is more laterally curved, has a more medially placed radial tuberosity, a longer radial neck, a more antero-posteriorly ovoid head and a well-developed proximal interosseous crest. The Neanderthal ulna has a more anterior facing trochlear notch, a lower M. brachialis insertion, larger relative mid-shaft size and a more medio-lateral and antero-posterior sinusoidal shaft. The Neanderthal lower arm morphology reflects a strong cold-adapted short forearm. The forearms of H. sapiens are less powerful in pronation and supination. Many differences between Neanderthals and H. sapiens can be explained as a secondary consequence of the hyper-polar body proportions of the Neanderthals, but also as retentions of the primitive condition of other hominoids.

  2. The Influences of Arm Resist Motion on a CAR Crash Test Using Hybrid III Dummy with Human-Like Arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yongchul; Youm, Youngil; Bae, Hanil; Choi, Hyeonki

    Safety of the occupant during the crash is very essential design element. Many researches have been investigated in reducing the fatal injury of occupant. They are focusing on the development of a dummy in order to obtain the real human-like motion. However, they have not considered the arm resist motion during the car accident. In this study, we would like to suggest the importance of the reactive force of the arm in a car crash. The influences of reactive force acting on the human upper extremity were investigated using the impedance experimental method with lumped mass model of hand system and a Hybrid III dummy with human-like arm. Impedance parameters (e.g. inertia, spring constant and damping coefficient) of the elbow joint in maximum activation level were measured by free oscillation test using single axis robot. The results showed that without seat belt, the reactive force of human arm reduced the head, chest, and femur injury, and the flexion moment of the neck is higher than that of the conventional dummy.

  3. 8. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM THE RIVER ARM OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM FROM THE RIVER ARM OF THE COFFERDAM NEAR STATION (September 1936) - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam No. 13, Upper Mississippi River, Fulton, Whiteside County, IL

  4. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detector3 of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  5. Unequal-Arms Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinto, Massimo; Armstrong, J. W.

    1999-01-01

    Michelson interferometers allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the phase stability of the laser light injected into their two almost equal-length arms. If, however, the two arms are unequal, the laser fluctuations can not be removed by simply recombining the two beams. This is because the laser jitters experience different time delays in the two arms, and therefore can not cancel at the photo detector. We present here a method for achieving exact laser noise cancellation, even in an unequal-arm interferometer. The method presented in this paper requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam. By linearly combining the two data sets with themselves, after they have been properly time-shifted, we show that it is possible to construct a new data set that is free of laser fluctuations. An application of this technique to future planned space-based laser interferometer detectors of gravitational radiation is discussed.

  6. 3D joystick for robotic arm control by individuals with high level spinal cord injuries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hairong; Wachs, Juan P; Pendergast, Martin; Duerstock, Bradley S

    2013-06-01

    An innovative 3D joystick was developed to enable quadriplegics due to spinal cord injuries (SCIs) to more independently and efficiently operate a robotic arm as an assistive device. The 3D joystick was compared to two different manual input modalities, a keyboard control and a traditional joystick, in performing experimental robotic arm tasks by both subjects without disabilities and those with upper extremity mobility impairments. Fitts's Law targeting and practical pouring tests were conducted to compare the performance and accuracy of the proposed 3D joystick. The Fitts's law measurements showed that the 3D joystick had the best index of performance (IP), though it required an equivalent number of operations and errors as the standard robotic arm joystick. The pouring task demonstrated that the 3D joystick took significantly less task completion time and was more accurate than keyboard control. The 3D joystick also showed a decreased learning curve to the other modalities.

  7. Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis in a military patient.

    PubMed

    Bullock, Charlotte; Johnston, A McD

    2016-08-01

    We describe the case of a 23-year-old serviceman on overseas deployment who presented with a painful, swollen arm. Investigations showed an upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) of the right arm with an associated asymptomatic pulmonary embolism, which was treated with warfarin anticoagulation. Further investigation identified positional obstruction at the thoracic outlet, and the patient was diagnosed with Paget-Schroetter syndrome. He underwent elective resection of the first rib, and has now returned to normal duties. After review of the literature on UEDVT, it is suggested that in this military patient, the occurrence of an anatomical variant put him at risk of upper limb venous thrombosis, which was probably potentiated by the occupational factor of carrying a rifle. The external compression of the subclavian vein from the rifle butt and hypertrophied muscles, in addition to the anatomical variation, caused repetitive microtrauma of the vessel intima, which precipitated venous thrombosis.

  8. Muscle strength is a determinant of bone mineral content in the hemiparetic upper extremity: implications for stroke rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Marco Y C; Eng, Janice J

    2005-07-01

    Individuals with stroke have a high incidence of bone fractures and approximately 30% of these fractures occur in the upper extremity. The high risk of falls and the decline in bone and muscle health make the chronic stroke population particularly prone to upper extremity fractures. This was the first study to investigate the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and soft tissue composition of the upper extremities and their relationship to stroke-related impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke (onset >1 year). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to acquire total body scans on 56 (22 women) community-dwelling individuals (>or=50 years of age) with chronic stroke. BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2), lean mass (g), and fat mass (g) for each arm were derived from the total body scans. The paretic upper extremity was evaluated for muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry), impairment of motor function (Fugl-Meyer motor assessment), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), and amount of use of the paretic arm in daily activities (Motor Activity Log). Results showed that the paretic arm had significantly lower BMC (13.8%, P<0.001), BMD (4.5%, P<0.001), and lean mass (9.0%, P<0.001) but higher fat mass (6.3%, P=0.028) than the non-paretic arm. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean mass in the paretic arm, height, and muscle strength were significant predictors (R2=0.810, P<0.001) of the paretic arm BMC. Height, muscle strength, and gender were significant predictors (R2=0.822, P<0.001) of lean mass in the paretic arm. These results highlight the potential of muscle strengthening to promote bone health of the paretic arm in individuals with chronic stroke.

  9. Muscle strength is a determinant of bone mineral content in the hemiparetic upper extremity: Implications for stroke rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco YC; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with stroke have a high incidence of bone fractures and approximately 30% of these fractures occur in the upper extremity. The high risk of falls and the decline in bone and muscle health make the chronic stroke population particularly prone to upper extremity fractures. This was the first study to investigate the bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD) and soft tissue composition of the upper extremities and their relationship to stroke-related impairments in ambulatory individuals with chronic stroke (onset >1 year). Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to acquire total body scans on 56 (22 women) community-dwelling individuals (≥50 years of age) with chronic stroke. BMC (g) and BMD (g/cm2), lean mass (g) and fat mass (g) for each arm were derived from the total body scans. The paretic upper extremity was evaluated for muscle strength (hand-held dynamometry), spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale), impairment of motor function (Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment) and amount of use of the paretic arm in daily activities (Motor Activity Log). Results showed that the paretic arm had significantly lower BMC (13.8%, p<0.001), BMD (4.5%, p<0.001) and lean mass (9.0%, p<0.001) but higher fat mass (6.3%, p=0.028) than the non-paretic arm. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean mass in the paretic arm, height and muscle strength were significant predictors (R2=0.810, p<0.001) of the paretic arm BMC. Height, muscle strength and gender were significant predictors (R2=0.822, p<0.001) of lean mass in the paretic arm. These results highlight the potential of muscle strengthening to promote bone health of the paretic arm in individuals with chronic stroke. PMID:15869927

  10. Phoenix Robotic Arm Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This photograph shows the rasp protruding from the back of the scoop on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm engineering model in the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson.

    This is the position the rasp will assume when it drills into the Martian soil to acquire an icy soil sample for analysis.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Research Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-023 11 March 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS Soviet Journal Reviews SIPRI Books on Arms Race in Outer Space (I. Kuznetsova, Yu. Orlov; Moscow INTERNATIONAL AFFAIRS, No 12, Dec 85) 1...Moscow KRASNAYA ZVEZDA, 8 Feb 86) 59 TASS: INF Accord Possible Without Space Arms Connection (Moscow TASS, 7 Feb 86) 62 TASS: U.S. Officials

  12. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    on nuclear and space arms cannot be described as "equitable" even with most unrestrained imagination. ’Gray Hawk’ PM131006 Moscow IZVESTIYA in...WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS Effectiveness of U.S. SDI Effort Downplayed ’ (Peter Bretschneider; Karl-Marx-Stadt...MEZHDUNARODNYYE OTNOSHENIYA, No 7, Jul 85) 53 - b - JPRS-TAO85-064 13 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS EFFECTIVENESS OF U.S. SDI EFFORT

  13. Proprioceptive illusions created by vibration of one arm are altered by vibrating the other arm.

    PubMed

    Hakuta, Naoyuki; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Murai, Norimitsu; Atsumi, Takashi; Homma, Ikuo

    2014-07-01

    There is some evidence that signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position and movement of one arm. We examined whether the sense of position and movement of one (reference) arm is altered by increases in muscle spindle signals in the other (indicator) arm in blindfolded participants (n = 26). To increase muscle spindle discharge, we applied 70-80 Hz muscle vibration to the elbow flexors of the indicator arm. In a first experiment, proprioceptive illusions in the vibrated reference arm in a forearm position-matching task were compared between conditions in which the indicator arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not vibrated. We found that the vibration illusion of arm extension induced by vibration of reference arm elbow flexors was reduced in the presence of vibration of the indicator elbow flexors. In a second experiment, participants were asked to describe their perception of the illusion of forearm extension movements of the reference arm evoked by vibration of reference arm elbow flexors in response to on/off and off/on transitions of vibration of non-reference arm elbow flexors. When vibration of non-reference arm elbow flexors was turned on, they reported a sensation of slowing down of the illusion of the reference arm. When it was turned off, they reported a sensation of speeding up. To conclude, the present study shows that both the sense of limb position and the sense of limb movement of one arm are dependent to some extent on spindle signals coming from the other arm.

  14. Assessment of arm movements during gait in stroke - the Arm Posture Score.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Gudrun M; Frykberg, Gunilla E; Grip, Helena; Broström, Eva W; Häger, Charlotte K

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to apply the Arm Posture Score (APS) to a stroke population, since comprehensive measures to quantify arm swing in the affected and non-affected arms during gait are lacking. A further aim was to investigate how gait speed and upper limb function estimated by clinical measures are related to the APS in the stroke group. The APS is the summarized root mean square deviation (RMSD) from normal, based on kinematics. Four arm movements (sagittal and frontal planes) as well as six arm movements (incorporating transversal plane) were included in the calculation of APS, referred to as APS4 and APS6, respectively. The study population consisted of 25 persons with stroke and 25 age- and gender-matched controls. The APS measures were significantly different between the affected and non-affected arms, as well as between the affected arm and the non-dominant arm of the controls (p≤0.001). Spasticity significantly influenced both APS measures, while speed only had a significant effect on the APS4. The APS measures correlated significantly to clinical measures of upper limb function. Both APS measures seem to be useful indices to quantify and discriminate between impaired and normal arm swing during gait after stroke. The variability of rotational arm movements needs to be studied further before considering the additional value of the APS6 over the APS4. When interpreting the APS, complementary kinematics should be taken into account, as the single value of the APS gives no information about the direction of the deviation.

  15. Arm sway holds sway: locomotor-like modulation of leg reflexes when arms swing in alternation.

    PubMed

    Massaad, F; Levin, O; Meyns, P; Drijkoningen, D; Swinnen, S P; Duysens, J

    2014-01-31

    It has been argued that arm movements are important during human gait because they affect leg activity due to neural coupling between arms and legs. Consequently, one would expect that locomotor-like alternating arm swing is more effective than in-phase swing in affecting the legs' motor output. Other alternating movements such as trunk rotation associated to arm swing could also affect leg reflexes. Here, we assessed how locomotor-like movement patterns would affect soleus H-reflexes in 13 subjects performing arm swing in the sagittal plane (ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral in-phase versus locomotor-like anti-phase arm movements) and trunk rotation with the legs stationary, and leg stepping with the arms stationary. Findings revealed that soleus H-reflexes were suppressed for all arm, trunk or leg movements. However, a marked reflex modulation occurred during locomotor-like anti-phase arm swing, as was also the case during leg stepping, and this modulation flattened out during in-phase arm swing. This modulation had a peculiar bell shape and showed maximum suppression at a moment where the heel-strike would occur during a normal walking cycle. Furthermore, this modulation was independent from electromyographic activity, suggesting a spinal processing at premotoneuronal level. Therefore, trunk movement can affect legs' output, and a special neural coupling occurs between arms and legs when arms move in alternation. This may have implications for gait rehabilitation.

  16. TCLS Arm for Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Benoit; Helfers, Tim; Poupat, Jean-Luc

    2015-09-01

    The TCLS ARM FOR SPACE proposal was an answer to the H2020 topic “COMPET-6-2014: Bottom-up Space Technologies at low TRL”. This paper presents this H2020 TCLS ARM FOR SPACE initiative led by Airbus DS and which aims at fostering the use of European technology such as ARM processing for Space.

  17. Characteristics of daily arm activities in patients with COPD.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Kenneth; Annegarn, Janneke; Lima Passos, Valéria; Savelberg, Hans H; Schols, Annemie M; Wouters, Emiel F; Spruit, Martijn A

    2014-06-01

    Arm activities are required for maintenance of self-care and independent living. This study aimed to investigate whether and to what extent arm activities of daily living (ADL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients differ compared to healthy controls and the extent to which they perform arm ADL at a relatively higher upper limb muscle effort. Daily arm and leg activities were assessed using accelerometers in the home environment (COPD: n=21, healthy: n=24; part 1). The relative efforts of the trapezius, deltoid and biceps muscles were studied using electromyography during domestic arm ADL in a laboratory setting (COPD: n=17, healthy: n=15; part 2). After correction for walking time, the time spent on arm ADL was similar between COPD patients and healthy control subjects (p=0.52), while the intensity of arm activities was lower in COPD patients (p=0.041). In the laboratory setting, arm ADL were performed at a lower intensity by COPD patients, while the trapezius muscle effort was significantly higher during several arm ADL compared to healthy control subjects (p<0.05). COPD patients have a similar duration of arm ADL compared to healthy subjects after correction for walking time, but perform arm activities at a lower intensity. Moreover, patients perform some arm ADL at a relatively higher muscle effort.

  18. Effects of Robot-assisted therapy on upper limb recovery after stroke: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwakkel, Gert; Kollen, Boudewijn J.; Krebs, Hermano I.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose To present a systematic review of studies that investigates the effects of robot-assisted therapy on motor and functional recovery in patients with stroke. Summary of Review A database of articles published up to October 2006 was compiled using the following MEDLINE key words: cerebral vascular accident, cerebral vascular disorders, stroke, paresis, hemiplegia, upper extremity, arm and robot. References listed in relevant publications were also screened. Studies that satisfied the following selection criteria were included: (1) patients were diagnosed with cerebral vascular accident; (2) effects of robot-assisted therapy for the upper limb were investigated; (3) the outcome was measured in terms of motor and/or functional recovery of the upper paretic limb; (4) The study was a randomised clinical trial (RCT). For each outcome measure, the estimated effect size (ES) and the summary effect size (SES) expressed in standard deviation units (SDU) were calculated for motor recovery and functional ability (ADL) using fixed and random effect models. Ten studies, involving 218 patients, were included in the synthesis. Their methodological quality ranged from 4 to 8 on a (maximum) 10 point scale. Meta-analysis showed a non-significant heterogeneous SES in terms of upper limb motor recovery. Sensitivity analysis of studies involving only shoulder-elbow robotics subsequently demonstrated a significant homogeneous SES for motor recovery of the upper paretic limb. No significant SES was observed for functional ability (ADL). Conclusion As a result of marked heterogeneity in studies between distal and proximal arm robotics, no overall significant effect in favour of robot-assisted therapy was found in the present meta-analysis. However, subsequent sensitivity analysis showed a significant improvement in upper limb motor function after stroke for upper arm robotics. No significant improvement was found in ADL function. However, the administered ADL scales in

  19. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  20. Classification of upper limb motions from around-shoulder muscle activities: hand biofeedback.

    PubMed

    González, Jose; Horiuchi, Yuse; Yu, Wenwei

    2010-05-28

    Mining information from EMG signals to detect complex motion intention has attracted growing research attention, especially for upper-limb prosthetic hand applications. In most of the studies, recordings of forearm muscle activities were used as the signal sources, from which the intention of wrist and hand motions were detected using pattern recognition technology. However, most daily-life upper limb activities need coordination of the shoulder-arm-hand complex, therefore, relying only on the local information to recognize the body coordinated motion has many disadvantages because natural continuous arm-hand motions can't be realized. Also, achieving a dynamical coupling between the user and the prosthesis will not be possible. This study objective was to investigate whether it is possible to associate the around-shoulder muscles' Electromyogram (EMG) activities with the different hand grips and arm directions movements. Experiments were conducted to record the EMG of different arm and hand motions and the data were analyzed to decide the contribution of each sensor, in order to distinguish the arm-hand motions as a function of the reaching time. Results showed that it is possible to differentiate hand grips and arm position while doing a reaching and grasping task. Also, these results are of great importance as one step to achieve a close loop dynamical coupling between the user and the prosthesis.

  1. Body composition assessed on the basis of arm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness: a new index validated in children by magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rolland-Cachera, M F; Brambilla, P; Manzoni, P; Akrout, M; Sironi, S; Del Maschio, A; Chiumello, G

    1997-06-01

    Fat and muscle areas can be calculated from equations on the basis of upper arm circumference (C) and triceps skinfold thickness (TS). These equations assume a circular limb and muscle compartment and a symmetrically distributed fat rim: total upper arm area (TUA) = C2/(4 pi), upper arm muscle area (UMA) = [C - (TS x pi)2]/(4 pi), and upper arm fat area (UFA) = TUA - UMA. This traditional method underestimates the degree of adiposity. We propose that the unrolled fat rim is a rectangle whose length = C and width = TS/2. The following new indexes are based on this assumption: upper arm fat area estimate (UFE) = C x (TS/2), and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME) = TUA - UFE. To validate these equations, areas were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 28 children aged 9-15 y (17 control subjects and 11 obese subjects). Correlations between MRI and UFA and MRI and UFE were similar (r = 0.96 for both correlations in the control group and r = 0.84 and 0.82, respectively, in the obese group), but the areas assessed by MRI (13.8 cm2) were closer to UFE (12.4 cm2) than to UFA (11.2 cm2) in the control group as well as in the obese group (MRI = 48.7 cm2, UFE = 46.6 cm2, and UFA = 38.5 cm2). The limits of agreement between MRI and anthropometry were 5.7 +/- 5.8 cm2 for UFA and 0.6 +/- 5.0 cm2 for UFE, showing that UFA is not acceptable in most cases, whereas UFE measurements are close to MRI measurements. In conclusion, UFE and UME are simple and accurate indexes to assess body composition. French reference values are available from 1 mo to 17 y of age.

  2. The spiral arms of the Milky Way: The relative location of each different arm tracer within a typical spiral arm width

    SciTech Connect

    Vallée, Jacques P.

    2014-07-01

    From the Sun's location in the Galactic disk, different arm tracers (CO, H I, hot dust, etc.) have been employed to locate a tangent to each spiral arm. Using all various and different observed spiral arm tracers (as published elsewhere), we embark on a new goal, namely the statistical analysis of these published data (data mining) to statistically compute the mean location of each spiral arm tracer. We show for a typical arm cross-cut, a separation of 400 pc between the mid-arm and the dust lane (at the inner edge of the arm, toward the Galactic center). Are some arms major and others minor? Separating arms into two sets, as suggested by some, we find the same arm widths between the two sets. Our interpretation is that we live in a multiple (four-arm) spiral (logarithmic) pattern (around a pitch angle of 12°) for the stars and gas in the Milky Way, with a sizable interarm separation (around 3 kpc) at the Sun's location and the same arm width for each arm (near 400 pc from mid-arm to dust lane).

  3. The Effect of Restricted Arm Swing on Energy Expenditure in Healthy Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yizhar, Ziva; Boulos, Spiro; Inbar, Omri; Carmeli, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Arm swing in human walking is an active natural motion involving the upper extremities. Earlier studies have described the interrelationship between arms and legs during walking, but the effect of arm swing on energy expenditure and dynamic parameters during normal gait, is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of…

  4. The ARM unpiloted aerospace vehicle (UAV) program

    SciTech Connect

    Sowle, D.

    1995-09-01

    Unmanned aerospace vehicles (UAVs) are an important complement to the DOE`s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. ARM is primarily a ground-based program designed to extensively quantify the radiometric and meteorological properties of an atmospheric column. There is a need for airborne measurements of radiative profiles, especially flux at the tropopause, cloud properties, and upper troposphere water vapor. There is also a need for multi-day measurements at the tropopause; for example, in the tropics, at 20 km for over 24 hours. UAVs offer the greatest potential for long endurance at high altitudes and may be less expensive than piloted flights. 2 figs.

  5. The quest for the bionic arm.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, Douglas T

    2014-06-01

    The current state of research of upper extremity prosthetic devices is focused on creating a complete prosthesis with full motor and sensory function that will provide amputees with a near-normal human arm. Although advances are being made rapidly, many hurdles remain to be overcome before a functional, so-called bionic arm is a reality. Acquiring signals via nerve or muscle inputs will require either a reliable wireless device or direct wiring through an osseous-integrated implant. The best way to tap into the "knowledge" present in the peripheral nerve is yet to be determined.

  6. Prior experience does not alter modulation of cutaneous reflexes during manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling.

    PubMed

    MacGillivray, Megan K; Klimstra, Marc; Sawatzky, Bonita; Zehr, E Paul; Lam, Tania

    2013-05-01

    Previous research has reported that training and experience influence H-reflex amplitude during rhythmic activity; however, little research has yet examined the influence of training on cutaneous reflexes. Manual wheelchair users (MWUs) depend on their arms for locomotion. We postulated that the daily dependence and high amount of use of the arms for mobility in MWUs would show differences in cutaneous reflex modulation during upper limb cyclic movements compared with able-bodied control subjects. We hypothesized that MWUs would demonstrate increased reflex response amplitudes for both manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling tasks. The superficial radial nerve was stimulated randomly at different points of the movement cycle of manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling in MWUs and able-bodied subjects naive to wheeling. Our results showed that there were no differences in amplitude modulation of early- or middle-latency cutaneous reflexes between the able-bodied group and the MWU group. However, there were several differences in amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes between tasks (manual wheeling and symmetrical arm cycling). Specifically, differences were observed in early-latency responses in the anterior and posterior deltoid muscles and biceps and triceps brachii as well as in middle-latency responses in the anterior and posterior deltoid. These data suggest that manual wheeling experience does not modify the pattern of cutaneous reflex amplitude modulation during manual wheeling. The differences in amplitude modulation of cutaneous reflexes between tasks may be a result of mechanical differences (i.e., hand contact) between tasks.

  7. The arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Sheehan, M.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive examination of the nature of the contemporary arms race, the forces that encourage arms competition, and the means by which these forces can be controlled. The author provides analyses of such specific issues as the viability of arms control agreements; the possibilities for nuclear disarmament; the means of deterrence, detection, and defense; and the methods of destruction themselves - nuclear, conventional, chemical, and space weapons.

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-85-065 16 December 1985 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ARMS French...34U.S.-USSR Geneva Talks" for "European Conferences". JPRS-TAO85-065 16 December 1985 SDI AND SPACE ARMS FRENCH PRIME MINISTER DISCUSSES SDI...imbalances in conventional weapons can really be discussed. As far as space is concerned, we want to avoid the emergence of weapons which are highly

  9. Vibration training for upper body: transmission of platform vibrations through cables.

    PubMed

    Tankisheva, Ekaterina; Boonen, Steven; Delecluse, Christophe; Druyts, Hans Lj; Verschueren, Sabine M P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the vibration transmission from a vibration platform through Vectran cables to the upper body and its relationship to induced muscular activation. Fifteen clinically healthy participants performed 3 different arm exercises-biceps curl, triceps curl, and lateral raise. Vibration transmission to the upper body was assessed over a wide range of accelerations (from 1.90 to 5.98 g) and frequencies (from 25 to 40 Hz). To assess the vibration transmission, 7 triaxial accelerometers were attached from the hand up to the head, and the root-mean-square of acceleration signal of each site-specific body point was calculated. Muscular activity of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoid, and upper trapezius was recorded. The results showed a significant attenuation of the platform accelerations transmitted through the Vectran cables to the upper body. Handle vibration ranged between 27 and 44% of the acceleration delivered by the platform depending on platform vibration parameters (acceleration/frequency). Vibration increased the muscle activity of biceps brachii, triceps brachii, deltoid, and upper trapezius muscles significantly only during biceps curl exercises. No frequency or acceleration effect was found on the size of the muscle response. The results of the present study suggest that a cable-pulley resistance system on a vibration platform channels the vibration safely from the platform to the arms and induces additional muscle activation in some arm muscles when biceps curl exercises are performed.

  10. Radial arm strike rail

    DOEpatents

    McKeown, Mark H.; Beason, Steven C.

    1991-01-01

    The radial arm strike rail assembly is a system for measurement of bearings, directions, and stereophotography for geologic mapping, particularly where magnetic compasses are not appropriate. The radial arm, pivoting around a shaft axis, provides a reference direction determination for geologic mapping and bearing or direction determination. The centerable and levelable pedestal provide a base for the radial arm strike rail and the telescoping camera pedestal. The telescoping feature of the radial arm strike rail allows positioning the end of the rail for strike direction or bearing measurement with a goniometer.

  11. Advances in upper extremity prosthetics.

    PubMed

    Zlotolow, Dan A; Kozin, Scott H

    2012-11-01

    Until recently, upper extremity prostheses had changed little since World War II. In 2006, the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency responded to an increasing number of military amputees with the Revolutionizing Prosthetics program. The program has yielded several breakthroughs both in the engineering of new prosthetic arms and in the control of those arms. Direct brain-wave control of a limb with 22° of freedom may be within reach. In the meantime, advances such as individually powered digits have opened the door to multifunctional full and partial hand prostheses. Restoring sensation to the prosthetic limb remains a major challenge to full integration of the limb into a patient's self-image.

  12. Robotic Arm Biobarrier Cable

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image, taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the 14th Martian day of the mission (June 7, 2008), shows the cable that held the Robotic Arm's biobarrier in place during flight has snapped. The cable's springs retracted to release the biobarrier right after landing.

    To the lower right of the image a spring is visible. Extending from that spring is a length of cable that snapped during the biobarrier's release. A second spring separated from the cable when it snapped and has been photographed on the ground under the lander near one of the legs.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Association between intramuscular fat in the arm following arm training and INSIG2.

    PubMed

    Popadic Gacesa, J Z; Secher, N H; Momcilovic, M; Grujic, N G

    2014-12-01

    Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP rs7566605) is linked to lipid metabolism, and this study assessed its potential influence on fat in the upper arm following arm training. Twenty healthy sedentary volunteers (22.0 ± 1.1 years, body mass index 25.4 ± 4.0 kg/m(2) ; mean ± standard deviation) carried out a 12-week two-arm elbow extensor training (10 maximal extensions with 1 min recovery between bouts) five times per day, five times per week. For 17 volunteers, upper arm muscle and adipose tissue [subcutaneous (SCAT) and intramuscular (IMAT)] volumes were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging before, immediately after, and 12 months after training and variables were related to the subjects' INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 genotype. Muscle volume and SCAT for the upper arm, as the decrease in IMAT during training were not related to INSIG2 SNP rs7566605: GG: %IMAT 1.0 ± 0.9%; GC/CC: %IMAT 0.6 ± 0.5% (P > 0.05). However, in the year following the training, accumulation of upper arm IMAT was twice as large in participants homozygous for the G allele (GG: Δ%IMAT +2.5 ± 0.8%; GC/CC: Δ%IMAT +1.1 ± 0.7%; P < 0.01). This study suggests that the G allele in the INSIG2 SNP rs7566605 is more relevant for changes in IMAT following training than for the amount of subcutaneous fat.

  14. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke.

  15. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

    PubMed

    Laschi, C; Mazzolai, B; Mattoli, V; Cianchetti, M; Dario, P

    2009-03-01

    This paper reports the rationale and design of a robotic arm, as inspired by an octopus arm. The octopus arm shows peculiar features, such as the ability to bend in all directions, to produce fast elongations, and to vary its stiffness. The octopus achieves these unique motor skills, thanks to its peculiar muscular structure, named muscular hydrostat. Different muscles arranged on orthogonal planes generate an antagonistic action on each other in the muscular hydrostat, which does not change its volume during muscle contractions, and allow bending and elongation of the arm and stiffness variation. By drawing inspiration from natural skills of octopus, and by analysing the geometry and mechanics of the muscular structure of its arm, we propose the design of a robot arm consisting of an artificial muscular hydrostat structure, which is completely soft and compliant, but also able to stiffen. In this paper, we discuss the design criteria of the robotic arm and how this design and the special arrangement of its muscular structure may bring the building of a robotic arm into being, by showing the results obtained by mathematical models and prototypical mock-ups.

  16. Upper Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Drainage Stent Placement Stricture Dilation Upper Endoscopy (EGD) Quality & Safety GIQuIC Registry Infection Control Privileging & Credentialing Quality Indicators Education & Meetings Advanced Education & ...

  17. Compensatory mechanisms of balance to the scaling of arm-swing frequency.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ji Hyun; Wang, Zheng; Challis, John H; Newell, Karl M

    2015-11-05

    The present study investigated the contribution of the Hof (2007) mechanism 1 (M1-moving the center of pressure (COP) with respect to the vertical projection of the center of mass (COMTotal)); and mechanism 2 (M2-rotating the trunk and upper limbs around the COMTotal) to postural control and the stability of COP-COMTotal cophase as a function of lateral arm-swing frequency. Young adults were instructed to stand still on a force platform while alternating their arm swinging from above the head to the side of their thigh to create perturbations to postural control. Scaling the frequency of arm-swing (random step changes of 0.2 Hz within a bandwidth of 0.2 to 1.6 Hz) increased the SD of COP but decreased the SD of COMTotal. Increments in arm-swing frequency induced a progressive increase in M1 and decrease in M2 in terms of their relative contribution to postural stability. The cophase between COP and COMTotal became more tightly in-phase over increments of arm-swing frequency. These findings show an adaptive compensatory role of M1 and M2 within the stability of COP-COMTotal coupling in the regulation of human balance control.

  18. Estimation of Human Arm Joints Using Two Wireless Sensors in Robotic Rehabilitation Tasks.

    PubMed

    Bertomeu-Motos, Arturo; Lledó, Luis D; Díez, Jorge A; Catalan, Jose M; Ezquerro, Santiago; Badesa, Francisco J; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas

    2015-12-04

    This paper presents a novel kinematic reconstruction of the human arm chain with five degrees of freedom and the estimation of the shoulder location during rehabilitation therapy assisted by end-effector robotic devices. This algorithm is based on the pseudoinverse of the Jacobian through the acceleration of the upper arm, measured using an accelerometer, and the orientation of the shoulder, estimated with a magnetic angular rate and gravity (MARG) device. The results show a high accuracy in terms of arm joints and shoulder movement with respect to the real arm measured through an optoelectronic system. Furthermore, the range of motion (ROM) of 50 healthy subjects is studied from two different trials, one trying to avoid shoulder movements and the second one forcing them. Moreover, the shoulder movement in the second trial is also estimated accurately. Besides the fact that the posture of the patient can be corrected during the exercise, the therapist could use the presented algorithm as an objective assessment tool. In conclusion, the joints' estimation enables a better adjustment of the therapy, taking into account the needs of the patient, and consequently, the arm motion improves faster.

  19. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  20. Above-elbow arm replantation during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Haws, M J; Erdmann, D; Brown, R E

    1996-01-01

    We report a successful replantation of an above-elbow amputated left arm in a 26-year-old female with a good, functional, long-term result. The patient was at 18 weeks estimated gestational age at the time of surgery. Major upper extremity replantation during pregnancy has not been previously described in the literature. Current operative and perioperative aspects, including considerations that favored microsurgical replantation in this unusual case, are discussed.

  1. Characterization of Upper Troposphere Water Vapor Measurements during AFWEX using LASE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, S.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Linne, H.; Lammert, A.

    2002-01-01

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere water vapor (UTWV) measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. We show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UTWV measurements.

  2. Characterization of upper troposphere water vapor measurements during AFWEX using LASE.

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrare, R. A.; Browell, E. V.; Ismail, I.; Kooi, S.; Brasseur, L. H.; Brackett, V. G.; Clayton, M.; Barrick, J.; Bosenberg, J.; Diskin, G.; Goldsmith, J.; Lesht, B.; Podolske, J.; Sachse, G.; Schmidlin, F. J.; Turner, D.; Whitemann, D.

    2002-07-15

    Water vapor profiles from NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system acquired during the ARM/FIRE Water Vapor Experiment (AFWEX) are used to characterize upper troposphere (UT) water vapor measured by ground-based Raman lidars, radiosondes, and in situ aircraft sensors. Initial comparisons showed the average Vaisala radiosonde measurements to be 5-15% drier than the average LASE, Raman lidar, and DC-8 in situ diode laser hygrometer measurements. They show that corrections to the Raman lidar and Vaisala measurements significantly reduce these differences. Precipitable water vapor (PWV) derived from the LASE water vapor profiles agrees within 3% on average with PWV derived from the ARM ground-based microwave radiometer (MWR). The agreement among the LASE, Raman lidar, and MWR measurements demonstrates how the LASE measurements can be used to characterize both profile and column water vapor measurements and that ARM Raman lidar, when calibrated using the MWR PWV, can provide accurate UT water vapor measurements.

  3. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    by S. Kulik U.S. Commitment to Space Arms Reagan Cited Weinberger Hit on ABM Treaty SDI, ABM Testing Violates Accords Said to Undermine ABM Treaty...that the creation of a large scale ABM system with outer space based elements is "a justified approach" to arms control. Yet the implementation of...countries agree that this is a new, long-term round of the arms race, and that the development of ABM weapons and the defense" system as a whole will

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Service, 1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. JPRS-TAC-86-013 1 February 1986 WORLDWIDE REPORT ARMS CONTROL CONTENTS SDI AND SPACE ...ARMS LE SOIR on Possible European Space Defense (Pierre Lefevre; Brussels LE SOIR, 12 Dec 85) 1 SALT/START ISSUES USSR Hits U.S. Accusations of...PRS«TAO86*013 1 February 1986 SDI AND SPACE ARMS LE SOIR ON POSSIBLE EUROPEAN SPACE DEFENSE Brussels LE SOIR in French 12 Dec 85 p 8 [Article by

  5. MVACS Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonitz, R.; Slostad, J.; Bon, B.; Braun, D.; Brill, R.; Buck, C.; Fleischner, R.; Haldeman, A.; Herman, J.; Hertzel, M.; Noon, D.; Pixler, G.; Schenker, P.; Ton, T.; Tucker, C.; Zimmerman, W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of the Mars Volatiles and Climate Surveyor (MVACS) Robotic Arm is to support to the other MVACS science instruments by digging trenches in the Martian soil; acquiring and dumping soil samples into the thermal evolved gas analyzer (TEGA); positioning the Soil Temperature Probe (STP) in the soil: positioning the Robotic Arm Air Temperature Sensor (RAATS) at various heights above the surface, and positioning the Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) for taking images of the surface, trench, soil samples, magnetic targets and other objects of scientific interest within its workspace.

  6. Packaging Of Control Circuits In A Robot Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kast, William

    1994-01-01

    Packaging system houses and connects control circuitry mounted on circuit boards within shoulder, upper section, and lower section of seven-degree-of-freedom robot arm. Has modular design that incorporates surface-mount technology, multilayer circuit boards, large-scale integrated circuits, and multi-layer flat cables between sections for compactness. Three sections of robot arm contain circuit modules in form of stardardized circuit boards. Each module contains two printed-circuit cards, one of each face.

  7. The organization of upper limb physiological tremor.

    PubMed

    Carignan, Benoit; Daneault, Jean-François; Duval, Christian

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study are (1) to assess the relationship between tremor displacement of different segments of the upper limb, (2) to assess whether an attempt to voluntarily reduce tremor amplitude affects this relationship. Twenty-five young healthy participants were tested. Tremor of the finger, hand, arm and shoulder was assessed using laser displacement sensors while the upper limb was in a postural position. Results show strong correlations (r > 0.90), high coherence (>0.9) and in-phase movement between tremor displacement oscillations of different segments. The majority of finger tremor amplitude can be predicted by angular movement generated at the shoulder joint (r(2) > 0.86). Participants were able to voluntarily reduce tremor amplitude, but no change in the relationship between segments was observed. Tremor of all segments of the upper limb was mechanically driven by the angular movement generated at the shoulder joint. This study provides evidence that there is no compensatory organization of physiological tremor. This lays the groundwork to evaluate whether pathological tremors also lack this organization.

  8. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-23

    GDR, handguns , ammunition, explo- sives, communications and pioneer technology, certain ships, and military supplies are produced. In 1989, 1...appointed by the interior minister, and the defense, trade, and foreign ministers can issue licenses for arms traders to sign contracts. In disputed...Impossible Thought The group of politicians, diplomats, and soldiers who want to use arms control and disarmament to further their Own concealed

  9. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    ABM (Moscow TASS, 9, 10 Nov 85) 5 .U.S. ’New Interpretation’ 5 U.S. Posture Unchanged 5 PRAVDA 27 Oct Review of Week’s International Events...Space Arms Race (Beijing XINHUA, 8 Nov 85) ........................... 34 Briefs Senators Hit ABM Change 35 CSSR Representative Addresses UN...SDI AND SPACE ARMS TASS REPORTS NITZE NOVEMBER REMARKS ON SDI, ABM U.S. ’New Interpretation’ LD901421 Moscow TASS in English 1334 GMT 9 Nov 85

  10. Worldwide Report. Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    knowledgeable people and came to the conclusion that the Pentagon official who has taught his son from infancy to fear and hate the USSR has influenced...missile. The U.S. Administration fears that defeat of the. MX in Congress could undermine the U.S. position>at the arms talks here. The Soviet delegation...swaggering. Behind this there is not only the fear that the gigantic arms ex- penditure could bring about a deficit crisis of enormous proportions

  11. ARM for Platform Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patte, Mathieu; Poupat, Jean-Luc; Le Meur, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The activities described in this paper are part of the CNES R&T “Study of a Cortex-R ARM based architecture” performed by Airbus DS Space System & Electronics in 2014. With the support of CNES, Airbus DS has performed the porting of a representative space application software on an ARM based demonstration platform. This paper presents the platform itself, the activities performed at software level and the first results on this evaluation study.

  12. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    past 23 years, Senate President Jovito Salonga said yesterday. In an interview on government television, Salonga said the presence of nuclear arms...date and place not given] [Excerpts] The Bulgarian Government recently announced that it will reduce its armed forces by 10,000 soldiers, 200 tanks...unambiguous and does not leave any room for any kind of speculation, not even in Bonn’s government statement. Corresponding to the GDR’s peace

  13. Hello to Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This image highlights the hidden spiral arms (blue) that were discovered around the nearby galaxy NGC 4625 by the ultraviolet eyes of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer.

    The image is composed of ultraviolet and visible-light data, from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer and the California Institute of Technology's Digitized Sky Survey, respectively. Near-ultraviolet light is colored green; far-ultraviolet light is colored blue; and optical light is colored red.

    As the image demonstrates, the lengthy spiral arms are nearly invisible when viewed in optical light while bright in ultraviolet. This is because they are bustling with hot, newborn stars that radiate primarily ultraviolet light.

    The youthful arms are also very long, stretching out to a distance four times the size of the galaxy's core. They are part of the largest ultraviolet galactic disk discovered so far.

    Located 31 million light-years away in the constellation Canes Venatici, NGC 4625 is the closest galaxy ever seen with such a young halo of arms. It is slightly smaller than our Milky Way, both in size and mass. However, the fact that this galaxy's disk is forming stars very actively suggests that it might evolve into a more massive and mature galaxy resembling our own.

    The armless companion galaxy seen below NGC 4625 is called NGC 4618. Astronomers do not know why it lacks arms but speculate that it may have triggered the development of arms in NGC 4625.

  14. Kinematically redundant arm formulations for coordinated multiple arm implementations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Robert W.; Quiocho, Leslie J.; Cleghorn, Timothy F.

    1990-01-01

    Although control laws for kinematically redundant robotic arms were presented as early as 1969, redundant arms have only recently become recognized as viable solutions to limitations inherent to kinematically sufficient arms. The advantages of run-time control optimization and arm reconfiguration are becoming increasingly attractive as the complexity and criticality of robotic systems continues to progress. A generalized control law for a spatial arm with 7 or more degrees of freedom (DOF) based on Whitney's resolved rate formulation is given. Results from a simulation implementation utilizing this control law are presented. Furthermore, results from a two arm simulation are presented to demonstrate the coordinated control of multiple arms using this formulation.

  15. Robotic Arm Comprising Two Bending Segments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehling, Joshua S.; Difler, Myron A.; Ambrose, Robert O.; Chu, Mars W.; Valvo, Michael C.

    2010-01-01

    The figure shows several aspects of an experimental robotic manipulator that includes a housing from which protrudes a tendril- or tentacle-like arm 1 cm thick and 1 m long. The arm consists of two collinear segments, each of which can be bent independently of the other, and the two segments can be bent simultaneously in different planes. The arm can be retracted to a minimum length or extended by any desired amount up to its full length. The arm can also be made to rotate about its own longitudinal axis. Some prior experimental robotic manipulators include single-segment bendable arms. Those arms are thicker and shorter than the present one. The present robotic manipulator serves as a prototype of future manipulators that, by virtue of the slenderness and multiple- bending capability of their arms, are expected to have sufficient dexterity for operation within spaces that would otherwise be inaccessible. Such manipulators could be especially well suited as means of minimally invasive inspection during construction and maintenance activities. Each of the two collinear bending arm segments is further subdivided into a series of collinear extension- and compression-type helical springs joined by threaded links. The extension springs occupy the majority of the length of the arm and engage passively in bending. The compression springs are used for actively controlled bending. Bending is effected by means of pairs of antagonistic tendons in the form of spectra gel spun polymer lines that are attached at specific threaded links and run the entire length of the arm inside the spring helix from the attachment links to motor-driven pulleys inside the housing. Two pairs of tendons, mounted in orthogonal planes that intersect along the longitudinal axis, are used to effect bending of each segment. The tendons for actuating the distal bending segment are in planes offset by an angle of 45 from those of the proximal bending segment: This configuration makes it possible to

  16. Bilateral arm training: Why and who benefits?

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Sandy McCombe; Whitall, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  17. Bilateral arm training: why and who benefits?

    PubMed

    McCombe Waller, Sandy; Whitall, Jill

    2008-01-01

    Bilateral arm training has emerged as an approach that leads to positive outcomes in addressing upper extremity paresis after stroke. However, studies have not demonstrated improvements in all patients using current outcome measures. Furthermore, the rationale for using this type of training has been incompletely explained. The purpose of this article was to first review the theoretical justifications for the use of bilateral arm training by examining motor control and neural mechanisms underlying arm function and neural recovery, and second, to discuss examples of clinical studies using a variety of bilateral training strategies to identify who may benefit most from this approach. We argue that bilateral arm training is a necessary adjunct to unilateral training because bilateral re-training is important and best served through bilateral not unilateral training, and also, that bilateral training may help unilateral skill recovery through alternative putative mechanisms. Our review of the empirical evidence suggests that individuals at all levels of severity can benefit in some manner from bilateral training, but that not all approaches are effective for all severity levels. In addition to requesting more randomized controlled trials and studies of neurophysiological mechanisms we conclude the following: 1) Bilateral training can improve unilateral paretic limb functions of the upper extremity after stroke, however, specific training approaches need to be matched to baseline characteristics of the patients; 2) Given the importance of bilateral activities in daily life, there is a need to recognize, train and assess the important contribution of supportive role functions of the paretic arm used on its own and as part of complementary bilateral functional skills; 3) An assessment of bilateral and unilateral functioning which includes bilateral task analysis, as well as, evaluations of interlimb coordination should be included in all studies that include bilateral

  18. 32. VERTICAL / STRUT / UPPER CHORD DETAIL AT PINCONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. VERTICAL / STRUT / UPPER CHORD DETAIL AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  19. Octopus arm choice is strongly influenced by eye use.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael J; Meisel, Daniela V; Griebel, Ulrike; Mather, Jennifer A

    2006-09-25

    This study aims to investigate the octopus' eye and arm coordination and raises the question if visual guidance determines choice of arm use. Octopuses possess eight seemingly identical arms but have recently been reported to show a preference as to which arm they use to initiate contact with objects. These animals also exhibit lateralized eye use, therefore, a connection between eye and arm preference seems possible. Seven Octopus vulgaris were observed during approach, contact initiation and exploration of plastic objects that were positioned on three different levels in the water column. The subjects most commonly used an arm to initiate contact with an object that was in a direct line between the eye used to look at the object, and the object itself. This indicates that choice of arm use is spatially rather opportunistic when depending on visual guidance. Additionally, first contact with an object was usually established by the central third of the arm and in arm contact sequences neighboring arms were the most likely to follow an arm already touching the object. Although results point towards strong eye/arm coordination, we did not find lateralized behavior in this experiment. Results are discussed from a neuro-anatomical, behavioral and ecological perspective.

  20. Human movement training with a cable driven ARm EXoskeleton (CAREX).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ying; Jin, Xin; Gera Dutta, Geetanjali; Scholz, John P; Agrawal, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the authors have proposed lightweight exoskeleton designs for upper arm rehabilitation using multi-stage cable-driven parallel mechanism. Previously, the authors have demonstrated via experiments that it is possible to apply "assist-as-needed" forces in all directions at the end-effector with such an exoskeleton acting on an anthropomorphic machine arm. A human-exoskeleton interface was also presented to show the feasibility of CAREX on human subjects. The goals of this paper are to 1) further address issues when CAREX is mounted on human subjects, e.g., generation of continuous cable tension trajectories 2) demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of CAREX on movement training of healthy human subjects and a stroke patient. In this research, CAREX is rigidly attached to an arm orthosis worn by human subjects. The cable routing points are optimized to achieve a relatively large "tensioned" static workspace. A new cable tension planner based on quadratic programming is used to generate continuous cable tension trajectory for smooth motion. Experiments were carried out on eight healthy subjects. The experimental results show that CAREX can help the subjects move closer to a prescribed circular path using the force fields generated by the exoskeleton. The subjects also adapt to the path shortly after training. CAREX was also evaluated on a stroke patient to test the feasibility of its use on patients with neural impairment. The results show that the patient was able to move closer to a prescribed straight line path with the "assist-as-needed" force field.

  1. The long arms of anencephaly: A refutation.

    PubMed

    Barr, Mason

    2009-08-01

    A paper published in 1925 reported that human fetuses with anencephaly have arms that are longer than normal. This finding was accepted as true through the early 1990s. An analysis of body dimensions done in 1996 and enlarged and updated here shows that the arms of human fetuses with anencephaly are appropriate for gestational age and normal in proportion to their leg lengths. A subtle difference in measurement technique was found to explain the discordant findings.

  2. Physical exercises for breast cancer survivors: effects of 10 weeks of training on upper limb circumferences

    PubMed Central

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Morano, Teresa; Bucci, Ines; Di Santo, Serena; D’Arielli, Alberto; Castro, Cristina Gonzalez; Cugusi, Lucia; Cianchetti, Ettore; Napolitano, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aims of this study were to verify the effects on upper limb circumferences and total body extracellular water of 10 weeks of Nordic Walking (NW) and Walking (W), both alone and combined with a series of exercises created for breast cancer survivors, the ISA method. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty breast cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 4 different training groups and evaluated for upper limb circumferences, total body and extracellular water. [Results] The breast cancer survivors who performed NW, alone and combined with the ISA method, and Walking combined with the ISA method (but not alone) showed significantly reduced arm and forearm circumferences homolateral to the surgical intervention. [Conclusion] For breast cancer survivors, NW, alone and combined with the ISA method, and Walking combined with the ISA method should be prescribed to prevent the onset and to treat light forms of upper limb lymphedema because Walking training practiced alone had no significant effect on upper limb circumference reduction. PMID:27821934

  3. Validity and inter-observer reliability of subjective hand-arm vibration assessments.

    PubMed

    Coenen, Pieter; Formanoy, Margriet; Douwes, Marjolein; Bosch, Tim; de Kraker, Heleen

    2014-07-01

    Exposure to mechanical vibrations at work (e.g., due to handling powered tools) is a potential occupational risk as it may cause upper extremity complaints. However, reliable and valid assessment methods for vibration exposure at work are lacking. Measuring hand-arm vibration objectively is often difficult and expensive, while often used information provided by manufacturers lacks detail. Therefore, a subjective hand-arm vibration assessment method was tested on validity and inter-observer reliability. In an experimental protocol, sixteen tasks handling powered tools were executed by two workers. Hand-arm vibration was assessed subjectively by 16 observers according to the proposed subjective assessment method. As a gold standard reference, hand-arm vibration was measured objectively using a vibration measurement device. Weighted κ's were calculated to assess validity, intra-class-correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess inter-observer reliability. Inter-observer reliability of the subjective assessments depicting the agreement among observers can be expressed by an ICC of 0.708 (0.511-0.873). The validity of the subjective assessments as compared to the gold-standard reference can be expressed by a weighted κ of 0.535 (0.285-0.785). Besides, the percentage of exact agreement of the subjective assessment compared to the objective measurement was relatively low (i.e., 52% of all tasks). This study shows that subjectively assessed hand-arm vibrations are fairly reliable among observers and moderately valid. This assessment method is a first attempt to use subjective risk assessments of hand-arm vibration. Although, this assessment method can benefit from some future improvement, it can be of use in future studies and in field-based ergonomic assessments.

  4. An extended approach for the vascular pedicle of the lateral arm free flap.

    PubMed

    Moffett, T R; Madison, S A; Derr, J W; Acland, R D

    1992-02-01

    We present an extension of the surgical approach for harvesting the lateral upper arm free flap by which an additional 6 to 8 cm of pedicle length may be gained. First, the flap is raised by the standard lateral approach. Then, by proceeding proximally and posteriorly, the triceps muscle is split between its lateral and long heads to expose the entire length of the profunda brachii vessels in the spiral groove. A tunnel is developed beneath the lateral head of the triceps, and the flap or its pedicle is delivered through this. We describe the surgical technique and present details of a dissection study on 25 fresh cadaver limbs. The nerve branches to the lateral head of the triceps, which are close to the vessels of the flap, are highly variable in number and location. When unusually short and distally placed, they are at risk of damage, but damage can be avoided if the tunnel is not unduly widened. We present our early clinical experience in 10 consecutive cases using the extended-pedicle lateral arm flap. The free pedicle length in this series ranged from 8 to 13 cm. The maximum flap size was 5 x 19 cm. All cases were successful, although one required reoperation for venous thrombosis. Although postoperative testing of upper arm muscle function showed some weakness and impaired endurance, this was found equally in the surgically disturbed triceps and in the untouched elbow flexors and thus could not be attributed to motor nerve damage to the triceps muscle.

  5. Phoenix Scoop Inverted Showing Rasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager on Sol 49, or the 49th Martian day of the mission (July 14, 2008), shows the silver colored rasp protruding from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm scoop. The scoop is inverted and the rasp is pointing up.

    Shown with its forks pointing toward the ground is the thermal and electrical conductivity probe, at the lower right. The Robotic Arm Camera is pointed toward the ground.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. One regional ARM guide for climatic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    One of the early tasks of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program is to provide climatic guides for site selection purposes including possible continental, regional, local and on-site locations. The first guide A Preliminary ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluations'' provided some climate data on a continental scale; this one is an attempt to show the variability that exists over a region. Kansas was chosen for this particular guide because it satisfies most of the requirements given in the ARM Program Plan, i.e., climatic significance, potential for synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability. Kansas has extreme climatic variations, is centrally located, is compatible with other large scale programs (Fife), has good airfields and accommodations to minimize time and effort in planning and operating an ARM site for continuous use and special campaigns.

  7. One regional ARM guide for climatic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    One of the early tasks of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program is to provide climatic guides for site selection purposes including possible continental, regional, local and on-site locations. The first guide ``A Preliminary ARM Guide for Climatic Evaluations`` provided some climate data on a continental scale; this one is an attempt to show the variability that exists over a region. Kansas was chosen for this particular guide because it satisfies most of the requirements given in the ARM Program Plan, i.e., climatic significance, potential for synergism with other programs and scientific and logistical viability. Kansas has extreme climatic variations, is centrally located, is compatible with other large scale programs (Fife), has good airfields and accommodations to minimize time and effort in planning and operating an ARM site for continuous use and special campaigns.

  8. An arm-first approach to cleavable mikto-arm star polymers by RAFT polymerization.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaohu; Moad, Graeme; Muir, Benjamin W; Rizzardo, Ezio; Rosselgong, Julien; Yang, Wantai; Thang, San H

    2014-04-01

    Redox-cleavable mikto-arm star polymers are prepared by an "arm-first" approach involving copolymerization of a dimethacrylate mediated by a mixture of macroRAFT agents. Thus, RAFT copolymerization of the monomers BMA, DMAEMA, and OEGMA, with the disulfide dimethacrylate cross-linker (DSDMA), bis(2-methacryloyl)oxyethyl disulfide, mediated by a 1:1:1 mixture of three macroRAFT agents with markedly different properties [hydrophilic, poly[oligo(ethylene glycol) methacrylate]-P(OEGMA)8-9 ; cationizable, poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate]-P(DMAEMA); hydrophobic, poly(n-butyl methacrylate)-P(BMA)] provides low dispersity mikto-arm star polymers. Good control (Đ < 1.3) is observed for the target P(DMAEMA)/P(OEGMA)/P(BMA) (3:3:1) mikto-arm star, a double hydrophilic P(DMAEMA)/P(OEGMA) (3:3) mikto-arm star and a hydrophobic P(BMA) homo-arm star. However, Đ for the target mikto-arm stars increases with an increase in either the ratio [DSDMA]:[total macroRAFT] or the fraction of hydrophobic P(BMA) macroRAFT agent. The quaternized mikto-arm star in dilute aqueous solution shows a monomodal particle size distribution and an average size of ≈145 nm.

  9. Anchoring the "floating arm": Use of proprioceptive and mirror visual feedback from one arm to control involuntary displacement of the other arm.

    PubMed

    Brun, C; Guerraz, M

    2015-12-03

    Arm movement control takes advantage of multiple inputs, including those originating from the contralateral arm. In the mirror paradigm, it has been suggested that control of the unseen arm, hidden by the mirror, is facilitated by the reflection of the other, moving arm. Although proprioceptive feedback originating from the moving arm, (the image of which is reflected in the mirror), is always coupled with visual feedback in the mirror paradigm, the former has received little attention. We recently showed that the involuntary arm movement following a sustained, isometric contraction, known as the "floating arm" or "Kohnstamm phenomenon", was adjusted to the passive-motorized displacement of the other arm. However, provision of mirror feedback, that is, the reflection in the mirror of the passively moved arm, did not add to this coupling effect. Therefore, the interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm may to a large extent have a proprioceptive origin rather than a visual origin. The objective of the present study was to decouple mirror feedback and proprioceptive feedback from the reflected, moving arm and evaluate their respective contributions to interlimb coupling in the mirror paradigm. First (in Experiment 1, under eyes-closed conditions), we found that masking the proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm (by co-vibrating the antagonistic biceps and triceps muscles) suppressed the interlimb coupling between involuntary displacement of one arm and passive displacement of the other. Next (in Experiment 2), we masked proprioceptive afferents of the passively moved arm and specifically evaluated mirror feedback. We found that interlimb coupling through mirror feedback (though significant) was weaker than interlimb coupling through proprioceptive feedback. Overall, the present results show that in the mirror paradigm, proprioceptive feedback is stronger and more consistent than visual-mirror feedback in terms of the impact on interlimb coupling.

  10. Arms Industry limited

    SciTech Connect

    Wulf, H.

    1993-12-31

    The intent of this study is to give an overview of the present state of the world arms industry. It is an empirical account of the size of the industry and particularly its present problems. The authors examine the economic pressures that affect the international arms trade. Specifically, it raises the question of how dependent the industry is on weapons production and exports, and whether there are any alternatives. Export dependence of the major weapons producing countries is a major focus. The book focus`s on private industry as opposed to examination of national governments. Despite the passing of the Cold War and some brief post-Gulf War euphoria about the possibility of greater restrain on the part of weapons exporters, the conventional arms trade is alive and well, albeit with new variations.

  11. Human cervical spinal cord circuitry activated by tonic input can generate rhythmic arm movements.

    PubMed

    Solopova, I A; Selionov, V A; Zhvansky, D S; Gurfinkel, V S; Ivanenko, Y

    2016-02-01

    The coordination between arms and legs during human locomotion shares many features with that in quadrupeds, yet there is limited evidence for the central pattern generator for the upper limbs in humans. Here we investigated whether different types of tonic stimulation, previously used for eliciting stepping-like leg movements, may evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements. Twenty healthy subjects participated in this study. The subject was lying on the side, the trunk was fixed, and all four limbs were suspended in a gravity neutral position, allowing unrestricted low-friction limb movements in the horizontal plane. The results showed that peripheral sensory stimulation (continuous muscle vibration) and central tonic activation (postcontraction state of neuronal networks following a long-lasting isometric voluntary effort, Kohnstamm phenomenon) could evoke nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements in most subjects. In ∼40% of subjects, tonic stimulation elicited nonvoluntary rhythmic arm movements together with rhythmic movements of suspended legs. The fact that not all participants exhibited nonvoluntary limb oscillations may reflect interindividual differences in responsiveness of spinal pattern generation circuitry to its activation. The occurrence and the characteristics of induced movements highlight the rhythmogenesis capacity of cervical neuronal circuitries, complementing the growing body of work on the quadrupedal nature of human gait.

  12. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm.

    PubMed

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L; Boots, Mathew T; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions.

  13. Biomechanical Constraints Underlying Motor Primitives Derived from the Musculoskeletal Anatomy of the Human Arm

    PubMed Central

    Gritsenko, Valeriya; Hardesty, Russell L.; Boots, Mathew T.; Yakovenko, Sergiy

    2016-01-01

    Neural control of movement can only be realized though the interaction between the mechanical properties of the limb and the environment. Thus, a fundamental question is whether anatomy has evolved to simplify neural control by shaping these interactions in a beneficial way. This inductive data-driven study analyzed the patterns of muscle actions across multiple joints using the musculoskeletal model of the human upper limb. This model was used to calculate muscle lengths across the full range of motion of the arm and examined the correlations between these values between all pairs of muscles. Musculoskeletal coupling was quantified using hierarchical clustering analysis. Muscle lengths between multiple pairs of muscles across multiple postures were highly correlated. These correlations broadly formed two proximal and distal groups, where proximal muscles of the arm were correlated with each other and distal muscles of the arm and hand were correlated with each other, but not between groups. Using hierarchical clustering, between 11 and 14 reliable muscle groups were identified. This shows that musculoskeletal anatomy does indeed shape the mechanical interactions by grouping muscles into functional clusters that generally match the functional repertoire of the human arm. Together, these results support the idea that the structure of the musculoskeletal system is tuned to solve movement complexity problem by reducing the dimensionality of available solutions. PMID:27736890

  14. Marine benthic habitat mapping of the West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hodson, Timothy O.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Powell, Ross D.

    2013-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in West Arm, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, groundtruthed observations, and geological interpretations. The West Arm of Glacier Bay is a recently deglaciated fjord system under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the recently developed Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Due to the high flux of glacially sourced fines, mud is the dominant substrate within the West Arm. Water-column characteristics are addressed using a combination of CTD and circulation model results. We also present sediment accumulation data derived from differential bathymetry. These data show the West Arm is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS classification scheme and as a baseline for ongoing and future mapping efforts and correlations between seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glacimarine processes.

  15. Lymphedema of the arm and breast in irradiated breast cancer patients: risks in an era of dramatically changing axillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Goffman, Thomas E; Laronga, Christine; Wilson, Lori; Elkins, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess risk for lymphedema of the breast and arm in radiotherapy patients in an era of less extensive axillary surgery. Breast cancer patients treated for cure were reviewed, with a minimum follow-up of 1.5 years from the end of treatment. Clinical, surgical, and radiation-related variables were tested for statistical association with arm and breast lymphedema using regression analyses, t-tests, and chi-squared analyses. Between January 1998 and June 2001, 240 women received radiation for localized breast cancer in our center. The incidence of lymphedema of the ipsilateral breast, arm, and combined (breast and arm) was 9.6%, 7.6%, and 1.8%, respectively, with a median follow-up of 27 months. For breast edema, t-test and multivariate analysis showed body mass index (BMI) to be significant (p = 0.043, p = 0.0038), as was chi-squared and multivariate testing for site of tumor in the breast (p = 0.0043, p = 0.0035). For arm edema, t-test and multivariate analyses showed the number of nodes removed to be significant (p = 0.0040, p = 0.0458); the size of the tumor was also significant by multivariate analyses (p = 0.0027). Tumor size appeared significant because a number of very large cancers failed locally and caused cancer-related obstructive lymphedema. In our center, even modern, limited level 1-2 axillary dissection and tangential irradiation carries the risk of arm lymphedema that would argue in favor of sentinel node biopsy. For breast edema, disruption of draining lymphatics by surgery and radiation with boost to the upper outer quadrant increased risk, especially for the obese. Fortunately both breast and arm edema benefited from manual lymphatic drainage.

  16. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    means and ofI large-scale system of so-called ABM defense coupled with the buildup of strategic offensive arms is also aimed at smashing the strategic...strategic defense". On this basis they assert, firstly, that there is as yet no real threat of an all-embracing ABM system being deployed, and, se- PnlifUÜf...States is not violating any of its commitments on arms limitations, above all those envisaged under the ABM treaty. It is common knowledge that

  17. Worldwide Report Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-02-04

    GMT 4 Jan 87 LD] /9738 CSO: 5200/1128 11 U.S.«-USSR NUCLEAR AND SPACE ARMS TALKS GORBACHEV, REAGAN NEW YEAR MESSAGES ON DISARMAMENT Reagan to...Moscow PRAVDA in Russian 28 Dec 86 First Edition p 4 [Vitaliy Korionov "International Review"] [Excerpts] Only a few days remain until the New Year...105063 JPRS-TAC-87-OlO 4 FEBRUARY 1987 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL ’DUO QUALITY BFSPSSTEP * 19980515 022 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST■1NFORMAtlÖN

  18. An improved biomechanical model for simulating the strain of the hand-arm system under vibration stress.

    PubMed

    Fritz, M

    1991-01-01

    In order to define relationships between the vibration stress and the strain of the human hand-arm system a biomechanical model was developed. The four masses of the model representing the hand, the forearm and the upper arm were connected by dampers and springs in two perpendicular directions. Simulating muscle activity, damped torsion springs were included additionally. The motions of the model were described by a differential matrix equation which was solved by using a 'transfer matrix routine' as well as by numerical integration. Thus, functions with harmonic or transient time courses could be selected as an excitation. The simulated vibrations were compared with those of other hand-arm models. The forces and torques transmitted between the masses, and the energy dissipated by the dampers were computed for several combinations of exciter frequencies and accelerations. The dependence of torques upon excitation agreed fairly well with the behaviour of the arm muscles under vibration as described by various investigators. At frequencies above 100 Hz the energy was dissipated mainly by the dampers between the masses near to the exciter. Transferring this result to the hand-arm system it shows that at high frequencies energy is dissipated by the hand and its palmar tissues and this might be one cause for the incidence of vibration-induced white finger disease.

  19. Acute effects of vibration from a chipping hammer and a grinder on the hand-arm system.

    PubMed Central

    Kihlberg, S; Attebrant, M; Gemne, G; Kjellberg, A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--The purpose of this study was to compare various effects on the hand-arm system of vibration exposure from a chipping hammer and a grinder with the same frequency weighted acceleration. Grip and push forces were measured and monitored during the exposure. The various effects were: muscle activity (measured with surface electrodes), discomfort ratings for different parts of the hand-arm system (made during and after exposure), and vibration perception threshold (for 10 minutes before and 10 minutes after the exposure). RESULTS--No increase in muscle activity due to exposure to vibration was found in the hand muscle studied. In the forearm, conversely, there was an increase in both muscle studied. For the upper arm the muscle activity only increased when exposed to impact vibration. Subjective ratings in the hand and shift in vibration perception threshold were effected more by the grinder than the hammer exposure. CONCLUSION--These results show that the reaction of the hand-arm system to vibration varies with frequency quantitatively as well as qualitatively. They do not support the notion that one single frequency weighted curve would be valid for the different health effects of hand-arm vibration (vascular, musculoskeletal, neurological, and psychophysiological). PMID:8535492

  20. Reanimating the arm and hand with intraspinal microstimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Jonas B.; Seki, Kazuhiko; Jackson, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    To date, there is no effective therapy for spinal cord injury, and many patients could benefit dramatically from at least partial restoration of arm and hand function. Despite a substantial body of research investigating intraspinal microstimulation (ISMS) in frogs, rodents and cats, little is known about upper-limb responses to cervical stimulation in the primate. Here, we show for the first time that long trains of ISMS delivered to the macaque spinal cord can evoke functional arm and hand movements. Complex movements involving coordinated activation of multiple muscles could be elicited from a single electrode, while just two electrodes were required for independent control of reaching and grasping. We found that the motor responses to ISMS were described by a dual exponential model that depended only on stimulation history. We demonstrate that this model can be inverted to generate stimulus trains capable of eliciting arbitrary, graded motor responses, and could be used to restore volitional movements in a closed-loop brain-machine interface.

  1. EEG-Triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation Therapy for Restoring Upper Limb Function in Chronic Stroke with Severe Hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Marquis, Aaron; Popovic, Milos R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the therapeutic effects of integrating brain-computer interfacing technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy to restore upper limb reaching movements in a 64-year-old man with severe left hemiplegia following a hemorrhagic stroke he sustained six years prior to this study. He completed 40 90-minute sessions of functional electrical stimulation therapy using a custom-made neuroprosthesis that facilitated 5 different reaching movements. During each session, the participant attempted to reach with his paralyzed arm repeatedly. Stimulation for each of the movement phases (e.g., extending and retrieving the arm) was triggered when the power in the 18 Hz–28 Hz range (beta frequency range) of the participant's EEG activity, recorded with a single electrode, decreased below a predefined threshold. The function of the participant's arm showed a clinically significant improvement in the Fugl-Meyer Assessment Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) subscore (6 points) as well as moderate improvement in Functional Independence Measure Self-Care subscore (7 points). The changes in arm's function suggest that the combination of BCI technology and functional electrical stimulation therapy may restore voluntary motor function in individuals with chronic hemiplegia which results in severe upper limb deficit (FMA-UE ≤ 15), a population that does not benefit from current best-practice rehabilitation interventions. PMID:27882256

  2. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-28

    Dec 85 [Text] Moscow, December 3 TASS —TASS political news analyst valerity Vavilov writes: The defence ministers of the twelve West European NATO...that during the second Taiwan crisis of 1958, the use of nuclear arms against China was very close to reality. (In August of that year, the U.S. 7th

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    34military activities, whether in the armed forces, their civilian sectors, or in the ’defence’ indus- try". In another paper Professor Carl Sagan ...spurring the development of new weapons. Star Wars is a case in point. As Carl Sagan puts it, the idea is doomed: "SDI is ruinously expensive, it can

  4. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-12

    thai, in the long run one cannot oven tell to willy frandi’and fgon fahr . ’r’ho Soviets arc thus evoking the suspicion that they are playing dirty...material resources and the knowledge of scientists in combatting diseases , if the resources were spent on it that are taken up by the arms race

  5. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Joint-Stock Company"] [Text] A constituent conference of the "Ural- Kosmos " closed joint-stock company [aktsionernoye obshchestvo zakrytogo tipa] has...due to be destroyed under arms cuts. Their warheads will be replaced by communications satellites. The founders of the "Ural- Kosmos " company note

  6. The molecular spiral arms of NGC 6946

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tacconi, L. J.; Xie, S.

    1990-01-01

    From CO-12(J=1 to 0) observations at 45 seconds resolution Tacconi and Young (1989) have found evidence for enhancements in both the CO emissivity and the massive star formation efficiency (MSFE) on optical spiral arms of the bright spiral galaxy NGC 6946. In the optically luminous and well-defined spiral arm in the NE quadrant, there are enhancements in both the H2 surface density and MSFE relative to the interarm regions. In contrast, a poorly defined arm in the SW shows no arm-interarm contrast in the MSFE. To further investigate the molecular gas content of these two spiral arms, researchers have made CO-12 J=2 to 1 and 3 to 2 observations with the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. In the J=2 to 1 line, they made observations of the NE and SW spiral arm and interarm regions in 4 x 9 10 seconds spaced grids (36 points per grid). Because of decreased sensitivity in the J=3 to 2 line, they were limited to mapping the two arm regions in 2 x 3 10 seconds spaced grids (6 points per grid). The centers of each of the grids lie 2.4 minutes to the NE and 2.3 minutes to the SW of the nucleus of NGC 6946. With the CO J=2 to 1 data researchers are able to fully resolve the two observed spiral arms in NGC 6946. In both cases the CO emission is largely confined to the optical spiral arm regions with the peak observed T asterisk sub A being up to 4 times higher on the spiral arms than in the interarm regions. Researchers are currently estimating massive star formation efficiencies on and off the spiral arms through direct comparison of the CO maps with an H alpha image. They are also comparing the CO J=2 to 1 data with an HI map made at similar resolution. Thus, they will be able to determine structure in all components of the IS on scales of less than 20 inches.

  7. A method for measurement of static lever arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xianglu; Qin, Shiqiao; Wang, Xingshu; Wu, Wei; Hu, Feng; Zheng, JiaXing

    2016-01-01

    Lever arm effect has to be considered in transfer alignment technology. Between static lever arm and dynamic lever arm, the former has larger amplitude, and it is the major error source in transfer alignment. How to measure and solve it become an important problem. This paper takes vehicle as a rigid body. Assume that static lever arm does not change in a short time, based on two inertial measurement units(IMU), data are measured and constituted several matrixes properly. After that, by using least square method, static lever arm is solved finally. Simulation experiments are implemented, results show that static lever arm can be solved effectively. Further study shows that, the precision of the method can be improved by preprocessing low pass filter.

  8. Robotic Arm of Rover 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    JPL engineers examine the robotic arm of Mars Exploration Rover 1. The arm is modeled after a human arm, complete with joints, and holds four devices on its end, the Rock Abrasion Tool which can grind into Martian rocks, a microscopic imager, and two spectrometers for elemental and iron-mineral identification.

  9. Two-arm master/slave manipulator for nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Tomizawa, F.; Iwatsuka, N.; Suzuki, M.; Senoh, M.; Sugiyama, S.

    1988-01-01

    Several kinds of one-arm manipulators have been developed for remote maintenance in nuclear facilities to reduce personnel radiation exposure and to keep plant availability as high as possible. In those maintenance tasks, however, there are many that need two arms, e.g., one arm holds the work object and the other arm cuts it with a plasma torch. To answer this need, a dexterous two-arm master/slave manipulator has been developed based on the technology for one-arm manipulators. A prototype two-arm/slave manipulator is shown. The specifications for master and slave manipulators are listed. The prototype two-arm manipulator is undergoing laboratory performance tests. Preliminary results showed the maximum static operating forces were 0.4 N for the all-direct drive (DD)-type arm and 1.1 N for the semi-DD type. The payload for each arm of the slave manipulator was confirmed as 10 kg/sub f/, using mock pieces. The decommissioning tasks of cutting pipes and steel plates were successfully carried out.

  10. Laser frequency stabilization by dual arm locking for LISA

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, Andrew; Shaddock, Daniel A.

    2008-10-15

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be the first dedicated space based gravitational wave detector. LISA will consist of a triangular formation of spacecraft, forming an interferometer with 5x10{sup 6} km long arms. Annual length variations of the interferometer arms prevent exact laser frequency noise cancellation. Despite prestabilization to an optical cavity the expected frequency noise is many orders of magnitude larger than the required levels. Arm locking is a feedback control method that will further stabilize the laser frequency by referencing it to the 5x10{sup 6} km arms. Although the original arm locking scheme produced a substantial noise reduction, the technique suffered from slowly decaying start-up transients and excess noise at harmonic frequencies of the inverse round-trip time. Dual arm locking, presented here, improves on the original scheme by combining information from two interferometer arms for feedback control. Compared to conventional arm locking, dual arm locking exhibits significantly reduced start-up transients, no noise amplification at frequencies within the LISA signal band, and more than 50 fold improvement in noise suppression at low frequencies. In this article we present a detailed analysis of the dual arm locking control system and present simulation results showing a noise reduction of 10 000 at a frequency of 10 mHz.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS OF SPIRAL ARMS IN LATE-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Honig, Z. N.; Reid, M. J.

    2015-02-10

    We have measured the positions of large numbers of H II regions in four nearly face-on, late-type, spiral galaxies: NGC 628 (M74), NGC 1232, NGC 3184, and NGC 5194 (M51). Fitting log-periodic spiral models to segments of each arm yields local estimates of spiral pitch angle and arm width. While pitch angles vary considerably along individual arms, among arms within a galaxy, and among galaxies, we find no systematic trend with galactocentric distance. We estimate the widths of the arm segments from the scatter in the distances of the H II regions from the spiral model. All major arms in these galaxies show spiral arm width increasing with distance from the galactic center, similar to the trend seen in the Milky Way. However, in the outermost parts of the galaxies, where massive star formation declines, some arms reverse this trend and narrow. We find that spiral arms often appear to be composed of segments of ∼5 kpc length, which join to form kinks and abrupt changes in pitch angle and arm width; these characteristics are consistent with properties seen in the large N-body simulations of D'Onghia et al. and others.

  12. The Resonating Arm Exerciser: design and pilot testing of a mechanically passive rehabilitation device that mimics robotic active assistance

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Robotic arm therapy devices that incorporate actuated assistance can enhance arm recovery, motivate patients to practice, and allow therapists to deliver semi-autonomous training. However, because such devices are often complex and actively apply forces, they have not achieved widespread use in rehabilitation clinics or at home. This paper describes the design and pilot testing of a simple, mechanically passive device that provides robot-like assistance for active arm training using the principle of mechanical resonance. Methods The Resonating Arm Exerciser (RAE) consists of a lever that attaches to the push rim of a wheelchair, a forearm support, and an elastic band that stores energy. Patients push and pull on the lever to roll the wheelchair back and forth by about 20 cm around a neutral position. We performed two separate pilot studies of the device. In the first, we tested whether the predicted resonant properties of RAE amplified a user’s arm mobility by comparing his or her active range of motion (AROM) in the device achieved during a single, sustained push and pull to the AROM achieved during rocking. In a second pilot study designed to test the therapeutic potential of the device, eight participants with chronic stroke (35 ± 24 months since injury) and a mean, stable, initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (FM) score of 17 ± 8 / 66 exercised with RAE for eight 45 minute sessions over three weeks. The primary outcome measure was the average AROM measured with a tilt sensor during a one minute test, and the secondary outcome measures were the FM score and the visual analog scale for arm pain. Results In the first pilot study, we found people with a severe motor impairment after stroke intuitively found the resonant frequency of the chair, and the mechanical resonance of RAE amplified their arm AROM by a factor of about 2. In the second pilot study, AROM increased by 66% ± 20% (p = 0.003). The mean FM score increase was 8.5 ± 4 pts (p = 0

  13. ARM User Survey Report

    SciTech Connect

    Roeder, LR

    2010-06-22

    The objective of this survey was to obtain user feedback to, among other things, determine how to organize the exponentially growing data within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, and identify users’ preferred data analysis system. The survey findings appear to have met this objective, having received approximately 300 responses that give insight into the type of work users perform, usage of the data, percentage of data analysis users might perform on an ARM-hosted computing resource, downloading volume level where users begin having reservations, opinion about usage if given more powerful computing resources (including ability to manipulate data), types of tools that would be most beneficial to them, preferred programming language and data analysis system, level of importance for certain types of capabilities, and finally, level of interest in participating in a code-sharing community.

  14. Microelectromechanical safe arm device

    DOEpatents

    Roesler, Alexander W [Tijeras, NM

    2012-06-05

    Microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus and methods for operating, for preventing unintentional detonation of energetic components comprising pyrotechnic and explosive materials, such as air bag deployment systems, munitions and pyrotechnics. The MEM apparatus comprises an interrupting member that can be moved to block (interrupt) or complete (uninterrupt) an explosive train that is part of an energetic component. One or more latching members are provided that engage and prevent the movement of the interrupting member, until the one or more latching members are disengaged from the interrupting member. The MEM apparatus can be utilized as a safe and arm device (SAD) and electronic safe and arm device (ESAD) in preventing unintentional detonations. Methods for operating the MEM apparatus include independently applying drive signals to the actuators coupled to the latching members, and an actuator coupled to the interrupting member.

  15. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-12-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  16. Robot arm apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1992-01-01

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in "x", "y", and "z" directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  17. Robot arm apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Nachbar, H.D.

    1990-12-31

    A robot arm apparatus is provided for inspecting and/or maintaining an interior of a steam generator which has an outside wall and a port for accessing the interior of the steam generator. The robot arm apparatus includes a flexible movable conduit for conveying inspection and/or maintenance apparatus from outside the steam generator to the interior of the steam generator. The flexible conduit has a terminal working end which is translated into and around the interior of the steam generator. Three motors located outside the steam generator are employed for moving the terminal working end inside the steam generator in ``x,`` ``y,`` and ``z`` directions, respectively. Commonly conducted inspection and maintenance operations include visual inspection for damaged areas, water jet lancing for cleaning sludge deposits, core boring for obtaining sludge deposits, and scrubbing of internal parts.

  18. Rocker arm spring for a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Nono, Y.; Sasaki, Y.

    1986-07-08

    A rocker arm spring is described for use in a valve actuating mechanism of an internal combustion engine having a cylinder head, an overhead camshaft mounted on the cylinder head and a valve having a valve stem extending through the cylinder head, the valve actuating mechanism including a rocker arm having a first end and a second end, a universal pivot swingably supporting the first end of the rocker arm on the cylinder head of the engine. The second end of the rocker arm is in contact with the valve stem, and a cam on the overhead camshaft engaging from above a portion of the rocker arm intermediate the first and second ends to cause the rocker arm to swing about the universal pivot, the universal pivot including a support socket mounted on the cylinder head. The support socket has a part-spherical concave bearing surface and a circumferential groove with a fixed predetermined groove width, and a pivotable shaft mounted on the first end of the rocker arm, the pivotable shaft having a part-spherical convex lower end mating with and received in the concave bearing surface, and the rocker arm spring being in the form of a leaf spring made of an elongated strip of resilient material thinner than the predetermined groove width, the strip being bent to a substantially U-shape having an upper arm and a lower arm, the lower arm having a forked end engageable within the circumferential groove in the support socket. The upper arm is engageable with the rocker arm for urging the lower end of the pivotable shaft into contact with the bearing surface of the support socket as well as for biasing the second end of the rocker arm into contact with the valve stem.

  19. Arm posture-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability are largely spinal in origin.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, James L; Trajano, Gabriel S; Barry, Benjamin K; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2016-04-01

    Biceps brachii motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from cortical stimulation are influenced by arm posture. We used subcortical stimulation of corticospinal axons to determine whether this postural effect is spinal in origin. While seated at rest, 12 subjects assumed several static arm postures, which varied in upper-arm (shoulder flexed, shoulder abducted, arm hanging to side) and forearm orientation (pronated, neutral, supinated). Transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral motor cortex elicited MEPs in resting biceps and triceps brachii, and electrical stimulation of corticospinal tract axons at the cervicomedullary junction elicited cervicomedullary motor evoked potentials (CMEPs). MEPs and CMEPs were normalized to the maximal compound muscle action potential (Mmax). Responses in biceps were influenced by upper-arm and forearm orientation. For upper-arm orientation, biceps CMEPs were 68% smaller (P= 0.001), and biceps MEPs 31% smaller (P= 0.012), with the arm hanging to the side compared with when the shoulder was flexed. For forearm orientation, both biceps CMEPs and MEPs were 34% smaller (both P< 0.046) in pronation compared with supination. Responses in triceps were influenced by upper-arm, but not forearm, orientation. Triceps CMEPs were 46% smaller (P= 0.007) with the arm hanging to the side compared with when the shoulder was flexed. Triceps MEPs and biceps and triceps MEP/CMEP ratios were unaffected by arm posture. The novel finding is that arm posture-dependent changes in corticospinal excitability in humans are largely spinal in origin. An interplay of multiple reflex inputs to motoneurons likely explains the results.

  20. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    of its missiles in Western Europe is a continuation of the policy of upsetting the established approximate equilibrium in the illusory hope of...measures in Europe. The Soviet Union advocates a sharp reduction in the level of medium-range nuclear means, with strict observance of equilibrium ...maintaining strategic equilibrium and its stability. But if this happens, the case in point will be a new round of the arms race. As is known, there were no

  1. Small arms ammunition

    DOEpatents

    Huerta, Joseph

    1992-01-01

    An elongate projectile for small arms use has a single unitary mass with a hollow nose cavity defined by a sharp rigid cutting edge adapted to make initial contact with the target surface and cut therethrough. The projectile then enters the target mass in an unstable flight mode. The projectile base is substantially solid such that the nose cavity, while relatively deep, does not extend entirely through the base and the projectile center of gravity is aft of its geometric center.

  2. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    negotiations on all weapons categories. He said on Sunday in the ZDF [second German television] program "Bonn Direkt " that German foreign policy has...JPRS-TAC-89-021 25 MAY 1989 fflflBBl FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE JPRS Report— Arms Control A99S07A51® REPRODUCED BY U.S...Libyan Envoy Requests Meeting [THAI RAT 14 May] 16 Paper Criticizes U.S. Warning [MATICHON 13 May] 17 Foreign Minister Interviewed [Bangkok Radio

  3. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    19980715 176 REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NATIONAL TECHNICAL INFORMATION SERVICE SPRINGFIELD, VA. 22161 DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED X Arms...South Korean authorities are not in a position, for some reasons, to respond to our proposal right now, they should take at least practical measures...prevented, he said, nuclear weapons and their delivery vehicles should be removed. But, if the United States is not prepared for this right now, we

  4. Coat of Arms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    Describes an activity, the "coat of arms," that can serve as an ice-breaker or warm-up for the first day of an English-as-a-Second/Foreign-Language class, as a motivating start to the week, or act as an innovative segue between skill lessons. The technique can be adapted for students ranging from elementary school to adult language learners of all…

  5. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    have to be comprehensively reduced before NATo cuts back on its arms. Those in the West, who attribute all progress to Gor- bachev’s behavior , have...disarmament expert Werner Hoyer stressed that there should not be any delay in beginning negotiations on this, from the German point of view. All...information or assistance, call FBIS, (202) 338-6735,or write to PO Box 2604, Washington, D.C. 20013. Department of Defense consumers are required to

  7. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-30

    Viewed, by Tang Tianri 29 Issues Assessed, by Tang Xiushan 31 SPACE ARMS USSR: Reports, Comments on Bush Trip to Europe To Push SDI (Various...85) 99 Indian Prime Minister Criticizes ’Star Wars’ (Bombay THE TIMES OF INDIA, 7 Jun 85) 101 Briefs USSR: U.S. Laser Test Planned 103 TASS...a tangible political disagree- ment. The Norwegian defense minister does not think that an attack will come of out of the blue . The foreign

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    effective measures to feelings of those Americans who are demanding effective measures to limit the arms race, Weinberger hypocritically said that the...way to conduct effective negotiations." Mr Weinberger knows very well that speaking the language of diktat to the Soviet Union is an activity with...the ABM Treaty"] [Text] The Soviet-American Treaty on the Limitation of ABM Systems, concluded in May 1972, has now been in effect for more than 13

  9. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    JPRS-TAC-89-025 21 JUNE 1989 !■■■■■ FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION SERVICE -/P/? S #;# Arms Control \\ɘIÜ REPRODUCED BY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF...Compromise on SNF Issue [ S . Gjoka; ZERIIPOPULLIT 31 May] 11 U.S. Troop Reduction Proposals Critiqued [ S . Beqari; ZERI I POPULLIT 7 Jun] 12 BULGARIA...Petrov; RABOTNICHESKO DELO 7 Jun] 16 CZECHOSLOVAKIA Commentary Critiques Bush CFE, SNF Proposals [B. Zagar ; Bratislava PRAVDA 3 Jun] 18

  10. JPRS Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dangerous because the measure of control by central political organs of the state over conventional weapons and their military use is substan...It is always under the control and guidance of governments of the interested parties, it is the most manageable and has the least inertia. It...JPRS-TAC-89-001 10 JANUARY 1989 —JPRS Report— Arms Control nTSTRJBUTlON STATEMfcwTA Approved for public release; Distribution Unlimited n

  11. Sdi and arms control

    SciTech Connect

    DeWolf, H.G.

    1989-11-01

    President Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative, or SDI, and the pursuit of defenses to protect against ballistic missile attack are issues of significant debate. Some praise the proposal, first made in a presidential address to the nation on 23 March 1983, as a grand vision that will abolish nuclear blackmail by adopting a totally defensive posture. Others condemn it as being destabilizing, a Pandora's box of strategic transition that could precipitate armed conflict.

  12. Phoenix Robotic Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A vital instrument on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander is the robotic arm, which will dig into the icy soil and bring samples back to the science deck of the spacecraft for analysis. In September 2006 at a Lockheed Martin Space Systems clean room facility near Denver, spacecraft technician Billy Jones inspects the arm during the assembly phase of the mission.

    Using the robotic arm -- built by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena -- the Phoenix mission will study the history of water and search for complex organic molecules in the ice-rich soil.

    The Phoenix mission is led by Principal Investigator Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, Tucson, with project management at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and development partnership with Lockheed Martin Space Systems. International contributions for Phoenix are provided by the Canadian Space Agency, the University of Neuchatel (Switzerland), the University of Copenhagen, and the Max Planck Institute in Germany. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Languages of arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Sherr, A.B.

    1985-11-01

    The author points out that the distinction between a component and subcomponent and a matter of Russian-English translation must be resolved if the Reagan-Gorbachev talks were to progress. The Reagan Administration did not create the problem of what is a component and what is a subcomponent; that was left unresolved in 1972. But the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization approach surely exacerbates it at a most inopportune time for arms control. US protestations that SDI does nothing to undermine the ABM Treaty ring hollow indeed when the professed aim of developing and testing various subcomponents is to arrive at a point of full systems development. If the Soviets were taking this same approach, no US arms control expert, in or out of government, would condone it once the activity had been identified by national technical means as probably ABM-related. The US would place the burden on the Soviets to explain, if they could, why it was not. The scope of the SDI program throws an entirely new factor into the equation. The price for pursuing SDI will be a stalemate in arms control negotiations for an indefinite future, increasing charges of cheating by both sides, and continuation of the chill in US-Soviet relations. Unless this prospect is reversed, good intentions and hopes for peace will be illusory. 7 references.

  14. Us'em: the user-centered design of a device for motivating stroke patients to use their impaired arm-hand in daily life activities.

    PubMed

    Markopoulos, Panos; Timmermans, Annick A A; Beursgens, Luuk; van Donselaar, Rik; Seelen, Henk A M

    2011-01-01

    Stroke leaves the majority of its survivors with an impairment of the upper extremity that affects their ability to live independently and their quality of life. Rehabilitation research shows that practice of everyday life activities in a natural context may sustain or even improve arm-hand performance, even during chronic stages after stroke. Based on this insight we designed, developed and evaluated Us'em; this consists of two watch-like accelerometry devices that provide feedback to stroke patients regarding the usage of their impaired versus their non-affected upper extremity. System usability and treatment credibility/expectancy were evaluated positively by therapists and patients.

  15. Featured Image: The Birth of Spiral Arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    In this figure, the top panels show three spiral galaxies in the Virgo cluster, imaged with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The bottom panels provide a comparison with three morphologically similar galaxies generated insimulations. The simulations run by Marcin Semczuk, Ewa okas, and Andrs del Pino (Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Poland) were designed to examine how the spiral arms of galaxies like the Milky Way may have formed. In particular, the group exploredthe possibility that so-called grand-design spiral arms are caused by tidal effects as a Milky-Way-like galaxy orbits a cluster of galaxies. The authors show that the gravitational potential of the cluster can trigger the formation of two spiral arms each time the galaxy passes through the pericenter of its orbit around the cluster. Check out the original paper below for more information!CitationMarcin Semczuk et al 2017 ApJ 834 7. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/1/7

  16. Armed conflict and child health

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Michael; Choonara, Imti

    2012-01-01

    Summary Armed conflict has a major impact on child health throughout the world. One in six children worldwide lives in an area of armed conflict and civilians are more likely to die than soldiers as a result of the conflict. In stark contrast to the effect on children, the international arms trade results in huge profits for the large corporations involved in producing arms, weapons and munitions. Armed conflict is not inevitable but is an important health issue that should be prevented. PMID:21393303

  17. A common neural element receiving rhythmic arm and leg activity as assessed by reflex modulation in arm muscles.

    PubMed

    Sasada, Syusaku; Tazoe, Toshiki; Nakajima, Tsuyoshi; Futatsubashi, Genki; Ohtsuka, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Shinya; Zehr, E Paul; Komiyama, Tomoyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Neural interactions between regulatory systems for rhythmic arm and leg movements are an intriguing issue in locomotor neuroscience. Amplitudes of early latency cutaneous reflexes (ELCRs) in stationary arm muscles are modulated during rhythmic leg or arm cycling but not during limb positioning or voluntary contraction. This suggests that interneurons mediating ELCRs to arm muscles integrate outputs from neural systems controlling rhythmic limb movements. Alternatively, outputs could be integrated at the motoneuron and/or supraspinal levels. We examined whether a separate effect on the ELCR pathways and cortico-motoneuronal excitability during arm and leg cycling is integrated by neural elements common to the lumbo-sacral and cervical spinal cord. The subjects performed bilateral leg cycling (LEG), contralateral arm cycling (ARM), and simultaneous contralateral arm and bilateral leg cycling (A&L), while ELCRs in the wrist flexor and shoulder flexor muscles were evoked by superficial radial (SR) nerve stimulation. ELCR amplitudes were facilitated by cycling tasks and were larger during A&L than during ARM and LEG. A low stimulus intensity during ARM or LEG generated a larger ELCR during A&L than the sum of ELCRs during ARM and LEG. We confirmed this nonlinear increase in single motor unit firing probability following SR nerve stimulation during A&L. Furthermore, motor-evoked potentials following transcranial magnetic and electrical stimulation did not show nonlinear potentiation during A&L. These findings suggest the existence of a common neural element of the ELCR reflex pathway that is active only during rhythmic arm and leg movement and receives convergent input from contralateral arms and legs.

  18. Arm weight support training improves functional motor outcome and movement smoothness after stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; De Nunzio, Alessandro Marco; Sebastiano, Fabio; Spicciato, Francesca; Tortola, Paolo; Nilsson, Jan; Pierelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness in acute stroke patients of a rehabilitation program performed with or without an arm weight support device. Twenty-eight acute, first-ever unilateral stroke patients were enrolled in a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Clinical evaluation included Fugl-Mayer Assessment, Functional Independence Measure and kinematic analysis [maximum and mean hand velocity, maximum range of motion (Max RoM), normalized jerk (NJ)]. Patients received 12 daily 30-minute sessions (6/week) of additional upper limb therapy performed using an arm weight support device (study group) or additional traditional physiotherapy (control group). The patients were evaluated on admission and at the end of the rehabilitation intervention. The two groups were clinically comparable on admission (p>0.05). Both groups showed significant improvements in clinical scale scores and in Max RoM in flexion-extension, while only the study group showed improvements in NJ and in Max RoM in adduction-abduction. Rehabilitation training using an arm weight support device appears to be a useful method to supplement conventional therapy in acute stroke patients, increasing smoothness of movement and motor function. PMID:25014045

  19. Arm measurements as determinants of further survival in centenarians.

    PubMed

    Gueresi, Paola; Miglio, Rossella; Cevenini, Elisa; Gualdi Russo, Emanuela

    2014-10-01

    Being indicators of nutritional and functional status, anthropometric characters may have great prognostic significance for survival at extremely advanced ages. For ethical and practical reasons however it is advisable to use characters such as arm measurements easily measurable even in bedridden subjects. This study compares the influence of some upper arm measurements and of Body Mass Index (BMI) on survival of the 77 subjects aged 98 years and over (98+) recruited within the MALVA project, one of the first Italian population-based studies on extremely old people. Adopting methods for multiple imputation of missing values, Gompertz regression models adjusted for gender and age were estimated for each anthropometric character or combination of characters, i.e. BMI; mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC)+elbow breadth (EB)+triceps skinfold thickness (TSF); corrected arm muscle area (CAMA). Being underweight and having a low CAMA and a low MUAC/high EB were positively associated with an increased risk of death, while no significant association was found with the condition of being overweight/obese and the triceps skinfold thickness. When anthropometric variables were included in regression models along with covariates relating to nutritional and functional status, BMI and MUAC, but not CAMA, emerged as protective factors. It is suggested that MUAC can be recommended in evaluating the health status of extremely old people and that measuring EB may help to estimate the non-boney component of the arm.

  20. Navy autonomy thwarts arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Arkin, W.M.

    1987-09-01

    During the past three decades the two superpowers have steadily modernized their naval forces, sent large numbers of nuclear weapons to sea, and engaged in provocative and potentially destabilizing operations. Currently the US is deploying new aircraft carriers, a new generation of fighter aircraft, and new surface ships with greater offensive and defensive power. The Soviet Union has deployed a new generation of attack submarines and is completing its first large aircraft carrier. And the Soviets are preparing to follow the US lead in deploying long-range, highly accurate sea-launched cruise missiles. These developments, accompanied by naval operations that increase the potential for superpower conflict at sea, should make naval arms control a high priority. But it has not been a focus of US-Soviet negotiations and only recently has garnered more interest from multilateral disarmament bodies. An examination of the record shows that bilateral efforts in this area have been minimal and impeded by strong opposition, particularly from the US Navy. The multilateral approach may be more promising because of five agreements affecting the seas that could offer precedents, but this will require improved coordination between the arms control and law of the sea processes. 10 references.

  1. Manipulability measure of dual-arm space robot and its application to design an optimal configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Liang, Bin; Wang, Xueqian; Li, Gang; Chen, Zhang; Zhu, Xiaojun

    2016-11-01

    Coupling effect exists among different arms and the base in a multi-arm space robot. The manipulability measure of one arm can be affected by the base and the other arms, which has important effects on the configuration optimization, the singularity avoidance and the compliant control. The manipulability measure for a multi-arm space robot is more complex than that of a single-arm space robot. At present, the manipulability measure of a multi-arm space robot has not been studied. In the paper, a new concept of manipulability measure is applied to analyze the manipulability measure for a dual-arm space robot, especially for the manipulability measure of the mission arm subjecting to the influence from coupling effect of auxiliary arm and the base. Based on the manipulability measure of mission arm, a performance index is introduced and used to design and choose an optimization configuration for a dual-arm space robot. Finally, a plane dual-arm space robot is simulated, which is illustrated the influence of joint angles and the base attitude on mission arm's manipulability measure. Simulation results show that the proposed manipulability measure is useful for a multi-arm space robot and optimal configuration can be extended and applied to the coordinated soft rendezvous and docking and the target capture in the field of on-orbit servicing.

  2. Controller arm for a remotely related slave arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salisbury, J. K., Jr. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A segmented controller arm configured and dimensioned to form a miniature kinematic replica of a remotely related slave arm is disclosed. The arm includes: (1) a plurality of joints for affording segments of the arm simultaneous angular displacement about a plurality of pairs of intersecting axes, (2) a plurality of position sensing devices for providing electrical signals indicative of angular displacement imparted to corresponding segments of the controller shaft about the axes, and (3) a control signal circuit for generating control signals to be transmitted to the slave arm. The arm is characterized by a plurality of yokes, each being supported for angular displacement about a pair of orthogonally related axes and counterbalanced against gravitation by a cantilevered mass.

  3. Phoenix Deploying its Robotic Arm Elbow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This animated gif is compiled of images from Phoenix's Stereo Surface Imager (SSI) taken on Sol 3. It shows the stair-step motion used to unstow the arm from a protective covering called the biobarrier. The last two moves allow the arm to stand straight up.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Martian Soil Inside Phoenix's Robotic Arm Scoop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image from NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) shows material from the Martian surface captured by the Robotic Arm (RA) scoop during its first test dig and dump on the seventh Martian day of the mission, or Sol 7 (June 1, 2008). The test sample shown was taken from the digging area informally known as 'Knave of Hearts.'

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  5. Working End of Robotic Arm on Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Version

    This illustration shows some of the components on and near the end of the robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. Primary and secondary blades on the scoop will aid in the collection of soil samples. A powered rasp will allow the arm to sample an icy layer expected to be about as hard as concrete. The thermal and electrical conductivity probe, which is one part of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer, will assess how heat and electrons move through the soil from one spike to another of a four-spike electronic fork that will be pushed into the soil at different stages of digging by the arm.

  6. ARM Data Integrator

    SciTech Connect

    2014-02-06

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data Integrator (ADI) streamlines the development of scientific algorithms and analysis of time-series NetCDF data, and improves the content and consistency of the output data products produced by these algorithms. The framework automates the process of retrieving and preparing data for analysis, and allows users to design output data products through a graphical interface. It also provides a modular, flexible software development architecture that scientists can use to generate C, Python, and IDL source code templates that embed the pre and post processing logic allowing the scientist to focus on only their science. The input data, preprocessing, and output data specifications of algorithms are defined through a graphical interface and stored in a database. ADI implements workflow for data integration and supports user access to data through a library of software modules. Data preprocess capabilities supported include automated retrieval of data from input files, merging the retrieved data into appropriately sized chunks, and transformation of the data onto a common coordinate system grid. Through the graphical interface, users can view the details of both their data products and those in the ARM catalog and allows developers to use existing data product to build new data products. Views of the output data products include an overlay of how the design meets ARM archive’s data standards providing the user with a visual cue indicating where their output violates an archive standard. The ADI libraries access the information provided through the GUI via a Postgres database. The ADI framework and its supporting components can significantly decrease the time and cost of implementing scientific algorithms while improving the ability of scientists to disseminate their results.

  7. Molecular clouds in the Carina arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabelsky, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Results from the first large-scale survey in the CO(J = 1 to 0) line of the Vela-Carina-Centaurus region of the Southern Milky Way are reported. The observations, made with the Columbia University 1.2 m millimeter-wave telescope at Cerro Tololo, were spaced every beamwidth (0.125 deg) in the range 270 deg is less than or = l is less than or = 300 deg and -1 deg less than or = b less then or = 1 deg, with latitude extensions to cover all Carina arm emission beyond absolute b = 1 deg. In a concurrent survey made with the same telescope, every half-degree in latitude and longitude was sampled. Both surveys had a spectral coverage of 330 km/s with a resolution of 1.3 km/s. The Carina arm is the dominant feature in the data. Its abrupt tangent at l is approx. = 280 deg and characteristic loop in the l,v diagram are unmistakable evidence for CO spiral structure. When the emission is integrated over velocity and latitude, the height of the step seen in the tangent direction suggests that the arm-interarm contrast is at least 13:1. Comparison of the CO and H I data shows close agreement between these two species in a segment of the arm lying outside the solar circle. The distribution of the molecular layer about the galactic plane in the outer Galaxy is determined. Between R = 10.5 and 12.5 kpc, the average CO midplane dips from z = -48 to -167 pc below the b = 0 deg plane, following a similar well-known warping of the H I layer. In the same range of radii the half-thickness of the CO layer increases from 112 to 182 pc. Between l = 270 deg and 300 deg, 27 molecular clouds are identified and cataloged along with heliocentric distances and masses. An additional 16 clouds beyond 300 deg are cataloged from an adjoining CO survey made with the same telescope. The average mass for the Carina arm clouds is 1.4x 10(6)M (solar), and the average intercloud spacing along the arm is 700 pc. Comparison of the distribution of the Carina arm clouds with that of similarly massive

  8. Worldwide Report, Arms Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    n r JPRS-TAC-85-057 25 November 1985 Worldwide Report ARMS CONTROL f-—*lf^ S ;.řS », ;r%^V; ,*’ \\i.*? 19980728 ■£*V’:: FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST...why he had decided to extend a programme launched last year of aid to penetration techniques. He had asked the Atomic Energy Commisariat (CEA) for...ICBM s , i.e. for those systems which constitute the basis of the strategic potential of the USSR. No though restrictions are set for the systems in

  9. The clinical aspects of the upper extremity exoskeleton "EXAR" use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobiev, A. A.; Krivonozhkina, P. S.; Andryushchenko, F. A.; Zasypkina, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    The article considers some of indications and contraindications for the use of the exoskeleton "EXAR". Our experience with the present construction use shows that the exoskeleton "EXAR" is able to make up the following lost or disturbed muscle functions:- an arm raise; a drawing of the arm aside from the trunk;- a bending of the arm in shoulder or elbow joints.

  10. Laser-assisted lipolysis for arm contouring in Teimourian grades III and IV: A prospective study involving 22 patients

    PubMed Central

    Leclère, Franck Marie; Alcolea, Justo M; Vogt, Peter M; Moreno-Moraga, Javier; Casoli, Vincent; Mordon, Serge; Trelles, Mario A

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upper arm deformities secondary to weight loss or senile elastosis have led to an increased demand for aesthetic contouring procedures. OBJECTIVE: To objectively assess whether, in Teimourian high-grade upper arm remodelling, laser-assisted lypolysis (LAL) alone could result in patient satisfaction. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, 22 patients were treated for excessive upper arm fat (Teimourian grade III and IV) solely with LAL. The laser used in the present study was a 1470 nm diode laser (Alma Lasers, Israel) with the following parameters: continuous mode, 15 W power and transmission through a 600 μm optical fibre. Previous mathematical modelling suggested that 0.1 kJ was required to destroy 1 mL of fat. Patients were asked to complete a satisfaction questionnaire. The arm circumference was measured pre- and postoperatively. Treatment parameters, adverse effects and outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: Pain during the anesthesia and discomfort after the procedure were minimal. Complications included ecchymoses and prolonged edema. The mean (± SD) arm circumference decreased 5.5±1.0 cm in the right arm (P<0.01) and 5.2±1.1 cm in the left arm (P<0.01) in grade III patients and 4.9±1.1 cm in the right arm (P<0.01) and 4.9±1.1 cm in the left arm (P<0.01) in grade IV patients. Although the circumference of both arms significantly decreased in grade III and grade IV patients, the skin tightening remained incomplete. Overall, the average opinion of treatment was poor for both patients and investigators. Of the 22 patients, only nine (41%) would recommend this treatment. CONCLUSION: LAL for upper arm remodelling is not sufficient to ensure full skin tightening for patients with Teimourian grades III and IV upper arm deformities. A complementary surgery is mandatory for grades III and IV. PMID:27054137

  11. Overview of ARM observations during the ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarlane, S. A.; Long, C. N.; Feng, Z.; Comstock, J. M.; Sivaraman, C.; Bharadwaj, N.; Johnson, K. L.; Orr, B. W.; Ritsche, M.; Collis, S. M.; Schumacher, C.; Ellis, S.; Powell, S.

    2012-12-01

    The US Department of Energy funded Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) was performed in association with the DYNAMO (Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation) and CINDY-2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) campaigns to study MJO initiation in the Indian Ocean. AMIE included measurements with the second ARM mobile facility (AMF2) on Addu City, the Maldives, and measurements at the permanent ARM site on Manus Island, Papua New Guinea. The dual-pronged nature of the AMIE experiment allowed observation of both MJO convective initiation in the Indian Ocean (at the Maldives site) and the mature phase of the MJO as it passed over the maritime continent (at the Manus site). The AMF2 consists of a full suite of atmospheric instrumentation including surface meteorological instruments, broadband radiometers, microwave radiometers, vertically pointing ceilometer, cloud radar and lidar, scanning cloud radar, and a 2D video disdrometer. At Manus, a similar suite of instruments, including a C-band precipitation radar, is available at the permanent ARM facility. A key aspect of the AMIE deployment was 8/day radiosonde launches at both the Maldives and Manus sites to document the evolution of the thermodynamic structure with the passage of the MJO over the sites. In this presentation, we give an overview of the available ARM thermodynamic, cloud, and precipitation observations during AMIE; show some preliminary ARM value added products; and present some initial comparisons of the ARM and DYNAMO radars.aily cloud frequency observed by the Ka ARM Zenith Radar (KAZR) at the Gan site during AMIE.

  12. Passive or simulated displacement of one arm (but not its mirror reflection) modulates the involuntary motor behavior of the other arm.

    PubMed

    Brun, C; Metral, M; Chancel, M; Kavounoudias, A; Luyat, M; Guerraz, M

    2015-01-29

    Recent studies of both healthy and patient populations have cast doubt on the mirror paradigm's beneficial effect on motor behavior. Indeed, the voluntary arm displacement that accompanies reflection in the mirror may be the determining factor in terms of the motor behavior of the contralateral arm. The objective of the present study was to assess the respective effects of mirror reflection and arm displacement (whether real or simulated) on involuntary motor behavior of the contralateral arm following sustained, isometric contraction (Kohnstamm phenomenon). Our results revealed that (i) passive displacement of one arm (displacement of the left arm via a motorized manipulandum moving at 4°/s) influenced the velocity of the Kohnstamm phenomenon (forearm flexion occurring shortly after the cessation of muscle contraction) in the contralateral arm and (ii) mirror vision had no effect. Indeed, the velocity of the Kohnstamm phenomenon tended to be adjusted to match the velocity of the passive displacement of the other arm. In a second experiment, arm displacement was simulated by vibrating the triceps at 25, 50 or 75 Hz. Results showed that the velocity of the Kohnstamm phenomenon in one arm increased with the vibration frequency applied to the other arm. Our results revealed the occurrence of bimanual coupling because involuntary displacement of one arm was regulated by muscle-related information generated by the actual or simulated displacement of the other arm. In line with the literature data on voluntary motor behavior, our study failed to evidence an additional impact of mirror vision on involuntary motor behavior.

  13. Role of contralesional hemisphere in paretic arm reaching in patients with severe arm paresis due to stroke: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Sambit; Harrington, Rachael; Chan, Evan; Dromerick, Alexander W; Breceda, Erika Y; Harris-Love, Michelle

    2016-03-23

    Stroke is highly prevalent and a leading cause of serious, long-term disability among American adults. Impaired movement (i.e. paresis) of the stroke-affected arm is a major contributor to post-stroke disability, yet the mechanisms of upper extremity motor recovery are poorly understood, particularly in severely impaired patients who lack hand function. To address this problem, we examined the functional relevance of the contralesional hemisphere in paretic arm motor performance in individuals with severe arm paresis. Twelve individuals with severe stroke-induced arm paresis (Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer Assessment=17.1 ± 8.5; maximum score=66) participated in the study. Participants performed a reaching response time task with their paretic arm. At varying time intervals following a 'Go' cue, a pair of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses were delivered to contralesional hemisphere primary motor (M1) or dorsal pre-motor cortex (PMd) to momentarily disrupt the pattern of neural firing. Response time components and hand-path characteristics were compared across the 2 sites for trials with and without TMS disruption. There was no significant effect of TMS disruption on overall Response time or Reaction time, but Movement time was significantly longer (i.e. slower) with disruption of the contralesional hemisphere (p=0.015), regardless of which area was stimulated. Peak hand-path velocity and hand-path smoothness were also significantly lower (p=0.005 and p<0.0001, respectively) with TMS disruption of the contralesional hemisphere. The data from this study provide evidence supporting a functionally relevant role of contralesional hemisphere motor areas in paretic arm reaching movements in individuals with severe post-stroke arm impairment.

  14. Effects of Age, Gender and Level of Co-contraction on Elbow and Shoulder Rotational Stiffness and Damping in the Impulsively End-Loaded Upper Extremity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yunju; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-05-01

    Whether an arm will buckle under an impulsive end-load should partly depend on the elastic and viscous properties of the pretensed arm muscles. In measuring these properties we hypothesized that neither age, gender, nor muscle pre-contraction level would affect the bilinear elbow or shoulder lumped rotational stiffness or damping parameters in the impulsively end-loaded upper extremity of 38 healthy men and women. Subjects were instructed to preactivate triceps to either 25, 50 or 75% of maximum myoelectric activity levels. Then a standardized impulsive end-load was applied via a 6-axis load cell to the wrist of the slightly flexed arm in the prone posture. Arm kinematic responses were acquired at 280 Hz and an inverse dynamics analysis was used to estimate the bilinear rotational stiffnesses and damping parameters at the elbow and shoulder. The results show that pre-contraction level affected normalized joint rotational stiffness and damping coefficients (p < 0.02). Age affected the initial stiffness for the elbow (p < 0.05), and gender affected that of the shoulder in the sagittal plane (p < 0.006). Arm muscle strength was positively related to normalized stiffness at the elbow, but not the shoulder. We conclude that age, gender and pre-contraction level each affect the viscoelastic behavior of the end-loaded upper extremity in healthy adults.

  15. Films on the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Dowling, J.

    1983-01-01

    Films convey the historical perspectives, the biographical stories, the insights of the participants, and the horror of nuclear war - far better than can any physicist. While films are not very efficient for covering details, derivation, or numbers, they can not be beaten in showing what really happens in a nuclear explosion, in getting across general concepts, in illustrating the parameters of a problem, and the problem itself. Most importantly, films and TV can reach the people who must be informed about these issues if we are to resolve the problems. The author points out how films can contribute to an understanding of the issues of the arms race and nuclear war, with references to specific films. An annotated bibliography of 37 films is then presented.

  16. Axonemal Dynein Arms.

    PubMed

    King, Stephen M

    2016-11-01

    Axonemal dyneins form the inner and outer rows of arms associated with the doublet microtubules of motile cilia. These enzymes convert the chemical energy released from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis into mechanical work by causing the doublets to slide with respect to each other. Dyneins form two major groups based on the number of heavy-chain motors within each complex. In addition, these enzymes contain other components that are required for assembly of the complete particles and/or for the regulation of motor function in response to phosphorylations status, ligands such as Ca(2+), changes in cellular redox state and which also apparently monitor and respond to the mechanical state or curvature in which any given motor finds itself. It is this latter property, which is thought to result in waves of motor function propagating along the axoneme length. Here, I briefly describe our current understanding of axonemal dynein structure, assembly, and organization.

  17. Global arms proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, D.

    1991-09-01

    This paper reports that the United States delivered some US $11 billion of military hardware to Iran between 1969 and 1979, in the hopes of helping stabilize a volatile situation in the Middle East. That did not work. When Iran used the weapons against Iraq, the USSR, France, and a number of developing countries helped arm Iraq. It was this vast arsenal that Iraq deployed in its Kuwait-Persian Gulf War venture. Granted, those weapons were augmented by some U.S.-made equipment like TOW antitank missiles and Hawk antiaircraft missiles that were captured in the Iraqi attack on Kuwait. A report issued by the U.S. Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) in June cited that chain of events to demonstrate that the U.S. and other major exporters are gradually losing control of the weapons transferred (to other countries) as well as the technology and industry necessary to produce and support them.

  18. How do octopuses use their arms?

    PubMed

    Mather, J A

    1998-09-01

    A taxonomy of the movement patterns of the 8 flexible arms of octopuses is constructed. Components consist of movements of the arm itself, the ventral suckers and their stalks, as well as the relative position of arms and the skin web between them. Within 1 arm, combinations of components result in a variety of behaviors. At the level of all arms, 1 group of behaviors is described as postures, on the basis of the spread of all arms and the web to make a 2-dimensional surface whose position differs in the 3rd dimension. Another group of arm behaviors is actions, more or less coordinated and involving several to all arms. Arm control appears to be based on radial symmetry, relative equipotentiality of all arms, relative independence of each arm, and separability of components within the arm. The types and coordination of arm behaviors are discussed with relationship to biomechanical limits, muscle structures, and neuronal programming.

  19. Using reverse engineering and computational fluid dynamics to investigate a lower arm amputee swimmer's performance.

    PubMed

    Lecrivain, Gregory; Slaouti, Arezki; Payton, Carl; Kennedy, Ian

    2008-09-18

    In front crawl swimming, the hand and the corresponding forearm generate major propulsive forces. Such forces have been studied largely through experimental tests and more recently through the use of steady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, the effect of the upper arm on the propulsive forces has generally not been taken into consideration. An understanding of such forces is fundamental for the performance of swimmers who have an arm amputation at the level of the elbow. This study introduces the great potential offered by the multidisciplinary approach combining reverse engineering and unsteady CFD in a novel dynamic and interactive way. A complex CFD mesh model, representing the swimmer body and its upper arm, is produced. The model, including the arm rotation and a body roll movement, interacts dynamically with the fluid flow. Forces generated by the upper arm can then be investigated in great detail. In this particular study, it is found that the upper arm effectively contributes to the propulsion of the body. The propulsive force was numerically computed throughout the pull and reaches maxima of 8 N. Results obtained in this study could be extended in a similar way to any other limb movement within a fluid flow.

  20. [Hyperkalemia after arterial revascularization in a patient undergoing arm replantation].

    PubMed

    Imanaka, Norie; Nakasuji, Masato; Nomura, Masataka; Yoshioka, Miwako; Miyata, Taeko; Tanaka, Masuji

    2014-12-01

    A 25-year-old man was admitted for arm replantation. His left upper arm was completely amputated by conveyer belt Anesthesia was induced with propofol (80 mg), rocuronium (50 mg), remifentanil (0.15 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and maintained with sevoflurane (1-2%) and remifentanil (0.1-0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). The plastic surgeons revascularized subclavian artery quickly but blood pressure decreased to 40-50 mmHg because of massive bleeding and plasma potassium concentration reached 5.8 mEq x l(-1). Noradrenaline (0.3 μg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and massive albumin on behalf of red blood cells were administered. After we treated hyperkalemia and hypotension, the subclavian vein was successfully revascularized. We should maintain low potassium concentration before revascularization in patients undergoing arm replantation.

  1. Layers of Experience Using "Arms"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda; Coles, Alf; Ball, Derek; Morton, Pat; Coles, Matt; Ordman, Louise; Orr, Barry; Lam, Tung Ken

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the authors' personal accounts and their experiences in working on mathematics using "arms." "Arms" is an idea that first appeared as a program written by John Warwick and David Wooldridge in an ATM publication "Some Lessons in Mathematics with a Microcomputer," 1983. The introduction to…

  2. Arms control and the MX

    SciTech Connect

    Kroll, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    By 1969, Soviet ballistic missile deployments led the United States to project the vulnerability of Minuteman Intercontinental Ballistic Missile (ICBM) silos along with an imbalance in ICBM capabilities. The Nixon Administration planned two simultaneous responses: strategic arms negotiations, to limit the threat through mutually agreed restraints; and the Safeguard Anti-Ballistic Missile defense program, to defend, as necessary, the threatened ICBM force. The US succeeded in neither. The planned defense did not materialize, even though SALT failed to limit the growth of the Soviet threat. In the years after SALT I, the US planned, but again did not carry through, ICBM programs to enhance ICBM survivability and at the same time to approach essential equivalence with Soviet capabilities. This dissertation examines the relationship of the two US responses and how arms control affected the MX ICBM system. First, the effects of US arms control objectives and optimism on the MX are analyzed from the first MX systems study in 1974, supporting the new Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, to the deployment of MX in current Minuteman silos, supporting the Strategic Arms Reduction Talks. Here US arms control contributed to MX delays and highlighted ICBM capability over ICBM survivability. Second, the effect of specific arms control provisions are addressed topically for each strategic arms agreement. The framework they establish allowed ICBM capabilities to increase, but constrained ICBM survivability.

  3. Beyond Arms-Control Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Fung, Inez; Bowyer, Ted W.; Wofsy, Steven

    2013-02-15

    Expanded monitoring of the environment, everywhere and at all times, can advance arms control around the world, enhancing transparency among nations. In particular, improved characterization of the atmosphere now offers powerful opportunities for global monitoring, with multiple societal benefits. It may be useful to think of environmental monitoring as a long-term objective of arms-control verification.

  4. LISA Long-Arm Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, James I.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of LISA Long-Arm Interferometry is presented. The contents include: 1) LISA Interferometry; 2) Constellation Design; 3) Telescope Design; 4) Constellation Acquisition; 5) Mechanisms; 6) Optical Bench Design; 7) Phase Measurement Subsystem; 8) Phasemeter Demonstration; 9) Time Delay Interferometry; 10) TDI Limitations; 11) Active Frequency Stabilization; 12) Spacecraft Level Stabilization; 13) Arm-Locking; and 14) Embarassment of Riches.

  5. Comparative analysis of methods for estimating arm segment parameters and joint torques from inverse dynamics.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Davide; Pierobon, Alberto; Dizio, Paul; Lackner, James R

    2011-03-01

    A common problem in the analyses of upper limb unfettered reaching movements is the estimation of joint torques using inverse dynamics. The inaccuracy in the estimation of joint torques can be caused by the inaccuracy in the acquisition of kinematic variables, body segment parameters (BSPs), and approximation in the biomechanical models. The effect of uncertainty in the estimation of body segment parameters can be especially important in the analysis of movements with high acceleration. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the relevance of different sources of inaccuracy in inverse dynamics analysis of a planar arm movement. Eight regression models and one water immersion method for the estimation of BSPs were used to quantify the influence of inertial models on the calculation of joint torques during numerical analysis of unfettered forward arm reaching movements. Thirteen subjects performed 72 forward planar reaches between two targets located on the horizontal plane and aligned with the median plane. Using a planar, double link model for the arm with a floating shoulder, we calculated the normalized joint torque peak and a normalized root mean square (rms) of torque at the shoulder and elbow joints. Statistical analyses quantified the influence of different BSP models on the kinetic variable variance for given uncertainty on the estimation of joint kinematics and biomechanical modeling errors. Our analysis revealed that the choice of BSP estimation method had a particular influence on the normalized rms of joint torques. Moreover, the normalization of kinetic variables to BSPs for a comparison among subjects showed that the interaction between the BSP estimation method and the subject specific somatotype and movement kinematics was a significant source of variance in the kinetic variables. The normalized joint torque peak and the normalized root mean square of joint torque represented valuable parameters to compare the effect of BSP estimation methods

  6. Lower and upper body anaerobic performance in male and female adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nindl, B C; Mahar, M T; Harman, E A; Patton, J F

    1995-02-01

    Little data exist for upper and lower body mechanical power capability of adolescent athletes. This study compared arm (A) and leg (L) anaerobic peak and mean power (PP and MP) of 20 male and 20 female adolescent athletes after normalization for body mass (BM), fat-free mass (FFM), and lean A and L cross-sectional area (CSA). Power outputs were assessed by the Wingate anaerobic test. FFM and CSA were estimated via anthropometry. No significant (P > 0.05) differences existed between the sexes in Tanner sexual maturity, chronological age, or overall training activity. Males had higher (P < 0.001) absolute PP (W) (L 694 vs 442; A 494 vs 309) and MP (L 548 vs 307; A 337 vs 214). Ratio normalization and ANCOVA were used to remove the influence of body size differences. Ratio normalization showed that males had greater leg PP/BM, MP/BM, MP/FFM, MP/CSA, as well as arm PP/BM and MP/BM, whereas all leg and arm PP and MP ANCOVA adjusted means for BM, FFM, and CSA, except arm MP adjusted for FFM, were significantly (P < 0.01) higher for males than females. We conclude that factors other than muscle mass, possibly qualitative in nature, are responsible for the sex difference in anaerobic performance of adolescent athletes.

  7. Smooth dark spiral arms in the flocculent galaxy NGC2841

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, David L.; Elmegreen, B. G.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    1996-06-01

    OPTICAL images of the arms of spiral galaxies invariably show massive blue stars forming in ridges of interstellar gas and dust1. These are particularly striking in 'grand-design' galaxies, in which the stellar positions are influenced by spiral density waves1. By contrast, many galaxies have a 'flocculent' appearance, with no obvious evidence of spiral structure at visible wavelengths. Here we report infrared observations of the prototype flocculent galaxy NGC2841, which reveal a remarkable system of long, dark spiral arms. These arms arise from concentrations of dust; they are hidden at optical wavelengths by light scattered from the dust. The mechanism that has organized the gas and dust into these dark arms is at present unclear; the arms might be highly sheared dense clouds, or they might correspond to density waves in the interstellar medium driven by an elongated central bulge, which would not affect the stable stellar disk.

  8. [Replantation in the complete amputation of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Unlü, Yahya; Ezirmik, Naci; Vural, Unsal; Velioğlu, Yusuf

    2002-01-01

    Trauma of the upper extremity can be a cause of significant morbidity and disability to otherwise productive people. Wounded extremity can be saved by replantation of the amputated parts. Replantation of traumatic amputations can be performed with reasonable success at a regional medical center when experienced surgeons, appropriate and experienced equipment, and skilled ancillary care are available. Successful replantation significantly reduces the morbidity of upper extremity amputations. We presented one case that, 9 year-old, was bridged to our hospital because of total arm amputation after sustained during use of a lawn mover. His arm was saved by urgency surgery.

  9. Robotic assessment of the influence of age on upper-limb sensorimotor function

    PubMed Central

    LLinares, Ana; Badesa, Francisco Javier; Morales, Ricardo; Garcia-Aracil, Nicolas; Sabater, JM; Fernandez, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This paper examines the influence of age on several attributes of sensorimotor performance while performing a reaching task. Our hypothesis, based on previous studies, is that aged persons will show differences in one or more of the attributes of sensorimotor performance. Patients and methods Fifty-one subjects (aged 20–80 years) with no known neuromotor disorders of the upper limbs participated in the study. Subjects were asked to grasp the end-effector of a pneumatic robotic device with two degrees of freedom in order to reach peripheral targets (1.0 cm radius), “quickly and accurately”, from a centrally located target (1.0 cm radius). Subjects began each trial by holding the hand within the central target for 2000 milliseconds. Afterwards, a peripheral target was illuminated. Then participants were given 3000 milliseconds to complete the movement. When a target was reached, the participant had to return to the central target in order to start a new trial. A total of 64 trials were completed and each peripheral target was illuminated in a random block design. Results Subjects were divided into three groups according to age: group 1 (age 20–40 years), group 2 (age 41–60 years), and group 3 (age 61–80 years). The Kruskal–Wallis test showed significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups, except for the variables postural speed in the dominant arm, and postural speed and initial deviation in the non-dominant arm (P > 0.05). These results suggest that age introduces significant differences in upper-limb motor function. Conclusion Our findings show that there are objective differences in sensorimotor function due to age, and that these differences are greater for the dominant arm. Therefore for the assessment of upper-limb function, we should take into account the influence of age. Moreover, these results suggest that robotic systems can provide a new and effective approach in the assessment of sensorimotor function. PMID:23885170

  10. Implementation of a smartphone as a wireless gyroscope platform for quantifying reduced arm swing in hemiplegie gait with machine learning classification by multilayer perceptron neural network.

    PubMed

    LeMoyne, Robert; Mastroianni, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Natural gait consists of synchronous and rhythmic patterns for both the lower and upper limb. People with hemiplegia can experience reduced arm swing, which can negatively impact the quality of gait. Wearable and wireless sensors, such as through a smartphone, have demonstrated the ability to quantify various features of gait. With a software application the smartphone (iPhone) can function as a wireless gyroscope platform capable of conveying a gyroscope signal recording as an email attachment by wireless connectivity to the Internet. The gyroscope signal recordings of the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm are post-processed into a feature set for machine learning. Using a multilayer perceptron neural network a considerable degree of classification accuracy is attained to distinguish between the affected hemiplegic arm with reduced arm swing arm and the unaffected arm.

  11. Two-point discrimination of the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Ja-Pung; Kim, Soon-Hee; An, Ho-Jung; Moon, Ok-Gon; Choi, Jung-Hyun; Yun, Young-Dae; Park, Joo-Hyun; Min, Kyoung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The present study attempted to measure two-point discrimination in the upper extremities of healthy Koreans in their 20’s. [Subjects and Methods] Using a three-point esthesiometer, we conducted an experiment with a group of 256 college students (128 male and 128 female), attending N University in Chonan, Republic of Korea. [Results] Females showed two-point discrimination at a shorter distance than males at the following points: (i) 5 cm above the elbow joint, the middle part, and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the anterior upper arm; (ii) 5 cm above the elbow joint and 5 cm below the shoulder joint of the posterior upper arm; (iii) 5 cm above the front of the wrist joint of the forearm; 5 cm below the elbow joint, the palmar part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the thumb, the dorsal part of the distal interphalangeal joint of the middle and little fingers. It was also found that females showed greater two-point discrimination than males in distal regions rather than proximal regions. [Conclusion] The findings of this study will help establish normal values for two-point discrimination of upper extremities of young Koreans in their 20’s. PMID:27134375

  12. Accuracy of KinectOne to quantify kinematics of the upper body.

    PubMed

    Kuster, Roman P; Heinlein, Bernd; Bauer, Christoph M; Graf, Eveline S

    2016-06-01

    Motion analysis systems deliver quantitative information, e.g. on the progress of rehabilitation programs aimed at improving range of motion. Markerless systems are of interest for clinical application because they are low-cost and easy to use. The first generation of the Kinect™ sensor showed promising results in validity assessment compared to an established marker-based system. However, no literature is available on the validity of the new 'Kinect™ for Xbox one' (KinectOne) in tracking upper body motion. Consequently, this study was conducted to analyze the accuracy and reliability of the KinectOne in tracking upper body motion. Twenty subjects performed shoulder abduction in frontal and scapula plane, flexion, external rotation and horizontal flexion in two conditions (sitting and standing). Arm and trunk motion were analyzed using the KinectOne and compared to a marker-based system. Comparisons were made using Bland Altman statistics and Coefficient of Multiple Correlation. On average, differences between systems of 3.9±4.0° and 0.1±3.8° were found for arm and trunk motion, respectively. Correlation was higher for the arm than for the trunk motion. Based on the observed bias, the accuracy of the KinectOne was found to be adequate to measure arm motion in a clinical setting. Although trunk motion showed a very low absolute bias between the two systems, the KinectOne was not able to track small changes over time. Before the KinectOne can find clinical application, further research is required analyzing whether validity can be improved using a customized tracking algorithm or other sensor placement, and to analyze test-retest reliability.

  13. Invertebrate neurobiology: visual direction of arm movements in an octopus.

    PubMed

    Niven, Jeremy E

    2011-03-22

    An operant task in which octopuses learn to locate food by a visual cue in a three-choice maze shows that they are capable of integrating visual and mechanosensory information to direct their arm movements to a goal.

  14. Structural changes in arm muscles after microgravity.

    PubMed

    Mayet-Sornay, M H; Hoppeler, H; Shenkman, B S; Desplanches, D

    2000-01-01

    Disuse muscle atrophy is a well-known consequence of spaceflight. However, most of the available muscle data concern lower limb muscles of rats and primates exposed to microgravity aboard Russian Cosmos biosatellites and American Space Shuttles. The purpose of our study was, therefore, to provide information concerning the effects of a 14-day spaceflight on two upper limb muscles of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Our objective was to compare structural adaptations after 14 days of microgravity in a slow-twitch extensor muscle, i.e., the triceps, with a fast-twitch flexor muscle, i.e., the biceps. We hypothesize that muscle responses will be muscle specific, i.e., slow will differ from fast muscles, flexors will differ from extensors, and arms will differ from legs.

  15. Blockage of upper airway

    MedlinePlus

    ... Airway obstruction - acute upper Images Throat anatomy Choking Respiratory system References Cukor J, Manno M. Pediatric respiratory emergencies: upper airway obstruction and infections. In: Marx ...

  16. 4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Exterior, detail south elevation, showing jointing of logs on later extension. Sept. 12, 1940. Mixon. - Upper Swedish Log Cabin, Darby Creek vicinity, Clifton Heights (Upper Darby Township), Darby, Delaware County, PA

  17. Gravitoinertial force level influences arm movement control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisk, J.; Lackner, J. R.; DiZio, P.

    1993-01-01

    1. The ability to move the forearm between remembered elbow joint angles immediately after rapid increases or decreases of the background gravitoinertial force (G) level was measured. The movements had been well-practiced in a normal 1G environment before the measurements in high-(1.8G) and low-force (0G) environments. The forearm and upper arm were always unsupported to maximize the influence of altered G-loading and to minimize extraneous cues about arm position. 2. Horizontal and vertical movement planes were studied to measure the effects of varying the G load in the movement plane within a given G background. Rapid and slow movements were studied to assess the role of proprioceptive feedback. 3. G level did not affect the amplitude of rapid movements, indicating that subjects were able to plan and to generate appropriate motor commands for the new G loading of the arm. The amplitude of slow movements was affected by G level, indicating that proprioceptive feedback is influenced by G level. 4. The effects of G level were similar for horizontal and vertical movements, indicating that proprioceptive information from supporting structures, such as the shoulder joint and muscles, had a role in allowing generation of the appropriate motor commands. 5. The incidence and size of dynamic overshoots were greater in 0G and for rapid movements. This G-related change in damping suggests a decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G. A decrease in muscle spindle activity in 0G and an increase in 1.8G are consistent with the results of our prior studies on the tonic vibration reflex, locomotion, and perception of head movement trajectory in varying force backgrounds.

  18. The effects of bilateral movement training on upper limb function in chronic stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyoung Ju; Kim, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study compared the functional and kinematic changes associated with two rehabilitation protocols: bilateral and unilateral movement training. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five patients with chronic stroke were randomly assigned to two training protocols for four weeks of training. Each training session consisted of three tasks. The tasks were performed with either the impaired and unimpaired arms moving synchronously (bilateral training) or with the impaired arm alone (unilateral training). To compare the changes associated with each rehabilitation protocol, functional and kinematic assessments were performed before and after the interventions. The functional state of each patient was measured by the Box and Block Test, and the kinematic variables were assessed by three-dimensional motion analysis. The Box and Block Test was used to assess the functional abilities of the affected upper limb. Kinematic measurements of upper limb movement were measured with a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. [Results] Results showed that the bilateral movement group had significantly improved motion of the shoulder compared to the unilateral movement group. [Conclusion] Bilateral movement training should be used to improve upper limb function in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27630418

  19. Multibody system of the upper limb including a reverse shoulder prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Quental, C; Folgado, J; Ambrósio, J; Monteiro, J

    2013-11-01

    The reverse shoulder replacement, recommended for the treatment of several shoulder pathologies such as cuff tear arthropathy and fractures in elderly people, changes the biomechanics of the shoulder when compared to the normal anatomy. Although several musculoskeletal models of the upper limb have been presented to study the shoulder joint, only a few of them focus on the biomechanics of the reverse shoulder. This work presents a biomechanical model of the upper limb, including a reverse shoulder prosthesis, to evaluate the impact of the variation of the joint geometry and position on the biomechanical function of the shoulder. The biomechanical model of the reverse shoulder is based on a musculoskeletal model of the upper limb, which is modified to account for the properties of the DELTA® reverse prosthesis. Considering two biomechanical models, which simulate the anatomical and reverse shoulder joints, the changes in muscle lengths, muscle moment arms, and muscle and joint reaction forces are evaluated. The muscle force sharing problem is solved for motions of unloaded abduction in the coronal plane and unloaded anterior flexion in the sagittal plane, acquired using video-imaging, through the minimization of an objective function related to muscle metabolic energy consumption. After the replacement of the shoulder joint, significant changes in the length of the pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, deltoid, teres major, teres minor, coracobrachialis, and biceps brachii muscles are observed for a reference position considered for the upper limb. The shortening of the teres major and teres minor is the most critical since they become unable to produce active force in this position. Substantial changes of muscle moment arms are also observed, which are consistent with the literature. As expected, there is a significant increase of the deltoid moment arms and more fibers are able to elevate the arm. The solutions to the muscle force sharing problem support the

  20. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  1. 6. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST END OF BRIDGE, SHOWING ROCKER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL VIEW OF NORTHEAST END OF BRIDGE, SHOWING ROCKER ARM PORTION OF BASCULE - Seddon Island Scherzer Rolling Lift Bridge, Spanning Garrison Channel from Tampa to Seddon Island, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  2. 7. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH HALF OF EAST CORRIDOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING SOUTH HALF OF EAST CORRIDOR, RANGE 5, WITH CENTRAL ROOF SUPPORTS, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  3. 8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 3 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  4. 5. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF FIRING PORT AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF FIRING PORT AND WEST CORRIDOR OPENING, RANGE 5, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  5. 6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHEAST, SHOWING DETAIL OF RANGE 1 TARGET END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  6. 3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, SHOWING OPEN SPACE AT RANGE BUILDING AT NORTH END, Interior - Winchester Repeating Arms Company, Tract K Shooting Range, 125 Munson Street (rear section), New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  7. 15. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST OF FURNACE 1, SHOWING COUNTERWEIGHTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHWEST OF FURNACE 1, SHOWING COUNTER-WEIGHTED PIVOT ARMS TO RAISE AND LOWER DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  8. Exoskeletal technology. [teleoperator arm system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vykukal, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    Possible applications are considered of a master-sleeve teleoperator arm system, developed in exoskeletal space suit technology, as therapeutic aid, orthotic device, or for therapy on patients with neurological disorders.

  9. ARM Standards Policy Committee Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cialella, A; Jensen, M; Koontz, A; McFarlane, S; McCoy, R; Monroe, J; Palanisamy, G; Perez, R; Sivaraman, C

    2012-09-19

    Data and metadata standards promote the consistent recording of information and are necessary to ensure the stability and high quality of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility data products for scientific users. Standards also enable automated routines to be developed to examine data, which leads to more efficient operations and assessment of data quality. Although ARM Infrastructure agrees on the utility of data and metadata standards, there is significant confusion over the existing standards and the process for allowing the release of new data products with exceptions to the standards. The ARM Standards Policy Committee was initiated in March 2012 to develop a set of policies and best practices for ARM data and metadata standards.

  10. Naval arms control: The opposition

    SciTech Connect

    Blaker, J.R.

    1990-02-01

    The author observes that hope that naval arms control agreements might bolster Soviet mellowing and inhibit a return to confrontation must be balanced against the likelihood that whether or not the United States negotiates on naval arms control has little real effect on what happens in the Soviet Union and against the undesirability of being pinned down to a less advantageous military position if things go sour. The hope that U.S. willingness to formally limit and reduce American naval capabilities and options would compel the Soviets to reduce even further their potent land-based power on the Eurasian continent or their strategic nuclear power has to be balanced against the possibility that Soviet willingness to make such reductions is driven by factors that have very little to do with the naval relationship between the two nations. Ultimately, then, we are driven back to the dilemma faced by the professional military regarding naval arms control. Without compelling evidence that naval arms control proposals are beneficial in themselves, the author notes we need a clear exposition of how they fit with other negotiations to improve national security and a much better understanding of the role naval arms control negotiations should play in a comprehensive national arms control strategy.

  11. Hand-arm vibration in tropical rain forestry workers.

    PubMed

    Futatsuka, M; Inaoka, T; Ohtsuka, R; Sakurai, T; Moji, K; Igarashi, T

    1995-01-01

    Working conditions and health hazards including vibration syndrome related to forestry work using chain-saws were studied in Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. The subjects comprised 291 workers including 97 chain-saw operators. The health examination consisted of peripheral circulatory and sensory tests in the upper extremities. The vibration spectrum measured at the handle of the chain-saw indicated that these acceleration levels would lead to a moderately high risk of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS). The peripheral circulatory function tests revealed dysfunction after more than five years vibration exposure. However, in general, the results of the function tests and subjective complaints showed fewer health problems compared to those of Japanese forestry workers. The reason of such differences of vibration effects seem to be the following: (1) warmer climate (more than 25 degrees C throughout the year), (2) young workers and short work experience. (3) short time vibration exposures on working days in the natural forests, (4) seasonal changes in logging work (5) healthy workers effects. Thus, we found no clear evidence that the workers of our study suffered from HAVS. A principal component analysis was applied. The factor score of the components of the reactive dynamics of peripheral circulation differed significantly after more than five years' exposure. On the other hand, we cannot deny the possibility that subclinical dysfunction of peripheral circulation may be caused by chain-saw operation in the tropics in future. Further investigations on the HAVS among forestry workers in the tropic environment are needed.

  12. Supernova remnant rich fields in the Carina spiral arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, Thomas

    1994-01-01

    The analysis of the ROSAT PSPC data on five fields containing supernova remnants several months ago was completed. Dr. Una Hwang, prepared a paper describing our results which was published last August ('An X-ray Study of Five Supernova Remnants in the Carina Spiral Arm', by Hwang and Markert, 1994, Ap. J., 431, p. 819). Hwang's earlier analysis of this data became part of her PhD thesis ( 'X-ray Studies of Supernova Remnants', February 1994, MIT). A copy of the Hwang and Markert paper is appended. The results of the study are well-summarized in the Hwang and Markert paper: the best spatial-spectral X-ray study yet made of the intriguing SNR G296.1-0.7 was obtained. This study showed interesting spectral variations over the surface of the object.It was also determined the gross physical properties of G296 based on its X-ray emission. Four other fields were also examined. For three of these the upper limits to the radio object were determined, and in one case found a weak, but statistically significant X-ray object coincident with the peak of the radio flux.

  13. The gothic arch tracing and the upper canine teeth as guides in the positioning of upper posterior teeth.

    PubMed

    el-Gheriani, A S; Davies, A L; Winstanley, R B

    1989-09-01

    The relationship between the position of the buccal cusps of the natural upper posterior teeth and the distance between the lateral arms of the Gothic arch tracing or the distance between the upper canine teeth has been found to be constant to within +/- 2 mm. This may be of value when setting up artificial teeth for denture patients, enabling them to be positioned close to the natural predecessors.

  14. Resection replantation of the arm for sarcoma: an alternative to amputation.

    PubMed

    Athanasian, Edward A; Healey, John H

    2002-02-01

    Resection-replantation for primary malignant tumors of the arm as an alternative to forequarter amputation first was reported in 1995. Segmental resection of the upper arm and replantation of the distal segment to the proximal humerus as an alternative to shoulder disarticulation for a large tumor of the humerus is reported. This procedure provides the patient with an aesthetically acceptable single-segment arm, which is useful for activities of daily living and recreation. There has been no local recurrence or metastasis at 5 years followup.

  15. The Impact of Model Configuration and Large-Scale, Upper-Level Forcing on CRM-Simulated Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Starr, D.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D, see a brief review by Tao 2003). Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, at NOAA GFDL, at the U. K. Met. Office, at Colorado State University and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Tao 2003). At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (September 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (June 2-11, 1998), ARM (June 26-30, 1997) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 km domain (with 2-kilometer resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. However, there are difference in radiation, surface fluxes and precipitation characteristics. The 2D GCE model was used to perform a long-term integration on ARM/GCSS case 4 (22 days at the ARM southern Great Plains site in March 2000). Preliminary results showed a large temperature bias in the upper troposphere that had not been seen in previous tropical cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to determine the sensitivities to model configuration (ie., 2D in west-east, south-north or 3D), (2) to identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between 2D- and 3D-simulated ARM cloud systems, and (3) assess the impact of upper tropospheric forcing on tropical and ARM case 4 cases.

  16. The Impact of Model Configuration and Large-Scale, Upper-Level Forcing on CRM- Simulated Convective Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Zeng, X.; Shie, C.-L.; Starr, D.; Simpson, J.

    2004-01-01

    Real clouds and cloud systems are inherently three-dimensional (3D). Because of the limitations in computer resources, however, most cloud-resolving models (CRMs) today are still two-dimensional (2D, see a brief review by Tao 2003). Only recently have 3D experiments been performed for multi-day periods for tropical cloud systems with large horizontal domains at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, at NOAA GFDL, at the U. K. Met. Office, at Colorado State University and at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (Tao 2003). At Goddard, a 3D Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model was used to simulate periods during TOGA COARE (December 19-27, 1992), GATE (September 1-7, 1974), SCSMEX (June 2-11, 1998), ARM (June 26-30, 1997) and KWAJEX (August 7-13, August 18-21, and August 29-September 12, 1999) using a 512 by 512 km domain (with 2-km resolution). The results indicate that surface precipitation and latent heating profiles are similar between the 2D and 3D GCE model simulations. However, there are difference in radiation, surface fluxes and precipitation characteristics. The 2D GCE model was used to perform a long-term integration on ARM/GCSS case 4 (22 days at the ARM Southern Great Plains site in March 2000). Preliminary results showed a large temperature bias in the upper troposphere that had not been seen in previous tropical cases. The major objectives of this paper are: (1) to determine the sensitivities to model configuration (i.e., 2D in west-east, south-north or 3D), (2) to identify the differences and similarities in the organization and entrainment rates of convection between 2D- and 3D-simulated ARM cloud systems, and (3) assess the impact of upper tropospheric forcing on tropical and ARM case 4 cases.

  17. Upper Limb Functionality and Quality of Life in Women with Five-Year Survival after Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Thaís Lunardi; Prim, Amably Cristiny; Luz, Clarissa Medeiros da

    2017-03-01

    Objective To evaluate the correlation between upper limb functionality and quality of life in women with five-year survival following breast cancer surgical treatment. The secondary objective was to evaluate the function of the ipsilateral upper limb and the quality of life in relation to the type of surgery and the presence of pain. Methods The Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), and the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Breast plus Arm Morbidity (FACTB + 4) questionnaires were used to evaluate upper limb function and quality of life respectively. Data distribution was verified by the Shapiro-Wilk test. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used for the parametric variables, and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used for the distribution of non-parametric variables. The statistical significance was set at 5% (p < 0.05). Results The study included 30 patients, with a mean age of 51.23 (±8.72) years. The most common complications were: pain (50%), adherence (33.3%), and nerve lesion (20.0%). There was a moderate negative correlation between the instruments DASH and FACTB + 4 (total score), r = -0.634, and a strong negative correlation between the DASH and the FACTB + 4 arm subscale, r = -0.829. The scores of both questionnaires showed significant difference on the manifestation of pain. However, there was no significant difference found when comparing the scores considering the type of surgery performed. Conclusions Five years after surgery, the patients showed regular functionality levels on the ipsilateral upper limb and decreased quality of life, especially in the group manifesting pain.

  18. Arm coordination in octopus crawling involves unique motor control strategies.

    PubMed

    Levy, Guy; Flash, Tamar; Hochner, Binyamin

    2015-05-04

    To cope with the exceptional computational complexity that is involved in the control of its hyper-redundant arms [1], the octopus has adopted unique motor control strategies in which the central brain activates rather autonomous motor programs in the elaborated peripheral nervous system of the arms [2, 3]. How octopuses coordinate their eight long and flexible arms in locomotion is still unknown. Here, we present the first detailed kinematic analysis of octopus arm coordination in crawling. The results are surprising in several respects: (1) despite its bilaterally symmetrical body, the octopus can crawl in any direction relative to its body orientation; (2) body and crawling orientation are monotonically and independently controlled; and (3) contrasting known animal locomotion, octopus crawling lacks any apparent rhythmical patterns in limb coordination, suggesting a unique non-rhythmical output of the octopus central controller. We show that this uncommon maneuverability is derived from the radial symmetry of the arms around the body and the simple pushing-by-elongation mechanism by which the arms create the crawling thrust. These two together enable a mechanism whereby the central controller chooses in a moment-to-moment fashion which arms to recruit for pushing the body in an instantaneous direction. Our findings suggest that the soft molluscan body has affected in an embodied way [4, 5] the emergence of the adaptive motor behavior of the octopus.

  19. The arms race between fishers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D.; Poos, Jan Jaap; Quirijns, Floor J.; HilleRisLambers, Reinier; De Wilde, Jan W.; Den Heijer, Willem M.

    An analysis of the changes in the Dutch demersal fishing fleet since the 1950s revealed that competitive interactions among vessels and gear types within the constraints imposed by biological, economic and fisheries management factors are the dominant processes governing the dynamics of fishing fleets. Double beam trawling, introduced in the early 1960s, proved a successful fishing method to catch deep burying flatfish, in particular sole. In less than 10 years, the otter trawl fleet was replaced by a highly specialised beam trawling fleet, despite an initial doubling of the loss rate of vessels due to stability problems. Engine power, size of the beam trawl, number of tickler chains and fishing speed rapidly increased and fishing activities expanded into previously lightly fished grounds and seasons. Following the ban on flatfish trawling within the 12 nautical mile zone for vessels of more than 300 hp in 1975 and with the restriction of engine power to 2000 hp in 1987, the beam trawl fleet bifurcated. Changes in the fleet capacity were related to the economic results and showed a cyclic pattern with a period of 6-7 years. The arms race between fishers was fuelled by competitive interactions among fishers: while the catchability of the fleet more than doubled in the ten years following the introduction of the beam trawl, a decline in catchability was observed in reference beam trawlers that remained the same. Vessel performance was not only affected by the technological characteristics but also by the number and characteristics of competing vessels.

  20. Adaptive control strategies for flexible robotic arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bialasiewicz, Jan T.

    1993-01-01

    The motivation of this research came about when a neural network direct adaptive control scheme was applied to control the tip position of a flexible robotic arm. Satisfactory control performance was not attainable due to the inherent non-minimum phase characteristics of the flexible robotic arm tip. Most of the existing neural network control algorithms are based on the direct method and exhibit very high sensitivity if not unstable closed-loop behavior. Therefore a neural self-tuning control (NSTC) algorithm is developed and applied to this problem and showed promising results. Simulation results of the NSTC scheme and the conventional self-tuning (STR) control scheme are used to examine performance factors such as control tracking mean square error, estimation mean square error, transient response, and steady state response.

  1. An evaluation of ARM radiosonde operational performance

    SciTech Connect

    Lesht, B.M.

    1995-06-01

    Because the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) program uses data from radiosondes for real-time quality control and sensitive modeling applications, it is important to have a quantitative measure of the quality of the radiosonde data themselves. Two methods have been tried for estimating the quality of radiosonde data: comparisons with known standards before launch and examination of pseudo-replicate samples by single sensors aloft. The ground check procedure showed that the ARM radiosondes are within manufacturer`s specifications for measuring relative humidity; procedural artifacts prevented verification for temperature. Pseudo-replicates from ascent and descent suggest that the temperature measurement is within the specified {minus_plus}0.2 C. On average ascent and descent data are similar, but detailed structure may be obscured on descent by loss of sampling density, and the descent involves other uncertainties.

  2. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  3. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  4. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  5. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when in the downward position, shall extend across... clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm shall start its downward motion not less...

  6. 49 CFR 234.223 - Gate arm.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gate arm. 234.223 Section 234.223 Transportation... SYSTEMS Maintenance, Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.223 Gate arm. Each gate arm, when... maintained in a condition sufficient to be clearly viewed by approaching highway users. Each gate arm...

  7. Algorithms for Unequal-Arm Michelson Interferometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giampieri, Giacomo; Hellings, Ronald W.; Tinto, Massimo; Bender, Peter L.; Faller, James E.

    1994-01-01

    A method of data acquisition and data analysis is described in which the performance of Michelson-type interferometers with unequal arms can be made nearly the same as interferometers with equal arms. The method requires a separate readout of the relative phase in each arm, made by interfering the returning beam in each arm with a fraction of the outgoing beam.

  8. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  9. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  10. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  11. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  12. 22 CFR 130.3 - Armed forces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Armed forces. 130.3 Section 130.3 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS POLITICAL CONTRIBUTIONS, FEES AND COMMISSIONS § 130.3 Armed forces. Armed forces means the army, navy, marine, air force, or coast guard,...

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through permanent monitoring stations and field campaigns around the world. Airborne measurements required to answer science questions from researchers or to validate ground data are also collected. To find data from all categories of aerial operations, follow the links from the AAF information page at http://www.arm.gov/sites/aaf. Tables of information will provide start dates, duration, lead scientist, and the research site for each of the named campaigns. The title of a campaign leads, in turn, to a project description, contact information, and links to the data. Users will be requested to create a password, but the data files are free for viewing and downloading. The ARM Archive physically resides at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  14. [Kinematics Modeling and Analysis of Central-driven Robot for Upper Limb Rehabilitation after Stroke].

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; Zhang, Ying; Hu, Xin; Shi, Ping

    2015-12-01

    The present paper proposed a central-driven structure of upper limb rehabilitation robot in order to reduce the volume of the robotic arm in the structure, and also to reduce the influence of motor noise, radiation and other adverse factors on upper limb dysfunction patient. The forward and inverse kinematics equations have been obtained with using the Denavit-Hartenberg (D-H) parameter method. The motion simulation has been done to obtain the angle-time curve of each joint and the position-time curve of handle under setting rehabilitation path by using Solid Works software. Experimental results showed that the rationality with the central-driven structure design had been verified by the fact that the handle could move under setting rehabilitation path. The effectiveness of kinematics equations had been proved, and the error was less than 3° by comparing the angle-time curves obtained from calculation with those from motion simulation.

  15. Optimizing System Call Latency of ARM Virtual Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sok, Song-Woo; Jung, Young-Woo; Lee, Cheol-Hun

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces ViMo-S, a type 1 hypervisor for ARMv7 and ARMv8-based ARM server systems. It supports full virtualization to run existing operating systems and applications unmodified. It uses ARM hardware virtualization extensions to optimize the performance of virtual machines, especially system call latency. Therefore, its virtual machines’ system call latency is near physical machine’s, while other hypervisors like Xen and KVM show relatively slower and unstable performances in benchmark tests.

  16. A Study of Slovenian Armed Forces Ammunition Forecasting Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    purpose of this research is to investigate Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) ammunition forecasting methods and determine if the current planning method can...documents. The research shows that current planning methods do not support SAF ammunition forecasting for future operations. Guidance for future projects...of this research is to investigate Slovenian Armed Forces (SAF) ammunition forecasting methods and determine if the current planning method can and

  17. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  18. Upper Limb Assessment in Tetraplegia: Clinical, Functional and Kinematic Correlations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; de Oliveira, Roberta; Ortolan, Rodrigo L.; Varoto, Renato; Cliquet, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate clinical and functional evaluations with kinematic variables of upper limp reach-to-grasp movement in patients with tetraplegia. Twenty chronic patients were selected to perform reach-to-grasp kinematic assessment using a target placed at a distance equal to the arm's length. Kinematic variables (hand peak…

  19. 31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DECK / VERTICAL / UPPER CHORD DETAIL OF THROUGH TRUSS AT PIN-CONNECTED EXPANSION JOINT BETWEEN CANTILEVER ARM AND SUSPENDED SPAN. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  20. Wrist level and proximal-upper extremity replantation.

    PubMed

    Hanel, Douglas P; Chin, Simon H

    2007-02-01

    Since Malt and McKhan's first successful arm replantation in 1962, upper extremity replantation surgery techniques have been refined and spread worldwide. Nevertheless, replantation at or proximal to the wrist, referred to as wrist-proximal replants, remains a daunting challenge that presents the hand surgeon with an array of difficulties distinct from digital replantation.

  1. Computing Relative Joint Positions of Robot Arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.

    1986-01-01

    Vector-algebra method developed for extracting Denavit-Hartenberg parameters for any assembled robot arm. Method for extracting relative joint geometry of robot arms useful to researchers who need data for existing robot arms for either validation of mathematical models or for studies involving actual control of these devices. Method, does not require robot arm to be disassembled, also useful in recalibration of misalined or bent robot arm and becomes useful industrial procedure. Merit of method is errors not propagated.

  2. A feasibility study to determine the benefits of upper extremity virtual rehabilitation therapy for coping with chronic pain post-cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    House, Gregory; Burdea, Grigore; Grampurohit, Namrata; Polistico, Kevin; Roll, Doru; Damiani, Frank; Hundal, Jasdeep; Demesmin, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Background: Persistent pain in shoulder and arm following post-surgical breast cancer treatment can lead to cognitive and physical deficits. Depression is also common in breast cancer survivors. Virtual reality therapy with integrative cognitive and physical rehabilitation has not been clinically trialed for this population. The novel BrightArm Duo technology improved cognition and upper extremity (UE) function for other diagnoses and has great potential to benefit individuals coping with post-surgical breast cancer pain. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility of BrightArm Duo therapy for coping with post-surgical chronic pain and associated disability in breast cancer survivors with depression. Methods: BrightArm Duo is a robotic rehabilitation table modulating gravity loading on supported forearms. It tracks arm position and grasping strength while patients play three-dimensional (3D) custom integrative rehabilitation games. Community-dwelling women (N = 6) with post-surgical breast cancer pain in the upper arm trained on the system twice a week for 8 weeks. Training difficulty increased progressively in game complexity, table tilt and session length (20–50 minutes). Standardized assessments were performed before and after therapy for pain, cognition, emotion, UE function and activities of daily living. Results: Subjects averaged upwards of 1300 arm repetitions and 850 hand grasps per session. Pain intensity showed a 20% downward trend (p = 0.1) that was corroborated by therapist observations and participant feedback. A total of 10 out of 11 cognitive metrics improved post-training (p = 0.01) with a significant 8.3-point reduction in depression severity (p = 0.04). A total of 17 of 18 range of motion metrics increased (p < 0.01), with five affected-side shoulder improvements above the Minimal Clinically Important Difference (8°). In all, 13 out of 15 strength and function metrics improved (p = 0.02) with

  3. Proprioceptive Interaction between the Two Arms in a Single-Arm Pointing Task.

    PubMed

    Kigawa, Kazuyoshi; Izumizaki, Masahiko; Tsukada, Setsuro; Hakuta, Naoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Proprioceptive signals coming from both arms are used to determine the perceived position of one arm in a two-arm matching task. Here, we examined whether the perceived position of one arm is affected by proprioceptive signals from the other arm in a one-arm pointing task in which participants specified the perceived position of an unseen reference arm with an indicator paddle. Both arms were hidden from the participant's view throughout the study. In Experiment 1, with both arms placed in front of the body, the participants received 70-80 Hz vibration to the elbow flexors of the reference arm (= right arm) to induce the illusion of elbow extension. This extension illusion was compared with that when the left arm elbow flexors were vibrated or not. The degree of the vibration-induced extension illusion of the right arm was reduced in the presence of left arm vibration. In Experiment 2, we found that this kinesthetic interaction between the two arms did not occur when the left arm was vibrated in an abducted position. In Experiment 3, the vibration-induced extension illusion of one arm was fully developed when this arm was placed at an abducted position, indicating that the brain receives increased proprioceptive input from a vibrated arm even if the arm was abducted. Our results suggest that proprioceptive interaction between the two arms occurs in a one-arm pointing task when the two arms are aligned with one another. The position sense of one arm measured using a pointer appears to include the influences of incoming information from the other arm when both arms were placed in front of the body and parallel to one another.

  4. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  5. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  6. Long-term Numerical Simulations of Clouds in Contrast to ARM Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, X.; Tao, W.; Peters-Lidard, C.; Lang, S.; Simpson, J.; Kumar, S.; Eastman, J.; Shie, C.; Geiger, J.

    2006-05-01

    Two 20-day continental cases in the middle latitude are simulated with a three-dimensional (3D) cloud- resolving model (CRM) in contrast to Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data. All numerical experiments, as compared with observations, give reasonable simulations of surface rainfall but over prediction of cloud residues in the upper troposphere. Such modeling phenomenon on the over prediction of cloud residues was also noticed by Wu et al. (1998) in the simulation of oceanic clouds. Surface fluxes from a land surface model are compared with those from observations. Using the two kinds of surface flux data, the sensitivity of clouds to surface fluxes is studied, showing that the surface fluxes from the land surface model brings about the reasonable simulation of cloud fraction in the lower troposphere.

  7. Arm position influences the activation patterns of trunk muscles during trunk range-of-motion movements.

    PubMed

    Siu, Aaron; Schinkel-Ivy, Alison; Drake, Janessa Dm

    2016-10-01

    To understand the activation patterns of the trunk musculature, it is also important to consider the implications of adjacent structures such as the upper limbs, and the muscles that act to move the arms. This study investigated the effects of arm positions on the activation patterns and co-activation of the trunk musculature and muscles that move the arm during trunk range-of-motion movements (maximum trunk axial twist, flexion, and lateral bend). Fifteen males and fifteen females, asymptomatic for low back pain, performed maximum trunk range-of-motion movements, with three arm positions for axial twist (loose, crossed, abducted) and two positions for flexion and lateral bend (loose, crossed). Electromyographical data were collected for eight muscles bilaterally, and activation signals were cross-correlated between trunk muscles and the muscles that move the arms (upper trapezius, latissimus dorsi). Results revealed consistently greater muscle co-activation (higher cross-correlation coefficients) between the trunk muscles and upper trapezius for the abducted arm position during maximum trunk axial twist, while results for the latissimus dorsi-trunk pairings were more dependent on the specific trunk muscles (either abdominal or back) and latissimus dorsi muscle (either right or left side), as well as the range-of-motion movement. The findings of this study contribute to the understanding of interactions between the upper limbs and trunk, and highlight the influence of arm positions on the trunk musculature. In addition, the comparison of the present results to those of individuals with back or shoulder conditions may ultimately aid in elucidating underlying mechanisms or contributing factors to those conditions.

  8. Technology-assisted training of arm-hand skills in stroke: concepts on reacquisition of motor control and therapist guidelines for rehabilitation technology design

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Annick AA; Seelen, Henk AM; Willmann, Richard D; Kingma, Herman

    2009-01-01

    Background It is the purpose of this article to identify and review criteria that rehabilitation technology should meet in order to offer arm-hand training to stroke patients, based on recent principles of motor learning. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE (1997–2007). Results One hundred and eighty seven scientific papers/book references were identified as being relevant. Rehabilitation approaches for upper limb training after stroke show to have shifted in the last decade from being analytical towards being focussed on environmentally contextual skill training (task-oriented training). Training programmes for enhancing motor skills use patient and goal-tailored exercise schedules and individual feedback on exercise performance. Therapist criteria for upper limb rehabilitation technology are suggested which are used to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a number of current technological systems. Conclusion This review shows that technology for supporting upper limb training after stroke needs to align with the evolution in rehabilitation training approaches of the last decade. A major challenge for related technological developments is to provide engaging patient-tailored task oriented arm-hand training in natural environments with patient-tailored feedback to support (re) learning of motor skills. PMID:19154570

  9. Military consensus behind Soviet arms control proposals

    SciTech Connect

    Weickhardt, G.C.

    1987-09-01

    For nearly two years General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev has tried to entice the West with a spectacular array of arms control proposals and initiatives. On issues such as on-site inspections and European missile reductions, he has made such significant concessions over previous Soviet positions that questions have been raised, and not satisfactorily answered, about how much support Gorbachev's diplomacy enjoys among the Soviet military. For example, have Gorbachev's proposals been a bold personal gamble to achieve agreement without the prior approval of the Soviet military bureaucracy. Or does his arms control diplomacy represent a broad consensus among the military leadership and a realignment of Soviet military doctrine and grand strategy. A careful examination of recent Soviet military thought shows that such a consensus exists. A broad and stable coalition of key military leaders supports the General Secretary's policies. Moreover, recent Soviet concessions are not, as commonly argued, a stopgap ploy to halt the US Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars. Rather, the military's support for Gorbachev's arms-control diplomacy is based on some serious strategic analysis and stems from broad, fundamental, and enduring changes in Soviet national security policy.

  10. Substructure of the outer dynein arm

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The substructure of the outer dynein arm has been analyzed in quick- frozen deep-etch replicas of Tetrahymena and Chlamydomonas axonemes. Each arm is found to be composed of five morphologically discrete components: an elliptical head; two spherical feet; a slender stalk; and an interdynein linker. The feet make contact with the A microtubule of each doublet; the stalk contacts the B microtubule; the head lies between the feet and stalk; and the linker associates each arm with its neighbor. The spatial relationships between these five components are found to be distinctly different in rigor (ATP-depleted) versus relaxed (ATP- or vanadate plus ATP-treated) axonemes, and the stalk appears to alter its affinity for the B microtubule in the relaxed state. Images of living cilia attached to Tetrahymena cells show that the relaxed configuration is adopted in vivo. We relate our observations to morphological and experimental studies reported by others and propose several models that suggest how this newly described dynein morphology may relate to dynein function. PMID:6218174

  11. A robot arm simulation with a shared memory multiprocessor machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Sung-Soo; Chuang, Li-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A parallel processing scheme for a single chain robot arm is presented for high speed computation on a shared memory multiprocessor. A recursive formulation that is derived from a virtual work form of the d'Alembert equations of motion is utilized for robot arm dynamics. A joint drive system that consists of a motor rotor and gears is included in the arm dynamics model, in order to take into account gyroscopic effects due to the spinning of the rotor. The fine grain parallelism of mechanical and control subsystem models is exploited, based on independent computation associated with bodies, joint drive systems, and controllers. Efficiency and effectiveness of the parallel scheme are demonstrated through simulations of a telerobotic manipulator arm. Two different mechanical subsystem models, i.e., with and without gyroscopic effects, are compared, to show the trade-off between efficiency and accuracy.

  12. Rock Moved by Mars Lander Arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The robotic arm on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander slid a rock out of the way during the mission's 117th Martian day (Sept. 22, 2008) to gain access to soil that had been underneath the rock.The lander's Surface Stereo Imager took the two images for this stereo view later the same day, showing the rock, called 'Headless,' after the arm pushed it about 40 centimeters (16 inches) from its previous location.

    'The rock ended up exactly where we intended it to,' said Matt Robinson of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, robotic arm flight software lead for the Phoenix team.

    The arm had enlarged the trench near Headless two days earlier in preparation for sliding the rock into the trench. The trench was dug to about 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) deep. The ground surface between the rock's prior position and the lip of the trench had a slope of about 3 degrees downward toward the trench. Headless is about the size and shape of a VHS videotape.

    The Phoenix science team sought to move the rock in order to study the soil and the depth to subsurface ice underneath where the rock had been.

    This image was taken at about 12:30 p.m., local solar time on Mars. The view is to the north northeast of the lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by JPL, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development was by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Visual and Proprioceptive Adaptation of Arm Position in a Virtual Environment.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the resolution of a discrepancy between visual and proprioceptive estimates of arm position in 10 participants. The participants fixed their right shoulder at 0°, 30°, or 60° of transverse adduction while they viewed a video on a head-mounted display that showed their right arm extended in front of the trunk for 30 min. The perceived arm position more closely approached the seen arm position on the display as the difference between the actual and visually displayed arm positions increased. In the extreme case of a 90° discrepancy, the seen arm position on the display was very gradually perceived as approaching the actual arm position. The magnitude of changes in sensory estimates was larger for proprioception (20%) than for vision (< 10%).

  14. Arm-use dependent lateralization of gamma and beta oscillations in primate medial motor areas.

    PubMed

    Hosaka, Ryosuke; Nakajima, Toshi; Aihara, Kazuyuki; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Mushiake, Hajime

    2015-02-01

    The neurons in the motor cortex show lateralization depending on the arm to use. To investigate if local field potential (LFP) oscillations change with contralateral and ipsilateral arm use, we analyzed the power of LFP in supplementary motor areas (SMA) and pre-SMA while animals performed a delayed-response arm use task under visual guidance and memory-based. LFP power changed with the laterality of the arm use, but it was frequency dependent. Specifically, power in the gamma range increased during contralateral arm use, while beta power increased with ipsilateral arm use. Subsequently, we confirmed that the frequency-dependent laterality was true also for the memory-driven movements. Our data therefore suggest that gamma oscillation is linked to the local neuronal activities in the contralateral hemisphere, and beta oscillation is related to withholding undesired arm movements by suppression of the local neuronal activities of the ipsilateral hemisphere.

  15. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn't appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  16. Arms Control past and future

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, T.R.

    1991-12-01

    I am going to talk today about Arms Control. First, I want to go over the recent history of the process. Five years ago, the pace of arms control changed dramatically. From an outsider it probably didn`t appear that way -- but those working it, the shift from the historic glacial speed normally associated with this process to one of pressures -- political and economic -- national and global -- to actually conclude meaningful, verifiable agreements was a major change. Then, I want to spend a few minutes covering the future of arms control new that we have lost our enemy, and it is no longer a bipolar world. I also want to leave time for easy questions.

  17. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  18. Ergonomically neutral arm support system

    DOEpatents

    Siminovitch, Michael J; Chung, Jeffrey Y; Dellinges, Steven; Lafever, Robin E

    2005-08-02

    An ergonomic arm support system maintains a neutral position for the forearm. A mechanical support structure attached to a chair or other mounting structure supports the arms of a sitting or standing person. The system includes moving elements and tensioning elements to provide a dynamic balancing force against the forearms. The support structure is not fixed or locked in a rigid position, but is an active dynamic system that is maintained in equipoise by the continuous operation of the opposing forces. The support structure includes an armrest connected to a flexible linkage or articulated or pivoting assembly, which includes a tensioning element such as a spring. The pivoting assembly moves up and down, with the tensioning element providing the upward force that balances the downward force of the arm.

  19. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  20. View from Above of Phoenix's Stowed Robotic Arm Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation

    This artist's animation of an imaginary camera zooming in from above shows the location of the Robotic Arm Camera on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander as it acquires an image of the scoop at the end of the arm. Located just beneath the Robotic Arm Camera lens, the scoop is folded in the stowed position, with its open end facing the Robotic Arm Camera.

    The last frame in the animation shows the first image taken by the Robotic Arm Camera, one day after Phoenix landed on Mars. In the center of the image is the robotic scoop the lander will use to dig into the surface, collect samples and touch water ice on Mars for the first time. The scoop is in the stowed position, awaiting deployment of the robotic arm.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  1. Upper airway biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... upper airway Images Upper airway test Bronchoscopy Throat anatomy References Yung RC, Boss EF. Tracheobronchial endoscopy. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; ...

  2. Welcome to the U. S. arms superstore

    SciTech Connect

    Hartung, W.D. )

    1993-09-01

    After the 1991 Gulf War, the [open quotes]Big Five[close quotes]--the United States, France, Britain, the Soviet Union, and China--initiated talks on limiting the flow of arms to the Middle East and the United Nations established an arms register as a way to promote a more open international dialogue concerning the problem of conventional arms proliferation. Two and a half years later, the promises about arms controls have been forgotten in favor of a policy to sell arms to any nation possessing sufficient cash to purchase them. The promises to curb the weapons trade may have been forgotten because of the new dynamics that are driving the arms trade in the post-Cold War era. This article seeks to define these dynamics and to suggest means of getting the arms control process back on track. The rationale behind the commercialization of arms and means of combatting the arms exportation problem are emphasized. 18 refs.

  3. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  4. Clinical evaluation of motion and position sense in the upper extremities of the elderly using motion analysis system.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan-yi; Wu, Yi-hui

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure kinesthetic accuracy in healthy older adults by using arm position and motion matching tests. We investigated the effect of task type, joint angle, and matching arm results on kinesthetic accuracy in the upper extremities of 17 healthy right-handed older adults. Blinded subjects were asked to match positions and motions at four reference joint angles: 1) shoulder flexion, 0°-60°; 2) elbow flexion, 90°-135°; 3) wrist extension, 0°-50° in the sagittal plane; and 4) shoulder abduction, 0°-60° in the frontal plane. The absolute difference in angular displacement between the reference and matching arms was calculated to determine kinesthetic accuracy. Results showed that subjects were more accurate at matching motion than position tasks (P=0.03). Shoulder and elbow joints were more sensitive than wrist joints in perceiving passive positions and motions (P<0.05). The effect of the matching arm was found only when matching the joint angles of shoulder abduction and wrist extension (P<0.01). These results are comparable to findings of other studies that used machine-generated kinesthetic stimuli. The manual measurement of kinesthetic accuracy could be effective as a preliminary screening tool for therapists in clinical settings.

  5. Effect of active arm swing to local dynamic stability during walking.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu; Li, Yue; Liu, An-Min; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Yin-Zhi; Hu, Fei; Chen, Jin-Ling; Dai, Ke-Rong; Gu, Dong-Yun

    2016-02-01

    Arm swing is an essential component in regulating dynamic stability of the whole body during walking, while the contribution of active arm swing to local dynamic stability of different motion segments remains unclear. This study investigated the effects of arm swing under natural arm swing condition and active arm swing condition on local dynamic stability and gait variability of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) and lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint). The local divergence exponents (λs) and mean standard deviation over strides (MeanSD) of 24 young healthy adults were calculated while they were walking on treadmill with two arm swing conditions at their preferred walking speed (PWS). We found that in medial-lateral direction, both λs and MeanSD values of the trunk segments (C7 and T10 joint) in active arm swing condition were significantly lower than those in natural arm swing condition (p<0.05), while no significant difference of λs or MeanSD in lower extremity joints (hip, knee and ankle joint) was found between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). In anterior-posterior and vertical direction, neither λs nor MeanSD values of all body segments showed significant difference between two arm swing conditions (p>0.05, respectively). These findings indicate that active arm swing may help to improve the local dynamic stability of the trunk segments in medial-lateral direction.

  6. Sprinkle Test by Phoenix's Robotic Arm (Movie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander used its Robotic Arm during the mission's 15th Martian day since landing (June 9, 2008) to test a 'sprinkle' method for delivering small samples of soil to instruments on the lander deck. This sequence of four images from the spacecraft's Surface Stereo Imager covers a period of 20 minutes from beginning to end of the activity.

    In the single delivery of a soil sample to a Phoenix instrument prior to this test, the arm brought the scooped up soil over the instrument's opened door and turned over the scoop to release the soil. The sprinkle technique, by contrast, holds the scoop at a steady angle and vibrates the scoop by running the motorized rasp located beneath the scoop. This gently jostles some material out of the scoop to the target below.

    For this test, the target was near the upper end the cover of the Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer instrument suite, or MECA. The cover is 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) across. The scoop is about 8.5 centimeters (3.3 inches) across.

    Based on the test's success in delivering a small quantity and fine-size particles, the Phoenix team plans to use the sprinkle method for delivering samples to MECA and to the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA. The next planned delivery is to MECA's Optical Microscope, via the port in the MECA cover visible at the bottom of these images.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  7. Upper-limb power test in rock-climbing.

    PubMed

    Laffaye, G; Collin, J-M; Levernier, G; Padulo, J

    2014-07-01

    The goal of the present study was to validate a new ecological power-test on athletes of different levels and to assess rock climbers' profiles (boulderers vs. route climbers). 34 athletes divided into novice, skilled and elite groups performed the arm-jump board test (AJ). Power, time, velocity, and efficiency index were recorded. Validity was assessed by comparing the distance with the value extracted from the accelerometer (500 Hz) and the reliability of intra- and inter-session scores. Moreover, a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the climbers' profiles. The AJ test was quite valid, showing a low systematic bias of -0.88 cm (-1.25%) and low limits of agreement (< 6%), and reliable ( Intra-class correlation coefficient = 0.98 and CV < 5%), and was able to distinguish between the 3 samples (p < 0.0001). There was a good correlation between relative upper-limb power (r = 0.70; p < 0.01) and the AJ score. Moreover, the PCA revealed an explosive profile for boulderers and either a weak and quick or slow profile for route climbers, revealing a biomechanical signature of the sub-discipline. The AJ test provides excellent absolute and relative reliabilities for climbing, and can effectively distinguish between climbing athletes of different competitive levels. Thus, the AJ may be suitable for field assessment of upper limb strength in climbing practitioners.

  8. Randomized Phase III Clinical Trial of Five Different Arms of Treatment in 332 Patients with Cancer Cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Macciò, Antonio; Madeddu, Clelia; Serpe, Roberto; Massa, Elena; Dessì, Mariele; Panzone, Filomena; Contu, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. A phase III, randomized study was carried out to establish the most effective and safest treatment to improve the primary endpoints of cancer cachexia—lean body mass (LBM), resting energy expenditure (REE), and fatigue—and relevant secondary endpoints: appetite, quality of life, grip strength, Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) and proinflammatory cytokines. Patients and Methods. Three hundred thirty-two assessable patients with cancer-related anorexia/cachexia syndrome were randomly assigned to one of five treatment arms: arm 1, medroxyprogesterone (500 mg/day) or megestrol acetate (320 mg/day); arm 2, oral supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid; arm 3, L-carnitine (4 g/day); arm 4, thalidomide (200 mg/day); and arm 5, a combination of the above. Treatment duration was 4 months. Results. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference between treatment arms. A post hoc analysis showed the superiority of arm 5 over the others for all primary endpoints. An analysis of changes from baseline showed that LBM (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and by L3 computed tomography) significantly increased in arm 5. REE decreased significantly and fatigue improved significantly in arm 5. Appetite increased significantly in arm 5; interleukin (IL)-6 decreased significantly in arm 5 and arm 4; GPS and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (ECOG PS) score decreased significantly in arm 5, arm 4, and arm 3. Toxicity was quite negligible, and was comparable between arms. Conclusion. The most effective treatment in terms of all three primary efficacy endpoints and the secondary endpoints appetite, IL-6, GPS, and ECOG PS score was the combination regimen that included all selected agents. PMID:20156909

  9. The arm posture in children with unilateral Cerebral Palsy is mainly related to antero-posterior gait instability.

    PubMed

    Meyns, Pieter; Duysens, Jacques; Desloovere, Kaat

    2016-09-01

    In this observational case-control study we aimed to determine whether altered arm postures in children with unilateral CP (uniCP) are related to gait instability in a specific direction. Antero-posterior and medio-lateral Foot Placement Estimator instability measures and arm posture measures (vertical and antero-posterior hand position, sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle) were determined in eleven uniCP (7 years-10 months) and twenty-four typically developing children (9 years-6 months) at two walking speeds. Spearman-rank correlation analyses were made to examine the relationship between antero-posterior and medio-lateral arm posture and gait instability. Arm posture in both planes was related to antero-posterior instability (e.g. sagittal and frontal upper arm elevation angle correlated moderately with antero-posterior instability; R=0.41, p<0.001, R=-0.47, p<0.001). In uniCP, increased antero-posterior instability was associated with a higher (R=-0.62, p=0.002) and more frontal position of the hemiplegic hand (R=-0.58, p=0.005), while the non-hemiplegic upper arm was rotated more backward (R=0.63, p=0.002) and both upper arms rotated more sideways (hemiplegic: R=-0.58, p=0.004; non-hemiplegic: R=-0.55, p=0.008). The altered non-hemiplegic (sagittal and frontal) arm posture in uniCP may be a compensation to reduce antero-posterior gait instability.

  10. Flexible trial design in practice - stopping arms for lack-of-benefit and adding research arms mid-trial in STAMPEDE: a multi-arm multi-stage randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Systemic Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Prostate cancer: Evaluation of Drug Efficacy (STAMPEDE) is a randomized controlled trial that follows a novel multi-arm, multi-stage (MAMS) design. We describe methodological and practical issues arising with (1) stopping recruitment to research arms following a pre-planned intermediate analysis and (2) adding a new research arm during the trial. Methods STAMPEDE recruits men who have locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer who are starting standard long-term hormone therapy. Originally there were five research and one control arms, each undergoing a pilot stage (focus: safety, feasibility), three intermediate ‘activity’ stages (focus: failure-free survival), and a final ‘efficacy’ stage (focus: overall survival). Lack-of-sufficient-activity guidelines support the pairwise interim comparisons of each research arm against the control arm; these pre-defined activity cut-off becomes increasingly stringent over the stages. Accrual of further patients continues to the control arm and to those research arms showing activity and an acceptable safety profile. The design facilitates adding new research arms should sufficiently interesting agents emerge. These new arms are compared only to contemporaneously recruited control arm patients using the same intermediate guidelines in a time-delayed manner. The addition of new research arms is subject to adequate recruitment rates to support the overall trial aims. Results (1) Stopping Existing Therapy: After the second intermediate activity analysis, recruitment was discontinued to two research arms for lack-of-sufficient activity. Detailed preparations meant that changes were implemented swiftly at 100 international centers and recruitment continued seamlessly into Activity Stage III with 3 remaining research arms and the control arm. Further regulatory and ethical approvals were not required because this was already included in the initial trial design. (2

  11. JPRS Report, Arms Control.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-26

    large number of civilians were hit, including Domingos Antonio, Paulo Mucanda, Maria Adelina, Felicia Chilombo, Catarina Malungo, Victoria Bimbi...Francisca Chilombo, and 4- year-old Manuel Frederico, 2-year-old Catarina Jamba, and 10-year-old Dina Cassinmbe. These people show symptoms of

  12. Sonification of Arm Movements in Stroke Rehabilitation – A Novel Approach in Neurologic Music Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Scholz, Daniel S.; Rohde, Sönke; Nikmaram, Nikou; Brückner, Hans-Peter; Großbach, Michael; Rollnik, Jens D.; Altenmüller, Eckart O.

    2016-01-01

    Gross motor impairments are common after stroke, but efficient and motivating therapies for these impairments are scarce. We present an innovative musical sonification therapy, especially designed to retrain patients’ gross motor functions. Sonification should motivate patients and provide additional sensory input informing about relative limb position. Twenty-five stroke patients were included in a clinical pre–post study and took part in the sonification training. The patients’ upper extremity functions, their psychological states, and their arm movement smoothness were assessed pre and post training. Patients were randomly assigned to either of two groups. Both groups received an average of 10 days (M = 9.88; SD = 2.03; 30 min/day) of musical sonification therapy [music group (MG)] or a sham sonification movement training [control group (CG)], respectively. The only difference between the two protocols was that in the CG no sound was played back during training. In the beginning, patients explored the acoustic effects of their arm movements in space. At the end of the training, the patients played simple melodies by coordinated arm movements. The 15 patients in the MG showed significantly reduced joint pain (F = 19.96, p < 0.001) in the Fugl–Meyer assessment after training. They also reported a trend to have improved hand function in the stroke impact scale as compared to the CG. Movement smoothness at day 1, day 5, and the last day of the intervention was compared in MG patients and found to be significantly better after the therapy. Taken together, musical sonification may be a promising therapy for motor impairments after stroke, but further research is required since estimated effect sizes point to moderate treatment outcomes. PMID:27445970

  13. Hand/Wrist/Arm Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor right away.Start OverDiagnosisYou may have TENDINITIS, inflammation of a tendon.Self CareUse an over- ... OverDiagnosisYour may have TENNIS ELBOW, a type of TENDINITIS.Self CareRest the arm, apply ice packs to ...

  14. Minorities in the Armed Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Anthony

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the findings of the Congressional Black Caucus and the specially formed task force; reports that high ranking officers have pledged to attack racial discrimination; and describes an association of minority officers whose purpose is to enhance the image of the armed forces within the minority community. (Author/JM)

  15. Robotic Mirror Therapy System for Functional Recovery of Hemiplegic Arms.

    PubMed

    Beom, Jaewon; Koh, Sukgyu; Nam, Hyung Seok; Kim, Wonshik; Kim, Yoonjae; Seo, Han Gil; Oh, Byung-Mo; Chung, Sun Gun; Kim, Sungwan

    2016-08-15

    Mirror therapy has been performed as effective occupational therapy in a clinical setting for functional recovery of a hemiplegic arm after stroke. It is conducted by eliciting an illusion through use of a mirror as if the hemiplegic arm is moving in real-time while moving the healthy arm. It can facilitate brain neuroplasticity through activation of the sensorimotor cortex. However, conventional mirror therapy has a critical limitation in that the hemiplegic arm is not actually moving. Thus, we developed a real-time 2-axis mirror robot system as a simple add-on module for conventional mirror therapy using a closed feedback mechanism, which enables real-time movement of the hemiplegic arm. We used 3 Attitude and Heading Reference System sensors, 2 brushless DC motors for elbow and wrist joints, and exoskeletal frames. In a feasibility study on 6 healthy subjects, robotic mirror therapy was safe and feasible. We further selected tasks useful for activities of daily living training through feedback from rehabilitation doctors. A chronic stroke patient showed improvement in the Fugl-Meyer assessment scale and elbow flexor spasticity after a 2-week application of the mirror robot system. Robotic mirror therapy may enhance proprioceptive input to the sensory cortex, which is considered to be important in neuroplasticity and functional recovery of hemiplegic arms. The mirror robot system presented herein can be easily developed and utilized effectively to advance occupational therapy.

  16. Rasp Tool on Phoenix Robotic Arm Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This close-up photograph taken at the Payload Interoperability Testbed at the University of Arizona, Tucson, shows the motorized rasp protruding from the bottom of the scoop on the engineering model of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Robotic Arm.

    The rasp will be placed against the hard Martian surface to cut into the hard material and acquire an icy soil sample for analysis by Phoenix's scientific instruments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is led by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Long-Latency Feedback Coordinates Upper-Limb and Hand Muscles during Object Manipulation Tasks123

    PubMed Central

    Thonnard, Jean-Louis; Scott, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    Suppose that someone bumps into your arm at a party while you are holding a glass of wine. Motion of the disturbed arm will engage rapid and goal-directed feedback responses in the upper-limb. Although such responses can rapidly counter the perturbation, it is also clearly desirable not to destabilize your grasp and/or spill the wine. Here we investigated how healthy humans maintain a stable grasp following perturbations by using a paradigm that requires spatial tuning of the motor response dependent on the location of a virtual target. Our results highlight a synchronized expression of target-directed feedback in shoulder and hand muscles occurring at ∼60 ms. Considering that conduction delays are longer for the more distal hand muscles, these results suggest that target-directed responses in hand muscles were initiated before those for the shoulder muscles. These results show that long-latency feedback can coordinate upper limb and hand muscles during object manipulation tasks. PMID:27022624

  18. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and deep-breathing exercises on upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Kim, Seong-Yeol; Jeong, Yeon-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises on upper limb lymphedema in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study consisted of 10 patients with lymphedema that had occurred after stroke. Neurodevelopmental treatment was applied in the same manner as that used for the existing treatment. The subjects performed deep-breathing and stretching exercises three times per week for 4 weeks (12 sessions total). Body water volume in the upper limbs was measured before and after exercise by using an InBody S10 analyzer. [Results] Performance of deep-breathing and stretching exercises significantly reduced body water volume in both the affected and unaffected arms. The extracellular-to-total cellular fluid volume ratio in the affected arm improved to 0.379 after exercise, although this change was not significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises reduce upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients. PMID:28174433

  19. Effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching and deep-breathing exercises on upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Woon Taek; Jeong, Yeon-Jae; Kim, Seong-Yeol; Jeong, Yeon-Gyu

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises on upper limb lymphedema in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] The study consisted of 10 patients with lymphedema that had occurred after stroke. Neurodevelopmental treatment was applied in the same manner as that used for the existing treatment. The subjects performed deep-breathing and stretching exercises three times per week for 4 weeks (12 sessions total). Body water volume in the upper limbs was measured before and after exercise by using an InBody S10 analyzer. [Results] Performance of deep-breathing and stretching exercises significantly reduced body water volume in both the affected and unaffected arms. The extracellular-to-total cellular fluid volume ratio in the affected arm improved to 0.379 after exercise, although this change was not significant. [Conclusion] The results of the present study show that deep-breathing and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching exercises reduce upper extremity lymphedema in stroke patients.

  20. The effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on arm volume and arm circumference in women treated for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lane, K; Jespersen, D; McKenzie, D C

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training on changes in arm volume in breast cancer survivors. A total of 16 female breast cancer survivors with no clinical history of lymphoedema volunteered. The 20-week exercise programme consisted of resistance and aerobic exercise with the addition of dragon boat training at week 8. Arm circumference at two sites (CIRC10, CIRC15), arm volume (VOL), and upper body strength (1-RM) were measured at baseline (T1), week 8 (T2), and week 20 (T3). All statistical tests were two-sided (alpha < or = 0.05). No significant differences between the ipsilateral and contralateral upper extremities at any of the three time points were found. All variables significantly increased from T1 to T3 (CIRC10: difference, d = 0.49 cm, 95% confidence interval, CI = 0.25-0.73, P = 0.000; CIRC15: d = 1.33 cm, CI = 0.78-1.88, P = 0.000; VOL: d = 100 mL, CI = 69-130, P = 0.000). As well, 1-RM significantly increased from T1 to T3 (d = 10.8 kg, CI = 5.6-16.1; P = 0.000). In summary, participation in a whole body exercise programme and dragon boat training resulted in a significant increase in upper extremity volume over time. However, the changes were consistent for both arms and the significant gain in upper body muscular strength likely accounted for the increase in arm volume.

  1. A community-based group upper extremity exercise program improves motor function and performance of functional activities in chronic stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Marco Y C; Harris, Jocelyn E; Eng, Janice J

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a community-based exercise program on motor recovery and functional abilities of the paretic upper extremity in persons with chronic stroke. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting Rehabilitation research laboratory and a community hall. Participants A sample of 63 people (≥ 50 years) with chronic deficits resulting from stroke (onset ≥ 1 year). Interventions The arm group underwent an exercise program designed to improve upper extremity function (1 hour per session, 3 sessions per week for 19 weeks). The leg group underwent a lower extremity exercise program. Main outcome measures (1) Wolf Motor Function Test (WMFT), (2) Fugl-Meyer Motor Assessment (FMA), (3) hand-held dynamometry (grip strength), and (4) Motor Activity Log. Results Multivariate analysis showed a significant group × time interaction (Wilk’s Lambda=0.726, P=0.017), indicating that overall, the arm group had significantly more improvement than the leg group. Post-hoc analysis demonstrated that gains in WMFT (functional ability) (P=0.001) and FMA (P=0.001) were significantly higher in the arm group. The amount of improvement was comparable to other novel treatment approaches such as constraint-induced movement therapy or robot-aided exercise training previously reported in chronic stroke. Participants with moderate arm impairment benefited more from the program. Conclusions The pilot study showed that a community-based exercise program can improve upper extremity function in persons with chronic stroke. This outcome justifies a larger clinical trial to further assess efficacy and cost-effectiveness. PMID:16401430

  2. New technologies and the arms race

    SciTech Connect

    Schaerf, C.; Reid, B.H.; Carlton, D.

    1989-01-01

    This volume contains the proceedings of the International Conference on Technology, the Arms Race and Arms Control. Topics covered include: Cosmic space and the role of Europe and Non-military justification for investments in military technologies.

  3. Low-cost robotic arm control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, John R.

    2008-04-01

    A low-cost robotic arm and controller system is presented. The controller is a desktop model of the robotic arm with the same degrees of freedom whose joints are equipped with sensors. Manipulating the controller by hand causes the robotic arm to mimic the movement in maser-slave fashion. The system takes advantage of the low cost and wide availability of hobby radio control components and uses a low-cost, easy-to-program microprocessor. The system is implemented with a video camera on the robotic arm, and the arm is mounted on an unmanned omnidirectional vehicle inspection robot. With a camera on the end of a robot arm, the vehicle inspection system can reach difficult to-access regions of the vehicle underbody. Learning to manipulate the robot arm with this controller is faster than learning with a traditional joystick. Limitations of the microcontroller are discussed, and suggestions for further development of the robot arm and control are made.

  4. The Spanish experience with hand, forearm, and arm transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis; Thione, Alessandro; Rodríguez-Pérez, Jose C; Garcia-Bello, Miguel A; Ibañez, Javier; Vera-Sempere, Francisco; Garcia-Cosmes, Pedro; Alfaro, Luis; Rodrigo, Jose D; Castro, Federico

    2011-11-01

    This article summarizes the findings from 3 recipients of hand allografts, including a description of the preparatory surgery and the transplant and secondary procedures to enhance the function of the hand, forearm, and arm allografts. The study focuses on the complications and disability reported by each patient, with a minimum follow-up of 2 years. The few complications were controlled successfully with medical treatment. Hand transplantation is a major reconstructive procedure that requires careful medical follow-up. The authors provide the first report of a significant improvement in disabilities of the upper limb as a result of hand allotransplantation.

  5. Arterial surgery for arm ischemia. A survey of 136 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Holleman, J H; Hardy, J D; Williamson, J W; Raju, S; Neely, W A

    1980-01-01

    A series of 136 patients with upper extremity ischemia requiring operative correction is presented. Causes of the ischemia included trauma, atherosclerosis, embolism, iatrogenic causes, radiation injury, and cervical rib syndrome. Operations included primary repair, various bypass grafts and embolectomy. Illustrative case reports are used to emphasize important points. The subclavian, axillary and brachial arteries have been considered separately. In general, ischemia of the arm caused by a discrete lesion is amenable to surgical correction with an excellent change of success. Images Fig. 1. Figs. 5a and b. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. Fig. 9. PMID:7387235

  6. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  7. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  8. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  9. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  10. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  13. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  14. Overcoming Robot-Arm Joint Singularities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barker, L. K.; Houck, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    Kinematic equations allow arm to pass smoothly through singular region. Report discusses mathematical singularities in equations of robotarm control. Operator commands robot arm to move in direction relative to its own axis system by specifying velocity in that direction. Velocity command then resolved into individual-joint rotational velocities in robot arm to effect motion. However, usual resolved-rate equations become singular when robot arm is straightened.

  15. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  16. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  17. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  18. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  19. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  20. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  1. 32 CFR 935.134 - Arm signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Arm signals. 935.134 Section 935.134 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.134 Arm signals. (a) Any person operating a motor vehicle and... signal for a turn or stop is made by fully extending the left arm as follows: (1) Left turn—extend...

  2. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  3. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  4. 33 CFR 154.510 - Loading arms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loading arms. 154.510 Section 154... FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Equipment Requirements § 154.510 Loading arms. (a) Each mechanical loading arm used for transferring oil or hazardous material and placed into...

  5. 77 FR 30875 - Armed Forces Day, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8823 of May 18, 2012 Armed Forces Day, 2012 By the President of the United... circumstances. On Armed Forces Day, we pay tribute to the unparalleled service of our Armed Forces and recall... Day. I direct the Secretary of Defense on behalf of the Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps,...

  6. Arm Tremor, Tardive Dyskinesia, and Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Emmerik, R. E. A.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The arm tremor of adults (n=32) diagnosed as having mental retardation and/or tardive dyskinesia was examined through an analysis of the acceleration properties of several arm postures. The degree of arm acceleration was increased in all subjects compared to a control group without mental retardation. Effects of neuroleptic medication were noted.…

  7. Spirality: Spiral arm pitch angle measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, Douglas W.; Boe, Benjamin; Pfountz, Casey; Davis, Benjamin L.; Hartley, Matthew; Pour Imani, Hamed; Slade, Zac; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia

    2015-12-01

    Spirality measures spiral arm pitch angles by fitting galaxy images to spiral templates of known pitch. Written in MATLAB, the code package also includes GenSpiral, which produces FITS images of synthetic spirals, and SpiralArmCount, which uses a one-dimensional Fast Fourier Transform to count the spiral arms of a galaxy after its pitch is determined.

  8. Upper incisors' positions after extraction.

    PubMed

    Werneck, Eduardo César; Mattos, Fernanda Silva; Cotrim-Ferreira, Flávio Augusto; Prado, Renata Falchete; Silva, Márcio Garcia; Araújo, Adriano Marotta

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to verify the amount of horizontal and vertical movement and incisor inclination of upper incisors and correlate these with Edgewise and Alexander brackets use and the presence of overbite during anterior retraction in sliding mechanics. The sample was composed of 40 adult patients divided into 2 groups, treated with Edgewise and Alexander brackets (20 each) subdivided in 2 groups (10 each), according to the presence or absence of deep bite. Treatment consisted of 4 extraction cases with sliding mechanics with the 2 different brackets. Pre- and post-treatment cephalograms were measured and the values of interest submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, ANOVA at 5%, the Tukey test and Pearson's correlation. Upper incisor retraction was not related to the brackets used nor to the presence of deep bite, though lingual tipping was greater when Edgewise brackets were used and deep bite was absent. No statistically significant differences in upper incisor vertical movements were observed and no correlation was determined between upper incisor intrusion and lower incisor labial tipping in overbite correction or in upper incisor retraction and lower incisor labial tipping for overjet correction. Bracket prescription and its interaction with deep bite were significant and Edgewise brackets without deep bite showed the worst inclination control. It was concluded that bracket prescriptions are important to increase control of sliding mechanics.

  9. Spatial Map of Synthesized Criteria for the Redundancy Resolution of Human Arm Movements.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Milutinovic, Dejan; Rosen, Jacob

    2015-11-01

    The kinematic redundancy of the human arm enables the elbow position to rotate about the axis going through the shoulder and wrist, which results in infinite possible arm postures when the arm reaches to a target in a 3-D workspace. To infer the control strategy the human motor system uses to resolve redundancy in reaching movements, this paper compares five redundancy resolution criteria and evaluates their arm posture prediction performance using data on healthy human motion. Two synthesized criteria are developed to provide better real-time arm posture prediction than the five individual criteria. Of these two, the criterion synthesized using an exponential method predicts the arm posture more accurately than that using a least squares approach, and therefore is preferable for inferring the contributions of the individual criteria to motor control during reaching movements. As a methodology contribution, this paper proposes a framework to compare and evaluate redundancy resolution criteria for arm motion control. A cluster analysis which associates criterion contributions with regions of the workspace provides a guideline for designing a real-time motion control system applicable to upper-limb exoskeletons for stroke rehabilitation.

  10. Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Wendy KY; Kaur, Manraj Nirmal; Thoma, Achilleas

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long-term outcomes of major upper extremity replantations are infrequently reported. It is believed that replantation is indicated for amputations at all levels in children and for all distal amputations in adults. Replantations of arm or proximal forearm amputations in adults are controversial. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of major upper extremity replantations, defined as those that are transmetacarpal, through the wrist, forearm, elbow or arm. METHODS: A review of these types of replantations performed at the authors’ institution from 2002 to 2012 was conducted. Patients’ strength, range of motion and two-point discrimination were assessed. Patients completed the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH), the Michigan Hand Questionnaire (MHQ), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS). RESULTS: Seventeen patients underwent major upper extremity replantation surgery. The majority (16 of 17 [94%]) of the included patients were male. Of 17 patients, 13 (76.5%) required reoperations. The mean (± SD) DASH score of seven patients who consented to completing all questionnaires was 75.4±14.2 of 100 (range 59.2 to 91.1). On the MHQ, the mean score for affected hand function was 16% compared with 84% in the unaffected hand. Patients generally demonstrated at least mild levels of anxiety and depression on the HADS. DISCUSSION: The results suggest that major upper extremity injuries and replantations have a significant impact on patients’ long-term hand function, and produce long-term anxiety and depressive symptoms. PMID:25152640

  11. Regenerator cross arm seal assembly

    DOEpatents

    Jackman, Anthony V.

    1988-01-01

    A seal assembly for disposition between a cross arm on a gas turbine engine block and a regenerator disc, the seal assembly including a platform coextensive with the cross arm, a seal and wear layer sealingly and slidingly engaging the regenerator disc, a porous and compliant support layer between the platform and the seal and wear layer porous enough to permit flow of cooling air therethrough and compliant to accommodate relative thermal growth and distortion, a dike between the seal and wear layer and the platform for preventing cross flow through the support layer between engine exhaust and pressurized air passages, and air diversion passages for directing unregenerated pressurized air through the support layer to cool the seal and wear layer and then back into the flow of regenerated pressurized air.

  12. Cold warriors target arms control

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, J.

    1995-09-01

    While disagreements over the conflict in Bosnia have strained US relations with Western Europe and Russia, these divisions will pale in comparison to the tensions that will arise if recent congressional arms control decisions become law. If the Republicans who dominate Congress are successful, a series of arms control agreements painstakingly negotiated by Republican and Democratic presidents could be consigned to the ash heap. This list includes the Start I and Start II nuclear reduction agreements, the 1972 Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty and the ongoing negotiations to achieve a comprehensive test ban (CTB) by 1996. US leadership in the post-Cold War era will undermined as the international community, already skeptical about this country`s direction, will question the ability of the executive branch to surmount isolantionist impulses.

  13. Transconjunctival upper blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Januszkiewicz, J S; Nahai, F

    1999-03-01

    Transconjunctival lower lid blepharoplasty now has an established role as an option in rejuvenation of the lower eyelid. Transconjunctival upper lid blepharoplasty, or transconjunctival removal of medial upper eyelid fat, also has a role in rejuvenation of the upper eyelid. However, this is a rather limited role. We have found this approach safe and efficacious as a primary as well as a secondary procedure for removal of excess medial upper eyelid fat. We report on 20 patients who have undergone this operation: 5 as a primary procedure and 15 as secondary. There were no complications, no revisions, and the patients have been uniformly happy with their results.

  14. Upper Lid Blepharoplasty.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Samuel; Holds, John B; Couch, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Upper lid blepharoplasty is a common procedure for restoration and rejuvenation of the upper eyelids that can be performed safely and reliably. Understanding the anatomy and aging process of the brow-upper lid aesthetic unit along with properly assessing the excesses and deficiencies of the periorbital region helps to formulate an appropriate surgical plan. Volume deficiency in the aging upper lid may require corrective augmentation. Preexisting asymmetries and ptosis need to be identified and discussed before surgery. Standardized photography along with a candid discussion regarding patients' desired outcomes and realistic expectations are essential to a successful outcome.

  15. [Remote intelligent Brunnstrom assessment system for upper limb rehabilitation for post-stroke based on extreme learning machine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Yu, Lei; Fu, Jianming; Fang, Qiang

    2014-04-01

    In order to realize an individualized and specialized rehabilitation assessment of remoteness and intelligence, we set up a remote intelligent assessment system of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients during rehabilitation. By using the remote rehabilitation training sensors and client data sampling software, we collected and uploaded the gesture data from a patient's forearm and upper arm during rehabilitation training to database of the server. Then a remote intelligent assessment system, which had been developed based on the extreme learning machine (ELM) algorithm and Brunnstrom stage assessment standard, was used to evaluate the gesture data. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed method, a group of 23 stroke patients, whose upper limb movement functions were in different recovery stages, and 4 healthy people, whose upper limb movement functions were normal, were recruited to finish the same training task. The results showed that, compared to that of the experienced rehabilitation expert who used the Brunnstrom stage standard table, the accuracy of the proposed remote Brunnstrom intelligent assessment system can reach a higher level, as 92.1%. The practical effects of surgery have proved that the proposed system could realize the intelligent assessment of upper limb movement function of post-stroke patients remotely, and it could also make the rehabilitation of the post-stroke patients at home or in a community care center possible.

  16. Arm-in-Arm Response Regulator Dimers Promote Intermolecular Signal Transduction

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Anna W.; Satyshur, Kenneth A.; Moreno Morales, Neydis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacteriophytochrome photoreceptors (BphPs) and their cognate response regulators make up two-component signal transduction systems which direct bacteria to mount phenotypic responses to changes in environmental light quality. Most of these systems utilize single-domain response regulators to transduce signals through unknown pathways and mechanisms. Here we describe the photocycle and autophosphorylation kinetics of RtBphP1, a red light-regulated histidine kinase from the desert bacterium Ramlibacter tataouinensis. RtBphP1 undergoes red to far-red photoconversion with rapid thermal reversion to the dark state. RtBphP1 is autophosphorylated in the dark; this activity is inhibited under red light. The RtBphP1 cognate response regulator, the R. tataouinensis bacteriophytochrome response regulator (RtBRR), and a homolog, AtBRR from Agrobacterium tumefaciens, crystallize unexpectedly as arm-in-arm dimers, reliant on a conserved hydrophobic motif, hFWAhL (where h is a hydrophobic M, V, L, or I residue). RtBRR and AtBRR dimerize distinctly from four structurally characterized phytochrome response regulators found in photosynthetic organisms and from all other receiver domain homodimers in the Protein Data Bank. A unique cacodylate-zinc-histidine tag metal organic framework yielded single-wavelength anomalous diffraction phases and may be of general interest. Examination of the effect of the BRR stoichiometry on signal transduction showed that phosphorylated RtBRR is accumulated more efficiently than the engineered monomeric RtBRR (RtBRRmon) in phosphotransfer reactions. Thus, we conclude that arm-in-arm dimers are a relevant signaling intermediate in this class of two-component regulatory systems. IMPORTANCE BphP histidine kinases and their cognate response regulators comprise widespread red light-sensing two-component systems. Much work on BphPs has focused on structural understanding of light sensing and on enhancing the natural infrared fluorescence of these

  17. Dual arm master controller development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  18. The DOE ARM Aerial Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Schmid, Beat; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Hubbe, John M.; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mei, Fan; Chand, Duli; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Kluzek, Celine D.; Andrews, Elisabeth; Biraud, S.; McFarquhar, Greg

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is a climate research user facility operating stationary ground sites that provide long-term measurements of climate relevant properties, mobile ground- and ship-based facilities to conduct shorter field campaigns (6-12 months), and the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF). The airborne observations acquired by the AAF enhance the surface-based ARM measurements by providing high-resolution in-situ measurements for process understanding, retrieval-algorithm development, and model evaluation that are not possible using ground- or satellite-based techniques. Several ARM aerial efforts were consolidated into the AAF in 2006. With the exception of a small aircraft used for routine measurements of aerosols and carbon cycle gases, AAF at the time had no dedicated aircraft and only a small number of instruments at its disposal. In this "virtual hangar" mode, AAF successfully carried out several missions contracting with organizations and investigators who provided their research aircraft and instrumentation. In 2009, AAF started managing operations of the Battelle-owned Gulfstream I (G-1) large twin-turboprop research aircraft. Furthermore, the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 provided funding for the procurement of over twenty new instruments to be used aboard the G-1 and other AAF virtual-hangar aircraft. AAF now executes missions in the virtual- and real-hangar mode producing freely available datasets for studying aerosol, cloud, and radiative processes in the atmosphere. AAF is also engaged in the maturation and testing of newly developed airborne sensors to help foster the next generation of airborne instruments.

  19. Do the Two Outer Arms Lead in NGC 4622?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrd, G.; Buta, R.; Freeman, T.

    2001-12-01

    NGC 4622 is a nearly face-on spiral with an intriguing morphology. Byrd et al (1989) pointed out that besides a pair of outer arms winding outward clockwise (CW), NGC4622 has a weaker, single inner arm winding outward counter clockwise (CCW). Byrd et al noted that one set of arms must be leading, a very rare configuration. Buta, Crocker, and Byrd (1992) showed using BVI photometry that the single inner arm is a stellar dynamical feature, not an unusual dust distribution. NGC 4622 was thus the most convincing case of a galaxy having leading spiral structure. However, which set of arms is leading? Based on theory and numerical simulations, Byrd, Freeman, and Howard (1993) suggested that the inner arm leads. We have obtained new HST WFPC2 images of NGC4622 in B, V, and I (http://bama.ua.edu/ rbuta/ngc4622/). These images, with a ground based Fabry-Perot H-alpha velocity field, have given the surprising result that THE TWO OUTER ARMS IN NGC4622 MUST BE LEADING! de Vaucouleurs (1958) used silhouetted dust lanes to identify the near side of disk galaxies. Although the inclination is low (23 deg.), clear dust lanes are seen silhouetted on the east side of NGC4622's kinematic line of nodes (p.a. 20 deg.). We observe that the north half of the galaxy is receding, which implies the disk rotates CW. The two outer CW arms thus lead, not the single inner CCW arm. This unexpected result requires a completely new theoretical interpretation. Alternatively, the old model could be valid with the dust silhouette method being wrong for NGC 4622, given its low inclination. However, the dust features are much more clearly silhouetted east of the line of nodes than west. Our HST images also indicate that NGC4622's unusual arm pattern could be due to a merger with a small companion. A short, linear dust lane splits the nucleus nearly in half suggesting that the perturber was destroyed in a passage close to the nucleus. Supported by NASA/STScI Grant GO 8707 and by NSF Grant RUI 9802918.

  20. Hand-arm vibration syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shixin (Cindy); House, Ronald A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective To provide family physicians with an understanding of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, symptoms, diagnosis, and management of hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS), an important and common occupational disease in Canada. Sources of information A MEDLINE search was conducted for research and review articles on HAVS. A Google search was conducted to obtain gray literature relevant to the Canadian context. Additional references were obtained from the articles identified. Main message Hand-arm vibration syndrome is a prevalent occupational disease affecting workers in multiple industries in which vibrating tools are used. However, it is underdiagnosed in Canada. It has 3 components—vascular, in the form of secondary Raynaud phenomenon; sensorineural; and musculoskeletal. Hand-arm vibration syndrome in its more advanced stages contributes to substantial disability and poor quality of life. Its diagnosis requires careful history taking, in particular occupational history, physical examination, laboratory tests to rule out alternative diagnoses, and referral to an occupational medicine specialist for additional investigations. Management involves reduction of vibration exposure, avoidance of cold conditions, smoking cessation, and medication. Conclusion To ensure timely diagnosis of HAVS and improve prognosis and quality of life, family physicians should be aware of this common occupational disease and be able to elicit the relevant occupational history, refer patients to occupational medicine clinics, and appropriately initiate compensation claims. PMID:28292796

  1. Proximal arm kinematics affect grip force-load force coordination.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Billy C; Lum, Peter S; Lee, Sang Wook

    2015-10-01

    During object manipulation, grip force is coordinated with load force, which is primarily determined by object kinematics. Proximal arm kinematics may affect grip force control, as proximal segment motion could affect control of distal hand muscles via biomechanical and/or neural pathways. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of proximal kinematics on grip force modulation during object manipulation. Fifteen subjects performed three vertical lifting tasks that involved distinct proximal kinematics (elbow/shoulder), but resulted in similar end-point (hand) trajectories. While temporal coordination of grip and load forces remained similar across the tasks, proximal kinematics significantly affected the grip force-to-load force ratio (P = 0.042), intrinsic finger muscle activation (P = 0.045), and flexor-extensor ratio (P < 0.001). Biomechanical coupling between extrinsic hand muscles and the elbow joint cannot fully explain the observed changes, as task-related changes in intrinsic hand muscle activation were greater than in extrinsic hand muscles. Rather, between-task variation in grip force (highest during task 3) appears to contrast to that in shoulder joint velocity/acceleration (lowest during task 3). These results suggest that complex neural coupling between the distal and proximal upper extremity musculature may affect grip force control during movements, also indicated by task-related changes in intermuscular coherence of muscle pairs, including intrinsic finger muscles. Furthermore, examination of the fingertip force showed that the human motor system may attempt to reduce variability in task-relevant motor output (grip force-to-load force ratio), while allowing larger fluctuations in output less relevant to task goal (shear force-to-grip force ratio).

  2. Target allocation and prioritized motion planning for MIRADAS probe arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabater, Josep; Riera-Ledesma, Jorge; Torres, Santiago; Garzón, Francisco; Torra, Jordi; Gómez, José M.

    2016-07-01

    The Mid-resolution InfRAreD Astronomical Spectrograph (MIRADAS) is a near-infrared multi-object echelle spectrograph for the 10.4-meter Gran Telescopio Canarias. The instrument has 12 pickoff mirror optics on cryogenic probe arms, enabling it to concurrently observe up to 12 user-defined objects located in its field-of-view. In this paper, a method to compute collision-free trajectories for the arms of MIRADAS is presented. We propose a sequential approach that has two stages: target to arm assignment and motion planning. For the former, we present a model based on linear programming that allocates targets according to their associated priorities. The model is constrained by two matrices specifying the targets' reachability and the incompatibilities among each pair of feasible target-arm pairs. This model has been implemented and experiments show that it is able to determine assignments in less than a second. Regarding the second step, we present a prioritized approach which uses sampled-based roadmaps containing a variety of paths. The motions along a given path are coordinated with the help of a depth-first search algorithm. Paths are sequentially explored according to how promising they are and those not leading to a solution are skipped. This motion planning approach has been implemented considering real probe arm geometries and joint velocities. Experimental results show that the method achieves good performance in scenarios presenting two different types of conflicts.

  3. Visual gravity influences arm movement planning.

    PubMed

    Sciutti, Alessandra; Demougeot, Laurent; Berret, Bastien; Toma, Simone; Sandini, Giulio; Papaxanthis, Charalambos; Pozzo, Thierry

    2012-06-01

    When submitted to a visuomotor rotation, subjects show rapid adaptation of visually guided arm reaching movements, indicated by a progressive reduction in reaching errors. In this study, we wanted to make a step forward by investigating to what extent this adaptation also implies changes into the motor plan. Up to now, classical visuomotor rotation paradigms have been performed on the horizontal plane, where the reaching motor plan in general requires the same kinematics (i.e., straight path and symmetric velocity profile). To overcome this limitation, we considered vertical and horizontal movement directions requiring specific velocity profiles. This way, a change in the motor plan due to the visuomotor conflict would be measurable in terms of a modification in the velocity profile of the reaching movement. Ten subjects performed horizontal and vertical reaching movements while observing a rotated visual feedback of their motion. We found that adaptation to a visuomotor rotation produces a significant change in the motor plan, i.e., changes to the symmetry of velocity profiles. This suggests that the central nervous system takes into account the visual information to plan a future motion, even if this causes the adoption of nonoptimal motor plans in terms of energy consumption. However, the influence of vision on arm movement planning is not fixed, but rather changes as a function of the visual orientation of the movement. Indeed, a clear influence on motion planning can be observed only when the movement is visually presented as oriented along the vertical direction. Thus vision contributes differently to the planning of arm pointing movements depending on motion orientation in space.

  4. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  5. High precision detector robot arm system

    DOEpatents

    Shu, Deming; Chu, Yong

    2017-01-31

    A method and high precision robot arm system are provided, for example, for X-ray nanodiffraction with an X-ray nanoprobe. The robot arm system includes duo-vertical-stages and a kinematic linkage system. A two-dimensional (2D) vertical plane ultra-precision robot arm supporting an X-ray detector provides positioning and manipulating of the X-ray detector. A vertical support for the 2D vertical plane robot arm includes spaced apart rails respectively engaging a first bearing structure and a second bearing structure carried by the 2D vertical plane robot arm.

  6. Upper extremity replantation: three-year experience.

    PubMed

    Romero-Zárate, J L; Pastrana-Figueroa, J M; Granados-Martínez, R

    2000-01-01

    Microsurgery in Mexico was initiated in 1967, when the first report of the subspecialty was published. At our hospital, we have had a well-organized microsurgery department since 1995. This has improved our management of patients with amputations of the upper extremity. This article presents our experience with upper extremity replantation, including hand and fingers. During the first 3 years, we managed 55 patients, 42 male and 13 female, aged 2-52 years, who had suffered amputations of some part of their upper extremity or even of the complete limb. These patients underwent surgical exploration for replantation. We analyzed 103 amputations in the 55 patients operated. The amputated parts are summarized as follows: 11 thumbs, 25 index, 24 middle, 22 ring, and 12 little fingers; 5 hands, 5 forearms, and 2 arms. The average hospital stay was 10 days. The follow-up was 6-24 months. Replantation success was 82%, with 18% failure for survival of the replanted part. Functional recovery was satisfactory in the 50% of cases, and sensitive recovery was satisfactory in 75% of cases. We conclude that although our experience on upper extremity replantation is not so large, our results are similar to those from other series. We discussed our results.

  7. Upper Limb Motor Impairment Post Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Understanding upper limb impairment after stroke is essential to planning therapeutic efforts to restore function. However determining which upper limb impairment to treat and how is complex for two reasons: 1) the impairments are not static, i.e. as motor recovery proceeds, the type and nature of the impairments may change; therefore the treatment needs to evolve to target the impairment contributing to dysfunction at a given point in time. 2) multiple impairments may be present simultaneously, i.e., a patient may present with weakness of the arm and hand immediately after a stroke, which may not have resolved when spasticity sets in a few weeks or months later; hence there may be a layering of impairments over time making it difficult to decide what to treat first. The most useful way to understand how impairments contribute to upper limb dysfunction may be to examine them from the perspective of their functional consequences. There are three main functional consequences of impairments on upper limb function are: (1) learned nonuse, (2) learned bad-use, and (3) forgetting as determined by behavioral analysis of tasks. The impairments that contribute to each of these functional limitations are described. PMID:26522900

  8. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  9. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  10. Investigation of Risk Factors of Work-Related Upper-Limb Musculoskeletal Disorders in a Pharmaceutical Industry or Research Article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourmahabadian, Mohammad; Akhavan, Mehdi; Azam, Kamal

    This study was performed among workers of an Iranian pharmaceutical industry with the aiming to determine WRMDs prevalence and exposure assessment of WRMDs risks. In this cross-sectional study, 84 female and male workers randomly selected from five packing operations. Modified Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire (NMQ) was applied to study the prevalence of WRMDs and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) method was used for the evaluation of the exposure to risk factors associated with work-related upper limb disorders. Results showed a significant association exists between neck, lower arm and A scores group with those obtained by self-reported pain (p<0.01). Similar RULA grand scores of 3 and 4 and action level of 2 were found for workers in five packing operations. Also, the results of this study revealed that RULA method is a fairly suitable tool for the evaluation of WRMDs among packing workers in pharmaceutical industry.

  11. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  12. Upper Extremity Length Equalization

    PubMed Central

    DeCoster, Thomas A.; Ritterbusch, John; Crawford, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Significant upper extremity length inequality is uncommon but can cause major functional problems. The ability to position and use the hand may be impaired by shortness of any of the long bones of the upper extremity. In many respects upper and lower extremity length problems are similar. They most commonly occur after injury to a growing bone and the treatment modalities utilized in the lower extremity may be applied to the upper extremity. These treatment options include epiphysiodesis, shortening osteotomy, angulatory correction osteotomy and lengthening. This report reviews the literature relative to upper extremity length inequality and equalization and presents an algorithm for evaluation and planning appropriate treatment for patients with this condition. This algorithm is illustrated by two clinical cases of posttraumatic shortness of the radius which were effectively treated. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3

  13. Emerging evidence of the association between cognitive deficits and arm motor recovery after stroke: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mullick, Aditi A.; Subramanian, Sandeep K.; Levin, Mindy F.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Motor and cognitive impairments are common and often coexist in patients with stroke. Although evidence is emerging about specific relationships between cognitive deficits and upper-limb motor recovery, the practical implication of these relationships for rehabilitation is unclear. Using a structured review and meta-analyses, we examined the nature and strength of the associations between cognitive deficits and upper-limb motor recovery in studies of patients with stroke. Methods: Motor recovery was defined using measures of upper limb motor impairment and/or activity limitations. Studies were included if they reported on at least one measure of cognitive function and one measure of upper limb motor impairment or function. Results: Six studies met the selection criteria. There was a moderate association (r = 0.43; confidence interval; CI:0.09– 0.68, p = 0.014) between cognition and overall arm motor recovery. Separate meta-analyses showed a moderately strong association between executive function and motor recovery (r = 0.48; CI:0.26– 0.65; p <  0.001), a weak positive correlation between attention and motor recovery (r = 0.25; CI:0.04– 0.45; p = 0.023), and no correlation between memory and motor recovery (r = 0.42; CI:0.16– 0.79; p = 0.14). Conclusion: These results imply that information on the presence of cognitive deficits should be considered while planning interventions for clients in order to design more personalized interventions tailored to the individual for maximizing upper-limb recovery. PMID:26410581

  14. Redundancy resolution of a human arm for controlling a seven DOF wearable robotic system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunchul; Miller, Levi Makaio; Al-Refai, Aimen; Brand, Moshe; Rosen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The human arm including the shoulder, elbow, wrist joints and exclusion scapular motion has 7 Degrees of Freedom (DOF) while positioning of the wrist in space and orientating the palm is a task that requires 6 DOF. As such it includes one more DOF than is needed to complete the task. Given the redundant nature of the arm, multiple arm configurations can be used to complete a task, which is expressed mathematically by none unique solution for the inverse kinematics. Despite this mathematical difficulty, the motor control provides a unique solution for the arm redundancy as the arm is moved in space. Resolving this redundancy is becoming critical as the human interacts with a wearable robotic system(exoskeleton) which includes the same redundancy as the human arm. Therefore, the inverse kinematics solution resolving the redundancy of these two coupled systems must be identical in order to guarantee a seamless integration. The redundancy of the arm can be formulated kinematically by defining the swivel angle - the rotation angle of the plane including the upper and lower arm around a virtual axis connecting the shoulder and wrist joints which are fixed in space. Analyzing reaching tasks recorded with a motion capture lab indicates that the swivel angle is selected such that when the elbow joint is flexed, the palm points the head. Based on these experimental results, selecting the point around the center of the head as a stationary target allows to calculate the swivel angle and in that way to resolve the human arm redundancy. Experimental results indicated that by using the proposed redundancy resolution criteria the error between the predicted swivel angle and the actual swivel angle adopted by the motor control system is less then 5 Deg. This criterion or a synthesis of several additional criteria may improve the synergistic relationships between an operator and a wearable robotic system.

  15. Cardiorespiratory responses to maximal arm and leg exercise in national-class marathon runners.

    PubMed

    deJong, Adam T; Bonzheim, Kimberly; Franklin, Barry A; Saltarelli, William

    2009-06-01

    Marathon runners (MR) are among the most aerobically fit athletes in the world. Although aerobic capacity (VO(2)max) during arm exercise generally varies between 64% and 80% of leg VO(2)max (mean 70%) in healthy men, few data are available regarding the comparative arm fitness of MR. To clarify the relationship between arm and leg fitness in MR, we studied 10 national-class MR (mean + or - standard deviation age 30 + or - 4 years) whose best marathon times averaged < 2 hours and 40 minutes. Each MR underwent lower and upper body maximal exercise evaluations with measurement of cardiorespiratory variables using indirect calorimetry during treadmill testing (standard Bruce protocol) and arm-crank ergometry, respectively. Our subjects achieved VO(2)max levels equaling 75.8 + or - 7.1 mL/kg/min (5.2 + or - 0.6 L/min) during treadmill testing, which was significantly higher than the level of cardiorespiratory fitness achieved during maximal arm exercise (45.4 + or - 12.4 mL/kg/min [3.1 + or - 0.9 L/min]; P < 0.01). In addition, maximal heart rate (183.2 + or - 8.2 vs 163.7 + or - 10 bpm) and systolic blood pressure (201.8 + or - 10.1 vs 186.6 + or - 12.1 mm Hg) were significantly higher (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) during maximal leg versus arm exercise. Relative arm fitness (arm VO(2)max/leg VO(2)max) was extremely variable (41%-76%), averaging 60% + or - 13%. Although MR are able to achieve significantly higher VO(2)max values during treadmill testing than those observed in the general population, their relative arm fitness appears to be slightly reduced. These findings add to and strongly support the specificity of measurement and training concept.

  16. Self-Administered, Home-Based SMART (Sensorimotor Active Rehabilitation Training) Arm Training: A Single-Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hayward, Kathryn S; Neibling, Bridee A; Barker, Ruth N

    2015-01-01

    This single-case, mixed-method study explored the feasibility of self-administered, home-based SMART (sensorimotor active rehabilitation training) Arm training for a 57-yr-old man with severe upper-limb disability after a right frontoparietal hemorrhagic stroke 9 mo earlier. Over 4 wk of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training, the participant completed 2,100 repetitions unassisted. His wife provided support for equipment set-up and training progressions. Clinically meaningful improvements in arm impairment (strength), activity (arm and hand tasks), and participation (use of arm in everyday tasks) occurred after training (at 4 wk) and at follow-up (at 16 wk). Areas for refinement of SMART Arm training derived from thematic analysis of the participant's and researchers' journals focused on enabling independence, ensuring home and user friendliness, maintaining the motivation to persevere, progressing toward everyday tasks, and integrating practice into daily routine. These findings suggest that further investigation of self-administered, home-based SMART Arm training is warranted for people with stroke who have severe upper-limb disability.

  17. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Gates, Michele; Johnson, Lindley; Chodas, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Ticker, Ronald

    2016-07-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth-Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time. In addition, NASA has been given a Grand Challenge to find all asteroid threats to human populations and know what to do about them. Obtaining knowledge of asteroid physical properties combined with performing technology demonstrations for planetary defense provide much needed information to address the issue of future asteroid impacts on Earth. Hence the combined objectives of human exploration and planetary defense give a rationale for the Asteroid Re-direct Mission (ARM). Mission Description: NASA's ARM consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), the first robotic mission to visit a large (greater than ~100 m diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, demonstrate a planetary defense technique, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will take the Orion capsule to rendezvous and dock with the robotic vehicle, conduct multiple extravehicular activities to explore the boulder, and return to Earth with samples. NASA's proposed

  18. Assistive Control System for Upper Limb Rehabilitation Robot.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Hua; Lien, Wei-Ming; Wang, Wei-Wen; Lee, Guan-De; Hsu, Li-Chun; Lee, Kai-Wen; Lin, Sheng-Yen; Lin, Chia-Hsun; Fu, Li-Chen; Lai, Jin-Shin; Luh, Jer-Junn; Chen, Wen-Shiang

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an assistive control system with a special kinematic structure of an upper limb rehabilitation robot embedded with force/torque sensors. A dynamic human model integrated with sensing torque is used to simulate human interaction under three rehabilitation modes: active mode, assistive mode, and passive mode. The hereby proposed rehabilitation robot, called NTUH-ARM, provides 7 degree-of- freedom (DOF) motion and runs subject to an inherent mapping between the 7 DOFs of the robot arm and the 4 DOFs of the human arm. The Lyapunov theory is used to analyze the stability of the proposed controller design. Clinical trials have been conducted with six patients, one of which acts as a control. The results of these experiments are positive and STREAM assessment by physical therapists also reveals promising results.

  19. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation.

  20. Reassignment of Drosophila willistoni Genome Scaffolds to Chromosome II Arms

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Carolina; Delprat, Alejandra; Ruiz, Alfredo; Valente, Vera L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Drosophila willistoni is a geographically widespread Neotropical species. The genome of strain Gd-H4-1 from Guadeloupe Island (Caribbean) was sequenced in 2007 as part of the 12 Drosophila Genomes Project. The assembled scaffolds were joined based on conserved linkage and assigned to polytene chromosomes based on a handful of genetic and physical markers. This paucity of markers was particularly striking in the metacentric chromosome II, comprised two similarly sized arms, IIL and IIR, traditionally considered homologous to Muller elements C and B, respectively. In this paper we present the cytological mapping of 22 new gene markers to increase the number of markers mapped by in situ hybridization and to test the assignment of scaffolds to the polytene chromosome II arms. For this purpose, we generated, by polymerase chain reaction amplification, one or two gene probes from each scaffold assigned to the chromosome II arms and mapped these probes to the Gd-H4-1 strain’s polytene chromosomes by nonfluorescent in situ hybridization. Our findings show that chromosome arms IIL and IIR correspond to Muller elements B and C, respectively, directly contrasting the current homology assignments in D. willistoni and constituting a major reassignment of the scaffolds to chromosome II arms. PMID:26438290

  1. Targeted Muscle Reinnervation for Real-Time Myoelectric Control of Multifunction Artificial Arms

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Todd A.; Li, Guanglin; Lock, Blair A.; Lipschutz, Robert D.; Miller, Laura A.; Stubblefield, Kathy A.; Englehart, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Context Improving the function of prosthetic arms remains a challenge, as access to the neural control information for the arm is lost during amputation. We have developed a surgical technique called targeted muscle reinnervation (TMR) which transfers residual arm nerves to alternative muscle sites. After reinnervation, these target muscles produce an electromyogram (EMG) on the surface of the skin that can be measured and used to control prosthetic arms. Objective Assess the performance of TMR upper-limb amputee patients using a pattern-recognition algorithm to decode EMG signals and control prosthetic arm motions. Design Surface EMG signals were recorded on participants and decoded using a pattern-recognition algorithm. The decoding program controlled the movement of a virtual prosthetic arm. Participants were instructed to perform various arm movements, and their abilities to control the virtual prosthetic arm were measured. In addition, TMR patients used the same control system to operate advanced arm prosthesis prototypes. Setting This study was conducted between January 2007 and January 2008 at the Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago. Participants This study included five patients with shoulder disarticulation or transhumeral amputations who received TMR surgery between February 2002 and October 2006. It also included five non-amputee (control) participants. Main Outcome Measure Performance metrics measured during virtual arm movements included motion-selection time, motion-completion time, and motion-completion (or `success') rate. Three of the TMR patients were also able to test advanced arm prostheses. Results TMR patients were able to repeatedly perform 10 different elbow, wrist and hand motions with the virtual prosthetic arm. For TMR patients, the average (standard deviation (SD)) motion-selection and motion-completion times for elbow and wrist movements were 0.22 s (0.06) and 1.29 s (0.15), respectively. These times were 0.06 s and 0.21 s longer than

  2. A hybrid joint based controller for an upper extremity exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd Khairuddin, Ismail; Taha, Zahari; Majeed, Anwar P. P. Abdul; Hakeem Deboucha, Abdel; Azraai Mohd Razman, Mohd; Aziz Jaafar, Abdul; Mohamed, Zulkifli

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the modelling and control of a two degree of freedom upper extremity exoskeleton. The Euler-Lagrange formulation was used in deriving the dynamic modelling of both the human upper limb as well as the exoskeleton that consists of the upper arm and the forearm. The human model is based on anthropometrical measurements of the upper limb. The proportional-derivative (PD) computed torque control (CTC) architecture is employed in this study to investigate its efficacy performing joint-space control objectives specifically in rehabilitating the elbow and shoulder joints along the sagittal plane. An active force control (AFC) algorithm is also incorporated into the PD-CTC to investigate the effectiveness of this hybrid system in compensating disturbances. It was found that the AFC- PD-CTC performs well against the disturbances introduced into the system whilst achieving acceptable trajectory tracking as compared to the conventional PD-CTC control architecture.

  3. Robot arm force control through system linearization by nonlinear feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Bejczy, A. K.; Yun, Xiaoping

    1988-01-01

    Based on a differential geometric feedback linearization technique for nonlinear time-varying systems, a dynamic force control method for robot arms is developed. It uses active force-moment measurements at the robot wrist. The controller design fully incorporate the robot-arm dynamics and is so general that it can be reduced to pure position control, hybrid position/force control, pure force control. The controller design is independent of the tasks to be performed. Computer simulations show that the controller improves the position error by a factor of ten in cases in which position errors generate force measurements. A theorem on linearization of time-varying system is also presented.

  4. Britain, America and arms control, 1921-37

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, C.

    1987-01-01

    Arms control diplomacy as a central factor in superpower relations is not a new phenomenon. In this book the author traces the rise and fall of a previous arms limitation effort, the naval treaties of the inter-war years, which successfully controlled competition in the strategic weapons of that era - battleships and other vessels of the British, American and other great power navies. He shows the problems and their solutions - many of relevance today - which made the treaties possible, and their major role in the peaceful transfer of leadership of the West from the British Empire to the United States.

  5. Arms Control: a Selected Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    THE REAGAN YEARS. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, 1987. (JX1974.7 R33 1987) Seaborg , Glenn T. STEMMING THE TIDE: ARMS CONTROL IN THE JOHNSON YEARS...William, and Seaborg , Glenn T. "Non-Nuclear States Move to End Testing." BULLETIN OF THE ATOMIC SCIENTISTS, Vol. 45, June 1989, pp. 36-37. "European...STRATEGIC OFFENSIVE FORCE REDUCTION PORTION OF THE NUCLEAR AND SPACE TALKS IN GENEVA, by Edward L. Warner, III, Glenn A. Kent, and Randall J. DeValk. Note N

  6. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  7. Python-ARM Radar Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    Jonathan Helmus, Scott Collis

    2013-03-17

    The Python-ARM Radar Toolkit (Py-ART) is a collection of radar quality control and retrieval codes which all work on two unifying Python objects: the PyRadar and PyGrid objects. By building ingests to several popular radar formats and then abstracting the interface Py-ART greatly simplifies data processing over several other available utilities. In addition Py-ART makes use of Numpy arrays as its primary storage mechanism enabling use of existing and extensive community software tools.

  8. Locomotor-Like Leg Movements Evoked by Rhythmic Arm Movements in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Sylos-Labini, Francesca; Ivanenko, Yuri P.; MacLellan, Michael J.; Cappellini, Germana; Poppele, Richard E.; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Motion of the upper limbs is often coupled to that of the lower limbs in human bipedal locomotion. It is unclear, however, whether the functional coupling between upper and lower limbs is bi-directional, i.e. whether arm movements can affect the lumbosacral locomotor circuitry. Here we tested the effects of voluntary rhythmic arm movements on the lower limbs. Participants lay horizontally on their side with each leg suspended in an unloading exoskeleton. They moved their arms on an overhead treadmill as if they walked on their hands. Hand-walking in the antero-posterior direction resulted in significant locomotor-like movements of the legs in 58% of the participants. We further investigated quantitatively the responses in a subset of the responsive subjects. We found that the electromyographic (EMG) activity of proximal leg muscles was modulated over each cycle with a timing similar to that of normal locomotion. The frequency of kinematic and EMG oscillations in the legs typically differed from that of arm oscillations. The effect of hand-walking was direction specific since medio-lateral arm movements did not evoke appreciably leg air-stepping. Using externally imposed trunk movements and biomechanical modelling, we ruled out that the leg movements associated with hand-walking were mainly due to the mechanical transmission of trunk oscillations. EMG activity in hamstring muscles associated with hand-walking often continued when the leg movements were transiently blocked by the experimenter or following the termination of arm movements. The present results reinforce the idea that there exists a functional neural coupling between arm and legs. PMID:24608249

  9. Effects of mirror therapy combined with motor tasks on upper extremity function and activities daily living of stroke patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Kim, Donghoon; Lee, Kyoungbo; Kim, Youlim

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mirror therapy combined with exercise tasks on the function of the upper limbs and activities of daily living. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-five stroke patients who were receiving physical therapy at K Hospital in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea, were classified into a mirror therapy group (n=12) and a conventional therapy group (n=13). The therapies were applied for 30 minutes per day, five times per week, for a total of four weeks. Upper limb function was measured with the Action Research Arm test, the Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the Box and Block test, and activities of daily living were measured with the Functional Independence Measure. A paired test was performed to compare the intragroup differences between before training and after four weeks of therapy, and an independent t-test was performed to compare the differences between the two groups before and after four weeks of therapy. [Results] In the intragroup comparison, both groups showed significant differences between measurements taken before and after four weeks of therapy. In the intergroup comparison, the mirror therapy group showed significant improvements compared with the conventional therapy group, both in upper limb function and activities of daily living. [Conclusion] The findings of this study demonstrated that mirror therapy is more effective than conventional therapy for the training of stroke patients to improve their upper limb function and activities of daily living. PMID:27065534

  10. 14. Detail, upper chord connection point on upstream side of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Detail, upper chord connection point on upstream side of truss, showing connection of upper chord, laced vertical compression member, strut, counters, and laterals. - Dry Creek Bridge, Spanning Dry Creek at Cook Road, Ione, Amador County, CA

  11. Arm regeneration in two species of cuttlefish Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis.

    PubMed

    Tressler, Jedediah; Maddox, Francis; Goodwin, Eli; Zhang, Zhuobin; Tublitz, Nathan J

    2014-03-01

    To provide quantitative information on arm regeneration in cuttlefish, the regenerating arms of two cuttlefish species, Sepia officinalis and Sepia pharaonis, were observed at regular intervals after surgical amputation. The third right arm of each individual was amputated to ~10-20 % starting length. Arm length, suction cup number, presence of chromatophores, and behavioral measures were collected every 2-3 days over a 39-day period and compared to the contralateral control arm. By day 39, the regenerating arm reached a mean 95.5 ± 0.3 % of the control for S. officinalis and 94.9 ± 1.3 % for S. pharaonis. The process of regeneration was divided into five separate stages based on macroscopic morphological events: Stage I (days 0-3 was marked by a frayed leading edge; Stage II (days 4-15) by a smooth hemispherical leading edge; Stage III (days 16-20) by the appearance of a growth bud; Stage IV (days 21-24) by the emergence of an elongated tip; and Stage V (days 25-39) by a tapering of the elongated tip matching the other intact arms. Behavioral deficiencies in swimming, body postures during social communication, and food manipulation were observed immediately after arm amputation and throughout Stages I and II, returning to normal by Stage III. New chromatophores and suction cups in the regenerating arm were observed as early as Stage II and by Stage IV suction cup number equaled that of control arms. New chromatophores were used in the generation of complex body patterns by Stage V. These results show that both species of cuttlefish are capable of fully regenerating lost arms, that the regeneration process is predictable and consistent within and across species, and provide the first quantified data on the rate of arm lengthening and suction cup addition during regeneration.

  12. Trigonometric parallaxes of star forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, M.; Wu, Y. W.; Immer, K.; Zhang, B.; Sanna, A.; Brunthaler, A.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Dame, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    We report measurements of trigonometric parallaxes for six high-mass star-forming regions in the Scutum spiral arm of the Milky Way as part of the BeSSeL Survey. Combining our measurements with 10 previous measurements from the BeSSeL Survey yields a total sample of 16 sources in the Scutum arm with trigonometric parallaxes in the Galactic longitude range from 5° to 32°. Assuming a logarithmic spiral model, we estimate a pitch angle of 19.°8 ± 3.°1 for the Scutum arm, which is larger than pitch angles reported for other spiral arms. The high pitch angle of the arm may be due to the arm's proximity to the Galactic bar. The Scutum arm sources show an average peculiar motion of 4 km s{sup –1} slower than the Galactic rotation and 8 km s{sup –1} toward the Galactic center. While the direction of this non-circular motion has the same sign as determined for sources in other spiral arms, the motion toward the Galactic center is greater for the Scutum arm sources.

  13. 13. DETAIL VIEW, OF TAINTER GATE PIER, SHOWING RECESSES FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW, OF TAINTER GATE PIER, SHOWING RECESSES FOR EMERGENCY BULKHEADS AND DOGGING DEVICES, LOOKING SOUTHEAST (DOWN FACE). UPSTREAM FACE OF TAINTER GATE IS VISIBLE IN UPPER RIGHT CORNER - Upper Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel Project, Lock & Dam 26R, Alton, Madison County, IL

  14. Modelling and calibration technique of laser triangulation sensors for integration in robot arms and articulated arm coordinate measuring machines.

    PubMed

    Santolaria, Jorge; Guillomía, David; Cajal, Carlos; Albajez, José A; Aguilar, Juan J

    2009-01-01

    A technique for intrinsic and extrinsic calibration of a laser triangulation sensor (LTS) integrated in an articulated arm coordinate measuring machine (AACMM) is presented in this paper. After applying a novel approach to the AACMM kinematic parameter identification problem, by means of a single calibration gauge object, a one-step calibration method to obtain both intrinsic-laser plane, CCD sensor and camera geometry-and extrinsic parameters related to the AACMM main frame has been developed. This allows the integration of LTS and AACMM mathematical models without the need of additional optimization methods after the prior sensor calibration, usually done in a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) before the assembly of the sensor in the arm. The experimental tests results for accuracy and repeatability show the suitable performance of this technique, resulting in a reliable, quick and friendly calibration method for the AACMM final user. The presented method is also valid for sensor integration in robot arms and CMMs.

  15. Sensor-enabled RFID system for monitoring arm activity in daily life.

    PubMed

    Barman, Joydip; Uswatte, Gitendra; Sarkar, Nilanjan; Ghaffari, Touraj; Sokal, Brad

    2011-01-01

    After stroke, capacity to carry out tasks in the treatment setting with the more-affected arm is a poor index of actual use of that extremity in daily life. However, objective methods currently available for monitoring real-world upper-extremity use only provide information on amount of activity. These methods, which rely on movement sensors worn by patients, do not provide information about type of activity (e.g., functional vs. nonfunctional movement). The benchmark testing reported here evaluated an approach that involves placing sensors on patients and objects. An accelerometer and the transmitter component of a prototype radio frequency proximity sensor were attached to household objects. The receiver component was placed on the experimenter's right arm. This device triggered an on-board radio frequency identification tag to signal proximity when that arm was within 23 cm of the objects. The system detected > 99% of 6 cm or greater movements of objects. When handling of objects by the right or left arm was determined randomly, 100% of right arm trials were detected. No signals were recorded when objects were at rest or moved by the left arm. Testing of this approach, which monitors manipulation of objects (i.e., functional movement), is now warranted in stroke patients.

  16. Effects of yoga on arm volume among women with breast cancer related lymphedema: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Mary Insana; Donahoe-Fillmore, Betsy; Leach, Laura; O'Malley, Colleen; Paeplow, Cheryl; Prescott, Tess; Merriman, Harold

    2014-10-01

    Lymphedema affects 3-58% of survivors of breast cancer and can result in upper extremity impairments. Exercise can be beneficial in managing lymphedema. Yoga practice has been minimally studied for its effects on breast cancer related lymphedema (BCRL). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of yoga on arm volume, quality of life (QOL), self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength in women with BCRL. Six women with BCRL participated in modified Hatha yoga 3×/week for 8 weeks. Compression sleeves were worn during yoga sessions. Arm volume, QOL, self-reported arm function, and hand grip strength were measured at baseline, half-way, and at the conclusion of yoga practice. Arm volume significantly decreased from baseline (2423.3 ml ± 597.2) to final measures (2370.8 ml ± 577.2) (p = .02). No significant changes in QOL (p = .12), self-reported arm function (p = .34), or hand grip strength (p = .26) were found. Yoga may be beneficial in the management of lymphedema.

  17. Face-arm-trunk-leg sensory loss limited to the contralateral side in lateral medullary infarction: a new variant.

    PubMed

    Vaudens, P; Bogousslavsky, J

    1998-08-01

    Two patients are reported on who experienced loss of pain and temperature sensation in the entire contralateral hemibody but sparing the ispsilateral face (pure sensory stroke pattern) related to acute lateral medullary infarction. In both patients MRI showed a notch-like retro-olivary ischaemic lesion in the ventromedial tegmentum with preservation of the far lateral medulla. The mediolateral lesion involved the crossed lateral spinothalamic tract and the ventral trigeminothalamic tract, corresponding to sensory loss in the contralateral face, arm, and upper trunk. The ventrolateral extension of infarct damaged the far lateral part of the spinothalamic tract, corresponding to sensory loss in the contralateral lower trunk and leg. The findings suggest that hemisensory loss of the spinothalamic type involving-and limited to-the whole hemibody can occur in infarction in the lower brainstem. This form of pure sensory stroke may be classified as type IV of sensory loss in lateral medullary infarction.

  18. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    MedlinePlus

    ... barium or flavoring in the barium intestinal obstruction Seek care right away If you have any of the following symptoms after an upper GI series, seek medical attention right away: fever no bowel movement ...

  19. Upper GI Endoscopy

    MedlinePlus

    ... or IV fluids during or after the procedure. Seek Care Right Away If you have any of the following symptoms after an upper GI endoscopy, seek medical care right away: chest pain problems breathing ...

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    MedlinePlus

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...