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Sample records for shows abnormal phosphorylation

  1. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau protein at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease recapitulates phosphorylation during development.

    PubMed Central

    Goedert, M; Jakes, R; Crowther, R A; Six, J; Lübke, U; Vandermeeren, M; Cras, P; Trojanowski, J Q; Lee, V M

    1993-01-01

    Tau is a neuronal phosphoprotein whose expression is developmentally regulated. A single tau isoform is expressed in fetal human brain but six isoforms are expressed in adult brain, with the fetal isoform corresponding to the shortest of the adult isoforms. Phosphorylation of tau is also developmentally regulated, as fetal tau is phosphorylated at more sites than adult tau. In Alzheimer disease, the six adult tau isoforms become abnormally phosphorylated and form the paired helical filament, the major fibrous component of the characteristic neurofibrillary lesions. We show here that Ser-202 (in the numbering of the longest human brain tau isoform) is a phosphorylation site that distinguishes fetal from adult tau and we identify it as one of the abnormal phosphorylation sites in Alzheimer disease. The abnormal phosphorylation of tau at Ser-202 in Alzheimer disease thus recapitulates normal phosphorylation during development. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8506352

  2. LRRK2 phosphorylation level correlates with abnormal motor behaviour in an experimental model of levodopa-induced dyskinesias.

    PubMed

    Stanic, Jennifer; Mellone, Manuela; Cirnaru, Maria Daniela; Perez-Carrion, Maria; Zianni, Elisa; Di Luca, Monica; Gardoni, Fabrizio; Piccoli, Giovanni

    2016-05-11

    Levodopa (L-DOPA)-induced dyskinesias (LIDs) represent the major side effect in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations account for up to 13 % of familial cases of PD. LRRK2 N-terminal domain encompasses several serine residues that undergo phosphorylation influencing LRRK2 function. This work aims at investigating whether LRRK2 phosphorylation/function may be involved in the molecular pathways downstream D1 dopamine receptor leading to LIDs. Here we show that LRRK2 phosphorylation level at serine 935 correlates with LIDs induction and that inhibition of LRRK2 induces a significant increase in the dyskinetic score in L-DOPA treated parkinsonian animals. Our findings support a close link between LRKK2 functional state and L-DOPA-induced abnormal motor behaviour and highlight that LRRK2 phosphorylation level may be implicated in LIDs, calling for novel therapeutic strategies.

  3. Abnormal Phosphorylation of the Microtubule-Associated Protein τ (Tau) in Alzheimer Cytoskeletal Pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid; Tung, Yunn-Chyn; Quinlan, Maureen; Wisniewski, Henryk M.; Binder, Lester I.

    1986-07-01

    A monoclonal antibody to the microtubule-associated protein τ (tau) labeled some neurofibrillary tangles and plaque neurites, the two major locations of paired-helical filaments (PHF), in Alzheimer disease brain. The antibody also labeled isolated PHF that had been repeatedly washed with NaDodSO4. Dephosphorylation of the tissue sections with alkaline phosphatase prior to immunolabeling dramatically increased the number of tangles and plaques recognized by the antibody. The plaque core amyloid was not stained in either dephosphorylated or nondephosphorylated tissue sections. On immunoblots PHF polypeptides were labeled readily only when dephosphorylated. In contrast, a commercially available monoclonal antibody to a phosphorylated epitope of neurofilaments that labeled the tangles and the plaque neurites in tissue did not label any PHF polypeptides on immunoblots. The PHF polypeptides, labeled with the monoclonal antibody to τ , electrophoresed with those polypeptides recognized by antibodies to isolated PHF. The antibody to τ -labeled microtubules from normal human brains assembled in vitro but identically treated Alzheimer brain preparations had to be dephosphorylated to be completely recognized by this antibody. These findings suggest that τ in Alzheimer brain is an abnormally phosphorylated protein component of PHF.

  4. Deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase in Neurons Decreases AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Leads to Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Taussig, Matthew D.; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Astarita, Giuseppe; Piomelli, Daniele; Bergman, Bryan C.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.; Eckel, Robert H.; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions of this lipase in the CNS remain largely unknown. We developed mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency that became obese on chow by 16 wks in homozygous mutant mice (NEXLPL-/-) and 10 mo in heterozygous mice (NEXLPL+/-). In the present study, we show that 21 mo NEXLPL+/- mice display substantial cognitive function decline including poorer learning and memory, and increased anxiety with no difference in general motor activities and exploratory behavior. These neurobehavioral abnormalities are associated with a reduction in the 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1 and its phosphorylation, without any alterations in amyloid β accumulation. Importantly, a marked deficit in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the hippocampus precedes the development of the neurobehavioral phenotype of NEXLPL+/- mice. And, a diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA can improve the learning and memory of NEXLPL+/- mice at both 10 mo and 21 mo of age. We interpret these findings to indicate that LPL regulates the availability of PUFA in the CNS and, this in turn, impacts the strength of synaptic plasticity in the brain of aging mice through the modification of AMPA receptor and its phosphorylation. PMID:26263173

  5. Decreased Photosystem II Core Phosphorylation in a Yellow-Green Mutant of Wheat Showing Monophasic Fluorescence Induction Curve.

    PubMed Central

    Giardi, M. T.; Kucera, T.; Briantais, J. M.; Hodges, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the present work we study the regulation of the distribution of the phosphorylated photosystem II (PSII) core populations present in grana regions of the thylakoids from several plant species. The heterogeneous nature of PSII core phosphorylation has previously been reported (M.T. Giardi, F. Rigoni, R. Barbato [1992] Plant Physiol 100: 1948-1954; M.T. Giardi [1993] Planta 190: 107-113). The pattern of four phosphorylated PSII core populations in the grana regions appears to be ubiquitous in higher plants. In the dark, at least two phosphorylated PSII core populations are always detected. A mutant of wheat (Triticum durum) that shows monophasic room-temperature photoreduction of the primary quinone electron acceptor of PSII as measured by chlorophyll fluorescence increase in the presence and absence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and by fluorescence upon flash illumination in intact leaves also lacks the usual distribution of phosphorylated PSII core populations. In this mutant, the whole PSII core population pattern is changed, probably due to altered threonine kinase activity, which leads to the absence of light-induced phosphorylation of CP43 and D2 proteins. The results, correlated to previous experiments in vivo, support the idea that the functional heterogeneity observed by fluorescence is correlated in part to the PSII protein phosphorylation in the grana. PMID:12228652

  6. In Silico Modelling of Novel Drug Ligands Associated with Abnormal Tau Phosphorylation: Implications for Concussion Associated Tauopathy Intervention†

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wei; Ho, Lap; Wang, Jun; Bi, Weina; Yemul, Shrishailam; Ward, Libby; Freire, Daniel; Mazzola, Paolo; Brathwaite, Justin; Mezei, Mihaly; Sanchez, Roberto; Elder, Gregory A.; Pasinetti, Giulio Maria

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an in silico screening model for characterization of potential novel ligands from commercial drug libraries able to functionally activate certain olfactory receptors (ORs), which are members of the class A rhodopsin-like family of G protein couple receptors (GPCRs), in the brain of murine models of concussion. We previously found that concussions may significantly influence expression of certain ORs, e.g. OR4M1 in subjects with a history of concussion/traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study we built a 3-D OR4M1 model and used it in in silico screening of potential novel ligands from commercial drug libraries. We report that in vitro activation of OR4M1 with the commercially available ZINC library compound 10915775 led to a significant attenuation of abnormal tau phosphorylation in embryonic cortico-hippocampal neuronal cultures derived from NSE-OR4M1 transgenic mice, possibly through modulation of the JNK signaling pathway. The attenuation of abnormal tau phosphorylation was rather selective since ZINC10915775 significantly decreased tau phosphorylation on tau Ser202/T205 (AT8 epitope) and tau Thr212/Ser214 (AT100 epitope), but not on tau Ser396/404 (PHF-1 epitope). Moreover, no response of ZINC10915775 was found in control hippocampal neuronal cultures derived from wild type littermates. Our in silico model provides novel means to pharmacologically modulate select ubiquitously expressed ORs in the brain through high affinity ligand activation to prevent and eventually to treat concussion induced down regulation of ORs and subsequent cascade of tau pathology. PMID:26910498

  7. Ob/ob Mouse Livers Show Decreased Oxidative Phosphorylation Efficiencies and Anaerobic Capacities after Cold Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Tagaloa, Sherry; Zhang, Linda; Dare, Anna J.; MacDonald, Julia R.; Yeong, Mee-Ling; Bartlett, Adam S. J. R.; Phillips, Anthony R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for graft failure in liver transplantation. Hepatic steatosis shows a greater negative influence on graft function following prolonged cold ischaemia. As the impact of steatosis on hepatocyte metabolism during extended cold ischaemia is not well-described, we compared markers of metabolic capacity and mitochondrial function in steatotic and lean livers following clinically relevant durations of cold preservation. Methods Livers from 10-week old leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob, n = 9) and lean C57 mice (n = 9) were preserved in ice-cold University of Wisconsin solution. Liver mitochondrial function was then assessed using high resolution respirometry after 1.5, 3, 5, 8, 12, 16 and 24 hours of storage. Metabolic marker enzymes for anaerobiosis and mitochondrial mass were also measured in conjunction with non-bicarbonate tissue pH buffering capacity. Results Ob/ob and lean mice livers showed severe (>60%) macrovesicular and mild (<30%) microvesicular steatosis on Oil Red O staining, respectively. Ob/ob livers had lower baseline enzymatic complex I activity but similar adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels compared to lean livers. During cold storage, the respiratory control ratio and complex I-fueled phosphorylation deteriorated approximately twice as fast in ob/ob livers compared to lean livers. Ob/ob livers also demonstrated decreased ATP production capacities at all time-points analyzed compared to lean livers. Ob/ob liver baseline lactate dehydrogenase activities and intrinsic non-bicarbonate buffering capacities were depressed by 60% and 40%, respectively compared to lean livers. Conclusions Steatotic livers have impaired baseline aerobic and anaerobic capacities compared to lean livers, and mitochondrial function indices decrease particularly from after 5 hours of cold preservation. These data provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical recommendation of shorter cold storage durations in steatotic donor

  8. Cholangiolocellular carcinoma with rapid progression initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yoh, Tomoaki; Kato, Tatsushi; Hirohata, Yoshiaki; Nakamura, Yuya; Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Ryuji

    2016-08-01

    Cholangiolocellular carcinoma (CoCC) is a rare malignant liver tumor derived from hepatic progenitor cells, which exist in the canals of Hering. We encountered a case of CoCC with an extremely poor clinical course, initially showing abnormally elevated serum alfa-fetoprotein (AFP). A 72-year-old male presented with a liver tumor and abnormally elevated serum AFP levels (16,399 ng/ml). We preoperatively diagnosed hepatocellular carcinoma and performed extended right hepatectomy, after which the serum AFP levels remarkably decreased to 97 ng/ml. Postoperatively, the disease was pathologically diagnosed as CoCC. Furthermore, immunohistochemical pathological findings were alcian blue negative, cytokeratin (CK) 7 partially positive, CK19 positive, hepatocyte paraffin-1 negative, membranous negative for epithelial membrane antigen, and AFP negative. Fifty-five days later, intra- and extrahepatic recurrence developed, and the patient died 65 days after surgery. Although CoCCs show favorable outcomes, these characteristics of our case were not previously reported. It is necessary to accumulate more information on CoCC. PMID:27363839

  9. Expression of CD1d protein in human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adly, Mohamed A; Abdelwahed Hussein, Mahmoud-Rezk

    2011-05-01

    CD1d is a member of CD1 family of transmembrane glycoproteins, which represent antigen-presenting molecules. Immunofluorescent staining methods were utilized to examine expression pattern of CD1d in human testicular specimens. In testis showing normal spermatogenesis, a strong CD1d cytoplasmic expression was seen the Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and Leydig cells. A moderate expression was observed in the spermatocytes. In testes showing maturation arrest, CD1d expression was strong in the Sertoli cells and weak in spermatogonia and spermatocytes compared to testis with normal spermatogenesis. In Sertoli cell only syndrome, CD1d expression was strong in the Sertoli and Leydig cells. This preliminary study displayed testicular infertility-related changes in CD1d expression. The ultrastructural changes associated with with normal and abnormal spermatogenesis are open for further investigations.

  10. Heat shock protein 27 expression in the human testis showing normal and abnormal spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Adly, Mohamed A; Assaf, Hanan A; Hussein, Mahmoud Rezk A

    2008-10-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are molecular chaperones involved in protein folding, assembly and transport, and which play critical roles in the regulation of cell growth, survival and differentiation. We set out to test the hypothesis that HSP27 protein is expressed in the human testes and its expression varies with the state of spermatogenesis. HSP27 expression was examined in 30 human testicular biopsy specimens (normal spermatogenesis, maturation arrest and Sertoli cell only syndrome, 10 cases each) using immunofluorescent methods. The biopsies were obtained from patients undergoing investigations for infertility. The seminiferous epithelium of the human testes showing normal spermatogenesis had a cell type-specific expression of HSP27. HSP27 expression was strong in the cytoplasm of the Sertoli cells, spermatogonia, and Leydig cells. Alternatively, the expression was moderate in the spermatocytes, weak in the spermatids and absent in the spermatozoa. In testes showing maturation arrest, HSP27 expression was strong in the Sertoli cells, weak in the spermatogonia, and spermatocytes. It was absent in the spermatids and Leydig cells. In Sertoli cell only syndrome, HSP27 expression was strong in the Sertoli cells and absent in the Leydig cells. We report for the first time the expression patterns of HSP27 in the human testes and show differential expression during normal spermatogenesis, indicating a possible role in this process. The altered expression of this protein in testes showing abnormal spermatogenesis may be related to the pathogenesis of male infertility.

  11. Phosphorylation of Ser-180 of rat aquaporin-4 shows marginal affect on regulation of water permeability: molecular dynamics study.

    PubMed

    Sachdeva, Ruchi; Singh, Balvinder

    2014-04-01

    Water permeation through rat aquaporin-4 (rAQP4), predominantly found in mammalian brain is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser-180. The present study has been carried out to understand the structural mechanism of regulation of water permeability across the channel. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been carried out to investigate the structural changes caused due to phosphorylation of Ser-180 in the tetrameric assembly of rAQP4 along with predicted C-terminal region (255-323). The interactions involving opposite charges are observed between cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region during MD simulations. This results in movement of C-terminal region of rAQP4 towards the cytoplasmic mouth of water channel. Despite this movement, there was a gap between C-terminal region and cytoplasmic mouth of the channel through which water molecules were able to gain entry into the channel. The interactions between C-terminus and loop D of neighboring monomers in a tetrameric assembly appear to prevent the complete closure of cytoplasmic mouth of the water channel. Further, the rates of water permeation through phosphorylated and unphosphorylated rAQP4 have also been compared. The simulation studies showed a continuous movement of water in a single file across pore of unphosphorylated as well as phosphorylated rAQP4. PMID:23651078

  12. Trivalent dimethylarsenic compound induces histone H3 phosphorylation and abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Toshihide; Miyazaki, Koichi; Kita, Kayoko; Ochi, Takafumi

    2009-12-15

    Trivalent dimethylarsinous acid [DMA(III)] has been shown to induce mitotic abnormalities, such as centrosome abnormality, multipolar spindles, multipolar division, and aneuploidy, in several cell lines. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying these mitotic abnormalities, we investigated DMA(III)-mediated changes in histone H3 phosphorylation and localization of Aurora B kinase, which is a key molecule in cell mitosis. DMA(III) caused the phosphorylation of histone H3 (ser10) and was distributed predominantly in mitotic cells, especially in prometaphase cells. By contrast, most of the phospho-histone H3 was found to be localized in interphase cells after treatment with inorganic arsenite [iAs(III)], suggesting the involvement of a different pathway in phosphorylation. DMA(III) activated Aurora B kinase and slightly activated ERK MAP kinase. Phosphorylation of histone H3 by DMA(III) was effectively reduced by ZM447439 (Aurora kinase inhibitor) and slightly reduced by U0126 (MEK inhibitor). By contrast, iAs(III)-dependent histone H3 phosphorylation was markedly reduced by U0126. Aurora B kinase is generally localized in the midbody during telophase and plays an important role in cytokinesis. However, in some cells treated with DMA(III), Aurora B was not localized in the midbody of telophase cells. These findings suggested that DMA(III) induced a spindle abnormality, thereby activating the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) through the Aurora B kinase pathway. In addition, cytokinesis was not completed because of the abnormal localization of Aurora B kinase by DMA(III), thereby resulting in the generation of multinucleated cells. These results provide insight into the mechanism of arsenic tumorigenesis.

  13. Mice lacking synapsin III show abnormalities in explicit memory and conditioned fear

    PubMed Central

    Porton, Barbara; Rodriguiz, Ramona M.; Phillips, Lindsey E.; Gilbert, John W.; Feng, Jian; Greengard, Paul; Kao, Hung-Teh; Wetsel, William C.

    2010-01-01

    Synapsin III is a neuron-specific phosphoprotein that plays an important role in synaptic transmission and neural development. While synapsin III is abundant in embryonic brain, expression of the protein in adults is reduced and limited primarily to the hippocampus, olfactory bulb, and cerebral cortex. Given the specificity of synapsin III to these brain areas and because it plays a role in neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus, we investigated whether it may affect learning and memory processes in mice. To address this point, synapsin III knockout mice were examined in a general behavioral screen, several tests to assess learning and memory function, and conditioned fear. Mutant animals displayed no anomalies in sensory and motor function or in anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors. Although mutants showed minor alterations in the Morris water maze, they were deficient in object recognition 24 hr and 10 days after training and in social transmission of food preference at 20 min and 24 hr. Additionally, mutants displayed abnormal responses in contextual and cued fear conditioning when tested 1 or 24 hr after conditioning. The synapsin III knockout mice also showed aberrant responses in fear-potentiated startle. Since synapsin III protein is decreased in schizophrenic brain and because the mutant mice do not harbor obvious anatomical deficits or neurological disorders, these mutants may represent a unique neurodevelopmental model for dissecting the molecular pathways that are related to certain aspects of schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:20050925

  14. Novel alternative splice variants of rat phosphodiesterase 7B showing unique tissue-specific expression and phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Takashi; Kotera, Jun; Omori, Kenji

    2002-01-01

    cDNA species coding for novel variants of cyclic-AMP-specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs), namely the PDE7B family, were isolated from rats and characterized. Rat PDE7B1 (RNPDE7B1) was composed of 446 amino acid residues. Rat PDE7B2 (RNPDE7B2) and PDE7B3 (RNPDE7B3), which possessed unique N-terminal sequences, consisted of 359 and 459 residues respectively. Northern hybridization analysis showed that rat PDE7B transcripts were particularly abundant in the striatum and testis. PCR analyses revealed that rat PDE7B2 transcripts were restricted to the testis and that low levels of PDE7B3 transcripts were expressed in the heart, lung and skeletal muscle. In situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that rat PDE7B transcripts were expressed in striatal neurons and spermatocytes. In spermatocytes, rat PDE7B transcripts were expressed in a stage-specific manner during spermatogenesis. The K(m) values of recombinant rat PDE7B1, PDE7B2 and PDE7B3 for cAMP were 0.05, 0.07 and 0.05 microM respectively. Each rat PDE7B variant was the most sensitive to 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IC(50) 1.5-2.1 microM). Two phosphorylation sites for cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) were found in rat PDE7B1 and PDE7B3, whereas rat PDE7B2 possessed one site. PKA-dependent phosphorylation was observed in C-terminal phosphorylation sites of three rat PDE7B variants, in addition to unique N-terminal regions of rat PDE7B1 and PDE7B3. Unique tissue distribution and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of PDE7B variants suggested that each variant has a specific role for cellular functions via cAMP signalling in various tissues. PMID:11772393

  15. Somatosensory cortex functional connectivity abnormalities in autism show opposite trends, depending on direction and spatial scale

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sheraz; Michmizos, Konstantinos; Tommerdahl, Mark; Ganesan, Santosh; Kitzbichler, Manfred G.; Zetino, Manuel; Garel, Keri-Lee A.; Herbert, Martha R.; Hämäläinen, Matti S.

    2015-01-01

    Functional connectivity is abnormal in autism, but the nature of these abnormalities remains elusive. Different studies, mostly using functional magnetic resonance imaging, have found increased, decreased, or even mixed pattern functional connectivity abnormalities in autism, but no unifying framework has emerged to date. We measured functional connectivity in individuals with autism and in controls using magnetoencephalography, which allowed us to resolve both the directionality (feedforward versus feedback) and spatial scale (local or long-range) of functional connectivity. Specifically, we measured the cortical response and functional connectivity during a passive 25-Hz vibrotactile stimulation in the somatosensory cortex of 20 typically developing individuals and 15 individuals with autism, all males and right-handed, aged 8–18, and the mu-rhythm during resting state in a subset of these participants (12 per group, same age range). Two major significant group differences emerged in the response to the vibrotactile stimulus. First, the 50-Hz phase locking component of the cortical response, generated locally in the primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortex, was reduced in the autism group (P < 0.003, corrected). Second, feedforward functional connectivity between S1 and S2 was increased in the autism group (P < 0.004, corrected). During resting state, there was no group difference in the mu-α rhythm. In contrast, the mu-β rhythm, which has been associated with feedback connectivity, was significantly reduced in the autism group (P < 0.04, corrected). Furthermore, the strength of the mu-β was correlated to the relative strength of 50 Hz component of the response to the vibrotactile stimulus (r = 0.78, P < 0.00005), indicating a shared aetiology for these seemingly unrelated abnormalities. These magnetoencephalography-derived measures were correlated with two different behavioural sensory processing scores (P < 0.01 and P < 0.02 for the autism

  16. Persistence of histone H2AX phosphorylation after meiotic chromosome synapsis and abnormal centromere cohesion in Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (Parp-1) null oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feikun; Baumann, Claudia; De La Fuente, Rabindranath

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the impact of aneuploidy on human health little is known concerning the molecular mechanisms involved in the formation of structural or numerical chromosome abnormalities during meiosis. Here, we provide novel evidence indicating that lack of PARP-1 function during oogenesis predisposes the female gamete to genome instability. During prophase I of meiosis, a high proportion of Parp-1 (−/−) mouse oocytes exhibit a spectrum of meiotic defects including incomplete homologous chromosome synapsis or persistent histone H2AX phosphorylation in fully synapsed chromosomes at the late pachytene stage. Moreover, the X chromosome bivalent is also prone to exhibit persistent double strand DNA breaks (DSBs). In striking contrast, such defects were not detected in mutant pachytene spermatocytes. In fully-grown wild type oocytes at the germinal vesicle stage, PARP-1 protein associates with nuclear speckles and upon meiotic resumption, undergoes a striking re-localization towards spindle poles as well as pericentric heterochromatin domains at the metaphase II stage. Notably, a high proportion of in vivo matured Parp-1 (−/−) oocytes show lack of recruitment of the kinetochore-associated protein BUB3 to centromeric domains and fail to maintain metaphase II arrest. Defects in chromatin modifications in the form of persistent histone H2AX phosphorylation during prophase I of meiosis and deficient sister chromatid cohesion during metaphase II predispose mutant oocytes to premature anaphase II onset upon removal from the oviductal environment. Our results indicate that PARP-1 plays a critical role in the maintenance of chromosome stability at key stages of meiosis in the female germ line. Moreover, in the metaphase II stage oocyte PARP-1 is required for the regulation of centromere structure and function through a mechanism that involves the recruitment of BUB3 protein to centromeric domains. PMID:19463809

  17. Hereditary haemochromatosis gene (HFE) H63D mutation shows an association with abnormal sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Gunel-Ozcan, Aysen; Basar, M Murad; Kisa, Ucler; Ankarali, Handan C

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this study was to screen infertile men for HFE H63D mutation in correlation with clinical characteristics of infertile men (sperm concentration, sperm motility, morphology, testicular volume, Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), Luteinizing Hormone (LH) and total Testosterone levels) and find out if the HFE H63D mutation has an effect on male infertility. After excluding hormonal treatment, any scrotal pathology, having any systemic diseases such as diabetes mellitus, sickle cell anemia and microdeletions of the Y chromosome, a total of 148 infertile men with age range between 17 and 52-years-old (average age 29.6 +/- 7.2) were enrolled into the study. Our analysis indicates that the mean FSH levels are significantly higher (6.3 +/- 4.6 mIU/ml, P = 0.03), whereas sperm motility is significantly lower (36.6 +/- 28.1%, P = 0.01) in the infertile men with the HFE H63D mutation compared with subjects lacking this mutation. Comparison of allele frequencies of the infertile men with Ts < 50% versus the infertile men with Ts > 50% revealed a significant difference as expected (P = 0.001, OR = 0.14, %95 CI = 0.04-0.44). Comparison of allele frequencies of infertile men with abnormal sperm motility versus infertile men with normal sperm motility revealed a highly significant difference (P = 0.005, OR = 3.11, %95 CI = 1.41-6.86). Thus, the HFE H63D mutation seems to be an important risk factor for impaired sperm motility and is clinically associated with male infertility. PMID:18846434

  18. Female Emotional Eaters Show Abnormalities in Consummatory and Anticipatory Food Reward

    PubMed Central

    Bohon, Cara; Stice, Eric; Spoor, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that emotional eaters show greater neural activation in response to food intake and anticipated food intake than nonemotional eaters and whether these differences are amplified during a negative versus neutral mood state. Method Female emotional eaters and nonemotional eaters (N = 21) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during receipt and anticipated receipt of chocolate milkshake and a tasteless control solution while in a negative and neutral mood. Results Emotional eaters showed greater activation in the parahippocampal gyrus and anterior cingulate (ACC) in response to anticipated receipt of milkshake and greater activation in the pallidum, thalamus, and ACC in response to receipt of milkshake during a negative relative to a neutral mood. In contrast, nonemotional eaters showed decreased activation in reward regions during a negative versus a neutral mood. Discussion Results suggest that emotional eating is related to increased anticipatory and consummatory food reward, but only during negative mood. PMID:19040270

  19. Preliminary Findings Show Maternal Hypothyroidism May Contribute to Abnormal Cortical Morphology in Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lischinsky, Julieta E.; Skocic, Jovanka; Clairman, Hayyah; Rovet, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    In rodents, insufficient thyroid hormone (TH) gestationally has adverse effects on cerebral cortex development. Comparable studies of humans examining how TH insufficiency affects cortical morphology are limited to children with congenital hypothyroidism or offspring of hypothyroxinemic women; effects on cortex of children born to women with clinically diagnosed hypothyroidism are not known. We studied archived MRI scans from 22 children aged 10–12 years born to women treated for preexisting or de novo hypothyroidism in pregnancy (HYPO) and 24 similar age and sex controls from euthyroid women. FreeSurfer Image Analysis Suite software was used to measure cortical thickness (CT) and a vertex-based approach served to compare HYPO versus control groups and Severe versus Mild HYPO subgroups as well as to perform regression analyses examining effects of trimester-specific maternal TSH on CT. Results showed that relative to controls, HYPO had multiple regions of both cortical thinning and thickening, which differed for left and right hemispheres. In HYPO, thinning was confined to medial and mid-lateral regions of each hemisphere and thickening to superior regions (primarily frontal) of the left hemisphere and inferior regions (particularly occipital and temporal) of the right. The Severe HYPO subgroup showed more thinning than Mild in frontal and temporal regions and more thickening in bilateral posterior and frontal regions. Maternal TSH values predicted degree of thinning and thickening within multiple brain regions, with the pattern and direction of correlations differing by trimester. Notably, some correlations remained when cases born to women with severe hypothyroidism were removed from the analyses, suggesting that mild variations of maternal TH may permanently affect offspring cortex. We conclude that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy has long-lasting manifestations on the cortical morphology of their offspring with specific effects reflecting both

  20. The three α1-adrenoceptor subtypes show different spatio-temporal mechanisms of internalization and ERK1/2 phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Aso, M; Segura, V; Montó, F; Barettino, D; Noguera, M A; Milligan, G; D'Ocon, P

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed the kinetic and spatial patterns characterizing activation of the MAP kinases ERK 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) by the three α1-adrenoceptor (α1-AR) subtypes in HEK293 cells and the contribution of two different pathways to ERK1/2 phosphorylation: protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent ERK1/2 activation and internalization-dependent ERK1/2 activation. The different pathways of phenylephrine induced ERK phosphorylation were determined by western blot, using the PKC inhibitor Ro 31-8425, the receptor internalization inhibitor concanavalin A and the siRNA targeting β-arrestin 2. Receptor internalization properties were studied using CypHer5 technology and VSV-G epitope-tagged receptors. Activation of α1A- and α1B-ARs by phenylephrine elicited rapid ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was directed to the nucleus and inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Concomitant with phenylephrine induced receptor internalization α1A-AR, but not α1B-AR, produced a maintained and PKC-independent ERK phosphorylation, which was restricted to the cytosol and inhibited by β-arrestin 2 knockdown or concanavalin A treatment. α1D-AR displayed constitutive ERK phosphorylation, which was reduced by incubation with prazosin or the selective α1D antagonist BMY7378. Following activation by phenylephrine, α1D-AR elicited rapid, transient ERK1/2 phosphorylation that was restricted to the cytosol and not inhibited by Ro 31-8425. Internalization of the α1D-AR subtype was not observed via CypHer5 technology. The three α1-AR subtypes present different spatio-temporal patterns of receptor internalization, and only α1A-AR stimulation translates to a late, sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation that is restricted to the cytosol and dependent on β-arrestin 2 mediated internalization.

  1. A 32-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein shows a protease-dependent increase in dead boar spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Tomohito; Shidara, Osamu; Harayama, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Boar sperm TyrP32 is a 32-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein that increases during the capacitation and acrosome reaction and during cryocapacitation. However, it is still unclear whether the increase in TyrP32 is an event that is limited to the process of sperm fertilization, including cryocapacitation. The aims of the present study were to demonstrate that TyrP32 is increased in dead spermatozoa after freeze-thawing without a cryoprotectant and to find the causal factors for this increase. Washed spermatozoa were resuspended in a salt solution and then frozen. The frozen samples were rapidly thawed in a warm water bath and then used for sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE)/Western blotting to detect TyrP32, SDS-PAGE/silver staining of sperm proteins and staining of acrosomal contents with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated peanut agglutinin (PNA). In the samples before freezing, TyrP32 was barely detectable, and the distribution of the acrosomal contents was normal in most spermatozoa. One cycle of freeze-thawing induced an increase in TyrP32, a decrease in major sperm proteins and disorder in the acrosomal contents. However, the addition of a protease inhibitor (APMSF, 1 mM) suppressed the increase in TyrP32 and the decrease in the major sperm proteins, although it did not have any influence on the disorder in the acrosomal contents. Additionally, the spermatozoa did not exhibit any flagellar movement after freeze-thawing, which showed that almost all of them were dead. These results indicate that TyrP32 can show a protease-dependent increase in dead spermatozoa after freeze-thawing without a cryoprotectant even though the dead spermatozoa do not undergo cryocapacitation. PMID:18787309

  2. The immature human ovary shows loss of abnormal follicles and increasing follicle developmental competence through childhood and adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R.A.; McLaughlin, M.; Wallace, W.H.B.; Albertini, D.F.; Telfer, E.E.

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Do the ovarian follicles of children and adolescents differ in their morphology and in vitro growth potential from those of adults? SUMMARY ANSWER Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of morphologically abnormal non-growing follicles, and follicles showed reduced capacity for in vitro growth. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The pre-pubertal ovary is known to contain follicles at the early growing stages. How this changes over childhood and through puberty is unknown, and there are no previous data on the in vitro growth potential of follicles from pre-pubertal and pubertal girls. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Ovarian biopsies from five pre-pubertal and seven pubertal girls and 19 adult women were analysed histologically, cultured in vitro for 6 days, with growing follicles then isolated and cultured for a further 6 days. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Ovarian biopsies were obtained from girls undergoing ovarian tissue cryopreservation for fertility preservation, and compared with biopsies from adult women. Follicle stage and morphology were classified. After 6 days in culture, follicle growth initiation was assessed. The growth of isolated secondary follicles was assessed over a further 6 days, including analysis of oocyte growth. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Pre-pubertal ovaries contained a high proportion of abnormal non-growing follicles (19.4 versus 4.85% in pubertal ovaries; 4004 follicles analysed; P = 0.02) characterized by indistinct germinal vesicle membrane and absent nucleolus. Follicles with this abnormal morphology were not seen in the adult ovary. During 6 days culture, follicle growth initiation was observed at all ages; in pre-pubertal samples there was very little development to secondary stages, while pubertal samples showed similar growth activation to that seen in adult tissue (pubertal group: P = 0.02 versus pre-pubertal, ns versus adult). Isolated secondary follicles were cultured for a further 6 days. Those

  3. Well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis showed excellent clinical response to imatinib in the absence of known molecular genetic abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lanshan; Wang, Sa A.; Konoplev, Sergej; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos E.; Thakral, Beenu; Miranda, Roberto N.; Jabbour, Elias; Medeiros, L. Jeffrey; Kanagal-Shamanna, Rashmi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Well-differentiated systemic mastocytosis (WDSM) is a rare, recently recognized provisional subvariant of systemic mastocytosis (SM). We report a case of WDSM that showed excellent clinical and cutaneous response to imatinib in the absence of known molecular genetic abnormalities. Clinical Findings/Diagnoses: We present a 24-year-old woman with childhood onset of skin manifestations that progressed to mediator-related systemic events, and a gastrointestinal tract mastocytoma. A subsequent bone marrow examination showed WDSM. Treatment with imatinib resulted in complete resolution of cutaneous lesions and systemic symptoms, which relapsed with the discontinuation of the drug. Targeted next-generation sequencing-based mutation analysis did not demonstrate any mutations in the coding regions of KIT or other genes commonly associated with myeloid neoplasms. Conclusions: The diagnosis of WDSM is challenging in the absence of spindle-shaped mast cells, CD2 or CD25 expression, and KIT D816 mutation. This case illustrated the need for recognizing this unique variant of SM for diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:27741105

  4. Magnetization transfer ratio measures in normal-appearing white matter show periventricular gradient abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng; Pardini, Matteo; Yaldizli, Özgür; Sethi, Varun; Muhlert, Nils; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M; Samson, Rebecca S; Miller, David H; Chard, Declan T

    2015-05-01

    In multiple sclerosis, there is increasing evidence that demyelination, and neuronal damage occurs preferentially in cortical grey matter next to the outer surface of the brain. It has been suggested that this may be due to the effects of pathology outside the brain parenchyma, in particular meningeal inflammation or through cerebrospinal fluid mediated factors. White matter lesions are often located adjacent to the ventricles of the brain, suggesting the possibility of a similar outside-in pathogenesis, but an investigation of the relationship of periventricular normal-appearing white matter abnormalities with distance from the ventricles has not previously been undertaken. The present study investigates this relationship in vivo using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging and compares the abnormalities between secondary progressive and relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. Forty-three patients with relapsing remitting and 28 with secondary progressive multiple sclerosis, and 38 healthy control subjects were included in this study. T1-weighted volumetric, magnetization transfer and proton density/T2-weighted scans were acquired for all subjects. From the magnetization transfer data, magnetization transfer ratio maps were prepared. White matter tissue masks were derived from SPM8 segmentations of the T1-weighted images. Normal-appearing white matter masks were generated by subtracting white matter lesions identified on the proton density/T2 scan, and a two-voxel perilesional ring, from the SPM8 derived white matter masks. White matter was divided in concentric bands, each ∼1-mm thick, radiating from the ventricles toward the cortex. The first periventricular band was excluded from analysis to mitigate partial volume effects, and normal-appearing white matter and lesion magnetization transfer ratio values were then computed for the 10 bands nearest to the ventricles. Compared with controls, magnetization transfer ratio in the normal-appearing white matter

  5. Children with autism spectrum disorders show abnormal conditioned response timing on delay, but not trace, eyeblink conditioning.

    PubMed

    Oristaglio, J; Hyman West, S; Ghaffari, M; Lech, M S; Verma, B R; Harvey, J A; Welsh, J P; Malone, R P

    2013-09-17

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched typically-developing (TD) peers were tested on two forms of eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a Pavlovian associative learning paradigm where subjects learn to execute an appropriately-timed eyeblink in response to a previously neutral conditioning stimulus (CS). One version of the task, trace EBC, interposes a stimulus-free interval between the presentation of the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US), a puff of air to the eye which causes the subjects to blink. In delay EBC, the CS overlaps in time with the delivery of the US, usually with both stimuli terminating simultaneously. ASD children performed normally during trace EBC, exhibiting no differences from TD subjects with regard to the learning rate or the timing of the conditioned response. However, when subsequently tested on delay EBC, subjects with ASD displayed abnormally-timed conditioned eye blinks that began earlier and peaked sooner than those of TD subjects, consistent with previous findings. The results suggest an impaired ability of children with ASD to properly time conditioned eye blinks which appears to be specific to delay EBC. We suggest that this deficit may reflect a dysfunction of the cerebellar cortex in which increases in the intensity or duration of sensory input can temporarily disrupt the accuracy of motor timing over short temporal intervals.

  6. Children with autism spectrum disorders show abnormal conditioned response timing on delay, but not trace, eyeblink conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Oristaglio, Jeff; West, Susan Hyman; Ghaffari, Manely; Lech, Melissa S.; Verma, Beeta R.; Harvey, John A.; Welsh, John P.; Malone, Richard P.

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age-matched typically-developing (TD) peers were tested on two forms of eyeblink conditioning (EBC), a Pavlovian associative learning paradigm where subjects learn to execute an appropriately-timed eyeblink in response to a previously neutral conditioning stimulus (CS). One version of the task, trace EBC, interposes a stimulus-free interval between the presentation of the CS and the unconditioned stimulus (US), a puff of air to the eye which causes subjects to blink. In delay EBC, the CS overlaps in time with the delivery of the US, usually with both stimuli terminating simultaneously. ASD children performed normally during trace EBC, exhibiting no differences from typically-developing (TD) subjects with regard to learning rate or the timing of the CR. However, when subsequently tested on delay EBC, subjects with ASD displayed abnormally-timed conditioned eye blinks that began earlier and peaked sooner than those of TD subjects, consistent with previous findings. The results suggest an impaired ability of children with ASD to properly time conditioned eye blinks which appears to be specific to delay EBC. We suggest that this deficit may reflect a dysfunction of cerebellar cortex in which increases in the intensity or duration of sensory input can temporarily disrupt the accuracy of motor timing over short temporal intervals. PMID:23769889

  7. Characterization of the skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mouse showing axial skeleton abnormalities caused by defects of embryonic skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Kouyou; Katayama, Kentaro; Tsuji, Takehito; Kunieda, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    The development of the axial skeleton is a complex process, consisting of segmentation and differentiation of somites and ossification of the vertebrae. The autosomal recessive skeletal fusion with sterility (sks) mutation of the mouse causes skeletal malformations due to fusion of the vertebrae and ribs, but the underlying defects of vertebral formation during embryonic development have not yet been elucidated. For the present study, we examined the skeletal phenotypes of sks/sks mice during embryonic development and the chromosomal localization of the sks locus. Multiple defects of the axial skeleton, including fusion of vertebrae and fusion and bifurcation of ribs, were observed in adult and neonatal sks/sks mice. In addition, we also found polydactyly and delayed skull ossification in the sks/sks mice. Morphological defects, including disorganized vertebral arches and fusions and bifurcations of the axial skeletal elements, were observed during embryonic development at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and E14.5. However, no morphological abnormality was observed at E11.5, indicating that defects of the axial skeleton are caused by malformation of the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs at an early developmental stage after formation and segmentation of the somites. By linkage analysis, the sks locus was mapped to an 8-Mb region of chromosome 4 between D4Mit331 and D4Mit199. Since no gene has already been identified as a cause of malformation of the vertebra and ribs in this region, the gene responsible for sks is suggested to be a novel gene essential for the cartilaginous vertebra and ribs.

  8. Ethanol-induced phosphorylation of cytokeratin in cultured hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kawahara, Hiromu; Cadrin, M.; French, S.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors studied the effect of ethanol on the phosphorylation of cytokeratins (CKs) in cultured hepatocytes since CK filaments are resulted by phosphorylation and they are abnormal in alcoholic liver disease. Hepatocytes were obtained from 14-day-old rats and cultured for 48 hrs. The hepatocytes were exposed to ethanol for 30 min. The residual insoluble cytoskeletons were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. 2D gel electrophoresis showed CK 55 and CK 49 or 8 and 18 and actin. The CKs had several isoelectric variants. The most basic spot was the dominant protein which was not phosphorylated. The more acidic spots were phosphorylated. After ethanol treatment, the phosphorylation of CK 55 and CK 49 were markedly increased over controls. They compared these results, with the effect of vasopressin, TPA and db-cAMP on the phosphorylation of CKs. Vasopressin and TPA caused the phosphorylation of CK 55 and 49 but db-cAMP did not.

  9. Transgenic rats overexpressing the human MrgX3 gene show cataracts and an abnormal skin phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Kaisho, Yoshihiko . E-mail: Kaisho_Yoshihiko@takeda.co.jp; Watanabe, Takuya; Nakata, Mitsugu; Yano, Takashi; Yasuhara, Yoshitaka; Shimakawa, Kozo; Mori, Ikuo; Sakura, Yasufumi; Terao, Yasuko; Matsui, Hideki; Taketomi, Shigehisa

    2005-05-13

    The human MrgX3 gene, belonging to the mrgs/SNSRs (mass related genes/sensory neuron specific receptors) family, was overexpressed in transgenic rats using the actin promoter. Two animal lines showed cataracts with liquification/degeneration and swelling of the lens fiber cells. The transient epidermal desquamation was observed in line with higher gene expression. Histopathology of the transgenic rats showed acanthosis and focal parakeratosis. In the epidermis, there was an increase in cellular keratin 14, keratin 10, and loricrin, as well as PGP 9.5 in innervating nerve fibers. These phenotypes accompanied an increase in the number of proliferating cells. These results suggest that overexpression of the human MrgX3 gene causes a disturbance of the normal cell-differentiation process.

  10. DNA methylation patterns in tissues from mid-gestation bovine foetuses produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer show subtle abnormalities in nuclear reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Cloning of cattle by somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is associated with a high incidence of pregnancy failure characterized by abnormal placental and foetal development. These abnormalities are thought to be due, in part, to incomplete re-setting of the epigenetic state of DNA in the donor somatic cell nucleus to a state that is capable of driving embryonic and foetal development to completion. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA methylation patterns were not appropriately established during nuclear reprogramming following SCNT. A panel of imprinted, non-imprinted genes and satellite repeat sequences was examined in tissues collected from viable and failing mid-gestation SCNT foetuses and compared with similar tissues from gestation-matched normal foetuses generated by artificial insemination (AI). Results Most of the genomic regions examined in tissues from viable and failing SCNT foetuses had DNA methylation patterns similar to those in comparable tissues from AI controls. However, statistically significant differences were found between SCNT and AI at specific CpG sites in some regions of the genome, particularly those associated with SNRPN and KCNQ1OT1, which tended to be hypomethylated in SCNT tissues. There was a high degree of variation between individuals in methylation levels at almost every CpG site in these two regions, even in AI controls. In other genomic regions, methylation levels at specific CpG sites were tightly controlled with little variation between individuals. Only one site (HAND1) showed a tissue-specific pattern of DNA methylation. Overall, DNA methylation patterns in tissues of failing foetuses were similar to apparently viable SCNT foetuses, although there were individuals showing extreme deviant patterns. Conclusion These results show that SCNT foetuses that had developed to mid-gestation had largely undergone nuclear reprogramming and that the epigenetic signature at this stage was not a good predictor of whether the

  11. Rothmund-Thomson syndrome: two case reports show heterogeneous cutaneous abnormalities, an association with genetically programmed ageing changes, and increased chromosomal radiosensitivity.

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, B; Ashcroft, G S; Scott, D; Horan, M A; Ferguson, M W; Donnai, D

    1996-01-01

    Rothmund-Thomson syndrome is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder associated with characteristic cutaneous changes, sparse hair, juvenile cataracts, short stature, skeletal defects, dystrophic teeth and nails, and hypogonadism. Mental retardation is unusual. An increased incidence of certain malignancies has been reported. Clonal or mosaic chromosome abnormalities and abnormalities in DNA repair mechanisms have been reported in some cases. We report two cases of Rothmund-Thomson syndrome, both with intellectual handicap, associated in one with a previously undescribed histological appearance of involved skin, suggesting that the spectrum of abnormalities is even more heterogeneous than previously presumed. Both cases exhibited chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes which may be an indication of a DNA repair defect. This is the first report of an association between Rothmund-Thomson syndrome and unique, intrinsic, age related skin changes. Images PMID:8950673

  12. Histone phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rossetto, Dorine; Avvakumov, Nikita; Côté, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Histone posttranslational modifications are key components of diverse processes that modulate chromatin structure. These marks function as signals during various chromatin-based events, and act as platforms for recruitment, assembly or retention of chromatin-associated factors. The best-known function of histone phosphorylation takes place during cellular response to DNA damage, when phosphorylated histone H2A(X) demarcates large chromatin domains around the site of DNA breakage. However, multiple studies have also shown that histone phosphorylation plays crucial roles in chromatin remodeling linked to other nuclear processes. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of histone phosphorylation and describe the many kinases and phosphatases that regulate it. We discuss the key roles played by this histone mark in DNA repair, transcription and chromatin compaction during cell division and apoptosis. Additionally, we describe the intricate crosstalk that occurs between phosphorylation and other histone modifications and allows for sophisticated control over the chromatin remodeling processes. PMID:22948226

  13. The physiological link between metabolic rate depression and tau phosphorylation in mammalian hibernation.

    PubMed

    Stieler, Jens T; Bullmann, Torsten; Kohl, Franziska; Tøien, Øivind; Brückner, Martina K; Härtig, Wolfgang; Barnes, Brian M; Arendt, Thomas

    2011-01-18

    Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau protein are hallmarks of a variety of neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Increased tau phosphorylation is assumed to represent an early event in pathogenesis and a pivotal aspect for aggregation and formation of neurofibrillary tangles. However, the regulation of tau phosphorylation in vivo and the causes for its increased stage of phosphorylation in AD are still not well understood, a fact that is primarily based on the lack of adequate animal models. Recently we described the reversible formation of highly phosphorylated tau protein in hibernating European ground squirrels. Hence, mammalian hibernation represents a model system very well suited to study molecular mechanisms of both tau phosphorylation and dephosphorylation under in vivo physiological conditions. Here, we analysed the extent and kinetics of hibernation-state dependent tau phosphorylation in various brain regions of three species of hibernating mammals: arctic ground squirrels, Syrian hamsters and black bears. Overall, tau protein was highly phosphorylated in torpor states and phosphorylation levels decreased after arousal in all species. Differences between brain regions, hibernation-states and phosphosites were observed with respect to degree and kinetics of tau phosphorylation. Furthermore, we tested the phosphate net turnover of tau protein to analyse potential alterations in kinase and/or phosphatase activities during hibernation. Our results demonstrate that the hibernation-state dependent phosphorylation of tau protein is specifically regulated but involves, in addition, passive, temperature driven regulatory mechanisms. By determining the activity-state profile for key enzymes of tau phosphorylation we could identify kinases potentially involved in the differentially regulated, reversible tau phosphorylation that occurs during hibernation. We show that in black bears hibernation is associated with conformational

  14. Glycogen phosphorylation and Lafora disease.

    PubMed

    Roach, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Covalent phosphorylation of glycogen, first described 35 years ago, was put on firm ground through the work of the Whelan laboratory in the 1990s. But glycogen phosphorylation lay fallow until interest was rekindled in the mid 2000s by the finding that it could be removed by a glycogen-binding phosphatase, laforin, and that mutations in laforin cause a fatal teenage-onset epilepsy, called Lafora disease. Glycogen phosphorylation is due to phosphomonoesters at C2, C3 and C6 of glucose residues. Phosphate is rare, ranging from 1:500 to 1:5000 phosphates/glucose depending on the glycogen source. The mechanisms of glycogen phosphorylation remain under investigation but one hypothesis to explain C2 and perhaps C3 phosphate is that it results from a rare side reaction of the normal synthetic enzyme glycogen synthase. Lafora disease is likely caused by over-accumulation of abnormal glycogen in insoluble deposits termed Lafora bodies in neurons. The abnormality in the glycogen correlates with elevated phosphorylation (at C2, C3 and C6), reduced branching, insolubility and an enhanced tendency to aggregate and become insoluble. Hyperphosphorylation of glycogen is emerging as an important feature of this deadly childhood disease.

  15. Oxidative phosphorylation and lacunar stroke

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Christopher D.; Hurford, Robert; Bevan, Steve; Markus, Hugh S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated whether oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) abnormalities were associated with lacunar stroke, hypothesizing that these would be more strongly associated in patients with multiple lacunar infarcts and leukoaraiosis (LA). Methods: In 1,012 MRI-confirmed lacunar stroke cases and 964 age-matched controls recruited from general practice surgeries, we investigated associations between common genetic variants within the OXPHOS pathway and lacunar stroke using a permutation-based enrichment approach. Cases were phenotyped using MRI into those with multiple infarcts or LA (MLI/LA) and those with isolated lacunar infarcts (ILI) based on the number of subcortical infarcts and degree of LA, using the Fazekas grading. Using gene-level association statistics, we tested for enrichment of genes in the OXPHOS pathway with all lacunar stroke and the 2 subtypes. Results: There was a specific association with strong evidence of enrichment in the top 1% of genes in the MLI/LA (subtype p = 0.0017) but not in the ILI subtype (p = 1). Genes in the top percentile for the all lacunar stroke analysis were not significantly enriched (p = 0.07). Conclusions: Our results implicate the OXPHOS pathway in the pathogenesis of lacunar stroke, and show the association is specific to patients with the MLI/LA subtype. They show that MRI-based subtyping of lacunar stroke can provide insights into disease pathophysiology, and imply that different radiologic subtypes of lacunar stroke subtypes have distinct underlying pathophysiologic processes. PMID:26674331

  16. AMP-activated protein kinase modulates tau phosphorylation and tau pathology in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Domise, Manon; Didier, Sébastien; Marinangeli, Claudia; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Buée, Luc; Viollet, Benoit; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe; Vingtdeux, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) are the pathological hallmark of neurodegenerative diseases commonly known as tauopathies. NFTs result from the intracellular aggregation of abnormally and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins. Tau functions, which include the regulation of microtubules dynamics, are dependent on its phosphorylation status. As a consequence, any changes in tau phosphorylation can have major impacts on synaptic plasticity and memory. Recently, it has been demonstrated that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was deregulated in the brain of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients where it co-localized with phosphorylated tau in pre-tangle and tangle-bearing neurons. Besides, it was found that AMPK was a tau kinase in vitro. Here, we find that endogenous AMPK activation in mouse primary neurons induced an increase of tau phosphorylation at multiple sites, whereas AMPK inhibition led to a rapid decrease of tau phosphorylation. We further show that AMPK mice deficient for one of the catalytic alpha subunits displayed reduced endogenous tau phosphorylation. Finally, we found that AMPK deficiency reduced tau pathology in the PS19 mouse model of tauopathy. These results show that AMPK regulates tau phosphorylation in mouse primary neurons as well as in vivo, and thus suggest that AMPK could be a key player in the development of AD pathology. PMID:27230293

  17. Meiotic abnormalities

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 19, describes meiotic abnormalities. These include nondisjunction of autosomes and sex chromosomes, genetic and environmental causes of nondisjunction, misdivision of the centromere, chromosomally abnormal human sperm, male infertility, parental age, and origin of diploid gametes. 57 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Craniofacial Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the skull and face. Craniofacial abnormalities are birth defects of the face or head. Some, like cleft ... palate, are among the most common of all birth defects. Others are very rare. Most of them affect ...

  19. Chromosome Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... decade, newer techniques have been developed that allow scientists and doctors to screen for chromosomal abnormalities without using a microscope. These newer methods compare the patient's DNA to a normal DNA ...

  20. Walking abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... include: Arthritis of the leg or foot joints Conversion disorder (a psychological disorder) Foot problems (such as a ... injuries. For an abnormal gait that occurs with conversion disorder, counseling and support from family members are strongly ...

  1. Nail abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    Beau's lines; Fingernail abnormalities; Spoon nails; Onycholysis; Leukonychia; Koilonychia; Brittle nails ... Just like the skin, the fingernails tell a lot about your health: ... the fingernail. These lines can occur after illness, injury to ...

  2. The Mek1 phosphorylation cascade plays a role in meiotic recombination of Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Tougan, Takahiro; Kasama, Takashi; Ohtaka, Ayami; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Saito, Takamune T; Russell, Paul; Nojima, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    Mek1 is a Chk2/Rad53/Cds1-related protein kinase that is required for proper meiotic progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the molecular mechanisms of Mek1 regulation and Mek1 phosphorylation targets are unclear. Here, we report that Mek1 is phosphorylated at serine-12 (S12), S14 and threonine-15 (T15) by Rad3 (ATR) and/or Tel1 (ATM) kinases that are activated by meiotic programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations of these sites by alanine replacement caused abnormal meiotic progression and recombination rates. Phosphorylation of these sites triggers autophosphorylation of Mek1; indeed, alanine replacement mutations of Mek1-T318 and -T322 residues in the activation loop of Mek1 reduced Mek1 kinase activity and meiotic recombination rates. Substrates of Mek1 include Mus81-T275, Rdh54-T6 and Rdh54-T673. Mus81-T275 is known to regulate the Mus81 function in DNA cleavage, whereas Rdh54-T6A/T673A mutant cells showed abnormal meiotic recombination. Taken together, we conclude that the phosphorylation of Mek1 by Rad3 or Tel1, Mek1 autophosphorylation and Mus81 or Rdh54 phosphorylation by Mek1 regulate meiotic progression in S. pombe. PMID:21084840

  3. The Mek1 phosphorylation cascade plays a role in meiotic recombination of Schizosaccharomyces pombe

    PubMed Central

    Ohtaka, Ayami; Okuzaki, Daisuke; Saito, Takamune T; Russell, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Mek1 is a Chk2/Rad53/Cds1-related protein kinase that is required for proper meiotic progression of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. However, the molecular mechanisms of Mek1 regulation and Mek1 phosphorylation targets are unclear. Here, we report that Mek1 is phosphorylated at serine-12 (S12), S14 and threonine-15 (T15) by Rad3 (ATR) and/or Tel1 (ATM) kinases that are activated by meiotic programmed double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mutations of these sites by alanine replacement caused abnormal meiotic progression and recombination rates. Phosphorylation of these sites triggers autophosphorylation of Mek1; indeed, alanine replacement mutations of Mek1-T318 and -T322 residues in the activation loop of Mek1 reduced Mek1 kinase activity and meiotic recombination rates. Substrates of Mek1 include Mus81-T275, Rdh54-T6 and Rdh54-T673. Mus81-T275 is known to regulate the Mus81 function in DNA cleavage, whereas Rdh54-T6A/T673A mutant cells showed abnormal meiotic recombination. Taken together, we conclude that the phosphorylation of Mek1 by Rad3 or Tel1, Mek1 autophosphorylation and Mus81 or Rdh54 phosphorylation by Mek1 regulate meiotic progression in S. pombe. PMID:21084840

  4. Abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neuzil, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    So-called abnormal pressures, subsurface fluid pressures significantly higher or lower than hydrostatic, have excited speculation about their origin since subsurface exploration first encountered them. Two distinct conceptual models for abnormal pressures have gained currency among earth scientists. The static model sees abnormal pressures generally as relict features preserved by a virtual absence of fluid flow over geologic time. The hydrodynamic model instead envisions abnormal pressures as phenomena in which flow usually plays an important role. This paper develops the theoretical framework for abnormal pressures as hydrodynamic phenomena, shows that it explains the manifold occurrences of abnormal pressures, and examines the implications of this approach. -from Author

  5. Properties of phosphorylated thymidylate synthase.

    PubMed

    Frączyk, Tomasz; Ruman, Tomasz; Wilk, Piotr; Palmowski, Paweł; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Cieśla, Joanna; Zieliński, Zbigniew; Nizioł, Joanna; Jarmuła, Adam; Maj, Piotr; Gołos, Barbara; Wińska, Patrycja; Ostafil, Sylwia; Wałajtys-Rode, Elżbieta; Shugar, David; Rode, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Thymidylate synthase (TS) may undergo phosphorylation endogenously in mammalian cells, and as a recombinant protein expressed in bacterial cells, as indicated by the reaction of purified enzyme protein with Pro-Q® Diamond Phosphoprotein Gel Stain (PGS). With recombinant human, mouse, rat, Trichinella spiralis and Caenorhabditis elegans TSs, expressed in Escherichia coli, the phosphorylated, compared to non-phosphorylated recombinant enzyme forms, showed a decrease in Vmax(app), bound their cognate mRNA (only rat enzyme studied), and repressed translation of their own and several heterologous mRNAs (human, rat and mouse enzymes studied). However, attempts to determine the modification site(s), whether endogenously expressed in mammalian cells, or recombinant proteins, did not lead to unequivocal results. Comparative ESI-MS/analysis of IEF fractions of TS preparations from parental and FdUrd-resistant mouse leukemia L1210 cells, differing in sensitivity to inactivation by FdUMP, demonstrated phosphorylation of Ser(10) and Ser(16) in the resistant enzyme only, although PGS staining pointed to the modification of both L1210 TS proteins. The TS proteins phosphorylated in bacterial cells were shown by (31)P NMR to be modified only on histidine residues, like potassium phosphoramidate (KPA)-phosphorylated TS proteins. NanoLC-MS/MS, enabling the use of CID and ETD peptide fragmentation methods, identified several phosphohistidine residues, but certain phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues were also implicated. Molecular dynamics studies, based on the mouse TS crystal structure, allowed one to assess potential of several phosphorylated histidine residues to affect catalytic activity, the effect being phosphorylation site dependent.

  6. Phosphorylated nano-diamond/ Polyimide Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler-Çiǧil, Asli; Çakmakçi, Emrah; Vezir Kahraman, Memet

    2014-08-01

    In this study, a novel route to synthesize polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond films with improved thermal and mechanical properties was developed. Surface phosphorylation of nano-diamond was performed in dichloromethane. Phosphorylation dramatically enhanced the thermal stability of nano-diamond. Poly(amic acid) (PAA), which is the precursor of PI, was successfully synthesized with 3,3',4,4'-Benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride (BTDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline (4,4'-ODA) in the solution of N,N- dimethylformamide (DMF). Pure BTDA-ODA polyimide films and phosphorylated nanodiamond containing BTDA-ODA PI films were prepared. The PAA displayed good compatibility with phosphorylated nano-diamond. The morphology of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Chemical structure of polyimide and polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond was characterized by FTIR. SEM and FTIR results showed that the phosphorylated nano-diamond was successfully prepared. Thermal properties of the polyimide (PI)/phosphorylated nanodiamond was characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA results showed that the thermal stability of (PI)/phosphorylated nano-diamond film was increased.

  7. Bioactives from Artemisia dracunculus L. Enhance Insulin Sensitivity via Modulation of Skeletal Muscle Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kheterpal, Indu; Scherp, Peter; Kelley, Lauren; Wang, Zhong; Johnson, William; Ribnicky, David; Cefalu, William T.

    2014-01-01

    A botanical extract from Artemisia dracunculus L., termed PMI 5011, has been shown previously to improve insulin sensitivity by increasing cellular insulin signaling in in vitro and in vivo studies. These studies suggest that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins involved in insulin signaling. To explore effects of this promising botanical extract on the human skeletal muscle phosphoproteome, changes in site-specific protein phosphorylation levels in primary skeletal muscle cultures from obese, insulin resistant individuals were evaluated with and without insulin stimulation. Insulin resistance is a condition in which a normal or elevated insulin level results in an abnormal biologic response, e.g., glucose uptake. Using isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ™) followed by phosphopeptide enrichment and liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry, 125 unique phosphopeptides and 159 unique phosphorylation sites from 80 unique proteins were identified and quantified. Insulin stimulation of primary cultured muscle cells from insulin resistant individuals resulted in minimal increase in phosphorylation, demonstrating impaired insulin action in this condition. Treatment with PMI 5011 resulted in significant up regulation of 35 phosphopeptides that were mapped to proteins participating in the regulation of transcription, translation, actin cytoskeleton signaling, caveolae translocation and GLUT4 transport. These data further showed that PMI 5011 increased phosphorylation levels of specific amino acids in proteins in the insulin resistant state that are normally phosphorylated by insulin (thus, increasing cellular insulin signaling) and PMI 5011 also increased the abundance of phosphorylation sites of proteins regulating anti-apoptotic effects. Thus, the phosphoproteomics analysis demonstrated conclusively that PMI 5011 effects changes in phosphorylation levels of proteins and identified novel pathways by which

  8. Phosphorylation of yeast hexokinases.

    PubMed

    Vojtek, A B; Fraenkel, D G

    1990-06-20

    We show by the use of 32P-labeling in vivo that hexokinase 2 and hexokinase 1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are phosphoproteins. The highest labeling was after incubation in medium with a low concentration of glucose, when labeling appears to be predominant even without use of immunoprecipitation. The nature of the modification is not known, but it has properties consistent with a phosphomonoester of serine or threonine. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase plays a negative role in hexokinase phosphorylation, in that there was reduced labeling in strains (bcy1) lacking a regulatory subunit, and increased labeling during growth with high concentrations of glucose in a strain attenuated in the catalytic subunit (tpk1w1). The function of the modification is not known, but there was a correlation between the extent of labeling and the expression of kinase-dependent high-affinity glucose uptake.

  9. Neuroinflammation is not a Prerequisite for Diabetes-induced Tau Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    van der Harg, Judith M.; Eggels, Leslie; Ruigrok, Silvie R.; Hoozemans, Jeroen J. M.; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Scheper, Wiep

    2015-01-01

    Abnormal phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is a key hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD is a multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder for which Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a risk factor. In animal models for DM, the phosphorylation and aggregation of tau is induced or exacerbated, however the underlying mechanism is unknown. In addition to the metabolic dysfunction, DM is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation. This was reported to be associated with a neuroinflammatory response in the hypothalamus of DM animal models. Neuroinflammation is also implicated in the development and progression of AD. It is unknown whether DM also induces neuroinflammation in brain areas affected in AD, the cortex and hippocampus. Here we investigated whether neuroinflammation could be the mechanistic trigger to induce tau phosphorylation in the brain of DM animals. Two distinct diabetic animal models were used; rats on free-choice high-fat high-sugar (fcHFHS) diet that are insulin resistant and streptozotocin-treated rats that are insulin deficient. The streptozotocin-treated animals demonstrated increased tau phosphorylation in the brain as expected, whereas the fcHFHS diet fed animals did not. Remarkably, neither of the diabetic animal models showed reactive microglia or increased GFAP and COX-2 levels in the cortex or hippocampus. From this, we conclude: 1. DM does not induce neuroinflammation in brain regions affected in AD, and 2. Neuroinflammation is not a prerequisite for tau phosphorylation. Neuroinflammation is therefore not the mechanism that explains the close connection between DM and AD. PMID:26617484

  10. Casein kinase 1-dependent phosphorylation of familial advanced sleep phase syndrome-associated residues controls PERIOD 2 stability.

    PubMed

    Shanware, Naval P; Hutchinson, John A; Kim, Sang Hwa; Zhan, Lihong; Bowler, Michael J; Tibbetts, Randal S

    2011-04-01

    The mammalian circadian clock component PERIOD2 (PER2) plays a critical role in circadian rhythm entrainment. Recently, a missense mutation at a putative phosphorylation site in hPER2, Ser-662, was identified in patients that suffer from familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS). Patients with FASPS display abnormal sleep-wake patterns characterized by a lifelong pattern of sleep onset in the early evening and offset in the early morning. Although the phosphorylation of PER2 is strongly implied from functional studies, it has not been possible to study the site-specific phosphorylation of PER2 on Ser-662, and the biochemical functions of this residue are unclear. Here, we used phospho-specific antibodies to show that PER2 is phosphorylated on Ser-662 and flanking casein kinase (CK) sites in vivo. The phosphorylation of PER2 was carried out by the combined activities of casein kinase 1δ (CK1 δ) and casein kinase 1ε (CK1ε) and was antagonized by protein phosphatase 1. PER2 phosphorylation was rapidly induced in response to circadian entrainment of mammalian cell lines and occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear compartments. Importantly, we found that the pool of Ser-662-phosphorylated PER2 proteins was more stable than the pool of total PER2 molecules, implying that the FASPS phosphorylation cluster antagonizes PER2 degradation. Consistent with this idea, a Ser-662→Ala mutation that abrogated PER2 phosphorylation significantly reduced its half-life, whereas a phosphomimetic Ser-662→Asp substitution led to an elevation in half-life. Our combined findings provide new insights into PER2 regulation and the biochemical basis of FASPS. PMID:21324900

  11. Charge environments around phosphorylation sites in proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, James; Saunders, Rebecca E; Warwicker, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background Phosphorylation is a central feature in many biological processes. Structural analyses have identified the importance of charge-charge interactions, for example mediating phosphorylation-driven allosteric change and protein binding to phosphopeptides. Here, we examine computationally the prevalence of charge stabilisation around phosphorylated sites in the structural database, through comparison with locations that are not phosphorylated in the same structures. Results A significant fraction of phosphorylated sites appear to be electrostatically stabilised, largely through interaction with sidechains. Some examples of stabilisation across a subunit interface are evident from calculations with biological units. When considering the immediately surrounding environment, in many cases favourable interactions are only apparent after conformational change that accompanies phosphorylation. A simple calculation of potential interactions at longer-range, applied to non-phosphorylated structures, recovers the separation exhibited by phosphorylated structures. In a study of sites in the Phospho.ELM dataset, for which structural annotation is provided by non-phosphorylated proteins, there is little separation of the known phospho-acceptor sites relative to background, even using the wider interaction radius. However, there are differences in the distributions of patch polarity for acceptor and background sites in the Phospho.ELM dataset. Conclusion In this study, an easy to implement procedure is developed that could contribute to the identification of phospho-acceptor sites associated with charge-charge interactions and conformational change. Since the method gives information about potential anchoring interactions subsequent to phosphorylation, it could be combined with simulations that probe conformational change. Our analysis of the Phospho.ELM dataset also shows evidence for mediation of phosphorylation effects through (i) conformational change associated with

  12. Mining Conditional Phosphorylation Motifs.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqing; Wu, Jun; Gong, Haipeng; Deng, Shengchun; He, Zengyou

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation motifs represent position-specific amino acid patterns around the phosphorylation sites in the set of phosphopeptides. Several algorithms have been proposed to uncover phosphorylation motifs, whereas the problem of efficiently discovering a set of significant motifs with sufficiently high coverage and non-redundancy still remains unsolved. Here we present a novel notion called conditional phosphorylation motifs. Through this new concept, the motifs whose over-expressiveness mainly benefits from its constituting parts can be filtered out effectively. To discover conditional phosphorylation motifs, we propose an algorithm called C-Motif for a non-redundant identification of significant phosphorylation motifs. C-Motif is implemented under the Apriori framework, and it tests the statistical significance together with the frequency of candidate motifs in a single stage. Experiments demonstrate that C-Motif outperforms some current algorithms such as MMFPh and Motif-All in terms of coverage and non-redundancy of the results and efficiency of the execution. The source code of C-Motif is available at: https://sourceforge. net/projects/cmotif/. PMID:26356863

  13. PKA regulates calcineurin function through the phosphorylation of RCAN1: Identification of a novel phosphorylation site

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seon Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Lee, Kooyeon; Jo, Su-Hyun; Seo, Su Ryeon

    2015-04-17

    Calcineurin is a calcium/calmodulin-dependent phosphatase that has been implicated in T cell activation through the induction of nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT). We have previously suggested that endogenous regulator of calcineurin (RCAN1, also known as DSCR1) is targeted by protein kinase A (PKA) for the control of calcineurin activity. In the present study, we characterized the PKA-mediated phosphorylation site in RCAN1 by mass spectrometric analysis and revealed that PKA directly phosphorylated RCAN1 at the Ser 93. PKA-induced phosphorylation and the increase in the half-life of the RCAN1 protein were prevented by the substitution of Ser 93 with Ala (S93A). Furthermore, the PKA-mediated phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 potentiated the inhibition of calcineurin-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression by RCAN1. Our results suggest the presence of a novel phosphorylation site in RCAN1 and that its phosphorylation influences calcineurin-dependent inflammatory target gene expression. - Highlights: • We identify novel phosphorylation sites in RCAN1 by LC-MS/MS analysis. • PKA-dependent phosphorylation of RCAN1 at Ser 93 inhibits calcineurin-mediated intracellular signaling. • We show the immunosuppressive function of RCAN1 phosphorylation at Ser 93 in suppressing cytokine expression.

  14. miR-106b inhibits tau phosphorylation at Tyr18 by targeting Fyn in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Jingya; Lu, Guangxiu

    2016-09-16

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by β-amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the effect of miRNAs on abnormal tau phosphorylation remains largely unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-106b in tau phosphorylation and identified a new molecular mechanism of the hyperphosphorylation of tau. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression level of miR-106b was decreased, but Fyn was increased in the temporal cortex of AD patients. Overexpression of miR-106b inhibited Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation at Tyr18 in SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing tau (SH-SY5Y/tau), whereas no changes were observed in tau phosphorylation at Ser396/404. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay validated that Fyn was a direct target gene of miR-106b. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that Fyn protein expression was suppressed when SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with miR-106b mimics. Endogenous Fyn expression was knockdown by transfection with a small interfering RNA specific for Fyn (si-Fyn). The phosphorylation level of tau at Tyr 18 was decreased in the si-Fyn group compared with the negative control group, but the inhibitory effect of si-Fyn on tau phosphorylation was attenuated when miR-106b expression was inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-106b inhibits Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation at Tyr18 by targeting Fyn. Our findings extend the knowledge about the regulation of tau phosphorylation and the regulatory mechanism of Fyn gene expression.

  15. miR-106b inhibits tau phosphorylation at Tyr18 by targeting Fyn in a model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhao, Jingya; Lu, Guangxiu

    2016-09-16

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by β-amyloid deposits and neurofibrillary tangles consisting of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Increasing evidence has revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of AD. However, the effect of miRNAs on abnormal tau phosphorylation remains largely unclear so far. In this study, we investigated the role of miR-106b in tau phosphorylation and identified a new molecular mechanism of the hyperphosphorylation of tau. The results of qRT-PCR showed that the expression level of miR-106b was decreased, but Fyn was increased in the temporal cortex of AD patients. Overexpression of miR-106b inhibited Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation at Tyr18 in SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing tau (SH-SY5Y/tau), whereas no changes were observed in tau phosphorylation at Ser396/404. Dual-luciferase reporter gene assay validated that Fyn was a direct target gene of miR-106b. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that Fyn protein expression was suppressed when SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with miR-106b mimics. Endogenous Fyn expression was knockdown by transfection with a small interfering RNA specific for Fyn (si-Fyn). The phosphorylation level of tau at Tyr 18 was decreased in the si-Fyn group compared with the negative control group, but the inhibitory effect of si-Fyn on tau phosphorylation was attenuated when miR-106b expression was inhibited. Taken together, these data suggest that miR-106b inhibits Aβ1-42-induced tau phosphorylation at Tyr18 by targeting Fyn. Our findings extend the knowledge about the regulation of tau phosphorylation and the regulatory mechanism of Fyn gene expression. PMID:27520374

  16. Cellular regulation by protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Edmond H

    2013-01-11

    A historical account of the discovery of reversible protein phosphorylation is presented. This process was uncovered in the mid 1950s in a study undertaken with Edwin G. Krebs to elucidate the complex hormonal regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase. Contrary to the known activation of this enzyme by AMP which serves as an allosteric effector, its hormonal regulation results from a phosphorylation of the protein by phosphorylase kinase following the activation of the latter by Ca(2+) and ATP. The study led to the establishment of the first hormonal cascade of successive enzymatic reactions, kinases acting on kinases, initiated by cAMP discovered by Earl Sutherland. It also showed how two different physiological processes, carbohydrate metabolism and muscle contraction, could be regulated in concert.

  17. Phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A Maintains Spindle Pole Integrity during Mitosis.

    PubMed

    Chou, En-Ju; Hung, Liang-Yi; Tang, Chieh-Ju C; Hsu, Wen-Bin; Wu, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Pao-Chi; Tang, Tang K

    2016-03-29

    CPAP is required for centriole elongation during S/G2 phase, but the role of CPAP in mitosis is incompletely understood. Here, we show that CPAP maintains spindle pole integrity through its phosphorylation by Aurora-A during mitosis. Depletion of CPAP induced a prolonged delay in mitosis, pericentriolar material (PCM) dispersion, and multiple mitotic abnormalities. Further studies demonstrated that CPAP directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Aurora-A at serine 467 during mitosis. Interestingly, the dispersal of the PCM was effectively rescued by ectopic expression of wild-type CPAP or a phospho-mimic CPAP-S467D mutant, but not a non-phosphorylated CPAP-S467A mutant. Finally, we found that CPAP-S467D has a low affinity for microtubule binding but a high affinity for PCM proteins. Together, our results support a model wherein CPAP is required for proper mitotic progression, and phosphorylation of CPAP by Aurora-A is essential for maintaining spindle pole integrity.

  18. Phosphorylation of intact erythrocytes in human muscular dystrophy

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.M.; Nigro, M.

    1986-04-01

    The uptake of exogenous /sup 32/Pi into the membrane proteins of intact erythrocytes was measured in 8 patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. No abnormalities were noted after autoradiographic analysis. This contrasts with earlier results obtained when isolated membranes were phosphorylated with gamma-(/sup 32/P)ATP, and suggests a possible reinterpretation of those experiments.

  19. Phosphorylation of human skeletal muscle myosin

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, M.E.; Lingley, M.D.; Stuart, D.S.; Hoffman-Goetz, L.

    1986-03-01

    Phosphorylation of the P-light chains (phosphorylatable light chains) in human skeletal muscle myosin was studied in vitro and in vivo under resting an d contracted conditions. biopsy samples from rested vastus lateralis muscle of male and female subjects were incubated in oxygenated physiological solution at 30/sup 0/C. Samples frozen following a quiescent period showed the presence of only unphosphorylated P-light chains designated LC2f (light chain two of fast myosin) CL2s and LC2s'(light chains two of slow myosin). Treatment with caffeine (10 mM) or direct electrical stimulation resulted in the appearance of three additional bands which were identified as the phosphorylated forms of the P-light chains i.e. LC2f-P, LC2s-P and LC2s'-P. The presence of phosphate was confirmed by prior incubation with (/sup 30/P) orthophosphate. Muscle samples rapidly frozen from resting vastus lateralis muscle revealed the presence of unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P-light chains in approximately equal ratios. Muscle samples rapidly frozen following a maximal 10 second isometric contraction showed virtually only phosphorylated fast and slow P-light chains. These results reveal that the P-light chains in human fast and slow myosin may be rapidly phosphorylated, but the basal level of phosphorylation in rested human muscle considerably exceeds that observed in animal muscles studied in vitro or in situ.

  20. Struvite and prebiotic phosphorylation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, G. J.; Orgel, L. E.

    1973-01-01

    Struvite rather than apatite or amorphous calcium phosphate is precipitated when phosphate is added to seawater containing more than 0.01M NH4+ ions. Struvite may have precipitated from evaporating seawater on the primitive earth, and may have been important for prebiotic phosphorylation.

  1. Calcium regulation of oxidative phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, N I; Ainscow, E K; Brand, M D

    2000-02-24

    Activation of oxidative phosphorylation by physiological levels of calcium in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle was analysed using top-down elasticity and regulation analysis. Oxidative phosphorylation was conceptually divided into three subsystems (substrate oxidation, proton leak and phosphorylation) connected by the membrane potential or the protonmotive force. Calcium directly activated the phosphorylation subsystem and (with sub-saturating 2-oxoglutarate) the substrate oxidation subsystem but had no effect on the proton leak kinetics. The response of mitochondria respiring on 2-oxoglutarate at two physiological concentrations of free calcium was quantified using control and regulation analysis. The partial integrated response coefficients showed that direct stimulation of substrate oxidation contributed 86% of the effect of calcium on state 3 oxygen consumption, and direct activation of the phosphorylation reactions caused 37% of the increase in phosphorylation flux. Calcium directly activated phosphorylation more strongly than substrate oxidation (78% compared to 45%) to achieve homeostasis of mitochondrial membrane potential during large increases in flux.

  2. Multi-site Phosphorylation Regulates Bim Stability and Apoptotic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Anette; Barrett, Tamera; Flavell, Richard A.; Davis, Roger J.

    2008-01-01

    The pro-apoptotic BH3-only protein Bim is established to be an important mediator of signaling pathways that induce cell death. Multi-site phosphorylation of Bim by several members of the MAP kinase group is implicated as a regulatory mechanism that controls the apoptotic activity of Bim. To test the role of Bim phosphorylation in vivo, we constructed mice with a series of mutant alleles that express phosphorylation-defective Bim proteins. We show that mutation of the phosphorylation site Thr-112 causes decreased binding of Bim to the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and can increase cell survival. In contrast, mutation of the phosphorylation sites Ser-55, Ser-65, and Ser-73 can cause increased apoptosis because of reduced proteasomal degradation of Bim. Together, these data indicate that phosphorylation can regulate Bim by multiple mechanisms and that the phosphorylation of Bim on different sites can contribute to the sensitivity of cellular apoptotic responses. PMID:18498746

  3. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited.

    PubMed

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-03-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic explanation for the energy coupling and ATP synthesis carried out in mitochondria and chloroplast thylakoids. The mechanism does not suffer from the flaws in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory that have been pointed out in many studies since its first appearance 50 years ago, when it was hailed as a ground-breaking mechanistic explanation of what is perhaps the most important process in cellular energetics. The new findings fit very well with the predictions of Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis. It is argued that this mechanism, based on at least 15 years of experimental and theoretical work by Sunil Nath, constitutes a fundamentally different theory of the energy conversion process that eliminates all the inconsistencies in Mitchell's chemiosmotic theory pointed out by other authors. It is concluded that the energy-transducing complexes in oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis are proton-dicarboxylic acid anion cotransporters and not simply electrogenic proton translocators. These results necessitate revision of previous theories of biological energy transduction, coupling, and ATP synthesis. The novel molecular mechanism is extended to cover ATP synthesis in prokaryotes, in particular to alkaliphilic and haloalkaliphilic bacteria, essentially making it a complete theory addressing mechanistic, kinetic, and thermodynamic details. Finally, based on the new interpretation of oxidative phosphorylation, quantitative values for the P/O ratio, the amount of ATP generated per redox package of the reduced substrates, are calculated and compared with experimental values for fermentation on different substrates. It is our hope that the presentation of

  4. A strategy to quantitate global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Sroga, Grażyna E; Vashishth, Deepak

    2016-04-15

    Current studies of protein phosphorylation focus primarily on the importance of specific phosphoproteins and their landscapes of phosphorylation in the regulation of different cellular functions. However, global changes in phosphorylation of extracellular matrix phosphoproteins measured "in bulk" are equally important. For example, correct global phosphorylation of different bone matrix proteins is critical to healthy tissue biomineralization. To study changes of bone matrix global phosphorylation, we developed a strategy that combines a procedure for in vitro phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of fully mineralized bone in addition to quantitation of the global phosphorylation levels of bone matrix proteins. For the first time, we show that it is possible to enzymatically phosphorylate/dephosphorylate fully mineralized bone originating from either cadaveric human donors or laboratory animals (mice). Using our strategy, we detected the difference in the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from wild-type and osteopontin knockout mice. We also observed that the global phosphorylation levels of matrix proteins isolated from human cortical bone were lower than those isolated from trabecular bone. The developed strategy has the potential to open new avenues for studies on the global phosphorylation of bone matrix proteins and their role in biomineralization as well for other tissues/cells and protein-based materials.

  5. Phosphorylation state-dependent interaction between AKAP7δ/γ and phospholamban increases phospholamban phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rigatti, Marc; Le, Andrew V.; Gerber, Claire; Moraru, Ion I.; Dodge-Kafka, Kimberly L.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in heart rate and contractility in response to sympathetic stimulation occur via activation of cAMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA), leading to phosphorylation of numerous substrates that alter Ca2+ cycling. Phosphorylation of these substrates is coordinated by A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs), which recruit PKA to specific substrates [1]. Phosphorylation of the PKA substrate phospholamban (PLB) is a critical determinant of Ca2+ re-entry into the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is coordinated by AKAP7δ/γ [2,3]. Here, we further these findings by showing that phosphorylation of PLB requires interaction with AKAP7δ/γ and that this interaction occurs only when PLB is unphosphorylated. Additionally, we find that two mutants of PLB (R9C and Δ14), which are associated with dilated cardiomyopathy in humans, prevent association with AKAP7δ/γ and display reduced phosphorylation in vitro. This finding implicates the AKAP7δ/γ-PLB interaction in the pathology of the disease phenotype. Further exploration of the AKAP7δ/γ-PLB association demonstrated a phosphorylation state-dependence of the interaction. Computational modeling revealed that this mode of interaction allows for small amounts of AKAP and PKA (100–200nM) to regulate the phosphorylation of large quantities of PLB (50µM). Our results confirm that AKAP7γ/δ binding to PLB is important for phosphorylation of PLB, and describe a novel phosphorylation state-dependent binding mechanism that explains how phosphorylation of highly abundant PKA substrates can be regulated by AKAPs present at ~100–200 fold lower concentrations. PMID:26027516

  6. Spirometric abnormalities among welders

    SciTech Connect

    Rastogi, S.K.; Gupta, B.N.; Husain, T.; Mathur, N.; Srivastava, S. )

    1991-10-01

    A group of manual welders age group 13-60 years having a mean exposure period of 12.4 {plus minus} 1.12 years were subjected to spirometry to evaluate the prevalence of spirometric abnormalities. The welders showed a significantly higher prevalence of respiratory impairment than that observed among the unexposed controls as a result of exposure to welding gases which comprised fine particles of lead, zinc, chromium, and manganese. This occurred despite the lower concentration of the pollutants at the work place. In the expose group, the smoking welders showed a prevalence of respiratory impairment significantly higher than that observed in the nonsmoking welders. The results of the pulmonary function tests showed a predominantly restrictive type of pulmonary impairment followed by a mixed ventilatory defect among the welders. The effect of age on pulmonary impairment was not discernible. Welders exposed for over 10 years showed a prevalence of respiratory abnormalities significantly higher than those exposed for less than 10 years. Smoking also had a contributory role.

  7. Evidence that phosphorylation by the mitotic kinase Cdk1 promotes ICER monoubiquitination and nuclear delocalization

    SciTech Connect

    Memin, Elisabeth; Genzale, Megan; Crow, Marni; Molina, Carlos A.

    2011-10-15

    In contrast to normal prostatic cells, the transcriptional repressor Inducible cAMP Early Repressor (ICER) is undetected in the nuclei of prostate cancer cells. The molecular mechanisms for ICER abnormal expression in prostate cancer cells remained largely unknown. In this report data is presented demonstrating that ICER is phosphorylated by the mitotic kinase cdk1. Phosphorylation of ICER on a discrete residue targeted ICER to be monoubiquitinated. Different from unphosphorylated, phosphorylated and polyubiquitinated ICER, monoubiquitinated ICER was found to be cytosolic. Taken together, these results hinted on a mechanism for the observed abnormal subcellular localization of ICER in human prostate tumors.

  8. Systematic Discovery of In Vivo Phosphorylation Networks

    PubMed Central

    Linding, Rune; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Ostheimer, Gerard J.; van Vugt, Marcel A.T.M.; Jørgensen, Claus; Miron, Ioana M.; Diella, Francesca; Colwill, Karen; Taylor, Lorne; Elder, Kelly; Metalnikov, Pavel; Nguyen, Vivian; Pasculescu, Adrian; Jin, Jing; Park, Jin Gyoon; Samson, Leona D.; Woodgett, James R.; Russell, Robert B.; Bork, Peer; Yaffe, Michael B.; Pawson, Tony

    2009-01-01

    Summary Protein kinases control cellular decision processes by phosphorylating specific substrates. Proteome-wide mapping has identified thousands of in vivo phosphorylation sites. However, systematically resolving which kinase targets each site is presently infeasible, due to the limited specificity of consensus motifs and the potential influence of contextual factors, such as protein scaffolds, localisation and expression, on cellular substrate specificity. We have therefore developed a computational method, NetworKIN, that augments motifs with context for kinases and phosphoproteins. This can pinpoint individual kinases responsible for specific in vivo phosphorylation events and yields a 2.5-fold improvement in the accuracy with which phosphorylation networks can be constructed. We show that context provides 60–80% of the computational capability to assign in vivo substrate specificity. Applying this approach to a DNA damage signalling network, we extend its cell-cycle regulation by showing that 53BP1 is a CDK1 substrate, show that Rad50 is phosphorylated by ATM kinase under genotoxic stress, and suggest novel roles of ATM in apoptosis. Finally, we present a scalable strategy to validate our predictions and use it to support the prediction that BCLAF1 is a GSK3 substrate. PMID:17570479

  9. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  10. Mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3 threonine 80

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Sharra L; Byrum, Stephanie D; Namjoshi, Sarita; Graves, Hillary K; Dennehey, Briana K; Tackett, Alan J; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The onset and regulation of mitosis is dependent on phosphorylation of a wide array of proteins. Among the proteins that are phosphorylated during mitosis is histone H3, which is heavily phosphorylated on its N-terminal tail. In addition, large-scale mass spectrometry screens have revealed that histone H3 phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites within its globular domain, yet detailed analyses of the functions of these phosphorylations are lacking. Here, we explore one such histone H3 phosphorylation site, threonine 80 (H3T80), which is located on the nucleosome surface. Phosphorylated H3T80 (H3T80ph) is enriched in metazoan cells undergoing mitosis. Unlike H3S10 and H3S28, H3T80 is not phosphorylated by the Aurora B kinase. Further, mutations of T80 to either glutamic acid, a phosphomimetic, or to alanine, an unmodifiable residue, result in an increase in cells in prophase and an increase in anaphase/telophase bridges, respectively. SILAC-coupled mass spectrometry shows that phosphorylated H3T80 (H3T80ph) preferentially interacts with histones H2A and H4 relative to non-phosphorylated H3T80, and this result is supported by increased binding of H3T80ph to histone octamers in vitro. These findings support a model where H3T80ph, protruding from the nucleosome surface, promotes interactions between adjacent nucleosomes to promote chromatin compaction during mitosis in metazoan cells. PMID:24275038

  11. Mitotic phosphorylation of histone H3 threonine 80.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Sharra L; Byrum, Stephanie D; Namjoshi, Sarita; Graves, Hillary K; Dennehey, Briana K; Tackett, Alan J; Tyler, Jessica K

    2014-01-01

    The onset and regulation of mitosis is dependent on phosphorylation of a wide array of proteins. Among the proteins that are phosphorylated during mitosis is histone H3, which is heavily phosphorylated on its N-terminal tail. In addition, large-scale mass spectrometry screens have revealed that histone H3 phosphorylation can occur at multiple sites within its globular domain, yet detailed analyses of the functions of these phosphorylations are lacking. Here, we explore one such histone H3 phosphorylation site, threonine 80 (H3T80), which is located on the nucleosome surface. Phosphorylated H3T80 (H3T80ph) is enriched in metazoan cells undergoing mitosis. Unlike H3S10 and H3S28, H3T80 is not phosphorylated by the Aurora B kinase. Further, mutations of T80 to either glutamic acid, a phosphomimetic, or to alanine, an unmodifiable residue, result in an increase in cells in prophase and an increase in anaphase/telophase bridges, respectively. SILAC-coupled mass spectrometry shows that phosphorylated H3T80 (H3T80ph) preferentially interacts with histones H2A and H4 relative to non-phosphorylated H3T80, and this result is supported by increased binding of H3T80ph to histone octamers in vitro. These findings support a model where H3T80ph, protruding from the nucleosome surface, promotes interactions between adjacent nucleosomes to promote chromatin compaction during mitosis in metazoan cells.

  12. Tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Yasuoka, Chie; Kageyama, Kan; Wada, Yoshinao; Kondo, Takahito

    2002-09-20

    In mouse pancreatic insulin-producing betaTC cells, oxidative stress due to H(2)O(2) causes tyrosine phosphorylation in various proteins. To identify proteins bearing phosphotyrosine under stress, the proteins were affinity purified using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody-conjugated agarose column. A protein of 180kDa was identified as clathrin heavy chain (CHC) by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitated CHC showed tyrosine phosphorylation upon H(2)O(2) treatment and the phosphorylation was suppressed by the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2. The phosphorylation status of CHC affected the intracellular localization of CHC and the clathrin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin under oxidative stress. In conclusion, CHC is a protein that is phosphorylated at tyrosine by H(2)O(2) and this phosphorylation status is implicated in the intracellular localization and functions of CHC under oxidative stress. The present study demonstrates that oxidative stress affects intracellular vesicular trafficking via the alteration of clathrin-dependent vesicular trafficking.

  13. Phosphorylation modifies the molecular stability of β-amyloid deposits

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Amininasab, Mehriar; Kumar, Sathish; Walter, Jochen; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. A key feature of protein aggregates is their ubiquitous modification by phosphorylation. Little is known, however, about the molecular consequences of phosphorylation of protein aggregates. Here we show that phosphorylation of β-amyloid at serine 8 increases the stability of its pathogenic aggregates against high-pressure and SDS-induced dissociation. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation results in an elevated number of hydrogen bonds at the N terminus of β-amyloid, the region that is critically regulated by a variety of post-translational modifications. Because of the increased lifetime of phosphorylated β-amyloid aggregates, phosphorylation can promote the spreading of β-amyloid in Alzheimer pathogenesis. Our study suggests that regulation of the molecular stability of protein aggregates by post-translational modifications is a crucial factor for disease progression in the brain. PMID:27072999

  14. Phosphorylation modifies the molecular stability of β-amyloid deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Amininasab, Mehriar; Kumar, Sathish; Walter, Jochen; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Protein aggregation plays a crucial role in neurodegenerative diseases. A key feature of protein aggregates is their ubiquitous modification by phosphorylation. Little is known, however, about the molecular consequences of phosphorylation of protein aggregates. Here we show that phosphorylation of β-amyloid at serine 8 increases the stability of its pathogenic aggregates against high-pressure and SDS-induced dissociation. We further demonstrate that phosphorylation results in an elevated number of hydrogen bonds at the N terminus of β-amyloid, the region that is critically regulated by a variety of post-translational modifications. Because of the increased lifetime of phosphorylated β-amyloid aggregates, phosphorylation can promote the spreading of β-amyloid in Alzheimer pathogenesis. Our study suggests that regulation of the molecular stability of protein aggregates by post-translational modifications is a crucial factor for disease progression in the brain.

  15. Motor Domain Phosphorylation Modulates Kinesin-1 Transport*

    PubMed Central

    DeBerg, Hannah A.; Blehm, Benjamin H.; Sheung, Janet; Thompson, Andrew R.; Bookwalter, Carol S.; Torabi, Seyed F.; Schroer, Trina A.; Berger, Christopher L.; Lu, Yi; Trybus, Kathleen M.; Selvin, Paul R.

    2013-01-01

    Disruptions in microtubule motor transport are associated with a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. Post-translational modification of the cargo-binding domain of the light and heavy chains of kinesin has been shown to regulate transport, but less is known about how modifications of the motor domain affect transport. Here we report on the effects of phosphorylation of a mammalian kinesin motor domain by the kinase JNK3 at a conserved serine residue (Ser-175 in the B isoform and Ser-176 in the A and C isoforms). Phosphorylation of this residue has been implicated in Huntington disease, but the mechanism by which Ser-175 phosphorylation affects transport is unclear. The ATPase, microtubule-binding affinity, and processivity are unchanged between a phosphomimetic S175D and a nonphosphorylatable S175A construct. However, we find that application of force differentiates between the two. Placement of negative charge at Ser-175, through phosphorylation or mutation, leads to a lower stall force and decreased velocity under a load of 1 piconewton or greater. Sedimentation velocity experiments also show that addition of a negative charge at Ser-175 favors the autoinhibited conformation of kinesin. These observations imply that when cargo is transported by both dynein and phosphorylated kinesin, a common occurrence in the cell, there may be a bias that favors motion toward the minus-end of microtubules. Such bias could be used to tune transport in healthy cells when properly regulated but contribute to a disease state when misregulated. PMID:24072715

  16. Phosphorylation and actin activation of brain myosin.

    PubMed Central

    Barylko, B; Sobieszek, A

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for obtaining brain myosin that shows significant actin activation, after phosphorylation with chicken gizzard myosin light chain kinase. Myosin with this activity could be obtained only via the initial purification of brain actomyosin. The latter complex, isolated by a method similar to that used for smooth muscle, contained actin, myosin, tropomyosin of the non-muscle type and another actin-binding protein of approximately 100,000 daltons. From the presence of a specific myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase in brain tissue it is suggested that the regulation of actin-myosin interaction operates via phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of myosin. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 3. PMID:11894951

  17. HSP90 inhibition blocks ERBB3 and RET phosphorylation in myxoid/round cell liposarcoma and causes massive cell death in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Setareh; Järnum, Sofia; Vannas, Christoffer; Udhane, Sameer; Jonasson, Emma; Tomic, Tajana Tesan; Grundevik, Pernilla; Fagman, Henrik; Hansson, Magnus; Kalender, Zeynep; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Dolatabadi, Soheila; Stratford, Eva Wessel; Myklebost, Ola; Eriksson, Mikael; Stenman, Göran; Stock, Regine Schneider; Ståhlberg, Anders; Åman, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Myxoid sarcoma (MLS) is one of the most common types of malignant soft tissue tumors. MLS is characterized by the FUS-DDIT3 or EWSR1-DDIT3 fusion oncogenes that encode abnormal transcription factors. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) encoding RET was previously identified as a putative downstream target gene to FUS-DDIT3 and here we show that cultured MLS cells expressed phosphorylated RET together with its ligand Persephin. Treatment with RET specific kinase inhibitor Vandetanib failed to reduce RET phosphorylation and inhibit cell growth, suggesting that other RTKs may phosphorylate RET. A screening pointed out EGFR and ERBB3 as the strongest expressed phosphorylated RTKs in MLS cells. We show that ERBB3 formed nuclear and cytoplasmic complexes with RET and both RTKs were previously reported to form complexes with EGFR. The formation of RTK hetero complexes could explain the observed Vandetanib resistence in MLS. EGFR and ERBB3 are clients of HSP90 that help complex formation and RTK activation. Treatment of cultured MLS cells with HSP90 inhibitor 17-DMAG, caused loss of RET and ERBB3 phosphorylation and lead to rapid cell death. Treatment of MLS xenograft carrying Nude mice resulted in massive necrosis, rupture of capillaries and hemorrhages in tumor tissues. We conclude that complex formation between RET and other RTKs may cause RTK inhibitor resistance. HSP90 inhibitors can overcome this resistance and are thus promising drugs for treatment of MLS/RCLS. PMID:26595521

  18. Matefin/SUN-1 Phosphorylation on Serine 43 Is Mediated by CDK-1 and Required for Its Localization to Centrosomes and Normal Mitosis in C. elegans Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Zuela, Noam; Gruenbaum, Yosef

    2016-01-01

    Matefin/SUN-1 is an evolutionary conserved C. elegans inner nuclear membrane SUN-domain protein. By creating a bridge with the KASH-domain protein ZYG-12, it connects the nucleus to cytoplasmic filaments and organelles. Matefin/SUN-1 is expressed in the germline where it undergoes specific phosphorylation at its N-terminal domain, which is required for germline development and homologous chromosome pairing. The maternally deposited matefin/SUN-1 is then essential for embryonic development. Here, we show that in embryos, serine 43 of matefin/SUN-1 (S43) is phosphorylated in a CDK-1 dependent manner and is localized throughout the cell cycle mostly to centrosomes. By generating animals expressing phosphodead S43A and phosphomimetic S43E mutations, we show that phosphorylation of S43 is required to maintain centrosome integrity and function, as well as for the localization of ZYG-12 and lamin. Expression of S43E in early embryos also leads to an increase in chromatin structural changes, decreased progeny and to almost complete embryonic lethality. Down regulation of emerin further increases the occurrence of chromatin organization abnormalities, indicating possible collaborative roles for these proteins that is regulated by S43 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results support a role for phosphorylation of serine 43 in matefin/SUN-1 in mitosis. PMID:26927181

  19. Protein phosphorylation in stomatal movement

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tong; Chen, Sixue; Harmon, Alice C

    2014-01-01

    As research progresses on how guard cells perceive and transduce environmental cues to regulate stomatal movement, plant biologists are discovering key roles of protein phosphorylation. Early research efforts focused on characterization of ion channels and transporters in guard cell hormonal signaling. Subsequent genetic studies identified mutants of kinases and phosphatases that are defective in regulating guard cell ion channel activities, and recently proteins regulated by phosphorylation have been identified. Here we review the essential role of protein phosphorylation in ABA-induced stomatal closure and in blue light-induced stomatal opening. We also highlight evidence for the cross-talk between different pathways, which is mediated by protein phosphorylation. PMID:25482764

  20. Evolutionary constraints of phosphorylation in eukaryotes, prokaryotes, and mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Gnad, Florian; Forner, Francesca; Zielinska, Dorota F; Birney, Ewan; Gunawardena, Jeremy; Mann, Matthias

    2010-12-01

    High accuracy mass spectrometry has proven to be a powerful technology for the large scale identification of serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation in the living cell. However, despite many described phosphoproteomes, there has been no comparative study of the extent of phosphorylation and its evolutionary conservation in all domains of life. Here we analyze the results of phosphoproteomics studies performed with the same technology in a diverse set of organisms. For the most ancient organisms, the prokaryotes, only a few hundred proteins have been found to be phosphorylated. Applying the same technology to eukaryotic species resulted in the detection of thousands of phosphorylation events. Evolutionary analysis shows that prokaryotic phosphoproteins are preferentially conserved in all living organisms, whereas-site specific phosphorylation is not. Eukaryotic phosphosites are generally more conserved than their non-phosphorylated counterparts (with similar structural constraints) throughout the eukaryotic domain. Yeast and Caenorhabditis elegans are two exceptions, indicating that the majority of phosphorylation events evolved after the divergence of higher eukaryotes from yeast and reflecting the unusually large number of nematode-specific kinases. Mitochondria present an interesting intermediate link between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic domains. Applying the same technology to this organelle yielded 174 phosphorylation sites mapped to 74 proteins. Thus, the mitochondrial phosphoproteome is similarly sparse as the prokaryotic phosphoproteomes. As expected from the endosymbiotic theory, phosphorylated as well as non-phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins are significantly conserved in prokaryotes. However, mitochondrial phosphorylation sites are not conserved throughout prokaryotes, consistent with the notion that serine/threonine phosphorylation in prokaryotes occurred relatively recently in evolution. Thus, the phosphoproteome reflects major events in the

  1. Constitutive phosphorylation of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chang, Audrey N; Battiprolu, Pavan K; Cowley, Patrick M; Chen, Guohua; Gerard, Robert D; Pinto, Jose R; Hill, Joseph A; Baker, Anthony J; Kamm, Kristine E; Stull, James T

    2015-04-24

    In beating hearts, phosphorylation of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) at a single site to 0.45 mol of phosphate/mol by cardiac myosin light chain kinase (cMLCK) increases Ca(2+) sensitivity of myofilament contraction necessary for normal cardiac performance. Reduction of RLC phosphorylation in conditional cMLCK knock-out mice caused cardiac dilation and loss of cardiac performance by 1 week, as shown by increased left ventricular internal diameter at end-diastole and decreased fractional shortening. Decreased RLC phosphorylation by conventional or conditional cMLCK gene ablation did not affect troponin-I or myosin-binding protein-C phosphorylation in vivo. The extent of RLC phosphorylation was not changed by prolonged infusion of dobutamine or treatment with a β-adrenergic antagonist, suggesting that RLC is constitutively phosphorylated to maintain cardiac performance. Biochemical studies with myofilaments showed that RLC phosphorylation up to 90% was a random process. RLC is slowly dephosphorylated in both noncontracting hearts and isolated cardiac myocytes from adult mice. Electrically paced ventricular trabeculae restored RLC phosphorylation, which was increased to 0.91 mol of phosphate/mol of RLC with inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). The two RLCs in each myosin appear to be readily available for phosphorylation by a soluble cMLCK, but MLCP activity limits the amount of constitutive RLC phosphorylation. MLCP with its regulatory subunit MYPT2 bound tightly to myofilaments was constitutively phosphorylated in beating hearts at a site that inhibits MLCP activity. Thus, the constitutive RLC phosphorylation is limited physiologically by low cMLCK activity in balance with low MLCP activity.

  2. Motexafin gadolinium modulates levels of phosphorylated Akt and synergizes with inhibitors of Akt phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Jason; Sirisawad, Mint; Miller, Richard; Naumovski, Louie

    2006-05-01

    Motexafin gadolinium (MGd, Xcytrin) is a tumor-selective expanded porphyrin that targets oxidative stress-related proteins. MGd treatment of the follicular lymphoma-derived cell line HF-1 resulted in growth suppression and apoptosis whereas MGd treatment of the Burkitt's lymphoma-derived cell line Ramos resulted in growth suppression but not apoptosis. Because phosphorylation status of Akt/protein kinase B is regulated by oxidative stress, we monitored total and phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) in MGd-treated HF-1 and Ramos cells. Levels of pAkt increased within 30 minutes after MGd treatment of HF-1 but after 4 hours began to show a progressive decline to below baseline levels before cells underwent apoptosis. In MGd-treated Ramos cells, pAkt increased approximately 2-fold within 4 hours and remained persistently elevated. Because pAkt activates survival pathways, we determined if MGd-induced cell death could be enhanced by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt. The addition of specific inhibitors of Akt phosphorylation (Akt inhibitor 1 or SH-5) reduced pAkt levels in MGd-treated HF-1 and Ramos cells and synergistically enhanced MGd-induced cell death. MGd was also evaluated in combination with celecoxib, an inhibitor of Akt phosphorylation, or docetaxel, a microtubule inhibitor that can decrease Akt phosphorylation. The combination of MGd/celecoxib or MGd/docetaxel resulted in decreased Akt phosphorylation and in synergistic cytotoxicity compared with either agent alone. These data point to a potential protective role for pAkt in MGd-induced apoptosis and suggest that MGd activity may be enhanced by combining it with agents that inhibit Akt phosphorylation.

  3. The self-assembly ability of First microtubule-binding repeat from tau and its modulation by phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Lianxiu; Zeng Zhiyang; Du Jintang; Zhao Yufen; Li Yanmei . E-mail: liym@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2006-09-22

    Aggregation of abnormally phosphorylated tau in the form of tangs of paired helical filaments (PHFs) is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. It is of fundamental importance to study the mechanism of PHF formation and its modulation by phosphorylation. In this work, we have focused on First microtubule-binding repeat of tau encompassing an abnormal phosphorylation site Ser{sup 262}. The assembly propensities of this repeat and its corresponding phosphorylated form were investigated by turbidity and electron microscopy. Additionally, conformation of the two peptides is also analyzed through circular dichroism (CD) and NMR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that both of them are capable of self-assembly and phosphorylation at Ser{sup 262} could speed up the process of assembly. A possible mechanism of PHF formation is proposed and enhancing effect of phosphorylation on assembly provides an explanation to its toxicity in Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Tooth - abnormal shape

    MedlinePlus

    Hutchinson incisors; Abnormal tooth shape; Peg teeth; Mulberry teeth; Conical teeth ... The appearance of normal teeth varies, especially the molars. ... conditions. Specific diseases can affect tooth shape, tooth ...

  5. Abnormal Selective Attention Normalizes P3 Amplitudes in PDD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoeksma, Marco R.; Kemner, Chantal; Kenemans, J. Leon; van Engeland, Herman

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied whether abnormal P3 amplitudes in PDD are a corollary of abnormalities in ERP components related to selective attention in visual and auditory tasks. Furthermore, this study sought to clarify possible age differences in such abnormalities. Children with PDD showed smaller P3 amplitudes than controls, but no abnormalities in…

  6. Epitope mapping and structural basis for the recognition of phosphorylated tau by the anti‐tau antibody AT8

    PubMed Central

    Teplyakov, Alexey; Ernst, Robin; Wu, Sheng‐Jiun; Lacy, Eilyn R.; Liu, Xuesong; Vandermeeren, Marc; Mercken, Marc; Luo, Jinquan; Sweet, Raymond W.; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microtubule‐associated protein tau becomes abnormally phosphorylated in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies and forms aggregates of paired helical filaments (PHF‐tau). AT8 is a PHF‐tau‐specific monoclonal antibody that is a commonly used marker of neuropathology because of its recognition of abnormally phosphorylated tau. Previous reports described the AT8 epitope to include pS202/pT205. Our studies support and extend previous findings by also identifying pS208 as part of the binding epitope. We characterized the phosphoepitope of AT8 through both peptide binding studies and costructures with phosphopeptides. From the cocrystal structure of AT8 Fab with the diphosphorylated (pS202/pT205) peptide, it appeared that an additional phosphorylation at S208 would also be accommodated by AT8. Phosphopeptide binding studies showed that AT8 bound to the triply phosphorylated tau peptide (pS202/pT205/pS208) 30‐fold stronger than to the pS202/pT205 peptide, supporting the role of pS208 in AT8 recognition. We also show that the binding kinetics of the triply phosphorylated peptide pS202/pT205/pS208 was remarkably similar to that of PHF‐tau. The costructure of AT8 Fab with a pS202/pT205/pS208 peptide shows that the interaction interface involves all six CDRs and tau residues 202–209. All three phosphorylation sites are recognized by AT8, with pT205 acting as the anchor. Crystallization of the Fab/peptide complex under acidic conditions shows that CDR‐L2 is prone to unfolding and precludes peptide binding, and may suggest a general instability in the antibody. Proteins 2016; 84:427–434. © 2016 The Authors. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Bioinformatics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26800003

  7. Structurally abnormal human autosomes

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 25, discusses structurally abnormal human autosomes. This discussion includes: structurally abnormal chromosomes, chromosomal polymorphisms, pericentric inversions, paracentric inversions, deletions or partial monosomies, cri du chat (cat cry) syndrome, ring chromosomes, insertions, duplication or pure partial trisomy and mosaicism. 71 refs., 8 figs.

  8. PSEA: Kinase-specific prediction and analysis of human phosphorylation substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding; Shi, Shao-Ping; Chen, Xiang; Liang, Ru-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalysed by kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in intracellular signal transduction. With the increasing number of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites and disease-related phosphorylation substrates that have been identified, the desire to explore the regulatory relationship between protein kinases and disease-related phosphorylation substrates is motivated. In this work, we analysed the kinases' characteristic of all disease-related phosphorylation substrates by using our developed Phosphorylation Set Enrichment Analysis (PSEA) method. We evaluated the efficiency of our method with independent test and concluded that our approach is reliable for identifying kinases responsible for phosphorylated substrates. In addition, we found that Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) families are more associated with abnormal phosphorylation. It can be anticipated that our method might be helpful to identify the mechanism of phosphorylation and the relationship between kinase and phosphorylation related diseases. A user-friendly web interface is now freely available at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PKPred_Home.aspx.

  9. PSEA: Kinase-specific prediction and analysis of human phosphorylation substrates.

    PubMed

    Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding; Shi, Shao-Ping; Chen, Xiang; Liang, Ru-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalysed by kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in intracellular signal transduction. With the increasing number of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites and disease-related phosphorylation substrates that have been identified, the desire to explore the regulatory relationship between protein kinases and disease-related phosphorylation substrates is motivated. In this work, we analysed the kinases' characteristic of all disease-related phosphorylation substrates by using our developed Phosphorylation Set Enrichment Analysis (PSEA) method. We evaluated the efficiency of our method with independent test and concluded that our approach is reliable for identifying kinases responsible for phosphorylated substrates. In addition, we found that Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) families are more associated with abnormal phosphorylation. It can be anticipated that our method might be helpful to identify the mechanism of phosphorylation and the relationship between kinase and phosphorylation related diseases. A user-friendly web interface is now freely available at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PKPred_Home.aspx. PMID:24681538

  10. PSEA: Kinase-specific prediction and analysis of human phosphorylation substrates

    PubMed Central

    Suo, Sheng-Bao; Qiu, Jian-Ding; Shi, Shao-Ping; Chen, Xiang; Liang, Ru-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation catalysed by kinases plays crucial regulatory roles in intracellular signal transduction. With the increasing number of kinase-specific phosphorylation sites and disease-related phosphorylation substrates that have been identified, the desire to explore the regulatory relationship between protein kinases and disease-related phosphorylation substrates is motivated. In this work, we analysed the kinases' characteristic of all disease-related phosphorylation substrates by using our developed Phosphorylation Set Enrichment Analysis (PSEA) method. We evaluated the efficiency of our method with independent test and concluded that our approach is reliable for identifying kinases responsible for phosphorylated substrates. In addition, we found that Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK) families are more associated with abnormal phosphorylation. It can be anticipated that our method might be helpful to identify the mechanism of phosphorylation and the relationship between kinase and phosphorylation related diseases. A user-friendly web interface is now freely available at http://bioinfo.ncu.edu.cn/PKPred_Home.aspx. PMID:24681538

  11. Stat5a serine phosphorylation. Serine 779 is constitutively phosphorylated in the mammary gland, and serine 725 phosphorylation influences prolactin-stimulated in vitro DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Beuvink, I; Hess, D; Flotow, H; Hofsteenge, J; Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    2000-04-01

    The activity of transcription factors of the Stat family is controlled by phosphorylation of a conserved, carboxyl-terminal tyrosine residue. Tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for Stat dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation of Stats on specific serine residues has also been described. We have previously shown that in HC11 mammary epithelial cells Stat5a is phosphorylated on Tyr(694) in a prolactin-sensitive manner, whereas serine phosphorylation is constitutive (Wartmann, M., Cella, N., Hofer, P., Groner, B., Xiuwen, L., Hennighausen, L., and Hynes, N. E. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31863-31868). By using mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis, we have now identified Ser(779), located in a unique Stat5a SP motif, as the site of serine phosphorylation. By using phospho-Ser(779)-specific antiserum, we have determined that Ser(779) is constitutively phosphorylated in mammary glands taken from different developmental stages. Stat5a isolated from spleen, heart, brain, and lung was also found to be phosphorylated on Ser(779). Ser(725) in Stat5a has also been identified as a phosphorylation site (Yamashita, H., Xu, J., Erwin, R. A., Farrar, W. L., Kirken, R. A., and Rui, H. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 30218-30224). Here we show that mutagenesis of Ser(725), Ser(779), or a combination of Ser(725/779) to an Ala had no effect on prolactin-induced transcriptional activation of a beta-casein reporter construct. However, following prolactin induction the Ser(725) mutant displayed sustained DNA binding activity compared with that of wild type Stat5a. The results suggest that Ser(725) phosphorylation has an impact on signal duration. PMID:10744710

  12. Stat5a serine phosphorylation. Serine 779 is constitutively phosphorylated in the mammary gland, and serine 725 phosphorylation influences prolactin-stimulated in vitro DNA binding activity.

    PubMed

    Beuvink, I; Hess, D; Flotow, H; Hofsteenge, J; Groner, B; Hynes, N E

    2000-04-01

    The activity of transcription factors of the Stat family is controlled by phosphorylation of a conserved, carboxyl-terminal tyrosine residue. Tyrosine phosphorylation is essential for Stat dimerization, nuclear translocation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activation. Phosphorylation of Stats on specific serine residues has also been described. We have previously shown that in HC11 mammary epithelial cells Stat5a is phosphorylated on Tyr(694) in a prolactin-sensitive manner, whereas serine phosphorylation is constitutive (Wartmann, M., Cella, N., Hofer, P., Groner, B., Xiuwen, L., Hennighausen, L., and Hynes, N. E. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 31863-31868). By using mass spectrometry and site-directed mutagenesis, we have now identified Ser(779), located in a unique Stat5a SP motif, as the site of serine phosphorylation. By using phospho-Ser(779)-specific antiserum, we have determined that Ser(779) is constitutively phosphorylated in mammary glands taken from different developmental stages. Stat5a isolated from spleen, heart, brain, and lung was also found to be phosphorylated on Ser(779). Ser(725) in Stat5a has also been identified as a phosphorylation site (Yamashita, H., Xu, J., Erwin, R. A., Farrar, W. L., Kirken, R. A., and Rui, H. (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 30218-30224). Here we show that mutagenesis of Ser(725), Ser(779), or a combination of Ser(725/779) to an Ala had no effect on prolactin-induced transcriptional activation of a beta-casein reporter construct. However, following prolactin induction the Ser(725) mutant displayed sustained DNA binding activity compared with that of wild type Stat5a. The results suggest that Ser(725) phosphorylation has an impact on signal duration.

  13. Morphological abnormalities among lampreys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manion, Patrick J.

    1967-01-01

    The experimental control of the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) in the Great Lakes has required the collection of thousands of lampreys. Representatives of each life stage of the four species of the Lake Superior basin were examined for structural abnormalities. The most common aberration was the presence of additional tails. The accessory tails were always postanal and smaller than the normal tail. The point of origin varied; the extra tails occurred on dorsal, ventral, or lateral surfaces. Some of the extra tails were misshaped and curled, but others were normal in shape and pigment pattern. Other abnormalities in larval sea lampreys were malformed or twisted tails and bodies. The cause of the structural abnormalities is unknown. The presence of extra caudal fins could be genetically controlled, or be due to partial amputation or injury followed by abnormal regeneration. Few if any lampreys with structural abnormalities live to sexual maturity.

  14. Phosphorylation Regulates Functions of ZEB1 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Llorens, M Candelaria; Lorenzatti, Guadalupe; Cavallo, Natalia L; Vaglienti, Maria V; Perrone, Ana P; Carenbauer, Anne L; Darling, Douglas S; Cabanillas, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    ZEB1 transcription factor is important in both development and disease, including many TGFβ-induced responses, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by which many tumors undergo metastasis. ZEB1 is differentially phosphorylated in different cell types; however the role of phosphorylation in ZEB1 activity is unknown. Luciferase reporter studies and electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) show that a decrease in phosphorylation of ZEB1 increases both DNA-binding and transcriptional repression of ZEB1 target genes. Functional analysis of ZEB1 phosphorylation site mutants near the second zinc finger domain (termed ZD2) show that increased phosphorylation (due to either PMA plus ionomycin, or IGF-1) can inhibit transcriptional repression by either a ZEB1-ZD2 domain clone, or full-length ZEB1. This approach identifies phosphosites that have a substantial effect regulating the transcriptional and DNA-binding activity of ZEB1. Immunoprecipitation with anti-ZEB1 antibodies followed by western analysis with a phospho-Threonine-Proline-specific antibody indicates that the ERK consensus site at Thr-867 is phosphorylated in ZEB1. In addition to disrupting in vitro DNA-binding measured by EMSA, IGF-1-induced MEK/ERK phosphorylation is sufficient to disrupt nuclear localization of GFP-ZEB1 fusion clones. These data suggest that phosphorylation of ZEB1 integrates TGFβ signaling with other signaling pathways such as IGF-1. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2205-2217, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26868487

  15. Phosphorylation Regulates Functions of ZEB1 Transcription Factor.

    PubMed

    Llorens, M Candelaria; Lorenzatti, Guadalupe; Cavallo, Natalia L; Vaglienti, Maria V; Perrone, Ana P; Carenbauer, Anne L; Darling, Douglas S; Cabanillas, Ana M

    2016-10-01

    ZEB1 transcription factor is important in both development and disease, including many TGFβ-induced responses, and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by which many tumors undergo metastasis. ZEB1 is differentially phosphorylated in different cell types; however the role of phosphorylation in ZEB1 activity is unknown. Luciferase reporter studies and electrophoresis mobility shift assays (EMSA) show that a decrease in phosphorylation of ZEB1 increases both DNA-binding and transcriptional repression of ZEB1 target genes. Functional analysis of ZEB1 phosphorylation site mutants near the second zinc finger domain (termed ZD2) show that increased phosphorylation (due to either PMA plus ionomycin, or IGF-1) can inhibit transcriptional repression by either a ZEB1-ZD2 domain clone, or full-length ZEB1. This approach identifies phosphosites that have a substantial effect regulating the transcriptional and DNA-binding activity of ZEB1. Immunoprecipitation with anti-ZEB1 antibodies followed by western analysis with a phospho-Threonine-Proline-specific antibody indicates that the ERK consensus site at Thr-867 is phosphorylated in ZEB1. In addition to disrupting in vitro DNA-binding measured by EMSA, IGF-1-induced MEK/ERK phosphorylation is sufficient to disrupt nuclear localization of GFP-ZEB1 fusion clones. These data suggest that phosphorylation of ZEB1 integrates TGFβ signaling with other signaling pathways such as IGF-1. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2205-2217, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Protein Synthesis Initiation Factors: Phosphorylation and Regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Karen S. Browning

    2009-06-15

    The initiation of the synthesis of proteins is a fundamental process shared by all living organisms. Each organism has both shared and unique mechanisms for regulation of this vital process. Higher plants provide for a major amount of fixation of carbon from the environment and turn this carbon into food and fuel sources for our use. However, we have very little understanding of how plants regulate the synthesis of the proteins necessary for these metabolic processes. The research carried out during the grant period sought to address some of these unknowns in the regulation of protein synthesis initiation. Our first goal was to determine if phosphorylation plays a significant role in plant initiation of protein synthesis. The role of phosphorylation, although well documented in mammalian protein synthesis regulation, is not well studied in plants. We showed that several of the factors necessary for the initiation of protein synthesis were targets of plant casein kinase and showed differential phosphorylation by the plant specific isoforms of this kinase. In addition, we identified and confirmed the phosphorylation sites in five of the plant initiation factors. Further, we showed that phosphorylation of one of these factors, eIF5, affected the ability of the factor to participate in the initiation process. Our second goal was to develop a method to make initiation factor 3 (eIF3) using recombinant methods. To date, we successfully cloned and expressed 13/13 subunits of wheat eIF3 in E. coli using de novo gene construction methods. The final step in this process is to place the subunits into three different plasmid operons for co-expression. Successful completion of expression of eIF3 will be an invaluable tool to the plant translation community.

  17. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  18. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Jennings, J C

    1995-11-01

    Physicians who care for female patients cannot avoid the frequent complaint of abnormal uterine bleeding. Knowledge of the disorders that cause this problem can prevent serious consequences in many patients and improve the quality of life for many others. The availability of noninvasive and minimally invasive diagnostic studies and minimally invasive surgical treatment has revolutionized management of abnormal uterine bleeding. Similar to any other disorder, the extent to which a physician manages abnormal uterine bleeding depends on his or her own level of comfort. When limitations of either diagnostic or therapeutic capability are encountered, consultation and referral should be used to the best interest of patients.

  19. Synaptic Activation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Occurs Locally in Activated Dendritic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6)…

  20. "Jeopardy" in Abnormal Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keutzer, Carolin S.

    1993-01-01

    Describes the use of the board game, Jeopardy, in a college level abnormal psychology course. Finds increased student interaction and improved application of information. Reports generally favorable student evaluation of the technique. (CFR)

  1. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abnormal uterine bleeding is any bleeding from the uterus (through your vagina) other than your normal monthly ... or fibroids (small and large growths) in the uterus can also cause bleeding. Rarely, a thyroid problem, ...

  2. Abnormal Uterine Bleeding FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... as cancer of the uterus, cervix, or vagina • Polycystic ovary syndrome How is abnormal bleeding diagnosed? Your health care ... before the fetus can survive outside the uterus. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A condition characterized by two of the following ...

  3. Phosphorylation of FEZ1 by Microtubule Affinity Regulating Kinases regulates its function in presynaptic protein trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Butkevich, Eugenia; Härtig, Wolfgang; Nikolov, Miroslav; Erck, Christian; Grosche, Jens; Urlaub, Henning; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Klopfenstein, Dieter R.; Chua, John Jia En

    2016-01-01

    Adapters bind motor proteins to cargoes and therefore play essential roles in Kinesin-1 mediated intracellular transport. The regulatory mechanisms governing adapter functions and the spectrum of cargoes recognized by individual adapters remain poorly defined. Here, we show that cargoes transported by the Kinesin-1 adapter FEZ1 are enriched for presynaptic components and identify that specific phosphorylation of FEZ1 at its serine 58 regulatory site is mediated by microtubule affinity-regulating kinases (MARK/PAR-1). Loss of MARK/PAR-1 impairs axonal transport, with adapter and cargo abnormally co-aggregating in neuronal cell bodies and axons. Presynaptic specializations are markedly reduced and distorted in FEZ1 and MARK/PAR-1 mutants. Strikingly, abnormal co-aggregates of unphosphorylated FEZ1, Kinesin-1 and its putative cargoes are present in brains of transgenic mice modelling aspects of Alzheimer’s disease, a neurodegenerative disorder exhibiting impaired axonal transport and altered MARK activity. Our findings suggest that perturbed FEZ1-mediated synaptic delivery of proteins arising from abnormal signalling potentially contributes to the process of neurodegeneration. PMID:27247180

  4. Oxidative and Photosynthetic Phosphorylation Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jui H.

    1970-01-01

    Proposes a molecular mechanism for the coupling of phosphorylation to electron transport in both mitochondria and chloroplasts. Justifies the proposed reaction schemes in terms of thermodynamics and biochemical data. Suggests how areobic respiration could have evolved. (EB)

  5. Phosphorylation of Ser78 of Hsp27 correlated with HER-2/neu status and lymph node positivity in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Daohai; Wong, Lee Lee; Koay, Evelyn SC

    2007-01-01

    Background Abnormal amplification/expression of HER-2/neu oncogene has been causally linked with tumorigenesis and metastasis in breast cancer and associated with shortened overall survival of patients. Recently, heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) was reported to be highly expressed in HER-2/neu positive tumors and cell lines. However, putative functional links between phosphorylation of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu status and other clinicopathological features remain to be elucidated. Results Comparative phosphoproteomic studies of HER-2/neu positive and -negative breast tumors revealed that Hsp27, one of the identified phosphoproteins, was highly phosphorylated in HER-2/neu positive tumors. The extent of Hsp27 phosphorylation at its Ser15, Ser78 and Ser82 residues were further evaluated with site-specific antibodies in tumor samples by tissue lysate array- and tissue microarray-based analyses, and in the BT474 breast cancer cell line treated with heregulin α1 (HRG α1) or the p38 MAPK inhibitor, SB203580. The tissue lysate array study indicated that only the level of pSer78 in HER-2/neu positive tumors was more than 2-fold that in HER-2/neu negative tumors. Treatment of BT474 cells with HRG α1 and SB203580 indicated that Ser78 phosphorylation was mainly regulated by the HER-2/neu-p38 MAPK pathway. Immunohistochemical staining of sections from a tissue microarray with 97 breast tumors showed that positive staining of pSer78 significantly correlated with HER-2/neu (p = 0.004) and lymph node positivity (p = 0.026). Conclusion This investigation demonstrated the significant correlation of enhanced phosphorylation of the Ser78 residue of Hsp27 with HER-2/neu and lymph node positivity in breast cancer. PMID:17697330

  6. Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis by regulating functional connections between caveolin-1 phosphorylation and ROS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li-na; Liu, Xiang-chun; Chen, Xiang-jun; Guan, Guang-ju; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Caveolin-1 (cav-1) is a major multifunctional scaffolding protein of caveolae. Cav-1 is primarily expressed in mesangial cells, renal proximal tubule cells and podocytes in kidneys. Recent evidence shows that the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS play a key role in many diseases. In this study we investigated whether regulating the functional connections between cav-1 and ROS in kidneys contributed to the beneficial effects of curcumin in treating diabetic nephropathy in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Cultured mouse podocytes (mpc5) were incubated in a high glucose (HG, 30 mmol/L) medium for 24, 48 or 72 h. Male rats were injected with STZ (60 mg/kg, ip) to induce diabetes. ROS generation, SOD activity, MDA content and caspase-3 activity in the cultured cells and kidney cortex homogenate were determined. Apoptotic proteins and cav-1 phosphorylation were analyzed using Western blot analyses. Results: Incubation in HG-containing medium time-dependently increased ROS production, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and cav-1 phosphorylation in podocytes. Pretreatment with curcumin (1, 5, and 10 μmol/L) dose-dependently attenuated these abnormalities in HG-treated podocytes. Furthermore, in HG-containing medium, the podocytes transfected with a recombinant plasmid GFP-cav-1 Y14F (mutation at a cav-1 phosphorylation site) exhibited significantly decreased ROS production and apoptosis compared with the cells transfected with empty vector. In diabetic rats, administration of curcumin (100 or 200 mg/kg body weight per day, ig, for 8 weeks) not only significantly improved the renal function, but also suppressed ROS levels, oxidative stress, apoptosis and cav-1 phosphorylation in the kidneys. Conclusion: Curcumin attenuates high glucose-induced podocyte apoptosis in vitro and diabetic nephropathy in vivo partly through regulating the functional connections between cav-1 phosphorylation and ROS. PMID:26838071

  7. Tau overexpression in transgenic mice induces glycogen synthase kinase 3beta and beta-catenin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Shim, S B; Lim, H J; Chae, K R; Kim, C K; Hwang, D Y; Jee, S W; Lee, S H; Sin, J S; Leem, Y H; Lee, S H; Cho, J S; Lee, H H; Choi, S Y; Kim, Y K

    2007-05-11

    The abnormal phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin have been shown to perform a crucial function in the neuropathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The primary objective of the current study was to determine the manner in which overexpressed htau23 interacts and regulates the behavior and phosphorylation characteristics of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin. In order to accomplish this, transgenic mice expressing neuron-specific enolase (NSE)-controlled human wild-type tau (NSE/htau23) were created. Transgenic mice evidenced the following: (i) tendency toward memory impairments at later stages, (ii) dramatic overexpression of the tau transgene, coupled with increased tau phosphorylation and paired helical filaments (PHFs), (iii) high levels of GSK3beta phosphorylation with advanced age, resulting in increases in the phosphorylations of tau and beta-catenin, (iv) an inhibitory effect of lithium on the phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin, but not in the non-transgenic littermate group. Therefore, the overexpression of NSE/htau23 in the brains of transgenic mice induces abnormal phosphorylations of tau, GSK3beta, and beta-catenin, which are ultimately linked to neuronal degeneration in cases of AD. These transgenic mice are expected to prove useful for the development of new drugs for the treatment of AD.

  8. Mapping of Stat3 serine phosphorylation to a single residue (727) and evidence that serine phosphorylation has no influence on DNA binding of Stat1 and Stat3.

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Z; Darnell, J E

    1997-01-01

    During their polypeptide ligand-induced activation Stats (signaltransducers andactivators oftranscription) 1 and 3 acquire, in addition to an obligatory tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphorylation on serine which boosts their transactivating potential [Wen, Z., Zhong, Z. and Darnell, J. E. Jr. (1995) Cell 82, 241-250]. By examining phosphopeptide maps of wild-type and mutant protein we show here that the Stat3 serine phosphorylation, like the Stat1 serine phosphorylation, occurs on a single residue, serine 727. Neither the DNA binding of Stat1 nor Stat3 is demonstrably affected by the presence or absence of the serine phosphorylation. Thus the earlier demonstration that transcription is enhanced by the presence of the serine 727 residue likely occurs after DNA binding. These findings do not agree with earlier claims of excess serine to tyrosine phosphorylation in activated Stats 1 and 3 or to claims of more stable DNA binding of serine phosphorylated Stat dimers. PMID:9153303

  9. COMPARTMENTALIZED PHOSPHORYLATION OF IAP BY PROTEIN KINASE A REGULATES CYTOPROTECTION

    PubMed Central

    Dohi, Takehiko; Xia, Fang; Altieri, Dario C.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell death pathways are likely regulated in specialized subcellular microdomains, but how this occurs is not understood. Here, we show that cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates the Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) protein survivin on Ser20 in the cytosol, but not in mitochondria. This phosphorylation event disrupts the binding interface between survivin and its antiapoptotic cofactor, XIAP. Conversely, mitochondrial survivin or a non-PKA phosphorylatable survivin mutant binds XIAP avidly, enhances XIAP stability, synergistically inhibits apoptosis, and accelerates tumor growth, in vivo. Therefore, differential phosphorylation of survivin by PKA in subcellular microdomains regulates tumor cell apoptosis via its interaction with XIAP. PMID:17612487

  10. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation.

    PubMed

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan M F; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul M K

    2015-08-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser(65))--which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)--and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser(65). How Ser(65)-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65)) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser(65) by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), thereby promoting Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser(65) phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser(65). Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser(65) in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65). Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser(65), leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser(65)-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65) interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitin(Phospho-Ser65), which could aid in the development of Parkin

  11. Binding to serine 65-phosphorylated ubiquitin primes Parkin for optimal PINK1-dependent phosphorylation and activation

    PubMed Central

    Kazlauskaite, Agne; Martínez-Torres, R Julio; Wilkie, Scott; Kumar, Atul; Peltier, Julien; Gonzalez, Alba; Johnson, Clare; Zhang, Jinwei; Hope, Anthony G; Peggie, Mark; Trost, Matthias; van Aalten, Daan MF; Alessi, Dario R; Prescott, Alan R; Knebel, Axel; Walden, Helen; Muqit, Miratul MK

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in the mitochondrial protein kinase PINK1 are associated with autosomal recessive Parkinson disease (PD). We and other groups have reported that PINK1 activates Parkin E3 ligase activity both directly via phosphorylation of Parkin serine 65 (Ser65)—which lies within its ubiquitin-like domain (Ubl)—and indirectly through phosphorylation of ubiquitin at Ser65. How Ser65-phosphorylated ubiquitin (ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65) contributes to Parkin activation is currently unknown. Here, we demonstrate that ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 binding to Parkin dramatically increases the rate and stoichiometry of Parkin phosphorylation at Ser65 by PINK1 in vitro. Analysis of the Parkin structure, corroborated by site-directed mutagenesis, shows that the conserved His302 and Lys151 residues play a critical role in binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, thereby promoting Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation and activation of its E3 ligase activity in vitro. Mutation of His302 markedly inhibits Parkin Ser65 phosphorylation at the mitochondria, which is associated with a marked reduction in its E3 ligase activity following mitochondrial depolarisation. We show that the binding of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 to Parkin disrupts the interaction between the Ubl domain and C-terminal region, thereby increasing the accessibility of Parkin Ser65. Finally, purified Parkin maximally phosphorylated at Ser65 in vitro cannot be further activated by the addition of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65. Our results thus suggest that a major role of ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 is to promote PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of Parkin at Ser65, leading to maximal activation of Parkin E3 ligase activity. His302 and Lys151 are likely to line a phospho-Ser65-binding pocket on the surface of Parkin that is critical for the ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65 interaction. This study provides new mechanistic insights into Parkin activation by ubiquitinPhospho-Ser65, which could aid in the development of Parkin activators that mimic the effect of

  12. Unlimited multistability in multisite phosphorylation systems.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Matthew; Gunawardena, Jeremy

    2009-07-01

    Reversible phosphorylation on serine, threonine and tyrosine is the most widely studied posttranslational modification of proteins. The number of phosphorylated sites on a protein (n) shows a significant increase from prokaryotes, with n /= 150 sites. Multisite phosphorylation has many roles and site conservation indicates that increasing numbers of sites cannot be due merely to promiscuous phosphorylation. A substrate with n sites has an exponential number (2(n)) of phospho-forms and individual phospho-forms may have distinct biological effects. The distribution of these phospho-forms and how this distribution is regulated have remained unknown. Here we show that, when kinase and phosphatase act in opposition on a multisite substrate, the system can exhibit distinct stable phospho-form distributions at steady state and that the maximum number of such distributions increases with n. Whereas some stable distributions are focused on a single phospho-form, others are more diffuse, giving the phospho-proteome the potential to behave as a fluid regulatory network able to encode information and flexibly respond to varying demands. Such plasticity may underlie complex information processing in eukaryotic cells and suggests a functional advantage in having many sites. Our results follow from the unusual geometry of the steady-state phospho-form concentrations, which we show to constitute a rational algebraic curve, irrespective of n. We thereby reduce the complexity of calculating steady states from simulating 3 x 2(n) differential equations to solving two algebraic equations, while treating parameters symbolically. We anticipate that these methods can be extended to systems with multiple substrates and multiple enzymes catalysing different modifications, as found in posttranslational modification 'codes' such as the histone code. Whereas simulations struggle with exponentially increasing molecular complexity

  13. P44, the 'longevity-assurance' isoform of P53, regulates tau phosphorylation and is activated in an age-dependent fashion.

    PubMed

    Pehar, Mariana; Ko, Mi Hee; Li, Mi; Scrable, Heidi; Puglielli, Luigi

    2014-06-01

    p44 is a short isoform of p53 with 'longevity-assurance' activity. Overexpression of p44 in the mouse (p44(+/+) transgenic mice) causes a progeroid phenotype that mimics an accelerated form of aging. The phenotype includes abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-binding protein tau, synaptic deficits, and cognitive decline. Genetic engineering demonstrated that the phosphorylation status of tau acts upstream of the synaptic deficits. Here, we provide evidence that p44 promotes the phosphorylation of tau in the mouse. Specifically, we show that p44 binds to the promoter of tau kinases Dyrk1A, GSK3β, Cdk5, p35, and p39 and activates their transcription. The upregulation of the above kinases is followed by increased phosphorylation of tau. Finally, we show that p44 is preferentially found in the nucleus and that its levels increase with age in the mouse brain. Taken together, these results suggest that an imbalance in the p53:p44 ratio might be involved with the altered tau metabolism that characterizes aging. PMID:24341977

  14. Phosphorylation Regulating the Ratio of Intracellular CRY1 Protein Determines the Circadian Period

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Zhang, Eric Erquan

    2016-01-01

    The core circadian oscillator in mammals is composed of transcription/translation feedback loop, in which cryptochrome (CRY) proteins play critical roles as repressors of their own gene expression. Although post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation of CRY1, are crucial for circadian rhythm, little is known about how phosphorylated CRY1 contributes to the molecular clockwork. To address this, we created a series of CRY1 mutants with single amino acid substitutions at potential phosphorylation sites and performed a cell-based, phenotype-rescuing screen to identify mutants with aberrant rhythmicity in CRY-deficient cells. We report 10 mutants with an abnormal circadian period length, including long period (S280D and S588D), short period (S158D, S247D, T249D, Y266D, Y273D, and Y432D), and arrhythmicity (S71D and S404D). When expressing mutated CRY1 in HEK293 cells, we show that most of the mutants (S71D, S247D, T249D, Y266D, Y273D, and Y432D) exhibited reduction in repression activity compared with wild-type (WT) CRY1, whereas other mutants had no obvious change. Correspondingly, these mutants also showed differences in protein stability and cellular localization. We show that most of mutants are more stable than WT, except S158D, T249D, and S280D. Although the characteristics of the 10 mutants are various, they all impair the ratio balance of intracellular CRY1 protein. Thus, we conclude that the mutations caused distinct phenotypes most likely through the ratio of functional CRY1 protein in cells. PMID:27721804

  15. Acute exercise modifies titin phosphorylation and increases cardiac myofilament stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Anna E.; Kreiner, Matthias; Kötter, Sebastian; Lassak, Philipp; Bloch, Wilhelm; Suhr, Frank; Krüger, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Titin-based myofilament stiffness is largely modulated by phosphorylation of its elastic I-band regions N2-Bus (decreases passive stiffness, PT) and PEVK (increases PT). Here, we tested the hypothesis that acute exercise changes titin phosphorylation and modifies myofilament stiffness. Adult rats were exercised on a treadmill for 15 min, untrained animals served as controls. Titin phosphorylation was determined by Western blot analysis using phosphospecific antibodies to Ser4099 and Ser4010 in the N2-Bus region (PKG and PKA-dependent. respectively), and to Ser11878 and Ser 12022 in the PEVK region (PKCα and CaMKIIδ-dependent, respectively). Passive tension was determined by step-wise stretching of isolated skinned cardiomyocytes to sarcomere length (SL) ranging from 1.9 to 2.4 μm and showed a significantly increased PT from exercised samples, compared to controls. In cardiac samples titin N2-Bus phosphorylation was significantly decreased by 40% at Ser4099, however, no significant changes were observed at Ser4010. PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 was significantly increased, which is probably mediated by the observed exercise-induced increase in PKCα activity. Interestingly, relative phosphorylation of Ser12022 was substantially decreased in the exercised samples. Surprisingly, in skeletal samples from acutely exercised animals we detected a significant decrease in PEVK phosphorylation at Ser11878 and an increase in Ser12022 phosphorylation; however, PKCα activity remained unchanged. In summary, our data show that a single exercise bout of 15 min affects titin domain phosphorylation and titin-based myocyte stiffness with obviously divergent effects in cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues. The observed changes in titin stiffness could play an important role in adapting the passive and active properties of the myocardium and the skeletal muscle to increased physical activity. PMID:25477822

  16. Predicting and analyzing protein phosphorylation sites in plants using musite.

    PubMed

    Yao, Qiuming; Gao, Jianjiong; Bollinger, Curtis; Thelen, Jay J; Xu, Dong

    2012-01-01

    Although protein phosphorylation sites can be reliably identified with high-resolution mass spectrometry, the experimental approach is time-consuming and resource-dependent. Furthermore, it is unlikely that an experimental approach could catalog an entire phosphoproteome. Computational prediction of phosphorylation sites provides an efficient and flexible way to reveal potential phosphorylation sites and provide hypotheses in experimental design. Musite is a tool that we previously developed to predict phosphorylation sites based solely on protein sequence. However, it was not comprehensively applied to plants. In this study, the phosphorylation data from Arabidopsis thaliana, B. napus, G. max, M. truncatula, O. sativa, and Z. mays were collected for cross-species testing and the overall plant-specific prediction as well. The results show that the model for A. thaliana can be extended to other organisms, and the overall plant model from Musite outperforms the current plant-specific prediction tools, Plantphos, and PhosphAt, in prediction accuracy. Furthermore, a comparative study of predicted phosphorylation sites across orthologs among different plants was conducted to reveal potential evolutionary features. A bipolar distribution of isolated, non-conserved phosphorylation sites, and highly conserved ones in terms of the amino acid type was observed. It also shows that predicted phosphorylation sites conserved within orthologs do not necessarily share more sequence similarity in the flanking regions than the background, but they often inherit protein disorder, a property that does not necessitate high sequence conservation. Our analysis also suggests that the phosphorylation frequencies among serine, threonine, and tyrosine correlate with their relative proportion in disordered regions. Musite can be used as a web server (http://musite.net) or downloaded as an open-source standalone tool (http://musite.sourceforge.net/).

  17. Tau phosphorylation at Alzheimer's disease-related Ser356 contributes to tau stabilization when PAR-1/MARK activity is elevated.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kanae; Oka, Mikiko; Ohtake, Yosuke; Hayashishita, Motoki; Shimizu, Sawako; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Iijima, Koichi M

    2016-09-16

    Abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD-related phosphorylation of two tau residues, Ser262 and Ser356, by PAR-1/MARK stabilizes tau in the initial phase of mismetabolism, leading to subsequent phosphorylation events, accumulation, and toxicity. However, the relative contribution of phosphorylation at each of these sites to tau stabilization has not yet been elucidated. In a Drosophila model of human tau toxicity, we found that tau was phosphorylated at Ser262, but not at Ser356, and that blocking Ser262 phosphorylation decreased total tau levels. By contrast, when PAR-1 was co-overexpressed with tau, tau was hyperphosphorylated at both Ser262 and Ser356. Under these conditions, the protein levels of tau were significantly elevated, and prevention of tau phosphorylation at both residues was necessary to completely suppress this elevation. These results suggest that tau phosphorylation at Ser262 plays the predominant role in tau stabilization when PAR-1/MARK activity is normal, whereas Ser356 phosphorylation begins to contribute to this process when PAR-1/MARK activity is abnormally elevated, as in diseased brains.

  18. Tau phosphorylation at Alzheimer's disease-related Ser356 contributes to tau stabilization when PAR-1/MARK activity is elevated.

    PubMed

    Ando, Kanae; Oka, Mikiko; Ohtake, Yosuke; Hayashishita, Motoki; Shimizu, Sawako; Hisanaga, Shin-Ichi; Iijima, Koichi M

    2016-09-16

    Abnormal phosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein tau is observed in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). AD-related phosphorylation of two tau residues, Ser262 and Ser356, by PAR-1/MARK stabilizes tau in the initial phase of mismetabolism, leading to subsequent phosphorylation events, accumulation, and toxicity. However, the relative contribution of phosphorylation at each of these sites to tau stabilization has not yet been elucidated. In a Drosophila model of human tau toxicity, we found that tau was phosphorylated at Ser262, but not at Ser356, and that blocking Ser262 phosphorylation decreased total tau levels. By contrast, when PAR-1 was co-overexpressed with tau, tau was hyperphosphorylated at both Ser262 and Ser356. Under these conditions, the protein levels of tau were significantly elevated, and prevention of tau phosphorylation at both residues was necessary to completely suppress this elevation. These results suggest that tau phosphorylation at Ser262 plays the predominant role in tau stabilization when PAR-1/MARK activity is normal, whereas Ser356 phosphorylation begins to contribute to this process when PAR-1/MARK activity is abnormally elevated, as in diseased brains. PMID:27520376

  19. Protein phosphorylation in chloroplasts - a survey of phosphorylation targets.

    PubMed

    Baginsky, Sacha

    2016-06-01

    The development of new software tools, improved mass spectrometry equipment, a suite of optimized scan types, and better-quality phosphopeptide affinity capture have paved the way for an explosion of mass spectrometry data on phosphopeptides. Because phosphoproteomics achieves good sensitivity, most studies use complete cell extracts for phosphopeptide enrichment and identification without prior enrichment of proteins or subcellular compartments. As a consequence, the phosphoproteome of cell organelles often comes as a by-product from large-scale studies and is commonly assembled from these in meta-analyses. This review aims at providing some guidance on the limitations of meta-analyses that combine data from analyses with different scopes, reports on the current status of knowledge on chloroplast phosphorylation targets, provides initial insights into phosphorylation site conservation in different plant species, and highlights emerging information on the integration of gene expression with metabolism and photosynthesis by means of protein phosphorylation. PMID:26969742

  20. [Hair shaft abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Itin, P H; Düggelin, M

    2002-05-01

    Hair shaft disorders may lead to brittleness and uncombable hair. In general the hair feels dry and lusterless. Hair shaft abnormalities may occur as localized or generalized disorders. Genetic predisposition or exogenous factors are able to produce and maintain hair shaft abnormalities. In addition to an extensive history and physical examination the most important diagnostic examination to analyze a hair shaft problem is light microscopy. Therapy of hair shaft disorders should focus to the cause. In addition, minimizing traumatic influences to hair shafts, such as dry hair with an electric dryer, permanent waves and dyes is important. A short hair style is more suitable for such patients with hair shaft disorders.

  1. Phosphorylation mechanisms in chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoffstall, Allen M.; Laing, Euton M.

    1985-06-01

    An objective of this work is to elucidate the mechanism of phosphorylation of nucleosides in amide solvents and in urea. A second objective is to assess the importance of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of nucleotide derivatives in amide environments. Although the most complex amide studied here was N-methylacetamide, inferences are made on the importance of dephosphorylation for nucleotides in oligopeptide environments. Phosphorylations in amide solvents and in urea are suggested to proceed through monomeric metaphosphate, which was first postulated as a reaction intermediate thirty years ago (Butcher and Westheimer, 1955). Phosphorylation of nucleosides and nucleotides and dephosphorylation of nucleotide derivatives have been studied in formamide, N-methylformamide, urea and N-methylacetamide. Hydrated forms of 5'-ADP and 5'ATP are unstable in hot amide solvents and in urea. They decompose to a mixture of adenosine and its phosphorylated derivatives. The rate of decomposition is much slower in N-methylacetamide than in formamide or urea. Experiments designed to prepare oligonucleotides in the presence of oligopeptides have been reported (White, 1983). According to the present study, it is not unreasonable to expect that nucleotide derivatives can be condensed with nucleosides to form oligonucleotides in a peptide environment. However, nucleotide monomers such as 5'-ATP, 5'-ADP or 5'AMP will suffer isomerization or decomposition during condensation use of activated phosphate derivatives is preferable. Monomeric metaphosphate has not been isolated or characterized in amide solvents. It is proposed here as a reaction intermediate, probably in a complexed form with the amide.

  2. A mathematical model of phosphorylation AKT in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adi, Y. A.; Kusumo, F. A.; Aryati, L.; Hardianti, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper we consider a mathematical model of PI3K/AKT signaling pathways in phosphorylation AKT. PI3K/AKT pathway is an important mediator of cytokine signaling implicated in regulation of hematopoiesis. Constitutive activation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway has been observed in Acute Meyloid Leukemia (AML) it caused by the mutation of Fms-like Tyrosine Kinase 3 in internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD), the most common molecular abnormality associated with AML. Depending upon its phosphorylation status, protein interaction, substrate availability, and localization, AKT can phosphorylate or inhibite numerous substrates in its downstream pathways that promote protein synthesis, survival, proliferation, and metabolism. Firstly, we present a mass action ordinary differential equation model describing AKT double phosphorylation (AKTpp) in a system with 11 equations. Finally, under the asumtion enzyme catalyst constant and steady state equilibrium, we reduce the system in 4 equation included Michaelis Menten constant. Simulation result suggested that a high concentration of PI3K and/or a low concentration of phospatase increased AKTpp activation. This result also indicates that PI3K is a potential target theraphy in AML.

  3. Nucleoside phosphorylation by phosphate minerals.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Giovanna; Saladino, Raffaele; Crestini, Claudia; Ciciriello, Fabiana; Di Mauro, Ernesto

    2007-06-01

    In the presence of formamide, crystal phosphate minerals may act as phosphate donors to nucleosides, yielding both 5'- and, to a lesser extent, 3'-phosphorylated forms. With the mineral Libethenite the formation of 5'-AMP can be as high as 6% of the adenosine input and last for at least 10(3) h. At high concentrations, soluble non-mineral phosphate donors (KH(2)PO(4) or 5'-CMP) afford 2'- and 2':3'-cyclic AMP in addition to 5'-and 3'-AMP. The phosphate minerals analyzed were Herderite Ca[BePO(4)F], Hureaulite Mn(2+)(5)(PO(3)(OH)(2)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(4), Libethenite Cu(2+)(2)(PO(4))(OH), Pyromorphite Pb(5)(PO(4))(3)Cl, Turquoise Cu(2+)Al(6)(PO(4))(4)(OH)(8)(H(2)O)(4), Fluorapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)F, Hydroxylapatite Ca(5)(PO(4))(3)OH, Vivianite Fe(2+)(3)(PO(4))(2)(H(2)O)(8), Cornetite Cu(2+)(3)(PO(4))(OH)(3), Pseudomalachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), Reichenbachite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4), and Ludjibaite Cu(2+)(5)(PO(4))(2)(OH)(4)). Based on their behavior in the formamide-driven nucleoside phosphorylation reaction, these minerals can be characterized as: 1) inactive, 2) low level phosphorylating agents, or 3) active phosphorylating agents. Instances were detected (Libethenite and Hydroxylapatite) in which phosphorylation occurs on the mineral surface, followed by release of the phosphorylated compounds. Libethenite and Cornetite markedly protect the beta-glycosidic bond. Thus, activated nucleic monomers can form in a liquid non-aqueous environment in conditions compatible with the thermodynamics of polymerization, providing a solution to the standard-state Gibbs free energy change (DeltaG degrees ') problem, the major obstacle for polymerizations in the liquid phase in plausible prebiotic scenarios.

  4. Mixed mechanisms of multi-site phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Suwanmajo, Thapanar; Krishnan, J

    2015-06-01

    Multi-site phosphorylation is ubiquitous in cell biology and has been widely studied experimentally and theoretically. The underlying chemical modification mechanisms are typically assumed to be distributive or processive. In this paper, we study the behaviour of mixed mechanisms that can arise either because phosphorylation and dephosphorylation involve different mechanisms or because phosphorylation and/or dephosphorylation can occur through a combination of mechanisms. We examine a hierarchy of models to assess chemical information processing through different mixed mechanisms, using simulations, bifurcation analysis and analytical work. We demonstrate how mixed mechanisms can show important and unintuitive differences from pure distributive and processive mechanisms, in some cases resulting in monostable behaviour with simple dose-response behaviour, while in other cases generating new behaviour-like oscillations. Our results also suggest patterns of information processing that are relevant as the number of modification sites increases. Overall, our work creates a framework to examine information processing arising from complexities of multi-site modification mechanisms and their impact on signal transduction. PMID:25972433

  5. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV infections].

    PubMed

    Verges, B; Chavanet, P; Desgres, J; Kisterman, J P; Waldner, A; Vaillant, G; Portier, H; Brun, J M; Putelat, R

    The finding of endocrine gland lesions at pathological examination in AIDS and reports of several cases of endocrine disease in patients with this syndrome have prompted us to study endocrine functions in 63 patients (51 men, 12 women) with HIV-1 infection. According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) classification system, 13 of these patients were stage CDC II, 27 stage CDC III and 23 stage CDC IV. We explored the adrenocortical function (ACTH, immediate tetracosactrin test) and the thyroid function (free T3 and T4 levels, TRH on TSH test) in all 63 patients. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (testosterone levels, LHRH test) and prolactin secretion (THR test) were explored in the 51 men. The results obtained showed early peripheral testicular insufficiency at stage CDC II and early pituitary gland abnormalities with hypersecretion of ACTH and prolactin also at stage CDC II. On the other hand, adrenocortical and pituitary abnormalities were not frequently found. The physiopathology of the endocrine abnormalities observed in HIV-1-infected patients remains unclear, but one may suspect that it involves interleukin-1 since this protein factor has recently been shown to stimulate the corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion and to act directly on the glycoprotein capsule of the virus (gp 120) whose structure is similar to that of some neurohormones.

  6. Stress-Induced Tau Phosphorylation: Functional Neuroplasticity or Neuronal Vulnerability?

    PubMed Central

    Rissman, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormally phosphorylated tau protein is a key component of the pathology seen in neurodegenerative tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite its association with disease, tau phosphorylation (tau-P) also plays an important role in neuroplasticity, such as dendritic/synaptic remodeling seen in the hippocampus in response to environmental challenges, such as stress. To define the boundaries between neuroplasticity and neuropathology, studies have attempted to characterize the paradigms, stimuli, and signaling intermediates involved in stress-induced tau-P. Supporting an involvement of stress in AD are data demonstrating alterations in stress pathways and peptides in the AD brain and epidemiological data implicating stress exposure as a risk factor for AD. In this review, the question of whether stress-induced tau-P can be used as a model for examining the relationship between functional neuroplasticity and neuronal vulnerability will be discussed. PMID:19584431

  7. Linker histone partial phosphorylation: effects on secondary structure and chromatin condensation

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Rita; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Bartolomé, Salvador; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Linker histones are involved in chromatin higher-order structure and gene regulation. We have successfully achieved partial phosphorylation of linker histones in chicken erythrocyte soluble chromatin with CDK2, as indicated by HPCE, MALDI-TOF and Tandem MS. We have studied the effects of linker histone partial phosphorylation on secondary structure and chromatin condensation. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a gradual increase of β-structure in the phosphorylated samples, concomitant to a decrease in α-helix/turns, with increasing linker histone phosphorylation. This conformational change could act as the first step in the phosphorylation-induced effects on chromatin condensation. A decrease of the sedimentation rate through sucrose gradients of the phosphorylated samples was observed, indicating a global relaxation of the 30-nm fiber following linker histone phosphorylation. Analysis of specific genes, combining nuclease digestion and qPCR, showed that phosphorylated samples were more accessible than unphosphorylated samples, suggesting local chromatin relaxation. Chromatin aggregation was induced by MgCl2 and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Phosphorylated chromatin had lower percentages in volume of aggregated molecules and the aggregates had smaller hydrodynamic diameter than unphosphorylated chromatin, indicating that linker histone phosphorylation impaired chromatin aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the effects of linker histone phosphorylation in chromatin condensation. PMID:25870416

  8. Linker histone partial phosphorylation: effects on secondary structure and chromatin condensation.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rita; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Bartolomé, Salvador; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia

    2015-05-19

    Linker histones are involved in chromatin higher-order structure and gene regulation. We have successfully achieved partial phosphorylation of linker histones in chicken erythrocyte soluble chromatin with CDK2, as indicated by HPCE, MALDI-TOF and Tandem MS. We have studied the effects of linker histone partial phosphorylation on secondary structure and chromatin condensation. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a gradual increase of β-structure in the phosphorylated samples, concomitant to a decrease in α-helix/turns, with increasing linker histone phosphorylation. This conformational change could act as the first step in the phosphorylation-induced effects on chromatin condensation. A decrease of the sedimentation rate through sucrose gradients of the phosphorylated samples was observed, indicating a global relaxation of the 30-nm fiber following linker histone phosphorylation. Analysis of specific genes, combining nuclease digestion and qPCR, showed that phosphorylated samples were more accessible than unphosphorylated samples, suggesting local chromatin relaxation. Chromatin aggregation was induced by MgCl2 and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Phosphorylated chromatin had lower percentages in volume of aggregated molecules and the aggregates had smaller hydrodynamic diameter than unphosphorylated chromatin, indicating that linker histone phosphorylation impaired chromatin aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the effects of linker histone phosphorylation in chromatin condensation.

  9. Linker histone partial phosphorylation: effects on secondary structure and chromatin condensation.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Rita; Sarg, Bettina; Lindner, Herbert; Bartolomé, Salvador; Ponte, Inma; Suau, Pedro; Roque, Alicia

    2015-05-19

    Linker histones are involved in chromatin higher-order structure and gene regulation. We have successfully achieved partial phosphorylation of linker histones in chicken erythrocyte soluble chromatin with CDK2, as indicated by HPCE, MALDI-TOF and Tandem MS. We have studied the effects of linker histone partial phosphorylation on secondary structure and chromatin condensation. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed a gradual increase of β-structure in the phosphorylated samples, concomitant to a decrease in α-helix/turns, with increasing linker histone phosphorylation. This conformational change could act as the first step in the phosphorylation-induced effects on chromatin condensation. A decrease of the sedimentation rate through sucrose gradients of the phosphorylated samples was observed, indicating a global relaxation of the 30-nm fiber following linker histone phosphorylation. Analysis of specific genes, combining nuclease digestion and qPCR, showed that phosphorylated samples were more accessible than unphosphorylated samples, suggesting local chromatin relaxation. Chromatin aggregation was induced by MgCl2 and analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Phosphorylated chromatin had lower percentages in volume of aggregated molecules and the aggregates had smaller hydrodynamic diameter than unphosphorylated chromatin, indicating that linker histone phosphorylation impaired chromatin aggregation. These findings provide new insights into the effects of linker histone phosphorylation in chromatin condensation. PMID:25870416

  10. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H; De Robertis, Edward M

    2011-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state. PMID:21990430

  11. Phosphorylation of Mad controls competition between wingless and BMP signaling.

    PubMed

    Eivers, Edward; Demagny, Hadrien; Choi, Renee H; De Robertis, Edward M

    2011-10-11

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) and Wnts are growth factors that provide essential patterning signals for cell proliferation and differentiation. Here, we describe a molecular mechanism by which the phosphorylation state of the Drosophila transcription factor Mad determines its ability to transduce either BMP or Wingless (Wg) signals. Previously, Mad was thought to function in gene transcription only when phosphorylated by BMP receptors. We found that the unphosphorylated form of Mad was required for canonical Wg signaling by interacting with the Pangolin-Armadillo transcriptional complex. Phosphorylation of the carboxyl terminus of Mad by BMP receptor directed Mad toward BMP signaling, thereby preventing Mad from functioning in the Wg pathway. The results show that Mad has distinct signal transduction roles in the BMP and Wnt pathways depending on its phosphorylation state.

  12. Microfluidic IEF technique for sequential phosphorylation analysis of protein kinases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nakchul; Song, Simon; Choi, Hoseok; Lim, Bu-Taek; Kim, Young-Pil

    2015-11-01

    Sequential phosphorylation of protein kinases play the important role in signal transduction, protein regulation, and metabolism in living cells. The analysis of these phosphorylation cascades will provide new insights into their physiological functions in many biological functions. Unfortunately, the existing methods are limited to analyze the cascade activity. Therefore, we suggest a microfluidic isoelectric focusing technique (μIEF) for the analysis of the cascade activity. Using the technique, we show that the sequential phosphorylation of a peptide by two different kinases can be successfully detected on a microfluidic chip. In addition, the inhibition assay for kinase activity and the analysis on a real sample have also been conducted. The results indicate that μIEF is an excellent means for studies on phosphorylation cascade activity.

  13. The effect of cdk-5 overexpression on tau phosphorylation and spatial memory of rat.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yingchun; Wang, Yipeng; Wang, Jianzhi

    2004-06-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), hyperphosphorylation of tau may be the underlying mechanism for the cytoskeletal abnormalities and neuronal death. It was reported that cyclin-dependent kinase5 (cdk-5) could phosphorylate tau at most AD-related epitopes in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effect of cdk-5 overexpression on tau phosphorylation and spatial memory in rat. We demonstrated that 24 h after transfection into rat hippocampus, cdk-5 was overexpressed and induced a reduced staining with antibody tau-1 and an enhanced staining with antibodies 12e8 and PHF-1, suggesting hyperphosphorylation of tau at Ser199/202, Ser262/356 and Ser396/404 sites. Additionally, the cdk-5 transfected rats showed long latency to find the hidden platform in Morris water maze compared to the control rat. 48 h after transfection, the level of cdk-5 was decreased significantly, and the latency of rats to find the hidden platform was prolonged. It implies that in vivo overexpression of cdk-5 leads to impairment of spatial memory in rat and tau hyperphosphorylation may be the underlying mechanism.

  14. SUMOylation at K340 inhibits tau degradation through deregulating its phosphorylation and ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong-Bin; Xia, Yi-Yuan; Shu, Xi-Ji; Liu, Zan-Chao; Feng, Ye; Liu, Xing-Hua; Yu, Guang; Yin, Gang; Xiong, Yan-Si; Zeng, Kuan; Jiang, Jun; Ye, Keqiang; Wang, Xiao-Chuan; Wang, Jian-Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular accumulation of the abnormally modified tau is hallmark pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the mechanism leading to tau aggregation is not fully characterized. Here, we studied the effects of tau SUMOylation on its phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and degradation. We show that tau SUMOylation induces tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-associated sites, whereas site-specific mutagenesis of tau at K340R (the SUMOylation site) or simultaneous inhibition of tau SUMOylation by ginkgolic acid abolishes the effect of small ubiquitin-like modifier protein 1 (SUMO-1). Conversely, tau hyperphosphorylation promotes its SUMOylation; the latter in turn inhibits tau degradation with reduction of solubility and ubiquitination of tau proteins. Furthermore, the enhanced SUMO-immunoreactivity, costained with the hyperphosphorylated tau, is detected in cerebral cortex of the AD brains, and β-amyloid exposure of rat primary hippocampal neurons induces a dose-dependent SUMOylation of the hyperphosphorylated tau. Our findings suggest that tau SUMOylation reciprocally stimulates its phosphorylation and inhibits the ubiquitination-mediated tau degradation, which provides a new insight into the AD-like tau accumulation. PMID:25378699

  15. IRBIT regulates CaMKIIα activity and contributes to catecholamine homeostasis through tyrosine hydroxylase phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kawaai, Katsuhiro; Mizutani, Akihiro; Shoji, Hirotaka; Ogawa, Naoko; Ebisui, Etsuko; Kuroda, Yukiko; Wakana, Shigeharu; Hisatsune, Chihiro; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) binding protein released with IP3 (IRBIT) contributes to various physiological events (electrolyte transport and fluid secretion, mRNA polyadenylation, and the maintenance of genomic integrity) through its interaction with multiple targets. However, little is known about the physiological role of IRBIT in the brain. Here we identified calcium calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha (CaMKIIα) as an IRBIT-interacting molecule in the central nervous system. IRBIT binds to and suppresses CaMKIIα kinase activity by inhibiting the binding of calmodulin to CaMKIIα. In addition, we show that mice lacking IRBIT present with elevated catecholamine levels, increased locomotor activity, and social abnormalities. The level of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) phosphorylation by CaMKIIα, which affects TH activity, was significantly increased in the ventral tegmental area of IRBIT-deficient mice. We concluded that IRBIT suppresses CaMKIIα activity and contributes to catecholamine homeostasis through TH phosphorylation. PMID:25922519

  16. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C

    2016-04-18

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation.

  17. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C.

    2016-01-01

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation. PMID:27088325

  18. Structural basis for Mep2 ammonium transceptor activation by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Bert; Chembath, Anupama; Jefferies, Damien; Basle, Arnaud; Khalid, Syma; Rutherford, Julian C

    2016-01-01

    Mep2 proteins are fungal transceptors that play an important role as ammonium sensors in fungal development. Mep2 activity is tightly regulated by phosphorylation, but how this is achieved at the molecular level is not clear. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of the Mep2 orthologues from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and show that under nitrogen-sufficient conditions the transporters are not phosphorylated and present in closed, inactive conformations. Relative to the open bacterial ammonium transporters, non-phosphorylated Mep2 exhibits shifts in cytoplasmic loops and the C-terminal region (CTR) to occlude the cytoplasmic exit of the channel and to interact with His2 of the twin-His motif. The phosphorylation site in the CTR is solvent accessible and located in a negatively charged pocket ∼30 Å away from the channel exit. The crystal structure of phosphorylation-mimicking Mep2 variants from C. albicans show large conformational changes in a conserved and functionally important region of the CTR. The results allow us to propose a model for regulation of eukaryotic ammonium transport by phosphorylation. PMID:27088325

  19. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  20. Effect of phosphorylation on antioxidant activities of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo, Lady godiva) polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ni, Yuanying; Hu, Xiaosong; Li, Quanhong

    2015-11-01

    Phosphorylated derivatives of pumpkin polysaccharide with different degree of substitution were synthesized using POCl3 and pyridine. Antioxidant activities and cytoprotective effects of unmodified polysaccharide and phosphorylated derivatives were investigated employing various in vitro systems. Results showed that high ratio of POCl3/pyridine could increase the degree of substitution and no remarkable degradation occurred in the phosphorylation process. Characteristic absorption of phosphorylation appeared both in the IR and (31)P NMR spectrum. The df values between 2.27 and 2.55 indicated the relatively expanded conformation of the phosphorylated derivatives. All the phosphorylated polysaccharides exhibited higher antioxidant activities. H2O2-induced oxidative damages on rat thymic lymphocyte were also prevented by the derivatives. In general, phosphorylation could improve the antioxidant activities of pumpkin polysaccharide both in vitro and in a cell system.

  1. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis. PMID:14551255

  2. Diacylglycerol kinase-zeta localization in skeletal muscle is regulated by phosphorylation and interaction with syntrophins.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, Hanan; Hogan, Angela B; Obagi, Christopher; Topham, Matthew K; Gee, Stephen H

    2003-11-01

    Syntrophins are scaffolding proteins that link signaling molecules to dystrophin and the cytoskeleton. We previously reported that syntrophins interact with diacylglycerol kinase-zeta (DGK-zeta), which phosphorylates diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidic acid. Here, we show syntrophins and DGK-zeta form a complex in skeletal muscle whose translocation from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is regulated by protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of the DGK-zeta MARCKS domain. DGK-zeta mutants that do not bind syntrophins were mislocalized, and an activated mutant of this sort induced atypical changes in the actin cytoskeleton, indicating syntrophins are important for localizing DGK-zeta and regulating its activity. Consistent with a role in actin organization, DGK-zeta and syntrophins were colocalized with filamentous (F)-actin and Rac in lamellipodia and ruffles. Moreover, extracellular signal-related kinase-dependent phosphorylation of DGK-zeta regulated its association with the cytoskeleton. In adult muscle, DGK-zeta was colocalized with syntrophins on the sarcolemma and was concentrated at neuromuscular junctions (NMJs), whereas in type IIB fibers it was found exclusively at NMJs. DGK-zeta was reduced at the sarcolemma of dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse myofibers but was specifically retained at NMJs, indicating that dystrophin is important for the sarcolemmal but not synaptic localization of DGK-zeta. Together, our findings suggest syntrophins localize DGK-zeta signaling complexes at specialized domains of muscle cells, which may be critical for the proper control of lipid-signaling pathways regulating actin organization. In dystrophic muscle, mislocalized DGK-zeta may cause abnormal cytoskeletal changes that contribute to disease pathogenesis.

  3. Morphological abnormalities in elasmobranchs.

    PubMed

    Moore, A B M

    2015-08-01

    A total of 10 abnormal free-swimming (i.e., post-birth) elasmobranchs are reported from The (Persian-Arabian) Gulf, encompassing five species and including deformed heads, snouts, caudal fins and claspers. The complete absence of pelvic fins in a milk shark Rhizoprionodon acutus may be the first record in any elasmobranch. Possible causes, including the extreme environmental conditions and the high level of anthropogenic pollution particular to The Gulf, are briefly discussed.

  4. Chromosome abnormalities in glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Ramsay, D.A.; Fan, Y.S.

    1994-09-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed in 25 patients with gliomas. An interesting finding was a seemingly identical abnormality, an extra band on the tip of the short arm of chromosome 1, add(1)(p36), in two cases. The abnormality was present in all cells from a patient with a glioblastoma and in 27% of the tumor cells from a patient with a recurrent irradiated anaplastic astrocytoma; in the latter case, 7 unrelated abnormal clones were identified except 4 of those clones shared a common change, -Y. Three similar cases have been described previously. In a patient with pleomorphic astrocytoma, the band 1q42 in both homologues of chromosome 1 was involved in two different rearrangements. A review of the literature revealed that deletion of the long arm of chromosome 1 including 1q42 often occurs in glioma. This may indicate a possible tumor suppressor gene in this region. Cytogenetic follow-up studies were carried out in two patients and emergence of unrelated clones were noted in both. A total of 124 clonal breakpoints were identified in the 25 patients. The breakpoints which occurred three times or more were: 1p36, 1p22, 1q21, 1q25, 3q21, 7q32, 8q22, 9q22, 16q22, and 22q13.

  5. [Congenital foot abnormalities].

    PubMed

    Delpont, M; Lafosse, T; Bachy, M; Mary, P; Alves, A; Vialle, R

    2015-03-01

    The foot may be the site of birth defects. These abnormalities are sometimes suspected prenatally. Final diagnosis depends on clinical examination at birth. These deformations can be simple malpositions: metatarsus adductus, talipes calcaneovalgus and pes supinatus. The prognosis is excellent spontaneously or with a simple orthopedic treatment. Surgery remains outstanding. The use of a pediatric orthopedist will be considered if malposition does not relax after several weeks. Malformations (clubfoot, vertical talus and skew foot) require specialized care early. Clubfoot is characterized by an equine and varus hindfoot, an adducted and supine forefoot, not reducible. Vertical talus combines equine hindfoot and dorsiflexion of the forefoot, which is performed in the midfoot instead of the ankle. Skew foot is suspected when a metatarsus adductus is resistant to conservative treatment. Early treatment is primarily orthopedic at birth. Surgical treatment begins to be considered after walking age. Keep in mind that an abnormality of the foot may be associated with other conditions: malposition with congenital hip, malformations with syndromes, neurological and genetic abnormalities. PMID:25524290

  6. Deciphering the Interplay among Multisite Phosphorylation, Interaction Dynamics, and Conformational Transitions in a Tripartite Protein System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Multisite phosphorylation is a common pathway to regulate protein function, activity, and interaction pattern in vivo, but routine biochemical analysis is often insufficient to identify the number and order of individual phosphorylation reactions and their mechanistic impact on the protein behavior. Here, we integrate complementary mass spectrometry (MS)-based approaches to characterize a multisite phosphorylation-regulated protein system comprising Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) and its coactivators Aurora kinase A (Aur-A) and Bora, the interplay of which is essential for mitotic entry after DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest. Native MS and cross-linking–MS revealed that Aur-A/Bora-mediated Plk1 activation is accompanied by the formation of Aur-A/Bora and Plk1/Bora heterodimers. We found that the Aur-A/Bora interaction is independent of the Bora phosphorylation state, whereas the Plk1/Bora interaction is dependent on extensive Bora multisite phosphorylation. Bottom-up and top-down proteomics analyses showed that Bora multisite phosphorylation proceeds via a well-ordered sequence of site-specific phosphorylation reactions, whereby we could reveal the involvement of up to 16 phosphorylated Bora residues. Ion mobility spectrometry–MS demonstrated that this multisite phosphorylation primes a substantial structural rearrangement of Bora, explaining the interdependence between extensive Bora multisite phosphorylation and Plk1/Bora complex formation. These results represent a first benchmark of our multipronged MS strategy, highlighting its potential to elucidate the mechanistic and structural implications of multisite protein phosphorylation. PMID:27504491

  7. The effect of phosphorylation on arrestin-rhodopsin interaction in the squid visual system.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kelly A; Ou, Wei-Lin; Guan, Xinyu; Sugamori, Kim S; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek; Ernst, Oliver P; Mitchell, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate visual opsins are G protein-coupled receptors coupled to retinoid chromophores that isomerize reversibly between inactive rhodopsin and active metarhodopsin upon absorption of photons of light. The squid visual system has an arrestin protein that binds to metarhodopsin to block signaling to Gq and activation of phospholipase C. Squid rhodopsin kinase (SQRK) can phosphorylate both metarhodopsin and arrestin, a dual role that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The sites and role of arrestin phosphorylation by SQRK were investigated here using recombinant proteins. Arrestin was phosphorylated on serine 392 and serine 397 in the C-terminus. Unphosphorylated arrestin bound to metarhodopsin and phosphorylated metarhodopsin with similar high affinities (Kd 33 and 21 nM respectively), while phosphorylation of arrestin reduced the affinity 3- to 5-fold (Kd 104 nM). Phosphorylation of metarhodopsin slightly increased the dissociation of arrestin observed during a 1 hour incubation. Together these studies suggest a unique role for SQRK in phosphorylating both receptor and arrestin and inhibiting the binding of these two proteins in the squid visual system. Invertebrate visual systems are inactivated by arrestin binding to metarhodopsin that does not require receptor phosphorylation. Here we show that squid rhodopsin kinase phosphorylates arrestin on two serines (S392,S397) in the C-terminus and phosphorylation decreases the affinity of arrestin for squid metarhodopsin. Metarhodopsin phosphorylation has very little effect on arrestin binding but does increase arrestin dissociation.

  8. Cross-phosphorylation of bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine protein kinases on key regulatory residues

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Pigeonneau, Nathalie; Ravikumar, Vaishnavi; Dobrinic, Paula; Macek, Boris; Franjevic, Damjan; Noirot-Gros, Marie-Francoise; Mijakovic, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Bacteria possess protein serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases which resemble eukaryal kinases in their capacity to phosphorylate multiple substrates. We hypothesized that the analogy might extend further, and bacterial kinases may also undergo mutual phosphorylation and activation, which is currently considered as a hallmark of eukaryal kinase networks. In order to test this hypothesis, we explored the capacity of all members of four different classes of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases present in the firmicute model organism Bacillus subtilis to phosphorylate each other in vitro and interact with each other in vivo. The interactomics data suggested a high degree of connectivity among all types of kinases, while phosphorylation assays revealed equally wide-spread cross-phosphorylation events. Our findings suggest that the Hanks-type kinases PrkC, PrkD, and YabT exhibit the highest capacity to phosphorylate other B. subtilis kinases, while the BY-kinase PtkA and the two-component-like kinases RsbW and SpoIIAB show the highest propensity to be phosphorylated by other kinases. Analysis of phosphorylated residues on several selected recipient kinases suggests that most cross-phosphorylation events concern key regulatory residues. Therefore, cross-phosphorylation events are very likely to influence the capacity of recipient kinases to phosphorylate substrates downstream in the signal transduction cascade. We therefore conclude that bacterial serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases probably engage in a network-type behavior previously described only in eukaryal cells. PMID:25278935

  9. The effect of phosphorylation on arrestin-rhodopsin interaction in the squid visual system.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Kelly A; Ou, Wei-Lin; Guan, Xinyu; Sugamori, Kim S; Bandyopadhyay, Abhishek; Ernst, Oliver P; Mitchell, Jane

    2015-12-01

    Invertebrate visual opsins are G protein-coupled receptors coupled to retinoid chromophores that isomerize reversibly between inactive rhodopsin and active metarhodopsin upon absorption of photons of light. The squid visual system has an arrestin protein that binds to metarhodopsin to block signaling to Gq and activation of phospholipase C. Squid rhodopsin kinase (SQRK) can phosphorylate both metarhodopsin and arrestin, a dual role that is unique among the G protein-coupled receptor kinases. The sites and role of arrestin phosphorylation by SQRK were investigated here using recombinant proteins. Arrestin was phosphorylated on serine 392 and serine 397 in the C-terminus. Unphosphorylated arrestin bound to metarhodopsin and phosphorylated metarhodopsin with similar high affinities (Kd 33 and 21 nM respectively), while phosphorylation of arrestin reduced the affinity 3- to 5-fold (Kd 104 nM). Phosphorylation of metarhodopsin slightly increased the dissociation of arrestin observed during a 1 hour incubation. Together these studies suggest a unique role for SQRK in phosphorylating both receptor and arrestin and inhibiting the binding of these two proteins in the squid visual system. Invertebrate visual systems are inactivated by arrestin binding to metarhodopsin that does not require receptor phosphorylation. Here we show that squid rhodopsin kinase phosphorylates arrestin on two serines (S392,S397) in the C-terminus and phosphorylation decreases the affinity of arrestin for squid metarhodopsin. Metarhodopsin phosphorylation has very little effect on arrestin binding but does increase arrestin dissociation. PMID:26375013

  10. Proline-directed phosphorylation of the dopamine transporter N-terminal domain

    PubMed Central

    Gorentla, Balachandra K.; Moritz, Amy E.; Foster, James D.; Vaughan, Roxanne A.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the dopamine transporter (DAT) on N-terminal serines and unidentified threonines occurs concomitantly with PKC- and substrate-induced alterations in transporter activity, subcellular distribution, and dopamine efflux, but the residues phosphorylated and identities of protein kinases and phosphatases involved are not known. As one approach to investigating these issues we recombinantly expressed the N-terminal tail of rat DAT (NDAT) and examined its phosphorylation and dephosphorylation properties in vitro. We found that NDAT could be phosphorylated to significant levels by PKCα, PKA, PKG, and CaMKII, which catalyzed serine phosphorylation, and ERK1, JNK, and p38, which catalyzed threonine phosphorylation. We identified Thr53, present in a membrane proximal proline-directed kinase motif as the NDAT site phosphorylated in vitro by ERK1, JNK and p38, and confirmed by peptide mapping and mutagenesis that Thr53 is phosphorylated in vivo. Dephosphorylation studies showed that protein phosphatase 1 catalyzed near-complete in vitro dephosphorylation of PKCα-phosphorylated NDAT, similar to its in vivo and in vitro effects on native DAT. These findings demonstrate the ability of multiple enzymes to directly recognize the DAT N-terminal domain and for kinases to act at multiple distinct sites. The strong correspondence between NDAT and rDAT phosphorylation characteristics suggests the potential for the enzymes that are active on NDAT in vitro to act on DAT in vivo and indicates the usefulness of NDAT for guiding future DAT phosphorylation analyses. PMID:19146407

  11. Abnormal mitosis triggers p53-dependent cell cycle arrest in human tetraploid cells.

    PubMed

    Kuffer, Christian; Kuznetsova, Anastasia Yurievna; Storchová, Zuzana

    2013-08-01

    Erroneously arising tetraploid mammalian cells are chromosomally instable and may facilitate cell transformation. An increasing body of evidence shows that the propagation of mammalian tetraploid cells is limited by a p53-dependent arrest. The trigger of this arrest has not been identified so far. Here we show by live cell imaging of tetraploid cells generated by an induced cytokinesis failure that most tetraploids arrest and die in a p53-dependent manner after the first tetraploid mitosis. Furthermore, we found that the main trigger is a mitotic defect, in particular, chromosome missegregation during bipolar mitosis or spindle multipolarity. Both a transient multipolar spindle followed by efficient clustering in anaphase as well as a multipolar spindle followed by multipolar mitosis inhibited subsequent proliferation to a similar degree. We found that the tetraploid cells did not accumulate double-strand breaks that could cause the cell cycle arrest after tetraploid mitosis. In contrast, tetraploid cells showed increased levels of oxidative DNA damage coinciding with the p53 activation. To further elucidate the pathways involved in the proliferation control of tetraploid cells, we knocked down specific kinases that had been previously linked to the cell cycle arrest and p53 phosphorylation. Our results suggest that the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates p53 in tetraploid cells after abnormal mitosis and thus contributes to proliferation control of human aberrantly arising tetraploids.

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities as a cause of recurrent abortions in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    El-Dahtory, Faeza Abdel Mogib

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 4%-8% of couples with recurrent abortion, at least one of the partners has chromosomal abnormality. Most spontaneous miscarriages which happen in the first and second trimesters are caused by chromosomal abnormalities. These chromosomal abnormalities may be either numerical or structural. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Cytogenetic study was done for 73 Egyptian couples who presented with recurrent abortion at Genetic Unit of Children Hospital, Mansoura University. RESULTS: We found that the frequency of chromosomal abnormalities was not significantly different from that reported worldwide. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 9 (6.1%) of 73 couples. Seven of chromosomal abnormalities were structural and two of them were numerical. CONCLUSION: Our results showed that 6.1% of the couples with recurrent abortion had chromosomal abnormalities, with no other abnormalities. We suggest that it is necessary to perform cytogenetic in vestigation for couples who have recurrent abortion. PMID:22090718

  13. Identification of Phosphorylation Sites Regulating sst3 Somatostatin Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Andreas; Kliewer, Andrea; Günther, Thomas; Nagel, Falko; Schulz, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The human somatostatin receptor 3 (sst3) is expressed in about 50% of all neuroendocrine tumors and hence a promising target for multireceptor somatostatin analogs. The sst3 receptor is unique among ssts in that it exhibits a very long intracellular C-terminal tail containing a huge number of potential phosphate acceptor sites. Consequently, our knowledge about the functional role of the C-terminal tail in sst3 receptor regulation is very limited. Here, we have generated a series of phosphorylation-deficient mutants that enabled us to determine crucial sites for its agonist-induced β-arrestin mobilization, internalization, and down-regulation. Based on this information, we generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for C-terminal Ser(337)/Thr(341), Thr(348), and Ser(361) that enabled us to investigate the temporal patterns of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. We found that the endogenous ligand somatostatin induced a rapid and robust phosphorylation that was completely blocked by the sst3 antagonist NVP-ACQ090. The stable somatostatin analogs pasireotide and octreotide promoted clearly less phosphorylation compared with somatostatin. We also show that sst3 phosphorylation occurred within seconds to minutes, whereas dephosphorylation of the sst3 receptor occurred at a considerable slower rate. In addition, we also identified G protein-coupled receptor kinases 2 and 3 and protein phosphatase 1α and 1β as key regulators of sst3 phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Thus, we here define the C-terminal phosphorylation motif of the human sst3 receptor that regulates its agonist-promoted phosphorylation, β-arrestin recruitment, and internalization of this clinically relevant receptor.

  14. Bak apoptotic function is not directly regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tran, V H; Bartolo, R; Westphal, D; Alsop, A; Dewson, G; Kluck, R M

    2013-01-01

    During apoptosis, Bak and Bax permeabilize the mitochondrial outer membrane by undergoing major conformational change and oligomerization. This activation process in Bak is reported to require dephosphorylation of tyrosine-108 close to an activation trigger site. To investigate how dephosphorylation of Bak contributes to its activation and conformational change, one-dimensional isoelectric focusing (1D-IEF) and mutagenesis was used to monitor Bak phosphorylation. On 1D-IEF, Bak extracted from a range of cell types migrated as a single band near the predicted isoelectric point of 5.6 both before and after phosphatase treatment, indicating that Bak is not significantly phosphorylated at any residue. In contrast, three engineered 'phosphotagged' Bak variants showed a second band at lower pI, indicating phosphorylation. Apoptosis induced by several stimuli failed to alter Bak pI, indicating little change in phosphorylation status. In addition, alanine substitution of tyrosine-108 and other putative phosphorylation sites failed to enhance Bak activation or pro-apoptotic function. In summary, Bak is not significantly phosphorylated at any residue, and Bak activation during apoptosis does not require dephosphorylation. PMID:23303126

  15. Protein phosphorylation in isolated hepatocytes of septic and endotoxemic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Deaciuc, I.V.; Spitzer, J.A. )

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate possible alterations induced by sepsis and endotoxicosis in the late phase of Ca2+-dependent signaling in rat liver. Hepatocytes isolated from septic or chronically endotoxin (ET)-treated rats were labeled with (32P)H3PO4 and stimulated with various agents. Proteins were resolved by one-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiographed. Vasopressin (VP)- and phenylephrine (PE)-induced responses were attenuated in both septic and ET-treated rats for cytosolic and membrane proteins compared with their respective controls. Glucagon and 12-O-myristate phorbol-13-acetate (TPA) affected only the phosphorylation of membrane proteins. Glucagon-induced changes in the phosphorylation of membrane proteins were affected by both sepsis and endotoxicosis, whereas TPA-stimulated phosphorylation was lowered only in endotoxicosis. Response to the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 was depressed in septic rats for cytosolic proteins. The phosphorylation of two cytosolic proteins, i.e., 93 and 61 kDa (previously identified as glycogen phosphorylase and pyruvate kinase, respectively), in response to VP, PE, and A23187 was severely impaired by endotoxicosis and sepsis. TPA did not affect the phosphorylation state of these two proteins. The results show that sepsis and endotoxicosis produce perturbations of the phosphorylation step in Ca2+ transmembrane signaling. Such changes can explain alterations of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis associated with sepsis and endotoxicosis.

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation of clathrin heavy chain under oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Ihara, Yoshito; Yasuoka, Chie; Kageyama, Kan; Wada, Yoshinao; Kondo, Takahito

    2002-09-20

    In mouse pancreatic insulin-producing betaTC cells, oxidative stress due to H(2)O(2) causes tyrosine phosphorylation in various proteins. To identify proteins bearing phosphotyrosine under stress, the proteins were affinity purified using an anti-phosphotyrosine antibody-conjugated agarose column. A protein of 180kDa was identified as clathrin heavy chain (CHC) by electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Immunoprecipitated CHC showed tyrosine phosphorylation upon H(2)O(2) treatment and the phosphorylation was suppressed by the Src kinase inhibitor, PP2. The phosphorylation status of CHC affected the intracellular localization of CHC and the clathrin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin under oxidative stress. In conclusion, CHC is a protein that is phosphorylated at tyrosine by H(2)O(2) and this phosphorylation status is implicated in the intracellular localization and functions of CHC under oxidative stress. The present study demonstrates that oxidative stress affects intracellular vesicular trafficking via the alteration of clathrin-dependent vesicular trafficking. PMID:12237126

  17. Phosphorylation at Connexin43 Serine-368 Is Necessary for Myocardial Conduction During Metabolic Stress.

    PubMed

    Nassal, Michelle M J; Werdich, Andreas A; Wan, Xiaoping; Hoshi, Malcolm; Deschênes, Isabelle; Rosenbaum, David S; Donahue, J Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Connexin43 (Cx43) phosphorylation alters gap junction localization and function. In particular, phosphorylation at serine-368 (S368) has been suggested to alter gap junctional conductance, but previous reports have shown inconsistent results for both timing and functional effects of S368 phosphorylation. The objective of this study was to determine the functional effects of isolated S368 phosphorylation. We evaluated wild-type Cx43 (AdCx43) and mutations simulating permanent phosphorylation (Ad368E) or preventing phosphorylation (Ad368A) at S368. Function was assessed by optical mapping of electrical conduction in patterned cultures of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes, under baseline and metabolic stress (MS) conditions. Baseline conduction velocity (CV) was similar for all groups. In the AdCx43 and Ad368E groups, MS moderately decreased CV. Ad368A caused complete conduction block during MS. Triton-X solubility assessment showed no change in Cx43 location during conduction impairment. Western blot analysis showed that Cx43-S368 phosphorylation was present at baseline, and that it decreased during MS. Our data indicate that phosphorylation at S368 does not affect CV under baseline conditions, and that preventing S368 phosphorylation makes Cx43 hypersensitive to MS. These results show the critical role of S368 phosphorylation during stress conditions.

  18. Protein kinase C catalyses the phosphorylation and activation of rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, M; Pajares, M A; Renart, M F; Mato, J M

    1987-01-01

    When a partially purified rat liver phospholipid methyltransferase is incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP and rat brain protein kinase C, phospholipid methyltransferase (Mr 50,000, pI 4.75) becomes phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of the enzyme showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase was accompanied by an approx. 2-fold activation of the enzyme activity. Activity changes and enzyme phosphorylation showed the same time course. Activation of the enzyme also showed Ca2+/lipid-dependency. Protein kinase C mediates phosphorylation of predominantly serine residues of the methyltransferase. One major peak of phosphorylation was identified by analysis of tryptic phosphopeptides by isoelectrofocusing. This peak (pI 5.2) differs from that phosphorylated by the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (pI 7.2), demonstrating the specificity of phosphorylation of protein kinase C. Tryptic-peptide mapping by h.p.l.c. of the methyltransferase phosphorylated by protein kinase C revealed one major peak of radioactivity, which could be resolved into two labelled phosphopeptides by t.l.c. The significance of protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of phospholipid methyltransferase is discussed. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:3593229

  19. Feeling Abnormal: Simulation of Deviancy in Abnormal and Exceptionality Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Charles D.

    1980-01-01

    Describes activity in which student in abnormal psychology and psychology of exceptional children classes personally experience being judged abnormal. The experience allows the students to remember relevant research, become sensitized to the feelings of individuals classified as deviant, and use caution in classifying individuals as abnormal.…

  20. Smooth muscle phosphatase is regulated in vivo by exclusion of phosphorylation of threonine 696 of MYPT1 by phosphorylation of Serine 695 in response to cyclic nucleotides.

    PubMed

    Wooldridge, Anne A; MacDonald, Justin A; Erdodi, Ferenc; Ma, Chaoyu; Borman, Meredith A; Hartshorne, David J; Haystead, Timothy A J

    2004-08-13

    Regulation of smooth muscle myosin phosphatase (SMPP-1M) is thought to be a primary mechanism for explaining Ca(2+) sensitization/desensitization in smooth muscle. Ca(2+) sensitization induced by activation of G protein-coupled receptors acting through RhoA involves phosphorylation of Thr-696 (of the human isoform) of the myosin targeting subunit (MYPT1) of SMPP-1M inhibiting activity. In contrast, agonists that elevate intracellular cGMP and cAMP promote Ca(2+) desensitization in smooth muscle through apparent activation of SMPP-1M. We show that cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG)/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) efficiently phosphorylates MYPT1 in vitro at Ser-692, Ser-695, and Ser-852 (numbering for human isoform). Although phosphorylation of MYPT1 by PKA/PKG has no direct effect on SMPP-1M activity, a primary site of phosphorylation is Ser-695, which is immediately adjacent to the inactivating Thr-696. In vitro, phosphorylation of Ser-695 by PKA/PKG appeared to prevent phosphorylation of Thr-696 by MYPT1K. In ileum smooth muscle, Ser-695 showed a 3-fold increase in phosphorylation in response to 8-bromo-cGMP. Addition of constitutively active recombinant MYPT1K to permeabilized smooth muscles caused phosphorylation of Thr-696 and Ca(2+) sensitization; however, this phosphorylation was blocked by preincubation with 8-bromo-cGMP. These findings suggest a mechanism of Ca(2+) desensitization in smooth muscle that involves mutual exclusion of phosphorylation, whereby phosphorylation of Ser-695 prevents phosphorylation of Thr-696 and therefore inhibition of SMPP-1M.

  1. Phosphorylation stoichiometry determination in plant photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Ingelsson, Björn; Fristedt, Rikard; Turkina, Maria V

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes different strategies for the study of phosphorylation dynamics and stoichiometry in photosynthetic membranes. Detailed procedures for the detection, large-scale identification, and quantification of phosphorylated proteins optimized for plant thylakoid proteins are given. PMID:25930698

  2. Abnormal human sex chromosome constitutions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 22, discusses abnormal human sex chromosome constitution. Aneuploidy of X chromosomes with a female phenotype, sex chromosome aneuploidy with a male phenotype, and various abnormalities in X chromosome behavior are described. 31 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home About iChip Articles Directories Videos Resources Contact Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Home » Article Categories » Exercise and Fitness Font Size: A A A A Exercises to Improve Gait Abnormalities Next Page The manner ...

  4. Structural Basis for Inactivation of the Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex by Phosphorylation: Role of Disordered Phosphorylation Loops

    SciTech Connect

    Kato, Masato; Wynn, R. Max; Chuang, Jacinta L.; Tso, Shih-Chia; Machius, Mischa; Li, Jun; Chuang, David T.

    2009-09-11

    We report the crystal structures of the phosporylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1p) component of the human pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). The complete phosphorylation at Ser264-{alpha} (site 1) of a variant E1p protein was achieved using robust pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 free of the PDC core. We show that unlike its unmodified counterpart, the presence of a phosphoryl group at Ser264-{alpha} prevents the cofactor thiamine diphosphate-induced ordering of the two loops carrying the three phosphorylation sites. The disordering of these phosphorylation loops is caused by a previously unrecognized steric clash between the phosphoryl group at site 1 and a nearby Ser266-{alpha}, which nullifies a hydrogen-bonding network essential for maintaining the loop conformations. The disordered phosphorylation loops impede the binding of lipoyl domains of the PDC core to E1p, negating the reductive acetylation step. This results in the disruption of the substrate channeling in the PDC, leading to the inactivation of this catalytic machine.

  5. Abnormal ionization in sonoluminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen-Juan; An, Yu

    2015-04-01

    Sonoluminescence is a complex phenomenon, the mechanism of which remains unclear. The present study reveals that an abnormal ionization process is likely to be present in the sonoluminescing bubble. To fit the experimental data of previous studies, we assume that the ionization energies of the molecules and atoms in the bubble decrease as the gas density increases and that the decrease of the ionization energy reaches about 60%-70% as the bubble flashes, which is difficult to explain by using previous models. Project supported by the Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (Grant No. 20120002110031) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11334005).

  6. Cofilin/Twinstar Phosphorylation Levels Increase in Response to Impaired Coenzyme A Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Siudeja, Katarzyna; Grzeschik, Nicola A.; Rana, Anil; de Jong, Jannie; Sibon, Ody C. M.

    2012-01-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA) is a pantothenic acid-derived metabolite essential for many fundamental cellular processes including energy, lipid and amino acid metabolism. Pantothenate kinase (PANK), which catalyses the first step in the conversion of pantothenic acid to CoA, has been associated with a rare neurodegenerative disorder PKAN. However, the consequences of impaired PANK activity are poorly understood. Here we use Drosophila and human neuronal cell cultures to show how PANK deficiency leads to abnormalities in F-actin organization. Cells with reduced PANK activity are characterized by abnormally high levels of phosphorylated cofilin, a conserved actin filament severing protein. The increased levels of phospho-cofilin coincide with morphological changes of PANK-deficient Drosophila S2 cells and human neuronal SHSY-5Y cells. The latter exhibit also markedly reduced ability to form neurites in culture – a process that is strongly dependent on actin remodeling. Our results reveal a novel and conserved link between a metabolic biosynthesis pathway, and regulation of cellular actin dynamics. PMID:22912811

  7. Abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Amir A; Grace, Norman D

    2009-01-01

    Abnormalities in hematological indices are frequently encountered in cirrhosis. Multiple causes contribute to the occurrence of hematological abnormalities. Recent studies suggest that the presence of hematological cytopenias is associated with a poor prognosis in cirrhosis. The present article reviews the pathogenesis, incidence, prevalence, clinical significance and treatment of abnormal hematological indices in cirrhosis. PMID:19543577

  8. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WW proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reuven, Nina; Shanzer, Matan

    2015-01-01

    A number of key regulatory proteins contain one or two copies of the WW domain known to mediate protein–protein interaction via proline-rich motifs, such as PPxY. The Hippo pathway components take advantage of this module to transduce tumor suppressor signaling. It is becoming evident that tyrosine phosphorylation is a critical regulator of the WW proteins. Here, we review the current knowledge on the involved tyrosine kinases and their roles in regulating the WW proteins. PMID:25627656

  9. Tyrosine phosphorylation and bacterial virulence

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Sarah E; Lamont, Richard J

    2012-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine has emerged as a key device in the control of numerous cellular functions in bacteria. In this article, we review the structure and function of bacterial tyrosine kinases and phosphatases. Phosphorylation is catalyzed by autophosphorylating adenosine triphosphate-dependent enzymes (bacterial tyrosine (BY) kinases) that are characterized by the presence of Walker motifs. The reverse reaction is catalyzed by three classes of enzymes: the eukaryotic-like phosphatases (PTPs) and dual-specific phosphatases; the low molecular weight protein-tyrosine phosphatases (LMW-PTPs); and the polymerase–histidinol phosphatases (PHP). Many BY kinases and tyrosine phosphatases can utilize host cell proteins as substrates, thereby contributing to bacterial pathogenicity. Bacterial tyrosine phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is also involved in biofilm formation and community development. The Porphyromonas gingivalis tyrosine phosphatase Ltp1 is involved in a restraint pathway that regulates heterotypic community development with Streptococcus gordonii. Ltp1 is upregulated by contact with S. gordonii and Ltp1 activity controls adhesin expression and levels of the interspecies signal AI-2. PMID:22388693

  10. Akt phosphorylation is essential for nuclear translocation and retention in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Truong Le Xuan Nguyen; Choi, Joung Woo; Lee, Sang Bae; Ye, Keqiang; Woo, Soo-Dong; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Ahn, Jee-Yin . E-mail: jyahn@med.skku.ac.kr

    2006-10-20

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits Akt translocation into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Here, we describe that Akt phosphorylation can promote the nuclear translocation of Akt and is necessary for its nuclear retention. Overexpression of Akt-K179A, T308A, S473A-mutant failed to show either nuclear translocation or nuclear Akt phosphorylation, whereas expression of wild-type counterpart elicited profound Akt phosphorylation and induced nuclear translocation under NGF stimulation. Employing the PI3K inhibitor and a variety of mutants PI3K, we showed that nuclear translocation of Akt was mediated by activation of PI3K, and Akt phosphorylation status in the nucleus required PI3K activity. Thus the activity of PI3K might contribute to the nuclear translocation of Akt, and that Akt phosphorylation is essential for its nuclear retention under NGF stimulation conditions.

  11. Loss of prion protein leads to age-dependent behavioral abnormalities and changes in cytoskeletal protein expression.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Matthias; Greis, Catharina; Ottis, Philipp; Silva, Christopher J; Schulz-Schaeffer, Walter J; Wrede, Arne; Koppe, Katharina; Onisko, Bruce; Requena, Jesús R; Govindarajan, Nambirajan; Korth, Carsten; Fischer, Andre; Zerr, Inga

    2014-12-01

    The cellular prion protein (PrPC) is a highly conserved protein whose exact physiological role remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated age-dependent behavioral abnormalities in PrPC-knockout (Prnp0/0) mice and wild-type (WT) controls. Prnp0/0 mice showed age-dependent behavioral deficits in memory performance, associative learning, basal anxiety, and nest building behavior. Using a hypothesis-free quantitative proteomic investigation, we found that loss of PrPC affected the levels of neurofilament proteins in an age-dependent manner. In order to understand the biochemical basis of these observations, we analyzed the phosphorylation status of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H). We found a reduction in NF-H phosphorylation in both Prnp0/0 mice and in PrPC-deficient cells. The expression of Fyn and phospho-Fyn, a potential regulator for NF phosphorylation, was associated with PrPC ablation. The number of β-tubulin III-positive neurons in the hippocampus was diminished in Prnp0/0 mice relative to WT mice. These data indicate that PrPC plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization, brain function, and age-related neuroprotection. Our work represents the first direct biochemical link between these proteins and the observed behavioral phenotypes.

  12. Is phosphorylated tau unique to chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Phosphorylated tau in epileptic brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Puvenna, Vikram; Engeler, Madeline; Banjara, Manoj; Brennan, Chanda; Schreiber, Peter; Dadas, Aaron; Bahrami, Ashkon; Solanki, Jesal; Bandyopadhyay, Anasua; Morris, Jacqueline K; Bernick, Charles; Ghosh, Chaitali; Rapp, Edward; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Janigro, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) is one of the major risk factors for the abnormal deposition of phosphorylated tau (PT) in the brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affect the limbic system, but no comparative studies on PT distribution in TLE and CTE are available. It is also unclear whether PT pathology results from repeated head hits (rTBI). These gaps prevent a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical significance of PT, limiting our ability to develop preventative and therapeutic interventions. We quantified PT in TLE and CTE to unveil whether a history of rTBI is a prerequisite for PT accumulation in the brain. Six postmortem CTE (mean 73.3 years) and age matched control samples were compared to 19 surgically resected TLE brain specimens (4 months-58 years; mean 27.6 years). No history of TBI was present in TLE or control; all CTE patients had a history of rTBI. TLE and CTE brain displayed increased levels of PT as revealed by immunohistochemistry. No age-dependent changes were noted, as PT was present as early as 4 months after birth. In TLE and CTE, cortical neurons, perivascular regions around penetrating pial vessels and meninges were immunopositive for PT; white matter tracts also displayed robust expression of extracellular PT organized in bundles parallel to venules. Microscopically, there were extensive tau-immunoreactive neuronal, astrocytic and degenerating neurites throughout the brain. In CTE perivascular tangles were most prominent. Overall, significant differences in staining intensities were found between CTE and control (P<0.01) but not between CTE and TLE (P=0.08). pS199 tau analysis showed that CTE had the most high molecular weight tangle-associated tau, whereas epileptic brain contained low molecular weight tau. Tau deposition may not be specific to rTBI since TLE recapitulated most of the pathological features of CTE. PMID:26556772

  13. Is phosphorylated tau unique to chronic traumatic encephalopathy? Phosphorylated tau in epileptic brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Puvenna, Vikram; Engeler, Madeline; Banjara, Manoj; Brennan, Chanda; Schreiber, Peter; Dadas, Aaron; Bahrami, Ashkon; Solanki, Jesal; Bandyopadhyay, Anasua; Morris, Jacqueline K; Bernick, Charles; Ghosh, Chaitali; Rapp, Edward; Bazarian, Jeffrey J; Janigro, Damir

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive traumatic brain injury (rTBI) is one of the major risk factors for the abnormal deposition of phosphorylated tau (PT) in the brain and chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). CTE and temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) affect the limbic system, but no comparative studies on PT distribution in TLE and CTE are available. It is also unclear whether PT pathology results from repeated head hits (rTBI). These gaps prevent a thorough understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical significance of PT, limiting our ability to develop preventative and therapeutic interventions. We quantified PT in TLE and CTE to unveil whether a history of rTBI is a prerequisite for PT accumulation in the brain. Six postmortem CTE (mean 73.3 years) and age matched control samples were compared to 19 surgically resected TLE brain specimens (4 months-58 years; mean 27.6 years). No history of TBI was present in TLE or control; all CTE patients had a history of rTBI. TLE and CTE brain displayed increased levels of PT as revealed by immunohistochemistry. No age-dependent changes were noted, as PT was present as early as 4 months after birth. In TLE and CTE, cortical neurons, perivascular regions around penetrating pial vessels and meninges were immunopositive for PT; white matter tracts also displayed robust expression of extracellular PT organized in bundles parallel to venules. Microscopically, there were extensive tau-immunoreactive neuronal, astrocytic and degenerating neurites throughout the brain. In CTE perivascular tangles were most prominent. Overall, significant differences in staining intensities were found between CTE and control (P<0.01) but not between CTE and TLE (P=0.08). pS199 tau analysis showed that CTE had the most high molecular weight tangle-associated tau, whereas epileptic brain contained low molecular weight tau. Tau deposition may not be specific to rTBI since TLE recapitulated most of the pathological features of CTE.

  14. Modelling the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Korla, Kalyani; Mitra, Chanchal K

    2014-01-01

    The Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation are the two most important sets of reactions in a eukaryotic cell that meet the major part of the total energy demands of a cell. In this paper, we present a computer simulation of the coupled reactions using open source tools for simulation. We also show that it is possible to model the Krebs cycle with a simple black box with a few inputs and outputs. However, the kinetics of the internal processes has been modelled using numerical tools. We also show that the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation together can be combined in a similar fashion - a black box with a few inputs and outputs. The Octave script is flexible and customisable for any chosen set-up for this model. In several cases, we had no explicit idea of the underlying reaction mechanism and the rate determining steps involved, and we have used the stoichiometric equations that can be easily changed as and when more detailed information is obtained. The script includes the feedback regulation of the various enzymes of the Krebs cycle. For the electron transport chain, the pH gradient across the membrane is an essential regulator of the kinetics and this has been modelled empirically but fully consistent with experimental results. The initial conditions can be very easily changed and the simulation is potentially very useful in a number of cases of clinical importance.

  15. Global phosphoproteomic analysis of Daphnia pulex reveals evolutionary conservation of Ser/Thr/Tyr phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Kwang; Sim, JuHee; Yun, Ki Na; Kim, Jin Young; Lee, Sangkyu

    2014-03-01

    Reversible protein phosphorylations of serine, threonine, and tyrosine are critical processes in organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. Water fleas (Daphnids) have been used widely in ecologic and ecotoxicological studies, with more than 80% of ecotoxicological publications over the last 10 years involving planktonic genera, including Daphnia. However, the substrate proteins and the functions of phosphorylation in Daphnia remain largely unknown. Here, we report the first global screening of phosphoproteins and their sites of phosphorylation in D. pulex. We identified 103 phosphorylation sites in 91 Daphnia proteins by phosphopeptide enrichment using titanium dioxide isolation technology and an online two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) system supported by high accuracy mass spectrometry. The identified Serine/threonine/tyrosine phosphorylation sites showed enrichment in the unstructured regions. Using Gene Ontology analysis, phosphorylated proteins were identified mainly as membrane proteins with essential biological roles such as protein binding, catalytic activity and nucleotide binding. BLASTP searching identified 21 phosphorylated sites in 20 D. pulex proteins that were evolutionally conserved between D. pulex and human. Here, we report the phosphorylation in Daphnia proteins and the predicted biological and functional roles of these phosphorylations. D. pulex might provide a promising model for examining the role of phosphorylation in biological functions.

  16. An allosteric model of circadian KaiC phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    van Zon, Jeroen S.; Lubensky, David K.; Altena, Pim R. H.; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2007-01-01

    In a recent series of ground-breaking experiments, Nakajima et al. [Nakajima M, Imai K, Ito H, Nishiwaki T, Murayama Y, Iwasaki H, Oyama T, Kondo T (2005) Science 308:414–415] showed that the three cyanobacterial clock proteins KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC are sufficient in vitro to generate circadian phosphorylation of KaiC. Here, we present a mathematical model of the Kai system. At its heart is the assumption that KaiC can exist in two conformational states, one favoring phosphorylation and the other dephosphorylation. Each individual KaiC hexamer then has a propensity to be phosphorylated in a cyclic manner. To generate macroscopic oscillations, however, the phosphorylation cycles of the different hexamers must be synchronized. We propose a novel synchronization mechanism based on differential affinity: KaiA stimulates KaiC phosphorylation, but the limited supply of KaiA dimers binds preferentially to those KaiC hexamers that are falling behind in the oscillation. KaiB sequesters KaiA and stabilizes the dephosphorylating KaiC state. We show that our model can reproduce a wide range of published data, including the observed insensitivity of the oscillation period to variations in temperature, and that it makes nontrivial predictions about the effects of varying the concentrations of the Kai proteins. PMID:17460047

  17. A Rare Stapes Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Kanona, Hala; Virk, Jagdeep Singh; Kumar, Gaurav; Chawda, Sanjiv; Khalil, Sherif

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to increase awareness of rare presentations, diagnostic difficulties alongside management of conductive hearing loss and ossicular abnormalities. We report the case of a 13-year-old female reporting progressive left-sided hearing loss and high resolution computed tomography was initially reported as normal. Exploratory tympanotomy revealed an absent stapedius tendon and lack of connection between the stapes superstructure and footplate. The footplate was fixed. Stapedotomy and stapes prosthesis insertion resulted in closure of the air-bone gap by 50 dB. A review of world literature was performed using MedLine. Middle ear ossicular discontinuity can result in significant conductive hearing loss. This can be managed effectively with surgery to help restore hearing. However, some patients may not be suitable or decline surgical intervention and can be managed safely conservatively. PMID:25628909

  18. Integrin Ligation Results in Nephrin Tyrosine Phosphorylation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rakesh; Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Kalinowski, Anne; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R.; Garg, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Nephrin is expressed at the basolateral aspect of podocytes and is an important signaling protein at the glomerular slit diaphragm. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Nephrin phosphorylation-dependent signaling is able to assemble a protein complex that is able to polymerize actin. However, proximal signaling events that result in nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation are not well understood. Nephrin deletion in mice and human nephrin mutations result in developmental failure of the podocyte intercellular junction resutling in proteinuria. This has been presumed to be due to a failure to respond to an external polarized cue in the absence of nephrin or a failure to transduce an outside-in signal in patients with nephrin mutations. The nephrin extracellular domain binds to itself or neph1 across the foot process intercellular junction. Nephrin is tyrosine phosphorylation-silent in healthy glomeruli when presumably the nephrin extracellular domain is in an engaged state. These observations raise the possibility of an alternate proximal signaling mechanism that might be responsible for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we present data showing that integrin engagement at the basal aspect of cultured podocytes results in nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation. This is abrogated by incubating podocytes with an antibody that prevents integrin β1 ligation and activation in response to binding to extracellular matrix. Furthermore, nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in podocytes expressing a membrane-targeted nephrin construct that lacks the extracellular domain. We propose, integrin-activation based signaling might be responsible for nephrin phosphorylation rather than engagment of the nephrin extracellular domain by a ligand. PMID:26848974

  19. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-01-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana. However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4–7 and 8–12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  20. dimerization and DNA binding alter phosphorylation of Fos and Jun

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, C.; Baker, S.J.; Curran, T. ); Lees-Miller, S.P.; Anderson, C.W. ); Marshak, D.R. )

    1993-07-15

    Fos and Jun form dimeric complexes that bind to activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. The levels of expression and activities of these proteins are regulated by a variety of extracellular stimuli. They are thought to function in nuclear signal transduction processes in many different cell types. The role of Fos and Jun in gene transcription is complex and may be regulated in several ways including association with different dimerization partners, interactions with other transcription factors, effects on DNA topology, and reduction/oxidation of a conserved cysteine residue in the DNA-binding domain. In addition, phosphorylation has been suggested to control the activity of Fos and Jun. Here the authors show that phosphorylation of Fos and Jun by several protein kinases is affected by dimerization and binding to DNA. Jun homodimers are phosphorylated efficiently by casein kinase II, whereas Fos-Jun heterodimers are not. DNA binding also reduces phosphorylation of Jun by casein kinase II, p34[sup cdc2] (cdc2) kinase, and protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of Fos by cAMP-dependent protein kinase and cdc2 is relatively insensitive to dimerization and DNA binding, whereas phosphorylation of Fos and Jun by DNA-dependent protein kinase is dramatically stimulated by binding to the AP-1 site. These results imply that different protein kinases can distinguish among Fos and Jun proteins in the form of monomers, homodimers, and heterodimers and between DNA-bound and non-DNA-bound proteins. Thus, potentially, these different states of Fos and Jun can be recognized and regulated independently by phosphorylation. 44 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Abundant protein phosphorylation potentially regulates Arabidopsis anther development.

    PubMed

    Ye, Juanying; Zhang, Zaibao; You, Chenjiang; Zhang, Xumin; Lu, Jianan; Ma, Hong

    2016-09-01

    As the male reproductive organ of flowering plants, the stamen consists of the anther and filament. Previous studies on stamen development mainly focused on single gene functions by genetic methods or gene expression changes using comparative transcriptomic approaches, especially in model plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana However, studies on Arabidopsis anther protein expression and post-translational modifications are still lacking. Here we report proteomic and phosphoproteomic studies on developing Arabidopsis anthers at stages 4-7 and 8-12. We identified 3908 high-confidence phosphorylation sites corresponding to 1637 phosphoproteins. Among the 1637 phosphoproteins, 493 were newly identified, with 952 phosphorylation sites. Phosphopeptide enrichment prior to LC-MS analysis facilitated the identification of low-abundance proteins and regulatory proteins, thereby increasing the coverage of proteomic analysis, and facilitated the analysis of more regulatory proteins. Thirty-nine serine and six threonine phosphorylation motifs were uncovered from the anther phosphoproteome and further analysis supports that phosphorylation of casein kinase II, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and 14-3-3 proteins is a key regulatory mechanism in anther development. Phosphorylated residues were preferentially located in variable protein regions among family members, but they were they were conserved across angiosperms in general. Moreover, phosphorylation might reduce activity of reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes and hamper brassinosteroid signaling in early anther development. Most of the novel phosphoproteins showed tissue-specific expression in the anther according to previous microarray data. This study provides a community resource with information on the abundance and phosphorylation status of thousands of proteins in developing anthers, contributing to understanding post-translational regulatory mechanisms during anther development. PMID:27531888

  2. AMPA, not NMDA, activates RhoA GTPases and subsequently phosphorylates moesin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Jin; Jeon, Songhee; Shin, Eun-Young; Kim, Eung-Gook; Park, Joobae; Bae, Chang-Dae

    2004-02-29

    Glutamate induced rapid phosphorylation of moesin, one of ERM family proteins involved in the ligation of membrane to actin cytoskeleton, in rat hippocampal cells (JBC, 277:16576-16584, 2002). However, the identity of glutamate receptor has not been explored. Here we show that a-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor is responsible for glutamate-induced RhoA activation and phosphorylation of moesin. Glutamate induced phosphorylation at Thr-558 of moesin was still detectible upon chelation of Ca(2+), suggesting involvement of AMPA receptor instead of N-methyl D-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor in this phosphorylation of moesin. AMPA but not NMDA- induced moesin phosphorylation was independent of Ca(2+). Both AMPA and NMDA but not Kainate induced moesin phosphorylation at similar levels. However, the kinetics of phosphorylation varied greatly between AMPA and NMDA where AMPA treatment rapidly increased phosphomoesin, which reached a maximum at 10 min after treatment and returned to a basal level at 30 min. In contrast, NMDA-induced phosphorylation of moesin reached a maximum at 30 min after treatment and was remained at higher levels at 60 min. A possible involvement of RhoA and its downstream effector, Rho kinase in the AMPA receptor-triggered phosphorylation of moesin was also explored. The kinetics for the glutamate- induced membrane translocation of RhoA was similar to that of moesin phosphorylation induced by AMPA. Moreover, Y-27632, a specific Rho kinase inhibitor, completely blocked AMPA-induced moesin phosphorylation but had no effect on NMDA-induced moesin phosphorylation. These results suggest that glutamate-induced phosphorylation of moesin may be mediated through the AMPA receptor/RhoA/Rho kinase pathway.

  3. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of SGEF Regulates RhoG Activity and Cell Migration

    PubMed Central

    Okuyama, Yusuke; Umeda, Kentaro; Negishi, Manabu; Katoh, Hironori

    2016-01-01

    SGEF and Ephexin4 are members of the Ephexin subfamily of RhoGEFs that specifically activate the small GTPase RhoG. It is reported that Ephexin1 and Ephexin5, two well-characterized Ephexin subfamily RhoGEFs, are tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src, and that their phosphorylation affect their activities and functions. In this study, we show that SGEF, but not Ephexin4, is tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src. Tyrosine phosphorylation of SGEF suppresses its interaction with RhoG, the elevation of RhoG activity, and SGEF-mediated promotion of cell migration. We identified tyrosine 530 (Y530), which is located within the Dbl homology domain, as a major phosphorylation site of SGEF by Src, and Y530F mutation blocked the inhibitory effect of Src on SGEF. Taken together, these results suggest that the activity of SGEF is negatively regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation of the DH domain. PMID:27437949

  4. Induction of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages incubated with tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, A; Shrivastava, A; Kumar, R

    1995-03-01

    The cellular and molecular interaction between monocyte/macrophage and tumor cells leading to macrophage activation is not clearly understood. Since protein tyrosine phosphorylation appears to be a major intracellular signalling event, we checked whether the tumor cells alter tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in macrophages. We found that both L929 and Yac-1 tumor cells induced increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several polypeptides in peritoneal as well as P388D-1 and IC-21 macrophages. Macrophages co-cultured with tumor cells also showed increased fluorescence with anti-phosphotyrosine-FITC antibody. These observations suggest that increased tyrosine phosphorylation plays a role in tumor cell-induced activation of macrophages. PMID:7539664

  5. Phosphorylation of Cysteine String Protein Triggers a Major Conformational Switch.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pryank; Prescott, Gerald R; Burgoyne, Robert D; Lian, Lu-Yun; Morgan, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSP) is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 chaperone family that localizes to neuronal synaptic vesicles. Impaired CSP function leads to neurodegeneration in humans and model organisms as a result of misfolding of client proteins involved in neurotransmission. Mammalian CSP is phosphorylated in vivo on Ser10, and this modulates its protein interactions and effects on neurotransmitter release. However, there are no data on the structural consequences of CSP phosphorylation to explain these functional effects. We show that Ser10 phosphorylation causes an order-to-disorder transition that disrupts CSP's extreme N-terminal α helix. This triggers the concomitant formation of a hairpin loop stabilized by ionic interactions between phosphoSer10 and the highly conserved J-domain residue, Lys58. These phosphorylation-induced effects result in significant changes to CSP conformation and surface charge distribution. The phospho-switch revealed here provides structural insight into how Ser10 phosphorylation modulates CSP function and also has potential implications for other DnaJ phosphoproteins.

  6. Phosphorylation of Cysteine String Protein Triggers a Major Conformational Switch.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pryank; Prescott, Gerald R; Burgoyne, Robert D; Lian, Lu-Yun; Morgan, Alan

    2016-08-01

    Cysteine string protein (CSP) is a member of the DnaJ/Hsp40 chaperone family that localizes to neuronal synaptic vesicles. Impaired CSP function leads to neurodegeneration in humans and model organisms as a result of misfolding of client proteins involved in neurotransmission. Mammalian CSP is phosphorylated in vivo on Ser10, and this modulates its protein interactions and effects on neurotransmitter release. However, there are no data on the structural consequences of CSP phosphorylation to explain these functional effects. We show that Ser10 phosphorylation causes an order-to-disorder transition that disrupts CSP's extreme N-terminal α helix. This triggers the concomitant formation of a hairpin loop stabilized by ionic interactions between phosphoSer10 and the highly conserved J-domain residue, Lys58. These phosphorylation-induced effects result in significant changes to CSP conformation and surface charge distribution. The phospho-switch revealed here provides structural insight into how Ser10 phosphorylation modulates CSP function and also has potential implications for other DnaJ phosphoproteins. PMID:27452402

  7. Stable Synaptic Retention of Serine-880-Phosphorylated GluR2 in Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    States, Bradley A.; Khatri, Latika; Ziff, Edward B.

    2008-01-01

    Phosphorylation of S880 within the GluR2 C-terminus has been reported to promote endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) by preventing GluR2 interaction with the putative synaptic anchoring proteins GRIP and ABP. It is not yet established however, whether S880 phosphorylation induces removal of AMPARs from synaptic sites, and the trafficking of phosphorylated GluR2 subunits with surface and endocytosed GluR2 has not been directly compared within the same intact neurons. Here we show that phosphorylation of GluR2 subunits by PKC activated with phorbol esters is compartmentally restricted to receptors located at the cell surface. Endogenous AMPARs containing S880-phosphorylated GluR2 remained highly synaptic and colocalized with post-synaptic markers to the same extent as AMPARs which did not contain S880-phosphorylated GluR2. Moreover, following S880 phosphorylation, exogenous GluR2 homomers were found specifically at the cell surface and did not cotraffic with the internalized endosomal GluR2 population. We also show that GluR2 is endogenously phosphorylated by a constitutively active kinase pharmacologically related to PKC, and this phosphorylation is opposed by the protein phosphatase PP1. Our results demonstrate a population of hippocampal AMPARs which do not require interaction with GRIP/ABP for synaptic anchorage. PMID:18417360

  8. Crystal Structure of a Phosphorylation-coupled Saccharide Transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Y Cao; X Jin; E Levin; H Huang; Y Zong; W Hendrickson; J Javitch; K Rajashankar; M Zhou; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Saccharides have a central role in the nutrition of all living organisms. Whereas several saccharide uptake systems are shared between the different phylogenetic kingdoms, the phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system exists almost exclusively in bacteria. This multi-component system includes an integral membrane protein EIIC that transports saccharides and assists in their phosphorylation. Here we present the crystal structure of an EIIC from Bacillus cereus that transports diacetylchitobiose. The EIIC is a homodimer, with an expansive interface formed between the amino-terminal halves of the two protomers. The carboxy-terminal half of each protomer has a large binding pocket that contains a diacetylchitobiose, which is occluded from both sides of the membrane with its site of phosphorylation near the conserved His250 and Glu334 residues. The structure shows the architecture of this important class of transporters, identifies the determinants of substrate binding and phosphorylation, and provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of sugar translocation.

  9. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic–clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  10. Ictal Cardiac Ryhthym Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Rushna

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac rhythm abnormalities in the context of epilepsy are a well-known phenomenon. However, they are under-recognized and often missed. The pathophysiology of these events is unclear. Bradycardia and asystole are preceded by seizure onset suggesting ictal propagation into the cortex impacting cardiac autonomic function, and the insula and amygdala being possible culprits. Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) refers to the unanticipated death of a patient with epilepsy not related to status epilepticus, trauma, drowning, or suicide. Frequent refractory generalized tonic-clonic seizures, anti-epileptic polytherapy, and prolonged duration of epilepsy are some of the commonly identified risk factors for SUDEP. However, the most consistent risk factor out of these is an increased frequency of generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTC). Prevention of SUDEP is extremely important in patients with chronic, generalized epilepsy. Since increased frequency of GTCS is the most consistently reported risk factor for SUDEP, effective seizure control is the most important preventive strategy. PMID:27347227

  11. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential).

  12. Communication and abnormal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Crown, S

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the similarities between normal and abnormal behaviour are emphasized and selected aspects of communication, normal and aberrant, between persons are explored. Communication in a social system may be verbal or non-verbal: one person's actions cause a response in another person. This response may be cognitive, behavioural or physiological. Communication may be approached through the individual, the social situation or social interaction. Psychoanalysis approaches the individual in terms of the coded communications of psychoneurotic symptoms or psychotic behaviour; the humanist-existential approach is concerned more with emotional expression. Both approaches emphasize the development of individual identity. The interaction between persons and their social background is stressed. Relevant are sociological concepts such as illness behaviour, stigma, labelling, institutionalization and compliance. Two approaches to social interactions are considered: the gamesplaying metaphor, e.g. back pain as a psychosocial manipulation--the 'pain game'; and the 'spiral of reciprocal perspectives' which emphasizes the interactional complexities of social perceptions. Communicatory aspects of psychological treatments are noted: learning a particular metaphor such as 'resolution' of the problem (psychotherapy), learning more 'rewarding' behaviour (learning theory) or learning authenticity or self-actualization (humanist-existential). PMID:261653

  13. Abnormal uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O D

    2016-07-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a common and debilitating condition with high direct and indirect costs. AUB frequently co-exists with fibroids, but the relationship between the two remains incompletely understood and in many women the identification of fibroids may be incidental to a menstrual bleeding complaint. A structured approach for establishing the cause using the Fédération International de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique (FIGO) PALM-COEIN (Polyp, Adenomyosis, Leiomyoma, Malignancy (and hyperplasia), Coagulopathy, Ovulatory disorders, Endometrial, Iatrogenic and Not otherwise classified) classification system will facilitate accurate diagnosis and inform treatment options. Office hysteroscopy and increasing sophisticated imaging will assist provision of robust evidence for the underlying cause. Increased availability of medical options has expanded the choice for women and many will no longer need to recourse to potentially complicated surgery. Treatment must remain individualised and encompass the impact of pressure symptoms, desire for retention of fertility and contraceptive needs, as well as address the management of AUB in order to achieve improved quality of life. PMID:26803558

  14. Abortion for fetal abnormality.

    PubMed

    Maclean, N E

    1979-07-25

    I wish to thank Dr. Pauline Bennett for her reply (NZ Med J, 13 June). She has demonstrated well that in dealing with sensitive difficult issues such as abortion for fetal abnormality, the one thing the doctor is not recommended to do is to speak the truth] I am prompted to write this letter for 2 reasons. Firstly, the excellent letter written by Dr. A. M. Rutherford (NZ Med J, 13 June) on the subject of abortion stated, "The most disturbing feature about the whole controversy is the 'blunting of our conscience'." When the doctors are not encouraged to be honest with patients then indeed our conscience has been blunted. Secondly, I watched Holocaust last night, and cannot refrain from stating that I see frightening parallels between our liberal abortion policy and the activities of the Nazis. As I watched the "mental patients" being herded into the shed for gassing by the polite, tidy, white coated medical staff, and then heard the compassionate, sensitive, letter of the hospital authorities to the relatives of the deceased, the parallel became obvious. The mental patients were weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic; the unborn are weak, defenseless, burdensome, and uneconomic. The hospital authority's letter was acceptable in many ways, acceptable except that its words bore no relation to the truth. It is said that the "first casualty of war is the truth". Whether that war involves the Jews, or the insane, or the unborn, the statement would seem correct.

  15. Rapid flow cytometric measurement of cytokine-induced phosphorylation pathways [CIPP] in human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Montag, David T; Lotze, Michael T

    2006-11-01

    Current strategies designed to assess cells in the peripheral blood are limited to evaluation of phenotype or delayed measurement [>6 h] of function, usually quantifying cytokine production, cytolytic activity, or response to antigens. We reasoned that measurable abnormalities in signaling pathways could reflect pathological environs that cells experience in the setting of inflammatory states/cancer and could be represented in the peripheral blood. Two major pathways regulating the immune response are the JAK/STAT and MAPK/ERK pathways. These pathways are initiated by ligand-receptor binding and are rapidly propagated by subsequent protein phosphorylation cascades. We evaluated the brief application of cytokines in vitro to interrogate the early phosphorylation events of these signaling pathways in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Individual cytokine doses and time intervals of treatment were assessed to identify conditions useful in a clinical laboratory and as an initial goal to induce maximal phosphorylation. Surprisingly, all of the STAT proteins assessed and ERK1/2 are maximally phosphorylated within 15 min in human PBMC simply following addition of cytokines without preactivation of the cells. At 2 h, cells typically return to their basal phosphorylation states. For most of the cytokines tested, increased phosphorylation directly correlated with increased concentrations of the individual cytokines. These strategies will enable robust development of simple blood analyses to identify normal levels as well as impairments in STAT and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways associated with various human disease states including acute and chronic inflammatory conditions throughout clinical immunology.

  16. Proteomic investigation of phosphorylation sites in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Moreel, Xavier; Gagné, Pierre; Labelle, Yves; Droit, Arnaud; Chevalier-Paré, Mélissa; Bourassa, Sylvie; McDonald, Darin; Hendzel, Michael J; Prigent, Claude; Poirier, Guy G

    2009-02-01

    Phosphorylation is a very common post-translational modification event known to modulate a wide range of biological responses. Beyond the regulation of protein activity, the interrelation of phosphorylation with other post-translational mechanisms is responsible for the control of diverse signaling pathways. Several observations suggest that phosphorylation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) regulates its activity. There is also accumulating evidence to suggest the establishment of phosphorylation-dependent assembly of PARP-1-associated multiprotein complexes. Although it is relatively straightforward to demonstrate phosphorylation of a defined target, identification of the actual amino acids involved still represents a technical challenge for many laboratories. With the use of a combination of bioinformatics-based predictions tools for generic and kinase-specific phosphorylation sites, in vitro phosphorylation assays and mass spectrometry analysis, we investigated the phosphorylation profile of PARP-1 and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase (PARG), two major enzymes responsible for poly(ADP-ribose) turnover. Mass spectrometry analysis revealed the phosphorylation of several serine/threonine residues within important regulatory domains and motifs of both enzymes. With the use of in vivo microirradiation-induced DNA damage, we show that altered phosphorylation at specific sites can modify the dynamics of assembly and disassembly of PARP-1 at sites of DNA damage. By documenting and annotating a collection of known and newly identified phosphorylation sites, this targeted proteomics study significantly advances our understanding of the roles of phosphorylation in the regulation of PARP-1 and PARG.

  17. Salt stress-induced protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Godoy, J.A.; Torres-Schumann, S.; Llobell, A.; Pintor-Toro, J.A.

    1989-04-01

    Protein phosphorylation induced by salt stress in tomato germinating seeds were investigated by two-dimensional polyacrilamide gel electrophoresis of proteins labeled in vivo with ({sup 32}P)-Phosphate. NaCl induced the phosphorylation of a 14 Kd polypeptide. Pulse-chase experiments revealed that the phosphorylated molecules of this polypeptide are only stable while the stress is present. Phosphorylated 14 Kd polypeptides could be detected in radicles of salt-shocked seedlings after 6 hours stress period. 14 Kd polypeptide phosphorylation was also observed in seeds germinating in the presence of abscisic acid (ABA). The amount of phosphorylated 14 Kd polypeptide was significantly increased in seeds treated simultaneously with NaCl and ABA.

  18. Stomatocytosis, abnormal platelets and pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Stewart, G W; O'Brien, H; Morris, S A; Owen, J S; Lloyd, J K; Ames, J A

    1987-04-01

    A 13-yr-old girl with congenital haemolytic anaemia associated with pseudo-homozygous hypercholesterolaemia is described. The erythrocyte morphology showed 50-80% stomatocytes, but no abnormality of membrane lipid or protein composition or of cation transport was detected. The platelets were reduced in number, abnormally large and showed reduced adhesion. Successful treatment of the hypercholesterolaemia did not influence the stomatocytosis.

  19. Phosphorylation statuses at different residues of lamin B2, B1, and A/C dynamically and independently change throughout the cell cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Kuga, Takahisa; Nozaki, Naohito; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Tomonaga, Takeshi

    2010-08-15

    Lamins, major components of the nuclear lamina, undergo phosphorylation at multiple residues during cell cycle progression, but their detailed phosphorylation kinetics remain largely undetermined. Here, we examined changes in the phosphorylation of major phosphorylation residues (Thr14, Ser17, Ser385, Ser387, and Ser401) of lamin B2 and the homologous residues of lamin B1, A/C during the cell cycle using novel antibodies to the site-specific phosphorylation. The phosphorylation levels of these residues independently changed during the cell cycle. Thr14 and Ser17 were phosphorylated during G{sub 2}/M phase to anaphase/telophase. Ser385 was persistently phosphorylated during mitosis to G{sub 1} phase, whereas Ser387 was phosphorylated discontinuously in prophase and G{sub 1} phase. Ser401 phosphorylation was enhanced in the G{sub 1}/S boundary. Immunoprecipitation using the phospho-antibodies suggested that metaphase-phosphorylation at Thr14, Ser17, and Ser385 of lamins occurred simultaneously, whereas G{sub 1}-phase phosphorylation at Ser385 and Ser387 occurred in distinct pools or with different timings. Additionally, we showed that lamin B2 phosphorylated at Ser17, but not Ser385, Ser387 and Ser401, was exclusively non-ionic detergent soluble, depolymerized forms in growing cells, implicating specific involvement of Ser17 phosphorylation in lamin depolymerization and nuclear envelope breakdown. These results suggest that the phosphorylations at different residues of lamins might play specific roles throughout the cell cycle.

  20. Anxiolytic action of pterostilbene: involvement of hippocampal ERK phosphorylation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pterostilbene, a natural analog of resveratrol, has diverse health-beneficial properties. However, the neurological activities of this compound are largely unexplored. Here we report that pterostilbene shows anxiolytic action by downregulating phosphorylated levels of ERKs in the hippocampus of mice...

  1. Stabilization of Microtubule-Unbound Tau via Tau Phosphorylation at Ser262/356 by Par-1/MARK Contributes to Augmentation of AD-Related Phosphorylation and Aβ42-Induced Tau Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Kanae; Maruko-Otake, Akiko; Ohtake, Yosuke; Hayashishita, Motoki; Sekiya, Michiko; Iijima, Koichi M.

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal accumulation of the microtubule-interacting protein tau is associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). β-amyloid (Aβ) lies upstream of abnormal tau behavior, including detachment from microtubules, phosphorylation at several disease-specific sites, and self-aggregation into toxic tau species in AD brains. To prevent the cascade of events leading to neurodegeneration in AD, it is essential to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the initial events of tau mismetabolism. Currently, however, these mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using transgenic Drosophila co-expressing human tau and Aβ, we found that tau phosphorylation at AD-related Ser262/356 stabilized microtubule-unbound tau in the early phase of tau mismetabolism, leading to neurodegeneration. Aβ increased the level of tau detached from microtubules, independent of the phosphorylation status at GSK3-targeted SP/TP sites. Such mislocalized tau proteins, especially the less phosphorylated species, were stabilized by phosphorylation at Ser262/356 via PAR-1/MARK. Levels of Ser262 phosphorylation were increased by Aβ42, and blocking this stabilization of tau suppressed Aβ42-mediated augmentation of tau toxicity and an increase in the levels of tau phosphorylation at the SP/TP site Thr231, suggesting that this process may be involved in AD pathogenesis. In contrast to PAR-1/MARK, blocking tau phosphorylation at SP/TP sites by knockdown of Sgg/GSK3 did not reduce tau levels, suppress tau mislocalization to the cytosol, or diminish Aβ-mediated augmentation of tau toxicity. These results suggest that stabilization of microtubule-unbound tau by phosphorylation at Ser262/356 via the PAR-1/MARK may act in the initial steps of tau mismetabolism in AD pathogenesis, and that such tau species may represent a potential therapeutic target for AD. PMID:27023670

  2. Proline-Directed Androgen Receptor Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanfei; Chen, Shaoyong

    2015-01-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) has been identified for decades and mediates essential steroid functions. Like most of biological molecules, AR functional activities are modulated by post-translational modifications. This review is focused on the reported activities and significance of AR phosphorylation, with particular emphasis on proline-directed serine/threonine phosphorylation that occurs predominantly on the receptor. The marked enrichment of AR phosphorylation in the most diverse N-terminal domain suggests that targeting AR phosphorylation can be synergistic to antagonizing the C-terminal domain by clinical antiandrogens. PMID:25866551

  3. FT-IR analysis of phosphorylated protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Yoshihashi, Sachiko S.; Chihara, Kunihiro; Awazu, Kunio

    2004-09-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, which are the most remarkable posttranslational modifications, are considered to be important chemical reactions that control the activation of proteins. We examine the phosphorylation analysis method by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group that observed at about 1070cm-1 (9.4μm) with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR). This study indicates that it is possible to identify a phosphorylation by measuring the infrared absorption peak of phosphate group observed at about 1070 cm-1 with FT-IR method. As long as target peptides have the same amino acid sequence, it is possible to identify the phosphorylated sites (threonine, serine and tyrosine).

  4. T-Loop Phosphorylation of Arabidopsis CDKA;1 Is Required for Its Function and Can Be Partially Substituted by an Aspartate Residue [W] [OA

    PubMed Central

    Dissmeyer, Nico; Nowack, Moritz K.; Pusch, Stefan; Stals, Hilde; Inzé, Dirk; Grini, Paul E.; Schnittger, Arp

    2007-01-01

    As in other eukaryotes, progression through the cell cycle in plants is governed by cyclin-dependent kinases. Phosphorylation of a canonical Thr residue in the T-loop of the kinases is required for high enzyme activity in animals and yeast. We show that the Arabidopsis thaliana Cdc2+/Cdc28 homolog CDKA;1 is also phosphorylated in the T-loop and that phosphorylation at the conserved Thr-161 residue is essential for its function. A phospho-mimicry T161D substitution restored the primary defect of cdka;1 mutants, and although the T161D substitution displayed a dramatically reduced kinase activity with a compromised ability to bind substrates, homozygous mutant plants were recovered. The rescue by the T161D substitution, however, was not complete, and the resulting plants displayed various developmental abnormalities. For instance, even though flowers were formed, these plants were completely sterile as a result of a failure of the meiotic program, indicating that different requirements for CDKA;1 function are needed during plant development. PMID:17369369

  5. Topographic regulation of phosphorylation in giant neurons of the squid, Loligo pealei: role of phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2004-03-01

    In previous studies of phosphorylation in squid stellate ganglion neurons, we demonstrated that a specific multimeric phosphorylation complex characterized each cellular compartment. Although the endogenous protein profile of cell body extracts (giant fiber lobe, GFL), as determined by Coomassie staining, was similar to that of axoplasm from the giant axon, in this study we show that the protein phosphorylation profiles are qualitatively different. Whereas many axoplasm proteins were phosphorylated, including most cytoskeletal proteins, virtually all phosphorylation in perikarya was confined to low molecular weight compounds (<6 kDa). Because phosphorylation of exogenous substrates, histone and casein, was equally active in extracts from both compartments, failure to detect endogenous protein phosphorylation in cell bodies was attributed to the presence of more active phosphatases. To further explore the role of phosphatases in these neurons, we studied phosphorylation in the presence of serine/threonine and protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) inhibitors. We found that phosphorylation of axonal cytoskeletal proteins was modulated by okadaic acid-sensitive ser/thr phosphatases, whereas cell body phosphorylation was more sensitive to an inhibitor of protein tyrosine phosphatases, such as vanadate. Inhibition of PTPs by vanadate stimulated endogenous phosphorylation of GFL proteins, including cytoskeletal proteins. Protein tyrosine kinase activity was equally stimulated by vanadate in cell body and axonal whole homogenates and Triton X-100 free soluble extracts, but only the Triton X soluble fraction (membrane bound proteins) of the GFL exhibited significant activation in the presence of vanadate, suggesting higher PTP activities in this fraction than in the axon. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that neuronal protein phosphorylation in axons and cell bodies is modulated by different phosphatases associated with compartment-specific multimeric complexes.

  6. Crosstalk between signaling pathways provided by single and multiple protein phosphorylation sites.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Hafumi; Demir, Emek; Panchenko, Anna R

    2015-01-30

    Cellular fate depends on the spatiotemporal separation and integration of signaling processes that can be provided by phosphorylation events. In this study, we identify the crucial points in signaling crosstalk that can be triggered by discrete phosphorylation events on a single target protein. We integrated the data on individual human phosphosites with the evidence on their corresponding kinases, the functional consequences of phosphorylation on activity of the target protein and corresponding pathways. Our results show that there is a substantial fraction of phosphosites that can play critical roles in crosstalk between alternative and redundant pathways and regulatory outcome of phosphorylation can be linked to a type of phosphorylated residue. These regulatory phosphosites can serve as hubs in the signal flow and their functional roles are directly connected to their specific properties. Namely, phosphosites with similar regulatory functions are phosphorylated by the same kinases and participate in regulation of similar biochemical pathways. Such sites are more likely to cluster in sequence and space unlike sites with antagonistic outcomes of their phosphorylation on a target protein. In addition, we found that in silico phosphorylation of sites with similar functional consequences has comparable outcomes on a target protein stability. An important role of phosphorylation sites in biological crosstalk is evident from the analysis of their evolutionary conservation.

  7. Evolutionary conservation of mammalian sperm proteins associates with overall, not tyrosine, phosphorylation in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia; Ramljak, Sanja; Asif, Abdul R; Schaffrath, Michael; Zischler, Hans; Herlyn, Holger

    2013-12-01

    We investigated possible associations between sequence evolution of mammalian sperm proteins and their phosphorylation status in humans. As a reference, spermatozoa from three normozoospermic men were analyzed combining two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, and mass spectrometry. We identified 99 sperm proteins (thereof 42 newly described) and determined the phosphorylation status for most of them. Sequence evolution was studied across six mammalian species using nonsynonymous/synonymous rate ratios (dN/dS) and amino acid distances. Site-specific purifying selection was assessed employing average ratios of evolutionary rates at phosphorylated versus nonphosphorylated amino acids (α). According to our data, mammalian sperm proteins do not show statistically significant sequence conservation difference, no matter if the human ortholog is a phosphoprotein with or without tyrosine (Y) phosphorylation. In contrast, overall phosphorylation of human sperm proteins, i.e., phosphorylation at serine (S), threonine (T), and/or Y residues, associates with above-average conservation of sequences. Complementary investigations suggest that numerous protein-protein interactants constrain sequence evolution of sperm phosphoproteins. Although our findings reject a special relevance of Y phosphorylation for sperm functioning, they still indicate that overall phosphorylation substantially contributes to proper functioning of sperm proteins. Hence, phosphorylated sperm proteins might be considered as prime candidates for diagnosis and treatment of reduced male fertility.

  8. Study of the docking-dependent PLK1 phosphorylation of the CDC25B phosphatase

    SciTech Connect

    Lobjois, Valerie; Froment, Carine; Braud, Emmanuelle; Grimal, Fanny; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Ducommun, Bernard; Bouche, Jean-Pierre

    2011-06-24

    Highlights: {yields} Phosphorylation of CDC25B by CDK1 enhances its substrate properties for PLK1 in vitro. {yields} Sequential phosphorylation of CDC25B is analyzed using {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O ATP. {yields} Thirteen sites phosphorylated by PLK1 have been identified. -- Abstract: CDC25 (A, B and C) phosphatases control cell cycle progression through the timely dephosphorylation and activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK). At mitosis the CDC25B phosphatase activity is dependent on its phosphorylation by multiple kinases impinging on its localisation, stability and catalytic activity. Here we report that prior phosphorylation of CDC25B by CDK1 enhances its substrate properties for PLK1 in vitro, and we also show that phosphorylated S50 serves as a docking site for PLK1. Using a sophisticated strategy based on the sequential phosphorylation of CDC25B with {sup 16}O and {sup 18}O ATP prior to nanoLC-MS/MS analysis we identified 13 sites phosphorylated by PLK1. This study illustrates the complexity of the phosphorylation pattern and of the subsequent regulation of CDC25B activity.

  9. Phosphorylation of p37 is important for Golgi disassembly at mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Yayoi; Tamura, Kaori; Totsukawa, Go; Kondo, Hisao

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} p37 is phosphorylated on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 by Cdc2 at mitosis. {yields} Phosphorylated p37 does not bind to Golgi membranes. {yields} p37 phosphorylation inhibits p97/p37-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. -- Abstract: In mammals, the Golgi apparatus is disassembled at early mitosis and reassembled at the end of mitosis. For Golgi disassembly, membrane fusion needs to be blocked. Golgi biogenesis requires two distinct p97ATPase-mediated membrane fusion, the p97/p47 and p97/p37 pathways. We previously reported that p47 phosphorylation on Serine-140 by Cdc2 results in mitotic inhibition of the p97/p47 pathway . In this study, we demonstrate that p37 is phosphorylated on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 by Cdc2 at mitosis, and this phosphorylated p37 does not bind to Golgi membranes. Using an in vitro Golgi reassembly assay, we show that mutated p37(S56D, T59D), which mimics mitotic phosphorylation, does not cause any cisternal regrowth, indicating that p37 phosphorylation inhibits the p97/p37 pathway. Our results demonstrate that p37 phosphorylation on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 is important for Golgi disassembly at mitosis.

  10. Mitotic phosphorylation of VCIP135 blocks p97ATPase-mediated Golgi membrane fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Totsukawa, Go; Matsuo, Ayaka; Kubota, Ayano; Taguchi, Yuya; Kondo, Hisao

    2013-04-05

    Highlights: •VCIP135 is mitotically phosphorylated on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 by Cdc2. •Phosphorylated VCIP135 does not bind to p97ATPase. •The phosphorylation of VCIP135 inhibits p97ATPase-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. -- Abstract: In mammals, the Golgi apparatus is disassembled early mitosis and reassembled at the end of mitosis. For Golgi disassembly, membrane fusion needs to be blocked. Golgi biogenesis requires two distinct p97ATPase-mediated membrane fusion, the p97/p47 and p97/p37 pathways. We previously reported that p47 phosphorylation on Serine-140 and p37 phosphorylation on Serine-56 and Threonine-59 result in mitotic inhibition of the p97/p47 and the p97/p37 pathways, respectively [11,14]. In this study, we show another mechanism of mitotic inhibition of p97-mediated Golgi membrane fusion. We clarified that VCIP135, an essential factor in both p97 membrane fusion pathways, is phosphorylated on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 by Cdc2 at mitosis and that this phosphorylated VCIP135 does not bind to p97. An in vitro Golgi reassembly assay revealed that VCIP135(T760E, S767E), which mimics mitotic phosphorylation, caused no cisternal regrowth. Our results indicate that the phosphorylation of VCIP135 on Threonine-760 and Serine-767 inhibits p97-mediated Golgi membrane fusion at mitosis.

  11. Crosstalk between signaling pathways provided by single and multiple protein phosphorylation sites

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Hafumi; Demir, Emek; Panchenko, Anna R.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular fate depends on the spatio-temporal separation and integration of signaling processes which can be provided by phosphorylation events. In this study we identify the crucial points in signaling crosstalk which can be triggered by discrete phosphorylation events on a single target protein. We integrated the data on individual human phosphosites with the evidence on their corresponding kinases, the functional consequences on phosphorylation on activity of the target protein and corresponding pathways. Our results show that there is a substantial fraction of phosphosites that can play critical roles in crosstalk between alternative or redundant pathways and regulatory outcome of phosphorylation can be linked to a type of phosphorylated residue. These regulatory phosphosites can serve as hubs in the signal flow and their functional roles are directly connected to their specific properties. Namely, phosphosites with similar regulatory functions are phosphorylated by the same kinases and participate in regulation of similar biochemical pathways. Such sites are more likely to cluster in sequence and space unlike sites with antagonistic outcomes of their phosphorylation on a target protein. In addition we found that in silico phosphorylation of sites with similar functional consequences have comparable outcomes on a target protein stability. An important role of phosphorylation sites in biological crosstalk is evident from the analysis of their evolutionary conservation. PMID:25451034

  12. Haem degradation in abnormal haemoglobins.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, S B; Docherty, J C

    1978-01-01

    The coupled oxidation of certain abnormal haemoglobins leads to different bile-pigment isomer distributions from that of normal haemoglobin. The isomer pattern may be correlated with the structure of the abnormal haemoglobin in the neighbourhood of the haem pocket. This is support for haem degradation by an intramolecular reaction. PMID:708385

  13. Systemic abnormalities in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Minemura, Masami; Tajiri, Kazuto; Shimizu, Yukihiro

    2009-01-01

    Systemic abnormalities often occur in patients with liver disease. In particular, cardiopulmonary or renal diseases accompanied by advanced liver disease can be serious and may determine the quality of life and prognosis of patients. Therefore, both hepatologists and non-hepatologists should pay attention to such abnormalities in the management of patients with liver diseases. PMID:19554648

  14. Abnormal pressure in hydrocarbon environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Law, B.E.; Spencer, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Abnormal pressures, pressures above or below hydrostatic pressures, occur on all continents in a wide range of geological conditions. According to a survey of published literature on abnormal pressures, compaction disequilibrium and hydrocarbon generation are the two most commonly cited causes of abnormally high pressure in petroleum provinces. In young (Tertiary) deltaic sequences, compaction disequilibrium is the dominant cause of abnormal pressure. In older (pre-Tertiary) lithified rocks, hydrocarbon generation, aquathermal expansion, and tectonics are most often cited as the causes of abnormal pressure. The association of abnormal pressures with hydrocarbon accumulations is statistically significant. Within abnormally pressured reservoirs, empirical evidence indicates that the bulk of economically recoverable oil and gas occurs in reservoirs with pressure gradients less than 0.75 psi/ft (17.4 kPa/m) and there is very little production potential from reservoirs that exceed 0.85 psi/ft (19.6 kPa/m). Abnormally pressured rocks are also commonly associated with unconventional gas accumulations where the pressuring phase is gas of either a thermal or microbial origin. In underpressured, thermally mature rocks, the affected reservoirs have most often experienced a significant cooling history and probably evolved from an originally overpressured system.

  15. Electrocardiograph abnormalities revealed during laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Nijjer, Sukhjinder; Dubrey, Simon William

    2010-01-01

    This brief case presents a well patient in whom an electrocardiograph abnormality consistent with an accessory pathway was found during a routine procedure. We present the electrocardiographs, explain the underlying condition, and consider why the abnormality was revealed in this manner.

  16. Eph-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of citron kinase controls abscission.

    PubMed

    Jungas, Thomas; Perchey, Renaud T; Fawal, Mohamad; Callot, Caroline; Froment, Carine; Burlet-Schiltz, Odile; Besson, Arnaud; Davy, Alice

    2016-08-29

    Cytokinesis is the last step of cell division, culminating in the physical separation of daughter cells at the end of mitosis. Cytokinesis is a tightly regulated process that until recently was mostly viewed as a cell-autonomous event. Here, we investigated the role of Ephrin/Eph signaling, a well-known local cell-to-cell communication pathway, in cell division. We show that activation of Eph signaling in vitro leads to multinucleation and polyploidy, and we demonstrate that this is caused by alteration of the ultimate step of cytokinesis, abscission. Control of abscission requires Eph kinase activity, and Src and citron kinase (CitK) are downstream effectors in the Eph-induced signal transduction cascade. CitK is phosphorylated on tyrosines in neural progenitors in vivo, and Src kinase directly phosphorylates CitK. We have identified the specific tyrosine residues of CitK that are phosphorylated and show that tyrosine phosphorylation of CitK impairs cytokinesis. Finally, we show that, similar to CitK, Ephrin/Eph signaling controls neuronal ploidy in the developing neocortex. Our study indicates that CitK integrates intracellular and extracellular signals provided by the local environment to coordinate completion of cytokinesis. PMID:27551053

  17. Hyperactive mTOR pathway promotes lymphoproliferation and abnormal differentiation in autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome.

    PubMed

    Völkl, Simon; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Allgäuer, Andrea; Schreiner, Elisabeth; Lorenz, Myriam Ricarda; Rohr, Jan; Klemann, Christian; Fuchs, Ilka; Schuster, Volker; von Bueren, André O; Naumann-Bartsch, Nora; Gambineri, Eleonora; Siepermann, Kathrin; Kobbe, Robin; Nathrath, Michaela; Arkwright, Peter D; Miano, Maurizio; Stachel, Klaus-Daniel; Metzler, Markus; Schwarz, Klaus; Kremer, Anita N; Speckmann, Carsten; Ehl, Stephan; Mackensen, Andreas

    2016-07-14

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is a human disorder characterized by defective Fas signaling, resulting in chronic benign lymphoproliferation and accumulation of TCRαβ(+) CD4(-) CD8(-) double-negative T (DNT) cells. Although their phenotype resembles that of terminally differentiated or exhausted T cells, lack of KLRG1, high eomesodermin, and marginal T-bet expression point instead to a long-lived memory state with potent proliferative capacity. Here we show that despite their terminally differentiated phenotype, human ALPS DNT cells exhibit substantial mitotic activity in vivo. Notably, hyperproliferation of ALPS DNT cells is associated with increased basal and activation-induced phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinases Akt and mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). The mTOR inhibitor rapamycin abrogated survival and proliferation of ALPS DNT cells, but not of CD4(+) or CD8(+) T cells in vitro. In vivo, mTOR inhibition reduced proliferation and abnormal differentiation by DNT cells. Importantly, increased mitotic activity and hyperactive mTOR signaling was also observed in recently defined CD4(+) or CD8(+) precursor DNT cells, and mTOR inhibition specifically reduced these cells in vivo, indicating abnormal programming of Fas-deficient T cells before the DNT stage. Thus, our results identify the mTOR pathway as a major regulator of lymphoproliferation and aberrant differentiation in ALPS.

  18. FGF23 is endogenously phosphorylated in bone cells.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Iris; Pang, Hong Weng; Stains, Joseph P; Clark, David; Yang, Austin J; Bonewald, Lynda; Li, Kevin Z

    2015-03-01

    Levels of serum phosphate are controlled by the peptide hormone FGF23, secreted from bone osteocytes. Elevated levels of circulating FGF23 are a key factor in several hypophosphatemic disorders and play a role in chronic kidney disease. Posttranslational processing of FGF23 includes multi-site O-glycosylation, which reduces intracellular cleavage by proprotein convertases. The FGF23 protein also contains four serine phosphorylation consensus sequences (S-X-D/E); in this work, we asked whether FGF23 is a substrate for secretory phosphorylation. Both HEK cells as well as IDG-SW3 cells, an osteocyte model, incorporated radiolabeled orthophosphate into intact FGF23, as well as into the 14-kDa carboxy-terminal-but not the 17-kDa N-terminal-fragment. Sequential serine-to-alanine site-directed mutagenesis of four kinase consensus sites showed that labeling occurred on three serines within the carboxy-terminal fragment, Ser180 (adjacent to the cleavage site), Ser207, and Ser212. Liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectroscopy indicated the presence of phosphate at Ser212 in recombinant R&D mouse FGF23(R179Q) , confirming labeling results. A phosphopeptide-specific antibody was raised against phospho-Ser212 and exhibited immunoreactivity in osteocytes present in mouse long bone, providing further evidence that FGF23 is naturally phosphorylated in bone. Bone SIBLING proteins are serine-phosphorylated by the ubiquitous Golgi secretory kinase FAM20C. Cotransfection of HEK and MC3T3 cells with FGF23 and active, but not inactive, FAM20C kinase increased the storage and release of FGF23 in radiolabeling experiments, indicating potential effects of phosphorylation on FGF23 stability. Collectively, these data point to an important role for phosphorylation of FGF23 in bone.

  19. Relationships between histone phosphorylation and cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Gurley, L.R.; D'Anna, J.A.; Halleck, M.S.; Barham, S.S.; Walters, R.A.; Jett, J.H.; Tobey, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    From studies with various Peromyscus cell lines, correlations were made which led to the proposal that H2A phosphorylation is most active in constitutive heterochromatin. Recent studies on the two H2A variants found in these cells have revealed that the high level of H2A phosphorylation associated with heterochromatin is not the result of an increase in H2A phosphorylation rate or an increase in the number of phosphorylation sites, but rather, is due to an increase in the proportion of one of the H2A variants which is more highly phosphorylated than the other. If H2A phosphorylation is necessary for the constitutive heterochromatin state, it is reasonable that the cell would accomplish the generation of this structure by permanently installing a more highly phosphorylated H2A in the heterochromatin nucleosome rather than by trying to modulate the phosphorylation rate in such a condensed structure. The proposal that histone phosphorylation is involved with the condensed structures of chromatin is based primarily on correlations between histone phosphorylation measurements and cellular phenomena. One proof that this concept is correct ultimately rests in the ability to demonstrate these correlations in isolated chromosomes and chromatin fractions. This demonstration is presently limited by the excessive dephosphorylation of histones which occurs during the isolation of chromosomes and chromatin fractions. Thus, the demonstration of an effective inhibitor of histone dephosphorylation which is compatible with the isolation of nuclear structures and chromatin fractions having native morphologies is essential for future studies on the biological function of histone phosphorylation. (ERB)

  20. Phosphorylation of the androgen receptor by PIM1 in hormone refractory prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ha, S; Iqbal, N J; Mita, P; Ruoff, R; Gerald, W L; Lepor, H; Taneja, S S; Lee, P; Melamed, J; Garabedian, M J; Logan, S K

    2013-08-22

    Integration of cellular signaling pathways with androgen receptor (AR) signaling can be achieved through phosphorylation of AR by cellular kinases. However, the kinases responsible for phosphorylating the AR at numerous sites and the functional consequences of AR phosphorylation are only partially understood. Bioinformatic analysis revealed AR serine 213 (S213) as a putative substrate for PIM1, a kinase overexpressed in prostate cancer. Therefore, phosphorylation of AR serine 213 by PIM1 was examined using a phosphorylation site-specific antibody. Wild-type PIM1, but not catalytically inactive PIM1, specifically phosphorylated AR but not an AR serine-to-alanine mutant (S213A). In vitro kinase assays confirmed that PIM1 can phosphorylate AR S213 in a ligand-independent manner and cell type-specific phosphorylation was observed in prostate cancer cell lines. Upon PIM1 overexpression, AR phosphorylation was observed in the absence of hormone and was further increased in the presence of hormone in LNCaP, LNCaP-abl and VCaP cells. Moreover, phosphorylation of AR was reduced in the presence of PIM kinase inhibitors. An examination of AR-mediated transcription showed that reporter gene activity was reduced in the presence of PIM1 and wild-type AR, but not S213A mutant AR. Androgen-mediated transcription of endogenous PSA, Nkx3.1 and IGFBP5 was also decreased in the presence of PIM1, whereas IL6, cyclin A1 and caveolin 2 were increased. Immunohistochemical analysis of prostate cancer tissue microarrays showed significant P-AR S213 expression that was associated with hormone refractory prostate cancers, likely identifying cells with catalytically active PIM1. In addition, prostate cancers expressing a high level of P-AR S213 were twice as likely to be from biochemically recurrent cancers. Thus, AR phosphorylation by PIM1 at S213 impacts gene transcription and is highly prevalent in aggressive prostate cancer.

  1. Clinical correlates of MRI white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Hoptman, J Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that can be accompanied by positive symptoms, negative symptoms, and cognitive dysfunctions in most cognitive domains. Neuroimaging studies have focused on understanding the relationship between schizophrenia and brain abnormalities. Most of these have focused on the well-documented gray matter abnormalities. However, emphasis has recently been placed on white matter abnormalities associated with the disorder. A number of studies have found reduced white matter volumes in schizophrenia and abnormalities in genes associated with white matter. The clinical significance of these abnormalities is just beginning to be understood. The advent of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been particularly important in this regard, as it allows us to draw inferences regarding the organization of white matter in the brain. In this article, I will review recent work showing clinical correlates of neuroimaging-based white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia.

  2. Phosphorylation of PCNA by EGFR inhibits mismatch repair and promotes misincorporation during DNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Janice; Li, Jessie Y; Lee, Sanghee; Tong, Dan; Gu, Liya; Li, Guo-Min

    2015-05-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) plays essential roles in eukaryotic cells during DNA replication, DNA mismatch repair (MMR), and other events at the replication fork. Earlier studies show that PCNA is regulated by posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation of tyrosine 211 (Y211) by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, the functional significance of Y211-phosphorylated PCNA remains unknown. Here, we show that PCNA phosphorylation by EGFR alters its interaction with mismatch-recognition proteins MutSα and MutSβ and interferes with PCNA-dependent activation of MutLα endonuclease, thereby inhibiting MMR at the initiation step. Evidence is also provided that Y211-phosphorylated PCNA induces nucleotide misincorporation during DNA synthesis. These findings reveal a novel mechanism by which Y211-phosphorylated PCNA promotes cancer development and progression via facilitating error-prone DNA replication and suppressing the MMR function.

  3. Abnormal grain growth in Ni-5at.%W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, M.; Belde, M.; Barrales Mora, L.; de Boer, N.; Gilges, S.; Klöwer, J.; Gottstein, G.

    2012-12-01

    The growth of abnormally large grains in textured Ni-5at.%W substrates for high-temperature superconductors deteriorates the sharp texture of these materials and thus has to be avoided. Therefore the growth of abnormal grains is investigated and how it is influenced by the grain orientation and the annealing atmosphere. Texture measurements and grain growth simulations show that the grain orientation only matters so far that a high-angle grain boundary exists between an abnormally growing grain and the Cube-orientated matrix grains. The annealing atmosphere has a large influence on abnormal grain growth which is attributed to the differences in oxygen partial pressure.

  4. Cdk1 Phosphorylates SPAT-1/Bora to Promote Plk1 Activation in C. elegans and Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Yann; Cirillo, Luca; Panbianco, Costanza; Martino, Lisa; Tavernier, Nicolas; Schwager, Françoise; Van Hove, Lucie; Joly, Nicolas; Santamaria, Anna; Pintard, Lionel; Gotta, Monica

    2016-04-19

    The conserved Bora protein is a Plk1 activator, essential for checkpoint recovery after DNA damage in human cells. Here, we show that Bora interacts with Cyclin B and is phosphorylated by Cyclin B/Cdk1 at several sites. The first 225 amino acids of Bora, which contain two Cyclin binding sites and three conserved phosphorylated residues, are sufficient to promote Plk1 phosphorylation by Aurora A in vitro. Mutating the Cyclin binding sites or the three conserved phosphorylation sites abrogates the ability of the N terminus of Bora to promote Plk1 activation. In human cells, Bora-carrying mutations of the three conserved phosphorylation sites cannot sustain mitotic entry after DNA damage. In C. elegans embryos, mutation of the three conserved phosphorylation sites in SPAT-1, the Bora ortholog, results in a severe mitotic entry delay. Our results reveal a crucial and conserved role of phosphorylation of the N terminus of Bora for Plk1 activation and mitotic entry.

  5. CPK3-phosphorylated RhoGDI1 is essential in the development of Arabidopsis seedlings and leaf epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuxuan; Zhao, Shujuan; Tian, Han; He, Yuqing; Xiong, Wei; Guo, Lin; Wu, Yan

    2013-08-01

    The regulation of Rho of plants (ROP) in morphogenesis of leaf epidermal cells has been well studied, but the roles concerning regulators of ROPs such as RhoGDIs are poorly understood. This study reports that AtRhoGDI1 (GDI1) acts as a versatile regulator to modulate development of seedlings and leaf pavement cells. In mutant gdi1, leaf pavement cells showed shorter lobes in comparison with those in wild type. In GDI1-14 seedlings (GDI1-overexpression line) the growth of lobes in pavement cells was severely suppressed and the development of seedlings was altered. These results indicate that GDI1 plays an essential role in morphogenesis of epidermal pavement cells through modulating the ROP signalling pathways. The interaction between GDI1 and ROP2 or ROP6 was detected in the leaf pavement cells using FRET analysis. Dominant negative, not constitutively active, DN-rop6 could weaken the effect caused by overexpression of GDI1; because the pleiotropic phenotype of GDI1-14 plants was eliminated in the hybrid line GDI1-14 DN-rop6. GDI1 could be phosphorylated by CPK3. Three conserved Ser/Thr residues in GDI1 were determined as targeted amino acids for CPK3. Overexpression of GDI1(3D), not GDI1(3A), could rescue the abnormal growth phenotypes of gdi1-1 seedlings, demonstrating the impact of GDI1 phosphorylation in the development of Arabidopsis. In summary, these results suggest that GDI1 regulation in morphogenesis of seedlings and leaf pavement cells could be undergone through modulating the ROP signalling pathways and the phosphorylation of GDI1 by CPK3 was required for the developmental modulation in Arabidopsis.

  6. Phosphorylation of the multidrug resistance associated glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Mellado, W.; Horwitz, S.B.

    1987-11-03

    Drug-resistant cell lines derived from the mouse macrophage-like cell line J774.2 express the multidrug resistant phenotype which includes the overexpression of a membrane glycoprotein (130-140 kilodaltons). Phosphorylation of this resistant-specific glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein) in intact cells and in cell-free membrane fractions has been studied. The phosphorylated glycoprotein can be immunoprecipitated by a rabbit polyclonal antibody specific for the glycoprotein. Phosphorylation studies done with partially purified membrane fractions derived from colchicine-resistant cells indicated that (a) phosphorylation of the glycoprotein in 1 mM MgCl/sub 2/ was enhanced a minimum of 2-fold by 10 ..mu..M cAMP and (b) the purified catalytic subunit of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) phosphorylated partially purified glycoprotein that was not phosphorylated by (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP alone, suggesting that autophosphorylation was not involved. These results indicate that the glycoprotein is a phosphoprotein and that at least one of the kinases responsible for its phosphorylation is a membrane-associated protein kinase A. The state of phosphorylation of the glycoprotein, which is a major component of the multidrug resistance phenotype, may be related to the role of the glycoprotein in maintaining drug resistance.

  7. Phosphorylation of Tau at Thr212, Thr231, and Ser262 Combined Causes Neurodegeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Alejandra D.; Di Clerico, John; Li, Bin; Corbo, Christopher P.; Alaniz, Maria E.; Grundke-Iqbal, Inge; Iqbal, Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal hyperphosphorylation of the microtubule-associated protein Tau is a hallmark of Alzheimer disease and related diseases called tauopathies. As yet, the exact mechanism by which this pathology causes neurodegeneration is not understood. The present study provides direct evidence that Tau abnormal hyperphosphorylation causes its aggregation, breakdown of the microtubule network, and cell death and identifies phosphorylation sites involved in neurotoxicity. We generated pseudophosphorylated Tau proteins by mutating Ser/Thr to Glu and, as controls, to Ala. These mutations involved one, two, or three pathological phosphorylation sites by site-directed mutagenesis using as backbones the wild type or FTDP-17 mutant R406W Tau. Pseudophosphorylated and corresponding control Tau proteins were expressed transiently in PC12 and CHO cells. We found that a single phosphorylation site alone had little influence on the biological activity of Tau, except Thr212, which, upon mutation to Glu in the R406W background, induced Tau aggregation in cells, suggesting phosphorylation at this site along with a modification on the C-terminal of the protein facilitates self-assembly of Tau. The expression of R406W Tau pseudophosphorylated at Thr212, Thr231, and Ser262 triggered caspase-3 activation in as much as 85% of the transfected cells, whereas the corresponding value for wild type pseudophosphorylated Tau was 30%. Cells transfected with pseudophosphorylated Tau became TUNEL-positive. PMID:20663882

  8. Mechanism of Ribonuclease III Catalytic Regulation by Serine Phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gone, Swapna; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Paudyal, Samridhdi; Nicholson, Allen W.

    2016-05-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a conserved, gene-regulatory bacterial endonuclease that cleaves double-helical structures in diverse coding and noncoding RNAs. RNase III is subject to multiple levels of control, reflective of its global regulatory functions. Escherichia coli (Ec) RNase III catalytic activity is known to increase during bacteriophage T7 infection, reflecting the expression of the phage-encoded protein kinase, T7PK. However, the mechanism of catalytic enhancement is unknown. This study shows that Ec-RNase III is phosphorylated on serine in vitro by purified T7PK, and identifies the targets as Ser33 and Ser34 in the N-terminal catalytic domain. Kinetic experiments reveal a 5-fold increase in kcat and a 1.4-fold decrease in Km following phosphorylation, providing a 7.4–fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Phosphorylation does not change the rate of substrate cleavage under single-turnover conditions, indicating that phosphorylation enhances product release, which also is the rate-limiting step in the steady-state. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a mechanism for facilitated product release, in which the Ser33 phosphomonoester forms a salt bridge with the Arg95 guanidinium group, thereby weakening RNase III engagement of product. The simulations also show why glutamic acid substitution at either serine does not confer enhancement, thus underscoring the specific requirement for a phosphomonoester.

  9. Mechanism of Ribonuclease III Catalytic Regulation by Serine Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Gone, Swapna; Alfonso-Prieto, Mercedes; Paudyal, Samridhdi; Nicholson, Allen W.

    2016-01-01

    Ribonuclease III (RNase III) is a conserved, gene-regulatory bacterial endonuclease that cleaves double-helical structures in diverse coding and noncoding RNAs. RNase III is subject to multiple levels of control, reflective of its global regulatory functions. Escherichia coli (Ec) RNase III catalytic activity is known to increase during bacteriophage T7 infection, reflecting the expression of the phage-encoded protein kinase, T7PK. However, the mechanism of catalytic enhancement is unknown. This study shows that Ec-RNase III is phosphorylated on serine in vitro by purified T7PK, and identifies the targets as Ser33 and Ser34 in the N-terminal catalytic domain. Kinetic experiments reveal a 5-fold increase in kcat and a 1.4-fold decrease in Km following phosphorylation, providing a 7.4–fold increase in catalytic efficiency. Phosphorylation does not change the rate of substrate cleavage under single-turnover conditions, indicating that phosphorylation enhances product release, which also is the rate-limiting step in the steady-state. Molecular dynamics simulations provide a mechanism for facilitated product release, in which the Ser33 phosphomonoester forms a salt bridge with the Arg95 guanidinium group, thereby weakening RNase III engagement of product. The simulations also show why glutamic acid substitution at either serine does not confer enhancement, thus underscoring the specific requirement for a phosphomonoester. PMID:27150669

  10. Protein phosphorylation in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Karr, D.B.; Emerich, D.W. )

    1989-06-01

    Protein phosphorylation was demonstrated in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids in vivo and in cultures in vivo and in vitro. Comparison of in vivo-labeled phosphoproteins of bacteroids and of cultured cells showed differences in both the pattern and intensity of labeling. In cultured cells, comparison of the labeling patterns and intensities of in vivo- and in vitro-labeled phosphoproteins showed a number of similarities; however, several phosphoproteins were found only after one of the two labeling conditions. The labeling intensity was time dependent in both in vivo and in vitro assays and was dependent on the presence of magnesium in in vitro assays. Differences in the rates of phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were noted for a number of proteins. The level of incorporation of {sup 32}P into protein was only 2% or less of the total phosphate accumulated during the in vivo labeling period. Several isolation and sample preparation procedures resulted in differences in labeling patterns. Phosphatase inhibitors and several potential metabolic effectors had negligible effects on the phosphorylation pattern. There were no significant changes in the phosphorylation patterns of cells cultured on mannitol, acetate, and succinate, although the intensity of the labeling did vary with the carbon source.

  11. Abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in male psychopathic offenders

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenbrouwers, Sylco S.; De Jesus, Danilo R.; Sun, Yinming; Stirpe, Tania; Hofman, Dennis; McMaster, Jeff; Hughes, Ginny; Daskalakis, Zafiris J.; Schutter, Dennis J.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychopathic offenders inevitably violate interpersonal norms and frequently resort to aggressive and criminal behaviour. The affective and cognitive deficits underlying these behaviours have been linked to abnormalities in functional interhemispheric connectivity. However, direct neurophysiological evidence for dysfunctional connectivity in psychopathic offenders is lacking. Methods We used transcranial magnetic stimulation combined with electroencephalography to examine interhemispheric connectivity in the dorsolateral and motor cortex in a sample of psychopathic offenders and healthy controls. We also measured intracortical inhibition and facilitation over the left and right motor cortex to investigate the effects of local cortical processes on interhemispheric connectivity. Results We enrolled 17 psychopathic offenders and 14 controls in our study. Global abnormalities in right to left functional connectivity were observed in psychopathic offenders compared with controls. Furthermore, in contrast to controls, psychopathic offenders showed increased intracortical inhibition in the right, but not the left, hemisphere. Limitations The relatively small sample size limited the sensitivity to show that the abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity were specifically related to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in psychopathic offenders. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the first neurophysiological evidence for abnormal interhemispheric connectivity in psychopathic offenders and may further our understanding of the disruptive antisocial behaviour of these offenders. PMID:23937798

  12. Chromosomal abnormalities in human sperm

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to analyze human sperm chromosome complements after penetration of zona pellucida-free hamster eggs provides the first opportunity to study the frequency and type of chromosomal abnormalities in human gametes. Two large-scale studies have provided information on normal men. We have studied 1,426 sperm complements from 45 normal men and found an abnormality rate of 8.9%. Brandriff et al. (5) found 8.1% abnormal complements in 909 sperm from 4 men. The distribution of numerical and structural abnormalities was markedly dissimilar in the 2 studies. The frequency of aneuploidy was 5% in our sample and only 1.6% in Brandriff's, perhaps reflecting individual variability among donors. The frequency of 24,YY sperm was low: 0/1,426 and 1/909. This suggests that the estimates of nondisjunction based on fluorescent Y body data (1% to 5%) are not accurate. We have also studied men at increased risk of sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The frequency of chromosomally unbalanced sperm in 6 men heterozygous for structural abnormalities varied dramatically: 77% for t11;22, 32% for t6;14, 19% for t5;18, 13% for t14;21, and 0% for inv 3 and 7. We have also studied 13 cancer patients before and after radiotherapy and demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase of sperm chromosome abnormalities (numerical and structural) 36 months after radiation treatment.

  13. Cisplatin stimulates protein tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Shrivastava, A; Sodhi, A

    1995-03-01

    Cisplatin [cis-dichlorodiamine platinum (II)], a potent anti-tumor compound, stimulates immune responses by activating monocyte-macrophages and other cells of the immune system. The mechanism by which cisplatin activates these cells is poorly characterized. Since protein tyrosine phosphorylation appears to be a major intracellular signalling event that mediates cellular responses, we examined whether cisplatin alters tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages. We found that cisplatin increased tyrosine phosphorylation of several proteins in peritoneal macrophages and in P388D1 and IC-21 macrophage cell lines. Treatment of macrophages with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, genestein and lavendustin A, inhibited cisplatin-stimulated protein tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages. Macrophages treated with cisplatin also exhibit increased fluorescence with anti-phosphotyrosine-FITC antibody. These data indicate that protein tyrosine phosphorylation plays a role in cisplatin-induced activation of macrophages. PMID:7539662

  14. Parsing abnormal grain growth in specialty aluminas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Abigail Kremer

    multivariate statistical tool called canonical correlation analysis was adopted to seek out relationships between a set of input variables and the abnormal character values. The input variables include the MgO, CaO, Na 2O, and SiO2 contents, the ratio of MgO:(CaO+SiO2), and the annealing time and temperature. The analysis was applied to 33 different samples and showed that the composition ratio and MgO content were the strongest processing variables. These variables are most closely related to the correlation between grain size and aspect ratio, the average magnitude of abnormality, and the variance in grain size. The physical implications of these relationships are explored for a number of samples with different abnormal grain growth behaviors. Several of the samples contained a beta"-alumina phase that is shown to have a dampening effect on abnormal grain growth. TEM investigation provides evidence that there is a grain boundary complexion with a different composition and structure than the second phase. A series of samples are compared after annealing for different times and are shown to have very different behaviors as a result of the second phase competing with complexions for control over the microstructure.

  15. Phosphorylation acts positively and negatively to regulate MRTF-A subcellular localisation and activity

    PubMed Central

    Panayiotou, Richard; Miralles, Francesc; Pawlowski, Rafal; Diring, Jessica; Flynn, Helen R; Skehel, Mark; Treisman, Richard

    2016-01-01

    The myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTF-A and MRTF-B) regulate cytoskeletal genes through their partner transcription factor SRF. The MRTFs bind G-actin, and signal-regulated changes in cellular G-actin concentration control their nuclear accumulation. The MRTFs also undergo Rho- and ERK-dependent phosphorylation, but the function of MRTF phosphorylation, and the elements and signals involved in MRTF-A nuclear export are largely unexplored. We show that Rho-dependent MRTF-A phosphorylation reflects relief from an inhibitory function of nuclear actin. We map multiple sites of serum-induced phosphorylation, most of which are S/T-P motifs and show that S/T-P phosphorylation is required for transcriptional activation. ERK-mediated S98 phosphorylation inhibits assembly of G-actin complexes on the MRTF-A regulatory RPEL domain, promoting nuclear import. In contrast, S33 phosphorylation potentiates the activity of an autonomous Crm1-dependent N-terminal NES, which cooperates with five other NES elements to exclude MRTF-A from the nucleus. Phosphorylation thus plays positive and negative roles in the regulation of MRTF-A. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15460.001 PMID:27304076

  16. Cyclin D activates the Rb tumor suppressor by mono-phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Narasimha, Anil M; Kaulich, Manuel; Shapiro, Gary S; Choi, Yoon J; Sicinski, Piotr; Dowdy, Steven F

    2014-01-01

    The widely accepted model of G1 cell cycle progression proposes that cyclin D:Cdk4/6 inactivates the Rb tumor suppressor during early G1 phase by progressive multi-phosphorylation, termed hypo-phosphorylation, to release E2F transcription factors. However, this model remains unproven biochemically and the biologically active form(s) of Rb remains unknown. In this study, we find that Rb is exclusively mono-phosphorylated in early G1 phase by cyclin D:Cdk4/6. Mono-phosphorylated Rb is composed of 14 independent isoforms that are all targeted by the E1a oncoprotein, but show preferential E2F binding patterns. At the late G1 Restriction Point, cyclin E:Cdk2 inactivates Rb by quantum hyper-phosphorylation. Cells undergoing a DNA damage response activate cyclin D:Cdk4/6 to generate mono-phosphorylated Rb that regulates global transcription, whereas cells undergoing differentiation utilize un-phosphorylated Rb. These observations fundamentally change our understanding of G1 cell cycle progression and show that mono-phosphorylated Rb, generated by cyclin D:Cdk4/6, is the only Rb isoform in early G1 phase. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02872.001 PMID:24876129

  17. In vitro protein phosphorylation in head preparations from normal and mutant Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, J D; Dudai, Y

    1987-10-01

    detected, suggesting that the genetic defect in cAMP metabolism is not accompanied by constituent abnormalities in phosphorylated substrates in the adult fly, and that the physiological defects in these mutants result from aberrations in the interaction of the cAMP cascade with normal substrates. The majority of Ca2+/calmodulin kinase activity (80-90%, depending on the homogenization procedure) was associated with S2, as revealed by phosphorylation of exogenous synapsin I. Two endogenous substrates for this kinase in P2 had molecular masses of approximately 45 and 87 kilodaltons. At least 11 substrates for the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase were detected in S2.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3040907

  18. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant.

    PubMed

    Rao, Monica R P; Warrier, Deepa U; Rao, Shivani H

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model. PMID:26798177

  19. Evaluation of Phosphorylated Psyllium Seed Polysaccharide as a Release Retardant

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Monica R. P.; Warrier, Deepa U.; Rao, Shivani H.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to modify psyllium seed polysaccharide and evaluate the modified polysaccharide as release retardant in tablets employing ciprofloxacin hydrochloride as model drug. Studies on polysaccharide from psyllium husk has been reported but no work has been reported on characterization and modification of the polysaccharide present in the psyllium (Plantago ovata) seed and the use of the modified polysaccharide as a release retardant in tablets. In this study, the seed gum was modified using sodium trimetaphosphate as crosslinking agent. Sustained release matrix tablets of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride were prepared by wet granulation using various drug-polymer ratios. The polymers investigated were psyllium polysaccharide, phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide and widely used release retardant hydroxypropyl methylcellulose K100M. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content, swelling profile and in vitro dissolution studies. The matrix tablets containing 1:3 proportion of drug-phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide was found to have higher hardness as compared to tablets containing 1:1 and 1:2 proportions. The results of swelling behavior in water showed that the tablets containing 1:3 drug:phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide ratio had swelling comparable to that of tablets containing 1:3 drug:hydroxypropyl methylcellulose ratio. The in vitro dissolution studies shows that the dissolution rate was retarded from 98.41 to 37.6% in 6 h with increase in concentration of phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide from 100 to 300 mg. Formulations containing psyllium polysaccharide showed complete drug release in 8 h whereas those formulated with phosphorylated psyllium polysaccharide exhibited extended drug release over the 12 h period. Drug release kinetic studies revealed that drug release followed Korsmeyer-Peppas model. PMID:26798177

  20. 42 CFR 37.53 - Notification of abnormal roentgenographic findings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... suggesting, enlarged heart, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other significant abnormal findings other than... findings suggesting, abnormality of cardiac shape or size, tuberculosis, lung cancer, or any other... files and the most recent examination was interpreted to show enlarged heart, tuberculosis,...

  1. Describing the Sensory Abnormalities of Children and Adults with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leekam, Susan R.; Nieto, Carmen; Libby, Sarah J.; Wing, Lorna; Gould, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Patterns of sensory abnormalities in children and adults with autism were examined using the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO). This interview elicits detailed information about responsiveness to a wide range of sensory stimuli. Study 1 showed that over 90% of children with autism had sensory abnormalities and had…

  2. Isoform-specific and Protein Kinase C-mediated Regulation of CTP:Phosphoethanolamine Cytidylyltransferase Phosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Pavlovic, Zvezdan; Zhu, Lin; Pereira, Leanne; Singh, Ratnesh Kumar; Cornell, Rosemary B.; Bakovic, Marica

    2014-01-01

    CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase (Pcyt2) is the main regulatory enzyme for de novo biosynthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine by the CDP-ethanolamine pathway. There are two isoforms of Pcyt2, -α and -β; however, very little is known about their specific roles in this important metabolic pathway. We previously demonstrated increased phosphatidylethanolamine biosynthesis subsequent to elevated activity and phosphorylation of Pcyt2α and -β in MCF-7 breast cancer cells grown under conditions of serum deficiency. Mass spectroscopy analyses of Pcyt2 provided evidence for isoform-specific as well as shared phosphorylations. Pcyt2β was specifically phosphorylated at the end of the first cytidylyltransferase domain. Pcyt2α was phosphorylated within the α-specific motif that is spliced out in Pcyt2β and on two PKC consensus serine residues, Ser-215 and Ser-223. Single and double mutations of PKC consensus sites reduced Pcyt2α phosphorylation, activity, and phosphatidylethanolamine synthesis by 50–90%. The phosphorylation and activity of endogenous Pcyt2 were dramatically increased with phorbol esters and reduced by specific PKC inhibitors. In vitro translated Pcyt2α was phosphorylated by PKCα, PKCβI, and PKCβII. Pcyt2α Ser-215 was also directly phosphorylated with PKCα. Mapping of the Pcyt2α- and -β-phosphorylated sites to the solved structure of a human Pcyt2β showed that they clustered within and flanking the central linker region that connects the two catalytic domains and is a novel regulatory segment not present in other cytidylyltransferases. This study is the first to demonstrate differences in phosphorylation between Pcyt2 isoforms and to uncover the role of the PKC-regulated phosphorylation. PMID:24519946

  3. Topographic regulation of cytoskeletal protein phosphorylation by multimeric complexes in the squid giant fiber system.

    PubMed

    Grant, P; Diggins, M; Pant, H C

    1999-07-01

    In mammalian and squid nervous systems, the phosphorylation of neurofilament proteins (NFs) seems to be topographically regulated. Although NFs and relevant kinases are synthesized in cell bodies, phosphorylation of NFs, particularly in the lys-ser-pro (KSP) repeats in NF-M and NF-H tail domains, seem to be restricted to axons. To explore the factors regulating the cellular compartmentalization of NF phosphorylation, we separated cell bodies (GFL) from axons in the squid stellate ganglion and compared the kinase activity in the respective lysates. Although total kinase activity was similar in each lysate, the profile of endogenous phosphorylated substrates was strikingly different. Neurofilament protein 220 (NF220), high-molecular-weight NF protein (HMW), and tubulin were the principal phosphorylated substrates in axoplasm, while tubulin was the principal GFL phosphorylated substrate, in addition to highly phosphorylated low-molecular-weight proteins. Western blot analysis showed that whereas both lysates contained similar kinases and cytoskeletal proteins, phosphorylated NF220 and HMW were completely absent from the GFL lysate. These differences were highlighted by P13(suc1) affinity chromatography, which revealed in axoplasm an active multimeric phosphorylation complex(es), enriched in cytoskeletal proteins and kinases; the equivalent P13 GFL complex exhibited six to 20 times less endogenous and exogenous phosphorylation activity, respectively, contained fewer cytoskeletal proteins and kinases, and expressed a qualitatively different cdc2-like kinase epitope, 34 kDa rather than 49 kDa. Cell bodies and axons share a similar repertoire of molecular consitutents; however, the data suggest that the cytoskeletal/kinase phosphorylation complexes extracted from each cellular compartment by P13 are fundamentally different.

  4. Phosphorylation of threonine 333 regulates trafficking of the human sst5 somatostatin receptor.

    PubMed

    Petrich, Aline; Mann, Anika; Kliewer, Andrea; Nagel, Falko; Strigli, Anne; Märtens, Jan Carlo; Pöll, Florian; Schulz, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The frequent overexpression of the somatostatin receptors sst2 and sst5 in neuroendocrine tumors provides the molecular basis for therapeutic application of novel multireceptor somatostatin analogs. Although the phosphorylation of the carboxyl-terminal region of the sst2 receptor has been studied in detail, little is known about the agonist-induced regulation of the human sst5 receptor. Here, we have generated phosphosite-specific antibodies for the carboxyl-terminal threonines 333 (T333) and 347 (T347), which enabled us to selectively detect either the T333-phosphorylated or the T347-phosphorylated form of sst5. We show that agonist-mediated phosphorylation occurs at T333, whereas T347 is constitutively phosphorylated in the absence of agonist. We further demonstrate that the multireceptor somatostatin analog pasireotide and the sst5-selective ligand L-817,818 but not octreotide or KE108 were able to promote a detectable T333 phosphorylation. Interestingly, BIM-23268 was the only sst5 agonist that was able to stimulate T333 phosphorylation to the same extent as natural somatostatin. Agonist-induced T333 phosphorylation was dose-dependent and selectively mediated by G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2. Similar to that observed for the sst2 receptor, phosphorylation of sst5 occurred within seconds. However, unlike that seen for the sst2 receptor, dephosphorylation and recycling of sst5 were rapidly completed within minutes. We also identify protein phosphatase 1γ as G protein-coupled receptor phosphatase for the sst5 receptor. Together, we provide direct evidence for agonist-selective phosphorylation of carboxyl-terminal T333. In addition, we identify G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation and protein phosphatase 1γ-mediated dephosphorylation of T333 as key regulators of rapid internalization and recycling of the human sst5 receptor.

  5. Oxidative phosphorylation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Solaini, Giancarlo; Sgarbi, Gianluca; Baracca, Alessandra

    2011-06-01

    Evidence suggests that mitochondrial metabolism may play a key role in controlling cancer cells life and proliferation. Recent evidence also indicates how the altered contribution of these organelles to metabolism and the resistance of cancer mitochondria against apoptosis-associated permeabilization are closely related. The hallmarks of cancer growth, increased glycolysis and lactate production in tumours, have raised attention due to recent observations suggesting a wide spectrum of oxidative phosphorylation deficit and decreased availability of ATP associated with malignancies and tumour cell expansion. More specifically, alteration in signal transduction pathways directly affects mitochondrial proteins playing critical roles in controlling the membrane potential as UCP2 and components of both MPTP and oxphos complexes, or in controlling cells life and death as the Bcl-2 proteins family. Moreover, since mitochondrial bioenergetics and dynamics, are also involved in processes of cells life and death, proper regulation of these mitochondrial functions is crucial for tumours to grow. Therefore a better understanding of the key pathophysiological differences between mitochondria in cancer cells and in their non-cancer surrounding tissue is crucial to the finding of tools interfering with these peculiar tumour mitochondrial functions and will disclose novel approaches for the prevention and treatment of malignant diseases. Here, we review the peculiarity of tumour mitochondrial bioenergetics and the mode it is linked to the cell metabolism, providing a short overview of the evidence accumulated so far, but highlighting the more recent advances.

  6. Cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation of proteins in rod outer segments in frog retina: characteristics of the phosphorylated proteins and their dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    To clarify the function of cyclic nucleotides in rod outer segments (ROS) of frog retinas, the cyclic nucleotide-dependent phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of protein was studied. cGMP or cAMP with (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP in the dark enhanced the phosphorylation of two ROS proteins with M/sub r/ = 10,500 (Band 1) and 8500 (Band 2) according to sodium dodecylsulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The phosphorylation was maximally enhanced at 2.0 mM cGMP and cAMP in the presence of Mg/sup 2 +/. The cGMP-activated protein kinase showed near-optimal activity between pH 6.5 and 8.0. GMP, GDP, GTP, AMP, and ADP did not enhance the phosphorylation. Both /sup 32/P-phosphorylated Bands 1 and 2 were solubilized during preparation and the molecular weight of each was 19,000. Their isoelectric point was 5.2. The sites of phosphorylation were the serine residue(s). Dephosphorylation of /sup 37/P-Bands 1 and 2 in dark-adapted ROS suspension required Mn/sup 2 +/ or Mg/sup 2 +/. Both phosphorylation and dephosphorylation were inhibited by Zn/sup 2 +/.

  7. Involvement of AMPA receptor phosphorylation in antidepressant actions with special reference to tianeptine.

    PubMed

    Svenningsson, Per; Bateup, Helen; Qi, Hongshi; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L; Spedding, Michael; Roth, Bryan L; McEwen, Bruce S; Greengard, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Depression is associated with abnormal neuronal plasticity. AMPA receptors mediate transmission and plasticity at excitatory synapses in a manner which is positively regulated by phosphorylation at Ser831-GluR1, a CaMKII/PKC site, and Ser845-GluR1, a PKA site. Treatment with the selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine increases P-Ser845-GluR1 but not P-Ser831-GluR1. Here, it was found that treatment with another antidepressant, tianeptine, increased P-Ser831-GluR1 in the frontal cortex and the CA3 region of hippocampus and P-Ser845-GluR1 in the CA3 region of hippocampus. A receptorome profile detected no affinity for tianeptine at any monaminergic receptors or transporters, confirming an atypical profile for this compound. Behavioural analyses showed that mice bearing point mutations at both Ser831- and Ser845-GluR1, treated with saline, exhibited increased latency to enter the centre of an open field and increased immobility in the tail-suspension test compared to their wild-type counterparts. Chronic tianeptine treatment increased open-field locomotion and reduced immobility in wild-type mice but not in phosphomutant GluR1 mice. P-Ser133-CREB was reduced in the CA3 region of hippocampus in phosphomutant mice, and tianeptine decreased P-Ser133-CREB in this region in wild-type, but not in phosphomutant, mice. Tianeptine increased P-Ser133-CREB in the CA1 region in wild-type mice but not in phosphomutant GluR1 mice. There were higher basal P-Ser133-CREB and c-fos levels in frontal and cingulate cortex in phosphomutant GluR1 mice; these changes in level were counteracted by tianeptine in a GluR1-independent manner. Using phosphorylation assays and phosphomutant GluR1 mice, this study provides evidence that AMPA receptor phosphorylation mediates certain explorative and antidepressant-like actions under basal conditions and following tianeptine treatment.

  8. Chronic restraint stress induces sperm acrosome reaction and changes in testicular tyrosine phosphorylated proteins in rats

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Supatcharee; Burawat, Jaturon; Sukhorum, Wannisa; Sampannang, Apichakan; Maneenin, Chanwit; Iamsaard, Sitthichai

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stress is a cause of male infertility. Although sex hormones and sperm quality have been shown to be low in stress, sperm physiology and testicular functional proteins, such as phosphotyrosine proteins, have not been documented. Objective: To investigate the acrosome status and alterations of testicular proteins involved in spermatogenesis and testosterone synthesis in chronic stress in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, male rats were divided into 2 groups (control and chronic stress (CS), n=7). CS rats were immobilized (4 hr/day) for 42 consecutive days. The blood glucose level (BGL), corticosterone, testosterone, acrosome status, and histopathology were examined. The expressions of testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR), cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), and phosphorylated proteins were analyzed. Results: Results showed that BGL (71.25±2.22 vs. 95.60±3.36 mg/dl), corticosterone level (24.33±4.23 vs. 36.9±2.01 ng/ml), acrosome reacted sperm (3.25±1.55 vs. 17.71±5.03%), and sperm head abnormality (3.29±0.71 vs. 6.21±1.18%) were significantly higher in CS group in comparison with control. In contrast, seminal vesicle (0.41±0.05 vs. 0.24±0.07 g/100g), testosterone level (3.37±0.79 vs. 0.61±0.29 ng/ml), and sperm concentration (115.33±7.70 vs. 79.13±3.65×106 cells/ml) of CS were significantly lower (p<0.05) than controls. Some atrophic seminiferous tubules and low sperm mass were apparent in CS rats. The expression of CYP11A1 except StAR protein was markedly decreased in CS rats. In contrast, a 55 kDa phosphorylated protein was higher in CS testes. Conclusion: CS decreased the expression of CYP11A, resulting in decreased testosterone, and increased acrosome-reacted sperm, assumed to be the result of an increase of 55 kDa phosphorylated protein. PMID:27525328

  9. A secretory kinase complex regulates extracellular protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jixin; Xiao, Junyu; Tagliabracci, Vincent S; Wen, Jianzhong; Rahdar, Meghdad; Dixon, Jack E

    2015-01-01

    Although numerous extracellular phosphoproteins have been identified, the protein kinases within the secretory pathway have only recently been discovered, and their regulation is virtually unexplored. Fam20C is the physiological Golgi casein kinase, which phosphorylates many secreted proteins and is critical for proper biomineralization. Fam20A, a Fam20C paralog, is essential for enamel formation, but the biochemical function of Fam20A is unknown. Here we show that Fam20A potentiates Fam20C kinase activity and promotes the phosphorylation of enamel matrix proteins in vitro and in cells. Mechanistically, Fam20A is a pseudokinase that forms a functional complex with Fam20C, and this complex enhances extracellular protein phosphorylation within the secretory pathway. Our findings shed light on the molecular mechanism by which Fam20C and Fam20A collaborate to control enamel formation, and provide the first insight into the regulation of secretory pathway phosphorylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.06120.001 PMID:25789606

  10. The Importance of Tau Phosphorylation for Neurodegenerative Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Wendy; Hanger, Diane P.; Miller, Christopher C. J.; Lovestone, Simon

    2013-01-01

    Fibrillar deposits of highly phosphorylated tau are a key pathological feature of several neurodegenerative tauopathies including Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and some frontotemporal dementias. Increasing evidence suggests that the presence of these end-stage neurofibrillary lesions do not cause neuronal loss, but rather that alterations to soluble tau proteins induce neurodegeneration. In particular, aberrant tau phosphorylation is acknowledged to be a key disease process, influencing tau structure, distribution, and function in neurons. Although typically described as a cytosolic protein that associates with microtubules and regulates axonal transport, several additional functions of tau have recently been demonstrated, including roles in DNA stabilization, and synaptic function. Most recently, studies examining the trans-synaptic spread of tau pathology in disease models have suggested a potential role for extracellular tau in cell signaling pathways intrinsic to neurodegeneration. Here we review the evidence showing that tau phosphorylation plays a key role in neurodegenerative tauopathies. We also comment on the tractability of altering phosphorylation-dependent tau functions for therapeutic intervention in AD and related disorders. PMID:23847585

  11. Behavioral abnormalities in captive nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Mallapur, Avanti; Choudhury, B C

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we dealt with 11 species of nonhuman primates across 10 zoos in India. We recorded behavior as instantaneous scans between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m. In the study, we segregated behaviors for analyses into abnormal, undesirable, active, and resting. The 4 types of abnormal behavior exhibited included floating limb, self-biting, self-clasping, and stereotypic pacing. In the study, we recorded 2 types of undesirable behavior: autoerotic stimulation and begging. Langurs and group-housed macaques did not exhibit undesirable behaviors. A male lion-tailed macaque and a male gibbon exhibited begging behavior. autoerotic stimulation and self-biting occurred rarely. Males exhibited higher levels of undesirable behavior than did females. Animals confiscated from touring zoos, circuses, and animal traders exhibited higher levels of abnormal behaviors than did animals reared in larger, recognized zoos. The stump-tailed macaque was the only species to exhibit floating limb, autoerotic stimulation, self-biting, and self-clasping. Our results show that rearing experience and group composition influence the proportions of abnormal behavior exhibited by nonhuman primates in captivity. The history of early social and environmental deprivation in these species of captive nonhuman primates probably is critical in the development of behavioral pathologies. Establishing this will require further research.

  12. Familial Precocious Fetal Abnormal Cortical Sulcation.

    PubMed

    Frassoni, Carolina; Avagliano, Laura; Inverardi, Francesca; Spaccini, Luigina; Parazzini, Cecilia; Rustico, Maria Angela; Bulfamante, Gaetano; Righini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    The development of the human cerebral cortex is a complex and precisely programmed process by which alterations may lead to morphological and functional neurological abnormalities. We report familial cases of prenatally diagnosed abnormal brain, characterized by aberrant symmetrical mesial oversulcation of the parietooccipital lobes, in fetuses affected by abnormal skeletal features. Fetal brain anomalies were characterized by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging at 21 weeks of gestation and histologically evaluated at 22 weeks. Histological examination added relevant information showing some focal cortical areas of micropoligyria and heterotopic extension of the cortical plate into the marginal zone beneath the cortical surface. Genetic analysis of the fetuses excluded FGFR3 mutations known to be related to skeletal dysplasia and aberrant symmetrical oversulcation in other brain areas (temporal lobes). Hence, the present report suggests the existence of a class of rare syndromes of skeleton and brain development abnormality unrelated to FGFR3 mutations or related to other not described FGFR3 gene defects. Using magnetic resonance imaging, histopathology and molecular characterization we provide an example of a translational study of a rare and unreported brain congenital malformation. PMID:27177044

  13. Abnormal behaviors detection using particle motion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yutao; Zhang, Hong; Cheng, Feiyang; Yuan, Ding; You, Yuhu

    2015-03-01

    Human abnormal behaviors detection is one of the most challenging tasks in the video surveillance for the public security control. Interaction Energy Potential model is an effective and competitive method published recently to detect abnormal behaviors, but their model of abnormal behaviors is not accurate enough, so it has some limitations. In order to solve this problem, we propose a novel Particle Motion model. Firstly, we extract the foreground to improve the accuracy of interest points detection since the complex background usually degrade the effectiveness of interest points detection largely. Secondly, we detect the interest points using the graphics features. Here, the movement of each human target can be represented by the movements of detected interest points of the target. Then, we track these interest points in videos to record their positions and velocities. In this way, the velocity angles, position angles and distance between each two points can be calculated. Finally, we proposed a Particle Motion model to calculate the eigenvalue of each frame. An adaptive threshold method is proposed to detect abnormal behaviors. Experimental results on the BEHAVE dataset and online videos show that our method could detect fight and robbery events effectively and has a promising performance.

  14. HDM2 negatively affects the Chk2-mediated phosphorylation of p53.

    PubMed

    Bjørling-Poulsen, Marina; Meek, David; Issinger, Olaf-Georg

    2005-05-01

    By GST pull downs and co-immunoprecipitation analyses we found that recombinant Chk2 and HDM2 can form stable complexes in vitro. Chk2/HDM2 complexes were also detected in transfected Cos-1 cells over-expressing both proteins. Furthermore, we show that HDM2, as would be expected, severely affects the Chk2-catalyzed phosphorylation of p53. HDM2 itself is only slightly phosphorylated by Chk2. However, whereas HDM2 inhibits the Chk2-catalyzed p53 phosphorylation, HDM2 phosphorylation by Chk2 doubles in the presence of p53. The significance of the HDM2 phosphorylation is unknown, but it is possible that it might influence the stability of the HDM2/p53 complex.

  15. Protein phosphorylation and prevention of cytochrome oxidase inhibition by ATP: coupled mechanisms of energy metabolism regulation.

    PubMed

    Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Gatti, Domenico L; Bai, Yidong; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2011-06-01

    Rapid regulation of oxidative phosphorylation is crucial for mitochondrial adaptation to swift changes in fuels availability and energy demands. An intramitochondrial signaling pathway regulates cytochrome oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, through reversible phosphorylation. We find that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of a COX subunit dictates mammalian mitochondrial energy fluxes and identify the specific residue (S58) of COX subunit IV-1 (COXIV-1) that is involved in this mechanism of metabolic regulation. Using protein mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulations, and induced fit docking, we show that mitochondrial energy metabolism regulation by phosphorylation of COXIV-1 is coupled with prevention of COX allosteric inhibition by ATP. This regulatory mechanism is essential for efficient oxidative metabolism and cell survival. We propose that S58 COXIV-1 phosphorylation has evolved as a metabolic switch that allows mammalian mitochondria to rapidly toggle between energy utilization and energy storage.

  16. Phosphorylation of influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity

    PubMed Central

    Kathum, Omer Abid; Schräder, Tobias; Anhlan, Darisuren; Nordhoff, Carolin; Liedmann, Swantje; Pande, Amit; Mellmann, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Christina; Wixler, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation acts as a fundamental molecular switch that alters protein function and thereby regulates many cellular processes. The non‐structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is an important factor regulating virulence by counteracting cellular immune responses against viral infection. NS1 was shown to be phosphorylated at several sites; however, so far, no function has been conclusively assigned to these post‐translational events yet. Here, we show that the newly identified phospho‐site threonine 49 of NS1 is differentially phosphorylated in the viral replication cycle. Phosphorylation impairs binding of NS1 to double‐stranded RNA and TRIM25 as well as complex formation with RIG‐I, thereby switching off its interferon antagonistic activity. Because phosphorylation was shown to occur at later stages of infection, we hypothesize that at this stage other functions of the multifunctional NS1 beyond its interferon‐antagonistic activity are needed. PMID:26687707

  17. Phosphorylation of influenza A virus NS1 protein at threonine 49 suppresses its interferon antagonistic activity.

    PubMed

    Kathum, Omer Abid; Schräder, Tobias; Anhlan, Darisuren; Nordhoff, Carolin; Liedmann, Swantje; Pande, Amit; Mellmann, Alexander; Ehrhardt, Christina; Wixler, Viktor; Ludwig, Stephan

    2016-06-01

    Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation acts as a fundamental molecular switch that alters protein function and thereby regulates many cellular processes. The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus is an important factor regulating virulence by counteracting cellular immune responses against viral infection. NS1 was shown to be phosphorylated at several sites; however, so far, no function has been conclusively assigned to these post-translational events yet. Here, we show that the newly identified phospho-site threonine 49 of NS1 is differentially phosphorylated in the viral replication cycle. Phosphorylation impairs binding of NS1 to double-stranded RNA and TRIM25 as well as complex formation with RIG-I, thereby switching off its interferon antagonistic activity. Because phosphorylation was shown to occur at later stages of infection, we hypothesize that at this stage other functions of the multifunctional NS1 beyond its interferon-antagonistic activity are needed.

  18. Phosphoryl transfer reaction catalyzed by membrane diacylglycerol kinase: a theoretical mechanism study.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yafei; Tan, Hongwei; Zheng, Jimin; Li, Xichen; Chen, Guangju; Jia, Zongchao

    2015-10-14

    Diacylglycerol kinase is an integral membrane protein which catalyzes phosphoryl transfer from ATP to diacylglycerol. As the smallest kinase known, it shares no sequence homology with conventional kinases and possesses a distinct trimer structure. Thus far, its catalytic mechanism remains elusive. Using molecular dynamics and quantum mechanics calculations, we investigated the co-factor and the substrate binding and phosphoryl transfer mechanism. Based on the analysis of density functional theory calculations, we reveal that the phosphorylation reaction of diacylglycerol kinase features the same phosphoryl transfer mechanism as other kinases, despite its unique structural properties. Our results further show that the active site is relatively open and able to accommodate ligands in multiple orientations, suggesting that the optimization of binding orientations and conformational changes would occur prior to actual phosphoryl transfer.

  19. Detection of phosphorylation patterns in rat cortical neurons by combining phosphatase treatment and DIGE technology.

    PubMed

    Raggiaschi, Roberto; Lorenzetto, Chiara; Diodato, Enrica; Caricasole, Andrea; Gotta, Stefano; Terstappen, Georg C

    2006-02-01

    Although protein phosphorylation is probably the most studied post-translational modification occurring in cells, the number of proteins, which are the target of this modification, is still largely unknown. Increasing the coverage of the phosphoproteome as well as the detection of variation at the phosphorylation level would be very helpful for understanding the mechanisms of cell life and the modifications of the cell state leading to pathological conditions such as neurodegeneration. In order to further investigate variations occurring at the phosphorylation level, we have initiated the creation of a reference map of phosphorylated proteins in rat cortical neurons, employing a combination of phosphatase treatment and 2-DE/differential in gel electrophoresis technology. About 131 spots were recognized as phosphorylated proteins as they showed different migration behaviour after phosphatase treatment. The analysis of 42 selected spots was carried out by LC/MS/MS technology resulting in the identification of two new phosphoproteins.

  20. Primary fibroblasts cultures reveal TDP-43 abnormalities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with and without SOD1 mutations.

    PubMed

    Sabatelli, Mario; Zollino, Marcella; Conte, Amelia; Del Grande, Alessandra; Marangi, Giuseppe; Lucchini, Matteo; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Romano, Angela; Piacentini, Roberto; Bisogni, Giulia; Lattante, Serena; Luigetti, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Moncada, Alice

    2015-05-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) is a major component of the pathologic inclusions observed in the motor neurons of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. We examined TDP-43 expression in primary fibroblasts cultures from 22 ALS patients, including cases with SOD1 (n = 4), TARDBP (n = 4), FUS (n = 2), and C9ORF72 (n = 3) mutations and 9 patients without genetic defect. By using a phosphorylation-independent antibody, 15 patients showed notable alterations of TDP-43 level in the nuclear or cytoplasmic compartments. In particular, a marked accumulation of TDP-43 was observed in the cytoplasm of all cases with C9ORF72 and TARDBP mutations, 1 patient with FUS mutation and 3 patients without genetic defect. Patients with SOD1 mutations revealed a significant reduction of TDP-43 in the nuclei without cytoplasmic mislocalization. These changes were associated with the presence of truncated and phosphorylated TDP-43 species. Our results show that fibroblasts recapitulate some of hallmark TDP-43 abnormalities observed in neuronal cells. The reduction of full-length TDP-43 level in mutant SOD1 cells indicates that at least some SOD1 mutations alter TDP-43 metabolism.

  1. Phosphorylation sites in BubR1 that regulate kinetochore attachment, tension, and mitotic exit

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haomin; Hittle, James; Zappacosta, Francesca; Annan, Roland S.; Hershko, Avram; Yen, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    BubR1 kinase is essential for the mitotic checkpoint and also for kinetochores to establish microtubule attachments. In this study, we report that BubR1 is phosphorylated in mitosis on four residues that differ from sites recently reported to be phosphorylated by Plk1 (Elowe, S., S. Hummer, A. Uldschmid, X. Li, and E.A. Nigg. 2007. Genes Dev. 21:2205–2219; Matsumura, S., F. Toyoshima, and E. Nishida. 2007. J. Biol. Chem. 282:15217–15227). S670, the most conserved residue, is phosphorylated at kinetochores at the onset of mitosis and dephosphorylated before anaphase onset. Unlike the Plk1-dependent S676 phosphorylation, S670 phosphorylation is sensitive to microtubule attachments but not to kinetochore tension. Functionally, phosphorylation of S670 is essential for error correction and for kinetochores with end-on attachments to establish tension. Furthermore, in vitro data suggest that the phosphorylation status of BubR1 is important for checkpoint inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. Finally, RNA interference experiments show that Mps1 is a major but not the exclusive kinase that specifies BubR1 phosphorylation in vivo. The combined data suggest that BubR1 may be an effector of multiple kinases that are involved in discrete aspects of kinetochore attachments and checkpoint regulation. PMID:19015317

  2. OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION AND ULTRASTRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATION IN MITOCHONDRIA IN THE INTACT ASCITES TUMOR CELL

    PubMed Central

    Hackenbrock, Charles R.; Rehn, Terry G.; Weinbach, Eugene C.; Lemasters, John J.

    1971-01-01

    We have examined the ultrastructure of mitochondria as it relates to energy metabolism in the intact cell. Oxidative phosphorylation was induced in ultrastructurally intact Ehrlich ascites tumor cells by rapidly generating intracellular adenosine diphosphate from endogenous adenosine triphosphate by the addition of 2-deoxyglucose. The occurrence of oxidative phosphorylation was ascertained indirectly by continuous and synchronous monitoring of respiratory rate, fluorescence of pyridine nucleotide, and 90° light-scattering. Oxidative phosphorylation was confirmed by direct enzymatic analysis of intracellular adenine nucleotides and by determination of intracellular inorganic orthophosphate. Microsamples of cells rapidly fixed for electron microscopy revealed that, in addition to oxidative phosphorylation, an orthodox → condensed ultrastructural transformation occurred in the mitochondria of all cells in less than 6 sec after the generation of adenosine diphosphate by 2-deoxyglucose. A 90° light-scattering increase, which also occurs at this time, showed a t ½ of only 25 sec which agreed temporally with a slower orthodox → maximally condensed mitochondrial transformation. Neither oxidative phosphorylation nor ultrastructural transformation could be initiated in mitochondria in intact cells by the intracellular generation of adenosine diphosphate in the presence of uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. Partial and complete inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin resulted in a positive relationship to partial and complete inhibition of 2-deoxyglucose-induced ultrastructural transformation in the mitochondria in these cells. The data presented reveal that an orthodox → condensed ultrastructural transformation is linked to induced oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria in the intact ascites tumor cell. PMID:5111873

  3. ERK5 pathway regulates the phosphorylation of tumour suppressor hDlg during mitosis

    SciTech Connect

    Inesta-Vaquera, Francisco A.; Campbell, David G.; Arthur, J. Simon C.; Cuenda, Ana

    2010-08-13

    Research highlights: {yields} hDlg is phosphorylated during mitosis in multiple residues. {yields} Prospho-hDlg is excluded from the midbody during mitosis. {yields} hDlg is not phosphorylated by p38{gamma} or JNK1/2 during mitosis. {yields} ERK5 pathway mediates hDlg phosphorylation in mitosis. -- Abstract: Human disc-large (hDlg) is a scaffold protein critical for the maintenance of cell polarity and adhesion. hDlg is thought to be a tumour suppressor that regulates the cell cycle and proliferation. However, the mechanism and pathways involved in hDlg regulation during these processes is still unclear. Here we report that hDlg is phosphorylated during mitosis, and we establish the identity of at least three residues phosphorylated in hDlg; some are previously unreported. Phosphorylation affects hDlg localisation excluding it from the contact point between the two daughter cells. Our results reveal a previously unreported pathway for hDlg phosphorylation in mitosis and show that ERK5 pathway mediates hDlg cell cycle dependent phosphorylation. This is likely to have important implications in the correct timely mitotic entry and mitosis progression.

  4. Identification of a novel mitotic phosphorylation motif associated with protein localization to the mitotic apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Feng; Camp, David G.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Luo, Quanzhou; Kelly, Ryan T.; Clauss, Therese RW; Brinkley, William R.; Smith, Richard D.; Stenoien, David L.

    2007-11-16

    The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) is a critical regulator of chromosome, cytoskeleton and membrane dynamics during mitosis. Here, we identified phosphopeptides and phosphoprotein complexes recognized by a phosphorylation specific antibody that labels the CPC using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. A mitotic phosphorylation motif (PX{G/T/S}{L/M}[pS]P or WGL[pS]P) was identified in 11 proteins including Fzr/Cdh1 and RIC-8, two proteins with potential links to the CPC. Phosphoprotein complexes contained known CPC components INCENP, Aurora-B and TD-60, as well as SMAD2, 14-3-3 proteins, PP2A, and Cdk1, a likely kinase for this motif. Protein sequence analysis identified phosphorylation motifs in additional proteins including SMAD2, Plk3 and INCENP. Mitotic SMAD2 and Plk3 phosphorylation was confirmed using phosphorylation specific antibodies, and in the case of Plk3, phosphorylation correlates with its localization to the mitotic apparatus. A mutagenesis approach was used to show INCENP phosphorylation is required for midbody localization. These results provide evidence for a shared phosphorylation event that regulates localization of critical proteins during mitosis.

  5. Myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation enhances cardiac β-myosin in vitro motility under load.

    PubMed

    Karabina, Anastasia; Kazmierczak, Katarzyna; Szczesna-Cordary, Danuta; Moore, Jeffrey R

    2015-08-15

    Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and myofibrillar disarray, and often results in sudden cardiac death. Two HCM mutations, N47K and R58Q, are located in the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC). The RLC mechanically stabilizes the myosin lever arm, which is crucial to myosin's ability to transmit contractile force. The N47K and R58Q mutations have previously been shown to reduce actin filament velocity under load, stemming from a more compliant lever arm (Greenberg, 2010). In contrast, RLC phosphorylation was shown to impart stiffness to the myosin lever arm (Greenberg, 2009). We hypothesized that phosphorylation of the mutant HCM-RLC may mitigate distinct mutation-induced structural and functional abnormalities. In vitro motility assays were utilized to investigate the effects of RLC phosphorylation on the HCM-RLC mutant phenotype in the presence of an α-actinin frictional load. Porcine cardiac β-myosin was depleted of its native RLC and reconstituted with mutant or wild-type human RLC in phosphorylated or non-phosphorylated form. Consistent with previous findings, in the presence of load, myosin bearing the HCM mutations reduced actin sliding velocity compared to WT resulting in 31-41% reductions in force production. Myosin containing phosphorylated RLC (WT or mutant) increased sliding velocity and also restored mutant myosin force production to near WT unphosphorylated values. These results point to RLC phosphorylation as a general mechanism to increase force production of the individual myosin motor and as a potential target to ameliorate the HCM-induced phenotype at the molecular level. PMID:26116789

  6. Upregulation of calpain activity precedes tau phosphorylation and loss of synaptic proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Phillips, Emma C; Croft, Cara L; Dentoni, Giacomo; Hughes, Martina M; Wade, Matthew A; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; O'Neill, Michael J; Perez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in calcium homeostasis are widely reported to contribute to synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations lead to activation of the calcium-sensitive cysteine protease, calpain, which has a number of substrates known to be abnormally regulated in disease. Analysis of human brain has shown that calpain activity is elevated in AD compared to controls, and that calpain-mediated proteolysis regulates the activity of important disease-associated proteins including the tau kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen kinase synthase-3. Here, we sought to investigate the likely temporal association between these changes during the development of sporadic AD using Braak staged post-mortem brain. Quantification of protein amounts in these tissues showed increased activity of calpain-1 from Braak stage III onwards in comparison to controls, extending previous findings that calpain-1 is upregulated at end-stage disease, and suggesting that activation of calcium-sensitive signalling pathways are sustained from early stages of disease development. Increases in calpain-1 activity were associated with elevated activity of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, itself a known calpain substrate. Activation of the tau kinases, glycogen-kinase synthase-3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 were also found to occur in Braak stage II-III brain, and these preceded global elevations in tau phosphorylation and the loss of post-synaptic markers. In addition, we identified transient increases in total amyloid precursor protein and pre-synaptic markers in Braak stage II-III brain, that were lost by end stage Alzheimer's disease, that may be indicative of endogenous compensatory responses to the initial stages of neurodegeneration. These findings provide insight into the molecular events that underpin the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and further highlight the rationale for investigating novel treatment

  7. Upregulation of calpain activity precedes tau phosphorylation and loss of synaptic proteins in Alzheimer's disease brain.

    PubMed

    Kurbatskaya, Ksenia; Phillips, Emma C; Croft, Cara L; Dentoni, Giacomo; Hughes, Martina M; Wade, Matthew A; Al-Sarraj, Safa; Troakes, Claire; O'Neill, Michael J; Perez-Nievas, Beatriz G; Hanger, Diane P; Noble, Wendy

    2016-03-31

    Alterations in calcium homeostasis are widely reported to contribute to synaptic degeneration and neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Elevated cytosolic calcium concentrations lead to activation of the calcium-sensitive cysteine protease, calpain, which has a number of substrates known to be abnormally regulated in disease. Analysis of human brain has shown that calpain activity is elevated in AD compared to controls, and that calpain-mediated proteolysis regulates the activity of important disease-associated proteins including the tau kinases cyclin-dependent kinase 5 and glycogen kinase synthase-3. Here, we sought to investigate the likely temporal association between these changes during the development of sporadic AD using Braak staged post-mortem brain. Quantification of protein amounts in these tissues showed increased activity of calpain-1 from Braak stage III onwards in comparison to controls, extending previous findings that calpain-1 is upregulated at end-stage disease, and suggesting that activation of calcium-sensitive signalling pathways are sustained from early stages of disease development. Increases in calpain-1 activity were associated with elevated activity of the endogenous calpain inhibitor, calpastatin, itself a known calpain substrate. Activation of the tau kinases, glycogen-kinase synthase-3 and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 were also found to occur in Braak stage II-III brain, and these preceded global elevations in tau phosphorylation and the loss of post-synaptic markers. In addition, we identified transient increases in total amyloid precursor protein and pre-synaptic markers in Braak stage II-III brain, that were lost by end stage Alzheimer's disease, that may be indicative of endogenous compensatory responses to the initial stages of neurodegeneration. These findings provide insight into the molecular events that underpin the progression of Alzheimer's disease, and further highlight the rationale for investigating novel treatment

  8. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR.

    PubMed

    Marasini, Carlotta; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-07-01

    The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and β-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of α-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two conditions, monitoring the changes of the mean residue ellipticity measured at 222 nm as a function of temperature, between 20 and 95 °C. The thermodynamic analysis of the denaturation curves shows that phosphorylation of the protein induces a state of lower stability of R domain, characterized by a lower transition temperature, and by a smaller Gibbs free energy difference

  9. Androgen receptor serine 81 phosphorylation mediates chromatin binding and transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoyong; Gulla, Sarah; Cai, Changmeng; Balk, Steven P

    2012-03-01

    Our previous findings indicated that androgen receptor (AR) phosphorylation at serine 81 is stimulated by the mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (CDK1). In this report, we extended our previous study and confirmed that Ser-81 phosphorylation increases during mitosis, coincident with CDK1 activation. We further showed blocking cell cycle at G(1) or S phase did not disrupt androgen-induced Ser-81 phosphorylation and AR-dependent transcription, consistent with a recent report that AR was phosphorylated at Ser-81 and activated by the transcriptional CDK9. To assess the function of Ser-81 phosphorylation in prostate cancer (PCa) cells expressing endogenous AR, we developed a ligand switch strategy using a ligand-binding domain mutation (W741C) that renders AR responsive to the antagonist bicalutamide. An S81A/W741C double mutant AR stably expressed in PCa cells failed to transactivate the endogenous AR-regulated PSA or TMPRSS2 genes. ChIP showed that the S81A mutation prevented ligand-induced AR recruitment to these genes, and cellular fractionation revealed that the S81A mutation globally abrogated chromatin binding. Conversely, the AR fraction rapidly recruited to chromatin after androgen stimulation was highly enriched for Ser-81 phosphorylation. Finally, inhibition of CDK1 and CDK9 decreased AR Ser-81 phosphorylation, chromatin binding, and transcriptional activity. These findings indicate that Ser-81 phosphorylation by CDK9 stabilizes AR chromatin binding for transcription and suggest that CDK1-mediated Ser-81 phosphorylation during mitosis provides a pool of Ser-81 phosphorylation AR that can be readily recruited to chromatin for gene reactivation and may enhance AR activity in PCa.

  10. In the Beginning, There Was Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kyriakis, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of reversible protein phosphorylation to cellular regulation cannot be overstated. In eukaryotic cells, protein kinase/phosphatase signaling pathways regulate a staggering number of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, cell death (apoptosis, necroptosis, necrosis), metabolism (at both the cellular and organismal levels), behavior and neurological function, development, and pathogen resistance. Although protein phosphorylation as a mode of eukaryotic cell regulation is familiar to most biochemists, many are less familiar with protein kinase/phosphatase signaling networks that function in prokaryotes. In this thematic minireview series, we present four minireviews that cover the important field of prokaryotic protein phosphorylation. PMID:24554697

  11. Postsynaptic density protein 95-regulated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat models

    PubMed Central

    Ba, Maowen; Kong, Min; Ma, Guozhao

    2015-01-01

    Context Abnormality in interactions between N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor and its signaling molecules occurs in the lesioned striatum in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). It was reported that Fyn-mediated NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation, can enhance NMDA receptor function. Postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), one of the synapse-associated proteins, regulates interactions between receptor and downstream-signaling molecules. In light of the relationship between PSD-95, NR2B, and Fyn kinases, does PSD-95 contribute to the overactivity of NMDA receptor function induced by dopaminergic treatment? To further prove the possibility, the effects of regulating the PSD-95 expression on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and on the interactions of Fyn and NR2B in LID rat models were evaluated. Methods In the present study, parkinsonian rat models were established by injecting 6-hydroxydopamine. Subsequently, valid PD rats were treated with levodopa (50 mg/kg/day with benserazide 12.5 mg/kg/day, twice daily) intraperitoneally for 22 days to create LID rat models. Then, the effect of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of the PSD-95mRNA antisense oligonucleotides (PSD-95 ASO) on the rotational response to levodopa challenge was assessed. The effects of pretreatment with an intrastriatal injection of PSD-95 ASO on the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B in the LID rat models were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results Levodopa administration twice daily for 22 days to parkinsonian rats shortened the rotational duration and increased the peak turning responses. The altered rotational responses were attenuated by PSD-95 ASO pretreatment. Meanwhile, PSD-95 ASO pretreatment decreased the level of PSD-95 protein expression and reduced both the augmented NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of Fyn with NR2B triggered during the levodopa administration in the

  12. Changes in phosphorylation of connexin43 in rats during acute myocardial hypoxia and effects of antiarrhythmic peptide on the phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Zhang, Cuntai; Ruan, Yanfei; Liu, Nian; Wang, Lin

    2007-06-01

    In order to confirm the hypothesis that during acute hypoxia, the antiarrhythmic peptide (AAP10) could improve conductance by changing the phosphorylation state of connexin43 (Cx43), isolated perfused rat hearts were randomly divided into three groups: control, hypoxia and AAP10 (n=9 in each group). The change in Cx43 phosphorylation was tested by Western-blot; the distribution of Cx43 was observed by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Western-blot analysis revealed that the expression of total Cx43 protein was significantly decreased during acute hypoxia, while nonphosphorylated Cx43 (NP-Cx43) was unchanged. AAP10 could increase the expression of total Cx43 protein, but had no effects on the NP-Cx43 protein. Immunofluorescence study showed that during acute hypoxia, both total Cx43 and NP-Cx43 proteins were greatly decreased, while AAP10 only increased the expression of total Cx43 protein, but had no effect of the NP-Cx43 protein expression. These findings suggested that the decrease of intercellular communication may be associated with the reduction of phosphorylated Cx43 (p-Cx43) and translocation of NP-Cx43 from the surface of gap junction into intracellular pools during acute hypoxia. AAP10 can improve intercellular communication by enhancing phosphorylation of Cx43.

  13. Affibody-mediated retention of the epidermal growth factor receptor in the secretory compartments leads to inhibition of phosphorylation in the kinase domain.

    PubMed

    Vernet, Erik; Lundberg, Emma; Friedman, Mikaela; Rigamonti, Nicolò; Klausing, Sandra; Nygren, Per-Ake; Gräslund, Torbjörn

    2009-09-01

    Abnormal activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with various cancer-related processes and motivates the search for strategies that can selectively block EGFR signalling. In this study, functional knockdown of EGFR was achieved through expression of an affibody construct, (ZEGFR:1907)(2-)KDEL, with high affinity for EGFR and extended with the amino acids KDEL to make it resident in the secretory compartments. Expression of (ZEGFR:1907)(2-)KDEL resulted in 80% reduction ofthe cell surface level of EGFR, and fluorescent staining for EGFR and the (ZEGFR:1907)(2-)KDEL construct showed overlapping intracellular localisation. Immunocapture of EGFR from cell lysates showed that an intracellular complex between EGFR and the affibody construct had been formed, further indicating aspecific interaction between the affibody construct and EGFR. Surface depletion of EGFR led to a dramatic decrease in the amount of kinase domain phosphorylated EGFR, coincident with a significant decrease in the proliferation rate. PMID:19552886

  14. Phosphorylation at serine 52 and 635 does not alter the transport properties of glucosinolate transporter AtGTR1

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Morten Egevang; Olsen, Carl Erik; Halkier, Barbara Ann; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how plants regulate transporters of defense compounds. In A. thaliana, glucosinolates are transported between tissues by NPF2.10 (AtGTR1) and NPF2.11 (AtGTR2). Mining of the PhosPhat4.0 database showed two cytosol exposed phosphorylation sites for AtGTR1 and one membrane-buried phosphorylation site for AtGTR2. In this study, we investigate whether mutation of the two potential regulatory sites of AtGTR1 affected transport of glucosinolates in Xenopus oocytes. Characterization of AtGTR1 phosphorylation mutants showed that phosphorylation of AtGTR1 - at the two reported phosphorylation sites - is not directly involved in regulating AtGTR1 transport activity. We hypothesize a role for AtGTR1-phosphorylation in regulating protein-protein interactions. PMID:26340317

  15. Rapid changes in plasma membrane protein phosphorylation during initiation of cell wall digestion

    SciTech Connect

    Blowers, D.P.; Boss, W.F.; Trewavas, A.J. )

    1988-02-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles from wild carrot cells grown in suspension culture were isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning, and ATP-dependent phosphorylation was measured with ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP in the presence and absence of calcium. Treatment of the carrot cells with the cell wall digestion enzymes, driselase, in a sorbitol osmoticum for 1.5 min altered the protein phosphorylation pattern compared to that of cells treated with sorbitol alone. Driselase treatment resulted in decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 80,000 which showed almost complete calcium dependence in the osmoticum treated cells; decreased phosphorylation of a band of M{sub r} 15,000 which showed little calcium activation, and appearance of a new band of calcium-dependent phosphorylation at M{sub r} 22,000. However, protein phosphorylation was decreased. Adding driselase to the in vitro reaction mixture caused a general decrease in the membrane protein phosphorylation either in the presence or absence of calcium which did not mimic the in vivo response. Cells labeled in vivo with inorganic {sup 32}P also showed a response to the Driselase treatment. An enzymically active driselas preparation was required for the observed responses.

  16. The Chemical Biology of Protein Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, Mary Katherine; Cole, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    The explosion of scientific interest in protein kinase-mediated signaling networks has led to the infusion of new chemical methods and their applications related to the analysis of phosphorylation pathways. We highlight some of these chemical biology approaches across three areas. First, we discuss the development of chemical tools to modulate the activity of protein kinases to explore kinase mechanisms and their contributions to phosphorylation events and cellular processes. Second, we describe chemical techniques developed in the past few years to dissect the structural and functional effects of phosphate modifications at specific sites in proteins. Third, we cover newly developed molecular imaging approaches to elucidate the spatiotemporal aspects of phosphorylation cascades in live cells. Exciting advances in our understanding of protein phosphorylation have been obtained with these chemical biology approaches, but continuing opportunities for technological innovation remain. PMID:19489734

  17. The chemical biology of protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mary Katherine; Cole, Philip A

    2009-01-01

    The explosion of scientific interest in protein kinase-mediated signaling networks has led to the infusion of new chemical methods and their applications related to the analysis of phosphorylation pathways. We highlight some of these chemical biology approaches across three areas. First, we discuss the development of chemical tools to modulate the activity of protein kinases to explore kinase mechanisms and their contributions to phosphorylation events and cellular processes. Second, we describe chemical techniques developed in the past few years to dissect the structural and functional effects of phosphate modifications at specific sites in proteins. Third, we cover newly developed molecular imaging approaches to elucidate the spatiotemporal aspects of phosphorylation cascades in live cells. Exciting advances in our understanding of protein phosphorylation have been obtained with these chemical biology approaches, but continuing opportunities for technological innovation remain.

  18. Cytoplasmic cyclin D1 regulates cell invasion and metastasis through the phosphorylation of paxillin

    PubMed Central

    Fusté, Noel P.; Fernández-Hernández, Rita; Cemeli, Tània; Mirantes, Cristina; Pedraza, Neus; Rafel, Marta; Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Colomina, Neus; Ferrezuelo, Francisco; Dolcet, Xavier; Garí, Eloi

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 (Ccnd1) together with its binding partner Cdk4 act as a transcriptional regulator to control cell proliferation and migration, and abnormal Ccnd1·Cdk4 expression promotes tumour growth and metastasis. While different nuclear Ccnd1·Cdk4 targets participating in cell proliferation and tissue development have been identified, little is known about how Ccnd1·Cdk4 controls cell adherence and invasion. Here, we show that the focal adhesion component paxillin is a cytoplasmic substrate of Ccnd1·Cdk4. This complex phosphorylates a fraction of paxillin specifically associated to the cell membrane, and promotes Rac1 activation, thereby triggering membrane ruffling and cell invasion in both normal fibroblasts and tumour cells. Our results demonstrate that localization of Ccnd1·Cdk4 to the cytoplasm does not simply act to restrain cell proliferation, but constitutes a functionally relevant mechanism operating under normal and pathological conditions to control cell adhesion, migration and metastasis through activation of a Ccnd1·Cdk4-paxillin-Rac1 axis. PMID:27181366

  19. Kidney transplantation in abnormal bladder

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Shashi K.; Muthu, V.; Rajapurkar, Mohan M.; Desai, Mahesh R.

    2007-01-01

    Structural urologic abnormalities resulting in dysfunctional lower urinary tract leading to end stage renal disease may constitute 15% patients in the adult population and up to 20-30% in the pediatric population. A patient with an abnormal bladder, who is approaching end stage renal disease, needs careful evaluation of the lower urinary tract to plan the most satisfactory technical approach to the transplant procedure. Past experience of different authors can give an insight into the management and outcome of these patients. This review revisits the current literature available on transplantation in abnormal bladder and summarizes the clinical approach towards handling this group of difficult transplant patients. We add on our experience as we discuss the various issues. The outcome of renal transplant in abnormal bladder is not adversely affected when done in a reconstructed bladder. Correct preoperative evaluation, certain technical modification during transplant and postoperative care is mandatory to avoid complications. Knowledge of the abnormal bladder should allow successful transplantation with good outcome. PMID:19718334

  20. Endocrine abnormalities of obesity.

    PubMed

    Björntorp, P

    1995-09-01

    Studies have shown that patients with central obesity have increased cortisol secretion, probably because they have increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. A high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) is associated with low production of sex steroids, such as testosterone in men, and a low rate of secretion of growth hormone. High levels of cortisol and insulin combined with low levels of growth hormone and sex steroid can cause lipid accumulation. These hormonal changes probably produce more deposition of visceral than subcutaneous fat. Patients who are deficient in either testosterone or growth hormone show a reduction in visceral adiposity when their hormone levels are normalized. Stress has been shown to activate the HPA axis and may cause the hormonal changes associated with obesity. Individuals with elevated WHR have indications of high levels of stress and anxiety. Monkeys that were stressed by social disruption were found to have increased cortisol levels and low sex steroid levels. Many of these animals had insulin resistance and visceral adiposity. Stimulants, such as alcohol and smoking, also increase the activity of the HPA axis.

  1. Changes in matrix phosphorylation during bovine dentin development.

    PubMed

    Verdelis, Kostas; Lukashova, Lyudmilla; Yamauchi, Mitsuo; Atsawasuwan, Peter; Wright, John T; Peterson, Margaret G E; Jha, Divya; Boskey, Adele L

    2007-08-01

    Phosphorylation of the organic matrix proteins of dentin is important for the initiation of mineralization, but its relevance in later mineralization stages is controversial. The objective of this study was to analyze changes in the total matrix phosphate content during dentin development and to identify their origin. Amino acid and total matrix phosphate analyses of microdissected developing mantle and circumpulpal fetal bovine dentin specimens were performed. The amino acid composition showed few changes during mantle and circumpulpal dentin maturation. However, the total matrix phosphate content showed a significant, positive correlation with tissue maturation in both mantle and circumpulpal dentin, with a two- and a three-fold increase, respectively, being observed. The data indicate that changes occur in the pattern of phosphorylation of matrix proteins during dentin maturation, which we suggest may play a functional role in later stages of tooth mineralization.

  2. Multisite Phosphorylation of NuMA-Related LIN-5 Controls Mitotic Spindle Positioning in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Vincent; van Mourik, Tim; Akhmanova, Anna; Heck, Albert J. R.; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2016-01-01

    During cell division, the mitotic spindle segregates replicated chromosomes to opposite poles of the cell, while the position of the spindle determines the plane of cleavage. Spindle positioning and chromosome segregation depend on pulling forces on microtubules extending from the centrosomes to the cell cortex. Critical in pulling force generation is the cortical anchoring of cytoplasmic dynein by a conserved ternary complex of Gα, GPR-1/2, and LIN-5 proteins in C. elegans (Gα–LGN–NuMA in mammals). Previously, we showed that the polarity kinase PKC-3 phosphorylates LIN-5 to control spindle positioning in early C. elegans embryos. Here, we investigate whether additional LIN-5 phosphorylations regulate cortical pulling forces, making use of targeted alteration of in vivo phosphorylated residues by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genetic engineering. Four distinct in vivo phosphorylated LIN-5 residues were found to have critical functions in spindle positioning. Two of these residues form part of a 30 amino acid binding site for GPR-1, which we identified by reverse two-hybrid screening. We provide evidence for a dual-kinase mechanism, involving GSK3 phosphorylation of S659 followed by phosphorylation of S662 by casein kinase 1. These LIN-5 phosphorylations promote LIN-5–GPR-1/2 interaction and contribute to cortical pulling forces. The other two critical residues, T168 and T181, form part of a cyclin-dependent kinase consensus site and are phosphorylated by CDK1-cyclin B in vitro. We applied a novel strategy to characterize early embryonic defects in lethal T168,T181 knockin substitution mutants, and provide evidence for sequential LIN-5 N-terminal phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in dynein recruitment. Our data support that phosphorylation of multiple LIN-5 domains by different kinases contributes to a mechanism for spatiotemporal control of spindle positioning and chromosome segregation. PMID:27711157

  3. An Extensive Survey of Tyrosine Phosphorylation Revealing New Sites in Human Mammary Epithelial Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Heibeck, Tyler H.; Ding, Shi-Jian; Opresko, Lee K.; Zhao, Rui; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Yang, Feng; Tolmachev, Aleksey V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.; Wiley, H. S.; Qian, Weijun

    2009-08-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a central regulatory mechanism in cell signaling. To extensively characterize the site-specific tyrosine phosphorylation in human cells, we present here a global survey of tyrosine phosphorylation sites in a normal-derived human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) line by applying anti-phosphotyrosine (pTyr) peptide immunoaffinity purification (IP) coupled with high sensitivity LC-MS/MS. A total of 481 tyrosine phosphorylation sites (covered by 716 unique peptides) from 285 proteins were confidently identified in HMEC following the analysis of both the basal condition and an acute stimulated condition with epidermal growth factor (EGF). The estimated false discovery rate is 1.0% as measured by comparison against a scrambled database search. Comparison of these data to the literature showed significant agreement in site matches. Additionally 281 sites were not previously observed in HMEC culture were found. Twenty-nine of these sites have not been reported in any human cell or tissue system. The global profiling also allowed us to examine the phosphorylation stoichiometry differences based on spectral count information. Comparison of the data to a previous global proteome profiling study illustrates that most of the highly phoshorylated proteins are of relatively low-abundance. Large differences in phosphorylation stoichiometry for sites within the same protein were also observed for many of the identified proteins, suggesting potentially more important functional roles for those highly phosphorylated pTyr sites within a given protein. By mapping to major signaling networks such as EGF receptor and insulin growth factor-1 receptor signaling pathways, many known proteins involved in these pathways were revealed to be tyrosine phosphorylated, which should allow us to select interesting targeted involved in a given pathway for more directed studies. This extensive HMEC tyrosine phosphorylation dataset represents an important database

  4. Phosphorylation prevents C/EBP{beta} from the calpain-dependent degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuan-yuan; Li, Shu-fen; Qian, Shu-wen; Zhang, You-you; Liu, Yuan; Tang, Qi-Qun; Li, Xi

    2012-03-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation protected C/EBP{beta} from {mu}-calpain-mediated proteolysis in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation mimic C/EBP{beta} was insensitive to calpain accelerator and inhibitor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation on Thr{sub 188} contributed more to the stabilization of C/EBP{beta}. -- Abstract: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta} plays an important role in proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. C/EBP{beta} is sequentially phosphorylated during the 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation program, first by MAPK/Cyclin A/cdk2 on Thr{sub 188} and subsequently by GSK3{beta} on Ser{sub 184} or Thr{sub 179}. Dual phosphorylation is critical for the gain of DNA binding activity of C/EBP{beta}. In this manuscript, we found that phosphorylation also contributed to the stability of C/EBP{beta}. Both ex vivo and in vitro experiments showed that phosphorylation by MAPK/Cyclin A/cdk2 and GSK3{beta} protected C/EBP{beta} from {mu}-calpain-mediated proteolysis, while phosphorylation on Thr{sub 188} by MAPK/Cyclin A/cdk2 contributed more to the stabilization of C/EBP{beta}, Further studies indicated that phosphorylation mimic C/EBP{beta} was insensitive to both calpain accelerator and calpain inhibitor. Thus, phosphorylation might contribute to the stability as well as the gain of DNA binding activity of C/EBP{beta}.

  5. Band 3 Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Acts as Redox Stress Sensor Leading to Its Phosphorylation by p72 Syk

    PubMed Central

    Pantaleo, Antonella; Ferru, Emanuela; Pau, Maria Carmina; Khadjavi, Amina; Mandili, Giorgia; Mattè, Alessandro; Spano, Alessandra; De Franceschi, Lucia; Pippia, Proto; Turrini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In erythrocytes, the regulation of the redox sensitive Tyr phosphorylation of band 3 and its functions are still partially defined. A role of band 3 oxidation in regulating its own phosphorylation has been previously suggested. The current study provides evidences to support this hypothesis: (i) in intact erythrocytes, at 2 mM concentration of GSH, band 3 oxidation, and phosphorylation, Syk translocation to the membrane and Syk phosphorylation responded to the same micromolar concentrations of oxidants showing identical temporal variations; (ii) the Cys residues located in the band 3 cytoplasmic domain are 20-fold more reactive than GSH; (iii) disulfide linked band 3 cytoplasmic domain docks Syk kinase; (iv) protein Tyr phosphatases are poorly inhibited at oxidant concentrations leading to massive band 3 oxidation and phosphorylation. We also observed that hemichromes binding to band 3 determined its irreversible oxidation and phosphorylation, progressive hemolysis, and serine hyperphosphorylation of different cytoskeleton proteins. Syk inhibitor suppressed the phosphorylation of band 3 also preventing serine phosphorylation changes and hemolysis. Our data suggest that band 3 acts as redox sensor regulating its own phosphorylation and that hemichromes leading to the protracted phosphorylation of band 3 may trigger a cascade of events finally leading to hemolysis. PMID:27034738

  6. Intracellular distribution of differentially phosphorylated dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A).

    PubMed

    Kaczmarski, Wojciech; Barua, Madhabi; Mazur-Kolecka, Bozena; Frackowiak, Janusz; Dowjat, Wieslaw; Mehta, Pankaj; Bolton, David; Hwang, Yu-Wen; Rabe, Ausma; Albertini, Giorgio; Wegiel, Jerzy

    2014-02-01

    The gene encoding dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) is located within the Down syndrome (DS) critical region of chromosome 21. DYRK1A interacts with a plethora of substrates in the cytosol, cytoskeleton, and nucleus. Its overexpression is a contributing factor to the developmental alterations and age-associated pathology observed in DS. We hypothesized that the intracellular distribution of DYRK1A and cell-compartment-specific functions are associated with DYRK1A posttranslational modifications. Fractionation showed that, in both human and mouse brain, almost 80% of DYRK1A was associated with the cytoskeleton, and the remaining DYRK1A was present in the cytosolic and nuclear fractions. Coimmunoprecipitation revealed that DYRK1A in the brain cytoskeleton fraction forms complexes with filamentous actin, neurofilaments, and tubulin. Two-dimensional gel analysis of the fractions revealed DYRK1A with distinct isoelectric points: 5.5-6.5 in the nucleus, 7.2-8.2 in the cytoskeleton, and 8.7 in the cytosol. Phosphate-affinity gel electrophoresis demonstrated several bands of DYRK1A with different mobility shifts for nuclear, cytoskeletal, and cytosolic DYRK1A, indicating modification by phosphorylation. Mass spectrometry analysis disclosed one phosphorylated site in the cytosolic DYRK1A and multiple phosphorylated residues in the cytoskeletal DYRK1A, including two not previously described. This study supports the hypothesis that intracellular distribution and compartment-specific functions of DYRK1A may depend on its phosphorylation pattern. PMID:24327345

  7. The relationships among bovine αS-casein phosphorylation isoforms suggest different phosphorylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z H; Visker, M H P W; Miranda, G; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Bovenhuis, H; Martin, P

    2016-10-01

    Casein (CN) phosphorylation is an important posttranslational modification and is one of the key factors responsible for constructing and stabilizing casein micelles. Variation in phosphorylation degree of αS-CN is of great interest because it is suggested to affect milk technological properties. This study aimed to investigate the variation in phosphorylation degree of αS-CN among milk of individual cows and to explore relationships among different phosphorylation isoforms of αS-CN. For this purpose, we analyzed morning milk samples from 529 French Montbéliarde cows using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We detected 3 new phosphorylation isoforms: αS2-CN-9P, αS2-CN-14P, and αS2-CN-15P in bovine milk, in addition to the known isoforms αS1-CN-8P, αS1-CN-9P, αS2-CN-10P, αS2-CN-11P, αS2-CN-12P, and αS2-CN-13P. The relative concentrations of each αS-CN phosphorylation isoform varied considerably among individual cows. Furthermore, the phenotypic correlations and hierarchical clustering suggest at least 2 regulatory systems for phosphorylation of αS-CN: one responsible for isoforms with lower levels of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-8P, αS2-CN-10P, and αS2-CN-11P), and another responsible for isoforms with higher levels of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-9P, αS2-CN-12P, αS2-CN-13P, and αS2-CN-14P). Identifying all phosphorylation sites of αS2-CN and investigating the genetic background of different αS2-CN phosphorylation isoforms may provide further insight into the phosphorylation mechanism of caseins.

  8. The relationships among bovine αS-casein phosphorylation isoforms suggest different phosphorylation pathways.

    PubMed

    Fang, Z H; Visker, M H P W; Miranda, G; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Bovenhuis, H; Martin, P

    2016-10-01

    Casein (CN) phosphorylation is an important posttranslational modification and is one of the key factors responsible for constructing and stabilizing casein micelles. Variation in phosphorylation degree of αS-CN is of great interest because it is suggested to affect milk technological properties. This study aimed to investigate the variation in phosphorylation degree of αS-CN among milk of individual cows and to explore relationships among different phosphorylation isoforms of αS-CN. For this purpose, we analyzed morning milk samples from 529 French Montbéliarde cows using liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. We detected 3 new phosphorylation isoforms: αS2-CN-9P, αS2-CN-14P, and αS2-CN-15P in bovine milk, in addition to the known isoforms αS1-CN-8P, αS1-CN-9P, αS2-CN-10P, αS2-CN-11P, αS2-CN-12P, and αS2-CN-13P. The relative concentrations of each αS-CN phosphorylation isoform varied considerably among individual cows. Furthermore, the phenotypic correlations and hierarchical clustering suggest at least 2 regulatory systems for phosphorylation of αS-CN: one responsible for isoforms with lower levels of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-8P, αS2-CN-10P, and αS2-CN-11P), and another responsible for isoforms with higher levels of phosphorylation (αS1-CN-9P, αS2-CN-12P, αS2-CN-13P, and αS2-CN-14P). Identifying all phosphorylation sites of αS2-CN and investigating the genetic background of different αS2-CN phosphorylation isoforms may provide further insight into the phosphorylation mechanism of caseins. PMID:27522420

  9. Compartment-Specific Phosphorylation of Squid Neurofilaments.

    PubMed

    Grant, Philip; Pant, Harish C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the giant axon and synapse of third-order neurons in the squid stellate ganglion have provided a vast literature on neuronal physiology and axon transport. Large neuronal size also lends itself to comparative biochemical studies of cell body versus axon. These have focused on the regulation of synthesis, assembly, posttranslational modification and function of neuronal cytoskeletal proteins (microtubules (MTs) and neurofilaments (NFs)), the predominant proteins in axoplasm. These contribute to axonal organization, stability, transport, and impulse transmission responsible for rapid contractions of mantle muscles underlying jet propulsion. Studies of vertebrate NFs have established an extensive literature on NF structure, organization, and function; studies of squid NFs, however, have made it possible to compare compartment-specific regulation of NF synthesis, assembly, and function in soma versus axoplasm. Since NFs contain over 100 eligible sites for phosphorylation by protein kinases, the compartment-specific patterns of phosphorylation have been a primary focus of biochemical studies. We have learned that NF phosphorylation is tightly compartmentalized; extensive phosphorylation occurs only in the axonal compartment in squid and in vertebrate neurons. This extensive phosphorylation plays a key role in organizing NFs, in association with microtubules (MTs), into a stable, dynamic functional lattice that supports axon growth, diameter, impulse transmission, and synaptic activity. To understand how cytoskeletal phosphorylation is topographically regulated, the kinases and phosphatases, bound to NFs isolated from cell bodies and axoplasm, have also been studied.

  10. Long-term dynamics of multisite phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Boris Y.; Mattingly, Henry H.; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M.; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2016-01-01

    Multisite phosphorylation cycles are ubiquitous in cell regulation systems and are studied at multiple levels of complexity, from molecules to organisms, with the ultimate goal of establishing predictive understanding of the effects of genetic and pharmacological perturbations of protein phosphorylation in vivo. Achieving this goal is essentially impossible without mathematical models, which provide a systematic framework for exploring dynamic interactions of multiple network components. Most of the models studied to date do not discriminate between the distinct partially phosphorylated forms and focus on two limiting reaction regimes, distributive and processive, which differ in the number of enzyme–substrate binding events needed for complete phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. Here we use a minimal model of extracellular signal-related kinase regulation to explore the dynamics of a reaction network that includes all essential phosphorylation forms and arbitrary levels of reaction processivity. In addition to bistability, which has been studied extensively in distributive mechanisms, this network can generate periodic oscillations. Both bistability and oscillations can be realized at high levels of reaction processivity. Our work provides a general framework for systematic analysis of dynamics in multisite phosphorylation systems. PMID:27226482

  11. Long-term dynamics of multisite phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Boris Y; Mattingly, Henry H; Berezhkovskii, Alexander M; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y

    2016-07-15

    Multisite phosphorylation cycles are ubiquitous in cell regulation systems and are studied at multiple levels of complexity, from molecules to organisms, with the ultimate goal of establishing predictive understanding of the effects of genetic and pharmacological perturbations of protein phosphorylation in vivo. Achieving this goal is essentially impossible without mathematical models, which provide a systematic framework for exploring dynamic interactions of multiple network components. Most of the models studied to date do not discriminate between the distinct partially phosphorylated forms and focus on two limiting reaction regimes, distributive and processive, which differ in the number of enzyme-substrate binding events needed for complete phosphorylation or dephosphorylation. Here we use a minimal model of extracellular signal-related kinase regulation to explore the dynamics of a reaction network that includes all essential phosphorylation forms and arbitrary levels of reaction processivity. In addition to bistability, which has been studied extensively in distributive mechanisms, this network can generate periodic oscillations. Both bistability and oscillations can be realized at high levels of reaction processivity. Our work provides a general framework for systematic analysis of dynamics in multisite phosphorylation systems. PMID:27226482

  12. Protein phosphorylation: Localization in regenerating optic axons

    SciTech Connect

    Larrivee, D. )

    1990-09-01

    A number of axonal proteins display changes in phosphorylation during goldfish optic nerve regeneration. (1) To determine whether the phosphorylation of these proteins was closely linked to their synthesis in the retinal ganglion cell body, cycloheximide was injected intraocularly into goldfish whose optic nerves had been regenerating for 3 weeks. Cycloheximide reduced the incorporation of (3H)proline and 32P orthophosphate into total nerve protein by 84% and 46%, respectively. Of the 20 individual proteins examined, 17 contained less than 15% of the (3H)proline label measured in corresponding controls, whereas 18 proteins contained 50% or more of the 32P label, suggesting that phosphorylation was largely independent of synthesis. (2) To determine whether the proteins were phosphorylated in the ganglion cell axons, axonal transport of proteins was blocked by intraocular injection of vincristine. Vincristine reduced (3H)proline labeling of total protein by 88% and 32P labeling by 49%. Among the individual proteins (3H)proline labeling was reduced by 90% or more in 18 cases but 32P labeling was reduced only by 50% or less. (3) When 32P was injected into the cranial cavity near the ends of the optic axons, all of the phosphoproteins were labeled more intensely in the optic tract than in the optic nerve. These results suggest that most of the major phosphoproteins that undergo changes in phosphorylation in the course of regeneration are phosphorylated in the optic axons.

  13. Protein phosphorylation in neurodegeneration: friend or foe?

    PubMed Central

    Tenreiro, Sandra; Eckermann, Katrin; Outeiro, Tiago F.

    2014-01-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation is a common hallmark in neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). In these disorders, the misfolding and aggregation of specific proteins occurs alongside neuronal degeneration in somewhat specific brain areas, depending on the disorder and the stage of the disease. However, we still do not fully understand the mechanisms governing protein aggregation, and whether this constitutes a protective or detrimental process. In PD, alpha-synuclein (aSyn) forms protein aggregates, known as Lewy bodies, and is phosphorylated at serine 129. Other residues have also been shown to be phosphorylated, but the significance of phosphorylation in the biology and pathophysiology of the protein is still controversial. In AD and in FTD, hyperphosphorylation of tau protein causes its misfolding and aggregation. Again, our understanding of the precise consequences of tau phosphorylation in the biology and pathophysiology of the protein is still limited. Through the use of a variety of model organisms and technical approaches, we are now gaining stronger insight into the effects of phosphorylation in the behavior of these proteins. In this review, we cover recent findings in the field and discuss how targeting phosphorylation events might be used for therapeutic intervention in these devastating diseases of the nervous system. PMID:24860424

  14. [Walking abnormalities in children].

    PubMed

    Segawa, Masaya

    2010-11-01

    Walking is a spontaneous movement termed locomotion that is promoted by activation of antigravity muscles by serotonergic (5HT) neurons. Development of antigravity activity follows 3 developmental epochs of the sleep-wake (S-W) cycle and is modulated by particular 5HT neurons in each epoch. Activation of antigravity activities occurs in the first epoch (around the age of 3 to 4 months) as restriction of atonia in rapid eye movement (REM) stage and development of circadian S-W cycle. These activities strengthen in the second epoch, with modulation of day-time sleep and induction of crawling around the age of 8 months and induction of walking by 1 year. Around the age of 1 year 6 months, absence of guarded walking and interlimb cordination is observed along with modulation of day-time sleep to once in the afternoon. Bipedal walking in upright position occurs in the third epoch, with development of a biphasic S-W cycle by the age of 4-5 years. Patients with infantile autism (IA), Rett syndrome (RTT), or Tourette syndrome (TS) show failure in the development of the first, second, or third epoch, respectively. Patients with IA fail to develop interlimb coordination; those with RTT, crawling and walking; and those with TS, walking in upright posture. Basic pathophysiology underlying these condition is failure in restricting atonia in REM stage; this induces dysfunction of the pedunculopontine nucleus and consequently dys- or hypofunction of the dopamine (DA) neurons. DA hypofunction in the developing brain, associated with compensatory upward regulation of the DA receptors causes psychobehavioral disorders in infancy (IA), failure in synaptogenesis in the frontal cortex and functional development of the motor and associate cortexes in late infancy through the basal ganglia (RTT), and failure in functional development of the prefrontal cortex through the basal ganglia (TS). Further, locomotion failure in early childhood causes failure in development of functional

  15. Complex patterns of abnormal heartbeats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulte-Frohlinde, Verena; Ashkenazy, Yosef; Goldberger, Ary L.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; Costa, Madalena; Morley-Davies, Adrian; Stanley, H. Eugene; Glass, Leon

    2002-01-01

    Individuals having frequent abnormal heartbeats interspersed with normal heartbeats may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death. However, mechanistic understanding of such cardiac arrhythmias is limited. We present a visual and qualitative method to display statistical properties of abnormal heartbeats. We introduce dynamical "heartprints" which reveal characteristic patterns in long clinical records encompassing approximately 10(5) heartbeats and may provide information about underlying mechanisms. We test if these dynamics can be reproduced by model simulations in which abnormal heartbeats are generated (i) randomly, (ii) at a fixed time interval following a preceding normal heartbeat, or (iii) by an independent oscillator that may or may not interact with the normal heartbeat. We compare the results of these three models and test their limitations to comprehensively simulate the statistical features of selected clinical records. This work introduces methods that can be used to test mathematical models of arrhythmogenesis and to develop a new understanding of underlying electrophysiologic mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmia.

  16. Mitochondrial abnormalities in dermatomyositis: characteristic pattern of neuropathology.

    PubMed

    Alhatou, Mohammed I; Sladky, John T; Bagasra, Omar; Glass, Jonathan D

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the work described in this paper was to evaluate mitochondrial abnormalities in perifascicular atrophic fibers in muscle biopsies from patients with dermatomyositis (DM). We localized cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) histochemically in muscle biopsies of 12 patients with DM, and 12 control patients with neurogenic atrophy. These two histochemical techniques were also combined on single tissue sections in order to accentuate any COX-negative fibers. Eleven out of 12 patients (91.6%) with DM showed histochemical evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction in perifascicular distribution. Similar abnormalities in histochemical staining were not seen in comparably sized myofibers that were atrophic due to denervation. It is concluded that abnormal SDH and COX histochemical activities in atrophic perifascicular fibers are characteristic of dermatomyositis. These abnormal staining characteristics could not be accounted for solely by myofiber atrophy, or by generalized abnormalities in histochemical staining.

  17. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  18. Phosphorylation Alters the Interaction of the Arabidopsis Phosphotransfer Protein AHP1 with Its Sensor Kinase ETR1

    PubMed Central

    Scharein, Benjamin; Groth, Georg

    2011-01-01

    The ethylene receptor ethylene response 1 (ETR1) and the Arabidopsis histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein 1 (AHP1) form a tight complex in vitro. According to our current model ETR1 and AHP1 together with a response regulator form a phosphorelay system controlling the gene expression response to the plant hormone ethylene, similar to the two-component signaling in bacteria. The model implies that ETR1 functions as a sensor kinase and is autophosphorylated in the absence of ethylene. The phosphoryl group is then transferred onto a histidine at the canonical phosphorylation site in AHP1. For phosphoryl group transfer both binding partners need to form a tight complex. After ethylene binding the receptor is switched to the non-phosphorylated state. This switch is accompanied by a conformational change that decreases the affinity to the phosphorylated AHP1. To test this model we used fluorescence polarization and examined how the phosphorylation status of the proteins affects formation of the suggested ETR1−AHP1 signaling complex. We have employed various mutants of ETR1 and AHP1 mimicking permanent phosphorylation or preventing phosphorylation, respectively. Our results show that phosphorylation plays an important role in complex formation as affinity is dramatically reduced when the signaling partners are either both in their non-phosphorylated form or both in their phosphorylated form. On the other hand, affinity is greatly enhanced when either protein is in the phosphorylated state and the corresponding partner in its non-phosphorylated form. Our results indicate that interaction of ETR1 and AHP1 requires that ETR1 is a dimer, as in its functional state as receptor in planta. PMID:21912672

  19. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed. PMID:27503817

  20. [Emotion Disorders and Abnormal Perspiration].

    PubMed

    Umeda, Satoshi

    2016-08-01

    This article reviewed the relationship between emotional disorders and abnormal perspiration. First, I focused on local brain areas related to emotional processing, and summarized the functions of the emotional network involving those local areas. Functional disorders followed by the damage in the amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex were reviewed, including related abnormal perspiration. I then addressed the mechanisms of how autonomic disorders influence emotional processing. Finally, possible future directions for integrated understanding of the connection between neural activities and bodily reactions were discussed.

  1. In vivo and in vitro specificity of protein tyrosine kinases for immunoglobulin G receptor (FcgammaRII) phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Bewarder, N; Weinrich, V; Budde, P; Hartmann, D; Flaswinkel, H; Reth, M; Frey, J

    1996-01-01

    Human B cells express four immunoglobulin G receptors, FcgammaRIIa, FcgammaRIIb1, FcgammaRIIb2, and FcgammaRIIc. Coligation of either FcgammaRII isoform with the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) results in the abrogation of B-cell activation, but only the FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaIIb1 isoforms become phosphorylated. To identify the FcgammaRII-phosphorylating protein tyrosine kinase (PTK), we used the combination of an in vitro and an in vivo approach. In an in vitro assay using recombinant cytoplasmic tails of the different FcgammaRII isoforms as well as tyrosine exchange mutants, we show that each of the BCR-associated PTKs (Lyn, Blk, Fyn, and Syk) shows different phosphorylation patterns with regard to the different FcgammaR isoforms and point mutants. While each PTK phosphorylated FcgammaRIIa/c, FcgammaRIIb1 was phosphorylated by Lyn and Blk whereas FcgammaRIIb2 became phosphorylated only by Blk. Mutants lacking both tyrosine residues of the immune receptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) of FcgammaRIIa/c were not phosphorylated by Blk and Fyn, while Lyn-mediated phosphorylation was dependent on the presence of the C-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM. Results obtained in assays using an FcgammaR- B-cell line transfected with wild-type or mutated FcgammaRIIa demonstrated that exchange of the C-terminal tyrosine of the ITAM of FcgammaRIIa/c was sufficient to abolish FcgammaRIIa/c phosphorylation in B cells. Additionally, we could show that Lyn and Fyn bind to FcgammaRIIa/c, with the ITAM being necessary for association. Comparison of the phosphorylation pattern of each PTK observed in vitro with the phosphorylation pattern observed in vivo suggests that Lyn is the most likely candidate for FcgammaRIIa/c and FcgammaRIIb1 phosphorylation in vivo. PMID:8756631

  2. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  3. Phosphorylation of Sox9 is required for neural crest delamination and is regulated downstream of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jessica A J; Wu, Ming-Hoi; Yan, Carol H; Chau, Bolton K H; So, Henry; Ng, Alvis; Chan, Alan; Cheah, Kathryn S E; Briscoe, James; Cheung, Martin

    2013-02-19

    Coordination of neural crest cell (NCC) induction and delamination is orchestrated by several transcription factors. Among these, Sry-related HMG box-9 (Sox9) and Snail2 have been implicated in both the induction of NCC identity and, together with phoshorylation, NCC delamination. How phosphorylation effects this function has not been clear. Here we show, in the developing chick neural tube, that phosphorylation of Sox9 on S64 and S181 facilitates its SUMOylation, and the phosphorylated forms of Sox9 are essential for trunk neural crest delamination. Both phosphorylation and to a lesser extent SUMOylation, of Sox9 are required to cooperate with Snail2 to promote delamination. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein and canonical Wnt signaling induce phosphorylation of Sox9, thereby connecting extracellular signals with the delamination of NCCs. Together the data suggest a model in which extracellular signals initiate phosphorylation of Sox9 and its cooperation with Snail2 to induce NCC delamination. PMID:23382206

  4. Phosphorylation of Sox9 is required for neural crest delamination and is regulated downstream of BMP and canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jessica A. J.; Wu, Ming-Hoi; Yan, Carol H.; Chau, Bolton K. H.; So, Henry; Chan, Alan; Cheah, Kathryn S. E.; Briscoe, James; Cheung, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Coordination of neural crest cell (NCC) induction and delamination is orchestrated by several transcription factors. Among these, Sry-related HMG box-9 (Sox9) and Snail2 have been implicated in both the induction of NCC identity and, together with phoshorylation, NCC delamination. How phosphorylation effects this function has not been clear. Here we show, in the developing chick neural tube, that phosphorylation of Sox9 on S64 and S181 facilitates its SUMOylation, and the phosphorylated forms of Sox9 are essential for trunk neural crest delamination. Both phosphorylation and to a lesser extent SUMOylation, of Sox9 are required to cooperate with Snail2 to promote delamination. Moreover, bone morphogenetic protein and canonical Wnt signaling induce phosphorylation of Sox9, thereby connecting extracellular signals with the delamination of NCCs. Together the data suggest a model in which extracellular signals initiate phosphorylation of Sox9 and its cooperation with Snail2 to induce NCC delamination. PMID:23382206

  5. Capillary Isoelectric Focusing of Akt Isoforms Identifies Highly Dynamic Phosphorylation in Neuronal Cells and Brain Tissue*

    PubMed Central

    Schrötter, Sandra; Leondaritis, George; Eickholt, Britta J.

    2016-01-01

    The PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway has been established as a core signaling pathway that is crucial for the integration of neurons into neuronal circuits and the maintenance of the architecture and function of neurons in the adult brain. Akt1–3 kinases are specifically activated by two phosphorylation events on residues Thr308 and Ser473 upon growth factor signaling, which subsequently phosphorylate a vast cohort of downstream targets. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the complexity and regulation of isoform specificity within the PI3K/PTEN/Akt pathway. We utilized a capillary-based isoelectric focusing method to study dynamics of Akt phosphorylation in neuronal cells and the developing brain and identify previously undescribed features of Akt phosphorylation and activation. First, we show that the accumulation of multiple phosphorylation events on Akt forms occur concurrently with Ser473 and Thr308 phosphorylation upon acute PI3K activation and provide evidence for uncoupling of Ser473 and Thr308 phosphorylation, as well as differential sensitivities of Akt1 forms upon PI3K inhibition. Second, we detect a transient shift in Akt isoform phosphorylation and activation pattern during early postnatal brain development, at stages corresponding to synapse development and maturation. Third, we show differential sensitivities of Ser473-Akt species to PTEN deletion in mature neurons, which suggests inherent differences in the Akt pools that are accessible to growth factors as compared with the pools that are controlled by PTEN. Our study demonstrates the presence of complex phosphorylation events of Akt in a time- and signal-dependent manner in neurons. PMID:26945062

  6. Ouabain-induced changes in MAP kinase phosphorylation in primary culture of rat cerebellar cells.

    PubMed

    Lopachev, Alexander V; Lopacheva, Olga M; Osipova, Ekaterina A; Vladychenskaya, Elizaveta A; Smolyaninova, Larisa V; Fedorova, Tatiana N; Koroleva, Olga V; Akkuratov, Evgeny E

    2016-07-01

    Cardiotonic steroid (CTS) ouabain is a well-established inhibitor of Na,K-ATPase capable of inducing signalling processes including changes in the activity of the mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) in various cell types. With increasing evidence of endogenous CTS in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid, it is of particular interest to study ouabain-induced signalling in neurons, especially the activation of MAPK, because they are the key kinases activated in response to extracellular signals and regulating cell survival, proliferation and apoptosis. In this study we investigated the effect of ouabain on the level of phosphorylation of three MAPK (ERK1/2, JNK and p38) and on cell survival in the primary culture of rat cerebellar cells. Using Western blotting we described the time course and concentration dependence of phosphorylation for ERK1/2, JNK and p38 in response to ouabain. We discovered that ouabain at a concentration of 1 μM does not cause cell death in cultured neurons while it changes the phosphorylation level of the three MAPK: ERK1/2 is phosphorylated transiently, p38 shows sustained phosphorylation, and JNK is dephosphorylated after a long-term incubation. We showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation increase does not depend on ouabain-induced calcium increase and p38 activation. Changes in p38 phosphorylation, which is independent from ERK1/2 activation, are calcium dependent. Changes in JNK phosphorylation are calcium dependent and also depend on ERK1/2 and p38 activation. Ten-micromolar ouabain leads to cell death, and we conclude that different effects of 1-μM and 10-μM ouabain depend on different ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation profiles. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Palmitoyl Serotonin Inhibits L-dopa-induced Abnormal Involuntary Movements in the Mouse Parkinson Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Young-Kyoung; Go, Jun; Son, Eunjung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Kim, Mee Ree

    2016-08-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated. To investigate whether PA-5HT relieve LID in PD and decrease hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors, we used the 6-hydroxydopomine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD and treated the L-DOPA (20 mg/kg) for 10 days with PA-5HT (0.3 mg/kg/day). The number of wall contacts with the forelimb in the cylinder test was significantly decreased by 6-OHDA lesion in mice and the pharmacotherapeutic effect of L-DOPA was also revealed in PA-5HT-treated mice. Moreover, in AIMs test, PA-5HT-treated mice showed significant reduction of locomotive, axial, limb, and orofacial AIMs score compared to the vehicle-treated mice. LID-induced hyper-phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and overexpression of FosB/ΔFosB was markedly decreased in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum of PA-5HT-treated mice, indicating that PA-5HT decreased the dopamine D1 receptor-hyperactivation induced by chronic treatment of L-DOPA in dopamine-denervated striatum. These results suggest that PA-5HT effectively attenuates the development of LID and enhance of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and FosB/ΔFosB expression in the hemi-parkinsonian mouse model. PA-5HT may have beneficial effect on the LID in PD.

  8. Palmitoyl Serotonin Inhibits L-dopa-induced Abnormal Involuntary Movements in the Mouse Parkinson Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Young-Kyoung; Go, Jun; Son, Eunjung; Kim, Kyoung-Shim; Kim, Mee Ree

    2016-08-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated. To investigate whether PA-5HT relieve LID in PD and decrease hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors, we used the 6-hydroxydopomine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD and treated the L-DOPA (20 mg/kg) for 10 days with PA-5HT (0.3 mg/kg/day). The number of wall contacts with the forelimb in the cylinder test was significantly decreased by 6-OHDA lesion in mice and the pharmacotherapeutic effect of L-DOPA was also revealed in PA-5HT-treated mice. Moreover, in AIMs test, PA-5HT-treated mice showed significant reduction of locomotive, axial, limb, and orofacial AIMs score compared to the vehicle-treated mice. LID-induced hyper-phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and overexpression of FosB/ΔFosB was markedly decreased in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum of PA-5HT-treated mice, indicating that PA-5HT decreased the dopamine D1 receptor-hyperactivation induced by chronic treatment of L-DOPA in dopamine-denervated striatum. These results suggest that PA-5HT effectively attenuates the development of LID and enhance of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and FosB/ΔFosB expression in the hemi-parkinsonian mouse model. PA-5HT may have beneficial effect on the LID in PD. PMID:27574484

  9. Palmitoyl Serotonin Inhibits L-dopa-induced Abnormal Involuntary Movements in the Mouse Parkinson Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hye-Yeon; Ryu, Young-Kyoung; Go, Jun; Son, Eunjung

    2016-01-01

    L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated. To investigate whether PA-5HT relieve LID in PD and decrease hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors, we used the 6-hydroxydopomine (6-OHDA)-lesioned mouse model of PD and treated the L-DOPA (20 mg/kg) for 10 days with PA-5HT (0.3 mg/kg/day). The number of wall contacts with the forelimb in the cylinder test was significantly decreased by 6-OHDA lesion in mice and the pharmacotherapeutic effect of L-DOPA was also revealed in PA-5HT-treated mice. Moreover, in AIMs test, PA-5HT-treated mice showed significant reduction of locomotive, axial, limb, and orofacial AIMs score compared to the vehicle-treated mice. LID-induced hyper-phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and overexpression of FosB/ΔFosB was markedly decreased in 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum of PA-5HT-treated mice, indicating that PA-5HT decreased the dopamine D1 receptor-hyperactivation induced by chronic treatment of L-DOPA in dopamine-denervated striatum. These results suggest that PA-5HT effectively attenuates the development of LID and enhance of ERK1/2 phosphorylation and FosB/ΔFosB expression in the hemi-parkinsonian mouse model. PA-5HT may have beneficial effect on the LID in PD. PMID:27574484

  10. Electrocardiograph abnormalities in intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Satoru; Nagatani, Kimihiro; Otani, Naoki; Wada, Kojiro; Mori, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and type of electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities, and their possible association with the clinical/radiological findings in 118 consecutive patients with non-traumatic, non-neoplastic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). ECG frequently demonstrates abnormalities in patients with ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage, but little is known of ECG changes in ICH patients. Clinical and radiological information was retrospectively reviewed. ECG recordings that were obtained within 24 hours of the initial hemorrhage were analyzed. Sixty-six patients (56%) had one or more ECG abnormalities. The most frequent was ST depression (24%), followed by left ventricular hypertrophy (20%), corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation (19%), and T wave inversion (19%). The logistic regression analysis demonstrated the following: insular involvement was an independent predictive factor of ST depression (p<0.001; odds ratio OR 10.18; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.84-36.57); insular involvement (p<0.001; OR 23.98; 95% CI 4.91-117.11) and presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (p<0.001; OR 8.72; 95% CI 2.69-28.29) were independent predictive factors of QTc prolongation; deep hematoma location (p<0.001; OR 19.12; 95% CI 3.82-95.81) and hematoma volume >30 ml (p=0.001; OR 6.58; 95% CI 2.11-20.46) were independent predictive factors of T wave inversion. We demonstrate associations between ECG abnormalities and detailed characteristics of ICH.

  11. Tyrosine 370 phosphorylation of ATM positively regulates DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hong-Jen; Lan, Li; Peng, Guang; Chang, Wei-Chao; Hsu, Ming-Chuan; Wang, Ying-Nai; Cheng, Chien-Chia; Wei, Leizhen; Nakajima, Satoshi; Chang, Shih-Shin; Liao, Hsin-Wei; Chen, Chung-Hsuan; Lavin, Martin; Ang, K Kian; Lin, Shiaw-Yih; Hung, Mien-Chie

    2015-01-01

    Ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) mediates DNA damage response by controling irradiation-induced foci formation, cell cycle checkpoint, and apoptosis. However, how upstream signaling regulates ATM is not completely understood. Here, we show that upon irradiation stimulation, ATM associates with and is phosphorylated by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) at Tyr370 (Y370) at the site of DNA double-strand breaks. Depletion of endogenous EGFR impairs ATM-mediated foci formation, homologous recombination, and DNA repair. Moreover, pretreatment with an EGFR kinase inhibitor, gefitinib, blocks EGFR and ATM association, hinders CHK2 activation and subsequent foci formation, and increases radiosensitivity. Thus, we reveal a critical mechanism by which EGFR directly regulates ATM activation in DNA damage response, and our results suggest that the status of ATM Y370 phosphorylation has the potential to serve as a biomarker to stratify patients for either radiotherapy alone or in combination with EGFR inhibition. PMID:25601159

  12. The importance of complete tissue homogenization for accurate stoichiometric measurement of myosin light chain phosphorylation in airway smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Paré, Peter D; Seow, Chun Y

    2015-02-01

    The standard method for measuring the phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chain (MLC20) in smooth muscle is extraction of the light chain using a urea extraction buffer, urea-glycerol gel electrophoresis of the soluble portion of the extract (supernatant) and Western blot analysis. The undissolved portion of the tissue during extraction (the pellet) is usually discarded. Because the pellet contains a finite amount of MLC20, omission of the pellet could result in inaccurate measurement of MLC20 phosphorylation. In this study we compared the level of tracheal smooth muscle MLC20 phosphorylation in the supernatant alone, with that in the complete tissue homogenate (supernatant and pellet) using the standard method. The supernatant fraction showed the well-known double bands representing phosphorylated and un-phosphorylated MLC20. The dissolved pellet fraction showed varying amounts of un-phosphorylated and phosphorylated MLC20. There was a small but statistically significant overestimation of the percent MLC20 phosphorylation if the pellet was not taken into consideration. The overestimation was 7% ± 2% (mean ± SEM) (p < 0.05) in unstimulated muscle and 2% ± 1% (p < 0.05) in acetylcholine (10(-6) mol/L) stimulated muscle. This finding suggests that for accurate estimation of the stoichiometry of MLC20 phosphorylation it is necessary to consider the contribution from the pellet portion of the muscle tissue homogenate.

  13. Phosphorylation of SRSF1 is modulated by replicational stress

    PubMed Central

    Leva, Valentina; Giuliano, Serena; Bardoni, Anna; Camerini, Serena; Crescenzi, Marco; Lisa, Antonella; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Montecucco, Alessandra

    2012-01-01

    DNA ligase I-deficient 46BR.1G1 cells show a delay in the maturation of replicative intermediates resulting in the accumulation of single- and double-stranded DNA breaks. As a consequence the ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein kinase (ATM) is constitutively phosphorylated at a basal level. Here, we use 46BR.1G1 cells as a model system to study the cell response to chronic replication-dependent DNA damage. Starting from a proteomic approach, we demonstrate that the phosphorylation level of factors controlling constitutive and alternative splicing is affected by the damage elicited by DNA ligase I deficiency. In particular, we show that SRSF1 is hyperphosphorylated in 46BR.1G1 cells compared to control fibroblasts. This hyperphosphorylation can be partially prevented by inhibiting ATM activity with caffeine. Notably, hyperphosphorylation of SRSF1 affects the subnuclear distribution of the protein and the alternative splicing pattern of target genes. We also unveil a modulation of SRSF1 phosphorylation after exposure of MRC-5V1 control fibroblasts to different exogenous sources of DNA damage. Altogether, our observations indicate that a relevant aspect of the cell response to DNA damage involves the post-translational regulation of splicing factor SRSF1 which is associated with a shift in the alternative splicing program of target genes to control cell survival or cell death. PMID:21984412

  14. Identification and functional analysis of phosphorylation in Newcastle disease virus phosphoprotein.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xusheng; Zhan, Yuan; Meng, Chunchun; Wang, Junqing; Dong, LuNa; Sun, Yingjie; Tan, Lei; Song, Cuiping; Yu, Shengqing; Ding, Chan

    2016-08-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) encodes a highly phosphorylated P protein; however, the phosphorylation sites have not been identified, and the relationship between phosphorylation and protein function is still unclear. In this study, we bioinformatically predicted 26 amino acid residues in the P protein as potential phosphorylation sites. Furthermore, we treated infected cells with kinase inhibitors to investigate NDV propagation and found that protein kinase C (PKC) is involved in the NDV life cycle and that PKC-activated phosphorylation functions in NDV replication. Using an NDV minigenome assay, we found that expression of a reporter protein decreased when the minigenome system contained P mutants lacking T44, S48, T271, S373 and especially T111. The phosphorylation status of S48, T111, S125 and T271 was determined by Phos-tag SDS-PAGE analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that the binding activity of NP and the P-T111A mutant was stronger than that of NP and the wild-type P, suggesting that P-T111 is involved in NP-P interaction. This study sheds light on the mechanism by which P protein phosphorylation affects NDV replication and transcription. PMID:27160999

  15. Regulation of uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 activity by protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongsheng; Yao, Yan; Jiang, Huidi; Lu, Chuan; Zeng, Su; Yu, Lushan

    2015-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a vital post-translational modification. This study investigated the effect of phosphorylation on human uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A3 (UGT1A3) activity. Curcumin and calphostin C suppressed the activity and phosphorylation of recombinant UGT1A3 expressed in Sf9 cells. These results indicate that UGT1A3 undergoes phosphorylation, which is required for its catalytic activity. Calphostin C is a highly specific protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, so three predicted PKC phosphorylation sites in UGT1A3 were examined. Site-directed mutation analysis at residues 28, 43 and 436 (from serine to glycine) was conducted. Compared with the wild-type, the S43G-mutant showed significantly decreased UGT1A3 catalytic activity. Furthermore, the UGT1A3 activity of wild-type and S43G-mutant was down-regulated by calphostin C, whereas the calphostin C inhibitory effect was much weaker on the S43G-mutant than the wild-type. In conclusion, phosphorylation plays an important role in UGT1A3 activity, and the serine at site 43 in UGT1A3 is most likely a phosphorylation site. PMID:26094731

  16. Akt mediated phosphorylation of LARP6; critical step in biosynthesis of type I collagen

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yujie; Stefanovic, Branko

    2016-01-01

    La ribonucleoprotein domain family, member 6 (LARP6) is the RNA binding protein, which regulates translation of collagen mRNAs and synthesis of type I collagen. Posttranslational modifications of LARP6 and how they affect type I collagen synthesis have not been studied. We show that in lung fibroblasts LARP6 is phosphorylated at 8 serines, 6 of which are located within C-terminal domain. Phosphorylation of LARP6 follows a hierarchical order; S451 phosphorylation being a prerequisite for phosphorylations of other serines. Inhibition of PI3K/Akt pathway reduced the phosphorylation of LARP6, but had no effect on the S451A mutant, suggesting that PI3K/Akt pathway targets S451 and we have identified Akt as the responsible kinase. Overexpression of S451A mutant had dominant negative effect on collagen biosynthesis; drastically reduced secretion of collagen and induced hyper-modifications of collagen α2 (I) polypeptides. This indicates that LARP6 phosphorylation at S451 is critical for regulating translation and folding of collagen polypeptides. Akt inhibitor, GSK-2141795, which is in clinical trials for treatment of solid tumors, reduced collagen production by human lung fibroblasts with EC50 of 150 nM. This effect can be explained by inhibition of LARP6 phosphorylation and suggests that Akt inhibitors may be effective in treatment of various forms of fibrosis. PMID:26932461

  17. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  18. Mimicking phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin affects its chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Ecroyd, Heath; Meehan, Sarah; Horwitz, Joseph; Aquilina, J Andrew; Benesch, Justin L P; Robinson, Carol V; Macphee, Cait E; Carver, John A

    2007-01-01

    AlphaB-crystallin is a member of the sHsp (small heat-shock protein) family that prevents misfolded target proteins from aggregating and precipitating. Phosphorylation at three serine residues (Ser19, Ser45 and Ser59) is a major post-translational modification that occurs to alphaB-crystallin. In the present study, we produced recombinant proteins designed to mimic phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin by incorporating a negative charge at these sites. We employed these mimics to undertake a mechanistic and structural investigation of the effect of phosphorylation on the chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin to protect against two types of protein misfolding, i.e. amorphous aggregation and amyloid fibril assembly. We show that mimicking phosphorylation of alphaB-crystallin results in more efficient chaperone activity against both heat-induced and reduction-induced amorphous aggregation of target proteins. Mimick-ing phosphorylation increased the chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin against one amyloid-forming target protein (kappa-casein), but decreased it against another (ccbeta-Trp peptide). We observed that both target protein identity and solution (buffer) conditions are critical factors in determining the relative chaperone ability of wild-type and phosphorylated alphaB-crystallins. The present study provides evidence for the regulation of the chaperone activity of alphaB-crystallin by phosphorylation and indicates that this may play an important role in alleviating the pathogenic effects associated with protein conformational diseases. PMID:16928191

  19. N-Terminus of the Protein Kinase CLK1 Induces SR Protein Hyper-Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Aubol, Brandon E.; Plocinik, Ryan M.; Keshwani, Malik M.; McGlone, Maria L.; Hagopian, Jonathan C.; Ghosh, Gourisankar; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Adams, Joseph A.

    2016-01-01

    SR proteins are essential splicing factors that are regulated through multisite phosphorylation of their RS (arginine-serine-rich) domains by two major families of protein kinases. The SRPKs efficiently phosphorylate the arginine-serine dipeptides in the RS domain using a conserved docking groove in the kinase domain. In contrast, CLKs lack a docking groove and phosphorylate both arginine-serine and serine-proline dipeptides, modifications that generate a hyper-phosphorylated state important for unique SR protein-dependent splicing activities. All CLKs contain long, flexible N-terminal extensions (140-300 residues) that resemble the RS domains present in their substrate SR proteins. We showed that the N-terminus in CLK1 contacts both the kinase domain and the RS domain of the SR protein SRSF1. This interaction not only is essential for facilitating hyper-phosphorylation but also induces cooperative binding of SRSF1 to RNA. The N-terminus of CLK1 enhances the total phosphoryl contents of a panel of physiological substrates including SRSF1, SRSF2, SRSF5 and Tra2β1 by 2–3-fold. These findings suggest that CLK1-dependent hyper-phosphorylation is the result of a general mechanism in which the N-terminus acts as a bridge connecting the kinase domain and the RS domain of the SR protein. PMID:24869919

  20. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  1. ROS-dependent phosphorylation of Bax by wortmannin sensitizes melanoma cells for TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Quast, S-A; Berger, A; Eberle, J

    2013-01-01

    The pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated apoptosis induction, of Bax activation and the sensitization of tumor cells for TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand)-induced apoptosis are still largely elusive. Here, sensitization of melanoma cells for TRAIL by the PI3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin correlated to the activation of mitochondrial apoptosis pathways. Apoptosis was dependent on Bax and abrogated by Bcl-2 overexpression. The synergistic enhancement was explained by Bax activation through wortmannin, which tightly correlated to the characteristic Bax phosphorylation patterns. Thus, wortmannin resulted in early reduction of the Bax-inactivating phosphorylation at serine-184, whereas the Bax-activating phosphorylation at threonine-167 was enhanced. Proving the responsibility of the pathway, comparable effects were obtained with an Akt inhibitor (MK-2206); while suppressed phosphorylation of serine-184 may be attributed to reduced Akt activity itself, the causes of enhanced threonine-167 phosphorylation were addressed here. Characteristically, production of ROS was seen early in response to wortmannin and MK-2206. Providing the link between ROS and Bax, we show that abrogated ROS production by α-tocopherol or by NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) siRNA suppressed apoptosis and Bax activation. This correlated with reduced Bax phosphorylation at threonine-167. The data unraveled a mechanism by which NOX4-dependent ROS production controls apoptosis via Bax phosphorylation. The pathway may be considered for proapoptotic, anticancer strategies. PMID:24113173

  2. Critical residues involved in tau binding to fyn: implications for tau phosphorylation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lau, Dawn H W; Hogseth, Marte; Phillips, Emma C; O'Neill, Michael J; Pooler, Amy M; Noble, Wendy; Hanger, Diane P

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterised by neuropathological deposits of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles comprised of β-amyloid and tau protein, respectively. In AD, tau becomes abnormally phosphorylated and aggregates to form intracellular deposits. However, the mechanisms by which tau exerts neurotoxicity in disease remain unclear. Recent studies have suggested that the presence of tau at synapses may indicate a role in neuronal signalling, which could be disrupted in pathological conditions. The non-receptor-associated tyrosine kinase fyn is located at the dendrite in neurons, where it was recently shown to interact with tau to stabilise receptor complexes at the post-synaptic density. Fyn also co-localises with tau in a proportion of neurons containing tau tangles in AD and fyn is also a tau kinase. Hence, tau-fyn interactions could play a pathogenic role in AD. Here we report the identification of critical proline residues, Pro213, Pro216, and Pro219, located within the fifth and sixth Pro-X-X-Pro motifs in the proline-rich region of tau, that are important for its binding to fyn. These residues in tau are flanked by numerous phosphorylation sites and therefore we investigated the relationship between fyn and the degree of tau phosphorylation in human post-mortem brain tissue. We found no difference in the amount of fyn present in control and AD brain. Notably, however, there was a significant correlation between fyn and phosphorylated tau at specific phospho-epitopes in control, but not in AD brain. Our results suggest that the pathological mechanisms underlying AD, that result in increased tau phosphorylation, may disrupt the physiological relationship between tau phosphorylation and fyn. PMID:27193083

  3. The Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 is associated with γ-tubulin on microtubules, phosphorylates EB1c and maintains spindle orientation under nitrosative stress.

    PubMed

    Kohoutová, Lucie; Kourová, Hana; Nagy, Szilvia K; Volc, Jindřich; Halada, Petr; Mészáros, Tamás; Meskiene, Irute; Bögre, László; Binarová, Pavla

    2015-09-01

    Stress-activated plant mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways play roles in growth adaptation to the environment by modulating cell division through cytoskeletal regulation, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed protein interaction and phosphorylation experiments with cytoskeletal proteins, mass spectrometric identification of MPK6 complexes and immunofluorescence analyses of the microtubular cytoskeleton of mitotic cells using wild-type, mpk6-2 mutant and plants overexpressing the MAP kinase-inactivating phosphatase, AP2C3. We showed that MPK6 interacted with γ-tubulin and co-sedimented with plant microtubules polymerized in vitro. It was the active form of MAP kinase that was enriched with microtubules and followed similar dynamics to γ-tubulin, moving from poles to midzone during the anaphase-to-telophase transition. We found a novel substrate for MPK6, the microtubule plus end protein, EB1c. The mpk6-2 mutant was sensitive to 3-nitro-l-tyrosine (NO2 -Tyr) treatment with respect to mitotic abnormalities, and root cells overexpressing AP2C3 showed defects in chromosome segregation and spindle orientation. Our data suggest that the active form of MAP kinase interacts with γ-tubulin on specific subsets of mitotic microtubules during late mitosis. MPK6 phosphorylates EB1c, but not EB1a, and has a role in maintaining regular planes of cell division under stress conditions.

  4. Alterations of ciliate phosducin phosphorylation in Blepharisma japonicum cells.

    PubMed

    Sobierajska, Katarzyna; Fabczak, Hanna; Fabczak, Stanisław

    2005-05-13

    We have previously reported that motile photophobic response in ciliate Blepharisma japonicum correlates with dephosphorylation of a cytosolic 28 kDa phosphoprotein (PP28) exhibiting properties similar to those of phosducin. Here we demonstrate in in vivo phosphorylation assay that the light-elicited dephosphorylation of the PP28 is significantly modified by cell incubation with substances known to modulate protein phosphatase and kinase activities. Immunoblot analyses showed that incubation of ciliates with okadaic acid and calyculin A, potent inhibitors of type 1 or 2A protein phosphatases, distinctly increased phosphorylation of PP28 in dark-adapted cells and markedly weakened dephosphorylation of the ciliate phosducin following cell illumination. An enhancement of PP28 phosphorylation was also observed in dark-adapted ciliates exposed to 8-Br-cAMP and 8-Br-cGMP, slowly hydrolysable cyclic nucleotide analogs and 3-isobutyryl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), a non-specific cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDEs) inhibitor. Only slight changes in light-evoked dephosphorylation levels of PP28 were observed in cells treated with the cyclic nucleotide analogs and IBMX. Incubation of ciliates with H 89 or KT 5823, highly selective inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), respectively, decreased PP28 phosphorylation levels in dark-adapted cells, whereas the extent of light-evoked dephosphorylation of the phosphoprotein was only slightly influenced. Cell treatment with higher Ca2+ concentration together with ionophore A23187 in culture medium resulted in marked increase in PP28 phosphorylation levels, while quite an opposite effect was observed in cells exposed to Ca2+ chelators, EGTA or BAPTA/AM as well as calmodulin antagonists, such as trifluoperazine (TFP), W-7 or calmidazolium. Light-dependent dephosphorylation was not considerably affected by these treatments. The experimental findings presented here suggest that an

  5. Phosphorylation Modulates Catalytic Activity of Mycobacterial Sirtuins

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Ghanshyam S.; Ravala, Sandeep K.; Malhotra, Neha; Chakraborti, Pradip K.

    2016-01-01

    Sirtuins are NAD+-dependent deacetylases involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and are conserved throughout phylogeny. Here we report about in vitro transphosphorylation of the only NAD+-dependent deacetylase (mDAC) present in the genome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases, particularly PknA. The phosphorylated mDAC displayed decreased deacetylase activity compared to its unphosphorylated counterpart. Mass-spectrometric study identified seven phosphosites in mDAC; however, mutational analysis highlighted major contribution of Thr-214 for phosphorylation of the protein. In concordance to this observation, variants of mDAC substituting Thr-214 with either Ala (phospho-ablated) or Glu (phosphomimic) exhibited significantly reduced deacetylase activity suggesting phosphorylation mediated control of enzymatic activity. To assess the role of phosphorylation towards functionality of mDAC, we opted for a sirtuin knock-out strain of Escherichia coli (Δdac), where interference of endogenous mycobacterial kinases could be excluded. The Δdac strain in nutrient deprived acetate medium exhibited compromised growth and complementation with mDAC reversed this phenotype. The phospho-ablated or phosphomimic variant, on the other hand, was unable to restore the functionality of mDAC indicating the role of phosphorylation per se in the process. We further over-expressed mDAC or mDAC-T214A as His-tagged protein in M. smegmatis, where endogenous eukaryotic-type Ser/Thr kinases are present. Anti-phosphothreonine antibody recognized both mDAC and mDAC-T214A proteins in western blotting. However, the extent of phosphorylation as adjudged by scanning the band intensity, was significantly low in the mutant protein (mDAC-T214A) compared to that of the wild-type (mDAC). Furthermore, expression of PknA in the mDAC complemented Δdac strain was able to phosphorylate M. tuberculosis sirtuin. The growth profile of this culture in acetate medium was

  6. Abnormal Activity Detection Using Pyroelectric Infrared Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Xiaomu; Tan, Huoyuan; Guan, Qiuju; Liu, Tong; Zhuo, Hankz Hankui; Shen, Baihua

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is one of the most important social issues. In this paper, we propose a method for abnormal activity detection without any manual labeling of the training samples. By leveraging the Field of View (FOV) modulation, the spatio-temporal characteristic of human activity is encoded into low-dimension data stream generated by the ceiling-mounted Pyroelectric Infrared (PIR) sensors. The similarity between normal training samples are measured based on Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence of each pair of them. The natural clustering of normal activities is discovered through a self-tuning spectral clustering algorithm with unsupervised model selection on the eigenvectors of a modified similarity matrix. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) are employed to model each cluster of normal activities and form feature vectors. One-Class Support Vector Machines (OSVMs) are used to profile the normal activities and detect abnormal activities. To validate the efficacy of our method, we conducted experiments in real indoor environments. The encouraging results show that our method is able to detect abnormal activities given only the normal training samples, which aims to avoid the laborious and inconsistent data labeling process. PMID:27271632

  7. Protein phosphorylation systems in postmortem human brain

    SciTech Connect

    Walaas, S.I.; Perdahl-Wallace, E.; Winblad, B.; Greengard, P. )

    1989-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation systems regulated by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP), or calcium in conjunction with calmodulin or phospholipid/diacylglycerol, have been studied by phosphorylation in vitro of particulate and soluble fractions from human postmortem brain samples. One-dimensional or two-dimensional gel electrophoretic protein separations were used for analysis. Protein phosphorylation catalyzed by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase was found to be highly active in both particulate and soluble preparations throughout the human CNS, with groups of both widely distributed and region-specific substrates being observed in different brain nuclei. Dopamine-innervated parts of the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex contained the phosphoproteins previously observed in rodent basal ganglia. In contrast, calcium/phospholipid-dependent and calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphorylation systems were less prominent in human postmortem brain than in rodent brain, and only a few widely distributed substrates for these protein kinases were found. Protein staining indicated that postmortem proteolysis, particularly of high-molecular-mass proteins, was prominent in deeply located, subcortical regions in the human brain. Our results indicate that it is feasible to use human postmortem brain samples, when obtained under carefully controlled conditions, for qualitative studies on brain protein phosphorylation. Such studies should be of value in studies on human neurological and/or psychiatric disorders.

  8. Varenicline and Abnormal Sleep Related Events

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Ruth L.; Zekarias, Alem; Caduff-Janosa, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To assess adverse drug reaction reports of “abnormal sleep related events” associated with varenicline, a partial agonist to the α4β2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on neurones, indicated for smoking cessation. Design: Twenty-seven reports of “abnormal sleep related events” often associated with abnormal dreams, nightmares, or somnambulism, which are known to be associated with varenicline use, were identified in the World Health Organisation (WHO) Global Individual Case Safety Reports Database. Original anonymous reports were obtained from the four national pharmacovigilance centers that submitted these reports and assessed for reaction description and causality. Measurements and Results: These 27 reports include 10 of aggressive activity occurring during sleep and seven of other sleep related harmful or potentially harmful activities, such as apparently deliberate self-harm, moving a child or a car, or lighting a stove or a cigarette. Assessment of these 17 reports of aggression or other actual or potential harm showed that nine patients recovered or were recovering on varenicline withdrawal and there were no consistent alternative explanations. Thirteen patients experienced single events, and two had multiple events. Frequency was not stated for the remaining two patients. Conclusions: The descriptions of the reports of aggression during sleep with violent dreaming are similar to those of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder and also nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep parasomnias in some adults. Patients who experience somnambulism or dreams of a violent nature while taking varenicline should be advised to consult their health providers. Consideration should be given to clarifying the term sleep disorders in varenicline product information and including sleep related harmful and potentially harmful events. Citation: Savage RL, Zekarias A, Caduff-Janosa P. Varenicline and abnormal sleep related events. SLEEP 2015

  9. Light-dependent phosphorylation of the gamma subunit of cGMP-Phophodiesterase (PDE6γ) at residue threonine 22 in intact photoreceptor neurons

    PubMed Central

    Janisch, Kerstin M; Kasanuki, J. Mie; Naumann, Matthew C; Davis, Richard J; Lin, Chyuan-Sheng; Semple-Rowland, Susan; Tsang, Stephen H

    2009-01-01

    The γ subunit of rod-specific cGMP phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6γ), an effector of the G-protein GNAT1, is a key regulator of phototransduction. The results of several in vitro biochemical reconstitution experiments conducted to examine the effects of phosphorylation of PDE6γ on its ability to regulate the PDE6 catalytic core have been inconsistent, showing that phosphorylation of PDE6γ may increase or decrease the ability of PDE6γ to deactivate phototransduction. To resolve role of phosphorylation of PDE6γ in living photoreceptors, we generated transgenic mice in which either one or both Threonine (T) sites in PDE6γ (T22 and T35), which are candidates for putative regulatory phosphorylation, were substituted with alanine (A). Phosphorylation of these sites was examined as a function of light exposure. We found that phosphorylation of T22 increases with light exposure in intact mouse rods while constitutive phosphorylation of T35 is unaffected by light in intact mouse rods and cones. Phosphorylation of the cone isoform of PDE6γ, PDE6H, is constitutively phosphorylated at the T20 residue. Light-induced T22 phosphorylation was lost in T35A transgenic rods, and T35 phosphorylation was extinguished in T22A transgenic rods. The interdependency of phosphorylation of T22 and T35 suggests that light-induced, post-translational modification of PDE6γ is essential for the regulation of G-protein signaling. PMID:19878658

  10. Atypical refsum disease with pipecolic acidemia and abnormal catalase distribution.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, M R; Jansen, G A; Verhoeven, N M; Mooyer, P A; Jakobs, C; Roels, F; Espeel, M; Fourmaintraux, A; Bellet, H; Wanders, R J; Saudubray, J M

    2000-01-01

    We describe an 18-year-old patient with psychomotor retardation and abnormally short metatarsi and metacarpals but no other signs of classic Refsum disease. Molecular analysis of the phytanoyl-coenzyme A hydroxylase gene revealed a homozygous deletion causing a frameshift. Surprisingly, L-pipecolic acid was elevated in plasma, and microscopy of the liver showed a reduced number of peroxisomes per cell and a larger average peroxisome size. These abnormal peroxisomes lacked catalase as did peroxisomes in fibroblasts of this patient. Such generalized peroxisomal abnormalities are not present in classic Refsum disease.

  11. Thermodynamic study of the native and phosphorylated regulatory domain of the CFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Marasini, Carlotta; Galeno, Lauretta; Moran, Oscar

    2012-07-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CFTR mutations produce cystic fibrosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chloride transport depends on the regulatory domain phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Regulatory domain is intrinsically disordered. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary structure and protein stability change upon phosphorylation. -- Abstract: The regulatory domain (RD) of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), the defective protein in cystic fibrosis, is the region of the channel that regulates the CFTR activity with multiple phosphorylation sites. This domain is an intrinsically disordered protein, characterized by lack of stable or unique tertiary structure. The disordered character of a protein is directly correlated with its function. The flexibility of RD may be important for its regulatory role: the continuous conformational change may be necessary for the progressive phosphorylation, and thus activation, of the channel. However, the lack of a defined and stable structure results in a considerable limitation when trying to in build a unique molecular model for the RD. Moreover, several evidences indicate significant structural differences between the native, non-phosphorylated state, and the multiple phosphorylated state of the protein. The aim of our work is to provide data to describe the conformations and the thermodynamic properties in these two functional states of RD. We have done the circular dichroism (CD) spectra in samples with a different degree of phosphorylation, from the non-phosphorylated state to a bona fide completely phosphorylated state. Analysis of CD spectra showed that the random coil and {beta}-sheets secondary structure decreased with the polypeptide phosphorylation, at expenses of an increase of {alpha}-helix. This observation lead to interpret phosphorylation as a mechanism favoring a more structured state. We also studied the thermal denaturation curves of the protein in the two

  12. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  13. Regulation of the filament structure and assembly of Acanthamoeba myosin II by phosphorylation of serines in the heavy-chain nonhelical tailpiece.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiong; Hong, Myoung-Soon; Shu, Shi; Yu, Shuhua; Korn, Edward D

    2013-01-01

    Acanthamoeba myosin II (AMII) has two heavy chains ending in a 27-residue nonhelical tailpiece and two pairs of light chains. In a companion article, we show that five, and only five, serine residues can be phosphorylated both in vitro and in vivo: Ser639 in surface loop 2 of the motor domain and serines 1489, 1494, 1499, and 1504 in the nonhelical tailpiece of the heavy chains. In that paper, we show that phosphorylation of Ser639 down-regulates the actin-activated MgATPase activity of AMII and that phosphorylation of the serines in the nonhelical tailpiece has no effect on enzymatic activity. Here we show that bipolar tetrameric, hexameric, and octameric minifilaments of AMII with the nonhelical tailpiece serines either phosphorylated or mutated to glutamate have longer bare zones and more tightly clustered heads than minifilaments of unphosphorylated AMII, irrespective of the phosphorylation state of Ser639. Although antiparallel dimers of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated myosins are indistinguishable, phosphorylation inhibits dimerization and filament assembly. Therefore, the different structures of tetramers, hexamers, and octamers of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated AMII must be caused by differences in the longitudinal stagger of phosphorylated and unphosphorylated bipolar dimers and tetramers. Thus, although the actin-activated MgATPase activity of AMII is regulated by phosphorylation of Ser639 in loop 2 of the motor domain, the structure of AMII minifilaments is regulated by phosphorylation of one or more of four serines in the nonhelical tailpiece of the heavy chain. PMID:23248285

  14. Phosphorylation of structural components promotes dissociation of the herpes simplex virus type 1 tegument.

    PubMed

    Morrison, E E; Wang, Y F; Meredith, D M

    1998-09-01

    The role of phosphorylation in the dissociation of structural components of the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) tegument was investigated, using an in vitro assay. Addition of physiological concentrations of ATP and magnesium to wild-type virions in the presence of detergent promoted the release of VP13/14 and VP22. VP1/2 and the UL13 protein kinase were not significantly solubilized. However, using a virus with an inactivated UL13 protein, we found that the release of VP22 was severely impaired. Addition of casein kinase II (CKII) to UL13 mutant virions promoted VP22 release. Heat inactivation of virions or addition of phosphatase inhibited the release of both proteins. Incorporation of radiolabeled ATP into the assay demonstrated the phosphorylation of VP1/2, VP13/14, VP16, and VP22. Incubation of detergent-purified, heat-inactivated capsid-tegument with recombinant kinases showed VP1/2 phosphorylation by CKII, VP13/14 phosphorylation by CKII, protein kinase A (PKA), and PKC, VP16 phosphorylation by PKA, and VP22 phosphorylation by CKII and PKC. Proteolytic mapping and phosphoamino acid analysis of phosphorylated VP22 correlated with previously published work. The phosphorylation of virion-associated VP13/14, VP16, and VP22 was demonstrated in cells infected in the presence of cycloheximide. Use of equine herpesvirus 1 in the in vitro release assay resulted in the enhanced release of VP10, the homolog of HSV-1 VP13/14. These results suggest that the dissociation of major tegument proteins from alphaherpesvirus virions in infected cells may be initiated by phosphorylation events mediated by both virion-associated and cellular kinases.

  15. Phosphorylation regulates the water channel activity of the seed-specific aquaporin alpha-TIP.

    PubMed Central

    Maurel, C; Kado, R T; Guern, J; Chrispeels, M J

    1995-01-01

    The vacuolar membrane protein alpha-TIP is a seed-specific protein of the Major Intrinsic Protein family. Expression of alpha-TIP in Xenopus oocytes conferred a 4- to 8-fold increase in the osmotic water permeability (Pf) of the oocyte plasma membrane, showing that alpha-TIP forms water channels and is thus a new aquaporin. alpha-TIP has three putative phosphorylation sites on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane (Ser7, Ser23 and Ser99), one of which (Ser7) has been shown to be phosphorylated. We present several lines of evidence that the activity of this aquaporin is regulated by phosphorylation. First, mutation of the putative phosphorylation sites in alpha-TIP (Ser7Ala, Ser23Ala and Ser99Ala) reduced the apparent water transport activity of alpha-TIP in oocytes, suggesting that phosphorylation of alpha-TIP occurs in the oocytes and participates in the control of water channel activity. Second, exposure of oocytes to the cAMP agonists 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, which stimulate endogenous protein kinase A (PKA), increased the water transport activity of alpha-TIP by 80-100% after 60 min. That the protein can be phosphorylated by PKA was demonstrated by phosphorylating alpha-TIP in isolated oocyte membranes with the bovine PKA catalytic subunit. Third, the integrity of the three sites at positions 7, 23 and 99 was necessary for the cAMP-dependent increase in the Pf of oocytes expressing alpha-TIP, as well as for in vitro phosphorylation of alpha-TIP. These findings demonstrate that the alpha-TIP water channel can be modulated via phosphorylation of Ser7, Ser23 and Ser99.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:7542585

  16. Phosphorylation and subcellular distribution of connexin43 in normal and stressed cells.

    PubMed

    Leykauf, Kerstin; Dürst, Matthias; Alonso, Angel

    2003-01-01

    We have developed polyclonal antibodies (SA226P) to a peptide of the human connexin43 (Cx43) protein between amino acids 271 and 288 containing phosphorylated S279 and S282. Antibodies specific for the phosphorylated form of the peptide were isolated by double immunoaffinity chromatography and were characterised using proteins of the cell line WB-F344, known to contain large amounts of Cx43. SA226P recognises specifically the slowest migrating Cx43 band in immunoblots of proteins isolated from untreated cells. In immunofluorescence experiments SA226P scarcely stains the plasma membrane in untreated cells in contrast to a commercial antibody recognising all isoforms of the Cx43 protein. EGF or stress treatment of the cells results in a rapid increase in the phosphorylated forms of Cx43 as revealed by immunoblotting. Immunofluorescence experiments reveal that both phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated Cx43 could be found at the plasma membrane. Whether phosphorylation of S279/S282 takes place before or after incorporation of Cx43 into the membranes is so far unknown. More interestingly, confocal microscopy using our antibodies and a commercial antibody recognising all isoforms of Cx43 shows the coexistence of differentially phosphorylated forms of the protein at the plasma membrane. Our results indicate that MAP kinases erk1/2 are mainly responsible for this phosphorylation, as already published. Nevertheless, treatment of the cells with anisomycin, known to activate stress kinase p38 but not erk1/2, also results in a weak but reproducible Cx43 phosphorylation. PMID:12483281

  17. EBP50 inhibits EGF-induced breast cancer cell proliferation by blocking EGFR phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yao, Wenfang; Feng, Duiping; Bian, Weihua; Yang, Longyan; Li, Yang; Yang, Zhiyu; Xiong, Ying; Zheng, Junfang; Zhai, Renyou; He, Junqi

    2012-11-01

    Ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein-50 (EBP50) suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation, potentially through its regulatory effect on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling, although the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. Thus in our studies, we aimed to determine the effect of EBP50 expression on EGF-induced cell proliferation and activation of EGFR signaling in the breast cancer cell lines, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In MDA-MB-231 cells, which express low levels of EBP50, EBP50 overexpression inhibited EGF-induced cell proliferation, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. In MCF-7 cells, which express high levels of EBP50, EBP50 knockdown promoted EGF-induced cell proliferation, ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation. Knockdown of EBP50 in EBP50-overexpressed MDA-MB-231 cells abrogated the inhibitory effect of EBP50 on EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation and restoration of EBP50 expression in EBP50-knockdown MCF-7 cells rescued the inhibition of EBP50 on EGF-stimulated ERK1/2 phosphorylation, further confirming that the activation of EGF-induced downstream molecules could be specifically inhibited by EBP50 expression. Since EGFR signaling was triggered by EGF ligands via EGFR phosphorylation, we further detected the phosphorylation status of EGFR in the presence or absence of EBP50 expression. Overexpression of EBP50 in MDA-MB-231 cells inhibited EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of EBP50 in MCF-7 cells enhanced EGF-stimulated EGFR phosphorylation. Meanwhile, total expression levels of EGFR were unaffected during EGF stimulation. Taken together, our data shows that EBP50 can suppress EGF-induced proliferation of breast cancer cells by inhibiting EGFR phosphorylation and blocking EGFR downstream signaling in breast cancer cells. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanism by which EBP50 regulates the development and progression of breast cancer.

  18. Biochemical analysis of axon-specific phosphorylation events using isolated squid axoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsu; Baker, Lisa; Song, Yuyu; Brady, Scott T; Morfini, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate functionality of nodes of Ranvier, presynaptic terminals, and other axonal subdomains depends on efficient and timely delivery of proteins synthesized and packaged into membrane-bound organelles (MBOs) within the neuronal cell body. MBOs are transported and delivered to their final sites of utilization within axons by a cellular process known as fast axonal transport (FAT). Conventional kinesin, the most abundant multisubunit motor protein expressed in mature neurons, is responsible for FAT of a large variety of MBOs and plays a major role in the maintenance of appropriate axonal connectivity. Consistent with the variety and large number of discrete subdomains within axons, experimental evidence revealed the identity of several protein kinases that modulate specific functional activities of conventional kinesin. Thus, methods for the analysis of kinase activity and conventional kinesin phosphorylation facilitate the study of FAT regulation in health and disease conditions. Axonal degeneration, abnormal patterns of protein phosphorylation, and deficits in FAT represent early pathological features characteristic of neurological diseases caused by unrelated neuropathogenic proteins. Interestingly, some of these proteins were shown to produce deficits in FAT by modulating the activity of specific protein kinases involved in conventional kinesin phosphorylation. However, experimental systems that facilitate an evaluation of molecular events within axons remain scarce. Using the isolated squid axoplasm preparation, we describe methods for evaluating axon-autonomous effects of neuropathogenic proteins on the activity of protein kinases. Protocols are also provided to evaluate the effect of such proteins on the phosphorylation of endogenous axonal substrates, including conventional kinesin and neurofilaments.

  19. Phosphorylation of RACK1 in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jay -Gui

    2015-08-31

    Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that interacts with a large, diverse group of proteins to regulate various signaling cascades. RACK1 has been shown to regulate hormonal signaling, stress responses and multiple processes of growth and development in plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis RACK1 is phosphorylated by an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE 8 (WNK8). Furthermore, RACK1 phosphorylation by WNK8 negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability. In conclusion, these findings promote a new regulatory system in which the action of RACK1 is controlled by phosphorylation and subsequent protein degradation.

  20. Phosphorylation of RACK1 in plants

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Jay -Gui

    2015-08-31

    Receptor for Activated C Kinase 1 (RACK1) is a versatile scaffold protein that interacts with a large, diverse group of proteins to regulate various signaling cascades. RACK1 has been shown to regulate hormonal signaling, stress responses and multiple processes of growth and development in plants. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying these regulations. Recently, it has been demonstrated that Arabidopsis RACK1 is phosphorylated by an atypical serine/threonine protein kinase, WITH NO LYSINE 8 (WNK8). Furthermore, RACK1 phosphorylation by WNK8 negatively regulates RACK1 function by influencing its protein stability. In conclusion, these findings promote a new regulatory systemmore » in which the action of RACK1 is controlled by phosphorylation and subsequent protein degradation.« less

  1. Regulation and Function of Phosphorylation on VP8, the Major Tegument Protein of Bovine Herpesvirus 1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kuan; Afroz, Sharmin; Brownlie, Robert; Snider, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major tegument protein of bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1), VP8, is essential for virus replication in cattle. VP8 is phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase 2 (CK2) and BoHV-1 unique short protein 3 (US3). In this study, VP8 was found to be phosphorylated in both transfected and infected cells but was detected as a nonphosphorylated form in mature virions. This suggests that phosphorylation of VP8 is strictly controlled during different stages of the viral life cycle. The regulation and function of VP8 phosphorylation by US3 and CK2 were further analyzed. An in vitro kinase assay, site-directed mutagenesis, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to identify the active sites for US3 and CK2. The two kinases phosphorylate VP8 at different sites, resulting in distinct phosphopeptide patterns. S16 is a primary phosphoreceptor for US3, and it subsequently triggers phosphorylation at S32. CK2 has multiple active sites, among which T107 appears to be the preferred residue. Additionally, CK2 consensus motifs in the N terminus of VP8 are essential for phosphorylation. Based on these results, a nonphosphorylated VP8 mutant was constructed and used for further studies. In transfected cells phosphorylation was not required for nuclear localization of VP8. Phosphorylated VP8 appeared to recruit promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein and to remodel the distribution of PML in the nucleus; however, PML protein did not show an association with nonphosphorylated VP8. This suggests that VP8 plays a role in resisting PML-related host antiviral defenses by redistributing PML protein and that this function depends on the phosphorylation of VP8. IMPORTANCE The progression of VP8 phosphorylation over time and its function in BoHV-1 replication have not been characterized. This study demonstrates that activation of S16 initiates further phosphorylation at S32 by US3. Additionally, VP8 is phosphorylated by CK2 at several residues, with T107 having the highest level

  2. Src kinase regulation by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Roskoski, Robert . E-mail: biocrr@lsuhsc.edu

    2005-05-27

    Src and Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases are regulatory proteins that play key roles in cell differentiation, motility, proliferation, and survival. The initially described phosphorylation sites of Src include an activating phosphotyrosine 416 that results from autophosphorylation, and an inhibiting phosphotyrosine 527 that results from phosphorylation by C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) and Csk homologous kinase. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 527 increases Src kinase activity. Candidate phosphotyrosine 527 phosphatases include cytoplasmic PTP1B, Shp1 and Shp2, and transmembrane enzymes include CD45, PTP{alpha}, PTP{epsilon}, and PTP{lambda}. Dephosphorylation of phosphotyrosine 416 decreases Src kinase activity. Thus far PTP-BL, the mouse homologue of human PTP-BAS, has been shown to dephosphorylate phosphotyrosine 416 in a regulatory fashion. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinase mediates the phosphorylation of Src Tyr138; this phosphorylation has no direct effect on Src kinase activity. The platelet-derived growth factor receptor and the ErbB2/HER2 growth factor receptor protein-tyrosine kinases mediate the phosphorylation of Src Tyr213 and activation of Src kinase activity. Src kinase is also a substrate for protein-serine/threonine kinases including protein kinase C (Ser12), protein kinase A (Ser17), and CDK1/cdc2 (Thr34, Thr46, and Ser72). Of the three protein-serine/threonine kinases, only phosphorylation by CDK1/cdc2 has been demonstrated to increase Src kinase activity. Although considerable information on the phosphoprotein phosphatases that catalyze the hydrolysis of Src phosphotyrosine 527 is at hand, the nature of the phosphatases that mediate the hydrolysis of phosphotyrosine 138 and 213, and phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues has not been determined.

  3. Phosphorylation of varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein gpI by mammalian casein kinase II and casein kinase I

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, C.; Jackson, W. ); Traugh, J.A. )

    1989-09-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein gpI is the predominant viral glycoprotein within the plasma membranes of infected cells. This viral glycoprotein is phosphorylated on its polypeptide backbone during biosynthesis. In this report, the authors investigated the protein kinases which participate in the phosphorylation events. Under in vivo conditions, VZV gpI was phosphorylated on its serine and threonine residues by protein kinases present within lysates of either VZV-infected or uninfected cells. Because this activity was diminished by heparin, a known inhibitor of casein kinase II, isolated gpI was incubated with purified casein kinase II and shown to be phosphorylated in an in vitro assay containing ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP. The same glycoprotein was phosphorylated when ({sup 32}P)GTP was substituted for ({sup 32}P)ATP in the protein kinase assay. They also tested whether VZV gpI was phosphorylated by two other ubiquitous mammalian protein kinases--casein kinase I and cyclic AMP-dependent kinase--and found that only casein kinase I modified gpI. When the predicted 623-amino-acid sequence of gpI was examined, two phosphorylation sites known to be optimal for casein kinase II were observed. In summary, this study showed that VZV gpI was phosphorylated by each of two mammalian protein kinases (casein kinase I and casein kinase II) and that potential serine-threonine phosphorylation sites for each of these two kinases were present in the viral glycoprotein.

  4. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation during meiotic divisions of starfish oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Peaucellier, G.; Andersen, A.C.; Kinsey, W.H. )

    1990-04-01

    We have used an antibody specific for phosphotyrosine to investigate protein phosphorylation on tyrosine during hormone-induced maturation of starfish oocytes. Analysis of immunoprecipitates from cortices of in vivo labeled Marthasterias glacialis oocytes revealed the presence of labeled phosphotyrosine-containing proteins only after hormone addition. Six major phosphoproteins of 195, 155, 100, 85, 45, and 35 kDa were detected. Total activity in immunoprecipitates increased until first polar body emission and was greatly reduced upon completion of meiosis but some proteins exhibited different kinetics. The labeling of the 155-kDa protein reached a maximum at germinal vesicle breakdown, while the 35-kDa appeared later and disappeared after polar body emission. Similar results were obtained with Asterias rubens oocytes. In vitro phosphorylation of cortices showed that tyrosine kinase activity is a major protein kinase activity in this fraction, the main endogenous substrate being a 68-kDa protein. The proteins phosphorylated on tyrosine in vitro were almost similar in extracts from oocytes treated or not with the hormone.

  5. Tyrosine phosphorylation of WASP promotes calpain-mediated podosome disassembly

    PubMed Central

    Macpherson, Lee; Monypenny, James; Blundell, Michael P.; Cory, Giles O.; Tomé-García, Jessica; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Jones, Gareth E.; Calle, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Podosomes are actin-based adhesions involved in migration of cells that have to cross tissue boundaries such as myeloid cells. The Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein regulates de novo actin polymerization during podosome formation and it is cleaved by the protease calpain during podosome disassembly. The mechanisms that may induce the Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein cleavage by calpain remain undetermined. We now report that in myeloid cells, tyrosine phosphorylation of the Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein-tyrosine291 (Human)/tyrosine293 (mouse) not only enhances Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein-mediated actin polymerization but also promotes its calpain-dependent degradation during podosome disassembly. We also show that activation of the Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein leading to podosome formation occurs independently of tyrosine phosphorylation in spleen-derived dendritic cells. We conclude that tyrosine phosphorylation of the Wiskott Aldrich Syndrome Protein integrates dynamics of actin and cell adhesion proteins during podosome disassembly required for mobilization of myeloid cells during the immune response. PMID:22133775

  6. Src tyrosyl phosphorylates cortactin in response to prolactin.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Alan; Laghate, Sneha; Diakonova, Maria

    2015-08-01

    The hormone/cytokine prolactin (PRL) is implicated in breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis. PRL-induced pathways are mediated by two non-receptor tyrosine kinases, JAK2 and Src. We previously demonstrated that prolactin stimulates invasion of breast cancer cells TMX2-28 through JAK2 and its target serine/threonine kinase PAK1. We hypothesize herein that the actin-binding protein cortactin, a protein involved in invadopodia formation and cell invasion, is activated by PRL. We demonstrate that TMX2-28 cells are more invasive than T47D breast cancer cells in response to PRL. We determine that cortactin is tyrosyl phosphorylated in response to PRL in a time and dose-dependent manner in TMX2-28 cells, but not in T47D cells. Furthermore, we show that PRL mediates cortactin tyrosyl phosphorylation via Src, but not JAK2. Finally, we demonstrate that maximal PRL-mediated TMX2-28 cell invasion requires both Src and JAK2 kinase activity, while T47D cell invasion is JAK2- but not Src-dependent. Thus PRL may induce cell invasion via two pathways: through a JAK2/PAK1 mediated pathway that we have previously demonstrated, and Src-dependent activation and tyrosyl phosphorylation of cortactin.

  7. [Transient abnormal Q-waves].

    PubMed

    Godballe, C; Hoeck, H C; Sørensen, J A

    1990-01-01

    We present a case of transient abnormal Q-waves (TAQ) and a review of the literature. TAQ are defined as abnormal Q-waves, which disappear within ten days. They are most often seen in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) but are also seen in other conditions. Brief episodes of myocardial ischemia giving rise to reversible biochemical and ultrastructural myocardial changes, resulting in transient ECG changes, provide an accepted theory for the pathogenesis of TAO. Investigations have shown that the occurrence of exercise-induced TAQ may be a symptom of IHD. It is impossible to distinguish TAQ from Q-waves induced by myocardial infarction. Appearance of TAQ during exercise-testing frequently indicates IHD. PMID:2301045

  8. [Chromosome abnormalities in human cancer].

    PubMed

    Salamanca-Gómez, F

    1995-01-01

    Recent investigation on the presence of chromosome abnormalities in neoplasias has allowed outstanding advances in the knowledge of malignant transformation mechanisms and important applications in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of leukaemias, lymphomas and solid tumors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss the most relevant cytogenetic aberrations, some of them described at the Unidad de Investigación Médica en Genética Humana, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, and to correlate these abnormalities with recent achievements in the knowledge of oncogenes, suppressor genes or antioncogenes, their chromosome localization, and their mutations in human neoplasia; as well as their perspectives in prevention and treatment of cancer that such findings permit to anticipate.

  9. Modulation of P1798 lymphosarcoma proliferation by protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff, C.A.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of protein kinases in modulating cell proliferation was examined. Studies characterized the regulation of cell proliferation by adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase (cA-Pk). Calcium/calmodulin-dependent myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) was isolated and examined as a potential substrate regulated by cA-PK in the rapidly proliferating P1798 lymphosarcoma. Modulation of cell proliferation by cA-PK was characterized by quantitating cell division by (methyl-/sup 3/H) thymidine ((/sup 3/H)-dT) incorporation into DNA, cAMP accumulations, and activation of cA-PK using P1798 lymphosarcoma cells. Epinephrine and prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) were demonstrated to suppress (/sup 3/H)-dT incorporation into DNA, to stimulate cAMP accumulation, and to activate cA-PK with dose-dependency. Calcium/calmodulin-dependent MLCK was partially purified from P1798 lymphosarcoma. P1798 MLCK phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chains (P-LC) from thymus, cardiac and skeletal muscles. One mol (/sup 32/Pi) was transferred into one mol cardiac or skeletal P-LC by P1798 MLCK. Apparent Km values of 65 ..mu..M and 51 ..mu..M were determined for ATP and cardiac P-LC, respectively. The apparent molecular weight of P1798 MLCK was 135,000. P1798 MLCK was phosphorylated by cA-PK. Phosphorylated MLCK showed a 41% decrease in calcium-dependent activity. Two additional protein kinases from P1798 lymphosarcoma phosphorylated cardiac and skeletal light chains (MLC).

  10. Study of sperm cell phosphorylating systems using nucleotide photoaffinity probes

    SciTech Connect

    Khatoon, S.

    1983-01-01

    The major thrust of the research presented in this thesis was to identify specific nucleotide binding proteins and phosphoproteins of rat caput and cauda sperm. Also, the differences in these proteins between caput and cauda sperm were investigated as well as determination of the membrane sidedness of the proteins and their location in either the head or tail/mid-piece region. In addition, the effects of small molecular weight modifers such as cGMP, cAMP and Ca/sup 2 +/ on the detection of binding proteins and phosphorylated proteins was studied. The technique used to identify and locate nucleotide binding proteins was photoaffinity labeling using the proven 8-azidopurine nucleotide analogs of cAMP, ATP and GTP in radioactive form. The first study presented involved the use of (/sup 32/P)8-N /sub 3/cAMP which showed that both caput and cauda sperm contained both type I and type II regulatory subunits (R/sub I/ and R/sub II/, respectively) of the cAMP dependent kinases and that the great majority of the regulatory subunits were located in the tail/mid-piece section and not in the sperm head. The second phase of this study involved the use of (..gamma../sup 32/P)8-azidoadensosine triphosphate ((..gamma../sup 32/P)8-N/sub 3/ATP) and (..gamma../sup 32/P)8-azidoguanosine triphosphate ((..gamma../sup 32/P)8-N/sub 3/GTP) to photolable specific ATP and GTP binding proteins and to phosphorylate specific phosphoproteins. Again, this was done on caput versus cauda sperm and the location of the majority of the photolabeled or phosphorylated proteins was shown to be in the tail/mid-piece fraction. In addition, considerable differences were found in both the phosphorylated and photolabeled proteins of caput versus cauda sperm.

  11. Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Chitty, L S

    1995-12-01

    Ultrasound screening for fetal abnormalities is increasingly becoming part of routine antenatal care in Europe and the UK. However, there has been very little formal evaluation of this practice. In this article reports of routine ultrasound screening are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages discussed. The majority of routine anomaly scanning is done in the second trimester but there may be a case for screening at other times in pregnancy and alternative anomaly screening policies are discussed. PMID:8710765

  12. Phosphorylation and inactivation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) by dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A).

    PubMed

    Song, Woo-Joo; Song, Eun-Ah Christine; Jung, Min-Su; Choi, Sun-Hee; Baik, Hyung-Hwan; Jin, Byung Kwan; Kim, Jeong Hee; Chung, Sul-Hee

    2015-01-23

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) participates in many cellular processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in a wide range of diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimer disease. Inactivation of GSK3β by phosphorylation at specific residues is a primary mechanism by which this constitutively active kinase is controlled. However, the regulatory mechanism of GSK3β is not fully understood. Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) has multiple biological functions that occur as the result of phosphorylation of diverse proteins that are involved in metabolism, synaptic function, and neurodegeneration. Here we show that GSK3β directly interacts with and is phosphorylated by Dyrk1A. Dyrk1A-mediated phosphorylation at the Thr(356) residue inhibits GSK3β activity. Dyrk1A transgenic (TG) mice are lean and resistant to diet-induced obesity because of reduced fat mass, which shows an inverse correlation with the effect of GSK3β on obesity. This result suggests a potential in vivo association between GSK3β and Dyrk1A regarding the mechanism underlying obesity. The level of Thr(P)(356)-GSK3β was higher in the white adipose tissue of Dyrk1A TG mice compared with control mice. GSK3β activity was differentially regulated by phosphorylation at different sites in adipose tissue depending on the type of diet the mice were fed. Furthermore, overexpression of Dyrk1A suppressed the expression of adipogenic proteins, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, in 3T3-L1 cells and in young Dyrk1A TG mice fed a chow diet. Taken together, these results reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for GSK3β activity and indicate that overexpression of Dyrk1A may contribute to the obesity-resistant phenotype through phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK3β. PMID:25477508

  13. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  14. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  15. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  16. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  17. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  18. Obesity in show cats.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. PMID:24612018

  19. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  20. The Art Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scolarici, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    This article describes what once was thought to be impossible--a formal art show extravaganza at an elementary school with 1,000 students, a Department of Defense Dependent School (DODDS) located overseas, on RAF Lakenheath, England. The dream of this this event involved the transformation of the school cafeteria into an elegant art show…

  1. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  2. Phosphorylation of SAS-6 by ZYG-1 is critical for centriole formation in C. elegans embryos.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Daiju; Busso, Coralie; Flückiger, Isabelle; Gönczy, Pierre

    2009-12-01

    Despite being essential for proper cell division, the mechanisms governing centrosome duplication are incompletely understood and represent an important open question in cell biology. Formation of a new centriole next to each existing one is critical for centrosome duplication. In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, the proteins SPD-2, ZYG-1, SAS-6, SAS-5, and SAS-4 are essential for centriole formation, but the mechanisms underlying their requirement remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that the kinase ZYG-1 phosphorylates the coiled-coil protein SAS-6 at serine 123 in vitro. Importantly, we show that this phosphorylation event is crucial for centriole formation in vivo. Furthermore, we establish that such phosphorylation ensures the maintenance of SAS-6 at the emerging centriole. Overall, our findings establish that phosphorylation of the evolutionarily conserved protein SAS-6 is critical for centriole formation and thus for faithful cell division.

  3. Interplay between phosphorylation and SUMOylation events determines CESTA protein fate in brassinosteroid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mamoona; Rozhon, Wilfried; Unterholzner, Simon Josef; Chen, Tingting; Eremina, Marina; Wurzinger, Bernhard; Bachmair, Andreas; Teige, Markus; Sieberer, Tobias; Isono, Erika; Poppenberger, Brigitte

    2014-01-01

    Brassinosteroids are steroid hormones that are essential for plant growth. Responses to these hormones are mediated by transcription factors of the BES1/BZR1 subfamily, and brassinosteroids activate these factors by impairing their inhibitory phosphorylation by GSK3/shaggy-like kinases. Here we show that brassinosteroids induce nuclear compartmentalization of CESTA (CES), a bHLH transcription factor that regulates brassinosteroid responses, and reveal that this process is regulated by CES SUMOylation. We demonstrate that CES contains an extended SUMOylation motif, and that SUMOylation of this motif is antagonized by phosphorylation to control CES subnuclear localization. Moreover, we provide evidence that phosphorylation regulates CES transcriptional activity and protein turnover by the proteasome. A coordinated modification model is proposed in which, in a brassinosteroid-deficient situation, CES is phosphorylated to activate target gene transcription and enable further posttranslational modification that controls CES protein stability. PMID:25134617

  4. Binding of AP-2 adaptor complex to brain membrane is regulated by phosphorylation of proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Alberdi, A. . E-mail: aalberdi@fcm.uncu.edu.ar; Sartor, T.; Sosa, M.A.

    2005-05-13

    Phosphorylation of proteins appears as a key process in early steps of clathrin coated vesicle formation. Here, we report that treatment of post-nuclear fraction with alkaline phosphatase induced redistribution of {alpha} subunits of AP-2 adaptor complex to cytosol and this effect was higher in the {alpha}2 subunit. A high serine phosphorylation status of {alpha} subunits correlated with the higher affinity of AP-2 to membranes. Using a simple binding assay, where membranes were incubated with either purified adaptors or cytosols, we observed an inhibitory effect of tyrphostin, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on the binding of AP-2 to membranes, but also an unexpected decrease induced by the phosphatase inhibitor cyclosporine. We also show an inhibitory effect of ATP mediated by cytosolic proteins, although it could not be related to the phosphorylation of AP-2, suggesting an action upstream a cascade of phosphorylations that participate in the regulation of the assembly of AP-2 to membranes.

  5. Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates penile erection

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, K. Joseph; Sezen, Sena F.; Lagoda, Gwen F.; Musicki, Biljana; Rameau, Gerald A.; Snyder, Solomon H.; Burnett, Arthur L.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) initiates penile erection, but has not been thought to participate in the sustained erection required for normal sexual performance. We now show that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of nNOS mediates erectile physiology, including sustained erection. nNOS is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) at serine(S)1412. Electrical stimulation of the penile innervation increases S1412 phosphorylation that is blocked by PKA inhibitors but not by PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitors. Stimulation of cAMP formation by forskolin also activates nNOS phosphorylation. Sustained penile erection elicited by either intracavernous forskolin injection, or augmented by forskolin during cavernous nerve electrical stimulation, is prevented by the NOS inhibitor l-NAME or in nNOS-deleted mice. Thus, nNOS mediates both initiation and maintenance of penile erection, implying unique approaches for treating erectile dysfunction. PMID:23012472

  6. Phosphorylation of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein bid primes mitochondria for apoptosis during mitotic arrest.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengbo; Lindsay, Jennefer; Owens, Thomas W; Mularczyk, Ewa J; Warwood, Stacey; Foster, Fiona; Streuli, Charles H; Brennan, Keith; Gilmore, Andrew P

    2014-05-01

    Mitosis is a moment of exquisite vulnerability for a metazoan cell. Failure to complete mitosis accurately can lead to aneuploidy and cancer initiation. Therefore, if the exit from mitosis is delayed, normal cells are usually removed by apoptosis. However, how failure to complete mitosis activates apoptosis is still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that a phosphorylated form of the BH3-only protein Bid regulates apoptosis if mitotic exit is delayed. Bid is phosphorylated on serine 66 as cells enter mitosis, and this phosphorylation is lost during the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Cells expressing a nonphosphorylatable version of Bid or a BH3-domain mutant were resistant to mitotic-arrest-induced apoptosis. Thus, we show that Bid phosphorylation primes cells to undergo mitochondrial apoptosis if mitotic exit is delayed. Avoidance of this mechanism may explain the selective pressure for cancer cells to undergo mitotic slippage. PMID:24767991

  7. Cyclic AMP-dependent phosphorylation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates penile erection.

    PubMed

    Hurt, K Joseph; Sezen, Sena F; Lagoda, Gwen F; Musicki, Biljana; Rameau, Gerald A; Snyder, Solomon H; Burnett, Arthur L

    2012-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated by neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) initiates penile erection, but has not been thought to participate in the sustained erection required for normal sexual performance. We now show that cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of nNOS mediates erectile physiology, including sustained erection. nNOS is phosphorylated by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) at serine(S)1412. Electrical stimulation of the penile innervation increases S1412 phosphorylation that is blocked by PKA inhibitors but not by PI3-kinase/Akt inhibitors. Stimulation of cAMP formation by forskolin also activates nNOS phosphorylation. Sustained penile erection elicited by either intracavernous forskolin injection, or augmented by forskolin during cavernous nerve electrical stimulation, is prevented by the NOS inhibitor L-NAME or in nNOS-deleted mice. Thus, nNOS mediates both initiation and maintenance of penile erection, implying unique approaches for treating erectile dysfunction.

  8. Radiological abnormalities in electric-arc welders.

    PubMed Central

    Attfield, M D; Ross, D S

    1978-01-01

    Chest radiographs of 661 British electric-arc welders have been examined by three film readers experienced in the radiology of pneumoconiosis. About 7% of the welders showed signs of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater. No definite evidence of large opacities (Progressive Massive Fibrosis) was seen. The prevalence of chest abnormalities other than pneumoconiosis was 7%. A clear association between prevalence of small rounded opacities of category 0/1 or greater and years of exposure to fumes was established, although few signs of severe grades of simple pneumoconiosis were seen. PMID:656335

  9. Rosamines Targeting the Cancer Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Siang Hui; Wu, Liangxing; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong; Burgess, Kevin; Lee, Hong Boon

    2014-01-01

    Reprogramming of energy metabolism is pivotal to cancer, so mitochondria are potential targets for anticancer therapy. A prior study has demonstrated the anti-proliferative activity of a new class of mitochondria-targeting rosamines. This present study describes in vitro cytotoxicity of second-generation rosamine analogs, their mode of action, and their in vivo efficacies in a tumor allografted mouse model. Here, we showed that these compounds exhibited potent cytotoxicity (average IC50<0.5 µM), inhibited Complex II and ATP synthase activities of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation pathway and induced loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential. A NCI-60 cell lines screen further indicated that rosamine analogs 4 and 5 exhibited potent antiproliferative effects with Log10GI50 = −7 (GI50 = 0.1 µM) and were more effective against a colorectal cancer sub-panel than other cell lines. Preliminary in vivo studies on 4T1 murine breast cancer-bearing female BALB/c mice indicated that treatment with analog 5 in a single dosing of 5 mg/kg or a schedule dosing of 3 mg/kg once every 2 days for 6 times (q2d×6) exhibited only minimal induction of tumor growth delay. Our results suggest that rosamine analogs may be further developed as mitochondrial targeting agents. Without a doubt proper strategies need to be devised to enhance tumor uptake of rosamines, i.e. by integration to carrier molecules for better therapeutic outcome. PMID:24622277

  10. Changes in phosphoinositide turnover, Ca sup 2+ mobilization, and protein phosphorylation in platelets from NIDDM patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, H.; Umeda, F.; Hashimoto, T.; Nawata, H. )

    1990-12-01

    Enhanced platelet functions have been demonstrated in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). This study evaluated abnormalities in platelet signal transduction in diabetic patients, including turnover of phosphoinositides, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, and phosphorylation of 20,000- and 47,000-Mr proteins (P20 and P47). Washed platelets were obtained from 6 patients with NIDDM whose platelet aggregation rates were abnormally elevated (DM-A group), 11 NIDDM patients with normal platelet aggregation rates (DM-B group), and 8 age-matched healthy control subjects. The mass and specific radioactivity of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidic acid (PA) in 32P-labeled platelets were not different among the three groups. Hydrolysis of PIP2, PIP, and PI; accumulation of PA; and phosphorylation of P20 in platelets stimulated by 0.05 U/ml thrombin were significantly increased in the DM-A group compared with the control or DM-B group. There was no difference in P47 phosphorylation among the three groups. On the contrary, P20 and P47 phosphorylation induced by 50 nM of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate, an activator of protein kinase C, was significantly decreased in the DM-A group. Additionally, the intracellular free Ca2+ concentration (( Ca2+)i) was measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura 2. Although the basal (Ca2+)i value was similar in the three groups, the rise in (Ca2+)i induced by 0.05 U/ml thrombin in the presence and the absence of extracellular Ca2+ was significantly higher in the DM-A group than the other groups.

  11. Intrinsically active variants of Erk oncogenically transform cells and disclose unexpected autophosphorylation capability that is independent of TEY phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Smorodinsky-Atias, Karina; Goshen-Lago, Tal; Goldberg-Carp, Anat; Melamed, Dganit; Shir, Alexei; Mooshayef, Navit; Beenstock, Jonah; Karamansha, Yael; Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Livnah, Oded; Ahn, Natalie G.; Admon, Arie; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    The receptor-tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras/Raf pathway is an essential cascade for mediating growth factor signaling. It is abnormally overactive in almost all human cancers. The downstream targets of the pathway are members of the extracellular regulated kinases (Erk1/2) family, suggesting that this family is a mediator of the oncogenic capability of the cascade. Although all oncogenic mutations in the pathway result in strong activation of Erks, activating mutations in Erks themselves were not reported in cancers. Here we used spontaneously active Erk variants to check whether Erk’s activity per se is sufficient for oncogenic transformation. We show that Erk1(R84S) is an oncoprotein, as NIH3T3 cells that express it form foci in tissue culture plates, colonies in soft agar, and tumors in nude mice. We further show that Erk1(R84S) and Erk2(R65S) are intrinsically active due to an unusual autophosphorylation activity they acquire. They autophosphorylate the activatory TEY motif and also other residues, including the critical residue Thr-207 (in Erk1)/Thr-188 (in Erk2). Strikingly, Erk2(R65S) efficiently autophosphorylates its Thr-188 even when dually mutated in the TEY motif. Thus this study shows that Erk1 can be considered a proto-oncogene and that Erk molecules possess unusual autoregulatory properties, some of them independent of TEY phosphorylation. PMID:26658610

  12. Phosphorylated STAT3 physically interacts with NPM and transcriptionally enhances its expression in cancer.

    PubMed

    Ren, Z; Aerts, J L; Pen, J J; Heirman, C; Breckpot, K; De Grève, J

    2015-03-26

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) can be activated by the tyrosine kinase domain of the chimeric protein nucleophosmin/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM/ALK), and has a pivotal role in mediating NPM/ALK-related malignant cell transformation. Although the role of STAT3 and wild-type NPM in oncogenesis has been extensively investigated, the relationship between both molecules in cancer remains poorly understood. In the present study, we first demonstrate that STAT3 phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 is accompanied by a concomitant increase in the expression level of NPM. Nuclear co-translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 with NPM can be triggered by interferon-alpha (IFN-α) stimulation of Jurkat cells and phosphorylated STAT3 co-localizes with NPM in cancer cells showing constitutive STAT3 activation. We further demonstrate that STAT3 phosphorylation can transcriptionally mediate NPM upregulation in IFN-α-stimulated Jurkat cells and is responsible for maintaining its expression in cancer cells showing constitutive STAT3 activation. Inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation or knockdown of NPM expression abrogates their simultaneous transnuclear movements. Finally, we found evidence for a physical interaction between NPM and STAT3 in conditions of STAT3 activation. In conclusion, NPM is a downstream effector of the STAT3 signaling, and can facilitate the nuclear entry of phosphorylated STAT3. These observations might open novel opportunities for targeting the STAT3 pathway in cancer.

  13. Protein kinase A and casein kinases mediate sequential phosphorylation events in the circadian negative feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guocun; Chen, She; Li, Shaojie; Cha, Joonseok; Long, Chengzu; Li, Lily; He, Qiyang; Liu, Yi

    2007-12-15

    Regulation of circadian clock components by phosphorylation plays essential roles in clock functions and is conserved from fungi to mammals. In the Neurospora circadian negative feedback loop, FREQUENCY (FRQ) protein inhibits WHITE COLLAR (WC) complex activity by recruiting the casein kinases CKI and CKII to phosphorylate the WC proteins, resulting in the repression of frq transcription. On the other hand, CKI and CKII progressively phosphorylate FRQ to promote FRQ degradation, a process that is a major determinant of circadian period length. Here, by using whole-cell isotope labeling and quantitative mass spectrometry methods, we show that the WC-1 phosphorylation events critical for the negative feedback process occur sequentially-first by a priming kinase, then by the FRQ-recruited casein kinases. We further show that the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) is essential for clock function and inhibits WC activity by serving as a priming kinase for the casein kinases. In addition, PKA also regulates FRQ phosphorylation, but unlike CKI and CKII, PKA stabilizes FRQ, similar to the stabilization of human PERIOD2 (hPER2) due to the phosphorylation at the familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS) site. Thus, PKA is a key clock component that regulates several critical processes in the circadian negative feedback loop. PMID:18079175

  14. A subset of ATM- and ATR-dependent phosphorylation events requires the BRCA1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Foray, Nicolas; Marot, Didier; Gabriel, Anastasia; Randrianarison, Voahangy; Carr, Antony M.; Perricaudet, Michel; Ashworth, Alan; Jeggo, Penny

    2003-01-01

    BRCA1 is a central component of the DNA damage response mechanism and defects in BRCA1 confer sensitivity to a broad range of DNA damaging agents. BRCA1 is required for homologous recombination and DNA damage-induced S and G2/M phase arrest. We show here that BRCA1 is required for ATM- and ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53, c-Jun, Nbs1 and Chk2 following exposure to ionizing or ultraviolet radiation, respectively, and is also required for ATM phosphorylation of CtIP. In contrast, DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of the histone variant H2AX is independent of BRCA1. We also show that the presence of BRCA1 is dispensable for DNA damage-induced phosphorylation of Rad9, Hus1 and Rad17, and for the relocalization of Rad9 and Hus1. We propose that BRCA1 facilitates the ability of ATM and ATR to phosphorylate downstream substrates that directly influence cell cycle checkpoint arrest and apoptosis, but that BRCA1 is dispensable for the phosphorylation of DNA-associated ATM and ATR substrates. PMID:12773400

  15. The role of phosphorylation in dentin phosphoprotein peptide absorption to hydroxyapatite surfaces: a molecular dynamics study

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal-Ramirez, Eduardo; Garduño-Juarez, Ramon; Gericke, Arne; Boskey, Adele

    2015-01-01

    Dentin phosphoprotein (DPP) is a protein expressed mainly in dentin and to a lesser extent in bone. DPP has a disordered structure, rich in glutamic acid, aspartic acid and phosphorylated serine/threonine residues. It has a high capacity for binding to calcium ions and to hydroxyapatite (HA) crystal surfaces. We used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as a method for virtually screening interactions between DPP motifs and HA. The goal was to determine which motifs are absorbed to HA surfaces. For these simulations, we considered five peptides from the human DPP sequence. All-atom MD simulations were performed using GROMACS, the peptides were oriented parallel to the {100} HA crystal surface, the distance between the HA and the peptide was 3 nm. The system was simulated for 20 ns. Preliminary results show that for the unphosphorylated peptides, the acidic amino acids present an electrostatic attraction where their side chains are oriented towards HA. This attraction, however, is slow to facilitate bulk transport to the crystal surface. On the other hand, the phosphorylated (PP) peptides are rapidly absorbed on the surface of the HA with their centers of mass closer to the HA surface. More importantly, the root mean square fluctuation (RMSF) indicates that the average structures of the phosphorylated peptides are very inflexible and elongate, while that of the unphosphorylated peptides are flexible. Radius of gyration (Rg) analysis showed the compactness of un-phosphorylated peptides is lower than phosphorylated peptides. Phosphorylation of the DPP peptides is necessary for binding to HA surfaces. PMID:25158198

  16. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKIα interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Nimmy; Sudheesh, A P; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S

    2015-08-18

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKIα interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKIα within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKIα. Unlike the CKIα mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKIα activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKIα controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3'-end processing.

  17. Phosphorylation of microtubule-associated protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii regulates its effect on microtubules.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Quan; Jin, Lifeng; Zhu, Lei; Li, Jiejie; Huang, Shuli; Yuan, Ming

    2009-03-01

    We reported previously that the protein SB401 from Solanum berthaultii binds to and bundles both microtubules and F-actin. In the current study, we investigated the regulation of SB401 activity by its phosphorylation. Our experimental results showed that the phosphorylation of SB401 by casein kinase II (CKII) downregulates the activities of SB401, namely the bundling of microtubules and enhancement of the polymerization of tubulin. However, phosphorylation of SB401 had no observable effect on its bundling of F-actin. Further investigation using extract of potato pollen indicated that a CKII-like kinase may exist in potato pollen. Antibodies against CKII alpha recognized specifically a major band from the pollen extract and the pollen extract was able to phosphorylate the SB401 protein in vitro. The CKII-like kinase showed a similar ability to downregulate the bundling of microtubules. Our experiments demonstrated that phosphorylation plays an important role in the regulation of SB401 activity. We propose that this phosphorylation may regulate the effects of SB401 on microtubules and the actin cytoskeleton.

  18. Differential regulation of the histone chaperone HIRA during muscle cell differentiation by a phosphorylation switch

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jae-Hyun; Song, Tae-Yang; Jo, Chanhee; Park, Jinyoung; Lee, Han-Young; Song, Ilang; Hong, Suji; Jung, Kwan Young; Kim, Jaehoon; Han, Jeung-Whan; Youn, Hong-Duk; Cho, Eun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Replication-independent incorporation of variant histone H3.3 has a profound impact on chromatin function and numerous cellular processes, including the differentiation of muscle cells. The histone chaperone HIRA and H3.3 have essential roles in MyoD regulation during myoblast differentiation. However, the precise mechanism that determines the onset of H3.3 deposition in response to differentiation signals is unclear. Here we show that HIRA is phosphorylated by Akt kinase, an important signaling modulator in muscle cells. By generating a phosphospecific antibody, we found that a significant amount of HIRA was phosphorylated in myoblasts. The phosphorylation level of HIRA and the occupancy of phosphorylated protein on muscle genes gradually decreased during cellular differentiation. Remarkably, the forced expression of the phosphomimic form of HIRA resulted in reduced H3.3 deposition and suppressed the activation of muscle genes in myotubes. Our data show that HIRA phosphorylation limits the expression of myogenic genes, while the dephosphorylation of HIRA is required for proficient H3.3 deposition and gene activation, demonstrating that the phosphorylation switch is exploited to modulate HIRA/H3.3-mediated muscle gene regulation during myogenesis. PMID:27515126

  19. Phosphorylation regulates the Star-PAP-PIPKIα interaction and directs specificity toward mRNA targets

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Nimmy; AP, Sudheesh; Francis, Nimmy; Anderson, Richard; Laishram, Rakesh S.

    2015-01-01

    Star-PAP is a nuclear non-canonical poly(A) polymerase (PAP) that shows specificity toward mRNA targets. Star-PAP activity is stimulated by lipid messenger phosphatidyl inositol 4,5 bisphoshate (PI4,5P2) and is regulated by the associated Type I phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase that synthesizes PI4,5P2 as well as protein kinases. These associated kinases act as coactivators of Star-PAP that regulates its activity and specificity toward mRNAs, yet the mechanism of control of these interactions are not defined. We identified a phosphorylated residue (serine 6, S6) on Star-PAP in the zinc finger region, the domain required for PIPKIα interaction. We show that S6 is phosphorylated by CKIα within the nucleus which is required for Star-PAP nuclear retention and interaction with PIPKIα. Unlike the CKIα mediated phosphorylation at the catalytic domain, Star-PAP S6 phosphorylation is insensitive to oxidative stress suggesting a signal mediated regulation of CKIα activity. S6 phosphorylation together with coactivator PIPKIα controlled select subset of Star-PAP target messages by regulating Star-PAP-mRNA association. Our results establish a novel role for phosphorylation in determining Star-PAP target mRNA specificity and regulation of 3′-end processing. PMID:26138484

  20. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  1. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments.

  2. eIF2alpha phosphorylation tips the balance to apoptosis during osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Elena; Wang, Xinglong; Majumder, Mithu; Gaccioli, Francesca; Yuan, Celvie L; Wang, Chuanping; Zhu, Xiongwei; Jordan, Lindsay E; Scheuner, Donalyn; Kaufman, Randal J; Koromilas, Antonis E; Snider, Martin D; Holcik, Martin; Hatzoglou, Maria

    2010-05-28

    Regulation of cell volume is of great importance because persistent swelling or shrinkage leads to cell death. Tissues experience hypertonicity in both physiological (kidney medullar cells) and pathological states (hypernatremia). Hypertonicity induces an adaptive gene expression program that leads to cell volume recovery or apoptosis under persistent stress. We show that the commitment to apoptosis is controlled by phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2alpha, the master regulator of the stress response. Studies with cultured mouse fibroblasts and cortical neurons show that mutants deficient in eIF2alpha phosphorylation are protected from hypertonicity-induced apoptosis. A novel link is revealed between eIF2alpha phosphorylation and the subcellular distribution of the RNA-binding protein heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 (hnRNP A1). Stress-induced phosphorylation of eIF2alpha promotes apoptosis by inducing the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1, which attenuates internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation of anti-apoptotic mRNAs, including Bcl-xL that was studied here. Hypertonic stress induced the eIF2alpha phosphorylation-independent formation of cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs, structures that harbor translationally arrested mRNAs) and the eIF2alpha phosphorylation-dependent accumulation of hnRNP A1 in SGs. The importance of hnRNP A1 was demonstrated by induction of apoptosis in eIF2alpha phosphorylation-deficient cells that express exogenous cytoplasmic hnRNP A1. We propose that eIF2alpha phosphorylation during hypertonic stress promotes apoptosis by sequestration of specific mRNAs in SGs in a process mediated by the cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP A1. PMID:20338999

  3. Phosphorylation of AIB1 at Mitosis Is Regulated by CDK1/CYCLIN B

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, Macarena; Ferragud, Juan; Orlando, Leonardo; Valero, Luz; Sánchez del Pino, Manuel; Farràs, Rosa; Font de Mora, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the AIB1 oncogene has an important role during the early phase of the cell cycle as a coactivator of E2F1, little is known about its function during mitosis. Methodology/Principal Findings Mitotic cells isolated by nocodazole treatment as well as by shake-off revealed a post-translational modification occurring in AIB1 specifically during mitosis. This modification was sensitive to the treatment with phosphatase, suggesting its modification by phosphorylation. Using specific inhibitors and in vitro kinase assays we demonstrate that AIB1 is phosphorylated on Ser728 and Ser867 by Cdk1/cyclin B at the onset of mitosis and remains phosphorylated until exit from M phase. Differences in the sensitivity to phosphatase inhibitors suggest that PP1 mediates dephosphorylation of AIB1 at the end of mitosis. The phosphorylation of AIB1 during mitosis was not associated with ubiquitylation or degradation, as confirmed by western blotting and flow cytometry analysis. In addition, luciferase reporter assays showed that this phosphorylation did not alter the transcriptional properties of AIB1. Importantly, fluorescence microscopy and sub-cellular fractionation showed that AIB1 phosphorylation correlated with the exclusion from the condensed chromatin, thus preventing access to the promoters of AIB1-dependent genes. Phospho-specific antibodies developed against Ser728 further demonstrated the presence of phosphorylated AIB1 only in mitotic cells where it was localized preferentially in the periphery of the cell. Conclusions Collectively, our results describe a new mechanism for the regulation of AIB1 during mitosis, whereby phosphorylation of AIB1 by Cdk1 correlates with the subcellular redistribution of AIB1 from a chromatin-associated state in interphase to a more peripheral localization during mitosis. At the exit of mitosis, AIB1 is dephosphorylated, presumably by PP1. This exclusion from chromatin during mitosis may represent a mechanism for governing the

  4. Attenuated Levels of Hippocampal Connexin 43 and its Phosphorylation Correlate with Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Activities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Quesseveur, Gaël; Portal, Benjamin; Basile, Jean-Arnaud; Ezan, Pascal; Mathou, Alexia; Halley, Hélène; Leloup, Corinne; Fioramonti, Xavier; Déglon, Nicole; Giaume, Christian; Rampon, Claire; Guiard, Bruno P.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have implicated glial anomalies in major depression. Conversely, evidence suggests that the activity of antidepressant drugs is based, at least in part, on their ability to stimulate density and/or activity of astrocytes, a major glial cell population. Despite this recent evidence, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which astrocytes regulate emotionality. Glial cells communicate with each other through gap junction channels (GJCs), while they can also directly interact with neurons by releasing gliotransmitters in the extracellular compartment via an hemichannels (HCs)-dependent process. Both GJCs and HCs are formed by two main protein subunits: connexins (Cx) 30 and 43 (Cx30 and Cx43). Here we investigate the role of hippocampal Cx43 in the regulation of depression-like symptoms using genetic and pharmacological approaches. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the constitutive knock-down of Cx43 on a set of behaviors known to be affected in depression. Conversely, the expression of Cx43 was assessed in the hippocampus of mice subjected to prolonged corticosterone (CORT) exposure, given either alone or in combination with an antidepressant drug, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Our results indicate that the constitutive deficiency of Cx43 resulted in the expression of some characteristic hallmarks of antidepressant-/anxiolytic-like behavioral activities along with an improvement of cognitive performances. Moreover, in a new cohort of wild-type mice, we showed that CORT exposure elicited anxiety and depression-like abnormalities that were reversed by chronic administration of fluoxetine. Remarkably, CORT also increased hippocampal amounts of phosphorylated form of Cx43 whereas fluoxetine treatment normalized this parameter. From these results, we envision that antidepressant drugs may exert their therapeutic activity by decreasing the expression and/or activity of Cx43 resulting from

  5. Attenuated Levels of Hippocampal Connexin 43 and its Phosphorylation Correlate with Antidepressant- and Anxiolytic-Like Activities in Mice.

    PubMed

    Quesseveur, Gaël; Portal, Benjamin; Basile, Jean-Arnaud; Ezan, Pascal; Mathou, Alexia; Halley, Hélène; Leloup, Corinne; Fioramonti, Xavier; Déglon, Nicole; Giaume, Christian; Rampon, Claire; Guiard, Bruno P

    2015-01-01

    Clinical and preclinical studies have implicated glial anomalies in major depression. Conversely, evidence suggests that the activity of antidepressant drugs is based, at least in part, on their ability to stimulate density and/or activity of astrocytes, a major glial cell population. Despite this recent evidence, little is known about the mechanism(s) by which astrocytes regulate emotionality. Glial cells communicate with each other through gap junction channels (GJCs), while they can also directly interact with neurons by releasing gliotransmitters in the extracellular compartment via an hemichannels (HCs)-dependent process. Both GJCs and HCs are formed by two main protein subunits: connexins (Cx) 30 and 43 (Cx30 and Cx43). Here we investigate the role of hippocampal Cx43 in the regulation of depression-like symptoms using genetic and pharmacological approaches. The first aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the constitutive knock-down of Cx43 on a set of behaviors known to be affected in depression. Conversely, the expression of Cx43 was assessed in the hippocampus of mice subjected to prolonged corticosterone (CORT) exposure, given either alone or in combination with an antidepressant drug, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine. Our results indicate that the constitutive deficiency of Cx43 resulted in the expression of some characteristic hallmarks of antidepressant-/anxiolytic-like behavioral activities along with an improvement of cognitive performances. Moreover, in a new cohort of wild-type mice, we showed that CORT exposure elicited anxiety and depression-like abnormalities that were reversed by chronic administration of fluoxetine. Remarkably, CORT also increased hippocampal amounts of phosphorylated form of Cx43 whereas fluoxetine treatment normalized this parameter. From these results, we envision that antidepressant drugs may exert their therapeutic activity by decreasing the expression and/or activity of Cx43 resulting from

  6. Long Term Ablation of Protein Kinase A (PKA)-mediated Cardiac Troponin I Phosphorylation Leads to Excitation-Contraction Uncoupling and Diastolic Dysfunction in a Knock-in Mouse Model of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy*

    PubMed Central

    Dweck, David; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A.; Chang, Audrey N.; Dulce, Raul A.; Badger, Crystal-Dawn; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Ruiz, Edda L.; Griffin, Brittany; Liang, Jingsheng; Kabbaj, Mohamed; Fincham, Frank D.; Hare, Joshua M.; Overton, J. Michael; Pinto, Jose R.

    2014-01-01

    The cardiac troponin I (cTnI) R21C (cTnI-R21C) mutation has been linked to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and renders cTnI incapable of phosphorylation by PKA in vivo. Echocardiographic imaging of homozygous knock-in mice expressing the cTnI-R21C mutation shows that they develop hypertrophy after 12 months of age and have abnormal diastolic function that is characterized by longer filling times and impaired relaxation. Electrocardiographic analyses show that older R21C mice have elevated heart rates and reduced cardiovagal tone. Cardiac myocytes isolated from older R21C mice demonstrate that in the presence of isoproterenol, significant delays in Ca2+ decay and sarcomere relaxation occur that are not present at 6 months of age. Although isoproterenol and stepwise increases in stimulation frequency accelerate Ca2+-transient and sarcomere shortening kinetics in R21C myocytes from older mice, they are unable to attain the corresponding WT values. When R21C myocytes from older mice are treated with isoproterenol, evidence of excitation-contraction uncoupling is indicated by an elevation in diastolic calcium that is frequency-dissociated and not coupled to shorter diastolic sarcomere lengths. Myocytes from older mice have smaller Ca2+ transient amplitudes (2.3-fold) that are associated with reductions (2.9-fold) in sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content. This abnormal Ca2+ handling within the cell may be attributed to a reduction (2.4-fold) in calsequestrin expression in conjunction with an up-regulation (1.5-fold) of Na+-Ca2+ exchanger. Incubation of permeabilized cardiac fibers from R21C mice with PKA confirmed that the mutation prevents facilitation of mechanical relaxation. Altogether, these results indicate that the inability to enhance myofilament relaxation through cTnI phosphorylation predisposes the heart to abnormal diastolic function, reduced accessibility of cardiac reserves, dysautonomia, and hypertrophy. PMID:24973218

  7. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite

    PubMed Central

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A.; Fernández, Facundo M.; Gaul, David A.; Orlando, Thomas M.; Liotta, Charles L.; Pasek, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life. PMID:26606901

  8. Ion channels, phosphorylation and mammalian sperm capacitation.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Pablo E; Krapf, Dario; de la Vega-Beltrán, José Luis; Acevedo, Juan José; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-05-01

    Sexually reproducing animals require an orchestrated communication between spermatozoa and the egg to generate a new individual. Capacitation, a maturational complex phenomenon that occurs in the female reproductive tract, renders spermatozoa capable of binding and fusing with the oocyte, and it is a requirement for mammalian fertilization. Capacitation encompasses plasma membrane reorganization, ion permeability regulation, cholesterol loss and changes in the phosphorylation state of many proteins. Novel tools to study sperm ion channels, image intracellular ionic changes and proteins with better spatial and temporal resolution, are unraveling how modifications in sperm ion transport and phosphorylation states lead to capacitation. Recent evidence indicates that two parallel pathways regulate phosphorylation events leading to capacitation, one of them requiring activation of protein kinase A and the second one involving inactivation of ser/thr phosphatases. This review examines the involvement of ion transporters and phosphorylation signaling processes needed for spermatozoa to achieve capacitation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to fertilization is central for societies to deal with rising male infertility rates, to develop safe male gamete-based contraceptives and to preserve biodiversity through better assisted fertilization strategies.

  9. Identification of extracellularly phosphorylated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Burghoff, Sandra; Willberg, Wibke; Schrader, Jürgen

    2015-10-01

    Ecto-protein kinases phosphorylate extracellular membrane proteins and exhibit similarities to casein kinases and protein kinases A and C. However, the identification of their protein substrates still remains a challenge because a clear separation from intracellular phosphoproteins is difficult. Here, we describe a straightforward method for the identification of extracellularly phosphorylated membrane proteins in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and K562 cells which used the protease bromelain to selectively remove ectoproteins from intact cells and combined this with the subsequent analysis using IMAC and LC-MS/MS. A "false-positive" strategy in which cells without protease treatment served as controls was applied. Using this approach we identified novel phosphorylation sites on five ectophosphoproteins (NOTCH1, otopetrin 1, regulator of G-protein signalling 13 (RGS13), protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type D isoform 3 (PTPRD), usherin isoform B (USH2A)). Use of bromelain appears to be a reliable technique for the further identification of phosphorylated surface-exposed peptides when extracellular adenosine-5'-triphosphate is elevated during purinergic signalling.

  10. Phosphoryl Transfer Reaction Snapshots in Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Gerlits, Oksana; Tian, Jianhui; Das, Amit; Langan, Paul; Heller, William T.; Kovalevsky, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    To study the catalytic mechanism of phosphorylation catalyzed by cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) a structure of the enzyme-substrate complex representing the Michaelis complex is of specific interest as it can shed light on the structure of the transition state. However, all previous crystal structures of the Michaelis complex mimics of the PKA catalytic subunit (PKAc) were obtained with either peptide inhibitors or ATP analogs. Here we utilized Ca2+ ions and sulfur in place of the nucleophilic oxygen in a 20-residue pseudo-substrate peptide (CP20) and ATP to produce a close mimic of the Michaelis complex. In the ternary reactant complex, the thiol group of Cys-21 of the peptide is facing Asp-166 and the sulfur atom is positioned for an in-line phosphoryl transfer. Replacement of Ca2+ cations with Mg2+ ions resulted in a complex with trapped products of ATP hydrolysis: phosphate ion and ADP. The present structural results in combination with the previously reported structures of the transition state mimic and phosphorylated product complexes complete the snapshots of the phosphoryl transfer reaction by PKAc, providing us with the most thorough picture of the catalytic mechanism to date. PMID:25925954

  11. Nucleoside phosphorylation by the mineral schreibersite.

    PubMed

    Gull, Maheen; Mojica, Mike A; Fernández, Facundo M; Gaul, David A; Orlando, Thomas M; Liotta, Charles L; Pasek, Matthew A

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorylation of the nucleosides adenosine and uridine by the simple mixing and mild heating of aqueous solutions of the organic compounds with synthetic analogs of the meteoritic mineral schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P under slightly basic conditions (pH ~9) is reported. These results suggest a potential role for meteoritic phosphorus in the origin and development of early life. PMID:26606901

  12. Phosphorylation of plastoglobular proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lohscheider, Jens N.; Friso, Giulia; van Wijk, Klaas J.

    2016-01-01

    Plastoglobules (PGs) are plastid lipid–protein particles with a small specialized proteome and metabolome. Among the 30 core PG proteins are six proteins of the ancient ABC1 atypical kinase (ABC1K) family and their locations in an Arabidopsis mRNA-based co-expression network suggested central regulatory roles. To identify candidate ABC1K targets and a possible ABC1K hierarchical phosphorylation network within the chloroplast PG proteome, we searched Arabidopsis phosphoproteomics data from publicly available sources. Evaluation of underlying spectra and/or associated information was challenging for a variety of reasons, but supported pSer sites and a few pThr sites in nine PG proteins, including five FIBRILLINS. PG phosphorylation motifs are discussed in the context of possible responsible kinases. The challenges of collection and evaluation of published Arabidopsis phosphorylation data are discussed, illustrating the importance of deposition of all mass spectrometry data in well-organized repositories such as PRIDE and ProteomeXchange. This study provides a starting point for experimental testing of phosho-sites in PG proteins and also suggests that phosphoproteomics studies specifically designed toward the PG proteome and its ABC1K are needed to understand phosphorylation networks in these specialized particles. PMID:26962209

  13. Regulation of protein phosphorylation in oat mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Pike, C.; Kopeck, K.; Sceppa, E. )

    1989-04-01

    We sought to identify phosphorylated proteins in isolated oat mitocchondria and to characterize the enzymatic and regulatory properties of the protein kinase(s). Mitochondria from oats (Avena sativa L. cv. Garry) were purified on Percoll gradients. Mitochondria were incubated with {sup 32}P-{gamma}-ATP; proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE. A small number of bands was detected on autoradiograms, most prominently at 70 kD and 42 kD; the latter band has been tentatively identified as a subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, a well-known phosphoprotein. The protein kinase(s) could also phosphorylate casein, but not histone. Spermine enhanced the phosphorylation of casein and inhibited the phosphorylation of the 42 kD band. These studies were carried out on both intact and burst mitochondria. Control by calcium and other ions was investigated. The question of the action of regulators on protein kinase or protein phosphatase was studied by the use of {sup 35}S-adenosine thiotriphosphate.

  14. Ion channels, phosphorylation and mammalian sperm capacitation

    PubMed Central

    Visconti, Pablo E; Krapf, Dario; de la Vega-Beltrán, José Luis; Acevedo, Juan José; Darszon, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Sexually reproducing animals require an orchestrated communication between spermatozoa and the egg to generate a new individual. Capacitation, a maturational complex phenomenon that occurs in the female reproductive tract, renders spermatozoa capable of binding and fusing with the oocyte, and it is a requirement for mammalian fertilization. Capacitation encompasses plasma membrane reorganization, ion permeability regulation, cholesterol loss and changes in the phosphorylation state of many proteins. Novel tools to study sperm ion channels, image intracellular ionic changes and proteins with better spatial and temporal resolution, are unraveling how modifications in sperm ion transport and phosphorylation states lead to capacitation. Recent evidence indicates that two parallel pathways regulate phosphorylation events leading to capacitation, one of them requiring activation of protein kinase A and the second one involving inactivation of ser/thr phosphatases. This review examines the involvement of ion transporters and phosphorylation signaling processes needed for spermatozoa to achieve capacitation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to fertilization is central for societies to deal with rising male infertility rates, to develop safe male gamete-based contraceptives and to preserve biodiversity through better assisted fertilization strategies. PMID:21540868

  15. Obesity in show dogs.

    PubMed

    Corbee, R J

    2013-10-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a growing incidence. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, and decreases life span, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain breeds is often suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, we investigated 1379 dogs of 128 different breeds by determining their body condition score (BCS). Overall, 18.6% of the show dogs had a BCS >5, and 1.1% of the show dogs had a BCS>7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be correlated to the breed standards. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and judges in order to come to different interpretations of the standards to prevent overweight conditions from being the standard of beauty. PMID:22882163

  16. Overexpression of eukaryotic initiation factor 5 rescues the translational defect of tpk1w in a manner that necessitates a novel phosphorylation site.

    PubMed

    Bavli-Kertselli, Ira; Melamed, Daniel; Bar-Ziv, Lavi; Volf, Hila; Arava, Yoav

    2015-02-01

    Cells respond to changes in their environment through mechanisms that often necessitate reprogramming of the translation machinery. The fastest and strongest of all tested responses is the translation inhibition observed following abrupt depletion of glucose from the media of yeast cells. The speed of the response suggests a post-translational modification of a key component of the translation machinery. This translation factor is as yet unknown. A cAMP-dependent protein kinase mutant yeast strain (tpk1(w)) that does not respond properly to glucose depletion and maintains translation was described previously. We hypothesized that the inability of tpk1(w) to arrest translation results from abnormal expression of key translation mediators. Genome-wide analysis of steady-state mRNA levels in tpk1(w) revealed underexpression of several candidates. Elevating the cellular levels of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 5 by overexpression rescued the translational defect of tpk1(w). Restoring ribosomal dissociation by eIF5 necessitated an active GAP domain and multiple regions throughout this protein. Phosphoproteomics analysis of wild-type cells overexpressing eIF5 revealed increased phosphorylation in a novel site (Thr191) upon glucose depletion. Mutating this residue and introducing it into tpk1(w) abolished the ability of eIF5 to rescue the translational defect. Intriguingly, introducing this mutation into the wild-type strain did not hamper its translational response. We further show that Thr191 is phosphorylated in vitro by Casein Kinase II (CKII), and yeast cells with a mutated CKII have a reduced response to glucose depletion. These results implicate phosphorylation of eIF5 at Thr191 by CKII as one of the pathways for regulating translation upon glucose depletion.

  17. NR2B antagonist CP-101,606 inhibits NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 and its interactions with Fyn in levodopa-induced dyskinesia rat model.

    PubMed

    Kong, Min; Ba, Maowen; Liu, Chuanyu; Zhang, Yanxiang; Zhang, Hongli; Qiu, Haiyan

    2015-04-01

    The augmented tyrosine phosphorylation of NR2B subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) dependent on Fyn kinase has been associated with levodopa (l-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID). CP-101,606, one selective NR2B subunit antagonist, can improve dyskinesia. Yet, the accurate action mechanism is less well understood. In the present study, the evidences were investigated. Valid 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned parkinsonian rats were treated with l-dopa intraperitoneally for 22 days to induce LID rat model. On day 23, rats received either CP-101,606 (0.5mg/kg) or vehicle with each l-dopa dose. On the day of 1, 8, 15, 22, and 23 during l-dopa treatment, we determined abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in rats. The levels of NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine-1472 (pNR2B-Tyr1472) and interactions of NR2B with Fyn in LID rat model were detected by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. Results showed that CP-101,606 attenuated l-dopa-induced AIMs. In agreement with behavioral analysis, CP-101,606 reduced the augmented pNR2B-Tyr1472 and its interactions with Fyn triggered during the l-dopa administration in the lesioned striatum of parkinsonian rats. Moreover, CP-101,606 also decreased the level of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II at threonine-286 hyperphosphorylation (pCaMKII-Thr286), which was the downstream signaling amplification molecule of NMDAR overactivation and closely associated with LID. However, the protein level of NR2B and Fyn had no difference under the above conditions. These data indicate that the inhibition of the interactions of NR2B with Fyn and NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation may contribute to the CP-101,606-induced downregulation of NMDAR function and provide benefit for the therapy of LID.

  18. Influence of network topology on the abnormal phase order

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinzuo; Zhou, Jie; Liu, Zonghua

    2008-12-01

    The abnormal phase order of coupled logistic maps, i.e., the ratio of two sequential "up phases" in the total iterations, can be characterized by the direction phase (Phys. Rev. Lett., 84 (2000) 2610). We here consider the case of coupled logistic maps on complex networks and study how the network topology influences the abnormal phase order. Our numerical simulations reveal that the critical point for the appearance of abnormal phase order increases with the coupling strength but decreases with the degree of heterogeneity of complex networks. Moreover, we find that unlike in the case of normal phase order, it is possible for the system to show a periodic window in the case of abnormal phase order, but only within an appropriate range of coupling strengths, and finally, that the heterogeneity can reduce the maximum number of the phase clusters in a given periodic window.

  19. Sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic smokers.

    PubMed

    Selit, I; Basha, M; Maraee, A; El-Naby, S H; Nazeef, N; El-Mehrath, R; Mostafa, T

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to assess sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities in fertile and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (OAT) smokers. In all, 140 subjects were included and classified into fertile nonsmokers, fertile smokers, OAT nonsmokers and OAT smokers. They were subjected to history taking, clinical examination, semen analysis, assessment of sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities. The results showed that an increased percentage of abnormal sperm DNA and RNA was demonstrated in fertile smokers compared with fertile nonsmokers and in OAT smokers compared with OAT nonsmokers. Increased percentage of severe, moderate sperm DNA and RNA damage was demonstrated in fertile heavy smokers compared with fertile light smokers and in OAT heavy smokers compared with OAT light smokers. It is concluded that smoking has a negative impact on sperm DNA and RNA abnormalities that is accentuated in heavy smokers compared with light smokers.

  20. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Zafarani, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  1. [Neural network detection of abnormalities in fed-batch fermentation].

    PubMed

    Li, Yun-Feng; Yuan, Jing-Qi

    2005-01-01

    During fermentation, it is often difficult to detect the abnormalities, for example, caused by contamination on-line. Instead, the faults were detected usually by off-line laboratory analysis or other ways, which in most cases, is too late to remedy the situation. In this paper, a simple three-layers BP network was used for the early prediction of the amount of product, based on the difference in prediction errors between normal and abnormal charges and other accessorial information, such as profit function and pH value. In addition, three indications characteristic to abnormal charge are incorporated in practical operation. The prediction for Cephalosporin C Fed-batch Fermentation in a Chinese pharmaceutical factory was studied in details as an example and the result shows the abnormal charge can be discovered early successfully using the method. PMID:15859337

  2. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  3. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  4. Prenatal exposure to phencyclidine produces abnormal behaviour and NMDA receptor expression in postpubertal mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lingling; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Lu, Ping; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Zou, Li-Bo; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2010-08-01

    Several studies have shown the disruptive effects of non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists on neurobehavioural development. Based on the neurodevelopment hypothesis of schizophrenia, there is growing interest in animal models treated with NMDA antagonists at developing stages to investigate the pathogenesis of psychological disturbances in humans. Previous studies have reported that perinatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP) impairs the development of neuronal systems and induces schizophrenia-like behaviour. However, the adverse effects of prenatal exposure to PCP on behaviour and the function of NMDA receptors are not well understood. This study investigated the long-term effects of prenatal exposure to PCP in mice. The prenatal PCP-treated mice showed hypersensitivity to a low dose of PCP in locomotor activity and impairment of recognition memory in the novel object recognition test at age 7 wk. Meanwhile, the prenatal exposure reduced the phosphorylation of NR1, although it increased the expression of NR1 itself. Furthermore, these behavioural changes were attenuated by atypical antipsychotic treatment. Taken together, prenatal exposure to PCP produced long-lasting behavioural deficits, accompanied by the abnormal expression and dysfunction of NMDA receptors in postpubertal mice. It is worth investigating the influences of disrupted NMDA receptors during the prenatal period on behaviour in later life.

  5. The anatomy and development of normal and abnormal coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Diane E; Henderson, Deborah J; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J; Anderson, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    At present, there is significant interest in the morphology of the coronary arteries, not least due to the increasingly well-recognised association between anomalous origin of the arteries and sudden cardiac death. Much has also been learnt over the last decade regarding the embryology of the arteries. In this review, therefore, we provide a brief introduction into the recent findings regarding their development. In particular, we emphasise that new evidence, derived using the developing murine heart, points to the arterial stems growing out from the adjacent sinuses of the aortic root, rather than the arteries growing in, as is currently assumed. As we show, the concept of outgrowth provides an excellent explanation for several of the abnormal arrangements encountered in the clinical setting. Before summarising these abnormal features, we draw attention to the need to describe the heart in an attitudinally appropriate manner, following the basic rule of human anatomy, rather than describing the cardiac components with the heart in the "Valentine" orientation. We then show how the major abnormalities involving the coronary arteries in humans can be summarised in terms of abnormal origin from the pulmonary circulation, abnormal aortic origin, or fistulous communications between the coronary arteries and the cardiac cavities. In the case of abnormal aortic origin, we highlight those malformations known to be associated with sudden cardiac death.

  6. Prognostic Impact of Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Multiple Myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Jian, Yuan; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhou, Huixing; Zhu, Wanqiu; Liu, Nian; Geng, Chuanying; Chen, Wenming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of specific cytogenetic abnormalities by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (i-FISH) has become a routine procedure for prognostic stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. In this study, the prognostic significance of cytogenetic abnormalities detected by interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (iFISH) in 229 newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients was retrospectively analyzed. Results showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were adverse predictors of progression-free survival (PFS). Patients who carried these cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely to have more adverse biological parameters and lower response rate. Multivariate analysis showed that del (17p), t(4;14), and 1q21 gain were statistically independent predictors of PFS, whereas del (17p) was also adverse predictor of overall survival. Multiple coexisting cytogenetic abnormalities also had a negative correlation with PFS. Bortezomib-based therapy could improve the rate and depth of response in patients with t(4;14) translocation and 1q21 gain. Autologous stem cell transplantation could improve, but not overcome the adverse prognostic effect of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. These results demonstrate that MM patients with iFISH abnormalities, especially del (17p), are more likely to have a poor prognosis. PMID:27175647

  7. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  8. Making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

    PubMed

    Cody, Jannine DeMars; Hale, Daniel Esten

    2015-09-01

    Individuals affected by the classic chromosome deletion syndromes which were first identified at the beginning of the genetic age, are now positioned to benefit from genomic advances. This issue highlights five of these conditions (4p-, 5p-, 11q-, 18p-, and 18q-). It focuses on the increased in understanding of the molecular underpinnings and envisions how these can be transformed into effective treatments. While it is scientifically exciting to see the phenotypic manifestations of hemizygosity being increasingly understood at the molecular and cellular level, it is even more amazing to consider that we are now on the road to making chromosome abnormalities treatable conditions.

  9. [Erythrocyte membrane abnormalities - hereditary elliptocytosis].

    PubMed

    Kvezereli-Kopadze, M; Kvezereli-Kopadze, A; Mtvarelidze, Z; Bubuteishvili, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was designed to investigate the 4 year old boy with Hereditary Elliptocitosis (HE). The diagnosis of this rare hemolytic anemia was based on detailed family history (positive in the 4-th generation), physical examination and Para-clinical data analyses. The vast majority of patients with HE are asymptomatic, severe forms are rare. The most important is examination of blood films, which is helpful to detect the morphology abnormalities of red cells. In case of HE a different approach is required. Positive family history and series of investigations should be conducted to determine the HE.

  10. Abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Patrick G

    2013-12-01

    Primary abnormalities of the erythrocyte membrane are characterized by clinical, laboratory, and genetic heterogeneity. Among this group, hereditary spherocytosis patients are more likely to experience symptomatic anemia. Treatment of hereditary spherocytosis with splenectomy is curative in most patients. Growing recognition of the long-term risks of splenectomy has led to re-evaluation of the role of splenectomy. Management guidelines acknowledge these considerations and recommend discussion between health care providers, patient, and family. The hereditary elliptocytosis syndromes are the most common primary disorders of erythrocyte membrane proteins. However, most elliptocytosis patients are asymptomatic and do not require therapy.

  11. Foot abnormalities of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Locke, L.N.; Clark, G.M.

    1962-01-01

    The various foot abnormalities that occur in birds, including pox, scaly-leg, bumble-foot, ergotism and freezing are reviewed. In addition, our findings at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center include pox from dove, mockingbird, cowbird, grackle and several species of sparrows. Scaly-leg has been particularly prevalent on icterids. Bumble foot has been observed in a whistling swan and in a group of captive woodcock. Ergotism is reported from a series of captive Canada geese from North Dakota. Several drug treatments recommended by others are presented.

  12. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  13. A mutation of the fission yeast EB1 overcomes negative regulation by phosphorylation and stabilizes microtubules

    SciTech Connect

    Iimori, Makoto; Ozaki, Kanako; Chikashige, Yuji; Habu, Toshiyuki; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Maki, Takahisa; Hayashi, Ikuko; Obuse, Chikashi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro

    2012-02-01

    Mal3 is a fission yeast homolog of EB1, a plus-end tracking protein (+ TIP). We have generated a mutation (89R) replacing glutamine with arginine in the calponin homology (CH) domain of Mal3. Analysis of the 89R mutant in vitro has revealed that the mutation confers a higher affinity to microtubules and enhances the intrinsic activity to promote the microtubule-assembly. The mutant Mal3 is no longer a + TIP, but binds strongly the microtubule lattice. Live cell imaging has revealed that while the wild type Mal3 proteins dissociate from the tip of the growing microtubules before the onset of shrinkage, the mutant Mal3 proteins persist on microtubules and reduces a rate of shrinkage after a longer pausing period. Consequently, the mutant Mal3 proteins cause abnormal elongation of microtubules composing the spindle and aster. Mal3 is phosphorylated at a cluster of serine/threonine residues in the linker connecting the CH and EB1-like C-terminal motif domains. The phosphorylation occurs in a microtubule-dependent manner and reduces the affinity of Mal3 to microtubules. We propose that because the 89R mutation is resistant to the effect of phosphorylation, it can associate persistently with microtubules and confers a stronger stability of microtubules likely by reinforcing the cylindrical structure. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We characterize a mutation (mal3-89R) in fission yeast homolog of EB1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The mutation enhances the activity to assemble microtubules. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mal3 is phosphorylated in a microtubule-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylation negatively regulates the Mal3 activity.

  14. Phosphorylation of inhibitor-2 and activation of MgATP-dependent protein phosphatase by rat skeletal muscle glycogen synthase kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, M.G.; Reimann, E.M.; Thysseril, T.J.; Schlender, K.K.

    1986-05-01

    Rat skeletal muscle contains a glycogen synthase kinase (GSK-M) which is not stimulated by Ca/sup 2 +/ or cAMP. This kinase has an apparent Mr of 62,000 and uses ATP but not GTP as a phosphoryl donor. GSK-M phosphorylated glycogen synthase at sites 2 and 3. It phosphorylated ATP-citrate lyase and activated MgATP-dependent phosphatase in the presence of ATP but not GTP. As expected, the kinase also phosphorylated phosphatase inhibitor 2 (I-2). Phosphatase incorporation reached approximately 0.3 mol/mol of I-2. Phosphopeptide maps were obtained by digesting /sup 32/P-labeled I-2 with trypsin and separating the peptides by reversed phase HPLC. Two partially separated /sup 32/P-labeled peaks were obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with either GSK-M or glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) and these peptides were different from those obtained when I-2 was phosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (CSU) or casein kinase II (CK-II). When I-2 was phosphorylated with GSK-M or GSK-3 and cleaved by CNBr, a single radioactive peak was obtained. Phosphoamino acid analysis showed that I-2 was phosphorylated by GSK-M or GSK-3 predominately in Thr whereas CSU and CK-II phosphorylated I-2 exclusively in Ser. These results indicate that GSK-M is similar to GSK-3 and to ATP-citrate lyase kinase. However, it appears to differ in Mr from ATP-citrate lyase kinase and it differs from GSK-3 in that it phosphorylates glycogen synthase at site 2 and it does not use GTP as a phosphoryl donor.

  15. Charge-pairing mechanism of phosphorylation effect upon amyloid fibrillation of human tau core peptide.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Masafumi; Hirata, Akiyoshi; Tainaka, Kazuki; Morii, Takashi; Konno, Takashi

    2008-11-11

    Phosphorylation of a fibrillogenic protein, human tau, is believed to play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. For elucidating molecular mechanisms of the phosphorylation effect on tau fibrillation, we synthesized a peptide, VQIVY 310K (PHF6) and its phosphorylated derivative (PHF6pY). PHF6 is a partial peptide surrounding a plausible in vivo phosphorylation site Tyr310 and forms amyloid-type fibrils similar to those generated by full-length tau. Fibrillation of PHF6 and PHF6pY were studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods, and the critical concentration of the fibrillation was determined for comparing the fibril stability. The results showed that the phosphorylation strongly influenced the fibrillation propensity of PHF6 by changing its dependency on pH and ionic strength. On the basis of the observations, we suggested that charged sites on the phosphate group and its electrostatic pairing with the neighboring charged residues were physical origins of the phosphorylation effect. To verify this charge-pairing mechanism, we conducted experiments using a series of PHF6 derivatives with non-native charge distributions. The electrostatic interaction in an intermolecular mode was also demonstrated by the system composed of two different peptide species, which found that fibrillation of nonphosphorylated PHF6 was drastically enhanced when a trace amount of phosphorylated PHF6 molecules coexisted. A simulation analysis utilizing crystal coordinates of the PHF6 fibril was also performed for interpreting the experimental results in a molecular level. The present study using the model peptide system gave us a microscopically insightful view on the roles of tau phosphorylation in amyloid-related diseases.

  16. Correlation between persistent forms of zeaxanthin-dependent energy dissipation and thylakoid protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Ebbert, V; Demmig-Adams, B; Adams, W W; Mueh, K E; Staehelin, L A

    2001-01-01

    High light stress induced not only a sustained form of xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation but also sustained thylakoid protein phosphorylation. The effect of protein phosphatase inhibitors (fluoride and molybdate ions) on recovery from a 1-h exposure to a high PFD was examined in leaf discs of Parthenocissus quinquefolia (Virginia creeper). Inhibition of protein dephosphorylation induced zeaxanthin retention and sustained energy dissipation (NPQ) upon return to low PFD for recovery, but had no significant effects on pigment and Chl fluorescence characteristics under high light exposure. In addition, whole plants of Monstera deliciosa and spinach grown at low to moderate PFDs were transferred to high PFDs, and thylakoid protein phosphorylation pattern (assessed with anti-phosphothreonine antibody) as well as pigment and Chl fluorescence characteristics were examined over several days. A correlation was obtained between dark-sustained D1/D2 phosphorylation and dark-sustained zeaxanthin retention and maintenance of PS II in a state primed for energy dissipation in both species. The degree of these dark-sustained phenomena was more pronounced in M. deliciosa compared with spinach. Moreover, M. deliciosa but not spinach plants showed unusual phosphorylation patterns of Lhcb proteins with pronounced dark-sustained Lhcb phosphorylation even under low PFD growth conditions. Subsequent to the transfer to a high PFD, dark-sustained Lhcb protein phosphorylation was further enhanced. Thus, phosphorylation patterns of D1/D2 and Lhcb proteins differed from each other as well as among plant species. The results presented here suggest an association between dark-sustained D1/D2 phosphorylation and sustained retention of zeaxanthin and energy dissipation (NPQ) in light-stressed, and particularly 'photoinhibited', leaves. Functional implications of these observations are discussed.

  17. Phosphorylation of Enoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Reductase InhA Impacts Mycobacterial Growth and Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Shazia; Nagarajan, Sathya Narayanan; Parikh, Amit; Samantaray, Sharmishtha; Singh, Albel; Kumar, Devanand; Roy, Rajendra P.; Bhatt, Apoorva; Nandicoori, Vinay Kumar

    2010-01-01

    InhA, the primary target for the first line anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid, is a key enzyme of the fatty-acid synthase II system involved in mycolic acid biosynthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study, we show that InhA is a substrate for mycobacterial serine/threonine protein kinases. Using a novel approach to validate phosphorylation of a substrate by multiple kinases in a surrogate host (Escherichia coli), we have demonstrated efficient phosphorylation of InhA by PknA, PknB, and PknH, and to a lower extent by PknF. Additionally, the sites targeted by PknA/PknB have been identified and shown to be predominantly located at the C terminus of InhA. Results demonstrate in vivo phosphorylation of InhA in mycobacteria and validate Thr-266 as one of the key sites of phosphorylation. Significantly, our studies reveal that the phosphorylation of InhA by kinases modulates its biochemical activity, with phosphorylation resulting in decreased enzymatic activity. Co-expression of kinase and InhA alters the growth dynamics of Mycobacterium smegmatis, suggesting that InhA phosphorylation in vivo is an important event in regulating its activity. An InhA-T266E mutant, which mimics constitutive phosphorylation, is unable to rescue an M. smegmatis conditional inhA gene replacement mutant, emphasizing the critical role of Thr-266 in mediating post-translational regulation of InhA activity. The involvement of various serine/threonine kinases in modulating the activity of a number of enzymes of the mycolic acid synthesis pathway, including InhA, accentuates the intricacies of mycobacterial signaling networks in parallel with the changing environment. PMID:20864541

  18. Injectable hydrogels derived from phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Sem; Song, Minsoo; Lee, Eun-Jung; Shin, Ueon Sang

    2015-06-01

    Phosphorylation of sodium alginate salt (NaAlg) was carried out using H3PO4/P2O5/Et3PO4 followed by acid-base reaction with Ca(OAc)2 to give phosphorylated alginic acid calcium complexes (CaPAlg), as a water dispersible alginic acid derivative. The modified alginate derivatives including phosphorylated alginic acid (PAlg) and CaPAlg were characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for (1)H, and (31)P nuclei, high resolution inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. CaPAlg hydrogels were prepared simply by mixing CaPAlg solution (2w/v%) with NaAlg solution (2w/v%) in various ratios (2:8, 4:6, 6:4, 8:2) of volume. No additional calcium salts such as CaSO4 or CaCl2 were added externally. The gelation was completed within about 3-40min indicating a high potential of hydrogel delivery by injection in vivo. Their mechanical properties were tested to be ≤6.7kPa for compressive strength at break and about 8.4kPa/mm for elastic modulus. SEM analysis of the CaPAlg hydrogels showed highly porous morphology with interconnected pores of width in the range of 100-800μm. Cell culture results showed that the injectable hydrogels exhibited comparable properties to the pure alginate hydrogel in terms of cytotoxicity and 3D encapsulation of cells for a short time period. The developed injectable hydrogels showed suitable physicochemical and mechanical properties for injection in vivo, and could therefore be beneficial for the field of soft tissue engineering. PMID:25842118

  19. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  20. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylation in developing seeds and germinating seedlings of wheat

    SciTech Connect

    Rowe, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    Uridine- and thymidine-phosphorylating enzymes were measured in developing and germinating seeds of Triticum aestivum v. Arthur and T. aestivum v. Lemhi. Because crude extracts were to be used in the developmental study, characteristics of unpurified nucleoside phosphotransferase (NPTase) were examined. In the developmental study with two varieties of wheat, NPTase activity was found to be very low in all of the true seed tissues during seed maturation. Uridine-phosphorylating activity was due to primarily to uridine kinase. Thymidine phosphorylation was very low in all tissues throughout seed maturation, with a brief appearance by thymidine kinase in the developing embryo. In germinating seeds, uridine-phosphorylating activity was present from earliest stages of germination but showed a decrease in activity followed by a recovery after 48 hours inbibition. Experiments using ({alpha}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicated that uridine kinase was present during early germination but had disappeared by 96 hours. Uridine phosphorylation at later stages of germination was accomplished by NTPase. Thymidine phosphorylation did not begin until after 36 hours of germination and was the result of NPTase activity.

  1. Phosphorylation of chemoattractant receptors regulates chemotaxis, actin reorganization and signal relay.

    PubMed

    Brzostowski, Joseph A; Sawai, Satoshi; Rozov, Orr; Liao, Xin-Hua; Imoto, Daisuke; Parent, Carole A; Kimmel, Alan R

    2013-10-15

    Migratory cells, including mammalian leukocytes and Dictyostelium, use G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate MAPK/ERK, PI3K, TORC2/AKT, adenylyl cyclase and actin polymerization, which collectively direct chemotaxis. Upon ligand binding, mammalian GPCRs are phosphorylated at cytoplasmic residues, uncoupling G-protein pathways, but activating other pathways. However, connections between GPCR phosphorylation and chemotaxis are unclear. In developing Dictyostelium, secreted cAMP serves as a chemoattractant, with extracellular cAMP propagated as oscillating waves to ensure directional migratory signals. cAMP oscillations derive from transient excitatory responses of adenylyl cyclase, which then rapidly adapts. We have studied chemotactic signaling in Dictyostelium that express non-phosphorylatable cAMP receptors and show through chemotaxis modeling, single-cell FRET imaging, pure and chimeric population wavelet quantification, biochemical analyses and TIRF microscopy, that receptor phosphorylation is required to regulate adenylyl cyclase adaptation, long-range oscillatory cAMP wave production and cytoskeletal actin response. Phosphorylation defects thus promote hyperactive actin polymerization at the cell periphery, misdirected pseudopodia and the loss of directional chemotaxis. Our data indicate that chemoattractant receptor phosphorylation is required to co-regulate essential pathways for migratory cell polarization and chemotaxis. Our results significantly extend the understanding of the function of GPCR phosphorylation, providing strong evidence that this evolutionarily conserved mechanism is required in a signal attenuation pathway that is necessary to maintain persistent directional movement of Dictyostelium, neutrophils and other migratory cells.

  2. Histidine phosphorylation relieves copper inhibition in the mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Shekhar; Panda, Saswati; Li, Zhai; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Thiele, Dennis J; Hubbard, Stevan R; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-01-01

    KCa2.1, KCa2.2, KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 constitute a family of mammalian small- to intermediate-conductance potassium channels that are activated by calcium-calmodulin. KCa3.1 is unique among these four channels in that activation requires, in addition to calcium, phosphorylation of a single histidine residue (His358) in the cytoplasmic region, by nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B (NDPK-B). The mechanism by which KCa3.1 is activated by histidine phosphorylation is unknown. Histidine phosphorylation is well characterized in prokaryotes but poorly understood in eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of His358 activates KCa3.1 by antagonizing copper-mediated inhibition of the channel. Furthermore, we show that activated CD4(+) T cells deficient in intracellular copper exhibit increased KCa3.1 histidine phosphorylation and channel activity, leading to increased calcium flux and cytokine production. These findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for a mammalian potassium channel and for T-cell activation, and highlight a unique feature of histidine versus serine/threonine and tyrosine as a regulatory phosphorylation site. PMID:27542194

  3. Monoclonal antibody PHF-1 recognizes tau protein phosphorylated at serine residues 396 and 404.

    PubMed

    Otvos, L; Feiner, L; Lang, E; Szendrei, G I; Goedert, M; Lee, V M

    1994-12-15

    The microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated in the paired helical filaments (PHFs) of Alzheimer's disease. Immunological and direct chemical studies have identified Ser396 and Ser404 as two of the phosphorylated sites. Previously, we have demonstrated, using synthetic tau peptides containing phosphorylated Ser396, that this site is recognized by the monoclonal antibody PHF-1. The present study extends this observation by showing that PHF-1 recognizes tau peptides containing either individually phosphorylated Ser396 or Ser404, but that there is a > 10-fold increase in the sensitivity of detection of tau peptides by PHF-1 when both serines are phosphorylated. The recognition of singly or doubly phosphorylated Ser396 and Ser404 in tau by PHF-1 can also be demonstrated in Chinese hamster ovary cells transfected with full-length wild-type tau constructs or mutant constructs with Ala substituted for Ser396 or Ser404. We conclude that the PHF-1 epitope contains both phosphorylated Ser396 and Ser404.

  4. Extensive Crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylation and Phosphorylation Regulates Akt Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Danni; Xin, Xianliang; Pan, Qiuming; Peng, Shuying; Liang, Zhongjie; Luo, Cheng; Yang, Yiming; Jiang, Hualiang; Huang, Min; Chai, Wengang; Ding, Jian; Geng, Meiyu

    2012-01-01

    O-linked N-acetylglucosamine glycosylations (O-GlcNAc) and O-linked phosphorylations (O-phosphate), as two important types of post-translational modifications, often occur on the same protein and bear a reciprocal relationship. In addition to the well documented phosphorylations that control Akt activity, Akt also undergoes O-GlcNAcylation, but the interplay between these two modifications and the biological significance remain unclear, largely due to the technique challenges. Here, we applied a two-step analytic approach composed of the O-GlcNAc immunoenrichment and subsequent O-phosphate immunodetection. Such an easy method enabled us to visualize endogenous glycosylated and phosphorylated Akt subpopulations in parallel and observed the inhibitory effect of Akt O-GlcNAcylations on its phosphorylation. Further studies utilizing mass spectrometry and mutagenesis approaches showed that O-GlcNAcylations at Thr 305 and Thr 312 inhibited Akt phosphorylation at Thr 308 via disrupting the interaction between Akt and PDK1. The impaired Akt activation in turn resulted in the compromised biological functions of Akt, as evidenced by suppressed cell proliferation and migration capabilities. Together, this study revealed an extensive crosstalk between O-GlcNAcylations and phosphorylations of Akt and demonstrated O-GlcNAcylation as a new regulatory modification for Akt signaling. PMID:22629392

  5. HIPK2 restricts SIRT1 activity upon severe DNA damage by a phosphorylation-controlled mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, E; Polonio-Vallon, T; Meister, M; Matt, S; Bitomsky, N; Herbel, C; Liebl, M; Greiner, V; Kriznik, B; Schumacher, S; Krieghoff-Henning, E; Hofmann, T G

    2016-01-01

    Upon severe DNA damage a cellular signalling network initiates a cell death response through activating tumour suppressor p53 in association with promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) nuclear bodies. The deacetylase Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) suppresses cell death after DNA damage by antagonizing p53 acetylation. To facilitate efficient p53 acetylation, SIRT1 function needs to be restricted. How SIRT1 activity is regulated under these conditions remains largely unclear. Here we provide evidence that SIRT1 activity is limited upon severe DNA damage through phosphorylation by the DNA damage-responsive kinase HIPK2. We found that DNA damage provokes interaction of SIRT1 and HIPK2, which phosphorylates SIRT1 at Serine 682 upon lethal damage. Furthermore, upon DNA damage SIRT1 and HIPK2 colocalize at PML nuclear bodies, and PML depletion abrogates DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation. We show that Ser682 phosphorylation inhibits SIRT1 activity and impacts on p53 acetylation, apoptotic p53 target gene expression and cell death. Mechanistically, we found that DNA damage-induced SIRT1 Ser682 phosphorylation provokes disruption of the complex between SIRT1 and its activator AROS. Our findings indicate that phosphorylation-dependent restriction of SIRT1 activity by HIPK2 shapes the p53 response. PMID:26113041

  6. Lignin hydrolysis and phosphorylation mechanism during phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wu; Wu, Lingnan; Zheng, Zongming; Dong, Changqing; Yang, Yongping

    2014-12-18

    The study focused on the structural sensitivity of lignin during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process and the resulting hydrolysis and phosphorylation reaction mechanisms using density functional theory calculations. The chemical stabilities of the seven most common linkages (β-O-4, β-β, 4-O-5, β-1, 5-5, α-O-4, and β-5) of lignin in H3PO4, CH3COCH3, and H2O solutions were detected, which shows that α-O-4 linkage and β-O-4 linkage tend to break during the phosphoric acid-acetone pretreatment process. Then α-O-4 phosphorylation and β-O-4 phosphorylation follow a two-step reaction mechanism in the acid treatment step, respectively. However, since phosphorylation of α-O-4 is more energetically accessible than phosphorylation of β-O-4 in phosphoric acid, the phosphorylation of α-O-4 could be controllably realized under certain operational conditions, which could tune the electron and hole transfer on the right side of β-O-4 in the H2PO4- functionalized lignin. The results provide a fundamental understanding for process-controlled modification of lignin and the potential novel applications in lignin-based imprinted polymers, sensors, and molecular devices.

  7. Nrf2 reduces levels of phosphorylated tau protein by inducing autophagy adaptor protein NDP52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Chulman; Gundemir, Soner; Pritchard, Susanne; Jin, Youngnam N.; Rahman, Irfan; Johnson, Gail V. W.

    2014-03-01

    Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a pivotal transcription factor in the defence against oxidative stress. Here we provide evidence that activation of the Nrf2 pathway reduces the levels of phosphorylated tau by induction of an autophagy adaptor protein NDP52 (also known as CALCOCO2) in neurons. The expression of NDP52, which we show has three antioxidant response elements (AREs) in its promoter region, is strongly induced by Nrf2, and its overexpression facilitates clearance of phosphorylated tau in the presence of an autophagy stimulator. In Nrf2-knockout mice, phosphorylated and sarkosyl-insoluble tau accumulates in the brains concurrent with decreased levels of NDP52. Moreover, NDP52 associates with phosphorylated tau from brain cortical samples of Alzheimer disease cases, and the amount of phosphorylated tau in sarkosyl-insoluble fractions is inversely proportional to that of NDP52. These results suggest that NDP52 plays a key role in autophagy-mediated degradation of phosphorylated tau in vivo.

  8. Tousled-like kinases phosphorylate Asf1 to promote histone supply during DNA replication

    PubMed Central

    Klimovskaia, Ilnaz M; Young, Clifford; Strømme, Caroline B; Menard, Patrice; Jasencakova, Zuzana; Mejlvang, Jakob; Ask, Katrine; Ploug, Michael; Nielsen, Michael L; Jensen, Ole N; Groth, Anja

    2014-01-01

    During DNA replication, nucleosomes are rapidly assembled on newly synthesized DNA to restore chromatin organization. Asf1, a key histone H3-H4 chaperone required for this process, is phosphorylated by Tousled-Like Kinases (TLKs). Here, we identify TLK phosphorylation sites by mass spectrometry and dissect how phosphorylation impacts on human Asf1 function. The divergent C-terminal tail of Asf1a is phosphorylated at several sites and this is required for timely progression through S phase. Consistent with this, biochemical analysis of wild-type and phosphomimetic Asf1a shows that phosphorylation enhances binding to histones and the downstream chaperones CAF-1 and HIRA. Moreover, we find that TLK phosphorylation of Asf1a is induced in cells experiencing deficiency of new histones and that TLK interaction with Asf1a involves its histone-binding pocket. We thus propose that TLK signaling promotes histone supply in S phase by targeting histone-free Asf1 and stimulating its ability to shuttle histones to sites of chromatin assembly. PMID:24598821

  9. Histidine phosphorylation relieves copper inhibition in the mammalian potassium channel KCa3.1

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shekhar; Panda, Saswati; Li, Zhai; Fuhs, Stephen R; Hunter, Tony; Thiele, Dennis J; Hubbard, Stevan R; Skolnik, Edward Y

    2016-01-01

    KCa2.1, KCa2.2, KCa2.3 and KCa3.1 constitute a family of mammalian small- to intermediate-conductance potassium channels that are activated by calcium-calmodulin. KCa3.1 is unique among these four channels in that activation requires, in addition to calcium, phosphorylation of a single histidine residue (His358) in the cytoplasmic region, by nucleoside diphosphate kinase-B (NDPK-B). The mechanism by which KCa3.1 is activated by histidine phosphorylation is unknown. Histidine phosphorylation is well characterized in prokaryotes but poorly understood in eukaryotes. Here, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of His358 activates KCa3.1 by antagonizing copper-mediated inhibition of the channel. Furthermore, we show that activated CD4+ T cells deficient in intracellular copper exhibit increased KCa3.1 histidine phosphorylation and channel activity, leading to increased calcium flux and cytokine production. These findings reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for a mammalian potassium channel and for T-cell activation, and highlight a unique feature of histidine versus serine/threonine and tyrosine as a regulatory phosphorylation site. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16093.001 PMID:27542194

  10. How Phosphorylation and ATPase Activity Regulate Anion Flux though the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR).

    PubMed

    Zwick, Matthias; Esposito, Cinzia; Hellstern, Manuel; Seelig, Anna

    2016-07-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR, ABCC7), mutations of which cause cystic fibrosis, belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family and works as a channel for small anions, such as chloride and bicarbonate. Anion channel activity is known to depend on phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and CFTR-ATPase activity. Whereas anion channel activity has been extensively investigated, phosphorylation and CFTR-ATPase activity are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the two processes can be measured in a label-free and non-invasive manner in real time in live cells, stably transfected with CFTR. This study reveals three key findings. (i) The major contribution (≥90%) to the total CFTR-related ATP hydrolysis rate is due to phosphorylation by PKA and the minor contribution (≤10%) to CFTR-ATPase activity. (ii) The mutant CFTR-E1371S that is still conductive, but defective in ATP hydrolysis, is not phosphorylated, suggesting that phosphorylation requires a functional nucleotide binding domain and occurs in the post-hydrolysis transition state. (iii) CFTR-ATPase activity is inversely related to CFTR anion flux. The present data are consistent with a model in which CFTR is in a closed conformation with two ATPs bound. The open conformation is induced by ATP hydrolysis and corresponds to the post-hydrolysis transition state that is stabilized by phosphorylation and binding of chloride channel potentiators. PMID:27226582

  11. Dynamic Phosphorylation of HP1α Regulates Mitotic Progression in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Prasanth, Supriya G.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a key player in the establishment and maintenance of higher-order chromatin regulates key cellular processes, including metaphase chromatid cohesion and centromere organization. However, how HP1α controls these processes is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that post-translational modifications of HP1α dictate its mitotic functions. HP1α is constitutively phosphorylated within its N-terminus whereas phosphorylation within the hinge domain occurs preferentially at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The hinge-phosphorylated form of HP1α specifically localizes to kinetochores during early mitosis and this phosphorylation mediated by NDR1 kinase is required for mitotic progression and for Sgo1 binding to mitotic centromeres. Cells lacking NDR kinase show loss of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of HP1α leading to prometaphase arrest. Our results reveal that NDR kinase catalyzes the hinge-specific phosphorylation of human HP1α during G2/M in vivo and this orchestrates accurate chromosome alignment and mitotic progression. PMID:24619172

  12. Aurora A kinase modulates actin cytoskeleton through phosphorylation of Cofilin: Implication in the mitotic process.

    PubMed

    Ritchey, Lisa; Chakrabarti, Ratna

    2014-11-01

    Aurora A kinase regulates early mitotic events through phosphorylation and activation of a variety of proteins. Specifically, Aur-A is involved in centrosomal separation and formation of mitotic spindles in early prophase. The effect of Aur-A on mitotic spindles is mediated by the modulation of microtubule dynamics and association with microtubule binding proteins. In this study we show that Aur-A exerts its effects on spindle organization through the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Aurora A phosphorylates Cofilin at multiple sites including S(3) resulting in the inactivation of its actin depolymerizing function. Aur-A interacts with Cofilin in early mitotic phases and regulates its phosphorylation status. Cofilin phosphorylation follows a dynamic pattern during the progression of prophase to metaphase. Inhibition of Aur-A activity induced a delay in the progression of prophase to metaphase. Aur-A inhibitor also disturbed the pattern of Cofilin phosphorylation, which correlated with the mitotic delay. Our results establish a novel function of Aur-A in the regulation of actin cytoskeleton reorganization, through Cofilin phosphorylation during early mitotic stages.

  13. Analysis of Phosphorylation of the Receptor-Like Protein Kinase HAESA during Arabidopsis Floral Abscission

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Isaiah; Wang, Ying; Seitz, Kati; Baer, John; Bennewitz, Stefan; Mooney, Brian P.; Walker, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs) are the largest family of plant transmembrane signaling proteins. Here we present functional analysis of HAESA, an RLK that regulates floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis. Through in vitro and in vivo analysis of HAE phosphorylation, we provide evidence that a conserved phosphorylation site on a region of the HAE protein kinase domain known as the activation segment positively regulates HAE activity. Additional analysis has identified another putative activation segment phosphorylation site common to multiple RLKs that potentially modulates HAE activity. Comparative analysis suggests that phosphorylation of this second activation segment residue is an RLK specific adaptation that may regulate protein kinase activity and substrate specificity. A growing number of RLKs have been shown to exhibit biologically relevant dual specificity toward serine/threonine and tyrosine residues, but the mechanisms underlying dual specificity of RLKs are not well understood. We show that a phospho-mimetic mutant of both HAE activation segment residues exhibits enhanced tyrosine auto-phosphorylation in vitro, indicating phosphorylation of this residue may contribute to dual specificity of HAE. These results add to an emerging framework for understanding the mechanisms and evolution of regulation of RLK activity and substrate specificity. PMID:26784444

  14. Cyclin A–CDK phosphorylates Sp1 and enhances Sp1-mediated transcription

    PubMed Central

    de Borja, Patrick Fojas; Collins, N.Keith; Du, Ping; Azizkhan-Clifford, Jane; Mudryj, Maria

    2001-01-01

    Cyclin A-mediated activation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) is essential for cell cycle transversal. Cyclin A activity is regulated on several levels and cyclin A elevation in a number of cancers suggests a role in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we used a modified DNA binding site selection and PCR amplification procedure to identify DNA binding proteins that are potential substrates of cyclin A–CDK. One of the sequences identified is the Sp1 transcription factor binding site. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments show that cyclin A and Sp1 can interact physically. In vitro and in vivo phosphorylation studies indicate that cyclin A–CDK complexes can phosphorylate Sp1. The phosphorylation site is located in the N-terminal region of the protein. Cells overexpressing cyclin A have elevated levels of Sp1 DNA binding activity, suggesting that cyclin A–CDK-mediated phosphorylation augments Sp1 DNA binding properties. In co-transfection studies, cyclin A expression stimulated transcription from an Sp1-regulated promoter. Mutation of the phosphorylation site abrogated cyclin A–CDK-dependent phosphorylation, augmentation of Sp1 transactivation function and DNA binding activity. PMID:11598016

  15. Phosphorylation-Dependent Regulation of G-Protein Cycle during Nodule Formation in Soybean[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Signaling pathways mediated by heterotrimeric G-protein complexes comprising Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits and their regulatory RGS (Regulator of G-protein Signaling) protein are conserved in all eukaryotes. We have shown that the specific Gβ and Gγ proteins of a soybean (Glycine max) heterotrimeric G-protein complex are involved in regulation of nodulation. We now demonstrate the role of Nod factor receptor 1 (NFR1)-mediated phosphorylation in regulation of the G-protein cycle during nodulation in soybean. We also show that during nodulation, the G-protein cycle is regulated by the activity of RGS proteins. Lower or higher expression of RGS proteins results in fewer or more nodules, respectively. NFR1 interacts with RGS proteins and phosphorylates them. Analysis of phosphorylated RGS protein identifies specific amino acids that, when phosphorylated, result in significantly higher GTPase accelerating activity. These data point to phosphorylation-based regulation of G-protein signaling during nodule development. We propose that active NFR1 receptors phosphorylate and activate RGS proteins, which help maintain the Gα proteins in their inactive, trimeric conformation, resulting in successful nodule development. Alternatively, RGS proteins might also have a direct role in regulating nodulation because overexpression of their phospho-mimic version leads to partial restoration of nodule formation in nod49 mutants. PMID:26498905

  16. Protein kinase CK2 interacts with Chk2 and phosphorylates Mre11 on serine 649

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Seong-Tae . E-mail: stkim@med.skku.ac.kr

    2005-05-27

    The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 protein complex has been known to be involved in a variety of DNA metabolic events that involve DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The phosphorylation of Mre11 is increased in response to ionizing radiation, which suggests that phosphorylation of Mre11 may be an important regulatory mechanism of this complex. Mre11-phosphorylating kinase activities were observed in Chk2 immunoprecipitates and HeLa nuclear extracts. Through the tandem affinity tagging system and conventional chromatography, this kinase was purified and identified as protein kinase CK2. CK2 phosphorylates Mre11 in vitro. In vitro kinase assay with a series of truncated Mre11 proteins as substrates for CK2 and site-directed mutagenesis showed that serine 649 of Mre11 is mainly phosphorylated by CK2 in vitro. In vivo labeling and phosphopeptide mapping analysis revealed that this phosphorylation occurs in vivo. These data implicate CK2 as a potential upstream regulator of Mre11 function.

  17. Glucose deprivation increases tau phosphorylation via P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Lauretti, Elisabetta; Praticò, Domenico

    2015-12-01

    Alterations of glucose metabolism have been observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. Previous studies showed that glucose deprivation increases amyloidogenesis via a BACE-1-dependent mechanism. However, no data are available on the effect that this condition may have on tau phosphorylation. In this study, we exposed neuronal cells to a glucose-free medium and investigated the effect on tau phosphorylation. Compared with controls, cells incubated in the absence of glucose had a significant increase in tau phosphorylation at epitopes Ser202/Thr205 and Ser404, which was associated with a selective activation of the P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Pharmacological inhibition of this kinase prevented the increase in tau phosphorylation, while fluorescence studies revealed its co-localization with phosphorylated tau. The activation of P38 was secondary to the action of the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1, as its down-regulation prevented it. Finally, glucose deprivation induced cell apoptosis, which was associated with a significant increase in both caspase 3 and caspase 12 active forms. Taken together, our studies reveal a new mechanism whereby glucose deprivation can modulate AD pathogenesis by influencing tau phosphorylation and suggest that this pathway may be a new therapeutic target for AD.

  18. Tyrosyl Phosphorylated PAK1 Regulates Breast Cancer Cell Motility in Response to Prolactin through Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Alan; Rider, Leah; Oladimeji, Peter; Cook, Leslie; Li, Quanwen; Mattingly, Raymond R.

    2013-01-01

    The p21-activated serine-threonine kinase (PAK1) is activated by small GTPase-dependent and -independent mechanisms and regulates cell motility. Both PAK1 and the hormone prolactin (PRL) have been implicated in breast cancer by numerous studies. We have previously shown that the PRL-activated tyrosine kinase JAK2 (Janus tyrosine kinase 2) phosphorylates PAK1 in vivo and identified tyrosines (Tyr) 153, 201, and 285 in the PAK1 molecule as sites of JAK2 tyrosyl phosphorylation. Here, we have used human breast cancer T47D cells stably overexpressing PAK1 wild type or PAK1 Y3F mutant in which Tyr(s) 153, 201, and 285 were mutated to phenylalanines to demonstrate that phosphorylation of these three tyrosines are required for maximal PRL-dependent ruffling. In addition, phosphorylation of these three tyrosines is required for increased migration of T47D cells in response to PRL as assessed by two independent motility assays. Finally, we show that PAK1 phosphorylates serine (Ser) 2152 of the actin-binding protein filamin A to a greater extent when PAK1 is tyrosyl phosphorylated by JAK2. Down-regulation of PAK1 or filamin A abolishes the effect of PRL on cell migration. Thus, our data presented here bring some insight into the mechanism of PRL-stimulated motility of breast cancer cells. PMID:23340249

  19. In vivo and in vitro phosphorylation of the alpha 7/PRS1 subunit of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 20 S proteasome: in vitro phosphorylation by protein kinase CK2 is absolutely dependent on polylysine.

    PubMed

    Pardo, P S; Murray, P F; Walz, K; Franco, L; Passeron, S

    1998-01-15

    In this paper, we show that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae 20 S proteasome subunit 1 (PRS1), recently renamed as alpha 7, is the main in vivo phosphorylated and in vitro CK2-phosphorylatable proteasome component. In vitro phosphorylation occurs only in the presence of polylysine, a characteristic that distinguishes the yeast proteasome from mammalian ones which are phosphorylated by CK2 in the absence of polylysine. A peptide reproducing the long acidic C-terminal tail of alpha 7/PRS1, where consensus CK2 phosphorylation sites are located, was also phosphorylated by the CK2 holoenzyme in a polylysine-dependent manner, suggesting that this region contains structural features responsible for this particular behavior.

  20. Abnormalities of AMPK Activation and Glucose Uptake in Cultured Skeletal Muscle Cells from Individuals with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Audrey E.; Jones, David E.; Walker, Mark; Newton, Julia L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post exertional muscle fatigue is a key feature in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS). Abnormalities of skeletal muscle function have been identified in some but not all patients with CFS. To try to limit potential confounders that might contribute to this clinical heterogeneity, we developed a novel in vitro system that allows comparison of AMP kinase (AMPK) activation and metabolic responses to exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells from CFS patients and control subjects. Methods Skeletal muscle cell cultures were established from 10 subjects with CFS and 7 age-matched controls, subjected to electrical pulse stimulation (EPS) for up to 24h and examined for changes associated with exercise. Results In the basal state, CFS cultures showed increased myogenin expression but decreased IL6 secretion during differentiation compared with control cultures. Control cultures subjected to 16h EPS showed a significant increase in both AMPK phosphorylation and glucose uptake compared with unstimulated cells. In contrast, CFS cultures showed no increase in AMPK phosphorylation or glucose uptake after 16h EPS. However, glucose uptake remained responsive to insulin in the CFS cells pointing to an exercise-related defect. IL6 secretion in response to EPS was significantly reduced in CFS compared with control cultures at all time points measured. Conclusion EPS is an effective model for eliciting muscle contraction and the metabolic changes associated with exercise in cultured skeletal muscle cells. We found four main differences in cultured skeletal muscle cells from subjects with CFS; increased myogenin expression in the basal state, impaired activation of AMPK, impaired stimulation of glucose uptake and diminished release of IL6. The retention of these differences in cultured muscle cells from CFS subjects points to a genetic/epigenetic mechanism, and provides a system to identify novel therapeutic targets. PMID:25836975

  1. Protein phosphorylation in isolated human adipocytes - Adrenergic control of the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase

    SciTech Connect

    Smiley, R.M. Columbia Univ College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY ); Paul, S.; Browning, M.D.; Leibel, R.L.; Hirsch, J. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of adrenergic agents on protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes was examined. Freshly isolated human fat cells were incubated with {sup 32}PO{sub 4} in order to label intracellular ATP, then treated with a variety of adrenergic and other pharmacologic agents. Treatment with the {beta}-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol led to a significant increase in phosphate content of at least five protein bands (M{sub r} 52, 53, 63, 67, 84 kDa). The increase in phosphorylation was partially inhibited by the {alpha}-2 agonist clonidine. Epinephrine, a combined {alpha} and {beta} agonist, was less effective at increasing phosphate content of the proteins than was isoproterenol. Neither insulin nor the {alpha}-1 agonist phenylephrine had any discernible effect on the pattern of protein phosphorylation. The 84 kDa phosphorylated peptide band appears to contain hormone-sensitive lipase, a key enzyme in the lipolytic pathway which is activated by phosphorylation. These results are somewhat different than previously reported results for rat adipocytes, and represent the first report of overall pattern and adrenergic modulation of protein phosphorylation in human adipocytes.

  2. Neurofilament Phosphorylation during Development and Disease: Which Came First, the Phosphorylation or the Accumulation?

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Jeffrey M.; Garcia, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Posttranslational modification of proteins is a ubiquitous cellular mechanism for regulating protein function. Some of the most heavily modified neuronal proteins are cytoskeletal proteins of long myelinated axons referred to as neurofilaments (NFs). NFs are type IV intermediate filaments (IFs) that can be composed of four subunits, neurofilament heavy (NF-H), neurofilament medium (NF-M), neurofilament light (NF-L), and α-internexin. Within wild type axons, NFs are responsible for mediating radial growth, a process that determines axonal diameter. NFs are phosphorylated on highly conserved lysine-serine-proline (KSP) repeats located along the C-termini of both NF-M and NF-H within myelinated axonal regions. Phosphorylation is thought to regulate aspects of NF transport and function. However, a key pathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases is ectopic accumulation and phosphorylation of NFs. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the posttranslational modifications that occur in both normal and diseased axons. We review evidence that challenges the role of KSP phosphorylation as essential for radial growth and suggests an alternative role for NF phosphorylation in myelinated axons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that regulation of NF phosphorylation dynamics may be essential to avoiding NF accumulations. PMID:22570767

  3. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 phosphorylation of familial prion protein mutants exacerbates conversion into amyloid structure.

    PubMed

    Rouget, Raphaël; Sharma, Gyanesh; LeBlanc, Andréa C

    2015-02-27

    Familial prion protein (PrP) mutants undergo conversion from soluble and protease-sensitive to insoluble and partially protease-resistant proteins. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) phosphorylation of wild type PrP (pPrP) at serine 43 induces a conversion of PrP into aggregates and fibrils. Here, we investigated whether familial PrP mutants are predisposed to Cdk5 phosphorylation and whether phosphorylation of familial PrP mutants increases conversion. PrP mutants representing three major familial PrP diseases and different PrP structural domains were studied. We developed a novel in vitro kinase reaction coupled with Thioflavin T binding to amyloid structure assay to monitor phosphorylation-dependent amyloid conversion. Although non-phosphorylated full-length wild type or PrP mutants did not convert into amyloid, Cdk5 phosphorylation rapidly converted these into Thioflavin T-positive structures following first order kinetics. Dephosphorylation partially reversed conversion. Phosphorylation-dependent conversion of PrP from α-helical structures into β-sheet structures was confirmed by circular dichroism. Relative to wild type pPrP, most PrP mutants showed increased rate constants of conversion. In contrast, non-phosphorylated truncated PrP Y145X (where X represents a stop codon) and Q160X mutants converted spontaneously into Thioflavin T-positive fibrils after a lag phase of over 20 h, indicating nucleation-dependent polymerization. Phosphorylation reduced the lag phase by over 50% and thus accelerated the formation of the nucleating event. Consistently, phosphorylated Y145X and phosphorylated Q160X exacerbated conversion in a homologous seeding reaction, whereas WT pPrP could not seed WT PrP. These results demonstrate an influence of both the N terminus and the C terminus of PrP on conversion. We conclude that post-translational modifications of the flexible N terminus of PrP can cause or exacerbate PrP mutant conversion. PMID:25572400

  4. Chromosome abnormalities in primary ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Yonescu, R.; Currie, J.; Griffin, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities that are specific and recurrent may occur in regions of the genome that are involved in the conversion of normal cells to those with tumorigenic potential. Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death among patients with gynecological malignancies. We have performed cytogenetic analysis of 16 ovarian tumors from women age 28-82. Three tumors of low malignant potential and three granulosa cell tumors had normal karyotypes. To look for the presence of trisomy 12, which has been suggested to be a common aberration in this group of tumors, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed on direct preparations from three of these tumors using a probe for alpha satellite sequences of chromosome 12. In the 3 preparations, 92-98 percent of the cells contained two copies of chromosome 12, indicating that trisomy 12 is not a universal finding in low grade ovarian tumors. Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is histologically indistinguishable from endometial carcinoma of the uterus. We studied 10 endometrioid tumors to determine the degree of genetic similarity between these two carcinomas. Six out of ten endometrioid tumors showed a near-triploid modal number, and one presented with a tetraploid modal number. Eight of the ten contained structural chromosome abnormalities, of which the most frequent were 1p- (5 tumors), 19q+ (3 tumors), 6q- or ins(6) (4 tumors), 3q- or 3q+ (4 tumors). These cytogenetic results resemble those reported for papillary ovarian tumors and differ from those of endometrial carcinoma of the uterus. We conclude that despite the histologic similarities between the endometrioid and endometrial carcinomas, the genetic abnormalities in the genesis of these tumors differ significantly.

  5. Insulin increase in MAP kinase phosphorylation is shifted to early time-points by overexpressing APS, while Akt phosphorylation is not influenced.

    PubMed

    Onnockx, Sheela; Xie, Jingwei; Degraef, Chantal; Erneux, Christophe; Pirson, Isabelle

    2009-09-10

    Upon insulin stimulation, the adaptor protein APS is recruited to the insulin receptor and tyrosine phosphorylated. APS initiates the insulin-induced TC10 cascade which participates to GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism that governs APS and its SH2 and PH domains action on the insulin transduction cascade is not yet fully understood. Here, we show that APS co-immunoprecipitates with the class I PI 3-kinase regulatory subunit p85, through its SH2 domain but that APS does not modulate neither PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 levels nor Akt phosphorylation provoked by insulin. We have confirmed a previously described positive effect of APS overexpression on insulin-induced MAPK phosphorylation upregulation. Consequently, we analyzed the role of SH2 and PH domains of APS in the APS increased MAPK phosphorylation observed upon insulin stimulation and correlated this with the membrane localization of the protein. The effect observed on MAPK phosphorylation requires the intact PH binding domain of APS as well as its SH2 domain.

  6. Medical management of abnormal pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ratnam, S S; Prasad, R N

    1990-06-01

    Medical termination of abnormal pregnancy requires specific techniques since some conditions make therapy more effective, e.g., missed abortion intrauterine death and molar pregnancy, and others less so, e.g. anencephalic pregnancy. In all cases it is best to terminate the pregnancy as soon as possible to reduce anguish and risks of complications such as consumptive coagulopathy. Oxytocin is not consistently effective, but intraamniotic rivanol has oxytocic properties, and prostaglandins (PGs) are effective by several routes. Surgical methods are more popular in Japan and the US. A diagnostic flow chart is included and described. For missed abortion and fetal death vacuum aspiration or dilatation and evacuation are appropriate for early pregnancy, or PGs are used for later pregnancy, unless there are medical contraindications. Anencephalic pregnancy, usually diagnoses in 2nd or 3rd trimester, is resistant to medical therapy and must often be terminated by cesarean section. Molar pregnancy can be managed with vacuum aspiration at any length of gestation, but must be completed by curettage. Intraamniotic PGs are not advised for mole or fetal death. PG analogs can be administered intramuscularly, or vaginally in gel form. Other types of abnormal pregnancy that can be managed with PGs are spina bifida, hydrocephalus, hydrops fetalis, Dandy-Walker syndrome and Down's syndrome. Tubal pregnancy can be evacuated with intratubally administered PGs under laparoscopic control, thereby preserving tubal integrity. PMID:2225605

  7. DNA heterogeneity and phosphorylation unveiled by single-molecule electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Dunning, James E.; Huang, Albert P.-H.; Nyamwanda, Jacqueline A.; Branton, Daniel

    2004-09-01

    Broad-spectrum analysis of DNA and RNA samples is of increasing importance in the growing field of biotechnology. We show that nanopore measurements may be used to assess the purity, phosphorylation state, and chemical integrity of nucleic acid preparations. In contrast with gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, an unprecedented dynamic range of DNA sizes and concentrations can be evaluated in a single data acquisition process that spans minutes. Because the molecule information is quantized and digitally recorded with single-molecule resolution, the sensitivity of the system can be adjusted in real time to detect trace amounts of a particular DNA species.

  8. Impairment of Memory Consolidation by Galanin Correlates with In-Vivo Inhibition of Both LTP and CREB Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Jefferson W.; Sanchez-Alavez, Manuel; Barr, Alasdair M.; Criado, Jose R.; Crawley, Jacqueline N.; Behrens, M. Margarita; Henriksen, Steven J.; Bartfai, Tamas

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the state of CREB phosphorylation and in LTP in the hippocampus have been associated with learning and memory. Here we show that galanin, the neuropeptide released in the hippocampal formation from cholinergic and noradrenergic fibers, that has been shown to produce impairments in memory consolidation in the Morris water maze task inhibits both LTP and CREB phosphorylation in the rat hippocampus in-vivo. While there are many transmitters regulating CREB phosphorylation none has been shown to suppress behaviorally-induced hippocampal CREB phosphorylation as potently as galanin. The in-vivo inhibition of dentate gyrus-LTP and of CREB phosphorylation by the agonist occupancy of GalR1 and GALR2-type galanin receptors provides strong in-vivo cellular and molecular correlates to galanin-induced learning deficits and designates galanin as a major regulator of the memory consolidation process. PMID:19531380

  9. A Requirement for ERK dependent Dicer Phosphorylation in Coordinating Oocyte-to-Embryo Transition in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Melanie; Furuta, Tokiko; Man, Kin Suen; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Liu, Bin; Kalia, Awdhesh; Ladbury, John; Fire, Andrew Z.; Skeath, James B; Arur, Swathi

    2014-01-01

    Signaling pathways and small RNAs direct diverse cellular events, but few examples are known of defined signaling pathways directly regulating small RNA biogenesis. We show that ERK phosphorylates Dicer on two conserved residues in its RNAse IIIb and dsRNA-binding domain, and phosphorylation of these residues is necessary and sufficient to trigger Dicer’s nuclear translocation in worms, mice, and human cells. Phosphorylation of Dicer on either site inhibits Dicer function in the female germ line and dampens small RNA repertoire. Our data demonstrate that ERK phosphorylates and inhibits Dicer during meiosis I for oogenesis to proceed normally in C. elegans and that this inhibition is released before fertilization for embryogenesis to proceed normally. The conserved Dicer residues, their phosphorylation by ERK, and the consequences of the resulting modifications implicate an ERK-Dicer nexus as a fundamental component of the oocyte-to-embryo transition and an underlying mechanism coupling extracellular cues to small RNA production. PMID:25490268

  10. Phosphorylation of the amino-terminus of the AGC kinase Gad8 prevents its interaction with TORC2

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Forte, Gabriella M.; Smith, Duncan; Petersen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    Cell proliferation, metabolism, migration and survival are coordinated through the tight control of two target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. Here, we show that a novel phosphorylation of fission yeast Gad8 (AGC kinase) on the evolutionarily conserved threonine 6 (Thr6) prevents the physical association between Gad8 and TORC2. Accordingly, this block to protein interactions by Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation decreases TORC2-controlled activation of Gad8. Likewise, phosphorylation of Gad8 Thr6, possibly by PKC, prevents the association of Gad8 with TORC2 thereby increasing TORC2 activity, because it reduces Gad8-mediated feedback inhibition of TORC2. Consistently, the introduction of a Gad8 T6D mutant, that mimics phosphorylation, increased TORC2 activity. Increased PKCPck2 expression prevented Gad8–TORC2 binding and so reduced the TORC2-mediated phosphorylation of Gad8 serine 546 that activates Gad8. Interestingly, independent of the Ser546 phosphorylation status, Gad8 Thr6 phosphorylation is important for remodelling the actin cytoskeleton and survival upon potassium ion and heat stresses. In contrast, Ser546 phosphorylation is required for the control of G1 arrest, mating, cell length at division and vascular size. Finally, these findings reveal a novel mode of TORC2 activation that is essential for cell survival following stress. PMID:26935949

  11. Partial purification of a spinach thylakoid protein kinase that can phosphorylate light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, R.D.; Hind, G.; Bennett, J.

    1985-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation in plant tissues is particularly marked in chloroplasts, protein kinase activity being associated with the outer envelope, the soluble stromal fraction, and the thylakoid membrane. Furthermore, thylakoid-bound activity probably includes several distinct kinases, as suggested by studies of divalent cation specificity and thermal lability carried out with intact thylakoids and by subfractionation of solubilized membranes. Illumination of thylakoids, particularly with red light, promotes the rapid and extensive phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) on a threonine residue near the amino terminus of the protein. This phosphorylation is thought to be involved in regulating the distribution of absorbed quanta between photosystems II and I and is modulated by the redox state of the thylakoid plastoquinone pool. Neither of the thylakoid kinases reported to date was capable of phosphorylating purified LHCII in vitro or of incorporating phosphate into threonyl residues of exogenous substrates, that some LHCII phosphorylation was catalyzed by a preliminary fraction led workers to suggest that at least one other kinase remained to be isolated. Here, the authors report the solubilization and partial purification of a protein kinase from spinach thylakoids that is capable of phosphorylating LHCII in vitro, and they show that the specific site of phosphorylation is very nearly the same as, if not identical with, the site phosphorylated in organello.

  12. Excessive insulin receptor serine phosphorylation in cultured fibroblasts and in skeletal muscle. A potential mechanism for insulin resistance in the polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Dunaif, A; Xia, J; Book, C B; Schenker, E; Tang, Z

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the cellular mechanisms of the unique disorder of insulin action found in the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Approximately 50% of PCOS women (PCOS-Ser) had a significant increase in insulin-independent beta-subunit [32P]phosphate incorporation (3.7-fold, P < 0.05 vs other groups) in skin fibroblast insulin receptors that was present in serine residues while insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation was decreased (both P < 0.05 vs other groups). PCOS skeletal muscle insulin receptors had the same abnormal phosphorylation pattern. The remaining PCOS women (PCOS-n1) had basal and insulin-stimulated receptor autophosphorylation similar to control. Phosphorylation of the artificial substrate poly GLU4:TYR1 by the PCOS-Ser insulin receptors was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared to control and PCOS-n1 receptors. The factor responsible for excessive serine phosphorylation appeared to be extrinsic to the receptor since no insulin receptor gene mutations were identified, immunoprecipitation before autophosphorylation corrected the phosphorylation defect and control insulin receptors mixed with lectin eluates from affected PCOS fibroblasts displayed increased serine phosphorylation. Our findings suggest that increased insulin receptor serine phosphorylation decreases its protein tyrosine kinase activity and is one mechanism for the post-binding defect in insulin action characteristic of PCOS. Images PMID:7635975

  13. Syntheses and insulin-like activity of phosphorylated galactose derivatives.

    PubMed

    Caro, H N; Martín-Lomas, M; Bernabé, M

    1993-02-24

    The syntheses of the poly-phosphorylated galactosides 6, 8, 10, 13, 16, and 20, isolated as sodium salts, have been performed. The non-phosphorylated disaccharide 17 and trisaccharide 21 have been prepared via glycosylation of the 2-(trimethylsilyl)ethyl galactosides 3 and 2, respectively, and subsequent complete deprotection. Preliminary insulin-like activity of the phosphorylated derivatives is reported. PMID:8458006

  14. Prediction of functional phosphorylation sites by incorporating evolutionary information.

    PubMed

    Niu, Shen; Wang, Zhen; Ge, Dongya; Zhang, Guoqing; Li, Yixue

    2012-09-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a ubiquitous protein post-translational modification, which plays an important role in cellular signaling systems underlying various physiological and pathological processes. Current in silico methods mainly focused on the prediction of phosphorylation sites, but rare methods considered whether a phosphorylation site is functional or not. Since functional phosphorylation sites are more valuable for further experimental research and a proportion of phosphorylation sites have no direct functional effects, the prediction of functional phosphorylation sites is quite necessary for this research area. Previous studies have shown that functional phosphorylation sites are more conserved than non-functional phosphorylation sites in evolution. Thus, in our method, we developed a web server by integrating existing phosphorylation site prediction methods, as well as both absolute and relative evolutionary conservation scores to predict the most likely functional phosphorylation sites. Using our method, we predicted the most likely functional sites of the human, rat and mouse proteomes and built a database for the predicted sites. By the analysis of overall prediction results, we demonstrated that protein phosphorylation plays an important role in all the enriched KEGG pathways. By the analysis of protein-specific prediction results, we demonstrated the usefulness of our method for individual protein studies. Our method would help to characterize the most likely functional phosphorylation sites for further studies in this research area.

  15. Claudin-18 inhibits cell proliferation and motility mediated by inhibition of phosphorylation of PDK1 and Akt in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Shimobaba, Shun; Taga, Saeko; Akizuki, Risa; Hichino, Asami; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Watanabe, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sugatani, Junko; Ikari, Akira

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal expression of claudin subtypes has been reported in various cancers. However, the pathological role of each claudin has not been clarified in detail. Claudin-18 was absent in human non-small cell and small cell lung cancers, although it is expressed in normal lung tissues. Here, we examined the effect of claudin-18 expression on the expression of junctional proteins, cell proliferation, and cell motility using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. Real-time PCR and western blotting showed that exogenous expression of claudin-18 had no effect on the expression of junctional proteins including claudin-1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and E-cadherin. Claudin-18 was mainly distributed in cell-cell contact areas concomitant with ZO-1. Cell proliferation was significantly decreased at 48 and 72h after seeding of claudin 18-expressing cells. Claudin-18 suppressed cell motility, whereas it increased cell death in anoikis. Claudin-18 decreased phosphorylated (p)-3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) and p-Akt levels without affecting p-epidermal growth factor receptor and p-phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) levels. Furthermore, claudin-18 was bound with PDK1 and suppressed the nuclear localization of PDK1. We suggest that claudin-18 suppresses the abnormal proliferation and motility of lung epithelial cells mediated by inhibition of the PI3K/PDK1/Akt signaling pathway.

  16. Morphometric Brain Abnormalities in Boys with Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huebner, Thomas; Vloet, Timo D.; Marx, Ivo; Konrad, Kerstin; Fink, Gereon R.; Herpertz, Sabine C.; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate

    2008-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) is associated with antisocial personality behavior that violates the basic rights of others. Results, on examining the structural brain aberrations in boys' CD, show that boys with CD and cormobid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder showed abnormalities in frontolimbic areas that could contribute to antisocial…

  17. Native fluorescence characterization of human liver abnormalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Madhuri, S.; Aruna, Prakasa R.; Suchitra, S.; Srinivasan, T. G.

    1999-05-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of intrinsic biomolecules has been extensively used in biology and medicine for the past several decades. In the present study, we report the native fluorescence characteristics of blood plasma from normal human subjects and patients with different liver abnormalities such as hepatitis, leptospirosis, jaundice, cirrhosis and liver cell failure. Native fluorescence spectra of blood plasma -- acetone extract were measured at 405 nm excitation. The average spectrum of normal blood plasma has a prominent emission peak around 464 nm whereas in the case of liver diseased subjects, the primary peak is red shifted with respect to normal. In addition, liver diseased cases show distinct secondary emission peak around 615 nm, which may be attributed to the presence of endogenous porphyrins. The red shift of the prominent emission peak with respect to normal is found to be maximum for hepatitis and minimum for cirrhosis whereas the secondary emission peak around 615 nm was found to be more prominent in the case of cirrhosis than the rest. The ratio parameter I465/I615 is found to be statistically significant (p less than 0.001) in discriminating liver abnormalities from normal.

  18. Solid polymer electrolyte from phosphorylated chitosan

    SciTech Connect

    Fauzi, Iqbal Arcana, I Made

    2014-03-24

    Recently, the need of secondary battery application continues to increase. The secondary battery which using a liquid electrolyte was indicated had some weakness. A solid polymer electrolyte is an alternative electrolytes membrane which developed in order to replace the liquid electrolyte type. In the present study, the effect of phosphorylation on to polymer electrolyte membrane which synthesized from chitosan and lithium perchlorate salts was investigated. The effect of the component’s composition respectively on the properties of polymer electrolyte, was carried out by analyzed of it’s characterization such as functional groups, ion conductivity, and thermal properties. The mechanical properties i.e tensile resistance and the morphology structure of membrane surface were determined. The phosphorylation processing of polymer electrolyte membrane of chitosan and lithium perchlorate was conducted by immersing with phosphoric acid for 2 hours, and then irradiated on a microwave for 60 seconds. The degree of deacetylation of chitosan derived from shrimp shells was obtained around 75.4%. Relative molecular mass of chitosan was obtained by viscometry method is 796,792 g/mol. The ionic conductivity of chitosan membrane was increase from 6.33 × 10{sup −6} S/cm up to 6.01 × 10{sup −4} S/cm after adding by 15 % solution of lithium perchlorate. After phosphorylation, the ionic conductivity of phosphorylated lithium chitosan membrane was observed 1.37 × 10{sup −3} S/cm, while the tensile resistance of 40.2 MPa with a better thermal resistance. On the strength of electrolyte membrane properties, this polymer electrolyte membrane was suggested had one potential used for polymer electrolyte in field of lithium battery applications.

  19. Activation of NF-kappa B in vivo is regulated by multiple phosphorylations.

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, M; Scheidereit, C

    1994-01-01

    The activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) in intact cells is mechanistically not well understood. Therefore we investigated the modifications imposed on NF-kappa B/I kappa B components following stimulation and show that the final step of NF-kappa B induction in vivo involves phosphorylation of several members of the NF-kappa B/I kappa B protein families. In HeLa cells as well as in B cells, TNF-alpha rapidly induced nuclear translocation primarily of p50-p65, but not of c-rel. Both NF-kappa B precursors and I kappa B alpha became strongly phosphorylated with the same kinetics. In addition to the inducible phosphorylation after stimulation, B lymphocytes containing constitutive nuclear NF-kappa B revealed constitutively phosphorylated p65 and I kappa B alpha. Phosphorylation was accompanied by induced processing of the precursors p100 and p105 and by degradation of I kappa B alpha. As an in vitro model we show that phosphorylation of p105 impedes its ability to interact with NF-kappa B, as has been shown before for I kappa B alpha. Surprisingly, even p65, but not c-rel, was phosphorylated after induction in vivo, suggesting that TNF-alpha selectively activates only specific NF-kappa B heteromers and that modifications regulate not only I kappa B molecules but also NF-kappa B molecules. In fact, cellular NF-kappa B activity was phosphorylation-dependent and the DNA binding activity of p65-containing NF-kappa B was enhanced by phosphorylation in vitro. Furthermore, we found that the induction by hydrogen peroxide of NF-kappa B translocation to the nucleus, which is assumed to be triggered by reactive oxygen intermediates, also coincided with incorporation of phosphate into the same subunits that were modified after stimulation by TNF-alpha. Thus, phosphorylation appears to be a general mechanism for activation of NF-kappa B in vivo. Images PMID:7925300

  20. White matter abnormalities in schizophrenia and schizotypal personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Lener, Marc S; Wong, Edmund; Tang, Cheuk Y; Byne, William; Goldstein, Kim E; Blair, Nicholas J; Haznedar, M Mehmet; New, Antonia S; Chemerinski, Eran; Chu, King-Wai; Rimsky, Liza S; Siever, Larry J; Koenigsberg, Harold W; Hazlett, Erin A

    2015-01-01

    Prior diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies examining schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and schizophrenia, separately have shown that compared with healthy controls (HCs), patients show frontotemporal white matter (WM) abnormalities. This is the first DTI study to directly compare WM tract coherence with tractography and fractional anisotropy (FA) across the schizophrenia spectrum in a large sample of demographically matched HCs (n = 55), medication-naive SPD patients (n = 49), and unmedicated/never-medicated schizophrenia patients (n = 22) to determine whether (a) frontal-striatal-temporal WM tract abnormalities in schizophrenia are similar to, or distinct from those observed in SPD; and (b) WM tract abnormalities are associated with clinical symptom severity indicating a common underlying pathology across the spectrum. Compared with both the HC and SPD groups, schizophrenia patients showed WM abnormalities, as indexed by lower FA in the temporal lobe (inferior longitudinal fasciculus) and cingulum regions. SPD patients showed lower FA in the corpus callosum genu compared with the HC group, but this regional abnormality was more widespread in schizophrenia patients. Across the schizophrenia spectrum, greater WM disruptions were associated with greater symptom severity. Overall, frontal-striatal-temporal WM dysconnectivity is attenuated in SPD compared with schizophrenia patients and may mitigate the emergence of psychosis.

  1. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.; Reed, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). No pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase activity was detected at any stage of the purification. However, the purified PDC was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified PDH kinase from bovine kidney mitochondria, Mg/sup 2 +/, and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The protein-bound radioactivity was localized in the PDH ..cap alpha.. subunit. The phosphorylated, inactivated PDC was dephosphorylated and reactivated with purified bovine PDH phosphatase, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/. From a tryptic digest of phosphorylated yeast PDC a radioactive peptide was isolated by anion and reverse phase HPLC. The sequence of this tetradecapeptide is Tyr-Gly-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Thr-Thr-Tyr-Arg. This sequence is very similar to the sequence of a tryptic phosphopeptide derived from the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine kidney and heart PDH: Tyr-His-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Val-Ser-Tyr-Arg.

  2. Regulation of peroxisome dynamics by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Oeljeklaus, Silke; Schummer, Andreas; Mastalski, Thomas; Platta, Harald W; Warscheid, Bettina

    2016-05-01

    Peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that can rapidly change in size, abundance, and protein content in response to alterations in nutritional and other environmental conditions. These dynamic changes in peroxisome features, referred to as peroxisome dynamics, rely on the coordinated action of several processes of peroxisome biogenesis. Revealing the regulatory mechanisms of peroxisome dynamics is an emerging theme in cell biology. These mechanisms are inevitably linked to and synchronized with the biogenesis and degradation of peroxisomes. To date, the key players and basic principles of virtually all steps in the peroxisomal life cycle are known, but regulatory mechanisms remained largely elusive. A number of recent studies put the spotlight on reversible protein phosphorylation for the control of peroxisome dynamics and highlighted peroxisomes as hubs for cellular signal integration and regulation. Here, we will present and discuss the results of several studies performed using yeast and mammalian cells that convey a sense of the impact protein phosphorylation may have on the modulation of peroxisome dynamics by regulating peroxisomal matrix and membrane protein import, proliferation, inheritance, and degradation. We further put forward the idea to make use of current data on phosphorylation sites of peroxisomal and peroxisome-associated proteins reported in advanced large-scale phosphoproteomic studies.

  3. Function of platelet 47K protein phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Imaoka, T.

    1987-05-01

    To provide insight into the biochemical pathway of platelet activation, they purified both unphosphorylated and phosphorylated P47 to homogeneity from human platelets. This study represents the first demonstration of a change of physiological action of P47 in response to phosphorylation in platelet activation. SVI labelled unphosphorylated P47 had an ability to bind with platelet membrane fraction in the presence of phosphatidylserine. Effect of diacylglycerol was inhibitory in this PS dependent P47 binding with membrane. Unphosphorylated P47 had an inhibitory activity in platelet actin polymerization. Molar ratio to inhibit actin polymerization was 1:8 (P47:actin). These activities were Ca independent. Purified TSP-labelled P47 lost the binding ability with membrane, also the inhibitory activity in actin polymerization. Therefore, they propose the hypothesis that unphosphorylated P47 may loosely bind with the inside of plasma membrane of platelet and inhibit actin polymerization as a modulator, when stimulated, protein Kinase C rapidly phosphorylate P47 and induce the activation of cytoskeletal network and subsequently release reaction.

  4. Adults with Chromosome 18 Abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Soileau, Bridgette; Hasi, Minire; Sebold, Courtney; Hill, Annice; O'Donnell, Louise; Hale, Daniel E; Cody, Jannine D

    2015-08-01

    The identification of an underlying chromosome abnormality frequently marks the endpoint of a diagnostic odyssey. However, families are frequently left with more questions than answers as they consider their child's future. In the case of rare chromosome conditions, a lack of longitudinal data often makes it difficult to provide anticipatory guidance to these families. The objective of this study is to describe the lifespan, educational attainment, living situation, and behavioral phenotype of adults with chromosome 18 abnormalities. The Chromosome 18 Clinical Research Center has enrolled 483 individuals with one of the following conditions: 18q-, 18p-, Tetrasomy 18p, and Ring 18. As a part of the ongoing longitudinal study, we collect data on living arrangements, educational level attained, and employment status as well as data on executive functioning and behavioral skills on an annual basis. Within our cohort, 28 of the 483 participants have died, the majority of whom have deletions encompassing the TCF4 gene or who have unbalanced rearrangement involving other chromosomes. Data regarding the cause of and age at death are presented. We also report on the living situation, educational attainment, and behavioral phenotype of the 151 participants over the age of 18. In general, educational level is higher for people with all these conditions than implied by the early literature, including some that received post-high school education. In addition, some individuals are able to live independently, though at this point they represent a minority of patients. Data on executive function and behavioral phenotype are also presented. Taken together, these data provide insight into the long-term outcome for individuals with a chromosome 18 condition. This information is critical in counseling families on the range of potential outcomes for their child.

  5. Menin uncouples Elk-1, JunD and c-Jun phosphorylation from MAP kinase activation.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Adriana; Cuozzo, Concetta; Esposito, Ilaria; Maggiolini, Marcello; Bonofiglio, Daniela; Vivacqua, Adele; Garramone, Maria; Weiss, Carsten; Bohmann, Dirk; Musti, Anna Maria

    2002-09-19

    Menin, a nuclear protein encoded by the tumor suppressor gene MEN1, interacts with the AP-1 transcription factor JunD and inhibits its transcriptional activity. In addition, overexpression of Menin counteracts Ras-induced tumorigenesis. We show that Menin inhibits ERK-dependent phosphorylation and activation of both JunD and the Ets-domain transcription factor Elk-1. We also show that Menin represses the inducible activity of the c-fos promoter. Furthermore, Menin expression inhibits Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated phosphorylation of both JunD and c-Jun. Kinase assays show that Menin overexpression does not interfere with activation of either ERK2 or JNK1, suggesting that Menin acts at a level downstream of MAPK activation. An N-terminal deletion mutant of Menin that cannot inhibit JunD phosphorylation by JNK, can still repress JunD phosphorylation by ERK2, suggesting that Menin interferes with ERK and JNK pathways through two distinct inhibitory mechanisms. Taken together, our data suggest that Menin uncouples ERK and JNK activation from phosphorylation of their nuclear targets Elk-1, JunD and c-Jun, hence inhibiting accumulation of active Fos/Jun heterodimers. This study provides new molecular insights into the tumor suppressor function of Menin and suggests a mechanism by which Menin may interfere with Ras-dependent cell transformation and oncogenesis. PMID:12226747

  6. Ubiquitination of p27 is regulated by Cdk-dependent phosphorylation and trimeric complex formation

    PubMed Central

    Montagnoli, Alessia; Fiore, Francesca; Eytan, Esther; Carrano, Andrea C.; Draetta, Giulio F.; Hershko, Avram; Pagano, Michele

    1999-01-01

    The cellular abundance of the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p27 is regulated by the ubiquitin–proteasome system. Activation of p27 degradation is seen in proliferating cells and in many types of aggressive human carcinomas. p27 can be phosphorylated on threonine 187 by Cdks, and cyclin E/Cdk2 overexpression can stimulate the degradation of wild-type p27, but not of a threonine 187-to-alanine p27 mutant [p27(T187A)]. However, whether threonine 187 phosphorylation stimulates p27 degradation through the ubiquitin–proteasome system or an alternative pathway is still not known. Here, we demonstrate that p27 ubiquitination (as assayed in vivo and in an in vitro reconstituted system) is cell-cycle regulated and that Cdk activity is required for the in vitro ubiquitination of p27. Furthermore, ubiquitination of wild-type p27, but not of p27(T187A), can occur in G1-enriched extracts only upon addition of cyclin E/Cdk2 or cyclin A/Cdk2. Using a phosphothreonine 187 site-specific antibody for p27, we show that threonine 187 phosphorylation of p27 is also cell-cycle dependent, being present in proliferating cells but undetectable in G1 cells. Finally, we show that in addition to threonine 187 phosphorylation, efficient p27 ubiquitination requires formation of a trimeric complex with the cyclin and Cdk subunits. In fact, cyclin B/Cdk1 which can phosphorylate p27 efficiently, but cannot form a stable complex with it, is unable to stimulate p27 ubiquitination by G1 extracts. Furthermore, another p27 mutant [p27(CK−)] that can be phosphorylated by cyclin E/Cdk2 but cannot bind this kinase complex, is refractory to ubiquitination. Thus throughout the cell cycle, both phosphorylation and trimeric complex formation act as signals for the ubiquitination of a Cdk inhibitor. PMID:10323868

  7. PTEN Phosphorylation and Nuclear Export Mediate Free Fatty Acid-Induced Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yong; Zhou, Hillary; Wu, Ke; Lee, Sangkyu; Li, Ruijin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Oxidative stress induced by free fatty acids (FFA) contributes to metabolic syndrome-associated development of cardiovascular diseases, yet molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed at establishing whether phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) and its subcellular location play a role in FFA-induced endothelial oxidative stress. Results: Exposing human endothelial cells (ECs) with FFA activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6K pathway, and upon activation, S6K directly phosphorylated PTEN at S380. Phosphorylation of PTEN increased its interaction with its deubiquitinase USP7 in the nucleus, leading to PTEN deubiquitination and nuclear export. The reduction of PTEN in the nucleus, in turn, decreased p53 acetylation and transcription, reduced the expression of the p53 target gene glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), resulting in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and endothelial damage. Finally, C57BL/6J mice fed with high-fat atherogenic diet (HFAD) showed PTEN nuclear export, decreased p53 and GPX1 protein expressions, elevated levels of ROS, and significant lesions in aortas. Importantly, inhibition of mTOR or S6K effectively blocked these effects, suggesting that mTOR/S6K pathway mediates HFAD-induced oxidative stress and vascular damage via PTEN/p53/GPX1 inhibition in vivo. Innovation: Our study demonstrated for the first time that S6K directly phosphorylated PTEN at S380 under high FFA conditions, and this phosphorylation mediated FFA-induced endothelial oxidative stress. Furthermore, we showed that S380 phosphorylation affected PTEN monoubiquitination and nuclear localization, providing the first example of coordinated regulation of PTEN nuclear localization via phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Conclusion: Our studies provide a novel mechanism by which hyperlipidemia causes vascular oxidative damage through the phosphorylation of PTEN, blocking of PTEN nuclear function, and inhibition

  8. Phosphorylation and Activation of RhoA by ERK in Response to Epidermal Growth Factor Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Junfeng; Li, Laiji; Ballermann, Barbara; Wang, Zhixiang

    2016-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA has been implicated in various cellular activities, including the formation of stress fibers, cell motility, and cytokinesis. In addition to the canonical GTPase cycle, recent findings have suggested that phosphorylation further contributes to the tight regulation of Rho GTPases. Indeed, RhoA is phosphorylated on serine 188 (188S) by a number of protein kinases. We have recently reported that Rac1 is phosphorylated on threonine 108 (108T) by extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Here, we provide evidence that RhoA is phosphorylated by ERK on 88S and 100T in response to EGF stimulation. We show that ERK interacts with RhoA and that this interaction is dependent on the ERK docking site (D-site) at the C-terminus of RhoA. EGF stimulation enhanced the activation of the endogenous RhoA. The phosphomimetic mutant, GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E, when transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, displayed higher GTP-binding than wild type RhoA. Moreover, the expression of GFP-RhoA S88E/T100E increased actin stress fiber formation in COS-7 cells, which is consistent with its higher activity. In contrast to Rac1, phosphorylation of RhoA by ERK does not target RhoA to the nucleus. Finally, we show that regardless of the phosphorylation status of RhoA and Rac1, substitution of the RhoA PBR with the Rac1 PBR targets RhoA to the nucleus and substitution of Rac1 PBR with RhoA PBR significantly reduces the nuclear localization of Rac1. In conclusion, ERK phosphorylates RhoA on 88S and 100T in response to EGF, which upregulates RhoA activity. PMID:26816343

  9. Glucocorticoid regulation of insulin receptor and substrate IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in rat skeletal muscle in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Giorgino, F; Almahfouz, A; Goodyear, L J; Smith, R J

    1993-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance might originate from abnormalities in insulin receptor signaling, we investigated the effects of glucocorticoids on in vivo tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the insulin receptor substrate IRS-1 in rat skeletal muscle. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with cortisone (100 mg/kg for 5 d) and compared to pair-fed controls. Cortisone treatment of rats resulted in both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. Anesthetized animals were injected with 10 U/kg insulin via cardiac puncture and, after 2 min, hindlimb muscles were removed, snap-frozen, and homogenized in SDS. Protein tyrosine phosphorylation was studied by immunoblotting with phosphotyrosine antibody. Insulin receptors and substrate IRS-1 were identified and quantified with specific antibodies. Cortisone treatment increased the amount of insulin receptor protein by 36%, but decreased the total level of receptor tyrosine phosphorylation (69 +/- 4% of control, P < 0.05). The decreased level of receptor phosphorylation was explained by a reduced number of receptors containing phosphorylated tyrosine residues (64.6 +/- 5% of control, P < 0.05). Glucocorticoid excess decreased skeletal muscle IRS-1 content by 50%, but did not significantly alter the total level of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation. The apparent M(r) of IRS-1 was reduced by approximately 10 kD. Treatment with protein phosphatase-2A reduced IRS-1 M(r) in control but not in glucocorticoid-treated muscle indicating that the lower M(r) likely results from lower phosphoserine and/or phosphothreonine content. To investigate the role of hyperinsulinemia in the glucocorticoid response, rats were made insulin-deficient with streptozotocin (100 mg/kg, i.p.). Subsequent treatment with cortisone for 5 d had no effects on insulin levels, tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors or IRS-1, or the M(r) of IRS-1. In conclusion, glucocorticoid-treated skeletal muscle is

  10. Phosphorylation-related modification at the dimer interface of 14-3-3ω dramatically alters monomer interaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Denison, Fiona C; Gökirmak, Tufan; Ferl, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are generally believed to function as dimers in a broad range of eukaryotic signaling pathways. The consequences of altering dimer stability are not fully understood. Phosphorylation at Ser58 in the dimer interface of mammalian 14-3-3 isoforms has been reported to destabilise dimers. An equivalent residue, Ser62, is present across most Arabidopsis isoforms but the effects of phosphorylation have not been studied in plants. Here, we assessed the effects of phosphorylation at the dimer interface of Arabidopsis 14-3-3ω. Protein kinase A phosphorylated 14-3-3ω at Ser62 and also at a previously unreported residue, Ser67, resulting in a monomer-sized band on native-PAGE. Phosphorylation at Ser62 alone, or with additional Ser67 phosphorylation, was investigated using phosphomimetic versions of 14-3-3ω. In electrophoretic and chromatographic analyses, these mutants showed mobilities intermediate between dimers and monomers. Mobility was increased by detergents, by reducing protein concentration, or by increasing pH or temperature. Urea gradient gels showed complex structural transitions associated with alterations of dimer stability, including a previously unreported 14-3-3 aggregation phenomenon. Overall, our analyses showed that dimer interface modifications such as phosphorylation reduce dimer stability, dramatically affecting the monomer-dimer equilibrium and denaturation trajectory. These findings may have dramatic implications for 14-3-3 structure and function in vivo.

  11. Mitochondrial DNA disturbances and deregulated expression of oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial fusion proteins in sporadic inclusion body myositis.

    PubMed

    Catalán-García, Marc; Garrabou, Glòria; Morén, Constanza; Guitart-Mampel, Mariona; Hernando, Adriana; Díaz-Ramos, Àngels; González-Casacuberta, Ingrid; Juárez, Diana-Luz; Bañó, Maria; Enrich-Bengoa, Jennifer; Emperador, Sonia; Milisenda, José César; Moreno, Pedro; Tobías, Ester; Zorzano, Antonio; Montoya, Julio; Cardellach, Francesc; Grau, Josep Maria

    2016-10-01

    Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is one of the most common myopathies in elderly people. Mitochondrial abnormalities at the histological level are present in these patients. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in disease aetiology. We took the following measurements of muscle and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 30 sIBM patients and 38 age- and gender-paired controls: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions, amount of mtDNA and mtRNA, mitochondrial protein synthesis, mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and IV enzymatic activity, mitochondrial mass, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics (mitofusin 2 and optic atrophy 1 levels). Depletion of mtDNA was present in muscle from sIBM patients and PBMCs showed deregulated expression of mitochondrial proteins in oxidative phosphorylation. MRC complex IV/citrate synthase activity was significantly decreased in both tissues and mitochondrial dynamics were affected in muscle. Depletion of mtDNA was significantly more severe in patients with mtDNA deletions, which also presented deregulation of mitochondrial fusion proteins. Imbalance in mitochondrial dynamics in muscle was associated with increased mitochondrial genetic disturbances (both depletion and deletions), demonstrating that proper mitochondrial turnover is essential for mitochondrial homoeostasis and muscle function in these patients.

  12. Phosphorylation of threonine 3 on histone H3 by haspin kinase is required for meiosis I in mouse oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Alexandra L.; Gentilello, Amanda S.; Balboula, Ahmed Z.; Shrivastava, Vibha; Ohring, Jacob; Schindler, Karen

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Meiosis I (MI), the division that generates haploids, is prone to errors that lead to aneuploidy in females. Haspin is a kinase that phosphorylates histone H3 on threonine 3, thereby recruiting Aurora kinase B (AURKB) and the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) to kinetochores to regulate mitosis. Haspin and AURKC, an AURKB homolog, are enriched in germ cells, yet their significance in regulating MI is not fully understood. Using inhibitors and overexpression approaches, we show a role for haspin during MI in mouse oocytes. Haspin-perturbed oocytes display abnormalities in chromosome morphology and alignment, improper kinetochore–microtubule attachments at metaphase I and aneuploidy at metaphase II. Unlike in mitosis, kinetochore localization remained intact, whereas the distribution of the CPC along chromosomes was absent. The meiotic defects following haspin inhibition were similar to those observed in oocytes where AURKC was inhibited, suggesting that the correction of microtubule attachments during MI requires AURKC along chromosome arms rather than at kinetochores. Our data implicate haspin as a regulator of the CPC and chromosome segregation during MI, while highlighting important differences in how chromosome segregation is regulated between MI and mitosis. PMID:25315835

  13. B vitamin deficiency promotes tau phosphorylation through regulation of GSK3beta and PP2A.

    PubMed

    Nicolia, Vincenzina; Fuso, Andrea; Cavallaro, Rosaria A; Di Luzio, Andrea; Scarpa, Sigfrido

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), composed of intracellular filamentous aggregates of hyperphosphorylated protein tau, are one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tau phosphorylation is regulated by the equilibrium between activities of its protein kinases and phosphatases; unbalance of these activities is proposed to be a reasonable causative factor to the disease process. Glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) is one of the most important protein kinase in regulating tau phosphorylation; overexpression of active GSK3beta causes ADlike hyperphosphorylation of tau. Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is the major phosphatase that dephosphorylates tau; it was demonstrated that highly conserved carboxyl-terminal sequence of PP2A C-subunit is a focal point for phosphatase regulation. This is the site of a reversible methyl esterification reaction that controls AB_{alpha}C heterotrimers formation. Here we demonstrate that GSK3beta and PP2A genes were upregulated by inhibiting methylation reactions through B vitamin deficiency. In this condition, methylated catalytic subunit PP2Ac was decreased, leading to reduced PP2A activity. By contrast, we observed GSK3beta protein increase and a modulation in phosphorylation sites that regulate GSK3beta activity. Therefore, one-carbon metabolism alteration seems to be a cause of deregulation of the equilibrium between GSK3beta and PP2A, leading to abnormal hyperphosphorylated tau.

  14. Glucose Regulated Protein 78 Phosphorylation in Sperm Undergoes Dynamic Changes during Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Vivian; Rao, Parimala; Gajbhiye, Rahul; Kulkarni, Vijay; Parte, Priyanka

    2015-01-01

    GRP78, a resident endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone involved in protein transport, folding and assembly, has been reported in sperm. It is shown to be localized in the neck region of human sperm. We have previously reported GRP78 to be less phosphorylated in asthenozoosperm.The present study aimed to determine whether sperm GRP78 undergoes phosphorylation changes during epididymal maturation and whether there are any differences in GRP78 phosphoforms in asthenozoosperm vis-à-vis normozoosperm. Testicular- and cauda epididymal- sperm from adult male Holtzman rats, and semen ejaculates collected from normal and asthenozoospermic individuals were investigated. DIGE carried out to determine phosphorylation of GRP78 in asthenozoosperm and normal sperm reveals a shift in the location of GRP78 of asthenozoosperm towards the alkaline pH, indicative of reduced GRP78 phosphorylation. Immunoprecipitation studies using antibodies specific to GRP78, serine-, threonine-, and tyrosine phosphorylation and Pan phospho antibody demonstrates GRP78 to be phosphorylated at all three residues in rat spermatozoa. Phosphatase assays using Calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and Lambda protein phosphatase followed by nanofluidic proteomic immunoassay (NIA) show that in rat, GP4.96, GP4.94 and GP4.85 are the three phosphoforms in mature (caudal) sperm as against two phosphoforms GP4.96and GP4.94in immature (testicular) sperm. In mature human sperm GP5.04, GP4.96, and GP4.94were the 3 phosphoforms observed. GP4.94[P = 0.014]andGP5.04 [P = 0.02] are significantly reduced in asthenozoosperm. Ours is the first report indicating GRP78 in sperm to be phosphorylated at serine, threonine and tyrosine residues contrary to published literature reporting GRP78 not to be tyrosine phosphorylated. We report the presence of GRP78 phosphoforms in rat- and human- sperm and our data suggest that GRP78 phosphorylation in sperm undergoes spatial reorganization during epididymal maturation. Significant

  15. Modelling the dual role of Per phosphorylation and its effect on the period and phase of the mammalian circadian clock.

    PubMed

    Leloup, J-C; Goldbeter, A

    2011-01-01

    Circadian clocks are regulated at the post-translational level by a variety of processes among which protein phosphorylation plays a prominent, although complex, role. Thus, the phosphorylation of different sites on the clock protein PER by casein kinase I (CKI) can lead to opposite effects on the stability of the protein and on the period of circadian oscillations. Here the authors extend a computational model previously proposed for the mammalian circadian clock by incorporating two distinct phosphorylations of PER by CKI. On the basis of experimental observations the authors consider that phosphorylation at one site (denoted here PER-P1) enhances the rate of degradation of the protein and decreases the period, while phosphorylation at another site (PER-P2) stabilises the protein, enhances the transcription of the Per gene, and increases the period. The model also incorporates an additional phosphorylation of PER by the Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3). The authors show that the extended model incorporating the antagonistic effects of PER phosphorylations by CKI can account for observations pertaining to (i) the decrease in period in the Tau mutant, because of an increase in phosphorylation by CKI leading to PER-P1, and (ii) the familial advanced sleep phase syndrome (FASPS) in which the period is shortened and the phase of the oscillations is advanced when the rate of phosphorylation leading to PER-P2 is decreased. The model further accounts for the increase in period observed in the presence of CKI inhibitors that decrease the rate of phosphorylation leading to both PER-P1 and PER-P2. A similar increase in period results from inhibition of GSK3. [Includes supplementary material]. PMID:21261401

  16. Mouse Sphingosine Kinase 1a Is Negatively Regulated through Conventional PKC-Dependent Phosphorylation at S373 Residue

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Yong-Seok; Bae, Sun Sik; Park, Jong Bae; Ha, Sang Hoon; Ryu, Sung Ho; Suh, Pann-Ghill

    2015-01-01

    Sphingosine kinase is a lipid kinase that converts sphingosine into sphingosine-1-phosphate, an important signaling molecule with intracellular and extracellular functions. Although diverse extracellular stimuli influence cellular sphingosine kinase activity, the molecular mechanisms underlying its regulation remain to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mouse sphingosine kinase (mSK) isoforms 1 and 2. mSK1a was robustly phosphorylated in response to extracellular stimuli such as phorbol ester, whereas mSK2 exhibited a high basal level of phosphorylation in quiescent cells regardless of agonist stimulation. Interestingly, phorbol ester-induced phosphorylation of mSK1a correlated with suppression of its activity. Chemical inhibition of conventional PKCs (cPKCs) abolished mSK1a phosphorylation, while overexpression of PKCα, a cPKC isoform, potentiated the phosphorylation, in response to phorbol ester. Furthermore, an in vitro kinase assay showed that PKCα directly phosphorylated mSK1a. In addition, phosphopeptide mapping analysis determined that the S373 residue of mSK1a was the only site phosphorylated by cPKC. Interestingly, alanine substitution of S373 made mSK1a refractory to the inhibitory effect of phorbol esters, whereas glutamate substitution of the same residue resulted in a significant reduction in mSK1a activity, suggesting the significant role of this phosphorylation event. Taken together, we propose that mSK1a is negatively regulated through cPKC-dependent phosphorylation at S373 residue. PMID:26642194

  17. Phosphorylation of Transcription Factor Specificity Protein 4 Is Increased in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells of First-Episode Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Fusté, Montserrat; Meléndez-Pérez, Iria; Villalta-Gil, Victoria; Haro, Josep Maria; Gill, Grace; Ramos, Belén

    2015-01-01

    Background Altered expression of transcription factor specificity protein 4 (SP4) has been found in the postmortem brain of patients with psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Reduced levels of SP4 protein have recently been reported in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in first-episode psychosis. Also, SP4 levels are modulated by lithium treatment in cultured neurons. Phosphorylation of SP4 at S770 is increased in the cerebellum of bipolar disorder subjects and upon inhibition of NMDA receptor signaling in cultured neurons. The aim of this study was to investigate whether SP4 S770 phosphorylation is increased in lymphocytes of first-episode psychosis patients and the effect of lithium treatment on this phosphorylation. Methods A cross-sectional study of S770 phosphorylation relative to total SP4 immunoreactivity using specific antibodies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in first-episode psychosis patients (n = 14, treated with lithium or not) and matched healthy controls (n = 14) by immunoblot was designed. We also determined the effects of the prescribed drugs lithium, olanzapine or valproic acid on SP4 phosphorylation in rat primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Results We found that SP4 S770 phosphorylation was significantly increased in lymphocytes in first-episode psychosis compared to controls and decreased in patients treated with lithium compared to patients who did not receive lithium. Moreover, incubation with lithium but not olanzapine or valproic acid reduced SP4 phosphorylation in rat cultured cerebellar granule neurons. Conclusions The findings presented here indicate that SP4 S770 phosphorylation is increased in lymphocytes in first-episode psychosis which may be reduced by lithium treatment in patients. Moreover, our study shows lithium treatment prevents this phosphorylation in vitro in neurons. This pilot study suggests that S770 SP4 phosphorylation could be a peripheral biomarker of psychosis, and may

  18. Roles of the phosphorylation of specific serines and threonines in the NS1 protein of human influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Tien-Ying; Zhou, Ligang; Krug, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate that phosphorylation of the NS1 protein of a human influenza A virus occurs not only at the threonine (T) at position 215 but also at serines (Ss), specifically at positions 42 and 48. By generating recombinant influenza A/Udorn/72 (Ud) viruses that encode mutant NS1 proteins, we determined the roles of these phosphorylations in virus replication. At position 215 only a T-to-A substitution attenuated replication, whereas other substitutions (T to E to mimic constitutive phosphorylation, T to N, and T to P, the amino acid in avian influenza A virus NS1 proteins) had no effect. We conclude that attenuation resulting from the T-to-A substitution at position 215 is attributable to a deleterious structural change in the NS1 protein that is not caused by other amino acid substitutions and that phosphorylation of T215 does not affect virus replication. At position 48 neither an S-to-A substitution nor an S-to-D substitution that mimics constitutive phosphorylation affected virus replication. In contrast, at position 42, an S-to-D, but not an S-to-A, substitution caused attenuation. The S-to-D substitution eliminates detectable double-stranded RNA binding by the NS1 protein, accounting for attenuation of virus replication. We show that protein kinase C α (PKCα) catalyzes S42 phosphorylation. Consequently, the only phosphorylation of the NS1 protein of this human influenza A virus that regulates its replication is S42 phosphorylation catalyzed by PKCα. In contrast, phosphorylation of Ts or Ss in the NS1 protein of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus was not detected, indicating that NS1 phosphorylation probably does not play any role in the replication of this virus.

  19. Geniposide ameliorates learning memory deficits, reduces tau phosphorylation and decreases apoptosis via GSK3β pathway in streptozotocin-induced alzheimer rat model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Chong; Liu, Yueze; Jiang, Yuanhong; Ding, Jianming; Li, Lin

    2014-04-01

    Intracerebral-ventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) induces an insulin-resistant brain state that may underlie the neural pathogenesis of sporadic Alzheimer disease (AD). Our previous work showed that prior ICV treatment of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) could prevent STZ-induced learning memory impairment and tau hyperphosphorylation in the rat brain. The Chinese herbal medicine geniposide is known to relieve symptoms of type 2 diabetes. Because geniposide is thought to act as a GLP-1 receptor agonist, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of geniposide on STZ-induced AD model in rats. Our result showed that a single injection of geniposide (50 μM, 10 μL) to the lateral ventricle prevented STZ-induced spatial learning deficit by about 40% and reduced tau phosphorylation by about 30% with Morris water maze test and quantitative immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. It has been known that tau protein can be phosphorylated by glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) and STZ can increase the activity of GSK3β. Our result with Western blot analysis showed that central administration of geniposide resulted in an elevated expression of GSK3β(pS-9) but suppressed GSK3β(pY-216) indicating that geniposide reduced STZ-induced GSK3β hyperactivity. In addition, ultrastructure analysis showed that geniposide averted STZ-induced neural pathology, including paired helical filament (PHF)-like structures, accumulation of vesicles in synaptic terminal, abnormalities of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and early stage of apoptosis. In summary, our study suggests that the water soluble and orally active monomer of Chinese herbal medicine geniposide may serve as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of sporadic AD. PMID:24329968

  20. A systems model of phosphorylation for inflammatory signaling events.

    PubMed

    Sadreev, Ildar I; Chen, Michael Z Q; Welsh, Gavin I; Umezawa, Yoshinori; Kotov, Nikolay V; Valeyev, Najl V

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorylation is a fundamental biochemical reaction that modulates protein activity in cells. While a single phosphorylation event is relatively easy to understand, multisite phosphorylation requires systems approaches for deeper elucidation of the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this paper we develop a mechanistic model for single- and multi-site phosphorylation. The proposed model is compared with previously reported studies. We compare the predictions of our model with experiments published in the literature in the context of inflammatory signaling events in order to provide a mechanistic description of the multisite phosphorylation-mediated regulation of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) and Interferon Regulatory Factor 5 (IRF-5) proteins. The presented model makes crucial predictions for transcription factor phosphorylation events in the immune system. The model proposes potential mechanisms for T cell phenotype switching and production of cytokines. This study also provides a generic framework for the better understanding of a large number of multisite phosphorylation-regulated biochemical circuits.

  1. Structural Mechanism for Regulation of Bcl-2 protein Noxa by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Christine B.; Michel Espinoza-Fonseca, L.; James, Zachary M.; Hanse, Eric A.; Gaynes, Jeffrey S.; Thomas, David D.; Kelekar, Ameeta

    2015-01-01

    We showed previously that phosphorylation of Noxa, a 54-residue Bcl-2 protein, at serine 13 (Ser13) inhibited its ability to promote apoptosis through interactions with canonical binding partner, Mcl-1. Using EPR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding assays, we offer evidence that a structural alteration caused by phosphorylation partially masks Noxa’s BH3 domain, inhibiting the Noxa-Mcl-1 interaction. EPR of unphosphorylated Noxa, with spin-labeled amino acid TOAC incorporated within the BH3 domain, revealed equilibrium between ordered and dynamically disordered states. Mcl-1 further restricted the ordered component for non-phosphorylated Noxa, but left the pSer13 Noxa profile unchanged. Microsecond MD simulations indicated that the BH3 domain of unphosphorylated Noxa is housed within a flexible loop connecting two antiparallel β-sheets, flanked by disordered N- and C-termini and Ser13 phosphorylation creates a network of salt-bridges that facilitate the interaction between the N-terminus and the BH3 domain. EPR showed that a spin label inserted near the N-terminus was weakly immobilized in unphosphorylated Noxa, consistent with a solvent-exposed helix/loop, but strongly constrained in pSer13 Noxa, indicating a more ordered peptide backbone, as predicted by MD simulations. Together these studies reveal a novel mechanism by which phosphorylation of a distal serine inhibits a pro-apoptotic BH3 domain and promotes cell survival. PMID:26411306

  2. An Amino Terminal Phosphorylation Motif Regulates Intranuclear Compartmentalization of Olig2 in Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Dimphna H.; Sun, Yu; Liu, Tao; Kane, Michael F.; Alberta, John A.; Adelmant, Guillaume; Kupp, Robert; Marto, Jarrod A.; Rowitch, David H.; Nakatani, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    The bHLH transcription factor Olig2 is expressed in cycling neural progenitor cells but also in terminally differentiated, myelinating oligodendrocytes. Sustained expression of Olig2 is counterintuitive because all known functions of the protein in expansion of neural progenitors and specification of oligodendrocyte progenitors are completed with the formation of mature white matter. How are the biological functions of Olig2 suppressed in terminally differentiated oligodendrocytes? In previous studies, we have shown that a triple serine motif in the amino terminus of Olig2 is phosphorylated in cycling neural progenitors but not in their differentiated progeny. We now show that phosphorylation of the triple serine motif regulates intranuclear compartmentalization of murine Olig2. Phosphorylated Olig2 is preferentially localized to a transcriptionally active “open” chromatin compartment together with coregulator proteins essential for regulation of gene expression. Unphosphorylated Olig2, as seen in mature white matter, is localized mainly within a transcriptionally inactive, chromatin fraction characterized by condensed and inaccessible DNA. Of special note is the observation that the p53 tumor suppressor protein is confined to the open chromatin fraction. Proximity ligation assays show that phosphorylation brings Olig2 within 30 nm of p53 within the open chromatin compartment. The data thus shed light on previously noted promitogenic functions of phosphorylated Olig2, which reflect, at least in part, an oppositional relationship with p53 functions. PMID:24948806

  3. FAK phosphorylation at Tyr-925 regulates cross-talk between focal adhesion turnover and cell protrusion

    PubMed Central

    Deramaudt, Therese B.; Dujardin, Denis; Hamadi, Abdelkader; Noulet, Fanny; Kolli, Kaouther; De Mey, Jan; Takeda, Kenneth; Rondé, Philippe

    2011-01-01

     Cell migration is a highly complex process that requires the coordinated formation of membrane protrusion and focal adhesions (FAs). Focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a major signaling component of FAs, is involved in the disassembly process of FAs through phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of its tyrosine residues, but the role of such phosphorylations in nascent FA formation and turnover near the cell front and in cell protrusion is less well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that, depending on the phosphorylation status of Tyr-925 residue, FAK modulates cell migration via two specific mechanisms. FAK−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) expressing nonphosphorylatable Y925F-FAK show increased interactions between FAK and unphosphorylated paxillin, which lead to FA stabilization and thus decreased FA turnover and reduced cell migration. Conversely, MEFs expressing phosphomimetic Y925E-FAK display unchanged FA disassembly rates, show increase in phosphorylated paxillin in FAs, and exhibit increased formation of nascent FAs at the cell leading edges. Moreover, Y925E-FAK cells present enhanced cell protrusion together with activation of the p130CAS/Dock180/Rac1 signaling pathway. Together, our results demonstrate that phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 is required for FAK-mediated cell migration and cell protrusion. PMID:21289086

  4. Structural Mechanism for Regulation of Bcl-2 protein Noxa by phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Christine B.; Michel Espinoza-Fonseca, L.; James, Zachary M.; Hanse, Eric A.; Gaynes, Jeffrey S.; Thomas, David D.; Kelekar, Ameeta

    2015-09-01

    We showed previously that phosphorylation of Noxa, a 54-residue Bcl-2 protein, at serine 13 (Ser13) inhibited its ability to promote apoptosis through interactions with canonical binding partner, Mcl-1. Using EPR spectroscopy, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and binding assays, we offer evidence that a structural alteration caused by phosphorylation partially masks Noxa’s BH3 domain, inhibiting the Noxa-Mcl-1 interaction. EPR of unphosphorylated Noxa, with spin-labeled amino acid TOAC incorporated within the BH3 domain, revealed equilibrium between ordered and dynamically disordered states. Mcl-1 further restricted the ordered component for non-phosphorylated Noxa, but left the pSer13 Noxa profile unchanged. Microsecond MD simulations indicated that the BH3 domain of unphosphorylated Noxa is housed within a flexible loop connecting two antiparallel β-sheets, flanked by disordered N- and C-termini and Ser13 phosphorylation creates a network of salt-bridges that facilitate the interaction between the N-terminus and the BH3 domain. EPR showed that a spin label inserted near the N-terminus was weakly immobilized in unphosphorylated Noxa, consistent with a solvent-exposed helix/loop, but strongly constrained in pSer13 Noxa, indicating a more ordered peptide backbone, as predicted by MD simulations. Together these studies reveal a novel mechanism by which phosphorylation of a distal serine inhibits a pro-apoptotic BH3 domain and promotes cell survival.

  5. Phosphorylation of farnesoid X receptor by protein kinase C promotes its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Gineste, Romain; Sirvent, Audrey; Paumelle, Réjane; Helleboid, Stéphane; Aquilina, Alexis; Darteil, Raphaël; Hum, Dean W; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2008-11-01

    The farnesoid X receptor (FXR, NR1H4) belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily and is activated by bile acids such as chenodeoxycholic acid, or synthetic ligands such as GW4064. FXR is implicated in the regulation of bile acid, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism. Posttranslational modifications regulating its activity have not been investigated yet. Here, we demonstrate that calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition impairs ligand-mediated regulation of FXR target genes. Moreover, in a transactivation assay, we show that FXR transcriptional activity is modulated by PKC. Furthermore, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate , a PKC activator, induces the phosphorylation of endogenous FXR in HepG2 cells and PKCalpha phosphorylates in vitro FXR in its DNA-binding domain on S135 and S154. Mutation of S135 and S154 to alanine residues reduces in cell FXR phosphorylation. In contrast to wild-type FXR, mutant FXRS135AS154A displays an impaired PKCalpha-induced transactivation and a decreased ligand-dependent FXR transactivation. Finally, phosphorylation of FXR by PKC promotes the recruitment of peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1alpha. In conclusion, these findings show that the phosphorylation of FXR induced by PKCalpha directly modulates the ability of agonists to activate FXR.

  6. The cytosolic tail of the tumor marker protein Trop2 - a structural switch triggered by phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavšič, Miha; Ilc, Gregor; Vidmar, Tilen; Plavec, Janez; Lenarčič, Brigita

    2015-05-01

    Trop2 is a transmembrane signaling glycoprotein upre