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Sample records for shows high selectivity

  1. A high surface area Zr(IV)-based metal–organic framework showing stepwise gas adsorption and selective dye uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Xiu-Liang; Tong, Minman; Huang, Hongliang

    2015-03-15

    Exploitation of new metal–organic framework (MOF) materials with high surface areas has been attracting great attention in related research communities due to their broad potential applications. In this work, a new Zr(IV)-based MOF, [Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4}(eddb){sub 6}] (BUT-30, H{sub 2}eddb=4,4′-(ethyne-1,2-diyl)dibenzoic acid) has been solvothermally synthesized, characterized, and explored for gases and dyes adsorptions. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrates a three-dimensional cubic framework structure of this MOF, in which each Zr{sub 6}O{sub 4}(OH){sub 4} building unit is linked by 12 linear eddb ligands. BUT-30 has been found stable up to 400 °C and has a Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area asmore » high as 3940.6 m{sup 2} g{sup −1} (based on the N{sub 2} adsorption at 77 K) and total pore volume of 1.55 cm{sup 3} g{sup −1}. It is more interesting that this MOF exhibits stepwise adsorption behaviors for Ar, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} at low temperatures, and selective uptakes towards different ionic dyes. - Graphical abstract: A new Zr(IV)-based MOF with high surface area has been synthesized and structurally characterized, which shows stepwise gas adsorption at low temperature and selective dye uptake from solution. - Highlights: • A new Zr-based MOF was synthesized and structurally characterized. • This MOF shows a higher surface area compared with its analogous UiO-67 and 68. • This MOF shows a rare stepwise adsorption towards light gases at low temperature. • This MOF performs selective uptakes towards cationic dyes over anionic ones. • Using triple-bond spacer is confirmed feasible in enhancing MOF surface areas.« less

  2. Low-stringency selection of TEM1 for BLIP shows interface plasticity and selection for faster binders

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Khait, Ruth; Schreiber, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Protein–protein interactions occur via well-defined interfaces on the protein surface. Whereas the location of homologous interfaces is conserved, their composition varies, suggesting that multiple solutions may support high-affinity binding. In this study, we examined the plasticity of the interface of TEM1 β-lactamase with its protein inhibitor BLIP by low-stringency selection of a random TEM1 library using yeast surface display. Our results show that most interfacial residues could be mutated without a loss in binding affinity, protein stability, or enzymatic activity, suggesting plasticity in the interface composition supporting high-affinity binding. Interestingly, many of the selected mutations promoted faster association. Further selection for faster binders was achieved by drastically decreasing the library–ligand incubation time to 30 s. Preequilibrium selection as suggested here is a novel methodology for specifically selecting faster-associating protein complexes. PMID:27956635

  3. A novel lectin from Agrocybe aegerita shows high binding selectivity for terminal N-acetylglucosamine

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shuai; Chen, Yijie; Wang, Man; Yin, Yalin; Pan, Yongfu; Gu, Bianli; Yu, Guojun; Li, Yamu; Wong, Barry Hon Cheung; Liang, Yi; Sun, Hui

    2012-01-01

    A novel lectin was isolated from the mushroom Agrocybe aegerita (designated AAL-2) by affinity chromatography with GlcNAc (N-acetylglucosamine)-coupled Sepharose 6B after ammonium sulfate precipitation. The AAL-2 coding sequence (1224 bp) was identified by performing a homologous search of the five tryptic peptides identified by MS against the translated transcriptome of A. aegerita. The molecular mass of AAL-2 was calculated to be 43.175 kDa from MS, which was consistent with the data calculated from the amino acid sequence. To analyse the carbohydrate-binding properties of AAL-2, a glycan array composed of 465 glycan candidates was employed, and the result showed that AAL-2 bound with high selectivity to terminal non-reducing GlcNAc residues, and further analysis revealed that AAL-2 bound to terminal non-reducing GlcNAc residues with higher affinity than previously well-known GlcNAc-binding lectins such as WGA (wheatgerm agglutinin) and GSL-II (Griffonia simplicifolia lectin-II). ITC (isothermal titration calorimetry) showed further that GlcNAc bound to AAL-2 in a sequential manner with moderate affinity. In the present study, we also evaluated the anti-tumour activity of AAL-2. The results showed that AAL-2 could bind to the surface of hepatoma cells, leading to induced cell apoptosis in vitro. Furthermore, AAL-2 exerted an anti-hepatoma effect via inhibition of tumour growth and prolongation of survival time of tumour-bearing mice in vivo. PMID:22268569

  4. FOXP2 Targets Show Evidence of Positive Selection in European Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ayub, Qasim; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Hu, Min; Vernes, Sonja C.; Fisher, Simon E.; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined whether or not putative FOXP2 targets identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation genomic screening show evidence of positive selection. We developed an algorithm that, for any given gene list, systematically generates matched lists of control genes from the Ensembl database, collates summary statistics for three frequency-spectrum-based neutrality tests from the low-coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and determines whether these statistics are significantly different between the given gene targets and the set of controls. Overall, there was strong evidence of selection of FOXP2 targets in Europeans, but not in the Han Chinese, Japanese, or Yoruba populations. Significant outliers included several genes linked to cellular movement, reproduction, development, and immune cell trafficking, and 13 of these constituted a significant network associated with cardiac arteriopathy. Strong signals of selection were observed for CNTNAP2 and RBFOX1, key neurally expressed genes that have been consistently identified as direct FOXP2 targets in multiple studies and that have themselves been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language dysfunction. PMID:23602712

  5. FOXP2 targets show evidence of positive selection in European populations.

    PubMed

    Ayub, Qasim; Yngvadottir, Bryndis; Chen, Yuan; Xue, Yali; Hu, Min; Vernes, Sonja C; Fisher, Simon E; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2013-05-02

    Forkhead box P2 (FOXP2) is a highly conserved transcription factor that has been implicated in human speech and language disorders and plays important roles in the plasticity of the developing brain. The pattern of nucleotide polymorphisms in FOXP2 in modern populations suggests that it has been the target of positive (Darwinian) selection during recent human evolution. In our study, we searched for evidence of selection that might have followed FOXP2 adaptations in modern humans. We examined whether or not putative FOXP2 targets identified by chromatin-immunoprecipitation genomic screening show evidence of positive selection. We developed an algorithm that, for any given gene list, systematically generates matched lists of control genes from the Ensembl database, collates summary statistics for three frequency-spectrum-based neutrality tests from the low-coverage resequencing data of the 1000 Genomes Project, and determines whether these statistics are significantly different between the given gene targets and the set of controls. Overall, there was strong evidence of selection of FOXP2 targets in Europeans, but not in the Han Chinese, Japanese, or Yoruba populations. Significant outliers included several genes linked to cellular movement, reproduction, development, and immune cell trafficking, and 13 of these constituted a significant network associated with cardiac arteriopathy. Strong signals of selection were observed for CNTNAP2 and RBFOX1, key neurally expressed genes that have been consistently identified as direct FOXP2 targets in multiple studies and that have themselves been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders involving language dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Human Commercial Models' Eye Colour Shows Negative Frequency-Dependent Selection.

    PubMed

    Forti, Isabela Rodrigues Nogueira; Young, Robert John

    2016-01-01

    In this study we investigated the eye colour of human commercial models registered in the UK (400 female and 400 male) and Brazil (400 female and 400 male) to test the hypothesis that model eye colour frequency was the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. The eye colours of the models were classified as: blue, brown or intermediate. Chi-square analyses of data for countries separated by sex showed that in the United Kingdom brown eyes and intermediate colours were significantly more frequent than expected in comparison to the general United Kingdom population (P<0.001). In Brazil, the most frequent eye colour brown was significantly less frequent than expected in comparison to the general Brazilian population. These results support the hypothesis that model eye colour is the result of negative frequency-dependent selection. This could be the result of people using eye colour as a marker of genetic diversity and finding rarer eye colours more attractive because of the potential advantage more genetically diverse offspring that could result from such a choice. Eye colour may be important because in comparison to many other physical traits (e.g., hair colour) it is hard to modify, hide or disguise, and it is highly polymorphic.

  7. Macrocyclic receptor showing extremely high Sr(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Ca(II) selectivities with potential application in chelation treatment of metal intoxication.

    PubMed

    Ferreirós-Martínez, Raquel; Esteban-Gómez, David; Tóth, Éva; de Blas, Andrés; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa

    2011-04-18

    Herein we report a detailed investigation of the complexation properties of the macrocyclic decadentate receptor N,N'-Bis[(6-carboxy-2-pyridil)methyl]-4,13-diaza-18-crown-6 (H(2)bp18c6) toward different divalent metal ions [Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Sr(II), and Ca(II)] in aqueous solution. We have found that this ligand is especially suited for the complexation of large metal ions such as Sr(II) and Pb(II), which results in very high Pb(II)/Ca(II) and Pb(II)/Zn(II) selectivities (in fact, higher than those found for ligands widely used for the treatment of lead poisoning such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (edta)), as well as in the highest Sr(II)/Ca(II) selectivity reported so far. These results have been rationalized on the basis of the structure of the complexes. X-ray crystal diffraction, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy, as well as theoretical calculations at the density functional theory (B3LYP) level have been performed. Our results indicate that for large metal ions such as Pb(II) and Sr(II) the most stable conformation is Δ(δλδ)(δλδ), while for Ca(II) our calculations predict the Δ(λδλ)(λδλ) form being the most stable one. The selectivity that bp18c6(2-) shows for Sr(II) over Ca(II) can be attributed to a better fit between the large Sr(II) ions and the relatively large crown fragment of the ligand. The X-ray crystal structure of the Pb(II) complex shows that the Δ(δλδ)(δλδ) conformation observed in solution is also maintained in the solid state. The Pb(II) ion is endocyclically coordinated, being directly bound to the 10 donor atoms of the ligand. The bond distances to the donor atoms of the pendant arms (2.55-2.60 Å) are substantially shorter than those between the metal ion and the donor atoms of the crown moiety (2.92-3.04 Å). This is a typical situation observed for the so-called hemidirected compounds, in which the Pb(II) lone pair is stereochemically active. The X-ray structures of the Zn(II) and Cd(II) complexes show that

  8. DNA sequence-selective C8-linked pyrrolobenzodiazepine-heterocyclic polyamide conjugates show anti-tubercular-specific activities.

    PubMed

    Brucoli, Federico; Guzman, Juan D; Basher, Mohammad A; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios; McMahon, Eleanor; Munshi, Tulika; McHugh, Timothy D; Fox, Keith R; Bhakta, Sanjib

    2016-12-01

    New chemotherapeutic agents with novel mechanisms of action are in urgent need to combat the tuberculosis pandemic. A library of 12 C8-linked pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepine (PBD)-heterocyclic polyamide conjugates (1-12) was evaluated for anti-tubercular activity and DNA sequence selectivity. The PBD conjugates were screened against slow-growing Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin and M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv, and fast-growing Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida and Rhodococcus sp. RHA1 bacteria. DNase I footprinting and DNA thermal denaturation experiments were used to determine the molecules' DNA recognition properties. The PBD conjugates were highly selective for the mycobacterial strains and exhibited significant growth inhibitory activity against the pathogenic M. tuberculosis H 37 Rv, with compound 4 showing MIC values (MIC=0.08 mg l -1 ) similar to those of rifampin and isoniazid. DNase I footprinting results showed that the PBD conjugates with three heterocyclic moieties had enhanced sequence selectivity and produced larger footprints, with distinct cleavage patterns compared with the two-heterocyclic chain PBD conjugates. DNA melting experiments indicated a covalent binding of the PBD conjugates to two AT-rich DNA-duplexes containing either a central GGATCC or GTATAC sequence, and showed that the polyamide chains affect the interactions of the molecules with DNA. The PBD-C8 conjugates tested in this study have a remarkable anti-mycobacterial activity and can be further developed as DNA-targeted anti-tubercular drugs.

  9. Spathaspora passalidarum selected for resistance to AFEX hydrolysate shows decreased cell yield.

    PubMed

    Su, Yi-Kai; Willis, Laura B; Rehmann, Lars; Smith, David; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2018-06-21

    This study employed cell recycling, batch adaptation, cell mating and high throughput screening to select adapted Spathaspora passalidarum strains with improved fermentative ability.The most promising candidate, YK208-E11 (E11) showed a 3-fold increase in specific fermentation rate compared to the parental strain and an ethanol yield greater than 0.45 g/g substrate while co-utilizing cellobiose, glucose, and xylose. Further characterization showed that strain E11 also makes 40% less biomass compared to the parental strain when cultivated in rich media under aerobic conditions. A tetrazolium agar overlay assay in the presence of respiration inhibitors, including rotenone, antimycin A, KCN, and salicylhydroxamic acid elucidated the nature of the mutational events. Results indicated that E11 has a deficiency in its respiration system that could contribute to its low cell yield. Strain E11 was subjected to whole genome sequencing and a ∼11 kb deletion was identified; the open reading frames absent in strain E11 code for proteins with predicted functions in respiration, cell division and the actin cytoskeleton, and may contribute to the observed physiology of the adapted strain. Results of the tetrazolium overlay also suggest that cultivation on xylose affects the respiration capacity in the wild-type strain, which could account for its faster fermentation of xylose as compared to glucose. These results support our previous finding that S. passalidarum has highly unusual physiological responses to xylose under oxygen limitation.

  10. Highly selective covalent organic functionalization of epitaxial graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Rebeca A.; Martínez, José I.; Luccas, Roberto F.; Del Árbol, Nerea Ruiz; Munuera, Carmen; Palacio, Irene; Palomares, Francisco J.; Lauwaet, Koen; Thakur, Sangeeta; Baranowski, Jacek M.; Strupinski, Wlodek; López, María F.; Mompean, Federico; García-Hernández, Mar; Martín-Gago, José A.

    2017-05-01

    Graphene functionalization with organics is expected to be an important step for the development of graphene-based materials with tailored electronic properties. However, its high chemical inertness makes difficult a controlled and selective covalent functionalization, and most of the works performed up to the date report electrostatic molecular adsorption or unruly functionalization. We show hereafter a mechanism for promoting highly specific covalent bonding of any amino-terminated molecule and a description of the operating processes. We show, by different experimental techniques and theoretical methods, that the excess of charge at carbon dangling-bonds formed on single-atomic vacancies at the graphene surface induces enhanced reactivity towards a selective oxidation of the amino group and subsequent integration of the nitrogen within the graphene network. Remarkably, functionalized surfaces retain the electronic properties of pristine graphene. This study opens the door for development of graphene-based interfaces, as nano-bio-hybrid composites, fabrication of dielectrics, plasmonics or spintronics.

  11. A Selective Overview of Variable Selection in High Dimensional Feature Space

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing

    2010-01-01

    High dimensional statistical problems arise from diverse fields of scientific research and technological development. Variable selection plays a pivotal role in contemporary statistical learning and scientific discoveries. The traditional idea of best subset selection methods, which can be regarded as a specific form of penalized likelihood, is computationally too expensive for many modern statistical applications. Other forms of penalized likelihood methods have been successfully developed over the last decade to cope with high dimensionality. They have been widely applied for simultaneously selecting important variables and estimating their effects in high dimensional statistical inference. In this article, we present a brief account of the recent developments of theory, methods, and implementations for high dimensional variable selection. What limits of the dimensionality such methods can handle, what the role of penalty functions is, and what the statistical properties are rapidly drive the advances of the field. The properties of non-concave penalized likelihood and its roles in high dimensional statistical modeling are emphasized. We also review some recent advances in ultra-high dimensional variable selection, with emphasis on independence screening and two-scale methods. PMID:21572976

  12. In vitro selection of high temperature Zn(2+)-dependent DNAzymes.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kevin E; Bruesehoff, Peter J; Lu, Yi

    2005-08-01

    In vitro selection of Zn(2+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzymes with activity at 90 degrees C has yielded a diverse spool of selected sequences. The RNA cleavage efficiency was found in all cases to be specific for Zn(2+) over Pb(2+), Ca(2+), Cd(2+), Co(2+), Hg(2+), and Mg(2+). The Zn(2+)-dependent activity assay of the most active sequence showed that the DNAzyme possesses an apparent Zn(2+)-binding dissociation constant of 234 muM and that its activity increases with increasing temperatures from 50-90 degrees C. A fit of the Arrhenius plot data gave E(a) = 15.3 kcal mol(-1). Surprisingly, the selected Zn(2+)-dependent DNAzymes showed only a modest (approximately 3-fold) activity enhancement over the background rate of cleavage of random sequences containing a single embedded ribonucleotide within an otherwise DNA oligonucleotide. The result is attributable to the ability of DNA to sustain cleavage activity at high temperature with minimal secondary structure when Zn(2+) is present. Since this effect is highly specific for Zn(2+), this metal ion may play a special role in molecular evolution of nucleic acids at high temperature.

  13. Identifying positive selection candidate loci for high-altitude adaptation in Andean populations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    High-altitude environments (>2,500 m) provide scientists with a natural laboratory to study the physiological and genetic effects of low ambient oxygen tension on human populations. One approach to understanding how life at high altitude has affected human metabolism is to survey genome-wide datasets for signatures of natural selection. In this work, we report on a study to identify selection-nominated candidate genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia in one highland group, Andeans from the South American Altiplano. We analysed dense microarray genotype data using four test statistics that detect departures from neutrality. Using a candidate gene, single nucleotide polymorphism-based approach, we identified genes exhibiting preliminary evidence of recent genetic adaptation in this population. These included genes that are part of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF) pathway, a biochemical pathway involved in oxygen homeostasis, as well as three other genomic regions previously not known to be associated with high-altitude phenotypes. In addition to identifying selection-nominated candidate genes, we also tested whether the HIF pathway shows evidence of natural selection. Our results indicate that the genes of this biochemical pathway as a group show no evidence of having evolved in response to hypoxia in Andeans. Results from particular HIF-targeted genes, however, suggest that genes in this pathway could play a role in Andean adaptation to high altitude, even if the pathway as a whole does not show higher relative rates of evolution. These data suggest a genetic role in high-altitude adaptation and provide a basis for genotype/phenotype association studies that are necessary to confirm the role of putative natural selection candidate genes and gene regions in adaptation to altitude. PMID:20038496

  14. How can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection in health insurance markets? Conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Wynand P M M; van Vliet, René C J A; van Kleef, Richard C

    2017-03-01

    If consumers have a choice of health plan, risk selection is often a serious problem (e.g., as in Germany, Israel, the Netherlands, the United States of America, and Switzerland). Risk selection may threaten the quality of care for chronically ill people, and may reduce the affordability and efficiency of healthcare. Therefore, an important question is: how can the regulator show evidence of (no) risk selection? Although this seems easy, showing such evidence is not straightforward. The novelty of this paper is two-fold. First, we provide a conceptual framework for showing evidence of risk selection in competitive health insurance markets. It is not easy to disentangle risk selection and the insurers' efficiency. We suggest two methods to measure risk selection that are not biased by the insurers' efficiency. Because these measures underestimate the true risk selection, we also provide a list of signals of selection that can be measured and that, in particular in combination, can show evidence of risk selection. It is impossible to show the absence of risk selection. Second, we empirically measure risk selection among the switchers, taking into account the insurers' efficiency. Based on 2-year administrative data on healthcare expenses and risk characteristics of nearly all individuals with basic health insurance in the Netherlands (N > 16 million) we find significant risk selection for most health insurers. This is the first publication of hard empirical evidence of risk selection in the Dutch health insurance market.

  15. a Band Selection Method for High Precision Registration of Hyperspectral Image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, H.; Li, X.

    2018-04-01

    During the registration of hyperspectral images and high spatial resolution images, too much bands in a hyperspectral image make it difficult to select bands with good registration performance. Terrible bands are possible to reduce matching speed and accuracy. To solve this problem, an algorithm based on Cram'er-Rao lower bound theory is proposed to select good matching bands in this paper. The algorithm applies the Cram'er-Rao lower bound theory to the study of registration accuracy, and selects good matching bands by CRLB parameters. Experiments show that the algorithm in this paper can choose good matching bands and provide better data for the registration of hyperspectral image and high spatial resolution image.

  16. MHC ANTIGEN-BINDING LOCUS SHOWS STRONG SIGNAL OF SELECTION AND HIGH VARIABILITY IN FUNDULUS HETEROCLITUS POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major histocompatibility system provides a unique genetic locus in vertebrates to assess genetic diversity and to look for the effects of selecti.on on the immune system. Fish population studies using MHC are fairly new, and thus far they have focused on endangered population...

  17. DRD4 long allele carriers show heightened attention to high-priority items relative to low-priority items.

    PubMed

    Gorlick, Marissa A; Worthy, Darrell A; Knopik, Valerie S; McGeary, John E; Beevers, Christopher G; Maddox, W Todd

    2015-03-01

    Humans with seven or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Although the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily serve as a "risk" gene for attentional deficits, but as a plasticity gene where attention is heightened for priority items in the environment and impaired for minor items. Here we examine the role of DRD4 in two tasks that benefit from selective attention to high-priority information. We examine a category learning task where performance is supported by focusing on features and updating verbal rules. Here, selective attention to the most salient features is associated with good performance. In addition, we examine the Operation Span (OSPAN) task, a working memory capacity task that relies on selective attention to update and maintain items in memory while also performing a secondary task. Long DRD4 carriers show superior performance relative to short DRD4 homozygotes (six or less tandem repeats) in both the category learning and OSPAN tasks. These results suggest that DRD4 may serve as a "plasticity" gene where individuals with the long allele show heightened selective attention to high-priority items in the environment, which can be beneficial in the appropriate context.

  18. DRD4 Long Allele Carriers Show Heightened Attention to High-Priority Items Relative to Low-Priority Items

    PubMed Central

    Gorlick, Marissa A.; Worthy, Darrell A.; Knopik, Valerie S.; McGeary, John E.; Beevers, Christopher G.; Maddox, W. Todd

    2014-01-01

    Humans with 7 or more repeats in exon III of the DRD4 gene (long DRD4 carriers) sometimes demonstrate impaired attention, as seen in ADHD, and at other times demonstrate heightened attention, as seen in addictive behavior. Though the clinical effects of DRD4 are the focus of much work, this gene may not necessarily serve as a ‘risk’ gene for attentional deficits, but as a plasticity gene where attention is heightened for priority items in the environment and impaired for minor items. Here we examine the role of DRD4 in two tasks that benefit from selective attention to high-priority information. We examine a category learning task where performance is supported by focusing on features and updating verbal rules. Here selective attention to the most salient features is associated with good performance. In addition, we examine the Operation Span Task (OSPAN), a working memory capacity task that relies on selective attention to update and maintain items in memory while also performing a secondary task. Long DRD4 carriers show superior performance relative to short DRD4 homozygotes (six or less tandem repeats) in both the category learning and OSPAN tasks. These results suggest that DRD4 may serve as a ‘plasticity’ gene where individuals with the long allele show heightened selective attention to high-priority items in the environment, which can be beneficial in the appropriate context. PMID:25244120

  19. Effects of surface diffusion on high temperature selective emitters

    DOE PAGES

    Peykov, Daniel; Yeng, Yi Xiang; Celanovic, Ivan; ...

    2015-01-01

    Using morphological and optical simulations of 1D tantalum photonic crystals at 1200K, surface diffusion was determined to gradually reduce the efficiency of selective emitters. This was attributed to shifting resonance peaks and declining emissivity caused by changes to the cavity dimensions and the aperture width. Decreasing the structure’s curvature through larger periods and smaller cavity widths, as well as generating smoother transitions in curvature through the introduction of rounded cavities, was found to alleviate this degradation. An optimized structure, that shows both high efficiency selective emissivity and resistance to surface diffusion, was presented.

  20. Miniaturizable Ion-Selective Arrays Based on Highly Stable Polymer Membranes for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mir, Mònica; Lugo, Roberto; Tahirbegi, Islam Bogachan; Samitier, Josep

    2014-01-01

    Poly(vinylchloride) (PVC) is the most common polymer matrix used in the fabrication of ion-selective electrodes (ISEs). However, the surfaces of PVC-based sensors have been reported to show membrane instability. In an attempt to overcome this limitation, here we developed two alternative methods for the preparation of highly stable and robust ion-selective sensors. These platforms are based on the selective electropolymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), where the sulfur atoms contained in the polymer covalently interact with the gold electrode, also permitting controlled selective attachment on a miniaturized electrode in an array format. This platform sensor was improved with the crosslinking of the membrane compounds with poly(ethyleneglycol) diglycidyl ether (PEG), thus also increasing the biocompatibility of the sensor. The resulting ISE membranes showed faster signal stabilization of the sensor response compared with that of the PVC matrix and also better reproducibility and stability, thus making these platforms highly suitable candidates for the manufacture of robust implantable sensors. PMID:24999717

  1. A Potent and Selective Quinoxalinone-Based STK33 Inhibitor Does Not Show Synthetic Lethality in KRAS-Dependent Cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The KRAS oncogene is found in up to 30% of all human tumors. In 2009, RNAi experiments revealed that lowering mRNA levels of a transcript encoding the serine/threonine kinase STK33 was selectively toxic to KRAS-dependent cancer cell lines, suggesting that small-molecule inhibitors of STK33 might selectively target KRAS-dependent cancers. To test this hypothesis, we initiated a high-throughput screen using compounds in the Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository (MLSMR). Several hits were identified, and one of these, a quinoxalinone derivative, was optimized. Extensive SAR studies were performed and led to the chemical probe ML281 that showed low nanomolar inhibition of purified recombinant STK33 and a distinct selectivity profile as compared to other STK33 inhibitors that were reported in the course of these studies. Even at the highest concentration tested (10 μM), ML281 had no effect on the viability of KRAS-dependent cancer cells. These results are consistent with other recent reports using small-molecule STK33 inhibitors. Small molecules having different chemical structures and kinase-selectivity profiles are needed to fully understand the role of STK33 in KRAS-dependent cancers. In this regard, ML281 is a valuable addition to small-molecule probes of STK33. PMID:23256033

  2. Fabrication of highly selective tungsten oxide ammonia sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Llobet, E.; Molas, G.; Molinas, P.

    Tungsten oxide is shown to be a very promising material for the fabrication of highly selective ammonia sensors. Films of WO{sub 3} were deposited onto a silicon substrate by means of the drop-coating method. Then, the films were annealed in dry air at two different temperatures (300 and 400 C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to investigate the composition of the films. Tungsten appeared both in WO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} oxidation states, but the second state was clearly dominant. Scanning electron microscopy results showed that the oxide was amorphous or nanocrystalline. The WO{sub 3}-based devices were sensitive to ammoniamore » vapors when operated between 250 and 350 C. The optimal operating temperature for the highest sensitivity to ammonia was 300 C. Furthermore, when the devices were operated at 300 C, their sensitivity to other reducing species such as ethanol, methane, toluene, and water vapor was significantly lower, and this resulted in a high selectivity to ammonia. A model for the sensing mechanisms of the fabricated sensors is proposed.« less

  3. Bacteria Associated to Plants Naturally Selected in a Historical PCB Polluted Soil Show Potential to Sustain Natural Attenuation.

    PubMed

    Vergani, Lorenzo; Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Fusi, Marco; Di Guardo, Antonio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of the association between plants and microorganisms is a promising approach able to boost natural attenuation processes for soil clean-up in vast polluted areas characterized by mixed chemical contamination. We aimed to explore the selection of root-associated bacterial communities driven by different plant species spontaneously established in abandoned agricultural soils within a historical polluted site in north Italy. The site is highly contaminated by chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, mainly constituted by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), together with heavy metals and metalloids, in variable concentrations and uneven distribution. The overall structure of the non-vegetated and root-associated soil fractions bacterial communities was described by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and a collection of 165 rhizobacterial isolates able to use biphenyl as unique carbon source was assayed for plant growth promotion (PGP) traits and bioremediation potential. The results showed that the recruitment of specific bacterial communities in the root-associated soil fractions was driven by both soil fractions and plant species, explaining 21 and 18% of the total bacterial microbiome variation, respectively. PCR-based detection in the soil metagenome of bacterial bphA gene, encoding for the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunit, indicated that the soil in the site possesses metabolic traits linked to PCB degradation. Biphenyl-utilizing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the three different plant species showed low phylogenetic diversity and well represented functional traits, in terms of PGP and bioremediation potential. On average, 72% of the strains harbored the bphA gene and/or displayed catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity, involved in aromatic ring cleavage. PGP traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity potentially associated to plant stress tolerance induction, were widely distributed among the isolates

  4. Bacteria Associated to Plants Naturally Selected in a Historical PCB Polluted Soil Show Potential to Sustain Natural Attenuation

    PubMed Central

    Vergani, Lorenzo; Mapelli, Francesca; Marasco, Ramona; Crotti, Elena; Fusi, Marco; Di Guardo, Antonio; Armiraglio, Stefano; Daffonchio, Daniele; Borin, Sara

    2017-01-01

    The exploitation of the association between plants and microorganisms is a promising approach able to boost natural attenuation processes for soil clean-up in vast polluted areas characterized by mixed chemical contamination. We aimed to explore the selection of root-associated bacterial communities driven by different plant species spontaneously established in abandoned agricultural soils within a historical polluted site in north Italy. The site is highly contaminated by chlorinated persistent organic pollutants, mainly constituted by polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), together with heavy metals and metalloids, in variable concentrations and uneven distribution. The overall structure of the non-vegetated and root-associated soil fractions bacterial communities was described by high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, and a collection of 165 rhizobacterial isolates able to use biphenyl as unique carbon source was assayed for plant growth promotion (PGP) traits and bioremediation potential. The results showed that the recruitment of specific bacterial communities in the root-associated soil fractions was driven by both soil fractions and plant species, explaining 21 and 18% of the total bacterial microbiome variation, respectively. PCR-based detection in the soil metagenome of bacterial bphA gene, encoding for the biphenyl dioxygenase α subunit, indicated that the soil in the site possesses metabolic traits linked to PCB degradation. Biphenyl-utilizing bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of the three different plant species showed low phylogenetic diversity and well represented functional traits, in terms of PGP and bioremediation potential. On average, 72% of the strains harbored the bphA gene and/or displayed catechol 2,3-dioxygenase activity, involved in aromatic ring cleavage. PGP traits, including 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity potentially associated to plant stress tolerance induction, were widely distributed among the isolates

  5. Cell type-selective disease-association of genes under high regulatory load.

    PubMed

    Galhardo, Mafalda; Berninger, Philipp; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Sauter, Thomas; Sinkkonen, Lasse

    2015-10-15

    We previously showed that disease-linked metabolic genes are often under combinatorial regulation. Using the genome-wide ChIP-Seq binding profiles for 93 transcription factors in nine different cell lines, we show that genes under high regulatory load are significantly enriched for disease-association across cell types. We find that transcription factor load correlates with the enhancer load of the genes and thereby allows the identification of genes under high regulatory load by epigenomic mapping of active enhancers. Identification of the high enhancer load genes across 139 samples from 96 different cell and tissue types reveals a consistent enrichment for disease-associated genes in a cell type-selective manner. The underlying genes are not limited to super-enhancer genes and show several types of disease-association evidence beyond genetic variation (such as biomarkers). Interestingly, the high regulatory load genes are involved in more KEGG pathways than expected by chance, exhibit increased betweenness centrality in the interaction network of liver disease genes, and carry longer 3' UTRs with more microRNA (miRNA) binding sites than genes on average, suggesting a role as hubs integrating signals within regulatory networks. In summary, epigenetic mapping of active enhancers presents a promising and unbiased approach for identification of novel disease genes in a cell type-selective manner. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  6. Cell type-selective disease-association of genes under high regulatory load

    PubMed Central

    Galhardo, Mafalda; Berninger, Philipp; Nguyen, Thanh-Phuong; Sauter, Thomas; Sinkkonen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    We previously showed that disease-linked metabolic genes are often under combinatorial regulation. Using the genome-wide ChIP-Seq binding profiles for 93 transcription factors in nine different cell lines, we show that genes under high regulatory load are significantly enriched for disease-association across cell types. We find that transcription factor load correlates with the enhancer load of the genes and thereby allows the identification of genes under high regulatory load by epigenomic mapping of active enhancers. Identification of the high enhancer load genes across 139 samples from 96 different cell and tissue types reveals a consistent enrichment for disease-associated genes in a cell type-selective manner. The underlying genes are not limited to super-enhancer genes and show several types of disease-association evidence beyond genetic variation (such as biomarkers). Interestingly, the high regulatory load genes are involved in more KEGG pathways than expected by chance, exhibit increased betweenness centrality in the interaction network of liver disease genes, and carry longer 3′ UTRs with more microRNA (miRNA) binding sites than genes on average, suggesting a role as hubs integrating signals within regulatory networks. In summary, epigenetic mapping of active enhancers presents a promising and unbiased approach for identification of novel disease genes in a cell type-selective manner. PMID:26338775

  7. Prediction-Oriented Marker Selection (PROMISE): With Application to High-Dimensional Regression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soyeon; Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran; Lee, J Jack

    2017-06-01

    In personalized medicine, biomarkers are used to select therapies with the highest likelihood of success based on an individual patient's biomarker/genomic profile. Two goals are to choose important biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcomes and to cull unimportant biomarkers to reduce the cost of biological and clinical verifications. These goals are challenging due to the high dimensionality of genomic data. Variable selection methods based on penalized regression (e.g., the lasso and elastic net) have yielded promising results. However, selecting the right amount of penalization is critical to simultaneously achieving these two goals. Standard approaches based on cross-validation (CV) typically provide high prediction accuracy with high true positive rates but at the cost of too many false positives. Alternatively, stability selection (SS) controls the number of false positives, but at the cost of yielding too few true positives. To circumvent these issues, we propose prediction-oriented marker selection (PROMISE), which combines SS with CV to conflate the advantages of both methods. Our application of PROMISE with the lasso and elastic net in data analysis shows that, compared to CV, PROMISE produces sparse solutions, few false positives, and small type I + type II error, and maintains good prediction accuracy, with a marginal decrease in the true positive rates. Compared to SS, PROMISE offers better prediction accuracy and true positive rates. In summary, PROMISE can be applied in many fields to select regularization parameters when the goals are to minimize false positives and maximize prediction accuracy.

  8. Selecting the most appropriate time points to profile in high-throughput studies

    PubMed Central

    Kleyman, Michael; Sefer, Emre; Nicola, Teodora; Espinoza, Celia; Chhabra, Divya; Hagood, James S; Kaminski, Naftali; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Bar-Joseph, Ziv

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems are increasingly being studied by high throughput profiling of molecular data over time. Determining the set of time points to sample in studies that profile several different types of molecular data is still challenging. Here we present the Time Point Selection (TPS) method that solves this combinatorial problem in a principled and practical way. TPS utilizes expression data from a small set of genes sampled at a high rate. As we show by applying TPS to study mouse lung development, the points selected by TPS can be used to reconstruct an accurate representation for the expression values of the non selected points. Further, even though the selection is only based on gene expression, these points are also appropriate for representing a much larger set of protein, miRNA and DNA methylation changes over time. TPS can thus serve as a key design strategy for high throughput time series experiments. Supporting Website: www.sb.cs.cmu.edu/TPS DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18541.001 PMID:28124972

  9. Recent selective sweeps in North American Drosophila melanogaster show signatures of soft sweeps.

    PubMed

    Garud, Nandita R; Messer, Philipp W; Buzbas, Erkan O; Petrov, Dmitri A

    2015-02-01

    Adaptation from standing genetic variation or recurrent de novo mutation in large populations should commonly generate soft rather than hard selective sweeps. In contrast to a hard selective sweep, in which a single adaptive haplotype rises to high population frequency, in a soft selective sweep multiple adaptive haplotypes sweep through the population simultaneously, producing distinct patterns of genetic variation in the vicinity of the adaptive site. Current statistical methods were expressly designed to detect hard sweeps and most lack power to detect soft sweeps. This is particularly unfortunate for the study of adaptation in species such as Drosophila melanogaster, where all three confirmed cases of recent adaptation resulted in soft selective sweeps and where there is evidence that the effective population size relevant for recent and strong adaptation is large enough to generate soft sweeps even when adaptation requires mutation at a specific single site at a locus. Here, we develop a statistical test based on a measure of haplotype homozygosity (H12) that is capable of detecting both hard and soft sweeps with similar power. We use H12 to identify multiple genomic regions that have undergone recent and strong adaptation in a large population sample of fully sequenced Drosophila melanogaster strains from the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). Visual inspection of the top 50 candidates reveals that in all cases multiple haplotypes are present at high frequencies, consistent with signatures of soft sweeps. We further develop a second haplotype homozygosity statistic (H2/H1) that, in combination with H12, is capable of differentiating hard from soft sweeps. Surprisingly, we find that the H12 and H2/H1 values for all top 50 peaks are much more easily generated by soft rather than hard sweeps. We discuss the implications of these results for the study of adaptation in Drosophila and in species with large census population sizes.

  10. Variable Selection for Support Vector Machines in Moderately High Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Wu, Yichao; Wang, Lan; Li, Runze

    2015-01-01

    Summary The support vector machine (SVM) is a powerful binary classification tool with high accuracy and great flexibility. It has achieved great success, but its performance can be seriously impaired if many redundant covariates are included. Some efforts have been devoted to studying variable selection for SVMs, but asymptotic properties, such as variable selection consistency, are largely unknown when the number of predictors diverges to infinity. In this work, we establish a unified theory for a general class of nonconvex penalized SVMs. We first prove that in ultra-high dimensions, there exists one local minimizer to the objective function of nonconvex penalized SVMs possessing the desired oracle property. We further address the problem of nonunique local minimizers by showing that the local linear approximation algorithm is guaranteed to converge to the oracle estimator even in the ultra-high dimensional setting if an appropriate initial estimator is available. This condition on initial estimator is verified to be automatically valid as long as the dimensions are moderately high. Numerical examples provide supportive evidence. PMID:26778916

  11. Pollen-specific, but not sperm-specific, genes show stronger purifying selection and higher rates of positive selection than sporophytic genes in Capsella grandiflora.

    PubMed

    Arunkumar, Ramesh; Josephs, Emily B; Williamson, Robert J; Wright, Stephen I

    2013-11-01

    Selection on the gametophyte can be a major force shaping plant genomes as 7-11% of genes are expressed only in that phase and 60% of genes are expressed in both the gametophytic and sporophytic phases. The efficacy of selection on gametophytic tissues is likely to be influenced by sexual selection acting on male and female functions of hermaphroditic plants. Moreover, the haploid nature of the gametophytic phase allows selection to be efficient in removing recessive deleterious mutations and fixing recessive beneficial mutations. To assess the importance of gametophytic selection, we compared the strength of purifying selection and extent of positive selection on gametophyte- and sporophyte-specific genes in the highly outcrossing plant Capsella grandiflora. We found that pollen-exclusive genes had a larger fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a greater proportion of adaptive substitutions, and faster protein evolution compared with seedling-exclusive genes. In contrast, sperm cell-exclusive genes had a smaller fraction of sites under strong purifying selection, a lower proportion of adaptive substitutions, and slower protein evolution compared with seedling-exclusive genes. Observations of strong selection acting on pollen-expressed genes are likely explained by sexual selection resulting from pollen competition aided by the haploid nature of that tissue. The relaxation of selection in sperm might be due to the reduced influence of intrasexual competition, but reduced gene expression may also be playing an important role.

  12. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Ji-Hun; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q.-Han; Seo, Minah

    2015-10-01

    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (0.5-2.5 THz). This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz transmission by nano-antennas can effectively increase the molecular absorption cross sections, thereby enabling the detection of these molecules even at low concentrations. We verified the performance of nano-antenna sensing chip by both THz spectra and images of transmittance. Screening and identification of various carbohydrates can be applied to test even real market beverages with a high sensitivity and selectivity.

  13. Highly sensitive and selective sugar detection by terahertz nano-antennas

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Ji-Hun; Lee, Jun-Seok; Kim, Hyo-Seok; Kim, Chulki; Hun Kim, Jae; Lee, Taikjin; Son, Joo-Hiuk; Park, Q-Han; Seo, Minah

    2015-01-01

    Molecular recognition and discrimination of carbohydrates are important because carbohydrates perform essential roles in most living organisms for energy metabolism and cell-to-cell communication. Nevertheless, it is difficult to identify or distinguish various carbohydrate molecules owing to the lack of a significant distinction in the physical or chemical characteristics. Although there has been considerable effort to develop a sensing platform for individual carbohydrates selectively using chemical receptors or an ensemble array, their detection and discrimination limits have been as high in the millimolar concentration range. Here we show a highly sensitive and selective detection method for the discrimination of carbohydrate molecules using nano-slot-antenna array-based sensing chips which operate in the terahertz (THz) frequency range (0.5–2.5 THz). This THz metamaterial sensing tool recognizes various types of carbohydrate molecules over a wide range of molecular concentrations. Strongly localized and enhanced terahertz transmission by nano-antennas can effectively increase the molecular absorption cross sections, thereby enabling the detection of these molecules even at low concentrations. We verified the performance of nano-antenna sensing chip by both THz spectra and images of transmittance. Screening and identification of various carbohydrates can be applied to test even real market beverages with a high sensitivity and selectivity. PMID:26494203

  14. Automated frame selection process for high-resolution microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, Ayumu; Schwarz, Richard A.; Shin, Dongsuk; Mondrik, Sharon; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    We developed an automated frame selection algorithm for high-resolution microendoscopy video sequences. The algorithm rapidly selects a representative frame with minimal motion artifact from a short video sequence, enabling fully automated image analysis at the point-of-care. The algorithm was evaluated by quantitative comparison of diagnostically relevant image features and diagnostic classification results obtained using automated frame selection versus manual frame selection. A data set consisting of video sequences collected in vivo from 100 oral sites and 167 esophageal sites was used in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78 (automated selection) versus 0.82 (manual selection) for oral sites, and 0.93 (automated selection) versus 0.92 (manual selection) for esophageal sites. The implementation of fully automated high-resolution microendoscopy at the point-of-care has the potential to reduce the number of biopsies needed for accurate diagnosis of precancer and cancer in low-resource settings where there may be limited infrastructure and personnel for standard histologic analysis.

  15. Tubastatin, a selective histone deacetylase 6 inhibitor shows anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects.

    PubMed

    Vishwakarma, Santosh; Iyer, Lakshmi R; Muley, Milind; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Shastry, Arun; Saxena, Ambrish; Kulathingal, Jayanarayan; Vijaykanth, G; Raghul, J; Rajesh, Navin; Rathinasamy, Suresh; Kachhadia, Virendra; Kilambi, Narasimhan; Rajgopal, Sridharan; Balasubramanian, Gopalan; Narayanan, Shridhar

    2013-05-01

    Epigenetic modifications represent a promising new approach to modulate cell functions as observed in autoimmune diseases. Emerging evidence suggests the utility of HDAC inhibitors in the treatment of chronic immune and inflammatory disorders. However, class and isoform selective inhibition of HDAC is currently favored as it limits the toxicity that has been observed with pan-HDAC inhibitors. HDAC6, a member of the HDAC family, whose major substrate is α-tubulin, is being increasingly implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory disorders. The present study was carried out to study the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-rheumatic effects of HDAC6 selective inhibitor Tubastatin. Tubastatin, a potent human HDAC6 inhibitor with an IC50 of 11 nM showed significant inhibition of TNF-α and IL-6 in LPS stimulated human THP-1 macrophages with an IC50 of 272 nM and 712 nM respectively. Additionally, Tubastatin inhibited nitric oxide (NO) secretion in murine Raw 264.7 macrophages dose dependently with an IC50 of 4.2 μM and induced α-tubulin hyperacetylation corresponding to HDAC6 inhibition in THP-1 cells without affecting the cell viability. Tubastatin showed significant inhibition of paw volume at 30 mg/kg i.p. in a Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced animal model of inflammation. The disease modifying activity of Tubastatin was also evident in collagen induced arthritis DBA1 mouse model at 30 mg/kg i.p. The significant attenuation of clinical scores (~70%) by Tubastatin was confirmed histopathologically and was found comparable to dexamethasone (~90% inhibition of clinical scores). Tubastatin showed significant inhibition of IL-6 in paw tissues of arthritic mice. The present work has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic effects of a selective HDAC6 inhibitor Tubastatin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. High throughput selection of antibiotic-resistant transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Yukihiro; Koiwa, Hisashi

    2017-05-15

    Kanamycin resistance is the most frequently used antibiotic-resistance marker for Arabidopsis transformations, however, this method frequently causes escape of untransformed plants, particularly at the high seedling density during the selection. Here we developed a robust high-density selection method using top agar for Arabidopsis thaliana. Top agar effectively suppressed growth of untransformed wild-type plants on selection media at high density. Survival of the transformed plants during the selection were confirmed by production of green true leaves and expression of a firefly luciferase reporter gene. Top agar method allowed selection using a large amount of seeds in Arabidopsis transformation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of highly selective ethanol dehydration nanocatalysts for ethylene production.

    PubMed

    Austin, Natalie; Kostetskyy, Pavlo; Mpourmpakis, Giannis

    2018-02-22

    Rational design of catalysts for selective conversion of alcohols to olefins is key since product selectivity remains an issue due to competing etherification reactions. Using first principles calculations and chemical rules, we designed novel metal-oxide-protected metal nanoclusters (M 13 X 4 O 12 , with M = Cu, Ag, and Au and X = Al, Ga, and In) exhibiting strong Lewis acid sites on their surface, active for the selective formation of olefins from alcohols. These symmetrical nanocatalysts, due to their curvature, show unfavorable etherification chemistries, while favoring the olefin production. Furthermore, we determined that water removal and regeneration of the nanocatalysts is more feasible compared to the equivalent strong acid sites on solid acids used for alcohol dehydration. Our results demonstrate an exceptional stability of these new nanostructures with the most energetically favorable being Cu-based. Thus, the high selectivity and stability of these in-silico-predicted novel nanoclusters (e.g. Cu 13 Al 4 O 12 ) make them attractive catalysts for the selective dehydration of alcohols to olefins.

  18. [High non-specific binding of the beta(1) -selective radioligand 2-(125)I-ICI-H].

    PubMed

    Riemann, B; Law, M P; Kopka, K; Wagner, St; Luthra, S; Pike, V W; Neumann, J; Kirchhefer, U; Schmitz, W; Schober, O; Schäfers, M

    2003-08-01

    As results of cardiac biopsies suggest, myocardial beta(1) -adrenoceptor density is reduced in patients with chronic heart failure. However, changes in cardiac beta(2)-adrenoceptors vary. With suitable radiopharmaceuticals single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) offer the opportunity to assess beta-adrenoceptors non-invasively. Among the novel racemic analogues of the established beta(1)-selective adrenoceptor antagonist ICI 89.406 the iodinated 2-I-ICI-H showed high affinity and selectivity to beta(1)-adrenoceptors in murine ventricular membranes. The aim of this study was its evaluation as a putative sub-type selective beta(1)-adrenergic radioligand in cardiac imaging. Competition studies in vitro and in vivo were used to investigate the kinetics of 2-I-ICI-H binding to cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in mice and rats. In addition, the radiosynthesis of 2-(125)I-ICI-H from the silylated precursor 2-SiMe(3)-ICI-H was established. The specific activity was 80 GBq/ micro mol, the radiochemical yield ranged from 70 to 80%. The unlabelled compound 2-I-ICI-H showed high beta(1)-selectivity and -affinity in the in vitro competition studies. In vivo biodistribution studies apparently showed low affinity to cardiac beta-adrenoceptors. The radiolabelled counterpart 2-(125)I-ICI-H showed a high degree of non-specific binding in vitro and no specific binding to cardiac beta(1)-adrenoceptors in vivo. Because of its high non-specific binding 2-(125)I-ICI-H is no suitable radiotracer for imaging in vivo.

  19. Selectivity in Postencoding Connectivity with High-Level Visual Cortex Is Associated with Reward-Motivated Memory

    PubMed Central

    Murty, Vishnu P.; Tompary, Alexa; Adcock, R. Alison

    2017-01-01

    Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation. Human participants encoded intermixed, trial-unique memoranda that were associated with either high or low-value during fMRI acquisition. Encoding was interleaved with periods of rest, allowing us to investigate experience-dependent changes in connectivity as they related to later memory. Behaviorally, we found that reward motivation enhanced 24 h associative memory. Analysis of patterns of postencoding connectivity showed that, even though learning trials were intermixed, there was significantly greater connectivity with regions of high-level, category-selective visual cortex associated with high-reward trials. Specifically, increased connectivity of category-selective visual cortex with both the VTA and the anterior hippocampus predicted associative memory for high- but not low-reward memories. Critically, these results were independent of encoding-related connectivity and univariate activity measures. Thus, these findings support a model by which the selective stabilization of memories for salient events is supported by postencoding interactions with sensory cortex associated with reward. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Reward motivation is thought to promote memory by supporting memory consolidation. Yet, little is known as to how brain selects relevant information for subsequent consolidation based on reward. We show that experience-dependent changes in

  20. Selectivity in Postencoding Connectivity with High-Level Visual Cortex Is Associated with Reward-Motivated Memory.

    PubMed

    Murty, Vishnu P; Tompary, Alexa; Adcock, R Alison; Davachi, Lila

    2017-01-18

    Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems-level consolidation. Although high-reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for high value information is prioritized. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that postencoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of postencoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation. Human participants encoded intermixed, trial-unique memoranda that were associated with either high or low-value during fMRI acquisition. Encoding was interleaved with periods of rest, allowing us to investigate experience-dependent changes in connectivity as they related to later memory. Behaviorally, we found that reward motivation enhanced 24 h associative memory. Analysis of patterns of postencoding connectivity showed that, even though learning trials were intermixed, there was significantly greater connectivity with regions of high-level, category-selective visual cortex associated with high-reward trials. Specifically, increased connectivity of category-selective visual cortex with both the VTA and the anterior hippocampus predicted associative memory for high- but not low-reward memories. Critically, these results were independent of encoding-related connectivity and univariate activity measures. Thus, these findings support a model by which the selective stabilization of memories for salient events is supported by postencoding interactions with sensory cortex associated with reward. Reward motivation is thought to promote memory by supporting memory consolidation. Yet, little is known as to how brain selects relevant information for subsequent consolidation based on reward. We show that experience-dependent changes in connectivity of both the

  1. Natural Selection on Genes Related to Cardiovascular Health in High-Altitude Adapted Andeans.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Jacob E; Amaru, Ricardo; Song, Jihyun; Julian, Colleen G; Racimo, Fernando; Cheng, Jade Yu; Guo, Xiuqing; Yao, Jie; Ambale-Venkatesh, Bharath; Lima, João A; Rotter, Jerome I; Stehlik, Josef; Moore, Lorna G; Prchal, Josef T; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2017-11-02

    The increase in red blood cell mass (polycythemia) due to the reduced oxygen availability (hypoxia) of residence at high altitude or other conditions is generally thought to be beneficial in terms of increasing tissue oxygen supply. However, the extreme polycythemia and accompanying increased mortality due to heart failure in chronic mountain sickness most likely reduces fitness. Tibetan highlanders have adapted to high altitude, possibly in part via the selection of genetic variants associated with reduced polycythemic response to hypoxia. In contrast, high-altitude-adapted Quechua- and Aymara-speaking inhabitants of the Andean Altiplano are not protected from high-altitude polycythemia in the same way, yet they exhibit other adaptive features for which the genetic underpinnings remain obscure. Here, we used whole-genome sequencing to scan high-altitude Andeans for signals of selection. The genes showing the strongest evidence of selection-including BRINP3, NOS2, and TBX5-are associated with cardiovascular development and function but are not in the response-to-hypoxia pathway. Using association mapping, we demonstrated that the haplotypes under selection are associated with phenotypic variations related to cardiovascular health. We hypothesize that selection in response to hypoxia in Andeans could have vascular effects and could serve to mitigate the deleterious effects of polycythemia rather than reduce polycythemia itself. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. ScAlN etch mask for highly selective silicon etching

    DOE PAGES

    Henry, Michael David; Young, Travis R.; Griffin, Ben

    2017-09-08

    Here, this work reports the utilization of a recently developed film, ScAlN, as a silicon etch mask offering significant improvements in high etch selectivity to silicon. Utilization of ScAlN as a fluorine chemistry based deep reactive ion etch mask demonstrated etch selectivity at 23 550:1, four times better than AlN, 11 times better than Al 2O 3, and 148 times better than silicon dioxide with significantly less resputtering at high bias voltage than either Al 2O 3 or AlN. Ellipsometry film thickness measurements show less than 0.3 nm/min mask erosion rates for ScAlN. Micromasking of resputtered Al for Al 2Omore » 3, AlN, and ScAlN etch masks is also reported here, utilizing cross-sectional scanning electron microscope and confocal microscope roughness measurements. With lower etch bias, the reduced etch rate can be optimized to achieve a trench bottom surface roughness that is comparable to SiO 2 etch masks. Etch mask selectivity enabled by ScAlN is likely to make significant improvements in microelectromechanical systems, wafer level packaging, and plasma dicing of silicon.« less

  3. MHC ANTIGEN BINDING LOCUS DRB1 SHOWS STRONG SIGNAL OF SELECTION AND HIGH VARIABILITY IN FUNDULUS HETERCLITUS POPULATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The major histocompatibility system provides a unique complex of genetic loci in vertebrates to assess genetic diversity and to look for the effects of selection on the adaptive immune system. Studies using mammals and birds
    have demonstrated relationships between MHC genotyp...

  4. Identification of Conflicting Selective Effects on Highly Expressed Genes

    PubMed Central

    Higgs, Paul G.; Hao, Weilong; Golding, G. Brian

    2007-01-01

    Many different selective effects on DNA and proteins influence the frequency of codons and amino acids in coding sequences. Selection is often stronger on highly expressed genes. Hence, by comparing high- and low-expression genes it is possible to distinguish the factors that are selected by evolution. It has been proposed that highly expressed genes should (i) preferentially use codons matching abundant tRNAs (translational efficiency), (ii) preferentially use amino acids with low cost of synthesis, (iii) be under stronger selection to maintain the required amino acid content, and (iv) be selected for translational robustness. These effects act simultaneously and can be contradictory. We develop a model that combines these factors, and use Akaike’s Information Criterion for model selection. We consider pairs of paralogues that arose by whole-genome duplication in Saccharmyces cerevisiae. A codon-based model is used that includes asymmetric effects due to selection on highly expressed genes. The largest effect is translational efficiency, which is found to strongly influence synonymous, but not non-synonymous rates. Minimization of the cost of amino acid synthesis is implicated. However, when a more general measure of selection for amino acid usage is used, the cost minimization effect becomes redundant. Small effects that we attribute to selection for translational robustness can be identified as an improvement in the model fit on top of the effects of translational efficiency and amino acid usage. PMID:19430600

  5. Altered selection during language processing in individuals at high risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, T; Snyder, H; Banich, M; Newberry, R; Shankman, Stewart A; Strauss, Gregory P; Mittal, V A

    2018-06-19

    Performance in the executive function (EF) domain has been linked to symptoms and functional outcomes in psychosis. Studies have found that UHR populations have difficulty with verbal fluency, which involves multiple facets of EF. Two potentially implicated EF facets were examined to explore whether these could be dissociated in UHR populations: selection among alternatives (measured by selection costs) and retrieval from semantic memory retrieval (measured by retrieval costs). A total of 45 UHR individuals and 46 healthy controls (HVs) were assessed with a verb generation task. Differences in selection cost (RT difference between high and low selection demand conditions) and retrieval cost (RT difference between high and low retrieval demand conditions) were examined and participants were also assessed for clinical symptoms. The UHR group showed greater selection costs relative to HVs, F (1, 91) = 4.39, p = 0.039. However, there were no group differences on retrieval cost, F (1, 91) = 0.63, p = 0.43. A positive association (r = 0.41) was found between disorganized and negative symptoms and selection costs (but not retrieval costs) in the UHR group. There was no significant association between selection costs and positive symptoms. Increased selection costs may reflect impaired performance in the neural inhibition domain of EF in the UHR population, potentially underlying a mechanistically distinct EF subdomain that affects the group's ability to efficiently select between competing options. Findings suggest that UHR individuals may exhibit impairment in selecting among alternatives, but not in retrieval from semantic memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Selective suppression of high-order harmonics within phase-matched spectral regions.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Gavriel; Diskin, Tzvi; Neufeld, Ofer; Kfir, Ofer; Cohen, Oren

    2017-04-01

    Phase matching in high-harmonic generation leads to enhancement of multiple harmonics. It is sometimes desired to control the spectral structure within the phase-matched spectral region. We propose a scheme for selective suppression of high-order harmonics within the phase-matched spectral region while weakly influencing the other harmonics. The method is based on addition of phase-mismatched segments within a phase-matched medium. We demonstrate the method numerically in two examples. First, we show that one phase-mismatched segment can significantly suppress harmonic orders 9, 15, and 21. Second, we show that two phase-mismatched segments can efficiently suppress circularly polarized harmonics with one helicity over the other when driven by a bi-circular field. The new method may be useful for various applications, including the generation of highly helical bright attosecond pulses.

  7. Prompting one low-fat, high-fiber selection in a fast-food restaurant.

    PubMed

    Wagner, J L; Winett, R A

    1988-01-01

    Evidence increasingly links a high-fat, low-fiber diet to coronary heart disease and certain site cancers, indicating a need for large-scale dietary change. Studies showing the effectiveness of particular procedures in specific settings are important at this point. The present study, using an A-B-A-B design and sales data from computerized cash registers, replicated and extended previous work by showing that inexpensive prompts (i.e., signs and fliers) in a national fast-food restaurant could increase the sales of salads, a low-fat, high-fiber menu selection. Suggestions also are made pertinent to more widespread use of the procedures.

  8. CJ-1639: A Potent and Highly Selective Dopamine D3 Receptor Full Agonist.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianyong; Collins, Gregory T; Levant, Beth; Woods, James; Deschamps, Jeffrey R; Wang, Shaomeng

    2011-08-11

    We have identified several ligands with high binding affinities to the dopamine D3 receptor and excellent selectivity over the D2 and D1 receptors. CJ-1639 (17) binds to the D3 receptor with a K(i) value of 0.50 nM and displays a selectivity of >5,000 times over D2 and D1 receptors in binding assays using dopamine receptors expressed in the native rat brain tissues. CJ-1639 binds to human D3 receptor with a K(i) value of 3.61 nM and displays over >1000-fold selectivity over human D1 and D2 receptors. CJ-1639 is active at 0.01 mg/kg at the dopamine D3 receptor in the rat and only starts to show a modest D2 activity at doses as high as 10 mg/kg. CJ-1639 is the most potent and selective D3 full agonist reported to date.

  9. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (η sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies η sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  10. High temperature performance of high-efficiency, multi-layer solar selective coatings for tower applications

    DOE PAGES

    Gray, M. H.; Tirawat, R.; Kessinger, K. A.; ...

    2015-05-01

    The roadmap to next-generation concentrating solar power plants anticipates a progression to central towers with operating temperatures in excess of 650°C. These higher temperatures are required to drive higher power-cycle efficiencies, resulting in lower cost energy. However, these conditions also place a greater burden on the materials making up the receiver. Any novel absorber material developed for next-generation receivers must be stable in air, cost effective, and survive thousands of heating and cooling cycles. The collection efficiency of a power tower plant can be increased if the energy absorbed by the receiver is maximized while the heat loss from themore » receiver to the environment is minimized. Thermal radiation losses can be significant (>7% annual energy loss) with receivers at temperatures above 650°C. We present progress toward highly efficient and durable solar selective absorbers (SSAs) intended for operating temperatures from 650°C to 1000°C. Selective efficiency (η sel) is defined as the energy retained by the absorber, accounting for both absorptance and emittance, relative to the energy incident on the surface. The low emittance layers of multilayer SSAs are binary compounds of refractory metals whose material properties indicate that coatings formed of these materials should be oxidation resistant in air to 800-1200°C. On this basis, we initially developed a solar selective coating for parabolic troughs. This development has been successfully extended to meet the absorptance and emittance objectives for the more demanding, high temperature regime. We show advancement in coating materials, processing and designs resulting in the initial attainment of target efficiencies η sel > 0.91 for proposed tower conditions. Additionally, spectral measurements show that these coatings continue to perform at targeted levels after cycling to temperatures of 1000°C in environments of nitrogen and forming gas.« less

  11. Bis-pyridinium quadrupolar derivatives. High Stokes shift selective probes for bio-imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salice, Patrizio; Versari, Silvia; Bradamante, Silvia; Meinardi, Francesco; Macchi, Giorgio; Pagani, Giorgio A.; Beverina, Luca

    2013-11-01

    We describe the design, synthesis and characterization of five high Stokes shift quadrupolar heteroaryl compounds suitable as fluorescent probes in bio-imaging. In particular, we characterize the photophysical properties and the intracellular localization in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC) and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (HMSCs) for each dye. We show that, amongst all of the investigated derivatives, the 2,5-bis[1-(4-N-methylpyridinium)ethen-2-yl)]- N-methylpyrrole salt is the best candidates as selective mitochondrial tracker. Finally, we recorded the full emission spectrum of the most performing - exclusively mitochondrial selective - fluorescent probe directly from HUVEC stained cells. The emission spectrum collected from the stained mitochondria shows a remarkably more pronounced vibronic structure with respect to the emission of the free fluorophore in solution.

  12. Directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics from intense laser irradiated blazed grating targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guobo; Chen, Min; Liu, Feng; Yuan, Xiaohui; Weng, Suming; Zheng, Jun; Ma, Yanyun; Shao, Fuqiu; Sheng, Zhengming; Zhang, Jie

    2017-10-02

    Relativistically intense laser solid target interaction has been proved to be a promising way to generate high-order harmonics, which can be used to diagnose ultrafast phenomena. However, their emission direction and spectra still lack tunability. Based upon two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we show that directional enhancement of selected high-order-harmonics can be realized using blazed grating targets. Such targets can select harmonics with frequencies being integer times of the grating frequency. Meanwhile, the radiation intensity and emission area of the harmonics are increased. The emission direction is controlled by tailoring the local blazed structure. Theoretical and electron dynamics analysis for harmonics generation, selection and directional enhancement from the interaction between multi-cycle laser and grating target are carried out. These studies will benefit the generation and application of laser plasma-based high order harmonics.

  13. Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit

    Hierarchically stacked 2D graphene oxide (GO) membranes are a fascinating and promising new class of materials with the potential for radically improved water vapor/gas separation with excellent selectivity and high permeability. This paper details dehumidification results from flowing gas mixtures through free-standing GO membrane samples prepared by a casting method. The first demonstrated use of free-standing GO membranes for water vapor separation reveals outstanding water vapor permeability and H2O/N2 selectivity. Free-standing GO membranes exhibit extremely high water vapor permeability of 1.82 x 105 Barrer and a water vapor permeance of 1.01 x 10-5 mol/m2sPa, while the nitrogen permeability was belowmore » the system’s detection limit, yielding a selectivity >104 in 80% relative humidity (RH) air at 30.8 °C. The results show great potential for a range of energy conversion and environmental applications« less

  14. How High School Students Select a College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilmour, Joseph E., Jr.; And Others

    The college selection process used by high school students was studied and a paradigm that describes the process was developed, based on marketing theory concerning consumer behavior. Primarily college freshmen and high school seniors were interviewed, and a few high school juniors and upper-level college students were surveyed to determine…

  15. 5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View showing Crooked River High Bridge in background and Ralph Modjeski railroad bridge in foreground - Crooked River High Bridge, Spanning Crooked River Gorge at Dalles-California Highway, Terrebonne, Deschutes County, OR

  16. Highly Selective and Rapid Breath Isoprene Sensing Enabled by Activated Alumina Filter.

    PubMed

    van den Broek, Jan; Güntner, Andreas T; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2018-03-23

    Isoprene is a versatile breath marker for noninvasive monitoring of high blood cholesterol levels as well as for influenza, end-stage renal disease, muscle activity, lung cancer, and liver disease with advanced fibrosis. Its selective detection in complex human breath by portable devices (e.g., metal-oxide gas sensors), however, is still challenging. Here, we present a new filter concept based on activated alumina powder enabling fast and highly selective detection of isoprene at the ppb level and high humidity. The filter contains high surface area adsorbents that retain hydrophilic compounds (e.g., ketones, alcohols, ammonia) representing major interferants in breath while hydrophobic isoprene is not affected. As a proof-of-concept, filters of commercial activated alumina powder are combined with highly sensitive but rather nonspecific, nanostructured Pt-doped SnO 2 sensors. This results in fast (10 s) measurement of isoprene down to 5 ppb at 90% relative humidity with outstanding selectivity (>100) to breath-relevant acetone, ammonia, ethanol, and methanol, superior to state-of-the-art isoprene sensors. Most importantly, when exposed continuously to simulated breath mixtures (four analytes) for 8 days, this filter-sensor system showed stable performance. It can be incorporated readily into a portable breath isoprene analyzer promising for simple-in-use monitoring of blood cholesterol or other patho/physiological conditions.

  17. Highly selective and sensitive trimethylamine gas sensor based on cobalt imidazolate framework material.

    PubMed

    Chen, Er-Xia; Fu, Hong-Ru; Lin, Rui; Tan, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian

    2014-12-24

    A cobalt imidazolate (im) framework material [Co(im)2]n was employed to use as a trimethylamine (TMA) gas sensor and the [Co(im)2]n sensor can be easily fabricated by using Ag-Pd interdigitated electrodes. Gas sensing measurement indicated that the [Co(im)2]n sensor shows excellent selectivity, high gas response and a low detection limit level of 2 ppm to TMA at 75 °C. The good selectivity and high response to TMA of the sensor based on [Co(im)2]n may be attributed to the weak interaction between the TMA molecules and the [Co(im)2]n framework. That may provide an ideal candidate for detecting freshness of fish and seafood.

  18. High-capacity thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for selective extraction of curcuminoids.

    PubMed

    You, Qingping; Zhang, Yuping; Zhang, Qingwen; Guo, Junfang; Huang, Weihua; Shi, Shuyun; Chen, Xiaoqin

    2014-08-08

    Thermo-responsive magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (TMMIPs) for selective recognition of curcuminoids with high capacity and selectivity have firstly been developed. The resulting TMMIPs were characterized by TEM, FT-IR, TGA, VSM and UV, which indicated that TMMIPs showed thermo-responsiveness [lower critical solution temperature (LCST) at 33.71°C] and rapid magnetic separation (5s). The polymerization, adsorption and release conditions were optimized in detail to obtain the highest binding capacity, selectivity and release ratio. We found that the adopted thermo-responsive monomer [N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm)] could be considered not only as inert polymer backbone for thermo-responsiveness but also as functional co-monomers combination with basic monomer (4-VP) for more specific binding sites when ethanol was added in binding solution. The maximum adsorption capacity with highest selectivity of curcumin was 440.3μg/g (1.93 times that on MMIPs with no thermosensitivity) at 45°C (above LCST) in 20% (v/v) ethanol solution on shrunk TMMIPs, and the maximum release proportion was about 98% at 20°C (below LCST) in methanol-acetic acid (9/1, v/v) solution on swelled TMMIPs. The adsorption process between curcumin and TMMIPs followed Langumuir adsorption isotherm and pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The prepared TMMIPs also showed high reproducibility (RSD<6% for batch-to-batch evaluation) and stability (only 7% decrease after five cycles). Subsequently, the TMMIPs were successfully applied for selective extraction of curcuminoids from complex natural product, Curcuma longa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Selection of Lecanicillium Strain with High Virulence against Developmental Stages of Bemisia tabaci

    PubMed Central

    Park, Heeyong

    2010-01-01

    Selection of fungal strains with high virulence against the developmental stages of Bemisia tabaci was performed using internal transcribed spacer regions. The growth rate of hyphae was measured and bioassay of each developmental stage of B. tabaci was conducted for seven days. All of the fungal strains tested were identified as Lecanicillium spp., with strain 4078 showing the fastest mycelium growth rate (colony diameter, 16.3 ± 0.9 mm) among the strains. Compared to strain 4075, which showed the slowest growth rate, the growth rate of strain 4078 was increased almost 2-fold after seven days. Strains 4078 and Btab01 were most virulent against the egg and larva stages, respectively. The virulence of fungal strains against the adult stage was high, except for strains 41185 and 3387. Based on the growth rate of mycelium and level of virulence, strains 4078 and Btab01 were selected as the best fungal strains for application to B. tabaci, regardless of developmental stage. PMID:23956657

  20. How action selection can be embodied: intracranial gamma band recording shows response competition during the Eriksen flankers test

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Fausto; Uithol, Sebo; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sartori, Ivana; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in monkeys suggest that action selection is based on a competition between various action options that are automatically planned by the motor system. Here we discuss data from intracranial EEG recordings in human premotor cortex (PMC) during a bimanual version of the Eriksen flankers test that suggest that the same principles apply to human action decisions. Recording sites in the dorsal PMC show an early but undifferentiated activation, a delayed response that depends on the experimental conditions and, finally, a movement related activation during action execution. Additionally, we found that the medial part of the PMC show a significant increase in response for ipsilateral trials, suggesting a role in inhibiting the wrong response. The ventral PMC seems to be involved in action execution, rather than action selection. Together these findings suggest that the human PMC is part of a network that specifies, selects, and executes actions. PMID:25206328

  1. Impact of high-risk conjunctions on Active Debris Removal target selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lidtke, Aleksander A.; Lewis, Hugh G.; Armellin, Roberto

    2015-10-01

    Space debris simulations show that if current space launches continue unchanged, spacecraft operations might become difficult in the congested space environment. It has been suggested that Active Debris Removal (ADR) might be necessary in order to prevent such a situation. Selection of objects to be targeted by ADR is considered important because removal of non-relevant objects will unnecessarily increase the cost of ADR. One of the factors to be used in this ADR target selection is the collision probability accumulated by every object. This paper shows the impact of high-probability conjunctions on the collision probability accumulated by individual objects as well as the probability of any collision occurring in orbit. Such conjunctions cannot be predicted far in advance and, consequently, not all the objects that will be involved in such dangerous conjunctions can be removed through ADR. Therefore, a debris remediation method that would address such events at short notice, and thus help prevent likely collisions, is suggested.

  2. Genomic analysis of codon usage shows influence of mutation pressure, natural selection, and host features on Marburg virus evolution.

    PubMed

    Nasrullah, Izza; Butt, Azeem M; Tahir, Shifa; Idrees, Muhammad; Tong, Yigang

    2015-08-26

    The Marburg virus (MARV) has a negative-sense single-stranded RNA genome, belongs to the family Filoviridae, and is responsible for several outbreaks of highly fatal hemorrhagic fever. Codon usage patterns of viruses reflect a series of evolutionary changes that enable viruses to shape their survival rates and fitness toward the external environment and, most importantly, their hosts. To understand the evolution of MARV at the codon level, we report a comprehensive analysis of synonymous codon usage patterns in MARV genomes. Multiple codon analysis approaches and statistical methods were performed to determine overall codon usage patterns, biases in codon usage, and influence of various factors, including mutation pressure, natural selection, and its two hosts, Homo sapiens and Rousettus aegyptiacus. Nucleotide composition and relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU) analysis revealed that MARV shows mutation bias and prefers U- and A-ended codons to code amino acids. Effective number of codons analysis indicated that overall codon usage among MARV genomes is slightly biased. The Parity Rule 2 plot analysis showed that GC and AU nucleotides were not used proportionally which accounts for the presence of natural selection. Codon usage patterns of MARV were also found to be influenced by its hosts. This indicates that MARV have evolved codon usage patterns that are specific to both of its hosts. Moreover, selection pressure from R. aegyptiacus on the MARV RSCU patterns was found to be dominant compared with that from H. sapiens. Overall, mutation pressure was found to be the most important and dominant force that shapes codon usage patterns in MARV. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed codon usage analysis of MARV and extends our understanding of the mechanisms that contribute to codon usage and evolution of MARV.

  3. Dual-Reactable Fluorescent Probes for Highly Selective and Sensitive Detection of Biological H2 S.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chao; Wang, Runyu; Zhang, Changyu; Xu, Guoce; Li, Yanyan; Zhang, Qiang-Zhe; Li, Lu-Yuan; Yi, Long; Xi, Zhen

    2016-05-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is an important endogenous signaling molecule with a variety of biological functions. Development of fluorescent probes for highly selective and sensitive detection of H2 S is necessary. We show here that dual-reactable fluorescent H2 S probes could react with higher selectivity than single-reactable probes. One of the dual-reactable probes gives more than 4000-fold turn-on response when reacting with H2 S, the largest response among fluorescent H2 S probes reported thus far. In addition, the probe could be used for high-throughput enzymatic assays and for the detection of Cys-induced H2 S in cells and in zebrafish. These dual-reactable probes hold potential for highly selective and sensitive detection of H2 S in biological systems. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Urine proteome analysis in Dent's disease shows high selective changes potentially involved in chronic renal damage.

    PubMed

    Santucci, Laura; Candiano, Giovanni; Anglani, Franca; Bruschi, Maurizio; Tosetto, Enrica; Cremasco, Daniela; Murer, Luisa; D'Ambrosio, Chiara; Scaloni, Andrea; Petretto, Andrea; Caridi, Gianluca; Rossi, Roberta; Bonanni, Alice; Ghiggeri, Gian Marco

    2016-01-01

    Definition of the urinary protein composition would represent a potential tool for diagnosis in many clinical conditions. The use of new proteomic technologies allows detection of genetic and post-trasductional variants that increase sensitivity of the approach but complicates comparison within a heterogeneous patient population. Overall, this limits research of urinary biomarkers. Studying monogenic diseases are useful models to address this issue since genetic variability is reduced among first- and second-degree relatives of the same family. We applied this concept to Dent's disease, a monogenic condition characterised by low-molecular-weight proteinuria that is inherited following an X-linked trait. Results are presented here on a combined proteomic approach (LC-mass spectrometry, Western blot and zymograms for proteases and inhibitors) to characterise urine proteins in a large family (18 members, 6 hemizygous patients, 6 carrier females, and 6 normals) with Dent's diseases due to the 1070G>T mutation of the CLCN5. Gene ontology analysis on more than 1000 proteins showed that several clusters of proteins characterised urine of affected patients compared to carrier females and normal subjects: proteins involved in extracellular matrix remodelling were the major group. Specific analysis on metalloproteases and their inhibitors underscored unexpected mechanisms potentially involved in renal fibrosis. Studying with new-generation techniques for proteomic analysis of the members of a large family with Dent's disease sharing the same molecular defect allowed highly repetitive results that justify conclusions. Identification in urine of proteins actively involved in interstitial matrix remodelling poses the question of active anti-fibrotic drugs in Dent's patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Gastric cancer following highly selective vagotomy.

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, P. W.; Leaper, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    A case of gastric cancer occurring seven years after a highly selective vagotomy is described. This operation may not be the appropriate choice for the surgical treatment of gastric ulcers and H2 blockers should be used with caution in these patients. PMID:3671228

  6. Synthesis and Characterization of CuO Nanodisks for High-Sensitive and Selective Ethanol Gas Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Umar, Ahmad; Lee, Jong-Heun; Kumar, Rajesh; Al-Dossary, O

    2017-02-01

    Herein, the fabrication and characterization of highly sensitive and selective ethanol gas sensor based on CuO nanodisks is reported. The CuO nanodisks were synthesized by facile hydrothermal process and detailed characterization revealed the well-crystallinity, high-purity and high density growth of the prepared material. To fabricate the ethanol gas sensor, the prepared nanodisks were coated on alumina substrate. The fabricated sensor exhibited high-sensitivity and the recorded gas response (resistance-ratio), response time (τ res) and recovery time (τ recov) were 6.2, 119 and 35 s, respectively for 100 ppm of C₂H₅OH at 300 °C. Further, the fabricated sensor shows high selectivity towards ethanol gas compared to H₂ and CO gases.

  7. Children Do Show Negative Priming: Further Evidence for Early Development of an Intact Selective Control Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frings, Christian; Feix, Silke; Rothig, Ulrike; Bruser, Charlotte; Junge, Miriam

    2007-01-01

    Reactions to stimuli that were shortly before presented as distractors are usually slowed down; this phenomenon is known as negative priming. Negative priming is an accepted index for tapping into selective control mechanisms. Although this effect is well established for adults, it has been claimed that children do not show negative priming.…

  8. Analysis of bacterial genomes from an evolution experiment with horizontal gene transfer shows that recombination can sometimes overwhelm selection

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Few experimental studies have examined the role that sexual recombination plays in bacterial evolution, including the effects of horizontal gene transfer on genome structure. To address this limitation, we analyzed genomes from an experiment in which Escherichia coli K-12 Hfr (high frequency recombination) donors were periodically introduced into 12 evolving populations of E. coli B and allowed to conjugate repeatedly over the course of 1000 generations. Previous analyses of the evolved strains from this experiment showed that recombination did not accelerate adaptation, despite increasing genetic variation relative to asexual controls. However, the resolution in that previous work was limited to only a few genetic markers. We sought to clarify and understand these puzzling results by sequencing complete genomes from each population. The effects of recombination were highly variable: one lineage was mostly derived from the donors, while another acquired almost no donor DNA. In most lineages, some regions showed repeated introgression and others almost none. Regions with high introgression tended to be near the donors’ origin of transfer sites. To determine whether introgressed alleles imposed a genetic load, we extended the experiment for 200 generations without recombination and sequenced whole-population samples. Beneficial alleles in the recipient populations were occasionally driven extinct by maladaptive donor-derived alleles. On balance, our analyses indicate that the plasmid-mediated recombination was sufficiently frequent to drive donor alleles to fixation without providing much, if any, selective advantage. PMID:29385126

  9. Highly photoresponsive and wavelength-selective circularly-polarized-light detector based on metal-oxides hetero-chiral thin film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Hee; Singh, Dhruv Pratap; Sung, Ji Ho; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kwon, Ki Chang; Kim, Soo Young; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-22

    A highly efficient circularly-polarized-light detector with excellent wavelength selectivity is demonstrated with an elegant and simple microelectronics-compatible way. The circularly-polarized-light detector based on a proper combination of the geometry-controlled TiO2-SnO2 hetero-chiral thin film as an effective chiroptical filter and the Si active layer shows excellent chiroptical response with external quantum efficiency as high as 30% and high helicity selectivity of ~15.8% in an intended wavelength range. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of manipulating both bandwidth and responsivity of the detector simultaneously in whole visible wavelength range by a precise control over the geometry and materials constituting hetero-chiral thin film. The high efficiency, wavelength selectivity and compatibility with conventional microelectronics processes enabled by the proposed device can result in remarkable developments in highly integrated photonic platforms utilizing chiroptical responses.

  10. Highly photoresponsive and wavelength-selective circularly-polarized-light detector based on metal-oxides hetero-chiral thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Singh, Dhruv Pratap; Sung, Ji Ho; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kwon, Ki Chang; Kim, Soo Young; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient circularly-polarized-light detector with excellent wavelength selectivity is demonstrated with an elegant and simple microelectronics-compatible way. The circularly-polarized-light detector based on a proper combination of the geometry-controlled TiO2-SnO2 hetero-chiral thin film as an effective chiroptical filter and the Si active layer shows excellent chiroptical response with external quantum efficiency as high as 30% and high helicity selectivity of ~15.8% in an intended wavelength range. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of manipulating both bandwidth and responsivity of the detector simultaneously in whole visible wavelength range by a precise control over the geometry and materials constituting hetero-chiral thin film. The high efficiency, wavelength selectivity and compatibility with conventional microelectronics processes enabled by the proposed device can result in remarkable developments in highly integrated photonic platforms utilizing chiroptical responses.

  11. Nanomolar colorimetric quantitative detection of Fe3 + and PPi with high selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhanxian; Li, Haixia; Shi, Caixia; Yu, Mingming; Wei, Liuhe; Ni, Zhonghai

    2016-04-01

    A novel rhodamine and 8-hydroxyquinoline-based derivative was synthesized, which is shown to act as a colorimetric chemosensor for Fe3 + in aqueous solution with high selectivity over various environmentally and biologically relevant metal ions and anions with a distinct color change from colorless to pink in very fast response time (< 1 min). Fe3 + can be detected quantitatively in the concentration range from 6.7 to 16 μM and the detection limit (LOD) on UV-vis response of the sensor can be as low as 15 nM. The 'in situ' prepared Fe3 + complex (1 ṡ Fe) showed high selectivity toward PPi against many common anions, and sensitivity (the LOD can be as low as 71 nM). In addition, both the chemosensor and the 'in situ' prepared Fe3 + complex are reusable for the detection of Fe3 + and PPi respectively.

  12. Design and synthesis of novel pyrimidine analogs as highly selective, non-covalent BTK inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kawahata, Wataru; Asami, Tokiko; Irie, Takayuki; Sawa, Masaaki

    2018-01-15

    BTK is a promising target for the treatment of multiple diseases such as B cell malignances, asthma, and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, we report the discovery of a series of novel pyrimidine analogs as potent, highly selective, non-covalent inhibitors of BTK. Compound 25d demonstrated higher affinity to an unactivated conformation of BTK that resulted in an excellent kinase selectivity. Compound 25d showed a good oral bioavailability in mice, and significantly inhibits the PCA reaction in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly photoresponsive and wavelength-selective circularly-polarized-light detector based on metal-oxides hetero-chiral thin film

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Hee; Singh, Dhruv Pratap; Sung, Ji Ho; Jo, Moon-Ho; Kwon, Ki Chang; Kim, Soo Young; Jang, Ho Won; Kim, Jong Kyu

    2016-01-01

    A highly efficient circularly-polarized-light detector with excellent wavelength selectivity is demonstrated with an elegant and simple microelectronics-compatible way. The circularly-polarized-light detector based on a proper combination of the geometry-controlled TiO2-SnO2 hetero-chiral thin film as an effective chiroptical filter and the Si active layer shows excellent chiroptical response with external quantum efficiency as high as 30% and high helicity selectivity of ~15.8% in an intended wavelength range. Furthermore, we demonstrated the ability of manipulating both bandwidth and responsivity of the detector simultaneously in whole visible wavelength range by a precise control over the geometry and materials constituting hetero-chiral thin film. The high efficiency, wavelength selectivity and compatibility with conventional microelectronics processes enabled by the proposed device can result in remarkable developments in highly integrated photonic platforms utilizing chiroptical responses. PMID:26795601

  14. Curved Microneedle Array-Based sEMG Electrode for Robust Long-Term Measurements and High Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Minjae; Kim, Taewan; Kim, Dong Sung; Chung, Wan Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Surface electromyography is widely used in many fields to infer human intention. However, conventional electrodes are not appropriate for long-term measurements and are easily influenced by the environment, so the range of applications of sEMG is limited. In this paper, we propose a flexible band-integrated, curved microneedle array electrode for robust long-term measurements, high selectivity, and easy applicability. Signal quality, in terms of long-term usability and sensitivity to perspiration, was investigated. Its motion-discriminating performance was also evaluated. The results show that the proposed electrode is robust to perspiration and can maintain a high-quality measuring ability for over 8 h. The proposed electrode also has high selectivity for motion compared with a commercial wet electrode and dry electrode. PMID:26153773

  15. Overdensities of SMGs around WISE-selected, ultraluminous, high-redshift AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.; Blain, Andrew W.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter; Lonsdale, Carol; Condon, James; Farrah, Duncan; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Bridge, Carrie; Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Jarrett, Tom

    2017-08-01

    We investigate extremely luminous dusty galaxies in the environments around Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE)-selected hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and 1.7, respectively. Previous observations have detected overdensities of companion submillimetre-selected sources around 10 Hot DOGs and 30 WISE/radio AGNs, with overdensities of ˜2-3 and ˜5-6, respectively. We find that the space densities in both samples to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and submillimetre galaxies (SMGs) in the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 (SCUBA-2) Cosmology Legacy Survey (S2CLS). Both samples of companion sources have consistent mid-infrared (mid-IR) colours and mid-IR to submm ratios as SMGs. The brighter population around WISE/radio AGNs could be responsible for the higher overdensity reported. We also find that the star formation rate densities are higher than the field, but consistent with clusters of dusty galaxies. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good signposts for protoclusters at high redshift on arcmin scales. The results reported here provide an upper limit to the strength of angular clustering using the two-point correlation function. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5-arcmin scale maps.

  16. Highly Multiplexed RNA Aptamer Selection using a Microplate-based Microcolumn Device.

    PubMed

    Reinholt, Sarah J; Ozer, Abdullah; Lis, John T; Craighead, Harold G

    2016-07-19

    We describe a multiplexed RNA aptamer selection to 19 different targets simultaneously using a microcolumn-based device, MEDUSA (Microplate-based Enrichment Device Used for the Selection of Aptamers), as well as a modified selection process, that significantly reduce the time and reagents needed for selections. We exploited MEDUSA's reconfigurable design between parallel and serially-connected microcolumns to enable the use of just 2 aliquots of starting library, and its 96-well microplate compatibility to enable the continued use of high-throughput techniques in downstream processes. Our modified selection protocol allowed us to perform the equivalent of a 10-cycle selection in the time it takes for 4 traditional selection cycles. Several aptamers were discovered with nanomolar dissociation constants. Furthermore, aptamers were identified that not only bound with high affinity, but also acted as inhibitors to significantly reduce the activity of their target protein, mouse decapping exoribonuclease (DXO). The aptamers resisted DXO's exoribonuclease activity, and in studies monitoring DXO's degradation of a 30-nucleotide substrate, less than 1 μM of aptamer demonstrated significant inhibition of DXO activity. This aptamer selection method using MEDUSA helps to overcome some of the major challenges with traditional aptamer selections, and provides a platform for high-throughput selections that lends itself to process automation.

  17. A simple colorimetric chemosensor bearing a carboxylic acid group with high selectivity for CN-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyeong Jin; Choi, Ye Won; Lee, Dongkuk; Kim, Cheal

    2014-11-01

    A new simple ‘naked eye' chemosensor 1 (sodium (E)-2-((2-(3-hydroxy-2-naphthoyl)hydrazono)methyl)benzoate) has been synthesized for detection of CN- in a mixture of DMF/H2O (9:1). The sensor 1 comprises of a naphthoic hydrazide as efficient hydrogen bonding donor group and a benzoic acid as the moiety with the water solubility. The receptor 1 showed high selectivity toward cyanide ions in a 1:1 stoichiometric manner, which induces a fast color change from colorless to yellow for CN- over other anions. Therefore, receptor 1 could be useful for cyanide detection in aqueous environment, displaying a high distinguishable selectivity from hydrogen bonded anions and being clearly visible to the naked eye.

  18. A novel thiazolidinedione derivative TD118 showing selective algicidal effects for red tide control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Lee, Yew; Jung, Seul-Gi; Kim, Minju; Eom, Chi-Yong; Kim, Si Wouk; Cho, Hoon; Jin, Eonseon

    2014-05-01

    Thiazolidinedione (TD) derivatives have been found to have an algicidal effect on harmful algal bloom microalgae. In this study, 75 TD derivatives were synthesized and analyzed for algicidal activity. Among these synthetic TDs, 18 TD derivatives showed specific algicidal activity on two strains belonging to the classes Raphidophyceae (Chattonella marina and Heterosigma akashiwo) and Dinophyceae (Cochlodinium polykrikoides). Two strains belonging to Bacillariophyceae (Navicula pelliculosa and Phaeodactylum EPV), one strain belonging to Dinophyceae (Amphidinium sp.), and a Eustigmatophycean microalga (Nannochloropsis oculata) showed less sensitivity to the TD derivatives than the other two phyla. The most reactive TD derivative, compound 2 (TD118), was selected and tested for morphological and physiological changes. TD118 effectively damaged the cell membrane of C. marina, H. akashiwo and C. polykrikoides. The O₂ evolution and photosystem II efficiency (F(v)/F(m)) of C. marina, H. akashiwo and C. polykrikoides were also severely reduced by TD118 treatment. Amphidinium sp., N. pelliculosa, Phaeodactylum EPV and N. oculata showed less reduction of O₂ evolution and the F(v)/F(m) by TD118. These results imply that the species-specific TD structure relationship may be due to structural and/or physiological differences among microalgal species.

  19. Frequency selection rule for high definition and high frame rate Lissajous scanning.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kyungmin; Seo, Yeong-Hyeon; Ahn, Jinhyo; Kim, Pilhan; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2017-10-26

    Lissajous microscanners are very attractive in compact laser scanning applications such as endomicroscopy or pro-projection display owing to high mechanical stability and low operating voltages. The scanning frequency serves as a critical factor for determining the scanning imaging quality. Here we report the selection rule of scanning frequencies that can realize high definition and high frame-rate (HDHF) full-repeated Lissajous scanning imaging. The fill factor (FF) monotonically increases with the total lobe number of a Lissajous curve, i.e., the sum of scanning frequencies divided by the great common divisor (GCD) of bi-axial scanning frequencies. The frames per second (FPS), called the pattern repeated rate or the frame rate, linearly increases with GCD. HDHF Lissajous scanning is achieved at the bi-axial scanning frequencies, where the GCD has the maximum value among various sets of the scanning frequencies satisfying the total lobe number for a target FF. Based on this selection rule, the experimental results clearly demonstrate that conventional Lissajous scanners substantially increase both FF and FPS by slightly modulating the scanning frequencies at near the resonance within the resonance bandwidth of a Lissajous scanner. This selection rule provides a new guideline for HDHF Lissajous scanning in compact laser scanning systems.

  20. Evolution of Near-Surface Internal and External Oxide Morphology During High-Temperature Selective Oxidation of Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Story, Mary E.; Webler, Bryan A.

    2018-05-01

    In this work we examine some observations made using high-temperature confocal scanning laser microscopy (HT-CSLM) during selective oxidation experiments. A plain carbon steel and advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) were selectively oxidized at high temperature (850-900°C) in either low oxygen or water vapor atmospheres. Surface evolution, including thermal grooving along grain boundaries and oxide growth, was viewed in situ during heating. Experiments investigated the influence of the microstructure and oxidizing atmosphere on selective oxidation behavior. Sequences of CSLM still frames collected during the experiment were processed with ImageJ to obtain histograms that showed a general darkening trend indicative of oxidation over time with all samples. Additional ex situ scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis supported in situ observations. Distinct oxidation behavior was observed for each case. Segregation, grain orientation, and extent of internal oxidation were all found to strongly influence surface evolution.

  1. The Overdense Environments of WISE-selected, ultra-luminous, high-redshift AGN in the submillimetre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Suzy F.

    2017-11-01

    The environments around WISE-selected hot dust obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) and WISE/radio-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at average redshifts of z = 2.7 and z = 1.7, respectively, were found to have overdensities of companion submillimetre-selected sources. The overdensities were of ˜ 2 - 3 and ˜ 5 - 6 , respectively, compared with blank field submm surveys. The space densities in both samples were found to be overdense compared to normal star-forming galaxies and submillimetre galaxies (SMGs). All of the companion sources have consistent mid-IR colours and mid-IR to submm ratios to SMGs. Monte Carlo simulations show no angular correlation, which could indicate protoclusters on scales larger than the SCUBA-2 1.5 arcmin scale maps. WISE-selected AGNs appear to be good indicators of overdense areas of active galaxies at high redshift.

  2. Relationships among Selected Factors and the Sight-Reading Ability of High School Mixed Choirs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Rose Dwiggins

    1986-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships among sight-reading ability and selected variables for 20 high school choirs. Results showed that the best predictors of sight-reading ability are ethnic makeup of the school, presence of a piano in the home, a rural school location, and occasional use of rote procedures to teach music. (JDH)

  3. 13. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW, LOOKING WEST FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, SHOWING HIGH PRESSURE AIR FLASK ROOM AND PUMP ROOM - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  4. Selective growth of MoS2 for proton exchange membranes with extremely high selectivity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Kai; Tang, Beibei; Wu, Peiyi

    2013-12-26

    Proton conductivity and methanol permeability are the most important transport properties of proton exchange membranes (PEMs). The ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability is usually called selectivity. Herein, a novel strategy of in situ growth of MoS2 is employed to prepare MoS2/Nafion composite membranes for highly selective PEM. The strong interactions between the Mo precursor ((NH4)2MoS4) and Nafion's sulfonic groups in a suitable solvent environment (DMF) probably lead to a selective growth of MoS2 flakes mainly around the ionic clusters of the resultant MoS2/Nafion composite membrane. Therefore, it would significantly promote the aggregation and hence lead to a better connectivity of these ionic clusters, which favors the increase in proton conductivity. Meanwhile, the existence of MoS2 in the ionic channels effectively prevents methanol transporting through the PEM, contributing to the dramatic decrease in the methanol permeability. Consequently, the MoS2/Nafion composite membranes exhibit greatly increased selectivity. Under some severe conditions, such as 50 °C with 80 v/v% of methanol concentration, an increase in the membrane selectivity by nearly 2 orders of magnitude compared with that of the recast Nafion membrane could be achieved here, proving our method as a very promising way to prepare high-performance PEMs. All these conclusions are confirmed by various characterizations, such as (FE-) SEM, TEM, AFM, IR, Raman, TGA, XRD, etc.

  5. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes' Hearing Evolution.

    PubMed

    Braga, J; Loubes, J-M; Descouens, D; Dumoncel, J; Thackeray, J F; Kahn, J-L; de Beer, F; Riberon, A; Hoffman, K; Balaresque, P; Gilissen, E

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species' sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the "hypertrophied" cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record.

  6. Disproportionate Cochlear Length in Genus Homo Shows a High Phylogenetic Signal during Apes’ Hearing Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Braga, J.; Loubes, J-M.; Descouens, D.; Dumoncel, J.; Thackeray, J. F.; Kahn, J-L.; de Beer, F.; Riberon, A.; Hoffman, K.; Balaresque, P.; Gilissen, E.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in lifestyles and body weight affected mammal life-history evolution but little is known about how they shaped species’ sensory systems. Since auditory sensitivity impacts communication tasks and environmental acoustic awareness, it may have represented a deciding factor during mammal evolution, including apes. Here, we statistically measure the influence of phylogeny and allometry on the variation of five cochlear morphological features associated with hearing capacities across 22 living and 5 fossil catarrhine species. We find high phylogenetic signals for absolute and relative cochlear length only. Comparisons between fossil cochleae and reconstructed ape ancestral morphotypes show that Australopithecus absolute and relative cochlear lengths are explicable by phylogeny and concordant with the hypothetized ((Pan,Homo),Gorilla) and (Pan,Homo) most recent common ancestors. Conversely, deviations of the Paranthropus oval window area from these most recent common ancestors are not explicable by phylogeny and body weight alone, but suggest instead rapid evolutionary changes (directional selection) of its hearing organ. Premodern (Homo erectus) and modern human cochleae set apart from living non-human catarrhines and australopiths. They show cochlear relative lengths and oval window areas larger than expected for their body mass, two features corresponding to increased low-frequency sensitivity more recent than 2 million years ago. The uniqueness of the “hypertrophied” cochlea in the genus Homo (as opposed to the australopiths) and the significantly high phylogenetic signal of this organ among apes indicate its usefulness to identify homologies and monophyletic groups in the hominid fossil record. PMID:26083484

  7. Choosing and Leaving Science in Highly Selective Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strenta, A. Christopher; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A study investigated causes of initial interest in and attrition from natural sciences and engineering among 5,320 students entering 4 highly selective institutions in 1988, with attention to probable causes of disproportionate attrition of women. Reasons for high attrition were based on cognitive variables or the perceived "chilly"…

  8. Frequency-dependent selection can lead to evolution of high mutation rates.

    PubMed

    Rosenbloom, Daniel I S; Allen, Benjamin

    2014-05-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have shown that high mutation rates can be advantageous, especially in novel or fluctuating environments. Here we examine how frequency-dependent competition may lead to fluctuations in trait frequencies that exert upward selective pressure on mutation rates. We use a mathematical model to show that cyclical trait dynamics generated by "rock-paper-scissors" competition can cause the mutation rate in a population to converge to a high evolutionarily stable mutation rate, reflecting a trade-off between generating novelty and reproducing past success. Introducing recombination lowers the evolutionarily stable mutation rate but allows stable coexistence between mutation rates above and below the evolutionarily stable rate. Even considering strong mutational load and ignoring the costs of faithful replication, evolution favors positive mutation rates if the selective advantage of prevailing in competition exceeds the ratio of recombining to nonrecombining offspring. We discuss a number of genomic mechanisms that may meet our theoretical requirements for the adaptive evolution of mutation. Overall, our results suggest that local mutation rates may be higher on genes influencing cyclical competition and that global mutation rates in asexual species may be higher in populations subject to strong cyclical competition.

  9. High MHC diversity maintained by balancing selection in an otherwise genetically monomorphic mammal

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Andres; Roemer, Gary; Debenham, Sally; Binns, Matthew; Garcelon, David; Wayne, Robert K.

    2004-01-01

    The San Nicolas Island fox (Urocyon littoralis dickeyi) is genetically the most monomorphic sexually reproducing animal population yet reported and has no variation in hypervariable genetic markers. Such low levels of variation imply lower resistance to pathogens, reduced fitness, and problems in distinguishing kin from non-kin. In vertebrates, the MHC contains genes that influence disease resistance and kin recognition and may be under intense balancing selection in some populations. Hence, genetic variation at the MHC might persist despite the extreme monomorphism shown by neutral markers. We examine variation of five loci within the MHC of San Nicolas Island foxes and find remarkably high levels of variation. Further, we show by simulation that genetic monomorphism at neutral loci and high MHC variation could arise only through an extreme population bottleneck of <10 individuals, ≈10–20 generations ago, accompanied by unprecedented selection coefficients of >0.5 on MHC loci. These results support the importance of balancing selection as a mechanism to maintain variation in natural populations and expose the difficulty of using neutral markers as surrogates for variation in fitness-related loci. PMID:14990802

  10. 26. VIEW OF PUMP ROOM, SHOWING PORTIONS OF HIGH PRESSURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. VIEW OF PUMP ROOM, SHOWING PORTIONS OF HIGH PRESSURE AIR SYSTEM AT LEFT AND CENTER AND OVERFLOW STORAGE TANK AT RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  11. Characterization of carotenoid high-producing Capsicum annuum cultivars selected for paprika production.

    PubMed

    Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Costa-García, Joaquín; Mínguez-Mosquera, Maria Isabel

    2002-09-25

    Twelve selected pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) cultivars, bred for mechanical harvesting (grouped ripeness) and adaptation to different cultivation cycles (short to long), have been characterized by their carotenoid pigment content and composition with the aim of producing high-quality paprika. A detailed analysis of the carotenogenesis was performed throughout the ripening process, but with special emphasis on the ripe stage, with the aim of selecting the best cultivar for paprika production. The MA1 cultivar (with grouped ripeness and very short cultivation cycle) showed the highest carotenoid content (12697.58 mg/kg dwt), followed by DN5 and RN2 cultivars with 11086.88 and 10393.29 mg/kg dwt, respectively. Most of the cultivars (MA3, RN1, LR2, LR7, DN3, DR6, Datler, and Mulato) showed a total carotenoid content in the range of 7000-9700 mg/kg dwt. In general, chlorophyll-retaining character was related to high carotenoid content (cultivars DN3, DN5, MA3, Mulato, RN1, and RN2). The general trend of the cultivation cycle was that the shorter the cycle, the higher the total carotenoid content (as exemplified by the cultivar MA1). The lowest total carotenoid content was found for the RR1 cultivar (4856.77 mg/kg dwt), which showed the longest cultivation cycle. Carotenogenic capacity of the cultivars has been discussed relative to total carotenoid content and the R/Y and Caps/Zeax ratios, the main quality traits for breeding cultivars for production of high-quality paprika. The cultivar MA1, with the highest total carotenoid content, high R/Y (2.11) ratio, and highest Caps/Zeax (9.85) ratio, was found to be the most suitable cultivar for paprika production in terms of carotenoid pigment biosynthesis capacity. Moreover, this cultivar has a short cultivation cycle and grouped ripeness, which are both important characteristics for a proper application of mechanical harvesting. The potential improvement of other varieties is also discussed.

  12. High Selection Pressure Promotes Increase in Cumulative Adaptive Culture

    PubMed Central

    Vegvari, Carolin; Foley, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of cumulative adaptive culture has received widespread interest in recent years, especially the factors promoting its occurrence. Current evolutionary models suggest that an increase in population size may lead to an increase in cultural complexity via a higher rate of cultural transmission and innovation. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the role of natural selection in the evolution of cultural complexity. Here we use an agent-based simulation model to demonstrate that high selection pressure in the form of resource pressure promotes the accumulation of adaptive culture in spite of small population sizes and high innovation costs. We argue that the interaction of demography and selection is important, and that neither can be considered in isolation. We predict that an increase in cultural complexity is most likely to occur under conditions of population pressure relative to resource availability. Our model may help to explain why culture change can occur without major environmental change. We suggest that understanding the interaction between shifting selective pressures and demography is essential for explaining the evolution of cultural complexity. PMID:24489724

  13. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    SciTech Connect

    Denardo, Sally J.; Denardo, Gerald L.; Balhorn, Rodney L.

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  14. Selective high-affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally; DeNardo, Gerald; Balhorn, Rodney

    2013-09-17

    This invention provides polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each binds different regions on the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  15. Selective high affinity polydentate ligands and methods of making such

    DOEpatents

    DeNardo, Sally; DeNardo, Gerald; Balhorn, Rodney

    2010-02-16

    This invention provides novel polydentate selective high affinity ligands (SHALs) that can be used in a variety of applications in a manner analogous to the use of antibodies. SHALs typically comprise a multiplicity of ligands that each bind different region son the target molecule. The ligands are joined directly or through a linker thereby forming a polydentate moiety that typically binds the target molecule with high selectivity and avidity.

  16. Open-field behavior of house mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running.

    PubMed

    Bronikowski, A M; Carter, P A; Swallow, J G; Girard, I A; Rhodes, J S; Garland, T

    2001-05-01

    Open-field behavioral assays are commonly used to test both locomotor activity and emotionality in rodents. We performed open-field tests on house mice (Mus domesticus) from four replicate lines genetically selected for high voluntary wheel-running for 22 generations and from four replicate random-bred control lines. Individual mice were recorded by video camera for 3 min in a 1-m2 open-field arena on 2 consecutive days. Mice from selected lines showed no statistical differences from control mice with respect to distance traveled, defecation, time spent in the interior, or average distance from the center of the arena during the trial. Thus, we found little evidence that open-field behavior, as traditionally defined, is genetically correlated with wheel-running behavior. This result is a useful converse test of classical studies that report no increased wheel-running in mice selected for increased open-field activity. However, mice from selected lines turned less in their travel paths than did control-line mice, and females from selected lines had slower travel times (longer latencies) to reach the wall. We discuss these results in the context of the historical open-field test and newly defined measures of open-field activity.

  17. Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites.

    PubMed

    Erspamer, V; Melchiorri, P; Falconieri-Erspamer, G; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Barra, D; Simmaco, M; Kreil, G

    1989-07-01

    Deltorphins are endogenous linear heptapeptides, isolated from skin extracts of frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusa, that have a higher affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites than any other natural compound known. Two deltorphins with the sequence Tyr-Ala-Phe-Asp(or Glu)-Val-Val-Gly-NH2 have been isolated from skin extracts of Phyllomedusa bicolor. The alanine in position 2 is in the D configuration. These peptides, [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II, show an even higher affinity for delta receptors than the previously characterized deltorphin, which contains D-methionine as the second amino acid. These peptides show some similarity to another constituent of Phyllomedusa skin, dermorphin, which is highly selective for mu-opioid receptors. These peptides all have the N-terminal sequence Tyr-D-Xaa-Phe, where D-Xaa is either D-alanine or D-methionine. While this structure seems to be capable of activating both mu and delta opioid receptors, differences in the C-terminal regions of these peptides are probably responsible for the observed high receptor selectivity of dermorphin and deltorphin.

  18. Deltorphins: a family of naturally occurring peptides with high affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites.

    PubMed Central

    Erspamer, V; Melchiorri, P; Falconieri-Erspamer, G; Negri, L; Corsi, R; Severini, C; Barra, D; Simmaco, M; Kreil, G

    1989-01-01

    Deltorphins are endogenous linear heptapeptides, isolated from skin extracts of frogs belonging to the genus Phyllomedusa, that have a higher affinity and selectivity for delta opioid binding sites than any other natural compound known. Two deltorphins with the sequence Tyr-Ala-Phe-Asp(or Glu)-Val-Val-Gly-NH2 have been isolated from skin extracts of Phyllomedusa bicolor. The alanine in position 2 is in the D configuration. These peptides, [D-Ala2]deltorphins I and II, show an even higher affinity for delta receptors than the previously characterized deltorphin, which contains D-methionine as the second amino acid. These peptides show some similarity to another constituent of Phyllomedusa skin, dermorphin, which is highly selective for mu-opioid receptors. These peptides all have the N-terminal sequence Tyr-D-Xaa-Phe, where D-Xaa is either D-alanine or D-methionine. While this structure seems to be capable of activating both mu and delta opioid receptors, differences in the C-terminal regions of these peptides are probably responsible for the observed high receptor selectivity of dermorphin and deltorphin. PMID:2544892

  19. The role of weak selection and high mutation rates in nearly neutral evolution.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Daniel John; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2009-04-21

    Neutral dynamics occur in evolution if all types are 'effectively equal' in their reproductive success, where the definition of 'effectively equal' depends on the population size and the details of mutations. Empirically observed neutral genetic evolution in extremely large clonal populations can only be explained under current models if selection is completely absent. Such models typically consider the case where population dynamics occurs on a different timescale to evolution. However, this assumption is invalid when mutations are not rare in a whole population. We show that this has important consequences for the occurrence of neutral evolution in clonal populations. In highly connected type spaces, neutral dynamics can occur for all population sizes despite significant selective differences, via the forming of effectively neutral networks connecting rare neutral types. Biological implications include an explanation for the high diversity of rare types that survive in large clonal populations, and a theoretical justification for the use of neutral null models.

  20. Binding-induced DNA walker for signal amplification in highly selective electrochemical detection of protein.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yuhang; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Longyi; Lei, Jianping; Wu, Jie; Ju, Huangxian

    2017-10-15

    A binding-induced DNA walker-assisted signal amplification was developed for highly selective electrochemical detection of protein. Firstly, the track of DNA walker was constructed by self-assembly of the high density ferrocene (Fc)-labeled anchor DNA and aptamer 1 on the gold electrode surface. Sequentially, a long swing-arm chain containing aptamer 2 and walking strand DNA was introduced onto gold electrode through aptamers-target specific recognition, and thus initiated walker strand sequences to hybridize with anchor DNA. Then, the DNA walker was activated by the stepwise cleavage of the hybridized anchor DNA by nicking endonuclease to release multiple Fc molecules for signal amplification. Taking thrombin as the model target, the Fc-generated electrochemical signal decreased linearly with logarithm value of thrombin concentration ranging from 10pM to 100nM with a detection limit of 2.5pM under the optimal conditions. By integrating the specific recognition of aptamers to target with the enzymatic cleavage of nicking endonuclease, the aptasensor showed the high selectivity. The binding-induced DNA walker provides a promising strategy for signal amplification in electrochemical biosensor, and has the extensive applications in sensitive and selective detection of the various targets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Computational Design of Ligand Binding Proteins with High Affinity and Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Jiayi; Doyle, Lindsey; Nelson, Jorgen W.; Schena, Alberto; Jankowski, Wojciech; Kalodimos, Charalampos G.; Johnsson, Kai; Stoddard, Barry L.; Baker, David

    2014-01-01

    The ability to design proteins with high affinity and selectivity for any given small molecule would have numerous applications in biosensing, diagnostics, and therapeutics, and is a rigorous test of our understanding of the physiochemical principles that govern molecular recognition phenomena. Attempts to design ligand binding proteins have met with little success, however, and the computational design of precise molecular recognition between proteins and small molecules remains an “unsolved problem”1. We describe a general method for the computational design of small molecule binding sites with pre-organized hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interfaces and high overall shape complementary to the ligand, and use it to design protein binding sites for the steroid digoxigenin (DIG). Of 17 designs that were experimentally characterized, two bind DIG; the highest affinity design has the lowest predicted interaction energy and the most pre-organized binding site in the set. A comprehensive binding-fitness landscape of this design generated by library selection and deep sequencing was used to guide optimization of binding affinity to a picomolar level, and two X-ray co-crystal structures of optimized complexes show atomic level agreement with the design models. The designed binder has a high selectivity for DIG over the related steroids digitoxigenin, progesterone, and β-estradiol, which can be reprogrammed through the designed hydrogen-bonding interactions. Taken together, the binding fitness landscape, co-crystal structures, and thermodynamic binding parameters illustrate how increases in binding affinity can result from distal sequence changes that limit the protein ensemble to conformers making the most energetically favorable interactions with the ligand. The computational design method presented here should enable the development of a new generation of biosensors, therapeutics, and diagnostics. PMID:24005320

  2. Patients with ALS show highly correlated progression rates in left and right limb muscles.

    PubMed

    Rushton, David J; Andres, Patricia L; Allred, Peggy; Baloh, Robert H; Svendsen, Clive N

    2017-07-11

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progresses at different rates between patients, making clinical trial design difficult and dependent on large cohorts of patients. Currently, there are few data showing whether the left and right limbs progress at the same or different rates. This study addresses rates of decline in specific muscle groups of patients with ALS and assesses whether there is a relationship between left and right muscles in the same patient, regardless of overall progression. A large cohort of patients was used to assess decline in muscle strength in right and left limbs over time using 2 different methods: The Tufts Quantitative Neuromuscular Exam and Accurate Test of Limb Isometric Strength protocol. Then advanced linear regression statistical methods were applied to assess progression rates in each limb. This report shows that linearized progression models can predict general slopes of decline with good accuracy. Critically, the data demonstrate that while overall decline is variable, there is a high degree of correlation between left and right muscle decline in ALS. This implies that irrespective of which muscle starts declining soonest or latest, their rates of decline following onset are more consistent. First, this study demonstrates a high degree of power when using unilateral treatment approaches to detect a slowing in disease progression in smaller groups of patients, thus allowing for paired statistical tests. These findings will be useful in transplantation trials that use muscle decline to track disease progression in ALS. Second, these findings discuss methods, such as tactical selection of muscle groups, which can improve the power efficiency of all ALS clinical trials. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  3. AVN-492, A Novel Highly Selective 5-HT6R Antagonist: Preclinical Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ivachtchenko, Alexandre V; Okun, Ilya; Aladinskiy, Vladimir; Ivanenkov, Yan; Koryakova, Angela; Karapetyan, Ruben; Mitkin, Oleg; Salimov, Ramiz; Ivashchenko, Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Discovery of 5-HT6 receptor subtype and its exclusive localization within the central nervous system led to extensive investigations of its role in Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and obesity. In the present study, we present preclinical evaluation of a novel highly-potent and highly-selective 5-HT6R antagonist, AVN-492. The affinity of AVN-492 to bind to 5-HT6R (Ki = 91 pM) was more than three orders of magnitude higher than that to bind to the only other target, 5-HT2BR, (Ki = 170 nM). Thus, the compound displayed great 5-HT6R selectivity against all other serotonin receptor subtypes, and is extremely specific against any other receptors such as adrenergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, histaminergic, etc. AVN-492 demonstrates good in vitro and in vivo ADME profile with high oral bioavailability and good brain permeability in rodents. In behavioral tests, AVN-492 shows anxiolytic effect in elevated plus-maze model, prevents an apomorphine-induced disruption of startle pre-pulse inhibition (the PPI model) and reverses a scopolamine- and MK-801-induced memory deficit in passive avoidance model. No anti-obesity effect of AVN-492 was found in a murine model. The data presented here strongly indicate that due to its high oral bioavailability, extremely high selectivity, and potency to block the 5-HT6 receptor, AVN-492 is a very promising tool for evaluating the role the 5-HT6 receptor might play in cognitive and neurodegenerative impairments. AVN-492 is an excellent drug candidate to be tested for treatment of such diseases, and is currently being tested in Phase I trials.

  4. Artificial Photosystem I and II: Highly Selective solar fuels and tandem photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yuchen; Castellanos, Ignacio; Cerkovnik, Logan; Nagpal, Prashant

    2014-03-01

    Artificial photosynthesis, or generation of solar fuels from CO2/H2O, can provide an important alternative for rising CO2 emission and renewable energy generation. In our recent work, composite photocatalysts (CPCs) made from widebandgap nanotubes and different QDs were used to mimic Photosystem II (PS680) and I (PS700), respectively. By tuning the redox potentials using the size, composition and energy band alignment of QDs, we demonstrate highly selective (>90%) and efficient production of ethane, ethanol and acetaldehyde as solar fuels with different wavelengths of light. We also show that this selectivity is a result of precise energy band alignments (using cationic/anionic doping of nanotubes, QD size etc.), confirmed using measurements of electronic density of states, and alignment of higher redox potentials with hot-carriers can also lead to hot-carrier photocatalysis. This wavelength-selective CPCs can have important implications for inexpensive production of solar fuels including alkanes, alcohols, aldehydes and hydrogen, and making tandem structures (red, green, blue) with three CPCs, allowing almost full visible spectrum (410 ~ 730nm) utilization with different fuels produced simultaneously.

  5. Movement-related beta oscillations show high intra-individual reliability.

    PubMed

    Espenhahn, Svenja; de Berker, Archy O; van Wijk, Bernadette C M; Rossiter, Holly E; Ward, Nick S

    2017-02-15

    Oscillatory activity in the beta frequency range (15-30Hz) recorded from human sensorimotor cortex is of increasing interest as a putative biomarker of motor system function and dysfunction. Despite its increasing use in basic and clinical research, surprisingly little is known about the test-retest reliability of spectral power and peak frequency measures of beta oscillatory signals from sensorimotor cortex. Establishing that these beta measures are stable over time in healthy populations is a necessary precursor to their use in the clinic. Here, we used scalp electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate intra-individual reliability of beta-band oscillations over six sessions, focusing on changes in beta activity during movement (Movement-Related Beta Desynchronization, MRBD) and after movement termination (Post-Movement Beta Rebound, PMBR). Subjects performed visually-cued unimanual wrist flexion and extension. We assessed Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) and between-session correlations for spectral power and peak frequency measures of movement-related and resting beta activity. Movement-related and resting beta power from both sensorimotor cortices was highly reliable across sessions. Resting beta power yielded highest reliability (average ICC=0.903), followed by MRBD (average ICC=0.886) and PMBR (average ICC=0.663). Notably, peak frequency measures yielded lower ICC values compared to the assessment of spectral power, particularly for movement-related beta activity (ICC=0.386-0.402). Our data highlight that power measures of movement-related beta oscillations are highly reliable, while corresponding peak frequency measures show greater intra-individual variability across sessions. Importantly, our finding that beta power estimates show high intra-individual reliability over time serves to validate the notion that these measures reflect meaningful individual differences that can be utilised in basic research and clinical studies. Copyright © 2016 The

  6. Unbiased feature selection in learning random forests for high-dimensional data.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua Zhexue; Nguyen, Thuy Thi

    2015-01-01

    Random forests (RFs) have been widely used as a powerful classification method. However, with the randomization in both bagging samples and feature selection, the trees in the forest tend to select uninformative features for node splitting. This makes RFs have poor accuracy when working with high-dimensional data. Besides that, RFs have bias in the feature selection process where multivalued features are favored. Aiming at debiasing feature selection in RFs, we propose a new RF algorithm, called xRF, to select good features in learning RFs for high-dimensional data. We first remove the uninformative features using p-value assessment, and the subset of unbiased features is then selected based on some statistical measures. This feature subset is then partitioned into two subsets. A feature weighting sampling technique is used to sample features from these two subsets for building trees. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees, while allowing one to reduce dimensionality and the amount of data needed for learning RFs. An extensive set of experiments has been conducted on 47 high-dimensional real-world datasets including image datasets. The experimental results have shown that RFs with the proposed approach outperformed the existing random forests in increasing the accuracy and the AUC measures.

  7. Abrogation of Microsatellite-instable Tumors Using a Highly Selective Suicide Gene/Prodrug Combination

    PubMed Central

    Ferrás, Cristina; Oude Vrielink, Joachim AF; Verspuy, Johan WA; te Riele, Hein; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; de Wind, Niels

    2009-01-01

    A substantial fraction of sporadic and inherited colorectal and endometrial cancers in humans is deficient in DNA mismatch repair (MMR). These cancers are characterized by length alterations in ubiquitous simple sequence repeats, a phenotype called microsatellite instability. Here we have exploited this phenotype by developing a novel approach for the highly selective gene therapy of MMR-deficient tumors. To achieve this selectivity, we mutated the VP22FCU1 suicide gene by inserting an out-of-frame microsatellite within its coding region. We show that in a significant fraction of microsatellite-instable (MSI) cells carrying the mutated suicide gene, full-length protein becomes expressed within a few cell doublings, presumably resulting from a reverting frameshift within the inserted microsatellite. Treatment of these cells with the innocuous prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) induces strong cytotoxicity and we demonstrate that this owes to multiple bystander effects conferred by the suicide gene/prodrug combination. In a mouse model, MMR-deficient tumors that contained the out-of-frame VP22FCU1 gene displayed strong remission after treatment with 5-FC, without any obvious adverse systemic effects to the mouse. By virtue of its high selectivity and potency, this conditional enzyme/prodrug combination may hold promise for the treatment or prevention of MMR-deficient cancer in humans. PMID:19471249

  8. Chemiluminescence analyzer of NOx as a high-throughput screening tool in selective catalytic reduction of NO

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kwang Seok; Woo, Seong Ihl

    2011-01-01

    A chemiluminescence-based analyzer of NOx gas species has been applied for high-throughput screening of a library of catalytic materials. The applicability of the commercial NOx analyzer as a rapid screening tool was evaluated using selective catalytic reduction of NO gas. A library of 60 binary alloys composed of Pt and Co, Zr, La, Ce, Fe or W on Al2O3 substrate was tested for the efficiency of NOx removal using a home-built 64-channel parallel and sequential tubular reactor. The NOx concentrations measured by the NOx analyzer agreed well with the results obtained using micro gas chromatography for a reference catalyst consisting of 1 wt% Pt on γ-Al2O3. Most alloys showed high efficiency at 275 °C, which is typical of Pt-based catalysts for selective catalytic reduction of NO. The screening with NOx analyzer allowed to select Pt-Ce(X) (X=1–3) and Pt–Fe(2) as the optimal catalysts for NOx removal: 73% NOx conversion was achieved with the Pt–Fe(2) alloy, which was much better than the results for the reference catalyst and the other library alloys. This study demonstrates a sequential high-throughput method of practical evaluation of catalysts for the selective reduction of NO. PMID:27877438

  9. 68. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. B51 SHOWING HIGH BAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Joe Moore, Photographer. September, 1996. B51 SHOWING HIGH BAY DOOR (C) and B51L IN FOREGROUND - University of California Radiation Laboratory, Bevatron, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, Alameda County, CA

  10. A Selective Review of Group Selection in High-Dimensional Models

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jian; Breheny, Patrick; Ma, Shuangge

    2013-01-01

    Grouping structures arise naturally in many statistical modeling problems. Several methods have been proposed for variable selection that respect grouping structure in variables. Examples include the group LASSO and several concave group selection methods. In this article, we give a selective review of group selection concerning methodological developments, theoretical properties and computational algorithms. We pay particular attention to group selection methods involving concave penalties. We address both group selection and bi-level selection methods. We describe several applications of these methods in nonparametric additive models, semiparametric regression, seemingly unrelated regressions, genomic data analysis and genome wide association studies. We also highlight some issues that require further study. PMID:24174707

  11. A Novel Halophilic Lipase, LipBL, Showing High Efficiency in the Production of Eicosapentaenoic Acid (EPA)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Dolores; Martín, Sara; Fernández-Lorente, Gloria; Filice, Marco; Guisán, José Manuel; Ventosa, Antonio; García, María Teresa; Mellado, Encarnación

    2011-01-01

    Background Among extremophiles, halophiles are defined as microorganisms adapted to live and thrive in diverse extreme saline environments. These extremophilic microorganisms constitute the source of a number of hydrolases with great biotechnological applications. The interest to use extremozymes from halophiles in industrial applications is their resistance to organic solvents and extreme temperatures. Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 is a moderately halophilic bacterium, isolated previously from a saline habitat in South Spain, showing lipolytic activity. Methods and Findings A lipolytic enzyme from the halophilic bacterium Marinobacter lipolyticus SM19 was isolated. This enzyme, designated LipBL, was expressed in Escherichia coli. LipBL is a protein of 404 amino acids with a molecular mass of 45.3 kDa and high identity to class C β-lactamases. LipBL was purified and biochemically characterized. The temperature for its maximal activity was 80°C and the pH optimum determined at 25°C was 7.0, showing optimal activity without sodium chloride, while maintaining 20% activity in a wide range of NaCl concentrations. This enzyme exhibited high activity against short-medium length acyl chain substrates, although it also hydrolyzes olive oil and fish oil. The fish oil hydrolysis using LipBL results in an enrichment of free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), relative to its levels present in fish oil. For improving the stability and to be used in industrial processes LipBL was immobilized in different supports. The immobilized derivatives CNBr-activated Sepharose were highly selective towards the release of EPA versus DHA. The enzyme is also active towards different chiral and prochiral esters. Exposure of LipBL to buffer-solvent mixtures showed that the enzyme had remarkable activity and stability in all organic solvents tested. Conclusions In this study we isolated, purified, biochemically characterized and immobilized a lipolytic enzyme from

  12. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection. PMID:26789008

  13. Selection Indices and Multivariate Analysis Show Similar Results in the Evaluation of Growth and Carcass Traits in Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Brito Lopes, Fernando; da Silva, Marcelo Corrêa; Magnabosco, Cláudio Ulhôa; Goncalves Narciso, Marcelo; Sainz, Roberto Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This research evaluated a multivariate approach as an alternative tool for the purpose of selection regarding expected progeny differences (EPDs). Data were fitted using a multi-trait model and consisted of growth traits (birth weight and weights at 120, 210, 365 and 450 days of age) and carcass traits (longissimus muscle area (LMA), back-fat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF)), registered over 21 years in extensive breeding systems of Polled Nellore cattle in Brazil. Multivariate analyses were performed using standardized (zero mean and unit variance) EPDs. The k mean method revealed that the best fit of data occurred using three clusters (k = 3) (P < 0.001). Estimates of genetic correlation among growth and carcass traits and the estimates of heritability were moderate to high, suggesting that a correlated response approach is suitable for practical decision making. Estimates of correlation between selection indices and the multivariate index (LD1) were moderate to high, ranging from 0.48 to 0.97. This reveals that both types of indices give similar results and that the multivariate approach is reliable for the purpose of selection. The alternative tool seems very handy when economic weights are not available or in cases where more rapid identification of the best animals is desired. Interestingly, multivariate analysis allowed forecasting information based on the relationships among breeding values (EPDs). Also, it enabled fine discrimination, rapid data summarization after genetic evaluation, and permitted accounting for maternal ability and the genetic direct potential of the animals. In addition, we recommend the use of longissimus muscle area and subcutaneous fat thickness as selection criteria, to allow estimation of breeding values before the first mating season in order to accelerate the response to individual selection.

  14. Cannabis with high δ9-THC contents affects perception and visual selective attention acutely: an event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Böcker, K B E; Gerritsen, J; Hunault, C C; Kruidenier, M; Mensinga, Tj T; Kenemans, J L

    2010-07-01

    Cannabis intake has been reported to affect cognitive functions such as selective attention. This study addressed the effects of exposure to cannabis with up to 69.4mg Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on Event-Related Potentials (ERPs) recorded during a visual selective attention task. Twenty-four participants smoked cannabis cigarettes with four doses of THC on four test days in a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Two hours after THC exposure the participants performed a visual selective attention task and concomitant ERPs were recorded. Accuracy decreased linearly and reaction times increased linearly with THC dose. However, performance measures and most of the ERP components related specifically to selective attention did not show significant dose effects. Only in relatively light cannabis users the Occipital Selection Negativity decreased linearly with dose. Furthermore, ERP components reflecting perceptual processing, as well as the P300 component, decreased in amplitude after THC exposure. Only the former effect showed a linear dose-response relation. The decrements in performance and ERP amplitudes induced by exposure to cannabis with high THC content resulted from a non-selective decrease in attentional or processing resources. Performance requiring attentional resources, such as vehicle control, may be compromised several hours after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high doses of THC, as presently available in Europe and Northern America. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Improving the geomagnetic field modeling with a selection of high-quality archaeointensity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon-Carrasco, Francisco Javier; Gomez-Paccard, Miriam; Herve, Gwenael; Osete, Maria Luisa; Chauvin, Annick

    2014-05-01

    Geomagnetic field reconstructions for the last millennia are based on archeomagnetic data. However, the scatter of the archaeointensity data is very puzzling and clearly suggests that some of the intensity data might not be reliable. In this work we apply different selection criteria to the European and Western Asian archaeointensity data covering the last three millennia in order to investigate if the data selection affects geomagnetic field models results. Thanks to the recently developed archeomagnetic databases, new valuable information related to the methodology used to determine the archeointensity data is now available. We therefore used this information to rank the archaeointensity data in four quality categories depending on the methodology used during the laboratory treatment of the samples and on the number of specimens retained to calculate the mean intensities. Results show how the intensity geomagnetic field component given by the regional models hardly depends on the selected quality data used. When all the available data are used a different behavior of the geomagnetic field is observed in Western and Eastern Europe. However, when the regional model is obtained from a selection of high-quality intensity data the same features are observed at the European scale.

  16. A Model for Investigating Predictive Validity at Highly Selective Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Alan L.; And Others

    A statistical model for investigating predictive validity at highly selective institutions is described. When the selection ratio is small, one must typically deal with a data set containing relatively large amounts of missing data on both criterion and predictor variables. Standard statistical approaches are based on the strong assumption that…

  17. Combined selective emitter and filter for high performance incandescent lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, Arny; Bhatia, Bikram; Wilke, Kyle; Ilic, Ognjen; Soljačić, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of incandescent light bulbs (ILBs) is inherently low due to the dominant emission at infrared wavelengths, diminishing its popularity today. ILBs with cold-side filters that transmit visible light but reflect infrared radiation back to the filament can surpass the efficiency of state-of-the-art light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, practical challenges such as imperfect geometrical alignment (view factor) between the filament and cold-side filters can limit the maximum achievable efficiency and make the use of cold-side filters ineffective. In this work, we show that by combining a cold-side optical filter with a selective emitter, the effect of the imperfect view factor between the filament and filter on the system efficiency can be minimized. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate energy savings of up to 67% compared to a bare tungsten emitter at 2000 K, representing a 34% improvement over a bare tungsten filament with a filter. Our work suggests that this approach can be competitive with LEDs in both luminous efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) when using selective emitters and filters already demonstrated in the literature, thus paving the way for next-generation high-efficiency ILBs.

  18. Combined selective emitter and filter for high performance incandescent lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, Arny; Bhatia, Bikram; Wilke, Kyle

    The efficiency of incandescent light bulbs (ILBs) is inherently low due to the dominant emission at infrared wavelengths, diminishing its popularity today. ILBs with cold-side filters that transmit visible light but reflect infrared radiation back to the filament can surpass the efficiency of state-of-the- art light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, practical challenges such as imperfect geometrical alignment (view factor) between the filament and cold-side filters can limit the maximum achievable efficiency and make the use of cold-side filters ineffective. Here in this work, we show that by combining a cold-side optical filter with a selective emitter, the effect of the imperfectmore » view factor between the filament and filter on the system efficiency can be minimized. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate energy savings of up to 67% compared to a bare tungsten emitter at 2000 K, representing a 34% improvement over a bare tungsten filament with a filter. Our work suggests that this approach can be competitive with LEDs in both luminous efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) when using selective emitters and filters already demonstrated in the literature, thus paving the way for next-generation high-efficiency ILBs.« less

  19. Combined selective emitter and filter for high performance incandescent lighting

    DOE PAGES

    Leroy, Arny; Bhatia, Bikram; Wilke, Kyle; ...

    2017-09-01

    The efficiency of incandescent light bulbs (ILBs) is inherently low due to the dominant emission at infrared wavelengths, diminishing its popularity today. ILBs with cold-side filters that transmit visible light but reflect infrared radiation back to the filament can surpass the efficiency of state-of-the- art light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, practical challenges such as imperfect geometrical alignment (view factor) between the filament and cold-side filters can limit the maximum achievable efficiency and make the use of cold-side filters ineffective. Here in this work, we show that by combining a cold-side optical filter with a selective emitter, the effect of the imperfectmore » view factor between the filament and filter on the system efficiency can be minimized. We experimentally and theoretically demonstrate energy savings of up to 67% compared to a bare tungsten emitter at 2000 K, representing a 34% improvement over a bare tungsten filament with a filter. Our work suggests that this approach can be competitive with LEDs in both luminous efficiency and color rendering index (CRI) when using selective emitters and filters already demonstrated in the literature, thus paving the way for next-generation high-efficiency ILBs.« less

  20. Palladium-tin catalysts for the direct synthesis of H 2O 2 with high selectivity

    DOE PAGES

    Freakley, Simon J.; He, Qian; Harrhy, Jonathan H.; ...

    2016-02-25

    The direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2 ) from H 2 and O 2 represents a potentially atom-efficient alternative to the current industrial indirect process. We show that the addition of tin to palladium catalysts coupled with an appropriate heat treatment cycle switches off the sequential hydrogenation and decomposition reactions, enabling selectivities of >95% toward H 2O 2 . This effect arises from a tin oxide surface layer that encapsulates small Pd-rich particles while leaving larger Pd-Sn alloy particles exposed. In conclusion, we show that this effect is a general feature for oxide-supported Pd catalysts containing an appropriatemore » second metal oxide component, and we set out the design principles for producing high-selectivity Pd-based catalysts for direct H 2O 2 production that do not contain gold.« less

  1. High-Temperature Tolerance in Multi-Scale Cermet Solar-Selective Absorbing Coatings Prepared by Laser Cladding.

    PubMed

    Pang, Xuming; Wei, Qian; Zhou, Jianxin; Ma, Huiyang

    2018-06-19

    In order to achieve cermet-based solar absorber coatings with long-term thermal stability at high temperatures, a novel single-layer, multi-scale TiC-Ni/Mo cermet coating was first prepared using laser cladding technology in atmosphere. The results show that the optical properties of the cermet coatings using laser cladding were much better than the preplaced coating. In addition, the thermal stability of the optical properties for the laser cladding coating were excellent after annealing at 650 °C for 200 h. The solar absorptance and thermal emittance of multi-scale cermet coating were 85% and 4.7% at 650 °C. The results show that multi-scale cermet materials are more suitable for solar-selective absorbing coating. In addition, laser cladding is a new technology that can be used for the preparation of spectrally-selective coatings.

  2. Highly Selective TiN-Supported Highly Dispersed Pt Catalyst: Ultra Active toward Hydrogen Oxidation and Inactive toward Oxygen Reduction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Junming; Tang, Haibo; Tian, Xinlong; Hou, Sanying; Li, Xiuhua; Du, Li; Liao, Shijun

    2018-01-31

    The severe dissolution of the cathode catalyst, caused by an undesired oxygen reduction reaction at the anode during startup and shutdown, is a fatal challenge to practical applications of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. To address this important issue, according to the distinct structure-sensitivity between the σ-type bond in H 2 and the π-type bond in O 2 , we design a HD-Pt/TiN material by highly dispersing Pt on the TiN surface to inhibit the unwanted oxygen reduction reaction. The highly dispersed Pt/TiN catalyst exhibits excellent selectivity toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. With a Pt loading of 0.88 wt %, our catalyst shows excellent hydrogen oxidation reaction activity, close to that of commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst, and much lower oxygen reduction reaction activity than the commercial 20 wt % Pt/C catalyst. The lack of well-ordered Pt facets is responsible for the excellent selectivity of the HD-Pt/TiN materials toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions. Our work provides a new and cost-effective solution to design selective catalysts toward hydrogen oxidation and oxygen reduction reactions, making the strategy of using oxygen-tolerant anode catalyst to improve the stability of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells during startup and shutdown more affordable and practical.

  3. Site-Selection in Single-Molecule Junction for Highly Reproducible Molecular Electronics.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Satoshi; Murai, Daigo; Marqués-González, Santiago; Nakamura, Hisao; Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2016-02-03

    Adsorption sites of molecules critically determine the electric/photonic properties and the stability of heterogeneous molecule-metal interfaces. Then, selectivity of adsorption site is essential for development of the fields including organic electronics, catalysis, and biology. However, due to current technical limitations, site-selectivity, i.e., precise determination of the molecular adsorption site, remains a major challenge because of difficulty in precise selection of meaningful one among the sites. We have succeeded the single site-selection at a single-molecule junction by performing newly developed hybrid technique: simultaneous characterization of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The I-V response of 1,4-benzenedithiol junctions reveals the existence of three metastable states arising from different adsorption sites. Notably, correlated SERS measurements show selectivity toward one of the adsorption sites: "bridge sites". This site-selectivity represents an essential step toward the reliable integration of individual molecules on metallic surfaces. Furthermore, the hybrid spectro-electric technique reveals the dependence of the SERS intensity on the strength of the molecule-metal interaction, showing the interdependence between the optical and electronic properties in single-molecule junctions.

  4. Spatial Heterodyne Observation of Water (SHOW) from a high altitude aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourassa, A. E.; Langille, J.; Solheim, B.; Degenstein, D. A.; Letros, D.; Lloyd, N. D.; Loewen, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water instrument (SHOW) is limb-sounding satellite prototype that is being developed in collaboration between the University of Saskatchewan, York University, the Canadian Space Agency and ABB. The SHOW instrument combines a field-widened SHS with an imaging system to observe limb-scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm - 1366 nm). Currently, the instrument has been optimized for deployment on NASA's ER-2 aircraft. Flying at an altitude of 70, 000 ft the ER-2 configuration and SHOW viewing geometry provides high spatial resolution (< 500 m) limb-measurements of water vapor in the Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere region. During an observation campaign from July 15 - July 22, the SHOW instrument performed 10 hours of observations from the ER-2. This paper describes the SHOW measurement technique and presents the preliminary analysis and results from these flights. These observations are used to validate the SHOW measurement technique and demonstrate the sampling capabilities of the instrument.

  5. Face-selective regions show invariance to linear, but not to non-linear, changes in facial images.

    PubMed

    Baseler, Heidi A; Young, Andrew W; Jenkins, Rob; Mike Burton, A; Andrews, Timothy J

    2016-12-01

    Familiar face recognition is remarkably invariant across huge image differences, yet little is understood concerning how image-invariant recognition is achieved. To investigate the neural correlates of invariance, we localized the core face-responsive regions and then compared the pattern of fMR-adaptation to different stimulus transformations in each region to behavioural data demonstrating the impact of the same transformations on familiar face recognition. In Experiment 1, we compared linear transformations of size and aspect ratio to a non-linear transformation affecting only part of the face. We found that adaptation to facial identity in face-selective regions showed invariance to linear changes, but there was no invariance to non-linear changes. In Experiment 2, we measured the sensitivity to non-linear changes that fell within the normal range of variation across face images. We found no adaptation to facial identity for any of the non-linear changes in the image, including to faces that varied in different levels of caricature. These results show a compelling difference in the sensitivity to linear compared to non-linear image changes in face-selective regions of the human brain that is only partially consistent with their effect on behavioural judgements of identity. We conclude that while regions such as the FFA may well be involved in the recognition of face identity, they are more likely to contribute to some form of normalisation that underpins subsequent recognition than to form the neural substrate of recognition per se. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guidelines for Microplate Selection in High Content Imaging.

    PubMed

    Trask, Oscar J

    2018-01-01

    Since the inception of commercialized automated high content screening (HCS) imaging devices in the mid to late 1990s, the adoption of media vessels typically used to house and contain biological specimens for interrogation has transitioned from microscope slides and petri dishes into multi-well microtiter plates called microplates. The early 96- and 384-well microplates commonly used in other high-throughput screening (HTS) technology applications were often not designed for optical imaging. Since then, modifications and the use of next-generation materials with improved optical clarity have enhanced the quality of captured images, reduced autofocusing failures, and empowered the use of higher power magnification objectives to resolve fine detailed measurements at the subcellular pixel level. The plethora of microplates and their applications requires practitioners of high content imaging (HCI) to be especially diligent in the selection and adoption of the best plates for running longitudinal studies or larger screening campaigns. While the highest priority in experimental design is the selection of the biological model, the choice of microplate can alter the biological response and ultimately may change the experimental outcome. This chapter will provide readers with background, troubleshooting guidelines, and considerations for choosing an appropriate microplate.

  7. High affinity ligands from in vitro selection: Complex targets

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kevin N.; Jensen, Kirk B.; Julin, Carol M.; Weil, Michael; Gold, Larry

    1998-01-01

    Human red blood cell membranes were used as a model system to determine if the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methodology, an in vitro protocol for isolating high-affinity oligonucleotides that bind specifically to virtually any single protein, could be used with a complex mixture of potential targets. Ligands to multiple targets were generated simultaneously during the selection process, and the binding affinities of these ligands for their targets are comparable to those found in similar experiments against pure targets. A secondary selection scheme, deconvolution-SELEX, facilitates rapid isolation of the ligands to targets of special interest within the mixture. SELEX provides high-affinity compounds for multiple targets in a mixture and might allow a means for dissecting complex biological systems. PMID:9501188

  8. Rapid and simple preparation of rhodamine 6G loaded HY zeolite for highly selective nitrite detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viboonratanasri, Duangkamon; Pabchanda, Suwat; Prompinit, Panida

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a simple, rapid and relatively less toxic method for rhodamine 6G dye adsorption on hydrogen-form Y-type zeolite for highly selective nitrite detection was demonstrated. The adsorption behavior was described by Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption process reached the equilibrium promptly within a minute. The developed test papers characterized by fluorescence technique display high sensing performance with wide working range (0.04-20.0 mg L-1) and high selectivity. The test papers show good reproducibility with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 7% for five replicated determinations of 3 mg L-1 of nitrite. The nitrite concentration determined by using the test paper was in the same range as using ion chromatography within a 95% confidence level. The test papers offer advantages in terms of low cost and practical usage enabling them to be a promising candidate for nitrite sensor in environmental samples, food, and fertilizers.

  9. High-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts using chemical complementation.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Carter, Brian T; Lin, Hening; Tao, Haiyan; Cornish, Virginia W

    2008-12-24

    Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material remains one of the major bottlenecks to cost-effective conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvement of glycosylhydrolases, however, is limited by existing medium-throughput screening technologies. Here, we report the first high-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts. This selection was developed by adapting chemical complementation to provide a growth assay for bond cleavage reactions. First, a URA3 counter selection was adapted to link chemical dimerizer activated gene transcription to cell death. Next, the URA3 counter selection was shown to detect cellulase activity based on cleavage of a tetrasaccharide chemical dimerizer substrate and decrease in expression of the toxic URA3 reporter. Finally, the utility of the cellulase selection was assessed by isolating cellulases with improved activity from a cellulase library created by family DNA shuffling. This application provides further evidence that chemical complementation can be readily adapted to detect different enzymatic activities for important chemical transformations for which no natural selection exists. Because of the large number of enzyme variants that selections can now test as compared to existing medium-throughput screens for cellulases, this assay has the potential to impact the discovery of improved cellulases and other glycosylhydrolases for biomass conversion from libraries of cellulases created by mutagenesis or obtained from natural biodiversity.

  10. A Primer on High-Throughput Computing for Genomic Selection

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao-Lin; Beissinger, Timothy M.; Bauck, Stewart; Woodward, Brent; Rosa, Guilherme J. M.; Weigel, Kent A.; Gatti, Natalia de Leon; Gianola, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput computing (HTC) uses computer clusters to solve advanced computational problems, with the goal of accomplishing high-throughput over relatively long periods of time. In genomic selection, for example, a set of markers covering the entire genome is used to train a model based on known data, and the resulting model is used to predict the genetic merit of selection candidates. Sophisticated models are very computationally demanding and, with several traits to be evaluated sequentially, computing time is long, and output is low. In this paper, we present scenarios and basic principles of how HTC can be used in genomic selection, implemented using various techniques from simple batch processing to pipelining in distributed computer clusters. Various scripting languages, such as shell scripting, Perl, and R, are also very useful to devise pipelines. By pipelining, we can reduce total computing time and consequently increase throughput. In comparison to the traditional data processing pipeline residing on the central processors, performing general-purpose computation on a graphics processing unit provide a new-generation approach to massive parallel computing in genomic selection. While the concept of HTC may still be new to many researchers in animal breeding, plant breeding, and genetics, HTC infrastructures have already been built in many institutions, such as the University of Wisconsin–Madison, which can be leveraged for genomic selection, in terms of central processing unit capacity, network connectivity, storage availability, and middleware connectivity. Exploring existing HTC infrastructures as well as general-purpose computing environments will further expand our capability to meet increasing computing demands posed by unprecedented genomic data that we have today. We anticipate that HTC will impact genomic selection via better statistical models, faster solutions, and more competitive products (e.g., from design of marker panels to realized

  11. Selecting long-term care facilities with high use of acute hospitalisations: issues and options

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper considers approaches to the question “Which long-term care facilities have residents with high use of acute hospitalisations?” It compares four methods of identifying long-term care facilities with high use of acute hospitalisations by demonstrating four selection methods, identifies key factors to be resolved when deciding which methods to employ, and discusses their appropriateness for different research questions. Methods OPAL was a census-type survey of aged care facilities and residents in Auckland, New Zealand, in 2008. It collected information about facility management and resident demographics, needs and care. Survey records (149 aged care facilities, 6271 residents) were linked to hospital and mortality records routinely assembled by health authorities. The main ranking endpoint was acute hospitalisations for diagnoses that were classified as potentially avoidable. Facilities were ranked using 1) simple event counts per person, 2) event rates per year of resident follow-up, 3) statistical model of rates using four predictors, and 4) change in ranks between methods 2) and 3). A generalized mixed model was used for Method 3 to handle the clustered nature of the data. Results 3048 potentially avoidable hospitalisations were observed during 22 months’ follow-up. The same “top ten” facilities were selected by Methods 1 and 2. The statistical model (Method 3), predicting rates from resident and facility characteristics, ranked facilities differently than these two simple methods. The change-in-ranks method identified a very different set of “top ten” facilities. All methods showed a continuum of use, with no clear distinction between facilities with higher use. Conclusion Choice of selection method should depend upon the purpose of selection. To monitor performance during a period of change, a recent simple rate, count per resident, or even count per bed, may suffice. To find high–use facilities regardless of resident needs

  12. Chicken lines divergently selected for antibody responses to sheep red blood cells show line-specific differences in sensitivity to immunomodulation by diet. Part I: Humoral parameters.

    PubMed

    Adriaansen-Tennekes, R; de Vries Reilingh, G; Nieuwland, M G B; Parmentier, H K; Savelkoul, H F J

    2009-09-01

    Individual differences in nutrient sensitivity have been suggested to be related with differences in stress sensitivity. Here we used layer hens divergently selected for high and low specific antibody responses to SRBC (i.e., low line hens and high line hens), reflecting a genetically based differential immune competence. The parental line of these hens was randomly bred as the control line and was used as well. Recently, we showed that these selection lines differ in their stress reactivity; the low line birds show a higher hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. To examine maternal effects and neonatal nutritional exposure on nutrient sensitivity, we studied 2 subsequent generations. This also created the opportunity to examine egg production in these birds. The 3 lines were fed 2 different nutritionally complete layer feeds for a period of 22 wk in the first generation. The second generation was fed from hatch with the experimental diets. At several time intervals, parameters reflecting humoral immunity were determined such as specific antibody to Newcastle disease and infectious bursal disease vaccines; levels of natural antibodies binding lipopolysaccharide, lipoteichoic acid, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin; and classical and alternative complement activity. The most pronounced dietary-induced effects were found in the low line birds of the first generation: specific antibody titers to Newcastle disease vaccine were significantly elevated by 1 of the 2 diets. In the second generation, significant differences were found in lipoteichoic acid natural antibodies of the control and low line hens. At the end of the observation period of egg parameters, a significant difference in egg weight was found in birds of the high line. Our results suggest that nutritional differences have immunomodulatory effects on innate and adaptive humoral immune parameters in birds with high HPA axis reactivity and affect egg production in birds with low HPA axis reactivity.

  13. Heterogeneous metasurface for high temperature selective emission

    SciTech Connect

    Woolf, D., E-mail: dwoolf@psicorp.com; Hensley, J.; Cederberg, J. G.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate selective emission from a heterogeneous metasurface that can survive repeated temperature cycling at 1300 K. Simulations, fabrication, and characterization were performed for a cross-over-a-backplane metasurface consisting of platinum and alumina layers on a sapphire substrate. The structure was stabilized for high temperature operation by an encapsulating alumina layer. The geometry was optimized for integration into a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system, and was designed to have its emissivity matched to the external quantum efficiency spectrum of 0.6 eV InGaAs TPV material. We present spectral measurements of the metasurface that result in a predicted 22% optical-to-electrical power conversion efficiency in a simplified modelmore » at 1300 K. Furthermore, this broadly adaptable selective emitter design can be easily integrated into full-scale TPV systems.« less

  14. Selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides from high level liquid waste by R-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Yuichi; Surugaya, Naoki; Yamamoto, Masahiko

    2010-03-01

    Concerning the selective recovery of minor trivalent actinides (MA(III) = Am(III) and Cm(III)) from high level liquid waste (HLLW) by extraction chromatography, adsorption and elution behaviours of MA(III) and fission products (FP) in a nitric acid media were studied using iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents, which is expected to show high adsorption affinity for MA(III) even in concentrated HNO3 solution, such as HLLW. In the batch experiments, Pd showed strong adsorption on iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents under any concentration of HNO3. The MA(III) and heavy Ln(III) (Sm(III), Eu(III) and Gd(III)) were also adsorbed at the condition of high HNO3 concentration, but they showed no adsorption under low HNO3concentration. The separation factor for MA(III)/heavy Ln(III) took the maximum value (over 100) at around 1mol/dm3 HNO3. It was difficult to elute MA(III) or heavy Ln(III) selectively by HNO3 from the iHex-BTP/SiO2-P adsorbents degradated by γ-ray irradiation. The chromatographic separation of real HLLW by an iHex-BTP/SiO2-P column showed that MA(III) could be recovered selectively by adjusting the acidity of the feed solution, i.e. HLLW, to 1mol/dm3 and using H2O as eluant. The adsorption of Pd(II) can be decreased by the addition of appropriate complexing reagents, e.g. DTPA, into HLLW without any effects on the MA(III) adsorption.

  15. Selection and Clonal Propagation of High Artemisinin Genotypes of Artemisia annua

    PubMed Central

    Wetzstein, Hazel Y.; Porter, Justin A.; Janick, Jules; Ferreira, Jorge F. S.; Mutui, Theophilus M.

    2018-01-01

    Artemisinin, produced in the glandular trichomes of Artemisia annua L. is a vital antimalarial drug effective against Plasmodium falciparum resistant to quinine-derived medicines. Although work has progressed on the semi-synthetic production of artemisinin, field production of A. annua remains the principal commercial source of the compound. Crop production of artemisia must be increased to meet the growing worldwide demand for artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat malaria. Grower artemisinin yields rely on plants generated from seeds from open-pollinated parents. Although selection has considerably increased plant artemisinin concentration in the past 15 years, seed-generated plants have highly variable artemisinin content that lowers artemisinin yield per hectare. Breeding efforts to produce improved F1 hybrids have been hampered by the inability to produce inbred lines due to self-incompatibility. An approach combining conventional hybridization and selection with clonal propagation of superior genotypes is proposed as a means to enhance crop yield and artemisinin production. Typical seed-propagated artemisia plants produce less than 1% (dry weight) artemisinin with yields below 25 kg/ha. Genotypes were identified producing high artemisinin levels of over 2% and possessing improved agronomic characteristics such as high leaf area and shoot biomass production. Field studies of clonally-propagated high-artemisinin plants verified enhanced plant uniformity and an estimated gross primary productivity of up to 70 kg/ha artemisinin, with a crop density of one plant m-2. Tissue culture and cutting protocols for the mass clonal propagation of A. annua were developed for shoot regeneration, rooting, acclimatization, and field cultivation. Proof of concept studies showed that both tissue culture-regenerated plants and rooted cutting performed better than plants derived from seed in terms of uniformity, yield, and consistently high artemisinin content. Use of

  16. Selective breeding of mice for different susceptibilities to high fat diet-induced glucose intolerance: Development of two novel mouse lines, Selectively bred Diet-induced Glucose intolerance-Prone and -Resistant.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Mototsugu; Asai, Akira; Kawahara, Momoyo; Nakajima, Yasushi; Sato, Yuki; Tanimura, Kyoko; Okajima, Fumitaka; Takaya, Makiyo; Sudo, Mariko; Takemitsu, Shuji; Harada, Taro; Sugihara, Hitoshi; Oikawa, Shinichi

    2012-06-06

    Aims/Introduction:  The development of type 2 diabetes is primarily due to lifestyle and environmental factors, as well as genetics, as shown by familial clustering. To establish mouse lines for evaluating heritable factors determining susceptibility to diet-induced diabetes, we performed selective breeding for differences in high fat diet (HFD)-induced glucose intolerance.   Selective breeding was performed using hybrid mice of C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ and AKR/N backgrounds. After 5-week HFD feeding, mice showing high and low 2-h blood glucose levels in an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were selected and bred over 14 generations to produce lines prone and resistant to diet-induced glucose intolerance (designated Selectively bred Diet-induced Glucose intolerance-Prone [SDG-P] and -Resistant [SDG-R]).   At 5 weeks of age (pre HFD feeding), SDG-P mice showed higher blood glucose levels both in the OGTT and insulin tolerance test as compared to SDG-R mice. After receiving HFD, the glucose intolerance of SDG-P mice became more evident without hyper insulin secretion. In addition, SDG-P mice had greater body weight gain and lower HDL-cholesterol levels as compared to SDG-R mice. In comparison with C57BL/6J, a well-known strain prone to HFD-induced glucose intolerance, SDG-P mice showed significantly higher glucose levels in OGTT after the 5-week HFD feeding.   Susceptibility to HFD-induced glucose intolerance was transmitted over generations and was intensified by selective breeding. The newly established mouse lines, SDG-P and SDG-R, may be useful in investigating the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes through elucidating the crucial factors for determining the susceptibility to HFD-induced glucose intolerance. (J Diabetes Invest, doi: 10.1111/j.2040-1124.2011.00175.x, 2011).

  17. High-Efficiency Selective Electron Tunnelling in a Heterostructure Photovoltaic Diode.

    PubMed

    Jia, Chuancheng; Ma, Wei; Gu, Chunhui; Chen, Hongliang; Yu, Haomiao; Li, Xinxi; Zhang, Fan; Gu, Lin; Xia, Andong; Hou, Xiaoyuan; Meng, Sheng; Guo, Xuefeng

    2016-06-08

    A heterostructure photovoltaic diode featuring an all-solid-state TiO2/graphene/dye ternary interface with high-efficiency photogenerated charge separation/transport is described here. Light absorption is accomplished by dye molecules deposited on the outside surface of graphene as photoreceptors to produce photoexcited electron-hole pairs. Unlike conventional photovoltaic conversion, in this heterostructure both photoexcited electrons and holes tunnel along the same direction into graphene, but only electrons display efficient ballistic transport toward the TiO2 transport layer, thus leading to effective photon-to-electricity conversion. On the basis of this ipsilateral selective electron tunnelling (ISET) mechanism, a model monolayer photovoltaic device (PVD) possessing a TiO2/graphene/acridine orange ternary interface showed ∼86.8% interfacial separation/collection efficiency, which guaranteed an ultrahigh absorbed photon-to-current efficiency (APCE, ∼80%). Such an ISET-based PVD may become a fundamental device architecture for photovoltaic solar cells, photoelectric detectors, and other novel optoelectronic applications with obvious advantages, such as high efficiency, easy fabrication, scalability, and universal availability of cost-effective materials.

  18. A facile strategy for achieving high selective Zn(II) fluorescence probe by regulating the solvent polarity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoping; Kang, Tiantian; Wang, Xiaoju; Feng, Liheng

    2018-07-01

    A simple Schiff base comprised of tris(2-aminoethyl)amine and salicylaldehyde was designed and synthesized by one-step reaction. Although this compound has poor selectivity for metal ions in acetonitrile, it shows high selectivity and sensitivity detection for Zn(II) ions through adjusting the solvent polarity (the volume ratio of CH 3 CN/H 2 O). In other words, this work provides a facile way to realize a transformation from poor to excellent feature for fluorescent probes. The bonding mode of this probe with Zn(II) ions was verified by 1 H NMR and MS assays. The stoichiometric ratio of the probe with Zn(II) is 1:1 (mole), which matches with the Job-plot assay. The detection limitation of the probe for Zn(II) is up to 1 × 10 -8 mol/L. The electrochemical property of the probe combined with Zn(II) was investigated by cyclic voltammetry method, and the result agreed with the theoretical calculation by the Gaussian 09 software. The probe for Zn(II) could be applied in practical samples and biological systems. The main contribution of this work lies in providing a very simple method to realize the selectivity transformation for poor selective probes. The providing way is a simple, easy and low-cost method for obtaining high selectively fluorescence probes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. High redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey . I. Selection method and number counts based on redshift PDFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viironen, K.; Marín-Franch, A.; López-Sanjuan, C.; Varela, J.; Chaves-Montero, J.; Cristóbal-Hornillos, D.; Molino, A.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Vilella-Rojo, G.; Ascaso, B.; Cenarro, A. J.; Cerviño, M.; Cepa, J.; Ederoclite, A.; Márquez, I.; Masegosa, J.; Moles, M.; Oteo, I.; Pović, M.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Alfaro, E.; Aparicio-Villegas, T.; Benítez, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Cabrera-Caño, J.; Castander, J. F.; Del Olmo, A.; González Delgado, R. M.; Husillos, C.; Infante, L.; Martínez, V. J.; Perea, J.; Prada, F.; Quintana, J. M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Most observational results on the high redshift restframe UV-bright galaxies are based on samples pinpointed using the so-called dropout technique or Ly-α selection. However, the availability of multifilter data now allows the dropout selections to be replaced by direct methods based on photometric redshifts. In this paper we present the methodology to select and study the population of high redshift galaxies in the ALHAMBRA survey data. Aims: Our aim is to develop a less biased methodology than the traditional dropout technique to study the high redshift galaxies in ALHAMBRA and other multifilter data. Thanks to the wide area ALHAMBRA covers, we especially aim at contributing to the study of the brightest, least frequent, high redshift galaxies. Methods: The methodology is based on redshift probability distribution functions (zPDFs). It is shown how a clean galaxy sample can be obtained by selecting the galaxies with high integrated probability of being within a given redshift interval. However, reaching both a complete and clean sample with this method is challenging. Hence, a method to derive statistical properties by summing the zPDFs of all the galaxies in the redshift bin of interest is introduced. Results: Using this methodology we derive the galaxy rest frame UV number counts in five redshift bins centred at z = 2.5,3.0,3.5,4.0, and 4.5, being complete up to the limiting magnitude at mUV(AB) = 24, where mUV refers to the first ALHAMBRA filter redwards of the Ly-α line. With the wide field ALHAMBRA data we especially contribute to the study of the brightest ends of these counts, accurately sampling the surface densities down to mUV(AB) = 21-22. Conclusions: We show that using the zPDFs it is easy to select a very clean sample of high redshift galaxies. We also show that it is better to do statistical analysis of the properties of galaxies using a probabilistic approach, which takes into account both the incompleteness and contamination issues in a

  20. Bioanalytical high-throughput selected reaction monitoring-LC/MS determination of selected estrogen receptor modulators in human plasma: 2000 samples/day.

    PubMed

    Zweigenbaum, J; Henion, J

    2000-06-01

    The high-throughput determination of small molecules in biological matrixes has become an important part of drug discovery. This work shows that increased throughput LC/MS/MS techniques can be used for the analysis of selected estrogen receptor modulators in human plasma where more than 2000 samples may be analyzed in a 24-h period. The compounds used to demonstrate the high-throughput methodology include tamoxifen, raloxifene, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, nafoxidine, and idoxifene. Tamoxifen and raloxifene are used in both breast cancer therapy and osteoporosis and have shown prophylactic potential for the reduction of the risk of breast cancer. The described strategy provides LC/MS/MS separation and quantitation for each of the five test articles in control human plasma. The method includes sample preparation employing liquid-liquid extraction in the 96-well format, an LC separation of the five compounds in less than 30 s, and selected reaction monitoring detection from low nano- to microgram per milliter levels. Precision and accuracy are determined where each 96-well plate is considered a typical "tray" having calibration standards and quality control (QC) samples dispersed through each plate. A concept is introduced where 24 96-well plates analyzed in 1 day is considered a "grand tray", and the method is cross-validated with standards placed only at the beginning of the first plate and the end of the last plate. Using idoxifene-d5 as an internal standard, the results obtained for idoxifene and tamoxifen satisfy current bioanalytical method validation criteria on two separate days where 2112 and 2304 samples were run, respectively. Method validation included 24-h autosampler stability and one freeze-thaw cycle stability for the extracts. Idoxifene showed acceptable results with accuracy ranging from 0.3% for the high quality control (QC) to 15.4% for the low QC and precision of 3.6%-13.9% relative standard deviation. Tamoxifen showed accuracy ranging from 1.6% to 13

  1. Drug Education Programs in Selected Indiana High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippe, Emmett Wayne

    The purpose of this study was to gather and analyze data concerning the implementation of drug education programs in 14 selected Indiana senior high schools. It focused on several aspects of the drug education programs including the description of the type of program; the determination of need for the program; school policies related to student…

  2. AC-186, a Selective Nonsteroidal Estrogen Receptor β Agonist, Shows Gender Specific Neuroprotection in a Parkinson’s Disease Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Drugs that selectively activate estrogen receptor β (ERβ) are potentially safer than the nonselective estrogens currently used in hormonal replacement treatments that activate both ERβ and ERα. The selective ERβ agonist AC-186 was evaluated in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease induced through bilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the substantia nigra. In this model, AC-186 prevented motor, cognitive, and sensorimotor gating deficits and mitigated the loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra, in males, but not in females. Furthermore, in male rats, 17β-estradiol, which activates ERβ and ERα with equal potency, did not show the same neuroprotective benefits as AC-186. Hence, in addition to a beneficial safety profile for use in both males and females, a selective ERβ agonist has a differentiated pharmacological profile compared to 17β-estradiol in males. PMID:23898966

  3. High levels of absorption in orientation-unbiased, radio-selected 3CR Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Haas, Martin; Barthel, Peter; Leipski, Christian; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Worrall, Diana; Birkinshaw, Mark; Willner, Steven P.

    2014-08-01

    A critical problem in understanding active galaxies (AGN) is the separation of intrinsic physical differences from observed differences that are due to orientation. Obscuration of the active nucleus is anisotropic and strongly frequency dependent leading to complex selection effects for observations in most wavebands. These can only be quantified using a sample that is sufficiently unbiased to test orientation effects. Low-frequency radio emission is one way to select a close-to orientation-unbiased sample, albeit limited to the minority of AGN with strong radio emission.Recent Chandra, Spitzer and Herschel observations combined with multi-wavelength data for a complete sample of high-redshift (1show that about half the sample is significantly obscured with ratios of unobscured: Compton thin (22 24.2) = 2.5:1.4:1 in these high-luminosity (log L(0.3-8keV) ~ 44-46) sources. These ratios are consistent with current expectations based on modelingthe Cosmic X-ray Background. A strong correlation with radio orientation constrains the geometry of the obscuring disk/torus to have a ~60 degree opening angle and ~12 degree Compton-thick cross-section. The deduced ~50% obscured fraction of the population contrasts with typical estimates of ~20% obscured in optically- and X-ray-selected high-luminosity samples. Once the primary nuclear emission is obscured, AGN X-ray spectra are frequently dominated by unobscured non-nuclear or scattered nuclear emission which cannot be distinguished from direct nuclear emission with a lower obscuration level unless high quality data is available. As a result, both the level of obscuration and the estimated instrinsic luminosities of highly-obscured AGN are likely to be significantly (*10-1000) underestimated for 25-50% of the population. This may explain the lower obscured fractions reported for optical and X-ray samples which have no independent measure of the AGN

  4. Affect-related behaviors in mice selectively bred for high and low voluntary alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Can, Adem; Grahame, Nicholas J; Gould, Todd D

    2012-03-01

    There is considerable evidence for the existence of comorbidity between alcohol-use disorders and depression in humans. One strategy to elucidate hereditary factors affecting the comorbidity of these disorders is to use genetic animal models, such as mouse lines selectively bred for voluntary ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that mice from lines that were bred for high-alcohol preference would manifest increased depression-like phenotypes compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. Mice that were bi-directionally selected and bred on the basis of their High- (HAP) or Low-Alcohol Preference (LAP) were tested in the open-field (OFT), dark-light box (DLB), forced swim (FST), and learned helplessness tests (LH). The study was conducted in two independently derived replicates. In the OFT, both HAP2 and HAP3 mice showed higher levels of general locomotion compared to LAP mice. However, only HAP2 mice spent more time in the center compared to LAP2 mice. In the DLB, there was a slightly higher anxiety-like phenotype in HAP mice. In both FST and LH, we observed higher depression-like behaviors in HAP mice compared to LAP mice, but this was limited to the Replicate 2 mice. Overall, we identified affect-related behavioral changes in mouse lines bred for high-alcohol preference. Notably, the Replicate 3 lines that showed fewer depression-like behaviors also manifest smaller differences in alcohol intake. These data suggest that there may be overlap between genes that predispose to excessive alcohol intake and those underlying affect-related behaviors in the mouse.

  5. High-Speed Lateral Flow Strategy for a Fast Biosensing with an Improved Selectivity and Binding Affinity.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong Guk; Yoo, Haneul; Lee, Haein; Choi, Yeol Kyo; Lee, Minju; Ahn, Dong June; Hong, Seunghun

    2018-05-10

    We report a high-speed lateral flow strategy for a fast biosensing with an improved selectivity and binding affinity even under harsh conditions. In this strategy, biosensors were fixed at a location away from the center of a round shape disk, and the disk was rotated to create the lateral flow of a target solution on the biosensors during the sensing measurements. Experimental results using the strategy showed high reaction speeds, high binding affinity, and low nonspecific adsorptions of target molecules to biosensors. Furthermore, binding affinity between target molecules and sensing molecules was enhanced even in harsh conditions such as low pH and low ionic strength conditions. These results show that the strategy can improve the performance of conventional biosensors by generating high-speed lateral flows on a biosensor surface. Therefore, our strategy can be utilized as a simple but powerful tool for versatile bio and medical applications.

  6. Reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surface based on high-permittivity ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Du, Hongliang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-04-01

    Based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory, we propose the design of reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics. The FSS is composed of ceramic resonators with different band stop responses under front and side incidences. By mechanically tuning the orientation of the ceramic resonators, reconfigurable electromagnetic (EM) responses between two adjacent stopbands can be achieved. The two broad stopbands originate from the first two resonant modes of the ceramic resonators. As an example, a reconfigurable FSS composed of cross-shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both numerical and experimental results show that the FSS can switch between two consecutive stopbands in 3.55-4.60 GHz and 4.54-4.94 GHz. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies for high-power applications.

  7. A probabilistic and multi-objective analysis of lexicase selection and ε-lexicase selection.

    PubMed

    Cava, William La; Helmuth, Thomas; Spector, Lee; Moore, Jason H

    2018-05-10

    Lexicase selection is a parent selection method that considers training cases individually, rather than in aggregate, when performing parent selection. Whereas previous work has demonstrated the ability of lexicase selection to solve difficult problems in program synthesis and symbolic regression, the central goal of this paper is to develop the theoretical underpinnings that explain its performance. To this end, we derive an analytical formula that gives the expected probabilities of selection under lexicase selection, given a population and its behavior. In addition, we expand upon the relation of lexicase selection to many-objective optimization methods to describe the behavior of lexicase selection, which is to select individuals on the boundaries of Pareto fronts in high-dimensional space. We show analytically why lexicase selection performs more poorly for certain sizes of population and training cases, and show why it has been shown to perform more poorly in continuous error spaces. To address this last concern, we propose new variants of ε-lexicase selection, a method that modifies the pass condition in lexicase selection to allow near-elite individuals to pass cases, thereby improving selection performance with continuous errors. We show that ε-lexicase outperforms several diversity-maintenance strategies on a number of real-world and synthetic regression problems.

  8. Activities Selected from the High School Geography Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Salvatore J., Ed.; And Others

    Out of approximately 50 activities which were, for a variety of reasons, not included in the final version of the High School Geography Project course, Geography in an Urban Age, the HSGP staff selected eight which would be useful in many secondary school classrooms. The activities included here are: 1) Operation Bigger Beef (on themes of cultural…

  9. Globalization in Education Counts: A Comparative Study of Selected International School Associations and Selected Charter High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Dunn, Tina N.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify, examine, and compare the way globalization was perceived by 4 international school associations, 4 non-profit (corporate managed) charter high schools, and 4 independent (individually managed) charter high schools from Southern California. Selected school associations, non-profit, and independent charter…

  10. New Synthesis and Tritium Labeling of a Selective Ligand for Studying High-affinity γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) Binding Sites

    PubMed Central

    Vogensen, Stine B.; Marek, Aleš; Bay, Tina; Wellendorph, Petrine; Kehler, Jan; Bundgaard, Christoffer; Frølund, Bente; Pedersen, Martin H.F.; Clausen, Rasmus P.

    2013-01-01

    3-Hydroxycyclopent-1-enecarboxylic acid (HOCPCA, 1) is a potent ligand for the high-affinity GHB binding sites in the CNS. An improved synthesis of 1 together with a very efficient synthesis of [3H]-1 is described. The radiosynthesis employs in situ generated lithium trimethoxyborotritide. Screening of 1 against different CNS targets establishes a high selectivity and we demonstrate in vivo brain penetration. In vitro characterization of [3H]-1 binding shows high specificity to the high-affinity GHB binding sites. PMID:24053696

  11. Multi-year high-frequency hydrothermal monitoring of selected high-threat Cascade Range volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crankshaw, I. M.; Archfield, S. A.; Newman, A. C.; Bergfeld, D.; Clor, L. E.; Spicer, K. R.; Kelly, P. J.; Evans, W. C.; Ingebritsen, S. E.

    2018-05-01

    From 2009 to 2015 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) systematically monitored hydrothermal behavior at selected Cascade Range volcanoes in order to define baseline hydrothermal and geochemical conditions. Gas and water data were collected regularly at 25 sites on 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade Range. These sites include near-summit fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence (high 3He/4He ratios and/or large fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat). Site records consist mainly of hourly temperature and hydrothermal-flux data. Having established baseline conditions during a multiyear quiescent period, the USGS reduced monitoring frequency from 2015 to present. The archived monitoring data are housed at (doi:10.5066/F72N5088). These data (1) are suitable for retrospective comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data and (2) will provide context during future episodes of volcanic unrest, such that unrest-related variations at these thoroughly characterized sites will be more clearly recognizable. Relatively high-frequency year-round data are essential to achieve these objectives, because many of the time series reveal significant diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variability that would tend to mask unrest signals in the absence of baseline data. Here we characterize normal variability for each site, suggest strategies to detect future volcanic unrest, and explore deviations from background associated with recent unrest.

  12. Isolation and Characterization of a Novel, Highly Selective Astaxanthin-Producing Marine Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Asker, Dalal

    2017-10-18

    A high-throughput screening approach for astaxanthin-producing bacteria led to the discovery of a novel, highly selective astaxanthin-producing marine bacterium (strain N-5). Phylogenetic analysis based on partial 16S rRNA gene and phenotypic metabolic testing indicated it belongs to the genus Brevundimonas. Therefore, it was designated as Brevundimonas sp. strain N-5. To identify and quantify carotenoids produced by strain N-5, HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods were used. The culture conditions including media, shaking, and time had significant effects on cell growth and carotenoids production including astaxanthin. The total carotenoids were ∼601.2 μg g -1 dry cells including a remarkable amount (364.6 μg g -1 dry cells) of optically pure astaxanthin (3S, 3'S) isomer, with high selectivity (∼60.6%) under medium aeration conditions. Notably, increasing the culture aeration enhanced astaxanthin production up to 85% of total carotenoids. This is the first report that describes a natural, highly selective astaxanthin-producing marine bacterium.

  13. Genotypic and sex differences in anxiety-like behavior and alcohol-induced anxiolysis in High Drinking in the Dark selected mice.

    PubMed

    Barkley-Levenson, Amanda M; Crabbe, John C

    2015-02-01

    Alcohol use disorders and anxiety disorders are highly comorbid in humans. In rodent lines selected for alcohol drinking, differences in anxiety-like behavior are also seen. The High Drinking in the Dark (HDID) lines of mice are selectively bred for drinking to intoxication during limited access to alcohol, and these mice represent a genetic model of risk for binge-like drinking. The present studies investigated whether these selected lines differ from control (HS) mice in basal anxiety behavior or in anxiolytic response to alcohol. We also assessed the genetic correlation between alcohol drinking in the dark (DID) and basal anxiety-like behavior using existing inbred strain data. Mice of both sexes and HDID replicates (HDID-1 and HDID-2) were tested on an elevated zero maze immediately following a DID test. In general, HDID mice showed more time spent in the open arms after drinking alcohol than HS mice, and open-arm time was significantly correlated with blood alcohol concentration. HDID-1 male mice also showed less anxiety-like behavior at baseline (water-drinking controls). In a separate experiment, HDID-1 and HS mice were tested for anxiolytic dose-response to acute alcohol injections. Both genotypes showed increasing time spent in the open arms with increasing alcohol doses, and HDID-1 and female mice had greater open-arm time across all doses. HDID-1 control males showed lower anxiety-like behavior than the HS control males. Inbred strain data analysis also showed no significant genetic relationship between alcohol DID and anxiety. These findings suggest that HDID selection has not produced systematic changes in anxiety-like behavior or sensitivity to alcohol-induced anxiolysis, though there is a tendency in the male mice of the first replicate toward reduced basal anxiety-like behavior. Therefore, anxiety state and sensitivity to alcohol's anxiolytic effects do not appear to contribute significantly to the high drinking behavior of the HDID mice. Copyright

  14. Initial characterisation of low and high seed dormancy populations of Lolium rigidum produced by repeated selection.

    PubMed

    Goggin, Danica E; Emery, R J Neil; Powles, Stephen B; Steadman, Kathryn J

    2010-10-15

    The physiological and biochemical bases of seed dormancy in Lolium rigidum (annual ryegrass) are largely unknown, and study of this process is complicated by the outcrossing nature of the species and the strong influence of environment on seed dormancy. In order to identify heritable biochemical factors contributing to seed dormancy in L. rigidum, seeds from a field-collected population were used to select sub-populations with consistently low or high seed dormancy over four generations. Low-dormancy seeds showed constitutive alpha-amylase activity prior to imbibition, higher concentrations of polyphenols and cis-zeatin, and lower abscisic acid and cis-zeatin riboside concentrations than high-dormancy seeds. Selection for high dormancy was associated with a reduction in response to dark-stratification for 21d at 20 degrees C (an effective means of releasing dormancy in the original, unselected population) over successive generations, but fluridone remained effective in breaking dormancy. Crossing of low- and high-dormancy populations indicated that dormancy level was not dependent upon the maternal genotype of the seed, and that the constitutive alpha-amylase activity and high seed anthocyanin concentrations characteristic of the low-dormancy populations were not correlated to high basal germination ability. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. [Employees in high-reliability organizations: systematic selection of personnel as a final criterion].

    PubMed

    Oubaid, V; Anheuser, P

    2014-05-01

    Employees represent an important safety factor in high-reliability organizations. The combination of clear organizational structures, a nonpunitive safety culture, and psychological personnel selection guarantee a high level of safety. The cockpit personnel selection process of a major German airline is presented in order to demonstrate a possible transferability into medicine and urology.

  16. Reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surface based on high-permittivity ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liyang; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jiafu; Ma, Hua; Du, Hongliang; Zhang, Jieqiu; Qu, Shaobo; Xu, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Based on effective medium theory and dielectric resonator theory, we propose the design of reconfigurable all-dielectric metamaterial frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) using high-permittivity ceramics. The FSS is composed of ceramic resonators with different band stop responses under front and side incidences. By mechanically tuning the orientation of the ceramic resonators, reconfigurable electromagnetic (EM) responses between two adjacent stopbands can be achieved. The two broad stopbands originate from the first two resonant modes of the ceramic resonators. As an example, a reconfigurable FSS composed of cross-shaped ceramic resonators is demonstrated. Both numerical and experimental results show that the FSS can switch between two consecutive stopbands in 3.55–4.60 GHz and 4.54–4.94 GHz. The design method can be readily extended to the design of FSSs in other frequencies for high-power applications. PMID:27052098

  17. A High-throughput Selection for Cellulase Catalysts Using Chemical Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Carter, Brian T.; Lin, Hening; Tao, Haiyan; Cornish, Virginia W.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material remains one of the major bottlenecks to cost-effective conversion of biomass to ethanol. Improvement of glycosylhydrolases however is limited by existing medium-throughput screening technologies. Here, we report the first high-throughput selection for cellulase catalysts. This selection was developed by adapting chemical complementation to provide a growth assay for bond cleavage reactions. First, a URA3 counter selection was adapted to link chemical dimerizer activated gene transcription to cell death. Next, the URA3 counter selection was shown to detect cellulase activity based on cleavage of a tetrasaccharide chemical dimerizer substrate and decrease in expression of the toxic URA3 reporter. Finally, the utility of the cellulase selection was assessed by isolating cellulases with improved activity from a cellulase library created by family DNA shuffling. This application provides further evidence that chemical complementation can be readily adapted to detect different enzymatic activities for important chemical transformations for which no natural selection exists. Due to the large number of enzyme variants selections can test compared to existing medium-throughput screens for cellulases, this assay has the potential to impact the discovery of improved cellulases and other glycosylhydrolases for biomass conversion from libraries of cellulases created by mutagenesis or obtained from natural biodiversity. PMID:19053460

  18. Long-term selection strategies for complex traits using high-density genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Kemper, K E; Bowman, P J; Pryce, J E; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2012-08-01

    Selection of animals for breeding ranked on estimated breeding value maximizes genetic gain in the next generation but does not necessarily maximize long-term response. An alternative method, as practiced by plant breeders, is to build a desired genotype by selection on specific loci. Maximal long-term response in animal breeding requires selection on estimated breeding values with constraints on coancestry. In this paper, we compared long-term genetic response using either a genotype building or a genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) strategy for the Australian Selection Index (ASI), a measure of profit. First, we used real marker effects from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme to estimate breeding values for chromosome segments (approximately 25 cM long) for 2,650 Holstein bulls. Second, we selected 16 animals to be founders for a simulated breeding program where, between them, founders contain the best possible combination of 2 segments from 2 animals at each position in the genome. Third, we mated founder animals and their descendants over 30 generations with 2 breeding objectives: (1) to create a population with the "ideal genotype," where the best 2 segments from the founders segregate at each position, or (2) obtain the highest possible response in ASI with coancestry lower than that achieved under breeding objective 1. Results show that genotype building achieved the ideal genotype for breeding objective 1 and obtained a large gain in ASI over the current population (+A$864.99). However, selection on overall GEBV had greater short-term response and almost as much long-term gain (+A$820.42). When coancestry was lowered under breeding objective 2, selection on overall GEBV achieved a higher response in ASI than the genotype building strategy. Selection on overall GEBV seems more flexible in its selection decisions and was therefore better able to precisely control coancestry while maximizing ASI. We conclude that selection on overall GEBV while

  19. Selector-free resistive switching memory cell based on BiFeO3 nano-island showing high resistance ratio and nonlinearity factor

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ji Hoon; Joo, Ho-Young; Kim, Young-Min; Lee, Duk Hyun; Kim, Jin-Soo; Kim, Yeon Soo; Choi, Taekjib; Park, Bae Ho

    2016-01-01

    Highly nonlinear bistable current-voltage (I–V) characteristics are necessary in order to realize high density resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices that are compatible with cross-point stack structures. Up to now, such I–V characteristics have been achieved by introducing complex device structures consisting of selection elements (selectors) and memory elements which are connected in series. In this study, we report bipolar resistive switching (RS) behaviours of nano-crystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) nano-islands grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates, with large ON/OFF ratio of 4,420. In addition, the BFO nano-islands exhibit asymmetric I–V characteristics with high nonlinearity factor of 1,100 in a low resistance state. Such selector-free RS behaviours are enabled by the mosaic structures and pinned downward ferroelectric polarization in the BFO nano-islands. The high resistance ratio and nonlinearity factor suggest that our BFO nano-islands can be extended to an N × N array of N = 3,740 corresponding to ~107 bits. Therefore, our BFO nano-island showing both high resistance ratio and nonlinearity factor offers a simple and promising building block of high density ReRAM. PMID:27001415

  20. A highly sensitive and selective aptamer-based colorimetric sensor for the rapid detection of PCB 77.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ruojie; Liu, Siyao; Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Guohua

    2018-01-05

    A highly sensitive, specific and simple colorimetric sensor based on aptamer was established for the detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). The use of unmodified gold nanoparticles as a colorimetric probe for aptamer sensors enabled the highly sensitive and selective detection of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB 77). A linear range of 0.5nM to 900nM was obtained for the colorimetric assay with a minimum detection limit of 0.05nM. In addition, by the methods of circular dichroism, UV and naked eyes, we found that the 35 base fragments retained after cutting 5 bases from the 5 'end of aptamer plays the most significant role in the PCB 77 specific recognition process. We found a novel way to truncated nucleotides to optimize the detection of PCB 77, and the selected nucleotides also could achieve high affinity with PCB 77. At the same time, the efficient detection of the PCB 77 by our colorimetric sensor in the complex environmental water samples was realized, which shows a good application prospect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Selecting white oaks as parent stock for growing high-quality logs

    Treesearch

    Stephen G. Boyce

    1963-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the tree-improvement program of the Central States Forest Experiment Station of the U.S. Forest Service is to select and breed hardwood trees that are inherently capable of producing wood of high quality. To begin this program we must select from natural stands and plantations the best possible parent trees. In recent years we have...

  2. Synthesis of the highly selective p38 MAPK inhibitor UR-13756 for possible therapeutic use in Werner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bagley, Mark C; Davis, Terence; Rokicki, Michal J; Widdowson, Caroline S; Kipling, David

    2010-02-01

    UR-13756 is a potent and selective p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor, reported to have good bioavailability and pharmacokinetic properties and, thus, is of potential use in the treatment of accelerated aging in Werner syndrome. Irradiation of 2-chloroacrylonitrile and methylhydrazine in ethanol at 100 °C gives 1-methyl-3-aminopyrazole, which reacts with 4-fluorobenzaldehyde and a ketone, obtained by Claisen condensation of 4-picoline, in a Hantzsch-type 3-component hereocyclocondensation, to give the pyrazolopyridine UR-13756. UR-13756 shows p38 MAPK inhibitory activity in human telomerase reverse transcriptase-immortalized HCA2 dermal fibroblasts, with an IC(50) of 80 nm, as shown by ELISA, is 100% efficacious for up to 24 h at 1.0 μm and displays excellent kinase selectivity over the related stress-activated c-Jun kinases. In addition, UR-13756 is an effective p38 inhibitor at 1.0 μm in Werner syndrome cells, as shown by immunoblot. The convergent synthesis of UR-13756 is realized using microwave dielectric heating and provides a highly selective inhibitor that shows excellent selectivity for p38 MAPK over c-Jun N-terminal kinase.

  3. A carbon dot-based "off-on" fluorescent probe for highly selective and sensitive detection of phytic acid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhao; Wang, Libing; Su, Rongxin; Huang, Renliang; Qi, Wei; He, Zhimin

    2015-08-15

    We herein report a facile, one-step pyrolysis synthesis of photoluminescent carbon dots (CDs) using citric acid as the carbon source and lysine as the surface passivation reagent. The as-prepared CDs show narrow size distribution, excellent blue fluorescence and good photo-stability and water dispersivity. The fluorescence of the CDs was found to be effectively quenched by ferric (Fe(III)) ions with high selectivity via a photo-induced electron transfer (PET) process. Upon addition of phytic acid (PA) to the CDs/Fe(III) complex dispersion, the fluorescence of the CDs was significantly recovered, arising from the release of Fe(III) ions from the CDs/Fe(III) complex because PA has a higher affinity for Fe(III) ions compared to CDs. Furthermore, we developed an "off-on" fluorescence assay method for the detection of phytic acid using CDs/Fe(III) as a fluorescent probe. This probe enables the selective detection of PA with a linear range of 0.68-18.69 μM and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio is 3) of 0.36 μM. The assay method demonstrates high selectivity, repeatability, stability and recovery ratio in the detection of the standard and real PA samples. We believe that the facile operation, low-cost, high sensitivity and selectivity render this CD-based "off-on" fluorescent probe an ideal sensing platform for the detection of PA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training.

    PubMed

    Kellogg, Erin; Cantacessi, Cheyann; McNamer, Olivia; Holmes, Heather; von Bargen, Robert; Ramirez, Richard; Gallagher, Daren; Vargas, Stacy; Santia, Ben; Rodriguez, Karen; Astorino, Todd A

    2018-05-08

    Kellogg, E, Cantacessi, C, McNamer, O, Holmes, H, von Bargen, R, Ramirez, R, Gallagher, D, Vargas, S, Santia, B, Rodriguez, K, and Astorino, TA. Comparison of psychological and physiological responses to imposed vs. self-selected high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). Some studies report greater enjoyment to a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. MICT, which is surprising considering that HIIE is more intense and typically imposed on the participant. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. During exercise, heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect (+5 to -5), and RPE were assessed. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale was measured after exercise. Results showed higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+10%, p = 0.013), BLa (p = 0.001), and RPE (p = 0.001) in HIIESS vs. HIIEIMP, and lower affect (p = 0.01), and enjoyment (87.6 ± 15.7 vs. 95.7 ± 11.7, p = 0.04). There was a significantly higher power output in self-selected vs. imposed HIIE (263.9 ± 81.4 W vs. 225.2 ± 59.6 W, p < 0.001). Data suggest that intensity mediates affective responses rather than the mode of HIIE performed by the participant.

  5. Enhancer regions show high histone H3.3 turnover that changes during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Deaton, Aimee M; Gómez-Rodríguez, Mariluz; Mieczkowski, Jakub; Tolstorukov, Michael Y; Kundu, Sharmistha; Sadreyev, Ruslan I; Jansen, Lars ET; Kingston, Robert E

    2016-01-01

    The organization of DNA into chromatin is dynamic; nucleosomes are frequently displaced to facilitate the ability of regulatory proteins to access specific DNA elements. To gain insight into nucleosome dynamics, and to follow how dynamics change during differentiation, we used a technique called time-ChIP to quantitatively assess histone H3.3 turnover genome-wide during differentiation of mouse ESCs. We found that, without prior assumptions, high turnover could be used to identify regions involved in gene regulation. High turnover was seen at enhancers, as observed previously, with particularly high turnover at super-enhancers. In contrast, regions associated with the repressive Polycomb-Group showed low turnover in ESCs. Turnover correlated with DNA accessibility. Upon differentiation, numerous changes in H3.3 turnover rates were observed, the majority of which occurred at enhancers. Thus, time-ChIP measurement of histone turnover shows that active enhancers are unusually dynamic in ESCs and changes in highly dynamic nucleosomes predominate at enhancers during differentiation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15316.001 PMID:27304074

  6. Affect-related related behaviors in mice selectively bred for high and low voluntary alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Can, Adem; Grahame, Nicholas J.; Gould, Todd D.

    2016-01-01

    There is considerable evidence for the existence of comorbidity between alcohol-use disorders and depression in humans. One strategy to elucidate hereditary factors affecting the comorbidity of these disorders is to use genetic animal models, such as mouse lines selectively bred for voluntary ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that mice from lines that were bred for high-alcohol preference would manifest increased depression-like phenotypes compared to low-alcohol preferring mice. Mice that were bi-directionally selected and bred on the basis of their High-(HAP) or Low-Alcohol Preference (LAP) were tested in the open-field (OFT), dark-light box (DLB), forced swim (FST), and learned helplessness tests (LH). The study was conducted in two independently derived replicates. In the OFT, both HAP2 and HAP3 mice showed higher levels of general locomotion compared to LAP mice. However, only HAP2 mice spent more time in the center compared to LAP2 mice. In the DLB, there was a slightly higher anxiety-like phenotype in HAP mice. In both FST and LH, we observed higher depression-like behaviors in HAP mice compared to LAP mice, but this was limited to the Replicate 2 mice. Overall, we identified affect-related behavioral changes in mouse lines bred for high-alcohol preference. Notably, the Replicate 3 lines that showed fewer depression-like behaviors also manifest smaller differences in alcohol intake. These data suggest that there may be overlap between genes that predispose to excessive alcohol intake and those underlying affective-related behaviors in the mouse. PMID:21989731

  7. Microwave-assisted direct synthesis of butene from high-selectivity methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi-heng; Li, Kang; Lu, Yu-wei

    2017-12-01

    Methane was directly converted to butene liquid fuel by microwave-induced non-oxidative catalytic dehydrogenation under 0.1-0.2 MPa. The results show that, under microwave heating in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor, in which nickel powder and NiOx-MoOy/SiO2 are used as the catalyst, the methane-hydrogen mixture is used as the raw material, with no acetylene detected. The methane conversion is more than 73.2%, and the selectivity of methane to butene is 99.0%. Increasing the hydrogen/methane feed volume ratio increases methane conversion and selectivity. Gas chromatography/electron impact ionization/mass spectrometry chromatographic analysis showed that the liquid fuel produced by methane dehydrogenation oligomerization contained 89.44% of butene, and the rest was acetic acid, ethanol, butenol and butyric acid, and the content was 1.0-3.0 wt%.

  8. A Novel Phytase Derived from an Acidic Peat-Soil Microbiome Showing High Stability under Acidic Plus Pepsin Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hao; Wu, Xiang; Xie, Liyuan; Huang, Zhongqian; Peng, Weihong; Gan, Bingcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four novel phytases of the histidine acid phosphatase family were identified in two publicly available metagenomic datasets of an acidic peat-soil microbiome in northeastern Bavaria, Germany. These enzymes have low similarity to all the reported phytases. They were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Catalytic efficacy in simulated gastric fluid was measured and compared among the four candidates. The phytase named rPhyPt4 was selected for its high activity. It is the first phytase identified from unculturable Acidobacteria. The phytase showed a longer half-life than all the gastric-stable phytases that have been reported to date, suggesting a strong resistance to low pH and pepsin. A wide pH profile was observed between pH 1.5 and 5.0. At the optimum pH (2.5) the activity was 2,790 μmol/min/mg at the physiological temperature of 37°C and 3,989 μmol/min/mg at the optimum temperature of 60°C. Due to the competent activity level as well as the high gastric stability, the phytase could be a potential candidate for practical use in livestock and poultry feeding. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. High-throughput screening to identify selective inhibitors of microbial sulfate reduction (and beyond)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, H. K.; Coates, J. D.; Deutschbauer, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    The selective perturbation of complex microbial ecosystems to predictably influence outcomes in engineered and industrial environments remains a grand challenge for geomicrobiology. In some industrial ecosystems, such as oil reservoirs, sulfate reducing microorganisms (SRM) produce hydrogen sulfide which is toxic, explosive and corrosive. Current strategies to selectively inhibit sulfidogenesis are based on non-specific biocide treatments, bio-competitive exclusion by alternative electron acceptors or sulfate-analogs which are competitive inhibitors or futile/alternative substrates of the sulfate reduction pathway. Despite the economic cost of sulfidogenesis, there has been minimal exploration of the chemical space of possible inhibitory compounds, and very little work has quantitatively assessed the selectivity of putative souring treatments. We have developed a high-throughput screening strategy to target SRM, quantitatively ranked the selectivity and potency of hundreds of compounds and identified previously unrecognized SRM selective inhibitors and synergistic interactions between inhibitors. Once inhibitor selectivity is defined, high-throughput characterization of microbial community structure across compound gradients and identification of fitness determinants using isolate bar-coded transposon mutant libraries can give insights into the genetic mechanisms whereby compounds structure microbial communities. The high-throughput (HT) approach we present can be readily applied to target SRM in diverse environments and more broadly, could be used to identify and quantify the potency and selectivity of inhibitors of a variety of microbial metabolisms. Our findings and approach are relevant for engineering environmental ecosystems and also to understand the role of natural gradients in shaping microbial niche space.

  10. Theoretical approach to evaluate graphene/PANI composite as highly selective ammonia sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhi; Liao, Ningbo; Zhang, Miao; Xue, Wei

    2018-09-01

    The incorporation of graphene is an effective way to enhance the sensitivity of polyaniline (PANI) gas sensors, while the interaction mechanism between gas and graphene/PANI composite system is still not clear. In this work, the interaction between NH3, NO, CO, H2 and graphene/PANI are investigated by density functional theory and molecular dynamics simulations. Based on the obtained adsorption energy, Mulliken charge and band gap, graphene/PANI exhibits much higher sensitivity towards NH3 gas than the other three gases. The adsorption of NH3 on graphene/PANI causes a clear increase of the DOS above the Fermi level, thus changing the conductivity of graphene/PANI and making the sensing feasible. The further comparative research on gases diffusion properties demonstrates that the composite show excellent adsorption capacity towards NH3 gas molecules. Our results show graphene/PANI system can detect NH3 gas with high sensitivity and selectivity, enabling it to be a promising sensing material of NH3.

  11. Vast Volatility Matrix Estimation using High Frequency Data for Portfolio Selection*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Li, Yingying; Yu, Ke

    2012-01-01

    Portfolio allocation with gross-exposure constraint is an effective method to increase the efficiency and stability of portfolios selection among a vast pool of assets, as demonstrated in Fan et al. (2011). The required high-dimensional volatility matrix can be estimated by using high frequency financial data. This enables us to better adapt to the local volatilities and local correlations among vast number of assets and to increase significantly the sample size for estimating the volatility matrix. This paper studies the volatility matrix estimation using high-dimensional high-frequency data from the perspective of portfolio selection. Specifically, we propose the use of “pairwise-refresh time” and “all-refresh time” methods based on the concept of “refresh time” proposed by Barndorff-Nielsen et al. (2008) for estimation of vast covariance matrix and compare their merits in the portfolio selection. We establish the concentration inequalities of the estimates, which guarantee desirable properties of the estimated volatility matrix in vast asset allocation with gross exposure constraints. Extensive numerical studies are made via carefully designed simulations. Comparing with the methods based on low frequency daily data, our methods can capture the most recent trend of the time varying volatility and correlation, hence provide more accurate guidance for the portfolio allocation in the next time period. The advantage of using high-frequency data is significant in our simulation and empirical studies, which consist of 50 simulated assets and 30 constituent stocks of Dow Jones Industrial Average index. PMID:23264708

  12. A Water-Stable Metal-Organic Framework for Highly Sensitive and Selective Sensing of Fe3+ Ion.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bing-Lei; Tian, Dan; Liu, Jiang; Dong, Long-Zhang; Li, Shun-Li; Li, Dong-Sheng; Lan, Ya-Qian

    2016-10-17

    A new metal-organic framework [Zn 5 (hfipbb) 4 (trz) 2 (H 2 O) 2 ] (NNU-1) [H 2 hfipbb = 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)bis(benzoic acid), Htrz = 1H-1,2,3-triazole] was assembled by hydrothermal synthesis. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that NNU-1 displays a twofold interpenetrating three-dimensional (3D) framework with a {4 24 ·6 4 }-bcu topology. Interestingly, the 3D framework contains a two-dimensional (2D) layered structure that consists of alternating left- and right-handed double helical chains. On the basis of the hydrophobic -CF 3 groups from H 2 hfipbb ligand, NNU-1 possesses excellent stability in water. It is worth noting that NNU-1 not only shows a highly selective fluorescence quenching effect to Fe 3+ ion in aqueous solution but also resists the interference of other metals including Fe 2+ ion. Accordingly, NNU-1 probably functions as a potential promising fluorescence sensor for detecting Fe 3+ ion with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  13. A high-oil castor cultivar developed through recurrent selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this paper is to present and interpret the data obtained from field-grown castor seeds. Under greenhouse conditions, a previous recurrent selection for high-oil castor seeds from a base population resulted in a new population with an increased mean oil content from 50.33 to 54.47% dry...

  14. High levels of telomere dysfunction bestow a selective disadvantage during the progression of human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Katrina E; Ireland, Hazel; Roberts, Meryl; Steeghs, Karen; McCaul, James A; MacDonald, D Gordon; Parkinson, E Kenneth

    2003-01-15

    Human epithelial cells experience multiple barriers to cellular immortality in culture (mortality mechanisms 0, 1, and 2). Mortality mechanism 2 (M2) is termed crisis and involves telomere dysfunction due to lack of telomerase. However, proliferating normal keratinocytes in vivo can express telomerase, so it is unclear whether human squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), which usually have high telomerase levels, develop from preexisting telomerase-positive precursors or by the activation of telomerase in telomerase-deficient somatic cells. We show that 6 of 29 oral SCCs show characteristics of M2 crisis in vivo, as indicated by a high anaphase bridge index (ABI), which is a good correlate of telomere dysfunction, and that 25 of 29 tumors possess some anaphase bridges. ABIs in excess of 0.2 in the primary tumor showed a decrease in the corresponding lymph node metastases. This suggests that high levels of telomere dysfunction (>0.2) and, by inference, M2 crisis bestow a selective disadvantage on SCCs during progression stages of the disease. Supporting this, SCCs with high levels of telomere dysfunction grow poorly in culture, and the ectopic expression of telomerase corrects this, together with other features of M2 crisis. Our data suggest that a substantial proportion of oral SCCs in vivo ultimately arise from telomerase-deficient keratinocytes rather than putative telomerase-proficient cells in the undifferentiated parts of the epithelium. Furthermore, the presence of significant levels of telomere dysfunction in a high proportion of SCCs at diagnosis but not in the normal epithelium implies that the therapeutic inhibition of telomerase should selectively compromise the growth of such tumors.

  15. A new half-condensed Schiff base compound: highly selective and sensitive pH-responsive fluorescent sensor.

    PubMed

    Saha, Uday Chand; Dhara, Koushik; Chattopadhyay, Basab; Mandal, Sushil Kumar; Mondal, Swastik; Sen, Supriti; Mukherjee, Monika; van Smaalen, Sander; Chattopadhyay, Pabitra

    2011-09-02

    A new probe, 3-[(3-benzyloxypyridin-2-ylimino)methyl]-2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzaldehyde (1-H) behaves as a highly selective fluorescent pH sensor in a Britton-Robinson buffer at 25 °C. The pH titrations show a 250-fold increase in fluorescence intensity within the pH range of 4.2 to 8.3 with a pK(a) value of 6.63 which is valuable for studying many of the biological organelles.

  16. Select Novice Elementary Teachers' Perceived Knowledge and Implementation of High-Quality Reading Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bumstead, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine select novice teachers' perceived knowledge of high-quality reading instruction, explore the extent that select novice teachers implemented high-quality reading instruction into their own classrooms, and to investigate any factors that explain the similarities and differences between…

  17. Molecularly imprinted polymer for selective extraction of malachite green from seawater and seafood coupled with high-performance liquid chromatographic determination.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ziru; Wang, Jiangtao

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, a highly selective sample cleanup procedure combining molecular imprinting technique (MIT) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) was developed for the isolation of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was prepared using malachite green as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the functional monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as the cross-linking monomer. The imprinted polymer and non-imprinted polymer were characterized by scanning electron microscope and static adsorption experiments. The MIP showed a high adsorption capacity and was used as selective sorbent for the SPE of malachite green. An off-line molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) method followed by high-performance liquid chromatography with diodearray detection for the analysis of malachite green in seawater and seafood samples was also established. Finally, five samples were determined. The results showed that malachite green concentration in one seawater sample was at 1.30 μg L⁻¹ and the RSD (n=3) was 4.15%. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization–Based Feature Selection for Very-High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery Object Change Detection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yunhao; Jiang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    In the field of multiple features Object-Based Change Detection (OBCD) for very-high-resolution remotely sensed images, image objects have abundant features and feature selection affects the precision and efficiency of OBCD. Through object-based image analysis, this paper proposes a Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO)-based feature selection algorithm to solve the optimization problem of feature selection in multiple features OBCD. We select the Ratio of Mean to Variance (RMV) as the fitness function of GPSO, and apply the proposed algorithm to the object-based hybrid multivariate alternative detection model. Two experiment cases on Worldview-2/3 images confirm that GPSO can significantly improve the speed of convergence, and effectively avoid the problem of premature convergence, relative to other feature selection algorithms. According to the accuracy evaluation of OBCD, GPSO is superior at overall accuracy (84.17% and 83.59%) and Kappa coefficient (0.6771 and 0.6314) than other algorithms. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis results show that the proposed algorithm is not easily influenced by the initial parameters, but the number of features to be selected and the size of the particle swarm would affect the algorithm. The comparison experiment results reveal that RMV is more suitable than other functions as the fitness function of GPSO-based feature selection algorithm. PMID:27483285

  19. Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization-Based Feature Selection for Very-High-Resolution Remotely Sensed Imagery Object Change Detection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiang; Chen, Yunhao; Jiang, Weiguo

    2016-07-30

    In the field of multiple features Object-Based Change Detection (OBCD) for very-high-resolution remotely sensed images, image objects have abundant features and feature selection affects the precision and efficiency of OBCD. Through object-based image analysis, this paper proposes a Genetic Particle Swarm Optimization (GPSO)-based feature selection algorithm to solve the optimization problem of feature selection in multiple features OBCD. We select the Ratio of Mean to Variance (RMV) as the fitness function of GPSO, and apply the proposed algorithm to the object-based hybrid multivariate alternative detection model. Two experiment cases on Worldview-2/3 images confirm that GPSO can significantly improve the speed of convergence, and effectively avoid the problem of premature convergence, relative to other feature selection algorithms. According to the accuracy evaluation of OBCD, GPSO is superior at overall accuracy (84.17% and 83.59%) and Kappa coefficient (0.6771 and 0.6314) than other algorithms. Moreover, the sensitivity analysis results show that the proposed algorithm is not easily influenced by the initial parameters, but the number of features to be selected and the size of the particle swarm would affect the algorithm. The comparison experiment results reveal that RMV is more suitable than other functions as the fitness function of GPSO-based feature selection algorithm.

  20. Microwave-assisted direct synthesis of butene from high-selectivity methane

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Lu, Yu-wei

    2017-01-01

    Methane was directly converted to butene liquid fuel by microwave-induced non-oxidative catalytic dehydrogenation under 0.1–0.2 MPa. The results show that, under microwave heating in a two-stage fixed-bed reactor, in which nickel powder and NiOx–MoOy/SiO2 are used as the catalyst, the methane–hydrogen mixture is used as the raw material, with no acetylene detected. The methane conversion is more than 73.2%, and the selectivity of methane to butene is 99.0%. Increasing the hydrogen/methane feed volume ratio increases methane conversion and selectivity. Gas chromatography/electron impact ionization/mass spectrometry chromatographic analysis showed that the liquid fuel produced by methane dehydrogenation oligomerization contained 89.44% of butene, and the rest was acetic acid, ethanol, butenol and butyric acid, and the content was 1.0–3.0 wt%. PMID:29308261

  1. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    PubMed Central

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  2. Individual cell based traits obtained by scanning flow-cytometry show selection by biotic and abiotic environmental factors during a phytoplankton spring bloom.

    PubMed

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J B; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  3. Visual selection and maintenance of the cell lines with high plant regeneration ability and low ploidy level in Dianthus acicularis by monitoring with flow cytometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiba, Tomonori; Mii, Masahiro

    2005-12-01

    Efficient plant regeneration system from cell suspension cultures was established in D. acicularis (2n=90) by monitoring ploidy level and visual selection of the cultures. The ploidy level of the cell cultures closely related to the shoot regeneration ability. The cell lines comprising original ploidy levels (2C+4C cells corresponding to DNA contents of G1 and G2 cells of diploid plant, respectively) showed high regeneration ability, whereas those containing the cells with 8C or higher DNA C-values showed low or no regeneration ability. The highly regenerable cell lines thus selected consisted of compact cell clumps with yellowish color and relatively moderate growth, suggesting that it is possible to select visually the highly regenerable cell lines with the original ploidy level. All the regenerated plantlets from the highly regenerable cell cultures exhibited normal phenotypes and no variations in ploidy level were observed by flow cytometry (FCM) analysis.

  4. Highly selective coextraction of rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate based on high-density dual-template imprinted shells on silica microparticles.

    PubMed

    Long, Zerong; Xu, Weiwei; Peng, Yumei; Lu, Yi; Luo, Qian; Qiu, Hongdeng

    2017-01-01

    A simple one-pot approach based on molecularly imprinted polymer shells dispersed on the surface of silica for simultaneous determination of rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate (DBzP) has been developed. Highly dense molecularly imprinted polymer shells were formed in the mixture of acetonitrile and toluene by the copolymerization of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, as well as two templates, rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate, directed by the vinyl end groups functional monolayer at surface silica microspheres after 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane modification. The obtained imprinted polymer shells showed large average pore diameter (102.5 nm) and about 100 nm shell thickness. The imprinted particles also showed high imprinting factor (α RhB = 3.52 and α DBzP = 3.94), rapid binding kinetics, and excellent selective affinity capacity for rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate containing another three competitors in mixed solution. Moreover, the imprinted particles coupled with ultra high performance liquid chromatography was successfully applied to simultaneous analysis of rhodamine B and dibenzyl phthalate in two spiked beverage samples with average recoveries in the range of 88.0-93.0% for rhodamine B and 84.0-92.0% for dibenzyl phthalate with the relative standard deviation lower than 5.1%. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Probabilistic selection of high-redshift quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortlock, Daniel J.; Patel, Mitesh; Warren, Stephen J.; Hewett, Paul C.; Venemans, Bram P.; McMahon, Richard G.; Simpson, Chris

    2012-01-01

    High-redshift quasars (HZQs) with redshifts of z ≳ 6 are so rare that any photometrically selected sample of sources with HZQ-like colours is likely to be dominated by Galactic stars and brown dwarfs scattered from the stellar locus. It is impractical to re-observe all such candidates, so an alternative approach was developed in which Bayesian model comparison techniques are used to calculate the probability that a candidate is a HZQ, Pq, by combining models of the quasar and star populations with the photometric measurements of the object. This method was motivated specifically by the large number of HZQ candidates identified by cross-matching the UKIRT (United Kingdom Infrared Telescope) Infrared Deep Sky Survey (UKIDSS) Large Area Survey (LAS) to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS): in the ? covered by the LAS in the UKIDSS Eighth Data Release (DR8) there are ˜9 × 103 real astronomical point sources with the measured colours of the target quasars, of which only ˜10 are expected to be HZQs. Applying Bayesian model comparison to the sample reveals that most sources with HZQ-like colours have Pq≲ 0.1 and can be confidently rejected without the need for any further observations. In the case of the UKIDSS DR8 LAS, there were just 107 candidates with Pq≥ 0.1; these objects were prioritized for re-observation by ranking according to Pq (and their likely redshift, which was also inferred from the photometric data). Most candidates were rejected after one or two (moderate-depth) photometric measurements by recalculating Pq using the new data. That left 12 confirmed HZQs, six of which were previously identified in the SDSS and six of which were new UKIDSS discoveries. The high efficiency of this Bayesian selection method suggests that it could usefully be extended to other HZQ surveys (e.g. searches by the Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System, Pan-STARRS, or the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy, VISTA) as well as to other

  6. Discovery of highly selective inhibitors of p38alpha.

    PubMed

    Popa-Burke, Ioana; Birkos, Steve; Blackwell, Leonard; Cheatham, Lynn; Clark, Jennifer; Dickson, John K; Galasinski, Scott; Janzen, William P; Mendoza, Jose; Miller, Jennifer L; Mohney, Robert P; Steed, Paul M; Hodge, C Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    The p38 MAP kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play a key role in cellular pathways leading to pro-inflammatory responses. We have developed and implemented a method for rapidly identifying and optimizing potent and selective p38alpha inhibitors, which is amenable to other targets and target classes. A diverse library of druggable, purified and quantitated molecules was assembled and standardized enzymatic assays were performed in a microfluidic format that provided very accurate and precise inhibition data allowing for development of SAR directly from the primary HTS. All compounds were screened against a collection of more than 60 enzymes (kinases, proteases and phosphatases), allowing for removal of promiscuous and non-selective inhibitors very early in the discovery process. Follow-up enzymological studies included measurement of concentration of compound in buffer, yielding accurate determination of K(i) and IC50 values, as well as mechanism of action. In addition, active compounds were screened against less desirable properties such as inhibition of the enzyme activity by aggregation, irreversible binding, and time-dependence. Screening of an 88,634-compound library through the above-described process led to the rapid identification of multiple scaffolds (>5 active compounds per scaffold) of potential drug leads for p38alpha that are highly selective against all other enzymes tested, including the three other p38 isoforms. Potency and selectivity data allowed prioritization of the identified scaffolds for optimization. Herein we present results around our 3-thio-1,2,4-triazole lead series of p38- selective inhibitors, including identification, SAR, synthesis, selectivity profile, enzymatic and cellular data in their progression towards drug candidates.

  7. Selecting ultra-faint dwarf candidate progenitors in cosmological N-body simulations at high redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarzadeh, Mohammadtaher; Ji, Alexander P.; Dooley, Gregory A.; Frebel, Anna; Scannapieco, Evan; Gómez, Facundo A.; O'Shea, Brian W.

    2018-06-01

    The smallest satellites of the Milky Way ceased forming stars during the epoch of reionization and thus provide archaeological access to galaxy formation at z > 6. Numerical studies of these ultrafaint dwarf galaxies (UFDs) require expensive cosmological simulations with high mass resolution that are carried out down to z = 0. However, if we are able to statistically identify UFD host progenitors at high redshifts with relatively high probabilities, we can avoid this high computational cost. To find such candidates, we analyse the merger trees of Milky Way type haloes from the high-resolution Caterpillar suite of dark matter only simulations. Satellite UFD hosts at z = 0 are identified based on four different abundance matching (AM) techniques. All the haloes at high redshifts are traced forward in time in order to compute the probability of surviving as satellite UFDs today. Our results show that selecting potential UFD progenitors based solely on their mass at z = 12 (8) results in a 10 per cent (20 per cent) chance of obtaining a surviving UFD at z = 0 in three of the AM techniques we adopted. We find that the progenitors of surviving satellite UFDs have lower virial ratios (η), and are preferentially located at large distances from the main MW progenitor, while they show no correlation with concentration parameter. Haloes with favorable locations and virial ratios are ≈3 times more likely to survive as satellite UFD candidates at z = 0.

  8. Stereotypic behaviors in mice selectively bred for high and low methamphetamine-induced stereotypic chewing.

    PubMed

    Atkins, A L; Helms, M L; O'Toole, L A; Belknap, J K

    2001-08-01

    At high doses, methamphetamine produces repetitive stereotypic behaviors, and the degree to which this occurs is heritable. Mice of a B6D2F2 genetic background were selectively bred for four generations for high (HMA) and low (LMA) numbers of stereotyped chewing episodes measured for 1 min at 33 min post-injection following 10 mg/kg methamphetamine (changed to 7 mg/kg for the high line and 15 mg/kg for the low line in the third selected generation to avoid ceiling and floor effects, respectively). We sought to determine whether stereotypic behaviors other than number of repetitive chewing episodes were altered by the selective breeding process. HMA and LMA mice of the third and fourth selected generations were tested for chewing stereotypy, for a number of other stereotypic behaviors previously observed in rodents, and for several other non-stereotypic responses to methamphetamine. Testing in the third selected generation was conducted by observing behaviors on videotape following 7 mg/kg methamphetamine. In the fourth selected generation, mice were also tested in automated activity monitors following 10 mg/kg methamphetamine and in climbing chimneys following 16 mg/kg methamphetamine. Dose-response curves with doses of 1, 2, 3.5, 7, 10, and 15 mg/kg methamphetamine were constructed for the most commonly observed behaviors. LMA mice, which exhibited low stereotyped chewing, exhibited high stereotyped circling and climbing, and the reverse was true for these behaviors for HMA mice. For most of the other behaviors measured, there were drug effects but no differences between selected lines. These results suggest that these three stereotyped behaviors, chewing, circling, and climbing, at least partly share the same mechanisms, and therefore are influenced by at least some of the same genes, since animals selectively bred for low methamphetamine-induced stereotyped chewing exhibited high amounts of circling and climbing when given methamphetamine. This also suggests

  9. Selection of DNA aptamers against epidermal growth factor receptor with high affinity and specificity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Deng-Liang; Department of Neurosurgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou; Song, Yan-Ling

    2014-10-31

    Highlights: • This is the first report of DNA aptamer against EGFR in vitro. • Aptamer can bind targets with high affinity and selectivity. • DNA aptamers are more stable, cheap and efficient than RNA aptamers. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high affinity with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM. • Our selected DNA aptamer against EGFR has high selectivity. - Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/HER1/c-ErbB1), is overexpressed in many solid cancers, such as epidermoid carcinomas, malignant gliomas, etc. EGFR plays roles in proliferation, invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis of malignant cancer cells and is the idealmore » antigen for clinical applications in cancer detection, imaging and therapy. Aptamers, the output of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX), are DNA/RNA oligonucleotides which can bind protein and other substances with specificity. RNA aptamers are undesirable due to their instability and high cost of production. Conversely, DNA aptamers have aroused researcher’s attention because they are easily synthesized, stable, selective, have high binding affinity and are cost-effective to produce. In this study, we have successfully identified DNA aptamers with high binding affinity and selectivity to EGFR. The aptamer named TuTu22 with K{sub d} 56 ± 7.3 nM was chosen from the identified DNA aptamers for further study. Flow cytometry analysis results indicated that the TuTu22 aptamer was able to specifically recognize a variety of cancer cells expressing EGFR but did not bind to the EGFR-negative cells. With all of the aforementioned advantages, the DNA aptamers reported here against cancer biomarker EGFR will facilitate the development of novel targeted cancer detection, imaging and therapy.« less

  10. A simple highly sensitive and selective aptamer-based colorimetric sensor for environmental toxins microcystin-LR in water samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuyan; Cheng, Ruojie; Shi, Huijie; Tang, Bo; Xiao, Hanshuang; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-03-05

    A simple and highly sensitive aptamer-based colorimetric sensor was developed for selective detection of Microcystin-LR (MC-LR). The aptamer (ABA) was employed as recognition element which could bind MC-LR with high-affinity, while gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) worked as sensing materials whose plasma resonance absorption peaks red shifted upon binding of the targets at a high concentration of sodium chloride. With the addition of MC-LR, the random coil aptamer adsorbed on Au NPs altered into regulated structure to form MC-LR-aptamer complexes and broke away from the surface of Au NPs, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs, and the color converted from red to blue due to the interparticle plasmon coupling. Results showed that our aptamer-based colorimetric sensor exhibited rapid and sensitive detection performance for MC-LR with linear range from 0.5 nM to 7.5 μM and the detection limit reached 0.37 nM. Meanwhile, the pollutants usually coexisting with MC-LR in pollutant water samples had not demonstrated disturbance for detecting of MC-LR. The mechanism was also proposed suggesting that high affinity interaction between aptamer and MC-LR significantly enhanced the sensitivity and selectivity for MC-LR detection. Besides, the established method was utilized in analyzing real water samples and splendid sensitivity and selectivity were obtained as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High-Throughput Method for Ranking the Affinity of Peptide Ligands Selected from Phage Display Libraries

    PubMed Central

    González-Techera, A.; Umpiérrez-Failache, M.; Cardozo, S.; Obal, G.; Pritsch, O.; Last, J. A.; Gee, S. J.; Hammock, B. D.; González-Sapienza, G.

    2010-01-01

    The use of phage display peptide libraries allows rapid isolation of peptide ligands for any target selector molecule. However, due to differences in peptide expression and the heterogeneity of the phage preparations, there is no easy way to compare the binding properties of the selected clones, which operates as a major “bottleneck” of the technology. Here, we present the development of a new type of library that allows rapid comparison of the relative affinity of the selected peptides in a high-throughput screening format. As a model system, a phage display peptide library constructed on a phagemid vector that contains the bacterial alkaline phosphatase gene (BAP) was selected with an antiherbicide antibody. Due to the intrinsic switching capacity of the library, the selected peptides were transferred “en masse” from the phage coat protein to BAP. This was coupled to an optimized affinity ELISA where normalized amounts of the peptide–BAP fusion allow direct comparison of the binding properties of hundreds of peptide ligands. The system was validated by plasmon surface resonance experiments using synthetic peptides, showing that the method discriminates among the affinities of the peptides within 3 orders of magnitude. In addition, the peptide–BAP protein can find direct application as a tracer reagent. PMID:18393454

  12. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  13. Highly selective gas sensor arrays based on thermally reduced graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Lipatov, Alexey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Wilson, Peter; Sysoev, Victor; Kolmakov, Andrei; Sinitskii, Alexander

    2013-06-21

    The electrical properties of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) have been previously shown to be very sensitive to surface adsorbates, thus making rGO a very promising platform for highly sensitive gas sensors. However, poor selectivity of rGO-based gas sensors remains a major problem for their practical use. In this paper, we address the selectivity problem by employing an array of rGO-based integrated sensors instead of focusing on the performance of a single sensing element. Each rGO-based device in such an array has a unique sensor response due to the irregular structure of rGO films at different levels of organization, ranging from nanoscale to macroscale. The resulting rGO-based gas sensing system could reliably recognize analytes of nearly the same chemical nature. In our experiments rGO-based sensor arrays demonstrated a high selectivity that was sufficient to discriminate between different alcohols, such as methanol, ethanol and isopropanol, at a 100% success rate. We also discuss a possible sensing mechanism that provides the basis for analyte differentiation.

  14. Structural characterization of a new lipid/DNA complex showing a selective transfection efficiency in ovarian cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracciolo, G.; Pozzi, D.; Caminiti, R.; Congiu Castellano, A.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated, for the first time, by using Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction, the structure of a new ternary cationic liposome formulated with dioleoyl trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), 1,2-dioleoyl-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) and cholesterol (Chol) (DDC) which has been recently found to have a selective high gene transfer ability in ovarian cancer cells. Our structural results provide a further experimental support to the widely accepted statement that there is not a simple and direct correlation between structure and transfection efficiency and that the factors controlling cationic lipid/DNA (CL-DNA) complexes-mediated gene transfer depend not only on the formulations of the cationic liposomes and their thermodynamic phase, but also significantly on the cell properties.

  15. Spontaneous and Selective Nanowelding of Silver Nanowires by Electrochemical Ostwald Ripening and High Electrostatic Potential at the Junctions for High-Performance Stretchable Transparent Electrodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Ju; Oh, Semi; Cho, Ki-Yeop; Jeong, Woo-Lim; Lee, Dong-Seon; Park, Seong-Ju

    2018-04-25

    Metal nanowires have been gaining increasing attention as the most promising stretchable transparent electrodes for emerging field of stretchable optoelectronic devices. Nanowelding technology is a major challenge in the fabrication of metal nanowire networks because the optoelectronic performances of metal nanowire networks are mostly limited by the high junction resistance between nanowires. We demonstrate the spontaneous and selective welding of Ag nanowires (AgNWs) by Ag solders via an electrochemical Ostwald ripening process and high electrostatic potential at the junctions of AgNWs. The AgNWs were welded by depositing Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the conducting substrate and then exposing them to water at room temperature. The AgNPs were spontaneously dissolved in water to form Ag + ions, which were then reduced to single-crystal Ag solders selectively at the junctions of the AgNWs. Hence, the welded AgNWs showed higher optoelectronic and stretchable performance compared to that of as-formed AgNWs. These results indicate that electrochemical Ostwald ripening-based welding can be used as a promising method for high-performance metal nanowire electrodes in various next-generation devices such as stretchable solar cells, stretchable displays, organic light-emitting diodes, and skin sensors.

  16. Optimization of microelectrophoresis to select highly negatively charged sperm.

    PubMed

    Simon, Luke; Murphy, Kristin; Aston, Kenneth I; Emery, Benjamin R; Hotaling, James M; Carrell, Douglas T

    2016-06-01

    The sperm membrane undergoes extensive surface remodeling as it matures in the epididymis. During this process, the sperm is encapsulated in an extensive glycocalyx layer, which provides the membrane with its characteristic negative electrostatic charge. In this study, we develop a method of microelectrophoresis and standardize the protocol to isolate sperm with high negative membrane charge. Under an electric field, the percentage of positively charged sperm (PCS), negatively charged sperm (NCS), and neutrally charged sperm was determined for each ejaculate prior to and following density gradient centrifugation (DGC), and evaluated for sperm DNA damage, and histone retention. Subsequently, PCS, NCS, and neutrally charged sperm were selected using an ICSI needle and directly analyzed for DNA damage. When raw semen was analyzed using microelectrophoresis, 94 % were NCS. In contrast, DGC completely or partially stripped the negative membrane charge from sperm resulting PCS and neutrally charged sperm, while the charged sperm populations are increased with an increase in electrophoretic current. Following DGC, high sperm DNA damage and abnormal histone retention were inversely correlated with percentage NCS and directly correlated with percentage PCS. NCS exhibited significantly lower DNA damage when compared with control (P < 0.05) and PCS (P < 0.05). When the charged sperm population was corrected for neutrally charged sperm, sperm DNA damage was strongly associated with NCS at a lower electrophoretic current. The results suggest that selection of NCS at lower current may be an important biomarker to select healthy sperm for assisted reproductive treatment.

  17. Probabilistic Selection of High-redshift Quasars with Subaru/Hyper Suprime-Cam Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onoue, Masafusa

    High-redshift quasars are an important probe of the distant Universe. They enable observational studies of the early growth of supermassive blackholes, cosmic reionization, chemical enrichment of host galaxies, and so on. Through pioneering optical and near-infrared wide-area surveys such as the SDSS and the VIKING Survey, about one hundred quasars have been found at z > 6 (e.g., Fan et al. (2006b), Venemans et al. (2013)). However, its current small sample size and the fact that most of them are the most luminous (M 1450 <~ -24) population in this epoch prevents one from constraining statistics on high-redshift quasars, namely quasar luminosity function (QLF), and redshift evolution of IGM neutral fraction. Thus, discovery of large number of z > 6 quasars, especially low-luminous or z > 7 quasars, is highly desired for further understanding of the early universe. We are now starting a new ground-breaking survey of high-redshift (z > 6) quasars using the exquisite imaging data provided by the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) Subaru Strategic Program (SSP) Survey. Thanks to its extremely wide coverage and its high sensitivity thorough five optical bands (1,400 deg2 to the depth of r ~ 26 in HSC-Wide layer), it is one of the most powerful contemporary surveys that makes it possible for us to increase the number of z > 6 quasars by almost an order of magnitude, i.e., 300 at z ~ 6 and 50 at z ~ 7, based on the current estimate of the QLF at z > 6 by Willott et al. (2010b). One of the biggest challenges in z > 6 quasar candidate selection is contamination of Galactic brown dwarfs, which have the same point-like appearance as and similarly red colors to the quasars. To overcome this issue and maximize the selection efficiency, we apply a double-layered approach to the HSC survey products, namely combination of two probabilistic selections: SED-fitting and Bayesian selection. In particular, we have developed a template SED fitting method optimized to high-redshift quasars

  18. Molecularly imprinted membrane extraction combined with high-performance liquid chromatography for selective analysis of cloxacillin from shrimp samples.

    PubMed

    Du, Wei; Sun, Min; Guo, Pengqi; Chang, Chun; Fu, Qiang

    2018-09-01

    Nowadays, the abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture has generated considerable problems for food safety. Therefore, it is imperative to develop a simple and selective method for monitoring illegal use of antibiotics in aquatic products. In this study, a method combined molecularly imprinted membranes (MIMs) extraction and liquid chromatography was developed for the selective analysis of cloxacillin from shrimp samples. The MIMs was synthesized by UV photopolymerization, and characterized by scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectra, thermo-gravimetric analysis and swelling test. The results showed that the MIMs exhibited excellent permselectivity, high adsorption capacity and fast adsorption rate for cloxacillin. Finally, the method was utilized to determine cloxacillin from shrimp samples, with good accuracies and acceptable relative standard deviation values for precision. The proposed method was a promising alternative for selective analysis of cloxacillin in shrimp samples, due to the easy-operation and excellent selectivity. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Selective Attention Deficits in High Test Anxious Children: A Failure to Replicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Carol E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Results of a study involving 5 high test-anxious poor readers failed to replicate an earlier study reporting selective attention deficits in the population. Further, there was a marginal tendency for older poor readers to be high test-anxious. (Author/CL)

  20. High level of microsynteny and purifying selection affect the evolution of WRKY family in Gramineae.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jing; Kong, Jingjing; Qiu, Jianle; Zhu, Huasheng; Peng, Yuancheng; Jiang, Haiyang

    2016-01-01

    The WRKY gene family, which encodes proteins in the regulation processes of diverse developmental stages, is one of the largest families of transcription factors in higher plants. In this study, by searching for interspecies gene colinearity (microsynteny) and dating the age distributions of duplicated genes, we found 35 chromosomal segments of subgroup I genes of WRKY family (WRKY I) in four Gramineae species (Brachypodium, rice, sorghum, and maize) formed eight orthologous groups. After a stepwise gene-by-gene reciprocal comparison of all the protein sequences in the WRKY I gene flanking areas, highly conserved regions of microsynteny were found in the four Gramineae species. Most gene pairs showed conserved orientation within syntenic genome regions. Furthermore, tandem duplication events played the leading role in gene expansion. Eventually, environmental selection pressure analysis indicated strong purifying selection for the WRKY I genes in Gramineae, which may have been followed by gene loss and rearrangement. The results presented in this study provide basic information of Gramineae WRKY I genes and form the foundation for future functional studies of these genes. High level of microsynteny in the four grass species provides further evidence that a large-scale genome duplication event predated speciation.

  1. High polymorphism in MHC-DRB genes in golden snub-nosed monkeys reveals balancing selection in small, isolated populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Huang, Kang; Zhang, Bingyi; Dunn, Derek W; Chen, Dan; Li, Fan; Qi, Xiaoguang; Guo, Songtao; Li, Baoguo

    2018-03-13

    Maintaining variation in immune genes, such as those of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), is important for individuals in small, isolated populations to resist pathogens and parasites. The golden snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), an endangered primate endemic to China, has experienced a rapid reduction in numbers and severe population fragmentation over recent years. For this study, we measured the DRB diversity among 122 monkeys from three populations in the Qinling Mountains, and estimated the relative importance of different agents of selection in maintaining variation of DRB genes. We identified a total of 19 DRB sequences, in which five alleles were novel. We found high DRB variation in R. roxellana and three branches of evidence suggesting that balancing selection has contributed to maintaining MHC polymorphism over the long term in this species: i) different patterns of both genetic diversity and population differentiation were detected at MHC and neutral markers; ii) an excess of non-synonymous substitutions compared to synonymous substitutions at antigen binding sites, and maximum-likelihood-based random-site models, showed significant positive selection; and iii) phylogenetic analyses revealed a pattern of trans-species evolution for DRB genes. High levels of DRB diversity in these R. roxellana populations may reflect strong selection pressure in this species. Patterns of genetic diversity and population differentiation, positive selection, as well as trans-species evolution, suggest that pathogen-mediated balancing selection has contributed to maintaining MHC polymorphism in R. roxellana over the long term. This study furthers our understanding of the role pathogen-mediated balancing selection has in maintaining variation in MHC genes in small and fragmented populations of free-ranging vertebrates.

  2. Swainson's Thrushes do not show strong wind selectivity prior to crossing the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bolus, Rachel T; Diehl, Robert H; Moore, Frank R; Deppe, Jill L; Ward, Michael P; Smolinsky, Jaclyn; Zenzal, Theodore J

    2017-10-27

    During long-distance fall migrations, nocturnally migrating Swainson's Thrushes often stop on the northern Gulf of Mexico coast before flying across the Gulf. To minimize energetic costs, trans-Gulf migrants should stop over when they encounter crosswinds or headwinds, and depart with supportive tailwinds. However, time constrained migrants should be less selective, balancing costs of headwinds with benefits of continuing their migrations. To test the hypotheses that birds select supportive winds and that selectivity is mediated by seasonal time constraints, we examined whether local winds affected Swainson's Thrushes' arrival and departure at Ft. Morgan, Alabama, USA at annual, seasonal, and nightly time scales. Additionally, migrants could benefit from forecasting future wind conditions, crossing on nights when winds are consistently supportive across the Gulf, thereby avoiding the potentially lethal consequences of depleting their energetic reserves over water. To test whether birds forecast, we developed a movement model, calculated to what extent departure winds were predictive of future Gulf winds, and tested whether birds responded to predictability. Swainson's Thrushes were only slightly selective and did not appear to forecast. By following the simple rule of avoiding only the strongest headwinds at departure, Swainson's Thrushes could survive the 1500 km flight between Alabama and Veracruz, Mexico.

  3. Highly sensitive and selective electrochemical dopamine sensing properties of multilayer graphene nanobelts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karthick Kannan, Padmanathan; Moshkalev, Stanislav A.; Sekhar Rout, Chandra

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we report the electrochemical sensing property of multi-layer graphene nanobelts (GNBs) towards dopamine (DA). GNBs are synthesized from natural graphite and characterized by using techniques like field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. An electrochemical sensor based on GNBs is developed for the detection of DA. From the cyclic voltammetry and amperometry studies, it is found that GNBs possess excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA molecules. The developed DA sensor showed a sensitivity value of 0.95 μA μM-1 cm-2 with a linear range of 2 μM to 0.2 mM. The interference data exhibited that GNB is highly selective to DA even in the presence of common interfering species like ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose and lactic acid.

  4. Highly sensitive and selective electrochemical dopamine sensing properties of multilayer graphene nanobelts.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Padmanathan Karthick; Moshkalev, Stanislav A; Rout, Chandra Sekhar

    2016-02-19

    In the present study, we report the electrochemical sensing property of multi-layer graphene nanobelts (GNBs) towards dopamine (DA). GNBs are synthesized from natural graphite and characterized by using techniques like field-emission scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. An electrochemical sensor based on GNBs is developed for the detection of DA. From the cyclic voltammetry and amperometry studies, it is found that GNBs possess excellent electrocatalytic activity towards DA molecules. The developed DA sensor showed a sensitivity value of 0.95 μA μM(-1) cm(-2) with a linear range of 2 μM to 0.2 mM. The interference data exhibited that GNB is highly selective to DA even in the presence of common interfering species like ascorbic acid, uric acid, glucose and lactic acid.

  5. Holey graphene frameworks for highly selective post-combustion carbon capture.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-02-16

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise rapidly in response to increased combustion of fossil fuels, contributing to global climate change. In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, development of new materials for cost-effective and energy-efficient CO2 capture is critically important. Graphene-based porous materials are an emerging class of solid adsorbents for selectively removing CO2 from flue gases. Herein, we report a simple and scalable approach to produce three-dimensional holey graphene frameworks with tunable porosity and pore geometry, and demonstrate their application as high-performance CO2 adsorbents. These holey graphene macrostructures exhibit a significantly improved specific surface area and pore volume compared to their pristine counterparts, and can be effectively used in post-combustion CO2 adsorption systems because of their intrinsic hydrophobicity together with good gravimetric storage capacities, rapid removal capabilities, superior cycling stabilities, and moderate initial isosteric heats. In addition, an exceptionally high CO2 over N2 selectivity can be achieved under conditions relevant to capture from the dry exhaust gas stream of a coal burning power plant, suggesting the possibility of recovering highly pure CO2 for long-term sequestration and/or utilization for downstream applications.

  6. Holey graphene frameworks for highly selective post-combustion carbon capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-02-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise rapidly in response to increased combustion of fossil fuels, contributing to global climate change. In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, development of new materials for cost-effective and energy-efficient CO2 capture is critically important. Graphene-based porous materials are an emerging class of solid adsorbents for selectively removing CO2 from flue gases. Herein, we report a simple and scalable approach to produce three-dimensional holey graphene frameworks with tunable porosity and pore geometry, and demonstrate their application as high-performance CO2 adsorbents. These holey graphene macrostructures exhibit a significantly improved specific surface area and pore volume compared to their pristine counterparts, and can be effectively used in post-combustion CO2 adsorption systems because of their intrinsic hydrophobicity together with good gravimetric storage capacities, rapid removal capabilities, superior cycling stabilities, and moderate initial isosteric heats. In addition, an exceptionally high CO2 over N2 selectivity can be achieved under conditions relevant to capture from the dry exhaust gas stream of a coal burning power plant, suggesting the possibility of recovering highly pure CO2 for long-term sequestration and/or utilization for downstream applications.

  7. Bayesian feature selection for high-dimensional linear regression via the Ising approximation with applications to genomics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Charles K; Mehta, Pankaj

    2015-06-01

    Feature selection, identifying a subset of variables that are relevant for predicting a response, is an important and challenging component of many methods in statistics and machine learning. Feature selection is especially difficult and computationally intensive when the number of variables approaches or exceeds the number of samples, as is often the case for many genomic datasets. Here, we introduce a new approach--the Bayesian Ising Approximation (BIA)-to rapidly calculate posterior probabilities for feature relevance in L2 penalized linear regression. In the regime where the regression problem is strongly regularized by the prior, we show that computing the marginal posterior probabilities for features is equivalent to computing the magnetizations of an Ising model with weak couplings. Using a mean field approximation, we show it is possible to rapidly compute the feature selection path described by the posterior probabilities as a function of the L2 penalty. We present simulations and analytical results illustrating the accuracy of the BIA on some simple regression problems. Finally, we demonstrate the applicability of the BIA to high-dimensional regression by analyzing a gene expression dataset with nearly 30 000 features. These results also highlight the impact of correlations between features on Bayesian feature selection. An implementation of the BIA in C++, along with data for reproducing our gene expression analyses, are freely available at http://physics.bu.edu/∼pankajm/BIACode. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A copper ion-selective electrode with high selectivity prepared by sol-gel and coated wire techniques.

    PubMed

    Mazloum Ardakani, M; Salavati-Niasari, M; Khayat Kashani, M; Ghoreishi, S M

    2004-03-01

    A sol-gel electrode and a coated wire ion-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane, based on thiosemicarbazone as a neutral carrier, were successfully developed for the detection of Cu (II) in aqueous solutions. The sol-gel electrode and coated electrode exhibited linear response with Nernstian slopes of 29.2 and 28.1 mV per decade respectively, within the copper ion concentration ranges 1.0 x 10(-5) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M and 6.0 x 10(-6) - 1.0 x 10(-1) M for coated and sol-gel sensors. The coated and sol-gel electrodes show detection limits of 3.0 x 10(-6) and 6.0 x 10(-6) M respectively. The electrodes exhibited good selectivities for a number of alkali, alkaline earth, transition and heavy metal ions. The proposed electrodes have response times ranging from 10-50 s to achieve a 95% steady potential for Cu2+ concentration. The electrodes are suitable for use in aqueous solutions over a wide pH range (4-7.5). Applications of these electrodes for the determination of copper in real samples, and as an indicator electrode for potentiometric titration of Cu2+ ion using EDTA, are reported. The lifetimes of the electrodes were tested over a period of six months to investigate their stability. No significant change in the performance of the sol-gel electrode was observed over this period, but after two months the coated wire copper-selective electrode exhibited a gradual decrease in the slope. The selectivity of the sol-gel electrode was found to be better than that of the coated wire copper-selective electrode. Based on these results, a novel sol-gel copper-selective electrode is proposed for the determination of copper, and applied to real sample assays.

  9. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mutant rats show selective cognitive changes and vulnerability to chronic corticosterone treatment.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, A; Hill, R A; van den Buuse, M

    2015-01-22

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a widely expressed neurotrophin involved in neurodevelopment, neuroprotection and synaptic plasticity. It is also implicated in a range of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder. Stress during adolescence/young adulthood can have long-term psychiatric and cognitive consequences, however it is unknown how altered BDNF signaling is involved in such effects. Here we investigated whether a congenital deficit in BDNF availability in rats increases vulnerability to the long-term effects of the stress hormone, corticosterone (CORT). Compared to wildtype (WT) littermates, BDNF heterozygous (HET) rats showed higher body weights and minor developmental changes, such as reduced relative brain and pituitary weight. These animals furthermore showed deficits in short-term spatial memory in the Y-maze and in prepulse inhibition and startle, but not in object-recognition memory. CORT treatment induced impairments in novel-object recognition memory in both genotypes but disrupted fear conditioning extinction learning in BDNF HET rats only. These results show selective behavioral changes in BDNF HET rats, at baseline or after chronic CORT treatment and add to our understanding of the role of BDNF and its interaction with stress. Importantly, this study demonstrates the utility of the BDNF HET rat in investigations into the pathophysiology of various psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    DOEpatents

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  11. Characterization of selective solar absorber under high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberto; Monti, Matteo; di Giamberardino, Francesco; Palmieri, Vittorio G

    2018-05-14

    Total absorption and emission coefficients of selective solar absorbers are measured under high vacuum conditions from room temperature up to stagnation temperature. The sample under investigation is illuminated under vacuum @1000W/m 2 and the sample temperature is recorded during heat up, equilibrium and cool down. During stagnation, the absorber temperature exceeds 300°C without concentration. Data analysis allows evaluating the solar absorptance and thermal emittance at different temperatures. These in turn are useful to predict evacuated solar panel performances at operating conditions.

  12. On the mechanism of high product selectivity for HCOOH using Pb in CO2 electroreduction.

    PubMed

    Back, Seoin; Kim, Jun-Hyuk; Kim, Yong-Tae; Jung, Yousung

    2016-04-14

    While achieving high product selectivity is one of the major challenges of the CO2 electroreduction technology in general, Pb is one of the few examples with high selectivity that produces formic acid almost exclusively (versus H2, CO, or other byproducts). In this work, we study the mechanism of CO2 electroreduction reactions using Pb to understand the origin of high formic acid selectivity. In particular, we first assess the proton-assisted mechanism proposed in the literature using density functional calculations and find that it cannot fully explain the previous selectivity experiments for the Pb electrode. We then suggest an alternative proton-coupled-electron-transfer mechanism consistent with existing observations, and further validate a new mechanism by experimentally measuring and comparing the onset potentials for CO2 reduction vs. H2 production. We find that the origin of a high selectivity of the Pb catalyst for HCOOH production over CO and H2 lies in the strong O-affinitive and weak C-, H-affinitive characteristics of Pb, leading to the involvement of the *OCHO species as a key intermediate to produce HCOOH exclusively and preventing unwanted H2 production at the same time.

  13. Rhodium Nanoparticle-mesoporous Silicon Nanowire Nanohybrids for Hydrogen Peroxide Detection with High Selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhiqian; Chang, Hucheng; Zhu, Weiqin; Xu, Chenlong; Feng, Xinjian

    2015-01-01

    Developing nanostructured electrocatalysts, with low overpotential, high selectivity and activity has fundamental and technical importance in many fields. We report here rhodium nanoparticle and mesoporous silicon nanowire (RhNP@mSiNW) hybrids for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) detection with high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity. By employing electrodes that loaded with RhNP@mSiNW nanohybrids, interference caused from both many electroactive substances and dissolved oxygen were eliminated by electrochemical assaying at an optimal potential of +75 mV. Furthermore, the electrodes exhibited a high detection sensitivity of 0.53 μA/mM and fast response (< 5 s). This high-performance nanohybrid electrocatalyst has great potential for future practical application in various oxidase-base biosensors. PMID:25588953

  14. Selective Screening of High Temperature Superconductors by Resonant Eddy Current Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    observable electronic parameters are both stable and well defined. Further, if the circuit possesses a resonance , then it has well characterized parameters and...Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratory - AD-A230 194 Selective Screening of High Temperature Superconductors by Resonant Eddy Current...electrical systems or electronic components from the effects of unwanted electromagnetic energy. With the discovery of High Transition Critical Temperature

  15. Ion selectivity of graphene nanopores

    DOE PAGES

    Rollings, Ryan C.; Kuan, Aaron T.; Golovchenko, Jene A.

    2016-04-22

    As population growth continues to outpace development of water infrastructure in many countries, desalination (the removal of salts from seawater) at high energy efficiency will likely become a vital source of fresh water. Due to its atomic thinness combined with its mechanical strength, porous graphene may be particularly well-suited for electrodialysis desalination, in which ions are removed under an electric field via ion-selective pores. Here, we show that single graphene nanopores preferentially permit the passage of K + cations over Cl - anions with selectivity ratios of over 100 and conduct monovalent cations up to 5 times more rapidly thanmore » divalent cations. Furthermore, the observed K +/Cl - selectivity persists in pores even as large as about 20 nm in diameter, suggesting that high throughput, highly selective graphene electrodialysis membranes can be fabricated without the need for subnanometer control over pore size.« less

  16. Road traffic accident among motor vehicle drivers in selected high ways.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M; Khanom, K; Shampa, R M; Bari, M H

    2004-07-01

    To assess the knowledge of the motor vehicle driver about the causes of road traffic accidents. This cross sectional study was conducted among the 107 motor vehicle drivers of selected Bus & Truck terminal & taxi stands of Dhaka city. The study was carried out during April to June 2002 at the Department of Health Promotion & Health Education of NIPSOM. The study showed about 55.1% learned driving from a friend. Out of 107 respondent 20.6% showed very high speed is one of the reason for road traffic accident.39.3% claimed for poor maintenance of roads. Regarding engine/vehicle defect 46.7% said head light defect. Increased earning is one of the reasons of very fast driving 35.5% respondent opined. These may be the reason of accident proneness of the society along with factor like family pressure, job dissatisfaction etc. Majority of the driver who took part in this study used light vehicle 54.2% and the rest 30.8% were heavy and 15% like medium light vehicle. Most of the respondent 67.3% was working as professional over for 3-6 years. 41.1% for 3 and 26.2% for 6 years. There were significant relationship (p < 0.002) between very fast driving and defective road and also engine defect were highly significant association (p < 0.005) with road traffic accident It is revealed that formal education, driving license through Bangladesh road traffic authority without unnecessary botheration, proper implementation of traffic law, training of drivers and increase level of public awareness through mass communication could reduce the road traffic accident

  17. "XSEL" Virtual Selective High School Provision: Delivering Academically Selective Secondary Curriculum in Regional, Rural and Remote NSW

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furney, Ann-Marie; McDiarmid, Carole

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of the "xsel" program in Western NSW. The program supports identified high school students from regional, rural and remote communities to access the study of English, maths and science at an academically selective level. A program review was undertaken during 2012 using a structured…

  18. Design of Highly Selective Gas Sensors via Physicochemical Modification of Oxide Nanowires: Overview

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hyung-Sik; Na, Chan Woong; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2016-01-01

    Strategies for the enhancement of gas sensing properties, and specifically the improvement of gas selectivity of metal oxide semiconductor nanowire (NW) networks grown by chemical vapor deposition and thermal evaporation, are reviewed. Highly crystalline NWs grown by vapor-phase routes have various advantages, and thus have been applied in the field of gas sensors over the years. In particular, n-type NWs such as SnO2, ZnO, and In2O3 are widely studied because of their simple synthetic preparation and high gas response. However, due to their usually high responses to C2H5OH and NO2, the selective detection of other harmful and toxic gases using oxide NWs remains a challenging issue. Various strategies—such as doping/loading of noble metals, decorating/doping of catalytic metal oxides, and the formation of core–shell structures—have been explored to enhance gas selectivity and sensitivity, and are discussed herein. Additional methods such as the transformation of n-type into p-type NWs and the formation of catalyst-doped hierarchical structures by branch growth have also proven to be promising for the enhancement of gas selectivity. Accordingly, the physicochemical modification of oxide NWs via various methods provides new strategies to achieve the selective detection of a specific gas, and after further investigations, this approach could pave a new way in the field of NW-based semiconductor-type gas sensors. PMID:27657076

  19. Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Levels of Endemic Fusaria Inhabiting Sardinian Soils (Tyrrhenian Islands)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Mediterranean island of Sardinia is well known for high levels of vascular plant diversity and endemism, but little is known about its microbial diversity. Under the hypothesis that Fusarium species would show similar patterns, we estimated variability in Fusarium species composition among ten ...

  20. Why do high-redshift galaxies show diverse gas-phase metallicity gradients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiangcheng; Hopkins, Philip F.; Feldmann, Robert; Torrey, Paul; Faucher-Giguère, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan

    2017-04-01

    Recent spatially resolved observations of galaxies at z ˜ 0.6-3 reveal that high-redshift galaxies show complex kinematics and a broad distribution of gas-phase metallicity gradients. To understand these results, we use a suite of high-resolution cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project, which include physically motivated models of the multiphase interstellar medium, star formation and stellar feedback. Our simulations reproduce the observed diversity of kinematic properties and metallicity gradients, broadly consistent with observations at z ˜ 0-3. Strong negative metallicity gradients only appear in galaxies with a rotating disc, but not all rotationally supported galaxies have significant gradients. Strongly perturbed galaxies with little rotation always have flat gradients. The kinematic properties and metallicity gradient of a high-redshift galaxy can vary significantly on short time-scales, associated with starburst episodes. Feedback from a starburst can destroy the gas disc, drive strong outflows and flatten a pre-existing negative metallicity gradient. The time variability of a single galaxy is statistically similar to the entire simulated sample, indicating that the observed metallicity gradients in high-redshift galaxies reflect the instantaneous state of the galaxy rather than the accretion and growth history on cosmological time-scales. We find weak dependence of metallicity gradient on stellar mass and specific star formation rate (sSFR). Low-mass galaxies and galaxies with high sSFR tend to have flat gradients, likely due to the fact that feedback is more efficient in these galaxies. We argue that it is important to resolve feedback on small scales in order to produce the diverse metallicity gradients observed.

  1. Inter-residue coupling contributes to high-affinity subtype-selective binding of α-bungarotoxin to nicotinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Sine, Steven M.; Huang, Sun; Li, Shu-Xing

    2013-09-01

    The crystal structure of a pentameric α7 ligand-binding domain chimaera with bound α-btx (α-bungarotoxin) showed that of the five conserved aromatic residues in α7, only Tyr 184 in loop C of the ligand-binding site was required for high-affinity binding. To determine whether the contribution of Tyr 184 depends on local residues, we generated mutations in an α7/5HT 3A (5-hydroxytryptamine type 3A) receptor chimaera, individually and in pairs, and measured 125I-labelled α-btx binding. The results show that mutations of individual residues near Tyr 184 do not affect α-btx affinity, but pairwise mutations decrease affinity in an energetically coupled manner. Kinetic measurementsmore » show that the affinity decreases arise through increases in the α-btx dissociation rate with little change in the association rate. Replacing loop C in α7 with loop C from the α-btx-insensitive α2 or α3 subunits abolishes high-affinity α-btx binding, but preserves acetylcholine-elicited single channel currents. However, in both the α2 and α3 construct, mutating either residue that flanks Tyr 184 to its α7 counterpart restores high-affinity α-btx binding. Analogously, in α7, mutating both residues that flank Tyr 184 to the α2 or α3 counterparts abolishes high-affinity α-btx binding. Thus interaction between Tyr 184 and local residues contributes to high-affinity subtype-selective α-btx binding.« less

  2. You're Hired! A Study Investigating Selection Practices for High School Teachers and the High School Principals' Role in Decision-Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulieri, Vincent K.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate teacher selection practices in public high schools on Long Island, New York. More specifically, this study sought to identify criteria used to guide teacher selection, how the criteria are developed and used within the process, and the role of the principal in teacher selection. This research was…

  3. Surface functionalization of thin-film diamond for highly stable and selective biological interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Stavis, Courtney; Clare, Tami Lasseter; Butler, James E.; Radadia, Adarsh D.; Carr, Rogan; Zeng, Hongjun; King, William P.; Carlisle, John A.; Aksimentiev, Aleksei; Bashir, Rashid; Hamers, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon is an extremely versatile family of materials with a wide range of mechanical, optical, and mechanical properties, but many similarities in surface chemistry. As one of the most chemically stable materials known, carbon provides an outstanding platform for the development of highly tunable molecular and biomolecular interfaces. Photochemical grafting of alkenes has emerged as an attractive method for functionalizing surfaces of diamond, but many aspects of the surface chemistry and impact on biological recognition processes remain unexplored. Here we report investigations of the interaction of functionalized diamond surfaces with proteins and biological cells using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence methods. XPS data show that functionalization of diamond with short ethylene glycol oligomers reduces the nonspecific binding of fibrinogen below the detection limit of XPS, estimated as > 97% reduction over H-terminated diamond. Measurements of different forms of diamond with different roughness are used to explore the influence of roughness on nonspecific binding onto H-terminated and ethylene glycol (EG)-terminated surfaces. Finally, we use XPS to characterize the chemical stability of Escherichia coli K12 antibodies on the surfaces of diamond and amine-functionalized glass. Our results show that antibody-modified diamond surfaces exhibit increased stability in XPS and that this is accompanied by retention of biological activity in cell-capture measurements. Our results demonstrate that surface chemistry on diamond and other carbon-based materials provides an excellent platform for biomolecular interfaces with high stability and high selectivity. PMID:20884854

  4. New hexa-bodipy functionalized dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugates as highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor for Co2+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şenkuytu, Elif; Tanrıverdi Eçik, Esra

    2018-06-01

    In the study, the new hexa-bodipy functionalized dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugates (HBCP 1 and 2) have been successfully synthesized and characterized by using general spectroscopic techniques such as 1H, 13C and 31P NMR spectroscopies. The photophysical and metal sensing properties in THF solutions of dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugates (HBCP 1 and 2) were investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies in dilute tetrahydrofuran solutions. These dendrimers showed strong absorption bands 501 and 641 nm at low concentration with high molar extinction coefficients. In addition, the stoichiometry of the complex between the conjugate (HBCP 2) and Co2+ ions were determined by a Job's plot obtained from fluorescence titrations. The metal sensing data showed that the hexa-bodipy functionalized dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugate (HBCP 2) is a candidate for fluorescent chemosensor for Co2+ ions due to showing high selectivity with a low limit of detection.

  5. 2WHSP: A multi-frequency selected catalogue of high energy and very high energy γ-ray blazars and blazar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Y.-L.; Arsioli, B.; Giommi, P.; Padovani, P.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: High synchrotron peaked blazars (HSPs) dominate the γ-ray sky at energies higher than a few GeV; however, only a few hundred blazars of this type have been cataloged so far. In this paper we present the 2WHSP sample, the largest and most complete list of HSP blazars available to date, which is an expansion of the 1WHSP catalogue of γ-ray source candidates off the Galactic plane. Methods: We cross-matched a number of multi-wavelength surveys (in the radio, infrared and X-ray bands) and applied selection criteria based on the radio to IR and IR to X-ray spectral slopes. To ensure the selection of genuine HSPs, we examined the SED of each candidate and estimated the peak frequency of its synchrotron emission (νpeak) using the ASDC SED tool, including only sources with νpeak > 1015 Hz (equivalent to νpeak > 4 eV). Results: We have assembled the largest and most complete catalogue of HSP blazars to date, which includes 1691 sources. A number of population properties, such as infrared colours, synchrotron peak, redshift distributions, and γ-ray spectral properties have been used to characterise the sample and maximize completeness. We also derived the radio log N-log S distribution. This catalogue has already been used to provide seeds to discover new very high energy objects within Fermi-LAT data and to look for the counterparts of neutrino and ultra high energy cosmic ray sources, showing its potential for the identification of promising high-energy γ-ray sources and multi-messenger targets. Table 4 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A17

  6. Highly selective and sensitive fluorescent paper sensor for nitroaromatic explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingxin; Li, Hao; Peng, Shan; Wang, Leyu

    2012-10-02

    Rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of explosives such as 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP), especially using a facile paper sensor, is in high demand for homeland security and public safety. Although many strategies have been successfully developed for the detection of TNT, it is not easy to differentiate the influence from TNP. Also, few methods were demonstrated for the selective detection of TNP. In this work, via a facile and versatile method, 8-hydroxyquinoline aluminum (Alq(3))-based bluish green fluorescent composite nanospheres were successfully synthesized through self-assembly under vigorous stirring and ultrasonic treatment. These polymer-coated nanocomposites are not only water-stable but also highly luminescent. Based on the dramatic and selective fluorescence quenching of the nanocomposites via adding TNP into the aqueous solution, a sensitive and robust platform was developed for visual detection of TNP in the mixture of nitroaromatics including TNT, 2,4-dinitrotoluene (DNT), and nitrobenzene (NB). Meanwhile, the fluorescence intensity is proportional to the concentration of TNP in the range of 0.05-7.0 μg/mL with the 3σ limit of detection of 32.3 ng/mL. By handwriting or finger printing with TNP solution as ink on the filter paper soaked with the fluorescent nanocomposites, the bluish green fluorescence was instantly and dramatically quenched and the dark patterns were left on the paper. Therefore, a convenient and rapid paper sensor for TNP-selective detection was fabricated.

  7. Highly sensitive and selective fluoride detection in water through fluorophore release from a metal-organic framework

    PubMed Central

    Hinterholzinger, Florian M.; Rühle, Bastian; Wuttke, Stefan; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Bein, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The detection, differentiation and visualization of compounds such as gases, liquids or ions are key challenges for the design of selective optical chemosensors. Optical chemical sensors employ a transduction mechanism that converts a specific analyte recognition event into an optical signal. Here we report a novel concept for fluoride ion sensing where a porous crystalline framework serves as a host for a fluorescent reporter molecule. The detection is based on the decomposition of the host scaffold which induces the release of the fluorescent dye molecule. Specifically, the hybrid composite of the metal-organic framework NH2-MIL-101(Al) and fluorescein acting as reporter shows an exceptional turn-on fluorescence in aqueous fluoride-containing solutions. Using this novel strategy, the optical detection of fluoride is extremely sensitive and highly selective in the presence of many other anions. PMID:24008779

  8. Phthalocyaninatoruthenium(II), Hexakis(dimethylsulfoxide)Phthalocyaninatoruthenium(II), and Hexadis(dimethylsulfoxide-d6)phthalocyanin-atoruthenium(II), Three Highly Selective NMR Shift Reagents.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-18

    dimethylsu lfoxi de-d6) phthalocyanin — atoruthenium (II), Three Highly Selective NMR Shift Reagents ( ~‘ iby j \\ / Clement K. Choy and F•lalcolm E. Kenney...Running head : Phthalocyaninatorut henium( II) Shift Reagents I NTRODUCT ION Previously, work on FePc (Pc = phthalocyanine li gand , C32H16N8) show- ing...RuPc and dimethylsulfoxide -d 6 were re cted together and the product isolated, An nmr spectrum of the product showed only phthalocyanine resorar.ces

  9. High carotenoids content can enhance resistance of selected Pinctada fucata families to high temperature stress.

    PubMed

    Meng, Zihao; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baosuo; Li, Haimei; Fan, Sigang; Yu, Dahui

    2017-02-01

    Carotenoids are a class of natural antioxidants widely found in aquatic, and they have significant effects on the growth, survival, and immunity of these organisms. To investigate the mechanisms of carotenoids in high temperature resistance, we observed the immune response of selected pearl oyster Pinctada fucata (Akoya pearl oyster) families with different carotenoids contents to high temperature stress. The results indicated that the survival rate (SR) of P. fucata decreased significantly with increase in temperature from 26 °C to 34 °C and with the decrease of total carotenoids content (TCC); when the TCC was higher, the SR tended to be higher. TCC and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) decreased significantly at 30 °C with increasing stress time. Correlation analysis indicated that TAC was positively and linearly correlated with TCC, and SR was S-type correlated with TCC and TAC. Immune analysis indicated that levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in selected families (with higher TCC) under temperature stress (at 30 °C) were generally significantly lower than in the control group (with lowest TCC) and from 0 to 96 h, the levels of each of these substances varied significantly. Levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA within each family first rose from 0 to 3 h, then decreased to their lowest point after 24 h, and then rose again to their highest levels at 96 h. When TCC was higher, the levels of SOD, CAT, and MDA tended to be lower. These findings indicated that carotenoids play an important role in improving survival rates of P. fucata under high temperature stress by enhancing animals' antioxidant system, and could serve as an index for breeding stress-resistant lines in selective breeding practices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Holey graphene frameworks for highly selective post-combustion carbon capture

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Shamik; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2016-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations continue to rise rapidly in response to increased combustion of fossil fuels, contributing to global climate change. In order to mitigate the effects of global warming, development of new materials for cost-effective and energy-efficient CO2 capture is critically important. Graphene-based porous materials are an emerging class of solid adsorbents for selectively removing CO2 from flue gases. Herein, we report a simple and scalable approach to produce three-dimensional holey graphene frameworks with tunable porosity and pore geometry, and demonstrate their application as high-performance CO2 adsorbents. These holey graphene macrostructures exhibit a significantly improved specific surface area and pore volume compared to their pristine counterparts, and can be effectively used in post-combustion CO2 adsorption systems because of their intrinsic hydrophobicity together with good gravimetric storage capacities, rapid removal capabilities, superior cycling stabilities, and moderate initial isosteric heats. In addition, an exceptionally high CO2 over N2 selectivity can be achieved under conditions relevant to capture from the dry exhaust gas stream of a coal burning power plant, suggesting the possibility of recovering highly pure CO2 for long-term sequestration and/or utilization for downstream applications. PMID:26879393

  11. Discovery of a highly selective KIT kinase primary V559D mutant inhibitor for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs).

    PubMed

    Yu, Kailin; Liu, Xuesong; Jiang, Zongru; Hu, Chen; Zou, Fengming; Chen, Cheng; Ge, Juan; Wu, Jiaxin; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Wenchao; Qi, Ziping; Wang, Beilei; Wang, Li; Yan, Hezhong; Wang, Jiaoxue; Ren, Tao; Tang, Jun; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Jing

    2017-12-19

    KIT kinase V559D mutation is the most prevalent primary gain-of-function mutation in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs). Here we reported a highly selective KIT V559D inhibitor CHMFL-KIT-031, which displayed about 10-20 fold selectivity over KIT wt in the biochemical assay (IC 50 : 28 nM over 168 nM; Kd: 266 nM versus 6640 nM) and in cell (EC 50 : 176 nM versus 2000 nM for pY703) examination. It also displayed 15∼400-fold selectivity over other primary mutants such as L576P and secondary mutants including T670I, V654A (ATP binding pocket) as well as N822K and D816V (activation loop). In addition, it exhibited a selectivity S score (1) of 0.01 among 468 kinases/mutants in the KINOMEScan ™ assay. CHMFL-KIT-031 showed potent inhibitory efficacy for KIT V559D mediated signaling pathways in cell and anti-tumor activity in vivo (Tumor Growth Inhibition: 68.5%). Its superior selectivity would make it a good pharmacological tool for further dissection of KIT V559D mediated pathology in the GISTs.

  12. Discovery of a highly selective KIT kinase primary V559D mutant inhibitor for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kailin; Liu, Xuesong; Jiang, Zongru; Hu, Chen; Zou, Fengming; Chen, Cheng; Ge, Juan; Wu, Jiaxin; Liu, Xiaochuan; Wang, Aoli; Wang, Wenliang; Wang, Wenchao; Qi, Ziping; Wang, Beilei; Wang, Li; Yan, Hezhong; Wang, Jiaoxue; Ren, Tao; Tang, Jun; Liu, Qingsong; Liu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    KIT kinase V559D mutation is the most prevalent primary gain-of-function mutation in Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors (GISTs). Here we reported a highly selective KIT V559D inhibitor CHMFL-KIT-031, which displayed about 10-20 fold selectivity over KIT wt in the biochemical assay (IC50: 28 nM over 168 nM; Kd: 266 nM versus 6640 nM) and in cell (EC50: 176 nM versus 2000 nM for pY703) examination. It also displayed 15∼400-fold selectivity over other primary mutants such as L576P and secondary mutants including T670I, V654A (ATP binding pocket) as well as N822K and D816V (activation loop). In addition, it exhibited a selectivity S score (1) of 0.01 among 468 kinases/mutants in the KINOMEScan™ assay. CHMFL-KIT-031 showed potent inhibitory efficacy for KIT V559D mediated signaling pathways in cell and anti-tumor activity in vivo (Tumor Growth Inhibition: 68.5%). Its superior selectivity would make it a good pharmacological tool for further dissection of KIT V559D mediated pathology in the GISTs. PMID:29340041

  13. A novel, highly sensitive, selective, reversible and turn-on chemi-sensor based on Schiff base for rapid detection of Cu(II)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Sayed M.; Ali, Reham; Ali, Ibrahim A. I.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, a novel optical fluoro-chemisensor was designed and synthesized for copper (II) ions detection. The sensor film is created by embedded N,N-Bis(2-hydroxo-5-bromobenzyl)ethylenediamine in poly vinyl chloride (PVC) film in presence of dioctyl phthalate (DOP) as plasticizer. The receptor Schiff base reveals "off-on" mode with high selectivity, significant sensitivity to Cu(II) ions. The selectivity of optical sensor for Cu(II) ions is the result of chelation enhanced fluorescence (CHEF). The optimal conditions of pH and response time at which higher efficiency of sensor film is performed was found to be 6.8 and 2.48 min. The possible interference of other metal ions in solution was examined in presence of different types of metal ions. This film shows high selectivity and ultra-sensitivity with low detection limit LOD (1.1 × 10- 8 M). Thus, these considerable properties make it viable to monitor copper metal ions within very low concentration range (0-15 × 10- 6 M Cu(II)) and highly selective even in the presence of different types of metal ions. The sensor reversibility was achieved by utilizing EDTA solution with concentration of 0.1 M solution.

  14. Highly selective dopamine electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically pretreated graphite and nafion composite modified screen printed carbon electrode.

    PubMed

    Ku, Shuhao; Palanisamy, Selvakumar; Chen, Shen-Ming

    2013-12-01

    Herein, we report a highly selective dopamine electrochemical sensor based on electrochemically pretreated graphite/nafion composite modified screen printed carbon (SPC) electrode. Electrochemically activated graphite/nafion composite was prepared by using a simple electrochemical method. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to characterize the surface morphology of the fabricated composite electrode. The SEM result clearly indicates that the graphitic basal planes were totally disturbed and leads to the formation of graphite nanosheets. The composite modified electrode showed an enhanced electrocatalytic activity toward the oxidation of DA when compared with either electrochemical pretreated graphite or nafion SPC electrodes. The fabricated composite electrode exhibits a good electrocatalytic oxidation toward DA in the linear response range from 0.5 to 70 μM with the detection limit of 0.023 μM. The proposed sensor also exhibits very good selectivity and stability, with the appreciable sensitivity. In addition, the proposed sensor showed satisfactory recovery results toward the commercial pharmaceutical DA samples. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High diversity and no significant selection signal of human ADH1B gene in Tibet

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background ADH1B is one of the most studied human genes with many polymorphic sites. One of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1229984, coding for the Arg48His substitution, have been associated with many serious diseases including alcoholism and cancers of the digestive system. The derived allele, ADH1B*48His, reaches high frequency only in East Asia and Southwest Asia, and is highly associated with agriculture. Micro-evolutionary study has defined seven haplogroups for ADH1B based on seven SNPs encompassing the gene. Three of those haplogroups, H5, H6, and H7, contain the ADH1B*48His allele. H5 occurs in Southwest Asia and the other two are found in East Asia. H7 is derived from H6 by the derived allele of rs3811801. The H7 haplotype has been shown to have undergone significant positive selection in Han Chinese, Hmong, Koreans, Japanese, Khazak, Mongols, and so on. Methods In the present study, we tested whether Tibetans also showed evidence for selection by typing 23 SNPs in the region covering the ADH1B gene in 1,175 individuals from 12 Tibetan populations representing all districts of the Tibet Autonomous Region. Multiple statistics were estimated to examine the gene diversities and positive selection signals among the Tibetans and other populations in East Asia. Results The larger Tibetan populations (Qamdo, Lhasa, Nagqu, Nyingchi, Shannan, and Shigatse) comprised mostly farmers, have around 12% of H7, and 2% of H6. The smaller populations, living on hunting or recently switched to farming, have lower H7 frequencies (Tingri 9%, Gongbo 8%, Monba and Sherpa 6%). Luoba (2%) and Deng (0%) have even lower frequencies. Long-range haplotype analyses revealed very weak signals of positive selection for H7 among Tibetans. Interestingly, the haplotype diversity of H7 is higher in Tibetans than in any other populations studied, indicating a longer diversification history for that haplogroup in Tibetans. Network analysis on the long-range haplotypes revealed

  16. Full-genome dengue virus sequencing in mosquito saliva shows lack of convergent positive selection during transmission by Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai; Lambrechts, Louis

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Like other pathogens with high mutation and replication rates, within-host dengue virus (DENV) populations evolve during infection of their main mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. Within-host DENV evolution during transmission provides opportunities for adaptation and emergence of novel virus variants. Recent studies of DENV genetic diversity failed to detect convergent evolution of adaptive mutations in mosquito tissues such as midgut and salivary glands, suggesting that convergent positive selection is not a major driver of within-host DENV evolution in the vector. However, it is unknown whether this conclusion extends to the transmitted viral subpopulation because it is technically difficult to sequence DENV genomes in mosquito saliva. Here, we achieved DENV full-genome sequencing by pooling saliva samples collected non-sacrificially from 49 to 163 individual Ae. aegypti mosquitoes previously infected with one of two DENV-1 genotypes. We compared the transmitted viral subpopulations found in the pooled saliva samples collected in time series with the input viral population present in the infectious blood meal. In all pooled saliva samples examined, the full-genome consensus sequence of the input viral population was unchanged. Although the pooling strategy prevents analysis of individual saliva samples, our results demonstrate the lack of strong convergent positive selection during a single round of DENV transmission by Ae. aegypti. This finding reinforces the idea that genetic drift and purifying selection are the dominant evolutionary forces shaping within-host DENV genetic diversity during transmission by mosquitoes. PMID:29497564

  17. Relatively high antibiotic resistance among heterotrophic bacteria from arctic fjord sediments than water - Evidence towards better selection pressure in the fjord sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatha, A. A. Mohamed; Neethu, C. S.; Nikhil, S. M.; Rahiman, K. M. Mujeeb; Krishnan, K. P.; Saramma, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria from water and sediment of Kongsfjord. The study was based on the assumption that arctic fjord environments are relatively pristine and offer very little selection pressure for drug resistant mutants. In order to test the hypothesis, 200 isolates belonging to aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 114 isolates belonging to coliforms were tested against 15 antibiotics belonging to 5 different classes such as beta lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulpha drugs and tetracyclines. Resistance to beta lactam and extended spectrum beta lactam (ESBL) antibiotics was considerably high and they found to vary significantly (p < 0.05) between heterotrophic and coliform bacteria. Though the coliforms showed significantly high level of antibiotic resistance against ESBL's extent and diversity of antibiotic resistance (as revealed by multiple antibiotic resistance index and resistance patterns), was high in the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Most striking observation was that isolates from fjord sediments (both heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms) in general showed relatively high prevalence of antibiotic resistance against most of the antibiotics tested, indicating to better selection pressure for drug resistance mutants in the fjord sediments.

  18. Highly efficient and selective pressure-assisted photon-induced polymerization of styrene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Jiwen; Song, Yang

    2016-06-01

    The polymerization process of condensed styrene to produce polystyrene as an industrially important polymeric material was investigated using a novel approach by combining external compression with ultraviolet radiation. The reaction evolution was monitored as a function of time and the reaction products were characterized by in situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. By optimizing the loading pressures, we observed highly efficient and selective production of polystyrene of different tacticities. Specifically, at relatively low loading pressures, infrared spectra suggest that styrene monomers transform to amorphous atactic polystyrene (APS) with minor crystalline isotactic polystyrene. In contrast, APS was found to be the sole product when polymerization occurs at relatively higher loading pressures. The time-dependent reaction profiles allow the examination of the polymerization kinetics by analyzing the rate constant and activation volume as a function of pressure. As a result, an optimized pressure condition, which allows a barrierless reaction to proceed, was identified and attributed to the very desirable reaction yield and kinetics. Finally, the photoinitiated reaction mechanism and the growth geometry of the polymer chains were investigated from the energy diagram of styrene and by the topology analysis of the crystal styrene. This study shows strong promise to produce functional polymeric materials in a highly efficient and controlled manner.

  19. Wind selection and drift compensation optimize migratory pathways in a high-flying moth.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jason W; Reynolds, Don R; Mouritsen, Henrik; Hill, Jane K; Riley, Joe R; Sivell, Duncan; Smith, Alan D; Woiwod, Ian P

    2008-04-08

    Numerous insect species undertake regular seasonal migrations in order to exploit temporary breeding habitats [1]. These migrations are often achieved by high-altitude windborne movement at night [2-6], facilitating rapid long-distance transport, but seemingly at the cost of frequent displacement in highly disadvantageous directions (the so-called "pied piper" phenomenon [7]). This has lead to uncertainty about the mechanisms migrant insects use to control their migratory directions [8, 9]. Here we show that, far from being at the mercy of the wind, nocturnal moths have unexpectedly complex behavioral mechanisms that guide their migratory flight paths in seasonally-favorable directions. Using entomological radar, we demonstrate that free-flying individuals of the migratory noctuid moth Autographa gamma actively select fast, high-altitude airstreams moving in a direction that is highly beneficial for their autumn migration. They also exhibit common orientation close to the downwind direction, thus maximizing the rectilinear distance traveled. Most unexpectedly, we find that when winds are not closely aligned with the moth's preferred heading (toward the SSW), they compensate for cross-wind drift, thus increasing the probability of reaching their overwintering range. We conclude that nocturnally migrating moths use a compass and an inherited preferred direction to optimize their migratory track.

  20. High-efficiency solar-thermophotovoltaic system equipped with a monolithic planar selective absorber/emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, Makoto; Kohiyama, Asaka; Yugami, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a high-efficiency solar-thermophotovoltaic system (STPV) using a monolithic, planar, and spectrally selective absorber/emitter. A complete STPV system using gallium antimonide (GaSb) cells was designed and fabricated to conduct power generation tests. To produce a high-efficiency STPV, it is important to match the thermal radiation spectrum with the sensitive region of the GaSb cells. Therefore, to reach high temperatures with low incident power, a planar absorber/emitter is incorporated for controlling the thermal radiation spectrum. This multilayer coating consists of thin-film tungsten sandwiched by yttria-stabilized zirconia. The system efficiency is estimated to be 16% when accounting for the optical properties of the fabricated absorber/emitter. Power generation tests using a high-concentration solar simulator show that the absorber/emitter temperature peaks at 1640 K with an incident power density of 45 W/cm2, which can be easily obtained by low-cost optics such as Fresnel lenses. The conversion efficiency became 23%, exceeding the Shockley-Queisser limit for GaSb, with a bandgap of 0.67 eV. Furthermore, a total system efficiency of 8% was obtained with the view factor between the emitter and the cell assumed to be 1.

  1. Identification of FDA-approved oncology drugs with selective potency in high-risk childhood ependymoma.

    PubMed

    Donson, Andrew M; Amani, Vladimir; Warner, Elliot A; Griesinger, Andrea M; Witt, Davis A; Mulcahy Levy, Jean M; Hoffman, Lindsey M; Hankinson, Todd C; Handler, Michael H; Vibhakar, Rajeev; Dorris, Kathleen; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2018-06-20

    Children with ependymoma are cured in less than 50% of cases, with little improvement in outcome over the last several decades. Chemotherapy has not impacted survival in ependymoma, due in part to a lack of preclinical models that has precluded comprehensive drug testing. We recently developed two human ependymoma cell lines harboring high-risk phenotypes which provided us with an opportunity to execute translational studies. ependymoma and other pediatric brain tumor cell lines were subject to a large-scale comparative drug screen of ependymoma -approved oncology drugs for rapid clinical application. The results of this in vitro study were combined with in silico prediction of drug sensitivity to identify ependymoma -selective compounds, which were validated by dose curve and time course modelling. Mechanisms of ependymoma -selective antitumor effect were further investigated using transcriptome and proteome analyses. We identified three classes of oncology drugs that showed ependymoma -selective anti-tumor effect, namely (i) fluorinated pyrimidines (5-fluorouracil, carmofur and floxuridine), (ii) retinoids (bexarotene, tretinoin and isotretinoin), and (iii) a subset of small-molecule multi-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (axitinib, imatinib and pazopanib). Axitinib's anti-tumor mechanism in ependymoma cell lines involved inhibition of PDGFR-alpha and PDGFR-beta and was associated with reduced mitosis-related gene expression and cellular senescence. The clinically available, ependymoma -selective oncology drugs identified by our study have the potential to critically inform design of upcoming clinical studies in ependymoma, in particular for those children with recurrent ependymoma who are in the greatest need of novel therapeutic approaches. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Selective deposition of a crystalline Si film by a chemical sputtering process in a high pressure hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ohmi, Hiromasa, E-mail: ohmi@prec.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yasutake, Kiyoshi; Research Center for Ultra-Precision Science and Technology, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2015-07-28

    The selective deposition of Si films was demonstrated using a chemical sputtering process induced by a high pressure hydrogen plasma at 52.6 kPa (400 Torr). In this chemical sputtering process, the initial deposition rate (R{sub d}) is dependent upon the substrate type. At the initial stage of Si film formation, R{sub d} on glass substrates increased with elapsed time and reached to a constant value. In contrast, R{sub d} on Si substrates remained constant during the deposition. The selective deposition of Si films can be achieved by adjusting the substrate temperature (T{sub sub}) and hydrogen concentration (C{sub H2}) in the process atmosphere.more » For any given deposition time, it was found that an optimum C{sub H2} exists for a given T{sub sub} to realize the selective deposition of a Si film, and the optimum T{sub sub} value tends to increase with decreasing C{sub H2}. According to electron diffraction patterns obtained from the samples, the selectively prepared Si films showed epitaxial-like growth, although the Si films contained many defects. It was revealed by Raman scattering spectroscopy that some of the defects in the Si films were platelet defects induced by excess hydrogen incorporated during Si film formation. Raman spectrum also suggested that Si related radicals (SiH{sub 2}, SiH, Si) with high reactivity contribute to the Si film formation. Simple model was derived as the guideline for achieving the selective growth.« less

  3. La-doped Al2O3 supported Au nanoparticles: highly active and selective catalysts for PROX under PEMFC operation conditions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Qingquan; Qiao, Botao; Huang, Yanqiang; Li, Lin; Lin, Jian; Liu, Xiao Yan; Wang, Aiqin; Li, Wen-Cui; Zhang, Tao

    2014-03-14

    La-doped γ-Al2O3 supported Au catalysts show high activity and selectivity for the PROX reaction under PEMFC operation conditions. The superior performance is attributed to the formation of LaAlO3, which suppresses H2 oxidation and strengthens CO adsorption on Au sites, thereby improving competitive oxidation of CO at elevated temperature.

  4. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-03-16

    Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure.

  5. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export show that CRM1/XPO1 is a target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Lapalombella, Rosa; Sun, Qingxiang; Williams, Katie; Tangeman, Larissa; Jha, Shruti; Zhong, Yiming; Goettl, Virginia; Mahoney, Emilia; Berglund, Caroline; Gupta, Sneha; Farmer, Alicia; Mani, Rajeswaran; Johnson, Amy J.; Lucas, David; Mo, Xiaokui; Daelemans, Dirk; Sandanayaka, Vincent; Shechter, Sharon; McCauley, Dilara; Shacham, Sharon; Kauffman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The nuclear export protein XPO1 is overexpressed in cancer, leading to the cytoplasmic mislocalization of multiple tumor suppressor proteins. Existing XPO1-targeting agents lack selectivity and have been associated with significant toxicity. Small molecule selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINEs) were designed that specifically inhibit XPO1. Genetic experiments and X-ray structures demonstrate that SINE covalently bind to a cysteine residue in the cargo-binding groove of XPO1, thereby inhibiting nuclear export of cargo proteins. The clinical relevance of SINEs was explored in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease associated with recurrent XPO1 mutations. Evidence is presented that SINEs can restore normal regulation to the majority of the dysregulated pathways in CLL both in vitro and in vivo and induce apoptosis of CLL cells with a favorable therapeutic index, with enhanced killing of genomically high-risk CLL cells that are typically unresponsive to traditional therapies. More importantly, SINE slows disease progression, and improves overall survival in the Eμ-TCL1-SCID mouse model of CLL with minimal weight loss or other toxicities. Together, these findings demonstrate that XPO1 is a valid target in CLL with minimal effects on normal cells and provide a basis for the development of SINEs in CLL and related hematologic malignancies. PMID:23034282

  6. Selection of high heterozygosity popcorn varieties in Brazil based on SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Eloi, I B O; Mangolin, C A; Scapim, C A; Gonçalves, C S; Machado, M F P S

    2012-07-19

    We analyzed genetic structure and diversity among eight populations of popcorn, using SSR loci as genetic markers. Our objectives were to select SSR loci that could be used to estimate genetic diversity within popcorn populations, and to analyze the genetic structure of promising populations with high levels of heterozygosity that could be used in breeding programs. Fifty-seven alleles (3.7 alleles per locus) were detected; the highest effective number of alleles (4.21) and the highest gene diversity (0.763) were found for the Umc2226 locus. A very high level of population differentiation was found (F(ST) = 0.3664), with F(ST) for each locus ranging from 0.1029 (Umc1664) to 0.6010 (Umc2350). This analysis allowed us to identify SSR loci with high levels of heterozygosity and heterozygous varieties, which could be selected for production of inbred lines and for developing new cultivars.

  7. The no-show patient in the model family practice unit.

    PubMed

    Dervin, J V; Stone, D L; Beck, C H

    1978-12-01

    Appointment breaking by patients causes problems for the physician's office. Patients who neither keep nor cancel their appointments are often referred to as "no shows." Twenty variables were identified as potential predictors of no-show behavior. These predictors were applied to 291 Family Practice Center patients during a one-month study in April 1977. A discriminant function and multiple regression procedure were utilized ascertain the predictability of the selected variables. Predictive accuracy of the variables was 67.4 percent compared to the presently utilized constant predictor technique, which is 73 percent accurate. Modification of appointment schedules based upon utilization of the variables studies as predictors of show/no-show behavior does not appear to be an effective strategy in the Family Practice Center of the Community Hospital of Sonoma County, Santa Rosa, due to the high proportion of patients who do, in fact, show. In clinics with lower show rates, the technique may prove to be an effective strategy.

  8. Four-Photon Stark Induced Ladder Climbing Prepares Large Ensemble of H2in Selected High Lying Vibrational Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Perreault, William; Zare, Richard

    2017-04-01

    To selectively prepare highly vibrationally excited quantum states of molecules like H2, we present a novel multi-photon ladder-climbing technique where the successive rungs of the ladder are connected by Stark-induced adiabatic Raman passage (SARP). Previously, we have demonstrated that SARP achieves complete population transfer from the v = 0 to the v = 1 and v = 4 levels of H2. We show here that SARP can be generalized into a continuously coupled, multiphoton adiabatic passage which uses one or more intermediate states having strong Raman coupling to access highly vibrationally excited states weakly coupled to the ground state. As an example, we consider the case of four-photon coherent excitation to high vibrational levels of H2 via an intermediate level coupled to both the initial and target levels by two-photon SARP. Using a sequence of commercially available single mode, nanosecond lasers, a pump pulse partially overlapping with two Stokes pulses, we show that the complete population of v = 0 can be selectively transferred to the most weakly coupled v = 6 and v = 9 vibrational levels of H2, without leaving any population stranded in the intermediate level. The present method provides a practical way of generating an entangled pair of fragments without resorting to an ultracold system. This work has been supported by US Army Research Office under ARO Grant No. W911NF-16-1-1061.

  9. Near-infrared light controlled photocatalytic activity of carbon quantum dots for highly selective oxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Haitao; Liu, Ruihua; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Huang, Hui; Kang, Zhenhui

    2013-03-01

    Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize the transformation from benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde with high selectivity (100%) and conversion (92%) under NIR light irradiation. HO&z.rad; is the main active oxygen specie in benzyl alcohol selective oxidative reaction confirmed by terephthalic acid photoluminescence probing assay (TA-PL), selecting toluene as the substrate. Such metal-free photocatalytic system also selectively converts other alcohol substrates to their corresponding aldehydes with high conversion, demonstrating a potential application of accessing traditional alcohol oxidation chemistry.Selective oxidation of alcohols is a fundamental and significant transformation for the large-scale production of fine chemicals, UV and visible light driven photocatalytic systems for alcohol oxidation have been developed, however, the long wavelength near infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) light have not yet fully utilized by the present photocatalytic systems. Herein, we reported carbon quantum dots (CQDs) can function as an effective near infrared (NIR) light driven photocatalyst for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde. Based on the NIR light driven photo-induced electron transfer property and its photocatalytic activity for H2O2 decomposition, this metal-free catalyst could realize

  10. New hexa-bodipy functionalized dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugates as highly selective and sensitive fluorescent chemosensor for Co2+ ions.

    PubMed

    Şenkuytu, Elif; Tanrıverdi Eçik, Esra

    2018-06-05

    In the study, the new hexa-bodipy functionalized dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugates (HBCP 1 and 2) have been successfully synthesized and characterized by using general spectroscopic techniques such as 1 H, 13 C and 31 P NMR spectroscopies. The photophysical and metal sensing properties in THF solutions of dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugates (HBCP 1 and 2) were investigated by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopies in dilute tetrahydrofuran solutions. These dendrimers showed strong absorption bands 501 and 641nm at low concentration with high molar extinction coefficients. In addition, the stoichiometry of the complex between the conjugate (HBCP 2) and Co 2+ ions were determined by a Job's plot obtained from fluorescence titrations. The metal sensing data showed that the hexa-bodipy functionalized dendrimeric cyclotriphosphazene conjugate (HBCP 2) is a candidate for fluorescent chemosensor for Co 2+ ions due to showing high selectivity with a low limit of detection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ultrathin and Ion-Selective Janus Membranes for High-Performance Osmotic Energy Conversion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen; Sui, Xin; Li, Pei; Xie, Ganhua; Kong, Xiang-Yu; Xiao, Kai; Gao, Longcheng; Wen, Liping; Jiang, Lei

    2017-07-05

    The osmotic energy existing in fluids is recognized as a promising "blue" energy source that can help solve the global issues of energy shortage and environmental pollution. Recently, nanofluidic channels have shown great potential for capturing this worldwide energy because of their novel transport properties contributed by nanoconfinement. However, with respect to membrane-scale porous systems, high resistance and undesirable ion selectivity remain bottlenecks, impeding their applications. The development of thinner, low-resistance membranes, meanwhile promoting their ion selectivity, is a necessity. Here, we engineered ultrathin and ion-selective Janus membranes prepared via the phase separation of two block copolymers, which enable osmotic energy conversion with power densities of approximately 2.04 W/m 2 by mixing natural seawater and river water. Both experiments and continuum simulation help us to understand the mechanism for how membrane thickness and channel structure dominate the ion transport process and overall device performance, which can serve as a general guiding principle for the future design of nanochannel membranes for high-energy concentration cells.

  12. High Resolution X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging with Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    Imaging with Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerald J. Diebold, Ph.D. CONTRACTING... Contrast Imaging with Acoustic Tissue-Selective Contrast Enhancement 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-04-1-0481 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...additional phase contrast features are visible at the interfaces of soft tissues as slight contrast enhancements . The image sequence in Fig. 2 shows an image

  13. Highly selective detection of p-nitrophenol using fluorescence assay based on boron, nitrogen co-doped carbon dots.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Na; Liu, Shi Gang; Mo, Shi; Li, Na; Ju, Yan Jun; Ling, Yu; Li, Nian Bing; Luo, Hong Qun

    2018-07-01

    p-Nitrophenol (p-NP) contaminants seriously endanger environmental and living beings health, hence to establish a sensitive and selective method is of great importance for the determination of p-NP. In this work, boron and nitrogen co-doped carbon dots (B,N-CDs) were synthesized by one-step hydrothermal method using 3-aminophenylboronic acid as the sole precursor. The product was characterized through high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-visible absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Without any functionalized modification, B,N-CDs can be directly applied as a 'turn-off' fluorescent probe for rapid, highly selective, and sensitive detection of p-NP. The fluorescent sensor based on the B,N-CDs exhibited a broad linear response to the concentration of p-NP in the range of 0.5 - 60 μM and 60 - 200 μM, respectively, and provided a detection limit of 0.2 μM. It was found that only the absorption spectrum of p-NP has a wide overlap with the fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of B,N-CDs compared to those of other representative analogues. The response mechanism was due to the inner filter effect and the formation of dynamic covalent B-O bonds between B,N-CDs and p-NP, which endowed the sensing platform with the rapid response and high selectivity to p-NP. Finally, the sensor showed the practicability of p-NP determination in environmental water samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Methadone maintenance patients show a selective deficit to reverse positive outcomes in drug-related conditions compared to medication free prolonged opiate abstinence.

    PubMed

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs; Shapiro, Alla R; Sason, Anat; Adelson, Miriam; Peles, Einat

    2014-11-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disease. Most users will relapse back to using drugs over and over again throughout their life. These relapses may become more frequent in the presence of contextual reminders. We aimed to examine associations between the ability to maintain a medication-free life-style and the capability to learn and reverse positive and negative stimulus-outcome associations in the presence of neutral and drug-related contextual reminders. We conducted a highly unique comparison of former opiate-dependent individuals who are either medication free or methadone maintenance patients for the last ten years. Groups were matched for age, gender and education. Participants were tested on a novel partial reversal paradigm, which tests the ability to acquire and reverse stimulus-outcome associations in neutral and drug-related context. Both groups were equally able to acquire and reverse positive and negative outcomes in conditions of neutral context. However, methadone maintenance patients showed a selective deficit in reversing the outcomes of positive stimulus in drug-related context. Hence, after learning a positive stimulus-outcome association in one drug-related context, methadone maintenance patients struggled to learn that the same stimulus predicts negative outcome when presented later in a different drug-related context. Methadone maintenance patients demonstrate a selective difficulty to learn negative outcomes when exposed to a drug, but not neutral, related environment. The results may reflect the core mechanisms of addiction and provide a possible explanation for the inability of methadone maintenance patients to illicit drug abuse without the need of agonist treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Highly selective electrode for potentiometric analysis of methadone in biological fluids and pharmaceutical formulations.

    PubMed

    Ardeshiri, Moslem; Jalali, Fahimeh

    2016-06-01

    In order to develop a fast and simple procedure for methadone analysis in biological fluids, a graphite paste electrode (GPE) was modified with the ion-pair of methadone-phosphotungstic acid, and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Optimized composition of the electrode with respect to graphite powder:paraffin oil:MWCNTs:ion pair, was 58:30:8:4 (w/w%). The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of 58.9 ± 0.3 mV/decade for methadone in a wide linear range of 1.0 × 10(-8)-4.6 × 10(-3)M, with a detection limit of 1.0 × 10(-8)M. The electrode response was independent of pH in the range of 5-11, with a fast response time (~4s) at 25 °C. The sensor showed high selectivity and was successfully applied to the determination of sub-micromolar concentrations of methadone in human blood serum and urine samples, with recoveries in the range of 95-99.8%. The average recovery of methadone from tablets (5 mg/tablet) by using the proposed method was 98%. The life time of the modified electrode was more than 5 months, due to the characteristic of GPE which can be cut off and fresh electrode surface be available. A titration procedure was performed for methadone analysis by using phosphotungstic acid, as titrating agent, which showed an accurate end point and 1:1 stoichiometry for the ion-pair formed (methadone:phosphotungstic acid). The simple and rapid procedure as well as excellent detection limit and selectivity are some of the advantages of the proposed sensor for methadone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chicken skin virome analyzed by high-throughput sequencing shows a composition highly different from human skin.

    PubMed

    Denesvre, Caroline; Dumarest, Marine; Rémy, Sylvie; Gourichon, David; Eloit, Marc

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show that human skin at homeostasis is a complex ecosystem whose virome include circular DNA viruses, especially papillomaviruses and polyomaviruses. To determine the chicken skin virome in comparison with human skin virome, a chicken swabs pool sample from fifteen indoor healthy chickens of five genetic backgrounds was examined for the presence of DNA viruses by high-throughput sequencing (HTS). The results indicate a predominance of herpesviruses from the Mardivirus genus, coming from either vaccinal origin or presumably asymptomatic infection. Despite the high sensitivity of the HTS method used herein to detect small circular DNA viruses, we did not detect any papillomaviruses, polyomaviruses, or circoviruses, indicating that these viruses may not be resident of the chicken skin. The results suggest that the turkey herpesvirus is a resident of chicken skin in vaccinated chickens. This study indicates major differences between the skin viromes of chickens and humans. The origin of this difference remains to be further studied in relation with skin physiology, environment, or virus population dynamics.

  17. Highly selective inhibition of myosin motors provides the basis of potential therapeutic application

    PubMed Central

    Sirigu, Serena; Hartman, James J.; Ropars, Virginie; Clancy, Sheila; Wang, Xi; Chuang, Grace; Qian, Xiangping; Lu, Pu-Ping; Barrett, Edward; Rudolph, Karin; Royer, Christopher; Morgan, Bradley P.; Stura, Enrico A.; Malik, Fady I.; Houdusse, Anne M.

    2016-01-01

    Direct inhibition of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) is a potential means to treat hypercontractile smooth muscle diseases. The selective inhibitor CK-2018571 prevents strong binding to actin and promotes muscle relaxation in vitro and in vivo. The crystal structure of the SMM/drug complex reveals that CK-2018571 binds to a novel allosteric pocket that opens up during the “recovery stroke” transition necessary to reprime the motor. Trapped in an intermediate of this fast transition, SMM is inhibited with high selectivity compared with skeletal muscle myosin (IC50 = 9 nM and 11,300 nM, respectively), although all of the binding site residues are identical in these motors. This structure provides a starting point from which to design highly specific myosin modulators to treat several human diseases. It further illustrates the potential of targeting transition intermediates of molecular machines to develop exquisitely selective pharmacological agents. PMID:27815532

  18. The no-show rate in a high-risk obstetric clinic.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J D; Chez, R A; Queen, T; Barcelo, A; Patron, E

    2000-10-01

    We wished to determine the reasons for an average missed appointment rate of 28% in a high-risk pregnancy clinic. Only 41% of the 261 women in the study group could be reached by telephone. The reasons included not having a phone, the phone had been disconnected, incorrect phone number on the chart, the patient had moved, and the patient did not respond to the answering machine message. The reasons for missing the appointment included lack of transportation, scheduling problems, overslept or forgot, presence of a sick child or relative, and lack of child care. The response of patients to assessing prenatal care may reflect their priority of medical care relative to other priorities associated with day-to-day existence. There may be a baseline missed appointment rate for prenatal care in lower socioeconomic populations of women. The commitment of personnel time and energy to attempt to modify the no-show rate should be reexamined.

  19. Selective and Catalyst-free Oxidation of D-Glucose to D-Glucuronic acid induced by High-Frequency Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaniampong, Prince N.; Karam, Ayman; Trinh, Quang Thang; Xu, Kai; Hirao, Hajime; Jérôme, François; Chatel, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This systematic experimental investigation reveals that high-frequency ultrasound irradiation (550 kHz) induced oxidation of D-glucose to glucuronic acid in excellent yield without assistance of any (bio)catalyst. Oxidation is induced thanks to the in situ production of radical species in water. Experiments show that the dissolved gases play an important role in governing the nature of generated radical species and thus the selectivity for glucuronic acid. Importantly, this process yields glucuronic acid instead of glucuronate salt typically obtained via conventional (bio)catalyst routes, which is of huge interest in respect of downstream processing. Investigations using disaccharides revealed that radicals generated by high frequency ultrasound were also capable of promoting tandem hydrolysis/oxidation reactions.

  20. Selective and Catalyst-free Oxidation of D-Glucose to D-Glucuronic acid induced by High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Amaniampong, Prince N.; Karam, Ayman; Trinh, Quang Thang; Xu, Kai; Hirao, Hajime; Jérôme, François; Chatel, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    This systematic experimental investigation reveals that high-frequency ultrasound irradiation (550 kHz) induced oxidation of D-glucose to glucuronic acid in excellent yield without assistance of any (bio)catalyst. Oxidation is induced thanks to the in situ production of radical species in water. Experiments show that the dissolved gases play an important role in governing the nature of generated radical species and thus the selectivity for glucuronic acid. Importantly, this process yields glucuronic acid instead of glucuronate salt typically obtained via conventional (bio)catalyst routes, which is of huge interest in respect of downstream processing. Investigations using disaccharides revealed that radicals generated by high frequency ultrasound were also capable of promoting tandem hydrolysis/oxidation reactions. PMID:28084448

  1. Highly selective direct determination of chlorate ions by using a newly developed potentiometric electrode based on modified smectite.

    PubMed

    Topcu, Cihan

    2016-12-01

    A novel polyvinyl chloride membrane chlorate (ClO 3 - ) selective electrode based on modified smectite was developed for the direct determination of chlorate ions and the potentiometric performance characteristics of its were examined. The best selectivity and sensitivity for chlorate ions were obtained for the electrode membrane containing ionophore/polyvinylchloride/o-nitrophenyloctylether in composition of 12/28/60 (w/w%). The proposed electrode showed a Nernstian response toward chlorate ions at pH=7 in the concentration range of 1×10 -7 -1×10 -1 M and the limit of detection was calculated as 9×10 -8 M from the constructed response plot. The linear slope of the electrode was -61±1mVdecade -1 for chlorate activity in the mentioned linear working range. The selectivity coefficients were calculated according to both the matched potential method and the separate solution method. The calculated selectivity coefficients showed that the electrode performed excellent selectivity for chlorate ions. The potentiometric response of electrode toward chlorate ions was found to be highly reproducible. The electrode potential was stable between pH=4-10 and it had a dynamic response time of <5s. The potentiometric behavior of the electrode in partial non-aqueous medium was also investigated and the obtained results (up to 5% (v/v) alcohol) were satisfactory. The proposed electrode was used during 15 weeks without any significant change in its potential response. Additionally, the electrode was very useful in water analysis studies such as dam water, river water, tap water, and swimming pool water where the direct determination of chlorate ions was required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitrogen-doped diamond electrode shows high performance for electrochemical reduction of nitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yanming; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Yu, Hongtao

    2014-01-30

    Effective electrode materials are critical to electrochemical reduction, which is a promising method to pre-treat anti-oxidative and bio-refractory wastewater. Herein, nitrogen-doped diamond (NDD) electrodes that possess superior electrocatalytic properties for reduction were fabricated by microwave-plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition technology. Nitrobenzene (NB) was chosen as the probe compound to investigate the material's electro-reduction activity. The effects of potential, electrolyte concentration and pH on NB reduction and aniline (AN) formation efficiencies were studied. NDD exhibited high electrocatalytic activity and selectivity for reduction of NB to AN. The NB removal efficiency and AN formation efficiency were 96.5% and 88.4% under optimal conditions, respectively; these values were 1.13 and 3.38 times higher than those of graphite electrodes. Coulombic efficiencies for NB removal and AN formation were 27.7% and 26.1%, respectively; these values were 4.70 and 16.6 times higher than those of graphite electrodes under identical conditions. LC-MS analysis revealed that the dominant reduction pathway on the NDD electrode was NB to phenylhydroxylamine (PHA) to AN. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Wetting in color: colorimetric differentiation of organic liquids with high selectivity.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Ian B; Koay, Natalie; Raymond, Kevin P; Kolle, Mathias; Lončar, Marko; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2012-02-28

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. Expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. Here we present in detail the design of a "Wetting In Color Kit" (WICK), an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids that exploits chemically encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to project minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. We show experimentally and corroborate with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO(2) inverse-opal films leads to sharply defined threshold wettability for liquid infiltration, occurring at intrinsic contact angles near 20° with an estimated resolution smaller than 5°. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid, naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. To deterministically design a WICK that differentiates a broad range of liquids, we introduced a nondestructive quality control procedure to regulate the pore structure and developed two new surface modification protocols, both requiring only silanization and selective oxidation. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients let us tailor the wettability threshold to specific liquids across a continuous range. With patterned oxidation as a final step, we control the shape of the liquid-specific patterns displayed, making WICK easier to read. Using these techniques, we demonstrate the applicability of WICKs in several exemplary systems that colorimetrically distinguish (i) ethanol-water mixtures varying by only 2.5% in concentration; (ii) methanol, ethanol, and

  4. Recent Progress in Monolithic Silica Columns for High-Speed and High-Selectivity Separations.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Tohru; Tanaka, Nobuo

    2016-06-12

    Monolithic silica columns have greater (through-pore size)/(skeleton size) ratios than particulate columns and fixed support structures in a column for chemical modification, resulting in high-efficiency columns and stationary phases. This review looks at how the size range of monolithic silica columns has been expanded, how high-efficiency monolithic silica columns have been realized, and how various methods of silica surface functionalization, leading to selective stationary phases, have been developed on monolithic silica supports, and provides information on the current status of these columns. Also discussed are the practical aspects of monolithic silica columns, including how their versatility can be improved by the preparation of small-sized structural features (sub-micron) and columns (1 mm ID or smaller) and by optimizing reaction conditions for in situ chemical modification with various restrictions, with an emphasis on recent research results for both topics.

  5. Selective Emitters for High Efficiency TPV Conversion: Materials Preparation and Characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diso, D.; Licciulli, A.; Bianco, A.; Leo, G.; Torsello, G.; Tundo, S.; De Risi, A.; Mazzer, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimising the spectral emissivity of the IR radiation source in a TPV generator is one of the crucial steps towards high efficiency TPV conversion. In this paper we present different approaches to the preparation of selective emitters to be coupled to high efficiency photovoltaic cells. The emitters are designed to work at a temperature of about 1500K and they have been prepared to be used either as external coatings for the burner or as a structural material for the burner itself. Composite ceramics containing rare earth cations, prepared by slip-casting, with various concentration of rare earths were prepared by Slip Casting and Slurry Coating. Rare earth oxides have been incorporated into different oxide matrices, namely Silica, Alumina, Zirconia and their combination. The final aim was to find the material that exhibits the best performance in terms of both high selective power emission, good efficiency along with acceptable thermo-structural properties (high temperature thermal shock resistance, good strength, no creep). The power density emitted by samples as function of the temperature has been tested in the range 1000nm-5000nm. The high temperature emission measurements and the structural tests indicate that a good compromise between the functional and the thermo-structural properties may be reached. The results of the tests on the emitter coatings carried out in a TPV generator at the operating conditions are also presented in this paper.

  6. Molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Jialuo; Kang, Qi; Shen, Dazhong; Li, Jinhua; Chen, Lingxin

    2016-03-15

    A facile strategy was developed to prepare molecular imprinting ratiometric fluorescence sensor for highly selective and sensitive detection of phycocyanin (PC) based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), via a sol-gel polymerization process using nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) as fluorescent signal source. The ratio of two fluorescence peak emission intensities of NBD and PC was utilized to determine the concentration of PC, which could effectively reduce the background interference and fluctuation of diverse conditions. As a result, this sensor obtained high sensitivity with a low detection limit of 0.14 nM within 6 min, and excellent recognition specificity for PC over its analogues with a high imprinting factor of 9.1. Furthermore, the sensor attained high recoveries in the range of 93.8-110.2% at three spiking levels of PC, with precisions below 4.7% in seawater and lake water samples. The developed sensor strategy demonstrated simplicity, reliability, rapidity, high selectivity and high sensitivity, proving to be a feasible way to develop high efficient fluorescence sensors and thus potentially applicable for ultratrace analysis of complicated matrices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Robust check loss-based variable selection of high-dimensional single-index varying-coefficient model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yunquan; Lin, Lu; Jian, Ling

    2016-07-01

    Single-index varying-coefficient model is an important mathematical modeling method to model nonlinear phenomena in science and engineering. In this paper, we develop a variable selection method for high-dimensional single-index varying-coefficient models using a shrinkage idea. The proposed procedure can simultaneously select significant nonparametric components and parametric components. Under defined regularity conditions, with appropriate selection of tuning parameters, the consistency of the variable selection procedure and the oracle property of the estimators are established. Moreover, due to the robustness of the check loss function to outliers in the finite samples, our proposed variable selection method is more robust than the ones based on the least squares criterion. Finally, the method is illustrated with numerical simulations.

  8. Highly Active and Selective Hydrogenation of CO2 to Ethanol by Ordered Pd-Cu Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shuxing; Shao, Qi; Wang, Pengtang; Dai, Qiguang; Wang, Xingyi; Huang, Xiaoqing

    2017-05-24

    Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) hydrogenation to ethanol (C 2 H 5 OH) is considered a promising way for CO 2 conversion and utilization, whereas desirable conversion efficiency remains a challenge. Herein, highly active, selective and stable CO 2 hydrogenation to C 2 H 5 OH was enabled by highly ordered Pd-Cu nanoparticles (NPs). By tuning the composition of the Pd-Cu NPs and catalyst supports, the efficiency of CO 2 hydrogenation to C 2 H 5 OH was well optimized with Pd 2 Cu NPs/P25 exhibiting high selectivity to C 2 H 5 OH of up to 92.0% and the highest turnover frequency of 359.0 h -1 . Diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy results revealed the high C 2 H 5 OH production and selectivity of Pd 2 Cu NPs/P25 can be ascribed to boosting *CO (adsorption CO) hydrogenation to *HCO, the rate-determining step for the CO 2 hydrogenation to C 2 H 5 OH.

  9. Statistical analysis of electroconvection near an ion-selective membrane in the highly chaotic regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druzgalski, Clara; Mani, Ali

    2016-11-01

    We investigate electroconvection and its impact on ion transport in a model system comprised of an ion-selective membrane, an aqueous electrolyte, and an external electric field applied normal to the membrane. We develop a direct numerical simulation code to solve the governing Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations in three dimensions using a specialized parallel numerical algorithm and sufficient resolution to capture the high frequency and high wavenumber physics. We show a comprehensive statistical analysis of the transport phenomena in the highly chaotic regime. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D simulations include prediction of the mean concentration fields as well as the spectra of concentration, charge density, and velocity signals. Our analyses reveal a significant quantitative difference between 2D and 3D electroconvection. Furthermore, we show that high-intensity yet short-lived current density hot spots appear randomly on the membrane surface, contributing significantly to the mean current density. By examining cross correlations between current density on the membrane and other field quantities we explore the physical mechanisms leading to current hot spots. We also present analysis of transport fluxes in the context of ensemble-averaged equations. Our analysis reveals that in the highly chaotic regime the mixing layer (ML), which spans the majority of the domain extent, is governed by advective fluctuations. Furthermore, we show that in the ML the mean electromigration fluxes cancel out for positive and negative ions, indicating that the mean transport of total salt content within the ML can be represented via the electroneutral approximation. Finally, we present an assessment of the importance of different length scales in enhancing transport by computing the cross covariance of concentration and velocity fluctuations in the wavenumber space. Our analysis indicates that in the majority of the domain

  10. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-04-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f-v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  11. Frequency-Wavenumber (FK)-Based Data Selection in High-Frequency Passive Surface Wave Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Feng; Xia, Jianghai; Xu, Zongbo; Hu, Yue; Mi, Binbin

    2018-07-01

    Passive surface wave methods have gained much attention from geophysical and civil engineering communities because of the limited application of traditional seismic surveys in highly populated urban areas. Considering that they can provide high-frequency phase velocity information up to several tens of Hz, the active surface wave survey would be omitted and the amount of field work could be dramatically reduced. However, the measured dispersion energy image in the passive surface wave survey would usually be polluted by a type of "crossed" artifacts at high frequencies. It is common in the bidirectional noise distribution case with a linear receiver array deployed along roads or railways. We review several frequently used passive surface wave methods and derive the underlying physics for the existence of the "crossed" artifacts. We prove that the "crossed" artifacts would cross the true surface wave energy at fixed points in the f- v domain and propose a FK-based data selection technique to attenuate the artifacts in order to retrieve the high-frequency information. Numerical tests further demonstrate the existence of the "crossed" artifacts and indicate that the well-known wave field separation method, FK filter, does not work for the selection of directional noise data. Real-world applications manifest the feasibility of the proposed FK-based technique to improve passive surface wave methods by a priori data selection. Finally, we discuss the applicability of our approach.

  12. Highly selective aptamer based organic electrochemical biosensor with pico-level detection.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Nileshi; Woods, Eric R; Peppler, Madison; Seal, Sudipta

    2018-05-22

    An organic aptamer functionalized electrochemical transistor has been developed to detect the presence of epinephrine molecule which acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter. The abnormalities in the level of epinephrine are the direct symptoms of some diseases such as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias and other heart related diseases. The present approach is based on immobilization of aptamers on the gate electrode which selectively binds to epinephrine with high affinity. The introduction of epinephrine in the system causes screening of negative charge of aptamers as well as the production of Faradaic current due to oxidation of epinephrine. The synergistic effect of these two events decreases the overall channel current which was seen in both transfer characteristics and current-time curve. Additional experiments against common interfering agents (dopamine, ascorbic acid, DOPAC etc) showed no decrease in the current which indicates high specificity of the sensor. Overall, the incorporation of aptamers in the transistor has allowed us to obtain a sensor exhibiting the lowest limit of detection for epinephrine (90 pM) till date which is comparable to normal physiological level. This approach provides a real-time detection of a large range of biomolecules and viral proteins in a time and cost-effective manner and has applications in point-of-care testing tool for several diagnostic applications. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Highly CO2-Selective Gas Separation Membranes Based on Segmented Copolymers of Poly(Ethylene oxide) Reinforced with Pentiptycene-Containing Polyimide Hard Segments.

    PubMed

    Luo, Shuangjiang; Stevens, Kevin A; Park, Jae Sung; Moon, Joshua D; Liu, Qiang; Freeman, Benny D; Guo, Ruilan

    2016-01-27

    Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-containing polymer membranes are attractive for CO2-related gas separations due to their high selectivity toward CO2. However, the development of PEO-rich membranes is frequently challenged by weak mechanical properties and a high crystallization tendency of PEO that hinders gas transport. Here we report a new series of highly CO2-selective, amorphous PEO-containing segmented copolymers prepared from commercial Jeffamine polyetheramines and pentiptycene-based polyimide. The copolymers are much more mechanically robust than the nonpentiptycene containing counterparts due to the molecular reinforcement mechanism of supramolecular chain threading and interlocking interactions induced by the pentiptycene structures, which also effectively suppresses PEO crystallization leading to a completely amorphous structure even at 60% PEO weight content. Membrane transport properties are sensitively affected by both PEO weight content and PEO chain length. A nonlinear correlation between CO2 permeability with PEO weight content was observed due to the competition between solubility and diffusivity contributions, whereby the copolymers change from being size-selective to solubility-selective when PEO content reaches 40%. CO2 selectivities over H2 and N2 increase monotonically with both PEO content and chain length, indicating strong CO2-philicity of the copolymers. The copolymer film with the longest PEO sequence (PEO2000) and highest PEO weight content (60%) showed a measured CO2 pure gas permeability of 39 Barrer, and ideal CO2/H2 and CO2/N2 selectivities of 4.1 and 46, respectively, at 35 °C and 3 atm, making them attractive for hydrogen purification and carbon capture.

  14. ZnO-carbon nanofibers for stable, high response, and selective H2S sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jitao; Zhu, Zijian; Chen, Changmiao; Chen, Zhi; Cai, Mengqiu; Qu, Baihua; Wang, Taihong; Zhang, Ming

    2018-07-06

    Hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), as a typical atmospheric pollutant, is neurotoxic and flammable even at a very low concentration. In this study, we design stable H 2 S sensors based on ZnO-carbon nanofibers. Nanofibers with 30.34 wt% carbon are prepared by a facial electrospinning route followed by an annealing treatment. The resulting H 2 S sensors show excellent selectivity and response compared to the pure ZnO nanofiber H 2 S sensors, particularly the response in the range of 102-50 ppm of H 2 S. Besides, they exhibited a nearly constant response of approximately 40-20 ppm of H 2 S over 60 days. The superior performance of these H 2 S sensors can be attributed to the protection of carbon, which ensures the high stability of ZnO, and oxygen vacancies that improve the response and selectivity of H 2 S. The good performance of ZnO-carbon H 2 S sensors suggests that composites with oxygen vacancies prepared by a facial electrospinning route may provide a new research strategy in the field of gas sensors, photocatalysts, and semiconductor devices.

  15. Selection for low or high primary dormancy in Lolium rigidum Gaud seeds results in constitutive differences in stress protein expression and peroxidase activity

    PubMed Central

    Goggin, Danica E.; Powles, Stephen B.; Steadman, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Seed dormancy in wild Lolium rigidum Gaud (annual ryegrass) populations is highly variable and not well characterized at the biochemical level. To identify some of the determinants of dormancy level in these seeds, the proteomes of subpopulations selected for low and high levels of primary dormancy were compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of extracts from mature, dry seeds. High-dormancy seeds showed higher expression of small heat shock proteins, enolase, and glyoxalase I than the low-dormancy seeds. The functional relevance of these differences in protein expression was confirmed by the fact that high-dormancy seeds were more tolerant to high temperatures imposed at imbibition and had consistently higher glyoxalase I activity over 0–42 d dark stratification. Higher expression of a putative glutathione peroxidase in low-dormancy seeds was not accompanied by higher activity, but these seeds had a slightly more oxidized glutathione pool and higher total peroxidase activity. Overall, these biochemical and physiological differences suggest that L. rigidum seeds selected for low dormancy are more prepared for rapid germination via peroxidase-mediated cell wall weakening, whilst seeds selected for high dormancy are constitutively prepared to survive environmental stresses, even in the absence of stress during seed development. PMID:20974739

  16. High Selectivity Gas Separation Membrane Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Nachlas, Jesse; Corn, Isaac; Wegst, Ulrike

    Global energy consumption is projected to be more than double of today’s levels by 2050. Economic and environmental pressures are putting significant limits on fossil fuel resources, and there is a significant push for improved efficiency in many industrial processes. Membranes for gas separation represent a significant opportunity for reduced energy consumption and improved efficiencies in a wide range of industrial applications by replacing typical high temperature processes or energy intensive processes with low temperature energy efficient processes. Carbon membranes represent an attractive class of membrane materials that offer the potential to improve the reliability, corrosion resistance and temperature capabilitymore » of polymeric membranes, which limit their adoption for many industrial applications. However, there are still a number of technical hurdles which must be overcome before carbon membranes can be made commercially ready including elimination of manufacturing defects, and improved performance (permeability and selectivity) relative to polymeric membranes. Examples of potential application of carbon membranes include production of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion applications, separation of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from flue gas to improve the commercial feasibility of CO 2 sequestration, separation of hydrogen from CO/CO 2 during hydrogen manufacturing, and separation of H 2 from hydrocarbons during refinery operations to improve the kinetics of cracking reactions. As a result of these benefits there is a strong driving force to develop processing technologies capable of producing carbon membranes and possessing high reliability, for a wide range of applications. The DOE provides significant support for research and development is this area, as they have recognized the significant impact a low cost carbon membrane technology can have on energy consumption and polluting emissions across a broad range of industrial applications. In this

  17. Highly selective room temperature NO2 gas sensor based on rGO-ZnO composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, Kanaujiya, Neha; Varma, G. D.

    2018-05-01

    Blending metal oxide nanoparticles with graphene or its derivatives can greatly enhance gas sensing characteristics. In the present work, ZnO nanoparticles have been synthesized via reflux method. Thin films of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and composite of rGO-ZnO have been fabricated by drop casting method for gas sensing application. The samples have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) for the structural and morphological studies respectively. Sensing measurements have been carried out for the composite film of rGO-ZnO for different concentrations of NO2 ranging from 4 to 100 ppm. Effect of increasing temperature on the sensing performance has also been studied and the rGO-ZnO composite sensor shows maximum percentage response at room temperature. The limit of detection (LOD) for rGO-ZnO composite sensor is 4ppm and it exhibits a high response of 48.4% for 40 ppm NO2 at room temperature. To check the selectivity of the composite sensor, sensor film has been exposed to 40 ppm different gases like CO, NH3, H2S and Cl2 at room temperature and the sensor respond negligibly to these gases. The present work suggests that rGO-ZnO composite material can be a better candidate for fabrication of highly selective room temperature NO2 gas sensor.

  18. Selection, periodicity and potential function for Highly Iterative Palindrome-1 (HIP1) in cyanobacterial genomes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Minli; Lawrence, Jeffrey G; Durand, Dannie

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Highly Iterated Palindrome 1 (HIP1, GCGATCGC) is hyper-abundant in most cyanobacterial genomes. In some cyanobacteria, average HIP1 abundance exceeds one motif per gene. Such high abundance suggests a significant role in cyanobacterial biology. However, 20 years of study have not revealed whether HIP1 has a function, much less what that function might be. We show that HIP1 is 15- to 300-fold over-represented in genomes analyzed. More importantly, HIP1 sites are conserved both within and between open reading frames, suggesting that their overabundance is maintained by selection rather than by continual replenishment by neutral processes, such as biased DNA repair. This evidence for selection suggests a functional role for HIP1. No evidence was found to support a functional role as a peptide or RNA motif or a role in the regulation of gene expression. Rather, we demonstrate that the distribution of HIP1 along cyanobacterial chromosomes is significantly periodic, with periods ranging from 10 to 90 kb, consistent in scale with periodicities reported for co-regulated, co-expressed and evolutionarily correlated genes. The periodicity we observe is also comparable in scale to chromosomal interaction domains previously described in other bacteria. In this context, our findings imply HIP1 functions associated with chromosome and nucleoid structure. PMID:29432573

  19. A hydrogel biosensor for high selective and sensitive detection of amyloid-beta oligomers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liping; Zhong, Yong; Gui, Jie; Wang, Xianwu; Zhuang, Xiaorong; Weng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive cognitive and memory impairment. It is the most common neurological disease that causes dementia. Soluble amyloid-beta oligomers (AβO) in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are the pathogenic biomarker correlated with AD. A simple electrochemical biosensor using graphene oxide/gold nanoparticles (GNPs) hydrogel electrode was developed in this study. Thiolated cellular prion protein (PrP C ) peptide probe was immobilized on GNPs of the hydrogel electrode to construct an AβO biosensor. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was utilized for AβO analysis. The specific binding between AβO and PrP C probes on the hydrogel electrode resulted in an increase in the electron-transfer resistance. The biosensor showed high specificity and sensitivity for AβO detection. It could selectively differentiate AβO from amyloid-beta (Aβ) monomers or fibrils. Meanwhile, it was highly sensitive to detect as low as 0.1 pM AβO in artificial CSF or blood plasma. The linear range for AβO detection is from 0.1 pM to 10 nM. This biosensor could be used as a cost-effective tool for early diagnosis of AD due to its high electrochemical performance and bionic structure.

  20. Altered fibre types in gastrocnemius muscle of high wheel-running selected mice with mini-muscle phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Guderley, Helga; Joanisse, Denis R; Mokas, Sophie; Bilodeau, Geneviève M; Garland, Theodore

    2008-03-01

    Selective breeding of mice for high voluntary wheel running has favoured characteristics that facilitate sustained, aerobically supported activity, including a "mini-muscle" phenotype with markedly reduced hind limb muscle mass, increased mass-specific activities of oxidative enzymes, decreased % myosin heavy chain IIb, and, in the medial gastrocnemius, reduced twitch speed, reduced mass-specific isotonic power, and increased fatigue resistance. To evaluate whether selection has altered fibre type expression in mice with either "mini" or normal muscle phenotypes, we examined fibre types of red and white gastrocnemius. In both the medial and lateral gastrocnemius, the mini-phenotype increased activities of oxidative enzymes and decreased activities of glycolytic enzymes. In red muscle samples, the mini-phenotype markedly changed fibre types, with the % type I and type IIA fibres and the surface area of type IIA fibres increasing; in addition, mice from selected lines in general had an increased % type IIA fibres and larger type I fibres as compared with mice from control lines. White muscle samples from mini-mice showed dramatic structural alterations, with an atypical distribution of extremely small, unidentifiable fibres surrounded by larger, more oxidative fibres than normally present in white muscle. The increased proportion of oxidative fibres and these atypical small fibres together may explain the reduced mass and increased mitochondrial enzyme activities in mini-muscles. These and previous results demonstrate that extension of selective breeding beyond the time when the response of the selected trait (i.e. distance run) has levelled off can still modify the mechanistic underpinnings of this behaviour.

  1. Porous MOF with Highly Efficient Selectivity and Chemical Conversion for CO2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hai-Hua; Hou, Lei; Li, Yong-Zhi; Jiang, Chen-Yu; Wang, Yao-Yu; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2017-05-31

    A new Co(II)-based MOF, {[Co 2 (tzpa)(OH)(H 2 O) 2 ]·DMF} n (1) (H 3 tzpa = 5-(4-(tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl)isophthalic acid), was constructed by employing a tetrazolyl-carboxyl ligand H 3 tzpa. 1 possesses 1D tubular channels that are decorated by μ 3 -OH groups, uncoordinated carboxylate O atoms, and open metal centers generated by the removal of coordinated water molecules, leading to high CO 2 adsorption capacity and significantly selective capture for CO 2 over CH 4 and CO in the temperature range of 298-333 K. Moreover, 1 shows the chemical stability in acidic and basic aqueous solutions. Grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations identified multiple CO 2 -philic sites in 1. In addition, the activated 1 as the heterogeneous Lewis and Brønsted acid bifunctional catalyst facilitates the chemical fixation of CO 2 coupling with epoxides into cyclic carbonates under ambient conditions.

  2. A chemosensor showing discriminating fluorescent response for highly selective and nanomolar detection of Cu²⁺ and Zn²⁺ and its application in molecular logic gate.

    PubMed

    Fegade, Umesh A; Sahoo, Suban K; Singh, Amanpreet; Singh, Narinder; Attarde, Sanjay B; Kuwar, Anil S

    2015-05-04

    A fluorescent based receptor (4Z)-4-(4-diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene amino)-1,2dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenylpyrazol-3-one (receptor 3) was developed for the highly selective and sensitive detection of Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) in semi-aqueous system. The fluorescence of receptor 3 was enhanced and quenched, respectively, with the addition of Zn(2+) and Cu(2+) ions over other surveyed cations. The receptor formed host-guest complexes in 1:1 stoichiometry with the detection limit of 5 nM and 15 nM for Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) ions, respectively. Further, we have effectively utilized the two metal ions (Cu(2+) and Zn(2+)) as chemical inputs for the manufacture of INHIBIT type logic gate at molecular level using the fluorescence responses of receptor 3 at 450 nm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Platinum-tin catalysts supported on silica highly selective for n-hexane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Llorca, J.; Homs, N.; Sales, J.

    Silica-supported Pt-Sn catalysts were prepared by two-step impregnation from [PtCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}] and SnCl{sub 2} solutions of appropriate concentrations to yield Pt/Sn atomic ratios ranging from 0.2 to 5.0. In these systems, the presence of true Pt-Sn alloys was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and electron nanodiffraction. Pt and PtSn alloy phases were found on catalysts with Pt/Sn > 1, PtSn alloy alone on the catalyst with Pt/Sn = 1 and PtSn and PtSn{sub 2} alloys, together with Sn in the catalysts with Pt/Sn < 1. All these catalysts were tested in themore » skeletal reactions of n-hexane at 753 K and atmospheric pressure. The selectivity of Pt changed significantly when alloyed with tin. For Sn-rich compositions a segregation of tin toward the catalyst surface was shown by photoelectron spectroscopy, and high hydrogenolysis selectivity and fast deactivation were observed. In contrast, Pt-rich catalysts, in which a well defined PtSn alloy was observed, were much more stable and exhibited high selectivity to dehydrogenation reaction while maintaining low conversions to benzene and hydrogenolysis products. This selectivity pattern can be interpreted in terms of a change in adsorption properties due to differences in the number of adjacent Pt atoms required for the various reaction pathways. 24 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.« less

  4. Selection of High-Redshift QSOs using Subaru and CFHT Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Victoria; White, Cameron; Hasinger, Guenther; Hu, Esther

    2018-01-01

    We present 31 high redshift (5.0 ≤ z ≤ 6.0) quasar candidates using photometry from the Subaru and Canada France Hawaii telescopes. These candidates were observed as part of the Hawaii EROsita Ecliptic Pole Survey (HEROES) of the North Ecliptic Pole in 2016 and again in 2017. The ongoing HEROES survey is gathering ground-based imaging data in preparation for the eROSITA X-Ray mission. For this selection, we utilized optical-near IR imaging data of a 36 square degree field in one narrowband and five broadband filters on Subaru’s Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC). We also utilized less complete coverage of the field in the U and J bands from CFHT’s MegaCam and WIRCam respectively. Photometric redshifts were calculated using SED fitting techniques in comparison with stellar, quasar, and galaxy models. Selections were then made through extendedness cuts, color-color comparisons, and color-redshift plots. Follow-up spectroscopic observations of these candidates with the DEIMOS spectrograph on Keck and X-Ray observations with eROSITA in the coming years will allow for reliable classifications of our selected candidates.

  5. Highly selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for detection of Hg2 + ion in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zareh Jonaghani, Mohammad; Zali-Boeini, Hassan

    2017-05-01

    A highly efficient and selective fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor based on naphthothiazole skeleton was synthesized and its colorimetric and fluorescent properties were investigated. The sensor displays a rapid and highly selective colorimetric and fluorescence response toward Hg2 + without interference with other metal ions in CH3CN/H2O mixture (50/50, v/v). The detection limit for the fluorescent chemosensor S1 toward Hg2 + was 3.42 × 10- 8 M.

  6. An engineered high affinity Fbs1 carbohydrate binding protein for selective capture of N-glycans and N-glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Minyong; Shi, Xiaofeng; Duke, Rebecca M.; Ruse, Cristian I.; Dai, Nan; Taron, Christopher H.; Samuelson, James C.

    2017-01-01

    A method for selective and comprehensive enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides was developed to facilitate detection of micro-heterogeneity of N-glycosylation. The method takes advantage of the inherent properties of Fbs1, which functions within the ubiquitin-mediated degradation system to recognize the common core pentasaccharide motif (Man3GlcNAc2) of N-linked glycoproteins. We show that Fbs1 is able to bind diverse types of N-linked glycomolecules; however, wild-type Fbs1 preferentially binds high-mannose-containing glycans. We identified Fbs1 variants through mutagenesis and plasmid display selection, which possess higher affinity and improved recovery of complex N-glycomolecules. In particular, we demonstrate that the Fbs1 GYR variant may be employed for substantially unbiased enrichment of N-linked glycopeptides from human serum. Most importantly, this highly efficient N-glycopeptide enrichment method enables the simultaneous determination of N-glycan composition and N-glycosites with a deeper coverage (compared to lectin enrichment) and improves large-scale N-glycoproteomics studies due to greatly reduced sample complexity. PMID:28534482

  7. Geochemical maps showing the distribution and abundance of selected elements in stream-sediment samples, Solomon and Bendeleben 1 degree by 3 degree quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.C.; King, H.D.; O'Leary, R.M.

    Geochemical maps showing the distribution and abundance of selected elements in stream-sediment samples, Solomon and Bendeleben 1{degree} by 3{degree} quadrangles, Seward Peninsula, Alaska is presented.

  8. Highly sensitive and selective liquid crystal optical sensor for detection of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaofang; Zhong, Yuanbo; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei; Luo, Dan

    2017-06-12

    Ammonia detection technologies are very important in environment monitoring. However, most existing technologies are complex and expensive, which limit the useful range of real-time application. Here, we propose a highly sensitive and selective optical sensor for detection of ammonia (NH 3 ) based on liquid crystals (LCs). This optical sensor is realized through the competitive binding between ammonia and liquid crystals on chitosan-Cu 2+ that decorated on glass substrate. We achieve a broad detection range of ammonia from 50 ppm to 1250 ppm, with a low detection limit of 16.6 ppm. This sensor is low-cost, simple, fast, and highly sensitive and selective for detection of ammonia. The proposal LC sensing method can be a sensitive detection platform for other molecule monitors such as proteins, DNAs and other heavy metal ions by modifying sensing molecules.

  9. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10−3 bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc– or V–porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials. PMID:26902156

  10. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, ChiHye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-23

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10(-3) bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  11. High-throughput screening of metal-porphyrin-like graphenes for selective capture of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyeonhu; Park, Minwoo; Jang, Byungryul; Kang, Yura; Park, Jinwoo; Lee, Hosik; Chung, Haegeun; Chung, Chihye; Hong, Suklyun; Kwon, Yongkyung; Yakobson, Boris I.; Lee, Hoonkyung

    2016-02-01

    Nanostructured materials, such as zeolites and metal-organic frameworks, have been considered to capture CO2. However, their application has been limited largely because they exhibit poor selectivity for flue gases and low capture capacity under low pressures. We perform a high-throughput screening for selective CO2 capture from flue gases by using first principles thermodynamics. We find that elements with empty d orbitals selectively attract CO2 from gaseous mixtures under low CO2 pressures (~10-3 bar) at 300 K and release it at ~450 K. CO2 binding to elements involves hybridization of the metal d orbitals with the CO2 π orbitals and CO2-transition metal complexes were observed in experiments. This result allows us to perform high-throughput screening to discover novel promising CO2 capture materials with empty d orbitals (e.g., Sc- or V-porphyrin-like graphene) and predict their capture performance under various conditions. Moreover, these findings provide physical insights into selective CO2 capture and open a new path to explore CO2 capture materials.

  12. Automated respiratory cycles selection is highly specific and improves respiratory mechanics analysis.

    PubMed

    Rigo, Vincent; Graas, Estelle; Rigo, Jacques

    2012-07-01

    Selected optimal respiratory cycles should allow calculation of respiratory mechanic parameters focusing on patient-ventilator interaction. New computer software automatically selecting optimal breaths and respiratory mechanics derived from those cycles are evaluated. Retrospective study. University level III neonatal intensive care unit. Ten mins synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation and assist/control ventilation recordings from ten newborns. The ventilator provided respiratory mechanic data (ventilator respiratory cycles) every 10 secs. Pressure, flow, and volume waves and pressure-volume, pressure-flow, and volume-flow loops were reconstructed from continuous pressure-volume recordings. Visual assessment determined assisted leak-free optimal respiratory cycles (selected respiratory cycles). New software graded the quality of cycles (automated respiratory cycles). Respiratory mechanic values were derived from both sets of optimal cycles. We evaluated quality selection and compared mean values and their variability according to ventilatory mode and respiratory mechanic provenance. To assess discriminating power, all 45 "t" values obtained from interpatient comparisons were compared for each respiratory mechanic parameter. A total of 11,724 breaths are evaluated. Automated respiratory cycle/selected respiratory cycle selections agreement is high: 88% of maximal κ with linear weighting. Specificity and positive predictive values are 0.98 and 0.96, respectively. Averaged values are similar between automated respiratory cycle and ventilator respiratory cycle. C20/C alone is markedly decreased in automated respiratory cycle (1.27 ± 0.37 vs. 1.81 ± 0.67). Tidal volume apparent similarity disappears in assist/control: automated respiratory cycle tidal volume (4.8 ± 1.0 mL/kg) is significantly lower than for ventilator respiratory cycle (5.6 ± 1.8 mL/kg). Coefficients of variation decrease for all automated respiratory cycle parameters in all infants. "t

  13. ptxD gene in combination with phosphite serves as a highly effective selection system to generate transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Pandeya, Devendra; Campbell, LeAnne M; Nunes, Eugenia; Lopez-Arredondo, Damar L; Janga, Madhusudhana R; Herrera-Estrella, Luis; Rathore, Keerti S

    2017-12-01

    This report demonstrates the usefulness of ptxD/phosphite as a selection system that not only provides a highly efficient and simple means to generate transgenic cotton plants, but also helps address many of the concerns related to the use of antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes in the production of transgenic crops. Two of the most popular dominant selectable marker systems for plant transformation are based on either antibiotic or herbicide resistance genes. Due to concerns regarding their safety and in order to stack multiple traits in a single plant, there is a need for alternative selectable marker genes. The ptxD gene, derived from Pseudomonas stutzeri WM88, that confers to cells the ability to convert phosphite (Phi) into orthophosphate (Pi) offers an alternative selectable marker gene as demonstrated for tobacco and maize. Here, we show that the ptxD gene in combination with a protocol based on selection medium containing Phi, as the sole source of phosphorus (P), can serve as an effective and efficient system to select for transformed cells and generate transgenic cotton plants. Fluorescence microscopy examination of the cultures under selection and molecular analyses on the regenerated plants demonstrate the efficacy of the system in recovering cotton transformants following Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under the ptxD/Phi selection, an average of 3.43 transgenic events per 100 infected explants were recovered as opposed to only 0.41% recovery when bar/phosphinothricin (PPT) selection was used. The event recovery rates for nptII/kanamycin and hpt/hygromycin systems were 2.88 and 2.47%, respectively. Molecular analysis on regenerated events showed a selection efficiency of ~ 97% under the ptxD/Phi system. Thus, ptxD/Phi has proven to be a very efficient, positive selection system for the generation of transgenic cotton plants with equal or higher transformation efficiencies compared to the commonly used, negative selection systems.

  14. Metabolic risk factors in mice divergently selected for BMR fed high fat and high carb diets.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, Julita; Gębczyński, Andrzej K; Konarzewski, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Factors affecting contribution of spontaneous physical activity (SPA; activity associated with everyday tasks) to energy balance of humans are not well understood, as it is not clear whether low activity is related to dietary habits, precedes obesity or is a result of thereof. In particular, human studies on SPA and basal metabolic rates (BMR, accounting for >50% of human energy budget) and their associations with diet composition, metabolic thrift and obesity are equivocal. To clarify these ambiguities we used a unique animal model-mice selected for divergent BMR rates (the H-BMR and L-BMR line type) presenting a 50% between-line type difference in the primary selected trait. Males of each line type were divided into three groups and fed either a high fat, high carb or a control diet. They then spent 4 months in individual cages under conditions emulating human "sedentary lifestyle", with SPA followed every month and measurements of metabolic risk indicators (body fat mass %, blood lipid profile, fasting blood glucose levels and oxidative damage in the livers, kidneys and hearts) taken at the end of study. Mice with genetically determined high BMR assimilated more energy and had higher SPA irrespective of type of diet. H-BMR individuals were characterized by lower dry body fat mass %, better lipid profile and lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher oxidative damage in the livers and hearts. Genetically determined high BMR may be a protective factor against diet-induced obesity and most of the metabolic syndrome indicators. Elevated spontaneous activity is correlated with high BMR, and constitutes an important factor affecting individual capability to sustain energy balance even under energy dense diets.

  15. The AzTEC/SMA Interferometric Imaging Survey of Submillimeter-selected High-redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang, Jia-Sheng; Yun, Min S.; Wilson, Grant W.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Gurwell, Mark A.; Peck, Alison B.; Petitpas, Glen R.; Wilner, David J.; Hughes, David H.; Aretxaga, Itziar; Kim, Sungeun; Scott, Kimberly S.; Austermann, Jason; Perera, Thushara; Lowenthal, James D.

    2009-10-01

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size ~2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology—including the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared—of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation—which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions—and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.

  16. THE AzTEC/SMA INTERFEROMETRIC IMAGING SURVEY OF SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED HIGH-REDSHIFT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Younger, Joshua D.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Huang Jiasheng

    We present results from a continuing interferometric survey of high-redshift submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) with the Submillimeter Array, including high-resolution (beam size approx2 arcsec) imaging of eight additional AzTEC 1.1 mm selected sources in the COSMOS field, for which we obtain six reliable (peak signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) >5 or peak S/N >4 with multiwavelength counterparts within the beam) and two moderate significance (peak S/N >4) detections. When combined with previous detections, this yields an unbiased sample of millimeter-selected SMGs with complete interferometric follow up. With this sample in hand, we (1) empirically confirm the radio-submillimeter association, (2) examine the submillimeter morphology-includingmore » the nature of SMGs with multiple radio counterparts and constraints on the physical scale of the far infrared-of the sample, and (3) find additional evidence for a population of extremely luminous, radio-dim SMGs that peaks at higher redshift than previous, radio-selected samples. In particular, the presence of such a population of high-redshift sources has important consequences for models of galaxy formation-which struggle to account for such objects even under liberal assumptions-and dust production models given the limited time since the big bang.« less

  17. High efficient photocatalytic selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde by solvothermal-synthesized ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres under visible light irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Zhixin, E-mail: czx@fzu.edu.cn; Instrumental Measurement and Analysis Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002; Xu, Jingjing

    Hexagonal ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} samples have been synthesized by a solvothermal method. Their properties have been determined by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible-light diffuse reflectance spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectra. These results demonstrate that ethanol solvent has significant influence on the morphology, optical and electronic nature for such marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres. The visible light photocatalytic activities of the ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} have been evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde using molecular oxygen as oxidant. The results show that 100% conversion along with >99% selectivity are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4}more » prepared in ethanol solvent under visible light irradiation (λ>420 nm) of 2 h, but only 58% conversion and 57% yield are reached over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} prepared in aqueous solvent. A possible mechanism of the high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol over ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} is proposed and discussed. - Graphical abstract: Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. The high visible photocatalytic activities of ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} were evaluated by selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol to benzaldehyde under mild conditions. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Marigold-like ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} microspheres were synthesized by a solvothermal method. • The solvents have a remarkably influence on the morphology and properties of samples. • It is the first time to apply ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol. • ZnIn{sub 2}S{sub 4} shows high photocatalytic activity for selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol.« less

  18. Characteristics of Line 1 Hereford females resulting from selection by independent culling levels for below-average birth weight and high yearling weight or by mass selection for high yearling weight.

    PubMed

    MacNeil, M D; Urick, J J; Decoudu, G

    2000-09-01

    Simultaneous selection for low birth weight and high yearling weight has been advocated to improve efficiency of beef production. Two sublines of Line 1 Hereford cattle were established by selection either for below-average birth weight and high yearling weight (YB) or for high yearling weight alone (YW). Direct effects on birth weight and yearling weight diverged between sublines with approximately four generations of selection. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic trends for traits of the cows. A three-parameter growth curve [Wt = A(1 - b0e(-kt))] was fitted to age (t, d)-weight (W, kg) data for cows surviving past 4.5 yr of age (n = 738). The resulting parameter estimates were analyzed simultaneously with birth weight and yearling weight using multiple-trait restricted maximum likelihood methods. To estimate maternal additive effects on calf gain from birth to weaning (MILK) the two-trait model previously used to analyze birth weight and yearling weight was transformed to the equivalent three-trait model with birth weight, gain from birth to weaning, and gain from weaning to yearling as dependent variables. Heritability estimates were 0.32, 0.27, 0.10, and 0.20 for A, b0, k, and MILK, respectively. Genetic correlations with direct effects on birth weight were 0.34, -0.11, and 0.55 and with direct effects on yearling weight were 0.65, -0.17, and 0.11 for A, b0, and k, respectively. Genetic trends for YB and YW, respectively, were as follows: A (kg/generation), 8.0+/-0.2 and 10.1+/-0.2; b0 (x 1,000), -1.34+/-0.07 and -1.16+/-0.07; k (x 1,000), -14.3+/-0.1 and 4.3+/-0.1; and MILK (kg), 1.25+/-0.05 and 1.89+/-0.05. Beef cows resulting from simultaneous selection for below-average birth weight and increased yearling weight had different growth curves and reduced genetic trend in maternal gain from birth to weaning relative to cows resulting from selection for increased yearling weight.

  19. Models Used to Select Strategic Planning Experts for High Technology Productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakharova, Alexandra A.; Grigorjeva, Antonina A.; Tseplit, Anna P.; Ozgogov, Evgenij V.

    2016-04-01

    The article deals with the problems and specific aspects in organizing works of experts involved in assessment of companies that manufacture complex high-technology products. A model is presented that is intended for evaluating competences of experts in individual functional areas of expertise. Experts are selected to build a group on the basis of tables used to determine a competence level. An expert selection model based on fuzzy logic is proposed and additional requirements for the expert group composition can be taken into account, with regard to the needed quality and competence related preferences of decision-makers. A Web-based information system model is developed for the interaction between experts and decision-makers when carrying out online examinations.

  20. A Cationic Polymer That Shows High Antifungal Activity against Diverse Human Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Rank, Leslie A; Walsh, Naomi M; Liu, Runhui; Lim, Fang Yun; Bok, Jin Woo; Huang, Mingwei; Keller, Nancy P; Gellman, Samuel H; Hull, Christina M

    2017-10-01

    Invasive fungal diseases are generally difficult to treat and often fatal. The therapeutic agents available to treat fungi are limited, and there is a critical need for new agents to combat these deadly infections. Antifungal compound development has been hindered by the challenge of creating agents that are highly active against fungal pathogens but not toxic to the host. Host defense peptides (HDPs) are produced by eukaryotes as a component of the innate immune response to pathogens and have served as inspiration for the development of many new antibacterial compounds. HDP mimics, however, have largely failed to exhibit potent and selective antifungal activity. Here, we present an HDP-like nylon-3 copolymer that is effective against diverse fungi while displaying only mild to moderate toxicity toward mammalian cells. This polymer is active on its own and in synergy with existing antifungal drugs against multiple species of Candida and Cryptococcus , reaching levels of efficacy comparable to those of the clinical agents amphotericin B and fluconazole in some cases. In addition, the polymer acts synergistically with azoles against different species of Aspergillus , including some azole-resistant strains. These findings indicate that nylon-3 polymers are a promising lead for development of new antifungal therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. An efficient and high-throughput protocol for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation based on phosphomannose isomerase positive selection in Japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Duan, Yongbo; Zhai, Chenguang; Li, Hao; Li, Juan; Mei, Wenqian; Gui, Huaping; Ni, Dahu; Song, Fengshun; Li, Li; Zhang, Wanggen; Yang, Jianbo

    2012-09-01

    A number of Agrobacterium-mediated rice transformation systems have been developed and widely used in numerous laboratories and research institutes. However, those systems generally employ antibiotics like kanamycin and hygromycin, or herbicide as selectable agents, and are used for the small-scale experiments. To address high-throughput production of transgenic rice plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, and to eliminate public concern on antibiotic markers, we developed a comprehensive efficient protocol, covering from explant preparation to the acquisition of low copy events by real-time PCR analysis before transplant to field, for high-throughput production of transgenic plants of Japonica rice varieties Wanjing97 and Nipponbare using Escherichia coli phosphomannose isomerase gene (pmi) as a selectable marker. The transformation frequencies (TF) of Wanjing97 and Nipponbare were achieved as high as 54.8 and 47.5%, respectively, in one round of selection of 7.5 or 12.5 g/L mannose appended with 5 g/L sucrose. High-throughput transformation from inoculation to transplant of low copy events was accomplished within 55-60 days. Moreover, the Taqman assay data from a large number of transformants showed 45.2% in Wanjing97 and 31.5% in Nipponbare as a low copy rate, and the transformants are fertile and follow the Mendelian segregation ratio. This protocol facilitates us to perform genome-wide functional annotation of the open reading frames and utilization of the agronomically important genes in rice under a reduced public concern on selectable markers. We describe a comprehensive protocol for large scale production of transgenic Japonica rice plants using non-antibiotic selectable agent, at simplified, cost- and labor-saving manners.

  2. Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy: an innovative treatment for lymphangioma circumscriptum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Jin, Yunbo; Chen, Hui; Li, Suolan; Ma, Gang; Hu, Xiaojie; Qiu, Yajing; Yu, Wenxin; Chang, Lei; Wang, Tianyou; Lin, Xiaoxi

    2014-08-01

    Lymphangioma circumscriptum (LC) is a type of microcystic lymphatic malformation involving the skin and mucosa that presents as translucent vesicles of varying size with a pink, red, or black hue. Lymphangioma circumscriptum causes not only cosmetic problems but also refractory rupture, infection, lymphorrhea, and bleeding. Various invasive methods, such as surgical excision, lasers, and sclerotherapy, have been used in the past to treat LC with varying success. Herein, we report a new treatment for the management of LC. This study reports the outcomes of 12 patients (aged 4-31 years) with LC treated by electrocoagulation using a special isolated needle. Patient demographics, lesion characteristics, radiologic findings, treatment course, and clinical responses are recorded. All 12 patients who were treated with the highly selective electrocoagulation therapy achieved near-complete clearance. Minimal intra- and postoperative sequelae were observed. The local complications included mild pain (n = 9), proliferous scarring (n = 1), and ulceration (n = 1) with no systemic side effects. The mean follow-up period was 8.25 months (3-14 months). Highly selective electrocoagulation therapy is an innovative, minimally invasive technique that seems to be safe and effective for the treatment of LC; the results from our limited study population seem promising, and the observed complications are acceptable.

  3. Study of Highly Selective and Efficient Thiol Derivatization using Selenium Reagents by Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Kehua; Zhang, Yun W.; Tang, Bo

    2010-08-15

    Biological thiols are critical physiological components and their detection often involves derivatization. This paper reports a systemic mass spectrometry (MS) investigation of the cleavage of Se-N bond by thiol to form a new Se-S bond, the new selenium chemistry for thiol labeling. Our data shows that the reaction is highly selective, rapid, reversible and efficient. For instance, among twenty amino acids, only cysteine was found to be reactive with Se-N containing reagents and the reaction takes place in seconds. By adding dithiothreitol (DTT), the newly formed Se-S bond of peptides/proteins can be reduced back to free thiol. The high selectivitymore » and excellent reversibility of the reaction provide potential of using this chemistry for selective identification of thiol compounds or enriching and purifying thiol peptides/proteins. In addition, the derivatized thiol peptides have interesting dissociation behavior, which is tunable using different selenium reagents. For example, by introducing an adjacent nucleophilic group into the selenium reagent in the case of using ebselen, the reaction product of ebselen with glutathione (GSH) is easy to lose the selenium tag upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), which is useful to "fish out" those peptides containing free cysteine residues by precursor ion scan. By contrast, the selenium tag of N-(phenylseleno) phthalimide reagent can be stable and survive in CID process, which would be of value in pinpointing thiol location using a top-down proteomic approach. Also, the high conversion yield of the reaction allows the counting of total number of thiol in proteins. We believe that ebselen or N-(phenylseleno) phthalimide as tagging thiol-protein reagents will have important applications in both qualitative and quantitative analysis of different thiol-proteins derived from living cells by MS method.« less

  4. Directional and balancing selection in human beta-defensins.

    PubMed

    Hollox, Edward J; Armour, John A L

    2008-04-16

    In primates, infection is an important force driving gene evolution, and this is reflected in the importance of infectious disease in human morbidity today. The beta-defensins are key components of the innate immune system, with antimicrobial and cell signalling roles, but also reproductive functions. Here we examine evolution of beta-defensins in catarrhine primates and variation within different human populations. We show that five beta-defensin genes that do not show copy number variation in humans show evidence of positive selection in catarrhine primates, and identify specific codons that have been under selective pressure. Direct haplotyping of DEFB127 in humans suggests long-term balancing selection: there are two highly diverged haplotype clades carrying different variants of a codon that, in primates, is positively selected. For DEFB132, we show that extensive diversity, including a four-state amino acid polymorphism (valine, isoleucine, alanine and threonine at position 93), is present in hunter-gatherer populations, both African and non-African, but not found in samples from agricultural populations. Some, but not all, beta-defensin genes show positive selection in catarrhine primates. There is suggestive evidence of different selective pressures on these genes in humans, but the nature of the selective pressure remains unclear and is likely to differ between populations.

  5. Chickens from lines artificially selected for juvenile low and high body weight differ in glucose homeostasis and pancreas physiology.

    PubMed

    Sumners, L H; Zhang, W; Zhao, X; Honaker, C F; Zhang, S; Cline, M A; Siegel, P B; Gilbert, E R

    2014-06-01

    Artificial selection of White Plymouth Rock chickens for juvenile (day 56) body weight resulted in two divergent genetic lines: hypophagic low weight (LWS) chickens and hyperphagic obese high weight (HWS) chickens, with the latter more than 10-fold heavier than the former at selection age. A study was designed to investigate glucose regulation and pancreas physiology at selection age in LWS chickens and HWS chickens. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity tests revealed differences in threshold sensitivity to insulin and glucose clearance rate between the lines. Results from real-time PCR showed greater pancreatic mRNA expression of four glucose regulatory genes (preproinsulin, PPI; preproglucagon, PPG; glucose transporter 2, GLUT2; and pancreatic duodenal homeobox 1, Pdx1) in LWS chickens, than HWS chickens. Histological analysis of the pancreas revealed that HWS chickens have larger pancreatic islets, less pancreatic islet mass, and more pancreatic inflammation than LWS chickens, all of which presumably contribute to impaired glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  7. Alcohol preference drinking in a mouse line selectively bred for high drinking in the dark.

    PubMed

    Crabbe, John C; Spence, Stephanie E; Brown, Lauren L; Metten, Pamela

    2011-08-01

    We have selectively bred mice that reach very high blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) after drinking from a single bottle of 20% ethanol. High Drinking in the Dark (HDID-1) mice drink nearly 6g/kg ethanol in 4h and reach average BECs of more than 1.0mg/mL. Previous studies suggest that DID and two-bottle preference for 10% ethanol with continuous access are influenced by many of the same genes. We therefore asked whether HDID-1 mice would differ from the HS/Npt control stock on two-bottle preference drinking. We serially offered mice access to 3-40% ethanol in tap water versus tap water. For ethanol concentrations between 3 and 20%, HDID-1 and HS/Npt controls did not differ in two-bottle preference drinking. At the highest concentrations, the HS/Npt mice drank more than the HDID-1 mice. We also tested the same mice for preference for two concentrations each of quinine, sucrose, and saccharin. Curiously, the mice showed preference ratios (volume of tastant/total fluid drunk) of about 50% for all tastants and concentrations. Thus, neither genotype showed either preference or avoidance for any tastant after high ethanol concentrations. Therefore, we compared naive groups of HDID-1 and HS/Npt mice for tastant preference. Results from this test showed that ethanol-naive mice preferred sweet fluids and avoided quinine but the genotypes did not differ. Finally, we tested HDID-1 and HS mice for an extended period for preference for 15% ethanol versus water during a 2-h access period in the dark. After several weeks, HDID-1 mice consumed significantly more than HS. We conclude that drinking in the dark shows some genetic overlap with other tests of preference drinking, but that the degree of genetic commonality depends on the model used. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. One-Pot Synthesis of Mesoporous Ni-Ti-Al Ternary Oxides: Highly Active and Selective Catalysts for Steam Reforming of Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandre A S; Faustino, Patrícia B; Assaf, José M; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2017-02-22

    One-pot synthesis of nanostructured ternary oxides of Ni, Al, and Ti was designed and performed via evaporation induced self-assembly (EISA). For the purpose of comparison, analogous oxides were also prepared by the impregnation method. The resulting materials were applied in two catalytic reactions: steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) for H 2 production (subjected to prior activation with H 2 ) and ethanol dehydration (ED; used without prior activation), to in situ analyze carbon accumulation by ethylene depletion when ethanol interacts with acidic sites present on the support. Modification of Ni-Al mixed oxides with titania was shown to have several benefits. CO 2 , NH 3 , and propylamine sorption data indicate a decrease in the strength of acidic and basic sites after addition of titania, which in turn slowed down the carbon accumulation during the ED reaction. These changes in interactions between ethanol and byproducts with the support led to different reaction pathways in SRE, indicating that the catalysts obtained by EISA with titania addition showed higher ethylene selectivity and CO 2 /CO ratios. The opposite was observed for the impregnated catalysts, which were less coke-stable during ED reactions and showed no ethylene selectivity in SRE. Carbon formed during ED reactions was shown to be thermodynamically less favorable and easier to decompose in the presence of titania. All catalysts studied displayed similar and high selectivities (∼80%) and yields (∼5.3 mol H2 /mol ethanol ) toward H 2 , which place them among the most active and selective catalysts for SRE. These results indicate the importance of tailoring the support surface acidity to achieve high reforming performance and higher selectivity toward SRE, one of the key processes to produce cleaner and efficient fuels. For an efficient reforming process, the yield of byproducts is low but still they affect the catalyst stability in the long-run, thus this work may impact future studies toward

  9. Direct conversion of CO2 into liquid fuels with high selectivity over a bifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Gao, Peng; Li, Shenggang; Bu, Xianni; Dang, Shanshan; Liu, Ziyu; Wang, Hui; Zhong, Liangshu; Qiu, Minghuang; Yang, Chengguang; Cai, Jun; Wei, Wei; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-10-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) hydrogenation to various C 1 chemicals, it is still a great challenge to synthesize value-added products with two or more carbons, such as gasoline, directly from CO 2 because of the extreme inertness of CO 2 and a high C-C coupling barrier. Here we present a bifunctional catalyst composed of reducible indium oxides (In 2 O 3 ) and zeolites that yields a high selectivity to gasoline-range hydrocarbons (78.6%) with a very low methane selectivity (1%). The oxygen vacancies on the In 2 O 3 surfaces activate CO 2 and hydrogen to form methanol, and C-C coupling subsequently occurs inside zeolite pores to produce gasoline-range hydrocarbons with a high octane number. The proximity of these two components plays a crucial role in suppressing the undesired reverse water gas shift reaction and giving a high selectivity for gasoline-range hydrocarbons. Moreover, the pellet catalyst exhibits a much better performance during an industry-relevant test, which suggests promising prospects for industrial applications.

  10. MultiGeMS: detection of SNVs from multiple samples using model selection on high-throughput sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Murillo, Gabriel H; You, Na; Su, Xiaoquan; Cui, Wei; Reilly, Muredach P; Li, Mingyao; Ning, Kang; Cui, Xinping

    2016-05-15

    Single nucleotide variant (SNV) detection procedures are being utilized as never before to analyze the recent abundance of high-throughput DNA sequencing data, both on single and multiple sample datasets. Building on previously published work with the single sample SNV caller genotype model selection (GeMS), a multiple sample version of GeMS (MultiGeMS) is introduced. Unlike other popular multiple sample SNV callers, the MultiGeMS statistical model accounts for enzymatic substitution sequencing errors. It also addresses the multiple testing problem endemic to multiple sample SNV calling and utilizes high performance computing (HPC) techniques. A simulation study demonstrates that MultiGeMS ranks highest in precision among a selection of popular multiple sample SNV callers, while showing exceptional recall in calling common SNVs. Further, both simulation studies and real data analyses indicate that MultiGeMS is robust to low-quality data. We also demonstrate that accounting for enzymatic substitution sequencing errors not only improves SNV call precision at low mapping quality regions, but also improves recall at reference allele-dominated sites with high mapping quality. The MultiGeMS package can be downloaded from https://github.com/cui-lab/multigems xinping.cui@ucr.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Solvent selection in ultrasonic-assisted emulsification microextraction: Comparison between high- and low-density solvents by means of novel type of extraction vessel.

    PubMed

    Nojavan, Saeed; Gorji, Tayebeh; Davarani, Saied Saeed Hosseiny; Morteza-Najarian, Amin

    2014-08-01

    There are numerous published reports about dispersive liquid phase microextraction of the wide range of substances, however, till now no broadly accepted systematic and purpose oriented selection of extraction solvent has been proposed. Most works deal with the optimization of available solvents without adequate pre-consideration of properness. In this study, it is tried to compare the performances of low- and high-density solvents at the same conditions by means of novel type of extraction vessel with head and bottom conical shape. Extraction efficiencies of seven basic pharmaceutical compounds using eighteen common organic solvents were studied in this work. It was much easier to work with high-density solvents and they mostly showed better performances. This work shows that although exact predicting the performance of the solvents is multifaceted case but the pre-consideration of initial selection of solvents with attention to the physiochemical properties of the desired analytes is feasible and promising. Finally, the practicality of the method for extraction from urine and plasma samples was investigated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate.

    PubMed

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity.

  13. A natural variant of NAL1, selected in high-yield rice breeding programs, pleiotropically increases photosynthesis rate

    PubMed Central

    Takai, Toshiyuki; Adachi, Shunsuke; Taguchi-Shiobara, Fumio; Sanoh-Arai, Yumiko; Iwasawa, Norio; Yoshinaga, Satoshi; Hirose, Sakiko; Taniguchi, Yojiro; Yamanouchi, Utako; Wu, Jianzhong; Matsumoto, Takashi; Sugimoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Katsuhiko; Ikka, Takashi; Ando, Tsuyu; Kono, Izumi; Ito, Sachie; Shomura, Ayahiko; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi; Yano, Masahiro; Kondo, Motohiko; Yamamoto, Toshio

    2013-01-01

    Improvement of leaf photosynthesis is an important strategy for greater crop productivity. Here we show that the quantitative trait locus GPS (GREEN FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) controls photosynthesis rate by regulating carboxylation efficiency. Map-based cloning revealed that GPS is identical to NAL1 (NARROW LEAF1), a gene previously reported to control lateral leaf growth. The high-photosynthesis allele of GPS was found to be a partial loss-of-function allele of NAL1. This allele increased mesophyll cell number between vascular bundles, which led to thickened leaves, and it pleiotropically enhanced photosynthesis rate without the detrimental side effects observed in previously identified nal1 mutants, such as dwarf plant stature. Furthermore, pedigree analysis suggested that rice breeders have repeatedly selected the high-photosynthesis allele in high-yield breeding programs. The identification and utilization of NAL1 (GPS) can enhance future high-yield breeding and provides a new strategy for increasing rice productivity. PMID:23985993

  14. Modulation of calcium oxalate dihydrate growth by selective crystal-face binding of phosphorylated osteopontin and polyaspartate peptide showing occlusion by sectoral (compositional) zoning.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yung-Ching; Masica, David L; Gray, Jeffrey J; Nguyen, Sarah; Vali, Hojatollah; McKee, Marc D

    2009-08-28

    Calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) mineral and the urinary protein osteopontin/uropontin (OPN) are commonly found in kidney stones. To investigate the effects of OPN on COD growth, COD crystals were grown with phosphorylated OPN or a polyaspartic acid-rich peptide of OPN (DDLDDDDD, poly-Asp(86-93)). Crystals grown with OPN showed increased dimensions of the {110} prismatic faces attributable to selective inhibition at this crystallographic face. At high concentrations of OPN, elongated crystals with dominant {110} faces were produced, often with intergrown, interpenetrating twin crystals. Poly-Asp(86-93) dose-dependently elongated crystal morphology along the {110} faces in a manner similar to OPN. In crystal growth studies using fluorescently tagged poly-Asp(86-93) followed by imaging of crystal interiors using confocal microscopy, sectoral (compositional) zoning in COD was observed resulting from selective binding and incorporation (occlusion) of peptide exclusively into {110} crystal sectors. Computational modeling of poly-Asp(86-93) adsorption to COD {110} and {101} surfaces also suggests increased stabilization of the COD {110} surface and negligible change to the natively stable {101} surface. Ultrastructural, colloidal-gold immunolocalization of OPN by transmission electron microscopy in human stones confirmed an intracrystalline distribution of OPN. In summary, OPN and its poly-Asp(86-93) sequence similarly affect COD mineral growth; the {110} crystallographic faces become enhanced and dominant attributable to {110} face inhibition by the protein/peptide, and peptides can incorporate into the mineral phase. We, thus, conclude that the poly-Asp(86-93) domain is central to the OPN ability to interact with the {110} faces of COD, where it binds to inhibit crystal growth with subsequent intracrystalline incorporation (occlusion).

  15. Highly selective defluoridation of brick tea infusion by tea waste supported aluminum oxides.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chuanyi; Xi, Junjun; Chen, Guijie; Feng, Zhihui; Ke, Fei; Ning, Jingming; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Cai, Huimei; Wan, Xiaochun

    2017-03-01

    Brick tea usually contains very high fluoride, which may affect human health. Biosorbents have received much attention for selective removal of fluoride because of low cost, environmental friendliness, and relative safeness. In the present study, a highly selective fluoride tea waste based biosorbent, namely, aluminum (Al) oxide decorated tea waste (Tea-Al), was successfully prepared. The Tea-Al biosorbent was characterized by energy-dispersive spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis. The Tea-Al sample exhibited remarkably selective adsorption for fluoride (52.90%), but a weaker adsorption for other major constituents of brick tea infusion, such as catechins, polyphenols and caffeine, under the same conditions. Fluoride adsorption by Tea-Al for different times obeyed the surface reaction and adsorption isotherms fit the Freundlich model. In addition, the fluoride adsorption mechanism appeared to be an ion exchange between hydroxyl and fluoride ions. Results from this study demonstrated that Tea-Al is a promising biosorbent useful for the removal of fluoride in brick tea infusion. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Attainment of Selected Earth Science Concepts by Texas High School Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Mavis M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether high school seniors (N=492) had attained each of five selected earth science concepts and if said attainment was influenced by the number of science courses completed. A 72-item, multiple-choice format test (12 items for each concept) was developed and piloted previous to this study to measure…

  17. Cardiorespiratory Fitness Is Associated with Selective Attention in Healthy Male High-School Students.

    PubMed

    Wengaard, Eivind; Kristoffersen, Morten; Harris, Anette; Gundersen, Hilde

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous studies have shown associations of physical fitness and cognition in children and in younger and older adults. However, knowledge about associations in high-school adolescents and young adults is sparse. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association of physical fitness, measured as maximal oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]), muscle mass, weekly training, and cognitive function in the executive domains of selective attention and inhibitory control, in healthy male high-school students. Methods : Fifty-four males (17.9 ± 0.9 years, 72 ± 11 kg and 182 ± 7 cm) completed a [Formula: see text] test, a body composition test and a visual cognitive task based on the Posner cue paradigm with three types of stimuli with different attentional demands (i.e., stimuli presentation following no cue, valid cue or invalid cue presentations). The task consisted of 336 target stimuli, where 56 (17%) of the target stimuli appeared without a cue (no cue), 224 (67%) appeared in the same rectangle as the cue (valid cue) and 56 (17%) appeared in the rectangle opposite to the cue (invalid cue). Mean reaction time (RT) and corresponding errors was calculated for each stimuli type. Total task duration was 9 min and 20 s In addition, relevant background information was obtained in a questionnaire. Results : Linear mixed model analyses showed that higher [Formula: see text] was associated with faster RT for stimuli following invalid cue (Estimate = -2.69, SE = 1.03, p = 0.011), and for stimuli following valid cue (Estimate = -2.08, SE = 1.03, p = 0.048). There was no association of muscle mass and stimuli ( F = 1.01, p = 0.397) or of weekly training and stimuli ( F = 0.99, p = 0.405). Conclusion : The results suggest that cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with cognitive performance in healthy male high-school students in the executive domains of selective attention.

  18. Selective dispersion of high-purity semiconducting carbon nanotubes using indacenodithiophene-based conjugated polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Dongseob; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2018-01-01

    The facile sorting of highly pure semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (s-SWNTs) is still one of the challenging issues for the next-generation wearable electronic devices such as various opto-electric devices and field-effect transistors (FETs). Herein, we demonstrate the selective dispersion of high-purity s-SWNTs using indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDT-BT), which is a state-of-the-art high-mobility conjugated polymer. By the selective wrapping of the IDT-BT copolymer, SWNTs of chiral indices (6, 5), (7, 5), (7, 6), (8, 4), (9, 4), (8, 6), (8, 7), (10, 5), (9, 7), (10, 6), (11, 1), and (13, 3) are sorted. Finally, the networked s-SWNT film formed by spin-coating is applied as an active layer of FETs that exhibited ambipolar characteristics with an average mobility of 2.28 cm2/V s in the p-channel and 2.10 cm2/V s in the n-channel. The ON/OFF ratios in both p- and n-channels are approximately 105, which supports the high purity separation of s-SWNTs wrapped by IDT-BT.

  19. Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Mi Young; Kim, Donghun; Kumar, Prashant

    A zeolite with structure type MFI is an aluminosilicate or silicate material that has a three-dimensionally connected pore network, which enables molecular recognition in the size range 0.5-0.6 nm. These micropore dimensions are relevant for many valuable chemical intermediates, and therefore MFI-type zeolites are widely used in the chemical industry as selective catalysts or adsorbents. As with all zeolites, strategies to tailor them for specific applications include controlling their crystal size and shape. Nanometre-thick MFI crystals (nanosheets) have been introduced in pillared and self-pillared (intergrown) architectures, offering improved mass-transfer characteristics for certain adsorption and catalysis applications. Moreover, single (non-intergrown andmore » nonlayered) nanosheets have been used to prepare thin membranes that could be used to improve the energy efficiency of separation processes. However, until now, single MFI nanosheets have been prepared using a multi-step approach based on the exfoliation of layered MFI9,15, followed by centrifugation to remove non-exfoliated particles. This top-down method is time-consuming, costly and low-yield and it produces fragmented nanosheets with submicrometre lateral dimensions. Alternatively, direct (bottom-up) synthesis could produce high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets, with improved yield and at lower cost. Here we use a nanocrystal-seeded growth method triggered by a single rotational intergrowth to synthesize high-aspect-ratio MFI nanosheets with a thickness of 5 nanometres (2.5 unit cells). These high-aspect-ratio nanosheets allow the fabrication of thin and defect-free coatings that effectively cover porous substrates. Finally, these coatings can be intergrown to produce high-flux and ultra-selective MFI membranes that compare favourably with other MFI membranes prepared from existing MFI materials (such as exfoliated nanosheets or nanocrystals).« less

  20. Ultra-selective high-flux membranes from directly synthesized zeolite nanosheets

    DOE PAGES

    Jeon, Mi Young; Kim, Donghun; Kumar, Prashant; ...

    2017-03-15

    A zeolite with structure type MFI is an aluminosilicate or silicate material that has a three-dimensionally connected pore network, which enables molecular recognition in the size range 0.5-0.6 nm. These micropore dimensions are relevant for many valuable chemical intermediates, and therefore MFI-type zeolites are widely used in the chemical industry as selective catalysts or adsorbents. As with all zeolites, strategies to tailor them for specific applications include controlling their crystal size and shape. Nanometre-thick MFI crystals (nanosheets) have been introduced in pillared and self-pillared (intergrown) architectures, offering improved mass-transfer characteristics for certain adsorption and catalysis applications. Moreover, single (non-intergrown andmore » nonlayered) nanosheets have been used to prepare thin membranes that could be used to improve the energy efficiency of separation processes. However, until now, single MFI nanosheets have been prepared using a multi-step approach based on the exfoliation of layered MFI9,15, followed by centrifugation to remove non-exfoliated particles. This top-down method is time-consuming, costly and low-yield and it produces fragmented nanosheets with submicrometre lateral dimensions. Alternatively, direct (bottom-up) synthesis could produce high-aspect-ratio zeolite nanosheets, with improved yield and at lower cost. Here we use a nanocrystal-seeded growth method triggered by a single rotational intergrowth to synthesize high-aspect-ratio MFI nanosheets with a thickness of 5 nanometres (2.5 unit cells). These high-aspect-ratio nanosheets allow the fabrication of thin and defect-free coatings that effectively cover porous substrates. Finally, these coatings can be intergrown to produce high-flux and ultra-selective MFI membranes that compare favourably with other MFI membranes prepared from existing MFI materials (such as exfoliated nanosheets or nanocrystals).« less

  1. High-spatial-resolution K-band Imaging of Select K2 Campaign Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Howell, Steve B.; Ciardi, David R.; Barclay, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    NASA's K2 mission began observing fields along the ecliptic plane in 2014. Each observing campaign lasts approximately 80 days, during which high-precision optical photometry of select astrophysical targets is collected by the Kepler spacecraft. Due to the 4 arcsec pixel scale of the Kepler photometer, significant blending between the observed targets can occur (especially in dense fields close to the Galactic plane). We undertook a program to use the Wide Field Camera (WFCAM) on the 3.8 m United Kingdom InfraRed Telescope (UKIRT) to collect high-spatial-resolution near-infrared images of targets in select K2 campaign fields, which we report here. These 0.4 arcsec resolution K-band images offer the opportunity to perform a variety of science, including vetting exoplanet candidates by identifying nearby stars blended with the target star and estimating the size, color, and type of galaxies observed by K2.

  2. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  3. Payment mechanism and GP self-selection: capitation versus fee for service.

    PubMed

    Allard, Marie; Jelovac, Izabela; Léger, Pierre-Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of allowing gatekeeping general practitioners (GPs) to select their payment mechanism. We model GPs' behavior under the most common payment schemes (capitation and fee for service) and when GPs can select one among them. Our analysis considers GP heterogeneity in terms of both ability and concern for their patients' health. We show that when the costs of wasteful referrals to costly specialized care are relatively high, fee for service payments are optimal to maximize the expected patients' health net of treatment costs. Conversely, when the losses associated with failed referrals of severely ill patients are relatively high, we show that either GPs' self-selection of a payment form or capitation is optimal. Last, we extend our analysis to endogenous effort and to competition among GPs. In both cases, we show that self-selection is never optimal.

  4. Flow “Fine” Synthesis: High Yielding and Selective Organic Synthesis by Flow Methods

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The concept of flow “fine” synthesis, that is, high yielding and selective organic synthesis by flow methods, is described. Some examples of flow “fine” synthesis of natural products and APIs are discussed. Flow methods have several advantages over batch methods in terms of environmental compatibility, efficiency, and safety. However, synthesis by flow methods is more difficult than synthesis by batch methods. Indeed, it has been considered that synthesis by flow methods can be applicable for the production of simple gasses but that it is difficult to apply to the synthesis of complex molecules such as natural products and APIs. Therefore, organic synthesis of such complex molecules has been conducted by batch methods. On the other hand, syntheses and reactions that attain high yields and high selectivities by flow methods are increasingly reported. Flow methods are leading candidates for the next generation of manufacturing methods that can mitigate environmental concerns toward sustainable society. PMID:26337828

  5. Genetic selection for a highly functional cysteine-less membrane protein using site-saturation mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Arendt, Cassandra S.; Ri, Keirei; Yates, Phillip A.; Ullman, Buddy

    2007-01-01

    We describe an efficient method for generating highly functional membrane proteins with variant amino acids at defined positions that couples a modified site-saturation strategy with functional genetic selection. We applied this method to the production of a cysteine-less variant of the Crithidia fasciculata inosine-guanosine permease CfNT2, in order to facilitate biochemical studies using thiol-specific modifying reagents. Of ten endogenous cysteine residues in CfNT2, two cannot be replaced with serine or alanine without loss of function. High-quality single- and double-mutant libraries were produced by combining a previously reported site-saturation mutagenesis scheme based on the Quikchange method with a novel gel purification step that effectively eliminated template DNA from the products. Following selection for functional complementation in S. cerevisiae cells auxotrophic for purines, several highly functional non-cysteine substitutions were efficiently identified at each desired position, allowing the construction of cysteine-less variants of CfNT2 that retained wild-type affinity for inosine. This combination of an improved site-saturation mutagenesis technique and positive genetic selection provides a simple and efficient means to identify functional and perhaps unexpected amino acid variants at a desired position. PMID:17481563

  6. Highly selective luminescent sensing of picric acid based on a water-stable europium metal-organic framework

    SciTech Connect

    Xia, Tifeng; Zhu, Fengliang; Cui, Yuanjing, E-mail: cuiyj@zju.edu.cn

    A water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF) EuNDC has been synthesized for selective detection of the well-known contaminant and toxicant picric acid (PA) in aqueous solution. Due to the photo-induced electron transfer and self-absorption mechanism, EuNDC displayed rapid, selective and sensitive detection of PA with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb. Recyclability experiments revealed that EuNDC retains its initial luminescent intensity and same quenching efficiency in each cycle, suggesting high photostability and reusability for long-term sensing applications. The excellent detection performance of EuNDC makes it a promising PA sensing material for practical applications. - Graphical abstract: A water-stable europium-based metal-organic framework hasmore » been reported for highly selective sensing of picric acid (PA) with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • A water-stable metal-organic framework (MOF) EuNDC was synthesized. • The highly selective detection of picric acid with a detection limit of 37.6 ppb was realized. • The detection mechanism were also presented and discussed.« less

  7. Multiple-input multiple-output causal strategies for gene selection.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, Gianluca; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Quackenbush, John

    2011-11-25

    Traditional strategies for selecting variables in high dimensional classification problems aim to find sets of maximally relevant variables able to explain the target variations. If these techniques may be effective in generalization accuracy they often do not reveal direct causes. The latter is essentially related to the fact that high correlation (or relevance) does not imply causation. In this study, we show how to efficiently incorporate causal information into gene selection by moving from a single-input single-output to a multiple-input multiple-output setting. We show in synthetic case study that a better prioritization of causal variables can be obtained by considering a relevance score which incorporates a causal term. In addition we show, in a meta-analysis study of six publicly available breast cancer microarray datasets, that the improvement occurs also in terms of accuracy. The biological interpretation of the results confirms the potential of a causal approach to gene selection. Integrating causal information into gene selection algorithms is effective both in terms of prediction accuracy and biological interpretation.

  8. High Stakes Tests with Self-Selected Essay Questions: Addressing Issues of Fairness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamprianou, Iasonas

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of reporting the unadjusted raw scores in a high-stakes language exam when raters differ significantly in severity and self-selected questions differ significantly in difficulty. More sophisticated models, introducing meaningful facets and parameters, are successively used to investigate the characteristics of…

  9. High resolution x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy - a new technique for site- and spin-selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xin

    1996-12-01

    X-ray spectroscopy has long been used to elucidate electronic and structural information of molecules. One of the weaknesses of x-ray absorption is its sensitivity to all of the atoms of a particular element in a sample. Through out this thesis, a new technique for enhancing the site- and spin-selectivity of the x-ray absorption has been developed. By high resolution fluorescence detection, the chemical sensitivity of K emission spectra can be used to identify oxidation and spin states; it can also be used to facilitate site-selective X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) and site-selective Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS). Themore » spin polarization in K fluorescence could be used to generate spin selective XANES or spin-polarized EXAFS, which provides a new measure of the spin density, or the nature of magnetic neighboring atoms. Finally, dramatic line-sharpening effects by the combination of absorption and emission processes allow observation of structure that is normally unobservable. All these unique characters can enormously simplify a complex x-ray spectrum. Applications of this novel technique have generated information from various transition-metal model compounds to metalloproteins. The absorption and emission spectra by high resolution fluorescence detection are interdependent. The ligand field multiplet model has been used for the analysis of K{alpha} and K{beta} emission spectra. First demonstration on different chemical states of Fe compounds has shown the applicability of site selectivity and spin polarization. Different interatomic distances of the same element in different chemical forms have been detected using site-selective EXAFS.« less

  10. Selective sweep mapping of genes with large phenotypic effects.

    PubMed

    Pollinger, John P; Bustamante, Carlos D; Fledel-Alon, Adi; Schmutz, Sheila; Gray, Melissa M; Wayne, Robert K

    2005-12-01

    Many domestic dog breeds have originated through fixation of discrete mutations by intense artificial selection. As a result of this process, markers in the proximity of genes influencing breed-defining traits will have reduced variation (a selective sweep) and will show divergence in allele frequency. Consequently, low-resolution genomic scans can potentially be used to identify regions containing genes that have a major influence on breed-defining traits. We model the process of breed formation and show that the probability of two or three adjacent marker loci showing a spurious signal of selection within at least one breed (i.e., Type I error or false-positive rate) is low if highly variable and moderately spaced markers are utilized. We also use simulations with selection to demonstrate that even a moderately spaced set of highly polymorphic markers (e.g., one every 0.8 cM) has high power to detect regions targeted by strong artificial selection in dogs. Further, we show that a gene responsible for black coat color in the Large Munsterlander has a 40-Mb region surrounding the gene that is very low in heterozygosity for microsatellite markers. Similarly, we survey 302 microsatellite markers in the Dachshund and find three linked monomorphic microsatellite markers all within a 10-Mb region on chromosome 3. This region contains the FGFR3 gene, which is responsible for achondroplasia in humans, but not in dogs. Consequently, our results suggest that the causative mutation is a gene or regulatory region closely linked to FGFR3.

  11. 3-Arylpiperazinylethyl-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-2,4(3H,7H)-dione derivatives as novel, high-affinity and selective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Pittalà, Valeria; Romeo, Giuseppe; Salerno, Loredana; Siracusa, Maria Angela; Modica, Maria; Materia, Luisa; Mereghetti, Ilario; Cagnotto, Alfredo; Mennini, Tiziana; Marucci, Gabriella; Angeli, Piero; Russo, Filippo

    2006-01-01

    The discovery of a new series of selective and high-affinity alpha(1)-adrenoceptor (alpha(1)-AR) ligands, characterized by a 1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]-pyrimidine-2,4(3H,7H)-dione system, is described in this paper. Some synthesized compounds, including 20, 22, and 30, displayed affinity in the nanomolar range for alpha(1)-ARs and substantial selectivity with respect to 5-HT(1A) and dopaminergic D(1) and D(2) receptors. Functional assays, performed on selected derivatives, showed antagonistic properties.

  12. Nursing performance under high workload: a diary study on the moderating role of selection, optimization and compensation strategies.

    PubMed

    Baethge, Anja; Müller, Andreas; Rigotti, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether selective optimization with compensation constitutes an individualized action strategy for nurses wanting to maintain job performance under high workload. High workload is a major threat to healthcare quality and performance. Selective optimization with compensation is considered to enhance the efficient use of intra-individual resources and, therefore, is expected to act as a buffer against the negative effects of high workload. The study applied a diary design. Over five consecutive workday shifts, self-report data on workload was collected at three randomized occasions during each shift. Self-reported job performance was assessed in the evening. Self-reported selective optimization with compensation was assessed prior to the diary reporting. Data were collected in 2010. Overall, 136 nurses from 10 German hospitals participated. Selective optimization with compensation was assessed with a nine-item scale that was specifically developed for nursing. The NASA-TLX scale indicating the pace of task accomplishment was used to measure workload. Job performance was assessed with one item each concerning performance quality and forgetting of intentions. There was a weaker negative association between workload and both indicators of job performance in nurses with a high level of selective optimization with compensation, compared with nurses with a low level. Considering the separate strategies, selection and compensation turned out to be effective. The use of selective optimization with compensation is conducive to nurses' job performance under high workload levels. This finding is in line with calls to empower nurses' individual decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Engineering Fast Ion Conduction and Selective Cation Channels for a High-Rate and High-Voltage Hybrid Aqueous Battery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunyi; Wang, Xusheng; Deng, Wenjun; Li, Chang; Chen, Jitao; Xue, Mianqi; Li, Rui; Pan, Feng

    2018-03-14

    The rechargeable aqueous metal-ion battery (RAMB) has attracted considerable attention due to its safety, low costs, and environmental friendliness. Yet the poor-performance electrode materials lead to a low feasibility of practical application. A hybrid aqueous battery (HAB) built from electrode materials with selective cation channels could increase the electrode applicability and thus enlarge the application of RAMB. Herein, we construct a high-voltage K-Na HAB based on K 2 FeFe(CN) 6 cathode and carbon-coated NaTi 2 (PO 4 ) 3 (NTP/C) anode. Due to the unique cation selectivity of both materials and ultrafast ion conduction of NTP/C, the hybrid battery delivers a high capacity of 160 mAh g -1 at a 0.5 C rate. Considerable capacity retention of 94.3 % is also obtained after 1000 cycles at even 60 C rate. Meanwhile, high energy density of 69.6 Wh kg -1 based on the total mass of active electrode materials is obtained, which is comparable and even superior to that of the lead acid, Ni/Cd, and Ni/MH batteries. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Highly selective and sensitive macrocycle-based dinuclear foldamer for fluorometric and colorimetric sensing of citrate in water.

    PubMed

    Rhaman, Md Mhahabubur; Hasan, Mohammad H; Alamgir, Azmain; Xu, Lihua; Powell, Douglas R; Wong, Bryan M; Tandon, Ritesh; Hossain, Md Alamgir

    2018-01-10

    The selective detection of citrate anions is essential for various biological functions in living systems. A quantitative assessment of citrate is required for the diagnosis of various diseases in the human body; however, it is extremely challenging to develop efficient fluorescence and color-detecting molecular probes for sensing citrate in water. Herein, we report a macrocycle-based dinuclear foldamer (1) assembled with eosin Y (EY) that has been studied for anion binding by fluorescence and colorimetric techniques in water at neutral pH. Results from the fluorescence titrations reveal that the 1·EY ensemble strongly binds citrate anions, showing remarkable selectivity over a wide range of inorganic and carboxylate anions. The addition of citrate anions to the 1·EY adduct led to a large fluorescence enhancement, displaying a detectable color change under both visible and UV light in water up to 2 μmol. The biocompatibility of 1·EY as an intracellular carrier in a biological system was evaluated on primary human foreskin fibroblast (HF) cells, showing an excellent cell viability. The strong binding properties of the ensemble allow it to be used as a highly sensitive, detective probe for biologically relevant citrate anions in various applications.

  15. A highly selective and ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide by rationally altering the susceptible H-atom.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Nguyen, Khac Hong; Zhang, Yintang; Zhang, Guan; Fan, Shengnan; Li, Fen; Guo, Chao; Lu, Yuanyuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Qu, Peng; Liu, You-Nian; Xu, Maotian

    2018-01-01

    A highly selective and ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide was rationally designed and synthesized. The probe comprises a fluorophore unit of naphthalimide and a CN - acceptor of methylated trifluoroacetamide group. For these previous reported trifluoroacetamide derivative-based cyanide chemosensors, the H-atom of amide adjacent to trifluoroacetyl group is susceptible to be attacked by various anions (CN - itself, F - , AcO - , et al.) and even the solvent molecule, which resulted in the bewildered reaction mechanism and poor selectivity of the assay. In this work, the susceptible H-atom of trifluoroacetamide was artfully substituted by alkyl group. Thus a highly specific fluorescent probe was developed for cyanide sensing. Upon the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion to the carbonyl of trifluoroacetamide moiety of the probe, the ICT process of the probe was significantly enhanced and leading to a remarkable red shift in both absorption and emission spectra of the probe. This fluorescent assay showed a linear range of 1.0-80.0µM and a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.23µM. All the investigated interference have no influence on the sensing behavior of the probe toward cyanide. Moreover, by coating on TLC plate, the probe can be utilized for practical detection of trace cyanide in water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Phenology and Cover of Plant Growth Forms Predict Herbivore Habitat Selection in a High Latitude Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Fauchald, Per; Langeland, Knut; Ims, Rolf A.; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of forage quality is among the most central factors affecting herbivore habitat selection. Yet, for high latitude areas, forage quantity has been found to be more important than quality. Studies on large ungulate foraging patterns are faced with methodological challenges in both assessing animal movements at the scale of forage distribution, and in assessing forage quality with relevant metrics. Here we use first-passage time analyses to assess how reindeer movements relate to forage quality and quantity measured as the phenology and cover of growth forms along reindeer tracks. The study was conducted in a high latitude ecosystem dominated by low-palatable growth forms. We found that the scale of reindeer movement was season dependent, with more extensive area use as the summer season advanced. Small-scale movement in the early season was related to selection for younger stages of phenology and for higher abundances of generally phenologically advanced palatable growth forms (grasses and deciduous shrubs). Also there was a clear selection for later phenological stages of the most dominant, yet generally phenologically slow and low-palatable growth form (evergreen shrubs). As the summer season advanced only quantity was important, with selection for higher quantities of one palatable growth form and avoidance of a low palatable growth form. We conclude that both forage quality and quantity are significant predictors to habitat selection by a large herbivore at high latitude. The early season selectivity reflected that among dominating low palatability growth forms there were palatable phenological stages and palatable growth forms available, causing herbivores to be selective in their habitat use. The diminishing selectivity and the increasing scale of movement as the season developed suggest a response by reindeer to homogenized forage availability of low quality. PMID:24972188

  17. Phenology and cover of plant growth forms predict herbivore habitat selection in a high latitude ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Iversen, Marianne; Fauchald, Per; Langeland, Knut; Ims, Rolf A; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2014-01-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of forage quality is among the most central factors affecting herbivore habitat selection. Yet, for high latitude areas, forage quantity has been found to be more important than quality. Studies on large ungulate foraging patterns are faced with methodological challenges in both assessing animal movements at the scale of forage distribution, and in assessing forage quality with relevant metrics. Here we use first-passage time analyses to assess how reindeer movements relate to forage quality and quantity measured as the phenology and cover of growth forms along reindeer tracks. The study was conducted in a high latitude ecosystem dominated by low-palatable growth forms. We found that the scale of reindeer movement was season dependent, with more extensive area use as the summer season advanced. Small-scale movement in the early season was related to selection for younger stages of phenology and for higher abundances of generally phenologically advanced palatable growth forms (grasses and deciduous shrubs). Also there was a clear selection for later phenological stages of the most dominant, yet generally phenologically slow and low-palatable growth form (evergreen shrubs). As the summer season advanced only quantity was important, with selection for higher quantities of one palatable growth form and avoidance of a low palatable growth form. We conclude that both forage quality and quantity are significant predictors to habitat selection by a large herbivore at high latitude. The early season selectivity reflected that among dominating low palatability growth forms there were palatable phenological stages and palatable growth forms available, causing herbivores to be selective in their habitat use. The diminishing selectivity and the increasing scale of movement as the season developed suggest a response by reindeer to homogenized forage availability of low quality.

  18. On fast carry select adders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shamanna, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an architecture for a high-speed carry select adder with very long bit lengths utilizing a conflict-free bypass scheme. The proposed scheme has almost half the number of transistors and is faster than a conventional carry select adder. A comparative study is also made between the proposed adder and a Manchester carry chain adder which shows that the proposed scheme has the same transistor count, without suffering any performance degradation, compared to the Manchester carry chain adder.

  19. Highly selective SERS probe for Hg(II) detection using tryptophan-protected popcorn shaped gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Tapas; Senapati, Dulal; Singh, Anant Kumar; Fan, Zhen; Kanchanapally, Rajashekhar; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2011-10-07

    Contamination of the environment with toxic Hg(II) is becoming a huge concern throughout the world now. Driven by the need, this communication reports for the first time a tryptophan protected popcorn shaped gold nanomaterials based SERS probe for rapid, easy and highly selective recognition of Hg(II) ions in the 5 ppb level from aqueous solution, with high sensitivity and selectivity over competing analytes. We demonstrate that our SERS assay is capable of measuring the amount of Hg(II) in alkaline battery. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  20. Monoclonal antibodies with group specificity toward sulfonamides: selection of hapten and antibody selectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanhui; Beier, Ross C; Sheng, Yajie; Zhang, Suxia; Jiang, Wenxiao; Wang, Zhaopeng; Wang, Jin; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    Immunoassays based on the current available antibodies for large multi-sulfonamide screening programs have suffered from high selectivity for individual sulfonamides and a wide range of selectivities for different sulfonamides. In this study, five synthesized haptens, HS, BS, CS, SA10, and TS and two sulfonamides, SG and SMX were used as haptens, which may or may not contain a ring structure at the N1 position of the sulfonamides, were selected to evaluate the effectiveness for producing group-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). Mice immunized with three different two-ring haptens were used for hybridoma production, which resulted in three unique MAbs recognizing 10, 13, and 15 sulfonamides showing 50 % inhibition (IC50) at concentrations below 100 ng mL(-1). MAb 4D11 derived from one novel immunizing hapten could recognize 12 sulfonamides with IC50 values ranging from 1.2 to 12.4 ng mL(-1), almost within 1 order of magnitude. These produced MAbs show lower IC50 values in addition to significantly improved group specificity compared with previously generated MAbs. This study clearly indicates that the careful selection of the immunizing hapten has an important effect on the specificity of the generated antibodies.

  1. High-Lift Propeller System Configuration Selection for NASA's SCEPTOR Distributed Electric Propulsion Flight Demonstrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, Michael D.; Derlaga, Joseph M.; Borer, Nicholas K.

    2016-01-01

    Although the primary function of propellers is typically to produce thrust, aircraft equipped with distributed electric propulsion (DEP) may utilize propellers whose main purpose is to act as a form of high-lift device. These \\high-lift propellers" can be placed upstream of wing such that, when the higher-velocity ow in the propellers' slipstreams interacts with the wing, the lift is increased. This technique is a main design feature of a new NASA advanced design project called Scalable Convergent Electric Propulsion Technology Operations Research (SCEPTOR). The goal of the SCEPTOR project is design, build, and y a DEP aircraft to demonstrate that such an aircraft can be much more ecient than conventional designs. This paper provides details into the high-lift propeller system con guration selection for the SCEPTOR ight demonstrator. The methods used in the high-lift propeller system conceptual design and the tradeo s considered in selecting the number of propellers are discussed.

  2. Selecting the Best Graphite for Long-Life, High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Chengyu; Wood, Marissa; David, Lamuel Abraham

    Here, most lithium-ion batteries still rely on intercalation-type graphite materials for anodes, so it is important to consider their role in full cells for applications in electric vehicles. Here, we systematically evaluate the chemical and physical properties of six commercially-available natural and synthetic graphites to establish which factors have the greatest impact on the cycling stability of full cells with nickel-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) cathodes. Electrochemical data and post-mortem characterization explain the origin of capacity fade. The NMC811 cathode shows large irreversible capacity loss and impedance growth, accounting for much of full cell degradation. However, six graphite anodes demonstrate significant differencesmore » with respect to structural change, surface area, impedance growth, and SEI chemistry, which impact overall capacity retention. We found long cycle life correlated most strongly with stable graphite crystallite size. In addition, graphites with lower surface area generally had higher coulombic efficiencies during formation cycles, which led to more stable long-term cycling. The best graphite screened here enables a capacity retention around 90% in full pouch cells over extensive long-term cycling compared to only 82% for cells with the lowest performing graphite. The results show that optimal graphite selection improves cycling stability of high energy lithium-ion cells.« less

  3. Selecting the Best Graphite for Long-Life, High-Energy Li-Ion Batteries

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Chengyu; Wood, Marissa; David, Lamuel Abraham; ...

    2018-06-16

    Here, most lithium-ion batteries still rely on intercalation-type graphite materials for anodes, so it is important to consider their role in full cells for applications in electric vehicles. Here, we systematically evaluate the chemical and physical properties of six commercially-available natural and synthetic graphites to establish which factors have the greatest impact on the cycling stability of full cells with nickel-rich LiNi0.8Mn0.1Co0.1O2 (NMC811) cathodes. Electrochemical data and post-mortem characterization explain the origin of capacity fade. The NMC811 cathode shows large irreversible capacity loss and impedance growth, accounting for much of full cell degradation. However, six graphite anodes demonstrate significant differencesmore » with respect to structural change, surface area, impedance growth, and SEI chemistry, which impact overall capacity retention. We found long cycle life correlated most strongly with stable graphite crystallite size. In addition, graphites with lower surface area generally had higher coulombic efficiencies during formation cycles, which led to more stable long-term cycling. The best graphite screened here enables a capacity retention around 90% in full pouch cells over extensive long-term cycling compared to only 82% for cells with the lowest performing graphite. The results show that optimal graphite selection improves cycling stability of high energy lithium-ion cells.« less

  4. An Integrated Model for Supplier Selection for a High-Tech Manufacturer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Amy H. I.; Kang, He-Yau; Lin, Chun-Yu

    2011-11-01

    Global competitiveness has become the biggest concern of manufacturing companies, especially in high-tech industries. Improving competitive edges in an environment with rapidly changing technological innovations and dynamic customer needs is essential for a firm to survive and to acquire a decent profit. Thus, the introduction of successful new products is a source of new sales and profits and is a necessity in the intense competitive international market. After a product is developed, a firm needs the cooperation of upstream suppliers to provide satisfactory components and parts for manufacturing final products. Therefore, the selection of suitable suppliers has also become a very important decision. In this study, an analytical approach is proposed to select the most appropriate critical-part suppliers in order to maintain a high reliability of the supply chain. A fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) model, which incorporates the benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR) concept, is constructed to evaluate various aspects of suppliers. The proposed model is adopted in a TFT-LCD manufacturer in Taiwan in evaluating the expected performance of suppliers with respect to each important factor, and an overall ranking of the suppliers can be generated as a result.

  5. A selective electrocatalyst–based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag2S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm−2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. PMID:28695199

  6. A selective electrocatalyst-based direct methanol fuel cell operated at high concentrations of methanol.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2017-06-01

    Owing to the serious crossover of methanol from the anode to the cathode through the polymer electrolyte membrane, direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) usually use dilute methanol solutions as fuel. However, the use of high-concentration methanol is highly demanded to improve the energy density of a DMFC system. Instead of the conventional strategies (for example, improving the fuel-feed system, membrane development, modification of electrode, and water management), we demonstrate the use of selective electrocatalysts to run a DMFC at high concentrations of methanol. In particular, at an operating temperature of 80°C, the as-fabricated DMFC with core-shell-shell Au@Ag 2 S@Pt nanocomposites at the anode and core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles at the cathode produces a maximum power density of 89.7 mW cm -2 at a methanol feed concentration of 10 M and maintains good performance at a methanol concentration of up to 15 M. The high selectivity of the electrocatalysts achieved through structural construction accounts for the successful operation of the DMFC at high concentrations of methanol.

  7. Highly Selective and Sensitive Self-Powered Glucose Sensor Based on Capacitor Circuit.

    PubMed

    Slaughter, Gymama; Kulkarni, Tanmay

    2017-05-03

    Enzymatic glucose biosensors are being developed to incorporate nanoscale materials with the biological recognition elements to assist in the rapid and sensitive detection of glucose. Here we present a highly sensitive and selective glucose sensor based on capacitor circuit that is capable of selectively sensing glucose while simultaneously powering a small microelectronic device. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) is chemically modified with pyrroloquinoline quinone glucose dehydrogenase (PQQ-GDH) and bilirubin oxidase (BOD) at anode and cathode, respectively, in the biofuel cell arrangement. The input voltage (as low as 0.25 V) from the biofuel cell is converted to a stepped-up power and charged to the capacitor to the voltage of 1.8 V. The frequency of the charge/discharge cycle of the capacitor corresponded to the oxidation of glucose. The biofuel cell structure-based glucose sensor synergizes the advantages of both the glucose biosensor and biofuel cell. In addition, this glucose sensor favored a very high selectivity towards glucose in the presence of competing and non-competing analytes. It exhibited unprecedented sensitivity of 37.66 Hz/mM.cm 2 and a linear range of 1 to 20 mM. This innovative self-powered glucose sensor opens new doors for implementation of biofuel cells and capacitor circuits for medical diagnosis and powering therapeutic devices.

  8. High selectivity of colorimetric detection of p-nitrophenol based on Ag nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Fei; Chen, Ping; Zhu, Shuyun; You, Jinmao

    2017-01-01

    Ag nanoclusters (Ag NCs) templated by hyperbranched polyethyleneimine (PEI) with different terminal groups and molecular weights had been developed as a special optical sensor for detecting p-nitrophenol (p-NP). When adding p-NP into Ag NCs, an obvious color change from pale yellow to deep yellow could be observed by naked eyes, accompanying with an apparent red-shift of absorption peak, and the reason was attributed to the formation of oxygen anion of p-NP based on the transfer of H+ from p-NP to amine groups of PEI. The molecular weights of template would greatly affect the sensitivity of p-NP. Ag NCs capped by PEI terminated ethylenediamine (EDA) possessed better sensitivity than other Ag NCs, showing good linear range from 5 to 140 μM with the limit of detection as low as 1.28 μM. Most importantly, this present system displayed high selectivity toward p-NP even in the presence of other nitrophenols and nitrotoluenes. This reliable method had been successfully applied for the detection of p-NP in real water and soil samples.

  9. Comparative analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes suggests that relaxed purifying selection is driving high nonsynonymous evolutionary rate of the NADH2 gene in whitefish (Coregonus ssp.).

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Magnus W; da Fonseca, Rute R; Bernatchez, Louis; Hansen, Michael M

    2016-02-01

    Several studies have recently reported evidence for positive selection acting on the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome), emphasizing its potential role in adaptive divergence and speciation. In this study we searched 107 full mitogenomes of recently diverged species and lineages of whitefish (Coregonus ssp.) for signals of positive selection. These salmonids show several distinct morphological and ecological differences that may be associated with energetics and therefore potentially positive selection at the mitogenome level. We found that purifying selection and genetic drift were the predominant evolutionary forces acting on the analyzed mitogenomes. However, the NADH dehydrogenase 2 gene (ND2) showed a highly elevated dN/dS ratio compared to the other mitochondrial genes, which was significantly higher in whitefish compared to other salmonids. We therefore further examined nonsynonymous evolution in ND2 by (i) mapping amino acid changes to a protein model structure which showed that they were located away from key functional residues of the protein, (ii) locating them in the sequences of other species of fish (Salmonidae, Anguillidae, Scombridae and Percidae) only to find pronounced overlap of nonsynonymous regions. We thus conclude that relaxed purifying selection is driving the evolution of ND2 by affecting mostly regions that have lower functional relevance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Colorimetric and fluorescent detection of hydrazine with high sensitivity and excellent selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bingjie; Qi, Sujie; Yu, Mingming; Liu, Chunxia; Li, Zhanxian; Wei, Liuhe; Ni, Zhonghai

    2018-01-01

    It is critical to develop probes for rapid, selective, and sensitive detection of the highly toxic hydrazine in both environmental and biological science. In this work, under mild condition, a novel colorimetric and off-on fluorescent probe was synthesized for rapid recognition of hydrazine with excellent selectivity over other various species including some biological species, metal ions and anions. The limit of quantification (LOQ) value was 1.5 × 10- 4 M-3.2 × 10- 3 M (colorimetric method) and 1.5 × 10- 4 M - 3.2 × 10- 3 M (fluorescent method) with as low as detection limit of 46.2 μM.

  11. Data re-arranging techniques leading to proper variable selections in high energy physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kůs, Václav; Bouř, Petr

    2017-12-01

    We introduce a new data based approach to homogeneity testing and variable selection carried out in high energy physics experiments, where one of the basic tasks is to test the homogeneity of weighted samples, mainly the Monte Carlo simulations (weighted) and real data measurements (unweighted). This technique is called ’data re-arranging’ and it enables variable selection performed by means of the classical statistical homogeneity tests such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling, or Pearson’s chi-square divergence test. P-values of our variants of homogeneity tests are investigated and the empirical verification through 46 dimensional high energy particle physics data sets is accomplished under newly proposed (equiprobable) quantile binning. Particularly, the procedure of homogeneity testing is applied to re-arranged Monte Carlo samples and real DATA sets measured at the particle accelerator Tevatron in Fermilab at DØ experiment originating from top-antitop quark pair production in two decay channels (electron, muon) with 2, 3, or 4+ jets detected. Finally, the variable selections in the electron and muon channels induced by the re-arranging procedure for homogeneity testing are provided for Tevatron top-antitop quark data sets.

  12. Pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel, highly potent and selective non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyoshi; Homma, Tsuyoshi; Morikawa, Yuka; Ubukata, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Hiyoyuki; Aoki, Kazumasa; Ishikawa, Hirokazu; Mizuno, Makoto; Sada, Toshio

    2015-08-15

    The present study was designed to characterize the pharmacological profile of CS-3150, a novel non-steroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist. In the radioligand-binding assay, CS-3150 inhibited (3)H-aldosterone binding to mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 9.4nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 36 and 713nM, respectively. CS-3150 also showed at least 1000-fold higher selectivity for mineralocorticoid receptor over other steroid hormone receptors, glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor. In the reporter gene assay, CS-3150 inhibited aldosterone-induced transcriptional activation of human mineralocorticoid receptor with an IC50 value of 3.7nM, and its potency was superior to that of spironolactone and eplerenone, whose IC50s were 66 and 970nM, respectively. CS-3150 had no agonistic effect on mineralocorticoid receptor and did not show any antagonistic or agonistic effect on glucocorticoid receptor, androgen receptor and progesterone receptor even at the high concentration of 5μM. In adrenalectomized rats, single oral administration of CS-3150 suppressed aldosterone-induced decrease in urinary Na(+)/K(+) ratio, an index of in vivo mineralocorticoid receptor activation, and this suppressive effect was more potent and longer-lasting than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. Chronic treatment with CS-3150 inhibited blood pressure elevation induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-loading to rats, and this antihypertensive effect was more potent than that of spironolactone and eplerenone. These findings indicate that CS-3150 is a selective and highly potent mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist with long-lasting oral activity. This agent could be useful for the treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Highly sensitive and selective detection of Al(III) ions in aqueous buffered solution with fluorescent peptide-based sensor.

    PubMed

    In, Byunggyu; Hwang, Gi Won; Lee, Keun-Hyeung

    2016-09-15

    A fluorescent sensor based on a tripeptide (SerGluGlu) with a dansyl fluorophore detected selectively Al(III) among 16 metal ions in aqueous buffered solutions without any organic cosolvent. The peptide-based sensor showed a highly sensitive turn on response to aluminium ion with high binding affinity (1.84×10(4)M(-1)) in aqueous buffered solutions. The detection limit (230nM, 5.98ppb) of the peptide-based sensor was much lower than the maximum allowable level (7.41μM) of aluminium ions in drinking water demanded by EPA. The binding mode of the peptide sensor with aluminium ions was characterized using ESI mass spectrometry, NMR titration, and pH titration experiments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Leaf Photosynthesis and Respiration of High CO2-Grown Tobacco Plants Selected for Survival under CO2 Compensation Point Conditions 1

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Esteban; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquim; Aranda, Xavier; Palazón, Javier; Medrano, Hipólito

    1992-01-01

    Four self-pollinated, doubled-haploid tobacco, (Nicotiana tabacum L.) lines (SP422, SP432, SP435, and SP451), selected as haploids by survival in a low CO2 atmosphere, and the parental cv Wisconsin-38 were grown from seed in a growth room kept at high CO2 levels (600-700 parts per million). The selected plants were much larger (especially SP422, SP432, and SP451) than Wisconsin-38 nine weeks after planting. The specific leaf dry weight and the carbon (but not nitrogen and sulfur) content per unit area were also higher in the selected plants. However, the chlorophyll, carotenoid, and alkaloid contents and the chlorophyll a/b ratio varied little. The net CO2 assimilation rate per unit area measured in the growth room at high CO2 was not higher in the selected plants. The CO2 assimilation rate versus intercellular CO2 curve and the CO2 compensation point showed no substantial differences among the different lines, even though these plants were selected for survival under CO2 compensation point conditions. Adult leaf respiration rates were similar when expressed per unit area but were lower in the selected lines when expressed per unit dry weight. Leaf respiration rates were negatively correlated with specific leaf dry weight and with the carbon content per unit area and were positively correlated with nitrogen and sulfur content of the dry matter. The alternative pathway was not involved in respiration in the dark in these leaves. The better carbon economy of tobacco lines selected for low CO2 survival was not apparently related to an improvement of photosynthesis rate but could be related, at least partially, to a significantly reduced respiration (mainly cytochrome pathway) rate per unit carbon. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:16668769

  15. Selected classes of minimised hammerhead ribozyme have very high cleavage rates at low Mg2+ concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Conaty, J; Hendry, P; Lockett, T

    1999-01-01

    In vitro selection was used to enrich for highly efficient RNA phosphodiesterases within a size-constrained (18 nt) ribonucleotide domain. The starting population (g0) was directed in trans against an RNA oligonucleotide substrate immobilised to an avidin-magnetic phase. Four rounds of selection were conducted using 20 mM Mg2+to fractionate the population on the basis of divalent metal ion-dependent phosphodiesterase activity. The resulting generation 4 (g4) RNA was then directed through a further two rounds of selection using low concentrations of Mg2+. Generation 6 (g6) was composed of sets of active, trans cleaving minimised ribozymes, containing recognised hammerhead motifs in the conserved nucleotides, but with highly variable linker domains (loop II-L.1-L.4). Cleavage rate constants in the g6 population ranged from 0.004 to 1.3 min-1at 1 mM Mg2+(pH 8.0, 37 degrees C). Selection was further used to define conserved positions between G(10.1) and C(11.1) required for high cleavage activity at low Mg2+concentration. At 10 mM MgCl2the kinetic phenotype of these molecules was comparable to a hammerhead ribozyme with 4 bp in helix II. At low Mg2+concentration, the disparity in cleavage rate constants increases in favour of the minimised ribozymes. Favourable kinetic traits appeared to be a general property for specific selected linker sequences, as the high rates of catalysis were transferable to a different substrate system. PMID:10325431

  16. The Pharmacological Heterogeneity of Nepenthone Analogs in Conferring Highly Selective and Potent κ-Opioid Agonistic Activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Long, Jian-Dong; Qian, Yuan-Yuan; Long, Yu; Xu, Xue-Jun; Wang, Yu-Jun; Shen, Qing; Wang, Zuo-Neng; Yang, Xi-Cheng; Xiao, Li; Sun, Hong-Peng; Xu, Yu-Long; Chen, Yi-Yi; Xie, Qiong; Wang, Yong-Hui; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Jing-Gen; Qiu, Zhui-Bai; Fu, Wei

    2017-04-19

    To develop novel analgesics with no side effects or less side effects than traditional opioids is highly demanded to treat opioid receptor mediated pain and addiction issues. Recently, κ-opioid receptor (KOR) has been established as an attractive target, although its selective agonists could bear heterogeneous pharmacological activities. In this study, we designed and synthesized two new series of nepenthone derivatives by inserting a spacer (carbonyl) between 6α,14α-endo-ethenylthebaine and the 7α-phenyl substitution of the skeleton and by substituting the 17-N-methyl group with a cyclopropylmethyl group. We performed in vitro tests (binding and functional assays) and molecular docking operations on our newly designed compounds. The results of wet-experimental measures and modeled binding structures demonstrate that these new compounds are selective KOR agonists with nanomolar level affinities. Compound 4 from these new derivatives showed the highest affinity (K i = 0.4 ± 0.1 nM) and the highest selectivity (μ/κ = 339, δ/κ = 2034) toward KOR. The in vivo tests revealed that compound 4 is able to induce stronger (ED 50 = 2.1 mg/kg) and much longer antinociceptive effect than that of the typical KOR agonist U50488H (ED 50 = 4.4 mg/kg). Therefore, compound 4 can be used as a perfect lead compound for future design of potent analgesics acting through KOR.

  17. Highly sensitive and selective determination of methylergometrine maleate using carbon nanofibers/silver nanoparticles composite modified carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Kalambate, Pramod K; Rawool, Chaitali R; Karna, Shashi P; Srivastava, Ashwini K

    2016-12-01

    A highly sensitive and selective voltammetric method for determination of Methylergometrine maleate (MM) in pharmaceutical formulations, urine and blood serum samples has been developed based on enhanced electrochemical response of MM at carbon nanofibers and silver nanoparticles modified carbon paste electrode (CNF-AgNP-CPE). The electrode material was characterized by various techniques viz., X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The electrocatalytic response of MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE was studied by cyclic voltammetry (CV), differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Under optimized conditions, the proposed sensor exhibits excellent electrochemical response towards MM. The DPV study shows greatly enhanced electrochemical signal for MM at CNF-AgNP-CPE lending high sensitivity to the proposed sensor for MM detection. The peak (Ip) current for MM is found to be rectilinear in the range 4.0×10(-8)-2.0×10(-5)M with a detection limit of 7.1×10(-9)M using DPV. The feasibility of the proposed sensor in analytical applications was investigated by conducting experiments on commercial pharmaceutical formulations, human urine and blood serum samples, which yielded satisfactory recoveries of MM. The proposed electrochemical sensor offers high sensitivity, selectivity, reproducibility and practical utility. We recommend it as an authentic and productive electrochemical sensor for successful determination of MM. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Highly selective fluorescence turn-on sensor for fluoride detection.

    PubMed

    Sui, Binglin; Kim, Bosung; Zhang, Yuanwei; Frazer, Andrew; Belfield, Kevin D

    2013-04-24

    Through click chemistry, triazole and triazolium groups have been explored to recognize anions through C-H···A(-) hydrogen-bonding complexion. Herein, we demonstrate evidence of fluoride-induced deprotonation of a C-H bond and its application in fluoride detection. The combination of fluorene and triazolium units produced a highly selective fluorescence turn-on prototype sensor for fluoride. The interactions between the C-H bond and F(-) were studied by fluorescence spectroscopy and (1)H NMR titrations. Test papers were prepared to detect fluoride in aqueous media at concentrations down to 1.9 ppm, important for estimating whether the fluoride concentration in drinking water is at a safe level.

  19. Shape-selective adsorption of aromatic molecules from water by tetramethylammonium-smectite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, J.; Mortland, M.M.; Boyd, S.A.; Chiou, C.T.

    1989-01-01

    The adsorption of aromatic compounds by smectite exchanged with tetramethylammonium (TMA) has been studied. Aromatic compounds adsorbed by TMA-smectite are assumed to adopt a tilted orientation in a face-to-face arrangment with the TMA tetrahedra. The sorptive characteristics of TMA-smectite were influenced strongly by the presence of water. The dry TMA-smectite showed little selectivity in the uptake of benzen, toluene and xylene. In the presence of water, TMA-smectite showed a high degree of selectivity based on molecular size/shape, resulting in high uptake of benzene and progressively lower uptake of larger aromatic molecules. This selectivity appeared to result from the shrinkage of interlamellar cavities by water.

  20. Highly Selective End-Tagged Antimicrobial Peptides Derived from PRELP

    PubMed Central

    Malmsten, Martin; Kasetty, Gopinath; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Alenfall, Jan; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2011-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are receiving increasing attention due to resistance development against conventional antibiotics. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are two major pathogens involved in an array of infections such as ocular infections, cystic fibrosis, wound and post-surgery infections, and sepsis. The goal of the study was to design novel AMPs against these pathogens. Methodology and Principal Findings Antibacterial activity was determined by radial diffusion, viable count, and minimal inhibitory concentration assays, while toxicity was evaluated by hemolysis and effects on human epithelial cells. Liposome and fluorescence studies provided mechanistic information. Protease sensitivity was evaluated after subjection to human leukocyte elastase, staphylococcal aureolysin and V8 proteinase, as well as P. aeruginosa elastase. Highly active peptides were evaluated in ex vivo skin infection models. C-terminal end-tagging by W and F amino acid residues increased antimicrobial potency of the peptide sequences GRRPRPRPRP and RRPRPRPRP, derived from proline arginine-rich and leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP). The optimized peptides were antimicrobial against a range of Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, also in the presence of human plasma and blood. Simultaneously, they showed low toxicity against mammalian cells. Particularly W-tagged peptides displayed stability against P. aeruginosa elastase, and S. aureus V8 proteinase and aureolysin, and the peptide RRPRPRPRPWWWW-NH2 was effective against various “superbugs” including vancomycin-resistant enterococci, multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa, and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, as well as demonstrated efficiency in an ex vivo skin wound model of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa infection. Conclusions/Significance Hydrophobic C-terminal end-tagging of the cationic sequence RRPRPRPRP generates highly selective AMPs with potent activity against

  1. Angle-selective optical filter for highly sensitive reflection photoplethysmogram

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Chan-Sol; Yang, Sung-Pyo; Jang, Kyung-Won; Park, Jung-Woo; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2017-01-01

    We report an angle-selective optical filter (ASOF) for highly sensitive reflection photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors. The ASOF features slanted aluminum (Al) micromirror arrays embedded in transparent polymer resin, which effectively block scattered light under human tissue. The device microfabrication was done by using geometry-guided resist reflow of polymer micropatterns, polydimethylsiloxane replica molding, and oblique angle deposition of thin Al film. The angular transmittance through the ASOF is precisely controlled by the angle of micromirrors. For the mirror angle of 30 degrees, the ASOF accepts an incident light between - 90 to + 50 degrees and the maximum transmittance at - 55 degrees. The ASOF exhibits the substantial reduction of both the in-band noise of PPG signals over a factor of two and the low-frequency noise by three times. Consequently, this filter allows distinguishing the diastolic peak that allows miscellaneous parameters with diverse vascular information. This optical filter provides a new opportunity for highly sensitive PPG monitoring or miscellaneous optical tomography. PMID:29082070

  2. A bifunctional luminescent Tb(III)-metal-organic framework by a tetracarboxylate ligand for highly selective detection of Fe3+ cation and Cr2O72- anion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Li; Wang, Chao; Hu, Chang-Jiang; Dong, Wen-Wen; Wu, Ya-Pan; Li, Dong-Sheng; Zhao, Jun

    2018-06-01

    Reaction of Tb3+ ions with p-terphenyl-3,3″,5,5″-tetracarboxylic acid (H4ptptc) in a mixed solvent system has afforded a new metal-organic framework formulated as [Tb2(ptptc)1.5(H2O)2]n (1). Compound 1 displays a 3D (5,6,8)-connected framework with fascinating one-dimensional triangle open channels. The luminescence explorations demonstrated that 1 exhibits highly selective and sensitive response to Fe3+ in DMF solution and biological system through luminescence quenching effects. In addition, 1 also shows high detection for the Cr2O72-, making it a promising dual functional materials for detecting Fe3+ cation and Cr2O72- anion with high sensitivity and selectivity.

  3. Deletion of SLC19A2, the high affinity thiamine transporter, causes selective inner hair cell loss and an auditory neuropathy phenotype.

    PubMed

    Liberman, M C; Tartaglini, E; Fleming, J C; Neufeld, E J

    2006-09-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for the high-affinity thiamine transporter Slc19a2 underlie the clinical syndrome known as thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA) characterized by anemia, diabetes, and sensorineural hearing loss. To create a mouse model of this disease, a mutant line was created with targeted disruption of the gene. Cochlear function is normal in these mutants when maintained on a high-thiamine diet. When challenged with a low-thiamine diet, Slc19a2-null mice showed 40-60 dB threshold elevations by auditory brainstem response (ABR), but only 10-20 dB elevation by otoacoustic emission (OAE) measures. Wild-type mice retain normal hearing on either diet. Cochlear histological analysis showed a pattern uncommon for sensorineural hearing loss: selective loss of inner hair cells after 1-2 weeks on low thiamine and significantly greater inner than outer hair cell loss after longer low-thiamine challenges. Such a pattern is consistent with the observed discrepancy between ABR and OAE threshold shifts. The possible role of thiamine transport in other reported cases of selective inner hair cell loss is considered.

  4. Bombesin functionalized gold nanoparticles show in vitro and in vivo cancer receptor specificity.

    PubMed

    Chanda, Nripen; Kattumuri, Vijaya; Shukla, Ravi; Zambre, Ajit; Katti, Kavita; Upendran, Anandhi; Kulkarni, Rajesh R; Kan, Para; Fent, Genevieve M; Casteel, Stan W; Smith, C Jeffrey; Boote, Evan; Robertson, J David; Cutler, Cathy; Lever, John R; Katti, Kattesh V; Kannan, Raghuraman

    2010-05-11

    Development of cancer receptor-specific gold nanoparticles will allow efficient targeting/optimum retention of engineered gold nanoparticles within tumors and thus provide synergistic advantages in oncology as it relates to molecular imaging and therapy. Bombesin (BBN) peptides have demonstrated high affinity toward gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptors in vivo that are overexpressed in prostate, breast, and small-cell lung carcinoma. We have synthesized a library of GRP receptor-avid nanoplatforms by conjugating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with BBN peptides. Cellular interactions and binding affinities (IC(50)) of AuNP-BBN conjugates toward GRP receptors on human prostate cancer cells have been investigated in detail. In vivo studies using AuNP-BBN and its radiolabeled surrogate (198)AuNP-BBN, exhibiting high binding affinity (IC(50) in microgram ranges), provide unequivocal evidence that AuNP-BBN constructs are GRP-receptor-specific showing accumulation with high selectivity in GRP-receptor-rich pancreatic acne in normal mice and also in tumors in prostate-tumor-bearing, severe combined immunodeficient mice. The i.p. mode of delivery has been found to be efficient as AuNP-BBN conjugates showed reduced RES organ uptake with concomitant increase in uptake at tumor targets. The selective uptake of this new generation of GRP-receptor-specific AuNP-BBN peptide analogs has demonstrated realistic clinical potential in molecular imaging via x-ray computed tomography techniques as the contrast numbers in prostate tumor sites are severalfold higher as compared to the pretreatment group (Hounsfield unit = 150).

  5. Maternal Style Selectively Shapes Amygdalar Development and Social Behavior in Rats Genetically Prone to High Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joshua L; Glover, Matthew E; Pugh, Phyllis C; Fant, Andrew D; Simmons, Rebecca K; Akil, Huda; Kerman, Ilan A; Clinton, Sarah M

    2015-01-01

    The early-life environment critically influences neurodevelopment and later psychological health. To elucidate neural and environmental elements that shape emotional behavior, we developed a rat model of individual differences in temperament and environmental reactivity. We selectively bred rats for high versus low behavioral response to novelty and found that high-reactive (bred high-responder, bHR) rats displayed greater risk-taking, impulsivity and aggression relative to low-reactive (bred low-responder, bLR) rats, which showed high levels of anxiety/depression-like behavior and certain stress vulnerability. The bHR/bLR traits are heritable, but prior work revealed bHR/bLR maternal style differences, with bLR dams showing more maternal attention than bHRs. The present study implemented a cross-fostering paradigm to examine the contribution of maternal behavior to the brain development and emotional behavior of bLR offspring. bLR offspring were reared by biological bLR mothers or fostered to a bLR or bHR mother and then evaluated to determine the effects on the following: (1) developmental gene expression in the hippocampus and amygdala and (2) adult anxiety/depression-like behavior. Genome-wide expression profiling showed that cross-fostering bLR rats to bHR mothers shifted developmental gene expression in the amygdala (but not hippocampus), reduced adult anxiety and enhanced social interaction. Our findings illustrate how an early-life manipulation such as cross-fostering changes the brain's developmental trajectory and ultimately impacts adult behavior. Moreover, while earlier studies highlighted hippocampal differences contributing to the bHR/bLR phenotypes, our results point to a role of the amygdala as well. Future work will pursue genetic and cellular mechanisms within the amygdala that contribute to bHR/bLR behavior either at baseline or following environmental manipulations. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Blind column selection protocol for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Burns, Niki K; Andrighetto, Luke M; Conlan, Xavier A; Purcell, Stuart D; Barnett, Neil W; Denning, Jacquie; Francis, Paul S; Stevenson, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    The selection of two orthogonal columns for two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (LC×LC) separation of natural product extracts can be a labour intensive and time consuming process and in many cases is an entirely trial-and-error approach. This paper introduces a blind optimisation method for column selection of a black box of constituent components. A data processing pipeline, created in the open source application OpenMS®, was developed to map the components within the mixture of equal mass across a library of HPLC columns; LC×LC separation space utilisation was compared by measuring the fractional surface coverage, fcoverage. It was found that for a test mixture from an opium poppy (Papaver somniferum) extract, the combination of diphenyl and C18 stationary phases provided a predicted fcoverage of 0.48 and was matched with an actual usage of 0.43. OpenMS®, in conjunction with algorithms designed in house, have allowed for a significantly quicker selection of two orthogonal columns, which have been optimised for a LC×LC separation of crude extractions of plant material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Highly sensitive and selective detection of dopamine using one-pot synthesized highly photoluminescent silicon nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Chen, Xiaokai; Kai, Siqi; Wang, Hong-Yin; Yang, Jingjing; Wu, Fu-Gen; Chen, Zhan

    2015-03-17

    A simple and highly efficient method for dopamine (DA) detection using water-soluble silicon nanoparticles (SiNPs) was reported. The SiNPs with a high quantum yield of 23.6% were synthesized by using a one-pot microwave-assisted method. The fluorescence quenching capability of a variety of molecules on the synthesized SiNPs has been tested; only DA molecules were found to be able to quench the fluorescence of these SiNPs effectively. Therefore, such a quenching effect can be used to selectively detect DA. All other molecules tested have little interference with the dopamine detection, including ascorbic acid, which commonly exists in cells and can possibly affect the dopamine detection. The ratio of the fluorescence intensity difference between the quenched and unquenched cases versus the fluorescence intensity without quenching (ΔI/I) was observed to be linearly proportional to the DA analyte concentration in the range from 0.005 to 10.0 μM, with a detection limit of 0.3 nM (S/N = 3). To the best of our knowledge, this is the lowest limit for DA detection reported so far. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from the SiNPs to the oxidized dopamine molecules through Förster resonance energy transfer. The reported method of SiNP synthesis is very simple and cheap, making the above sensitive and selective DA detection approach using SiNPs practical for many applications.

  8. Middle-Class Parents' Educational Work in an Academically Selective Public High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stacey, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a study on the nature of parent-school engagement at an academically selective public high school in New South Wales, Australia. Such research is pertinent given recent policies of "choice" and decentralization, making a study of local stakeholders timely. The research comprised a set of interviews…

  9. Isotopically enriched ammonium shows high nitrogen transformation in the pile top zone of dairy manure compost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Koki; Toyoda, Sakae; Yano, Midori; Hattori, Shohei; Fukasawa, Makoto; Nakajima, Keiichi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-03-01

    Nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) of NH4+ in dairy manure compost piles with and without bulking agent (10 % w/w) were compared to understand the effects of the use of bulking agent on nitrogen conversion during manure composting. The δ15N-NH4+ values in each of three pile zones (top, side and core) were also compared. At the end of the process, piles with bulking agent showed significantly higher δ15N values (17.7 ± 1.3 ‰) than piles without bulking agent (11.8 ± 0.9 ‰), reflecting the significantly higher nitrogen conversion and NH3 loss in the former. The samples from the top zone, especially in the piles with bulking agent, showed very high NH4+ concentrations with significantly high 15N (δ15N: 12.7-29.8 ‰) values, indicating that extremely high nitrogen conversion, nitrification-denitrification activity of the microbes and NH3 volatilization occurred in this zone.

  10. A cobalt(II) bis(salicylate)-based ionic liquid that shows thermoresponsive and selective water coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Kohno, Y; Cowan, MG; Masuda, M

    2014-01-01

    A metal-containing ionic liquid (MCIL) has been prepared in which the [CoII(salicylate)(2)](2-) anion is able to selectively coordinate two water molecules with a visible colour change, even in the presence of alcohols. Upon moderate heating or placement in vacuo, the hydrated MCIL undergoes reversible thermochromism by releasing the bound water molecules.

  11. High axial resolution imaging system for large volume tissues using combination of inclined selective plane illumination and mechanical sectioning

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Yang, Xiong; Hu, Qinglei; Bai, Ke; Yin, Fangfang; Li, Ning; Gang, Yadong; Wang, Xiaojun; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2017-01-01

    To resolve fine structures of biological systems like neurons, it is required to realize microscopic imaging with sufficient spatial resolution in three dimensional systems. With regular optical imaging systems, high lateral resolution is accessible while high axial resolution is hard to achieve in a large volume. We introduce an imaging system for high 3D resolution fluorescence imaging of large volume tissues. Selective plane illumination was adopted to provide high axial resolution. A scientific CMOS working in sub-array mode kept the imaging area in the sample surface, which restrained the adverse effect of aberrations caused by inclined illumination. Plastic embedding and precise mechanical sectioning extended the axial range and eliminated distortion during the whole imaging process. The combination of these techniques enabled 3D high resolution imaging of large tissues. Fluorescent bead imaging showed resolutions of 0.59 μm, 0.47μm, and 0.59 μm in the x, y, and z directions, respectively. Data acquired from the volume sample of brain tissue demonstrated the applicability of this imaging system. Imaging of different depths showed uniform performance where details could be recognized in either the near-soma area or terminal area, and fine structures of neurons could be seen in both the xy and xz sections. PMID:29296503

  12. Analysis of Information Content in High-Spectral Resolution Sounders using Subset Selection Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velez-Reyes, Miguel; Joiner, Joanna

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we summarize the results of the sensitivity analysis and data reduction carried out to determine the information content of AIRS and IASI channels. The analysis and data reduction was based on the use of subset selection techniques developed in the linear algebra and statistical community to study linear dependencies in high dimensional data sets. We applied the subset selection method to study dependency among channels by studying the dependency among their weighting functions. Also, we applied the technique to study the information provided by the different levels in which the atmosphere is discretized for retrievals and analysis. Results from the method correlate well with intuition in many respects and point out to possible modifications for band selection in sensor design and number and location of levels in the analysis process.

  13. Nutrition Information at the Point of Selection in High Schools Does Not Affect Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainville, Alice Jo; Choi, Kyunghee; Ragg, Mark; King, Amber; Carr, Deborah H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Nutrition information can be an important component of local wellness policies. There are very few studies regarding nutrition information at the point of selection (POS) in high schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of posting entree nutrition information at the POS in high schools nationwide.…

  14. Toward high-throughput phenotyping: unbiased automated feature extraction and selection from knowledge sources.

    PubMed

    Yu, Sheng; Liao, Katherine P; Shaw, Stanley Y; Gainer, Vivian S; Churchill, Susanne E; Szolovits, Peter; Murphy, Shawn N; Kohane, Isaac S; Cai, Tianxi

    2015-09-01

    Analysis of narrative (text) data from electronic health records (EHRs) can improve population-scale phenotyping for clinical and genetic research. Currently, selection of text features for phenotyping algorithms is slow and laborious, requiring extensive and iterative involvement by domain experts. This paper introduces a method to develop phenotyping algorithms in an unbiased manner by automatically extracting and selecting informative features, which can be comparable to expert-curated ones in classification accuracy. Comprehensive medical concepts were collected from publicly available knowledge sources in an automated, unbiased fashion. Natural language processing (NLP) revealed the occurrence patterns of these concepts in EHR narrative notes, which enabled selection of informative features for phenotype classification. When combined with additional codified features, a penalized logistic regression model was trained to classify the target phenotype. The authors applied our method to develop algorithms to identify patients with rheumatoid arthritis and coronary artery disease cases among those with rheumatoid arthritis from a large multi-institutional EHR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) for classifying RA and CAD using models trained with automated features were 0.951 and 0.929, respectively, compared to the AUCs of 0.938 and 0.929 by models trained with expert-curated features. Models trained with NLP text features selected through an unbiased, automated procedure achieved comparable or slightly higher accuracy than those trained with expert-curated features. The majority of the selected model features were interpretable. The proposed automated feature extraction method, generating highly accurate phenotyping algorithms with improved efficiency, is a significant step toward high-throughput phenotyping. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All

  15. A 3D Chemically Modified Graphene Hydrogel for Fast, Highly Sensitive, and Selective Gas Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jin; Tao, Kai; Guo, Yuanyuan; Li, Zhong; Wang, Xiaotian; Luo, Zhongzhen; Feng, Shuanglong; Du, Chunlei; Chen, Di; Miao, Jianmin; Norford, Leslie K

    2017-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) has proved to be a promising candidate in high-performance gas sensing in ambient conditions. However, trace detection of different kinds of gases with simultaneously high sensitivity and selectivity is challenging. Here, a chemiresistor-type sensor based on 3D sulfonated RGO hydrogel (S-RGOH) is reported, which can detect a variety of important gases with high sensitivity, boosted selectivity, fast response, and good reversibility. The NaHSO 3 functionalized RGOH displays remarkable 118.6 and 58.9 times higher responses to NO 2 and NH 3 , respectively, compared with its unmodified RGOH counterpart. In addition, the S-RGOH sensor is highly responsive to volatile organic compounds. More importantly, the characteristic patterns on the linearly fitted response-temperature curves are employed to distinguish various gases for the first time. The temperature of the sensor is elevated rapidly by an imbedded microheater with little power consumption. The 3D S-RGOH is characterized and the sensing mechanisms are proposed. This work gains new insights into boosting the sensitivity of detecting various gases by combining chemical modification and 3D structural engineering of RGO, and improving the selectivity of gas sensing by employing temperature dependent response characteristics of RGO for different gases.

  16. Kinetic contribution to extracellular Na+/K+ selectivity in the Na+/K+ pump.

    PubMed

    Vleeskens, Elizabeth; Clarke, Ronald J

    2018-05-01

    The sodium potassium pump (Na + ,K + -ATPase) shows a high selectivity for K + over Na + binding from the extracellular medium. To understand the K + selectivity in the presence of a high concentration of competing Na + ions requires consideration of more than just ion binding affinities. Here, equilibrium-based calculations of the extracellular occupation of the Na + ,K + -ATPase transport sites by Na + and K + are compared to fluxes through Na + and K + transport pathways. The results show that, under physiological conditions, there is a 332-fold selectivity for pumping of K + from the extracellular medium into the cytoplasm relative to Na + , whereas equilibrium calculations alone predict only a 7.5-fold selectivity for K + . Thus, kinetic effects make a major contribution to the determination of extracellular K + selectivity.

  17. Divalent Naphthalene Diimide Ligands Display High Selectivity for the Human Telomeric G‐quadruplex in K+ Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Street, Steven T. G.; Chin, Donovan N.; Hollingworth, Gregory J.; Berry, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Selective G‐quadruplex ligands offer great promise for the development of anti‐cancer therapies. A novel series of divalent cationic naphthalene diimide ligands that selectively bind to the hybrid form of the human telomeric G‐quadruplex in K+ buffer are described herein. We demonstrate that an imidazolium‐bearing mannoside‐conjugate is the most selective ligand to date for this quadruplex against several other quadruplex and duplex structures. We also show that a similarly selective methylpiperazine‐bearing ligand was more toxic to HeLa cancer cells than doxorubicin, whilst exhibiting three times less toxicity towards fetal lung fibroblasts WI‐38. PMID:28257554

  18. Plans, Patterns, and Move Categories Guiding a Highly Selective Search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trippen, Gerhard

    In this paper we present our ideas for an Arimaa-playing program (also called a bot) that uses plans and pattern matching to guide a highly selective search. We restrict move generation to moves in certain move categories to reduce the number of moves considered by the bot significantly. Arimaa is a modern board game that can be played with a standard Chess set. However, the rules of the game are not at all like those of Chess. Furthermore, Arimaa was designed to be as simple and intuitive as possible for humans, yet challenging for computers. While all established Arimaa bots use alpha-beta search with a variety of pruning techniques and other heuristics ending in an extensive positional leaf node evaluation, our new bot, Rat, starts with a positional evaluation of the current position. Based on features found in the current position - supported by pattern matching using a directed position graph - our bot Rat decides which of a given set of plans to follow. The plan then dictates what types of moves can be chosen. This is another major difference from bots that generate "all" possible moves for a particular position. Rat is only allowed to generate moves that belong to certain categories. Leaf nodes are evaluated only by a straightforward material evaluation to help avoid moves that lose material. This highly selective search looks, on average, at only 5 moves out of 5,000 to over 40,000 possible moves in a middle game position.

  19. Selection of High Temperature Organic Materials for Future Stirling Convertors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Euy-Sik Eugene

    2017-01-01

    In the future higher temperature Stirling convertors for improved efficiency and performance, various high temperature organic materials have been demanded as essential components for their unique properties and functions such as bonding, potting, sealing, thread locking, insulation, and lubrication. The higher temperature capabilities would also allow current state-of-the-art (SOA) convertors to be used in additional missions, particularly those that require a Venus flyby for a gravity assist. Stirling convertor radioisotope generators have been developed for potential future space applications including Lunar/Mars surface power or a variety of spacecraft and vehicles, especially with a long mission cycle, sometimes up to 17 years, such as deep space exploration. Thus, performance, durability, and reliability of the organics should be critically evaluated in terms of comprehensive structure-process-service environment relations based on the potential mission specifications. The initial efforts in screening the high temperature candidates focused on the most susceptible organics, such as adhesive, potting compound, o-ring, shrink tubing, and thread locker materials in conjunction with commercially available materials. More systematic and practical test methodologies that were developed and optimized based on the extensive organic evaluations and validations performed for various Stirling convertor types were employed to determine thermal stability, outgassing, and material compatibility of the selected organic candidates against their functional requirements. Processing and fabrication conditions and procedures were also optimized. This paper presents results of the three-step candidate evaluation processes, their application limitations, and the final selection recommendations.

  20. Selective Dry Etch for Defining Ohmic Contacts for High Performance ZnO TFTs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-27

    scale, high-frequency ZnO thin - film transistors (TFTs) could be fabricated. Molybdenum, tantalum, titanium tungsten 10-90, and tungsten metallic contact... thin - film transistor layout utilized in the thesis research . . . . . 42 3.4 Process Flow Diagram for Optical and e-Beam Devices...TFT thin - film transistor TLM transmission line model UV ultra-violet xvii SELECTIVE DRY ETCH FOR DEFINING OHMIC CONTACTS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE ZnO TFTs

  1. Synthesis and application of a highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangjie; Liu, Xiangli; Xu, Jinhe; Ji, Liguo; Yang, Linlin; Fan, Aiying; Wang, Songjun; Wang, Qingzhi

    2018-02-01

    A highly selective copper ions fluorescent probe based on the coumarin-type Schiff base derivative 1 (probe) was produced by condensation reaction between coumarin carbohydrazide and 1H-indazole-3-carbaldehyde. The UV-vis spectroscopy showed that the maximum absorption peak of compound 1 appeared at 439 nm. In the presence of Cu2 + ions, the maximum peak decreased remarkably compared with other physiological important metal ions and a new absorption peak at 500 nm appeared. The job's plot experiments showed that complexes of 1:2 binding mode were formed in CH3CN:HEPES (3:2, v/v) solution. Compound 1 exhibited a strong blue fluorescence. Upon addition of copper ions, the fluorescence gradually decreased and reached a plateau with the fluorescence quenching rate up to 98.73%. The detection limit for Cu2 + ions was estimated to 0.384 ppm. Fluorescent microscopy experiments demonstrated that probe 1 had potential to be used to investigate biological processes involving Cu2 + ions within living cells.

  2. Wavelet Packet Feature Assessment for High-Density Myoelectric Pattern Recognition and Channel Selection toward Stroke Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongqing; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Xiaoping; Chen, Xiang; Zhou, Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study presents wavelet packet feature assessment of neural control information in paretic upper limb muscles of stroke survivors for myoelectric pattern recognition, taking advantage of high-resolution time-frequency representations of surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. On this basis, a novel channel selection method was developed by combining the Fisher's class separability index and the sequential feedforward selection analyses, in order to determine a small number of appropriate EMG channels from original high-density EMG electrode array. The advantages of the wavelet packet features and the channel selection analyses were further illustrated by comparing with previous conventional approaches, in terms of classification performance when identifying 20 functional arm/hand movements implemented by 12 stroke survivors. This study offers a practical approach including paretic EMG feature extraction and channel selection that enables active myoelectric control of multiple degrees of freedom with paretic muscles. All these efforts will facilitate upper limb dexterity restoration and improved stroke rehabilitation.

  3. Selective Solvent-Induced Stabilization of Polar Oxide Surfaces in an Electrochemical Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Su-Hyun; Todorova, Mira; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2018-02-01

    The impact of an electrochemical environment on the thermodynamic stability of polar oxide surfaces is investigated for the example of ZnO(0001) surfaces immersed in water using density functional theory calculations. We show that solvation effects are highly selective: They have little effect on surfaces showing a metallic character, but largely stabilize semiconducting structures, particularly those that have a high electrostatic penalty in vacuum. The high selectivity is shown to have direct consequences for the surface phase diagram and explains, e.g., why certain surface structures could be observed only in an electrochemical environment.

  4. Predators select against high growth rates and risk-taking behaviour in domestic trout populations.

    PubMed

    Biro, Peter A; Abrahams, Mark V; Post, John R; Parkinson, Eric A

    2004-11-07

    Domesticated (farm) salmonid fishes display an increased willingness to accept risk while foraging, and achieve high growth rates not observed in nature. Theory predicts that elevated growth rates in domestic salmonids will result in greater risk-taking to access abundant food, but low survival in the presence of predators. In replicated whole-lake experiments, we observed that domestic trout (selected for high growth rates) took greater risks while foraging and grew faster than a wild strain. However, survival consequences for greater growth rates depended upon the predation environment. Domestic trout experienced greater survival when risk was low, but lower survival when risk was high. This suggests that animals with high intrinsic growth rates are selected against in populations with abundant predators, explaining the absence of such phenotypes in nature. This is, to our knowledge, the first large-scale field experiment to directly test this theory and simultaneously quantify the initial invasibility of domestic salmonid strains that escape into the wild from aquaculture operations, and the ecological conditions affecting their survival.

  5. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED PYRETHROID PESTICIDES USING REVERSE PHASE HIGH PRESSURE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY/UV

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research was conducted in cooperation with EPA Region 4 in Athens, GA to develop a method to analyze selected pyrethroid pesticides using Reverse Phase-High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). This HPLC method will aid researchers in separating and identifying these py...

  6. Towards a census of high-redshift dusty galaxies with Herschel. A selection of "500 μm-risers"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donevski, D.; Buat, V.; Boone, F.; Pappalardo, C.; Bethermin, M.; Schreiber, C.; Mazyed, F.; Alvarez-Marquez, J.; Duivenvoorden, S.

    2018-06-01

    Context. Over the last decade a large number of dusty star-forming galaxies has been discovered up to redshift z = 2 - 3 and recent studies have attempted to push the highly confused Herschel SPIRE surveys beyond that distance. To search for z ≥ 4 galaxies they often consider the sources with fluxes rising from 250 μm to 500 μm (so-called "500 μm-risers"). Herschel surveys offer a unique opportunity to efficiently select a large number of these rare objects, and thus gain insight into the prodigious star-forming activity that takes place in the very distant Universe. Aims: We aim to implement a novel method to obtain a statistical sample of 500 μm-risers and fully evaluate our selection inspecting different models of galaxy evolution. Methods: We consider one of the largest and deepest Herschel surveys, the Herschel Virgo Cluster Survey. We develop a novel selection algorithm which links the source extraction and spectral energy distribution fitting. To fully quantify selection biases we make end-to-end simulations including clustering and lensing. Results: We select 133 500 μm-risers over 55 deg2, imposing the criteria: S500 > S350 > S250, S250 > 13.2 mJy and S500 > 30 mJy. Differential number counts are in fairly good agreement with models, displaying a better match than other existing samples. The estimated fraction of strongly lensed sources is 24+6-5% based on models. Conclusions: We present the faintest sample of 500 μm-risers down to S250 = 13.2 mJy. We show that noise and strong lensing have an important impact on measured counts and redshift distribution of selected sources. We estimate the flux-corrected star formation rate density at 4 < z < 5 with the 500 μm-risers and find it to be close to the total value measured in far-infrared. This indicates that colour selection is not a limiting effect to search for the most massive, dusty z > 4 sources.

  7. Silver Nanoparticles with Surface-Bonded Oxygen for Highly Selective CO 2 Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Kun; Kharel, Priti; Peng, Yande

    Here, the surface electronic structures of catalysts need to be carefully engineered in CO 2 reduction reaction (CO 2RR), where the hydrogen evolution side reaction usually takes over under a significant overpotential, and thus dramatically lows the reaction selectivity. Surface oxides can play a critical role in tuning the surface oxidation state of metal catalysts for a proper binding with CO 2RR reaction intermediates, which may significantly improve the catalyst activity and selectivity. Here, we demonstrate the importance of surface-bonded oxygen on silver nanoparticles in altering the reaction pathways and improving the CO 2RR performances. A comparative investigation on air-annealedmore » Ag (Air-Ag) catalyst with or without the post-treatment of H 2 thermal annealing (H 2-Ag) was performed. In Air-Ag, the subsurface chemically bonded O species (O-Ag δ+) was identified by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques, and contributed to the improved CO selectivity rather than H 2 in CO 2RR electrolysis. As a result, while the maximal CO Faradaic efficiency of H 2-Ag is at ~ 30 %, the Air-Ag catalyst presented a high CO selectivity of more than 90 % under a current density of ~ 21 mA/cm 2.« less

  8. Silver Nanoparticles with Surface-Bonded Oxygen for Highly Selective CO 2 Reduction

    DOE PAGES

    Jiang, Kun; Kharel, Priti; Peng, Yande; ...

    2017-09-12

    Here, the surface electronic structures of catalysts need to be carefully engineered in CO 2 reduction reaction (CO 2RR), where the hydrogen evolution side reaction usually takes over under a significant overpotential, and thus dramatically lows the reaction selectivity. Surface oxides can play a critical role in tuning the surface oxidation state of metal catalysts for a proper binding with CO 2RR reaction intermediates, which may significantly improve the catalyst activity and selectivity. Here, we demonstrate the importance of surface-bonded oxygen on silver nanoparticles in altering the reaction pathways and improving the CO 2RR performances. A comparative investigation on air-annealedmore » Ag (Air-Ag) catalyst with or without the post-treatment of H 2 thermal annealing (H 2-Ag) was performed. In Air-Ag, the subsurface chemically bonded O species (O-Ag δ+) was identified by angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray absorption spectroscopy techniques, and contributed to the improved CO selectivity rather than H 2 in CO 2RR electrolysis. As a result, while the maximal CO Faradaic efficiency of H 2-Ag is at ~ 30 %, the Air-Ag catalyst presented a high CO selectivity of more than 90 % under a current density of ~ 21 mA/cm 2.« less

  9. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T.

    2017-01-01

    According to the “aerobic capacity model,” endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (Ta) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles (Myodes glareolus) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (Tb) during exposure to high Ta. To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and Tb of selected and control voles at Ta from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the Tb of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the Tb of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured Ta of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (−28.6°C) than in control lines (−20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally neutral

  10. A Shift in the Thermoregulatory Curve as a Result of Selection for High Activity-Related Aerobic Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Koteja, Paweł; Sadowska, Edyta T

    2017-01-01

    According to the "aerobic capacity model," endothermy in birds and mammals evolved as a result of natural selection favoring increased persistent locomotor activity, fuelled by aerobic metabolism. However, this also increased energy expenditure even during rest, with the lowest metabolic rates occurring in the thermoneutral zone (TNZ) and increasing at ambient temperatures (T a ) below and above this range, depicted by the thermoregulatory curve. In our experimental evolution system, four lines of bank voles ( Myodes glareolus ) have been selected for high swim-induced aerobic metabolism and four unselected lines have been maintained as a control. In addition to a 50% higher rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, the selected lines have also evolved a 7.3% higher mass-adjusted basal metabolic rate. Therefore, we asked whether voles from selected lines would also display a shift in the thermoregulatory curve and an increased body temperature (T b ) during exposure to high T a . To test these hypotheses we measured the RMR and T b of selected and control voles at T a from 10 to 34°C. As expected, RMR within and around the TNZ was higher in selected lines. Further, the T b of selected lines within the TNZ was greater than the T b of control lines, particularly at the maximum measured T a of 34°C, suggesting that selected voles are more prone to hyperthermia. Interestingly, our results revealed that while the slope of the thermoregulatory curve below the lower critical temperature (LCT) is significantly lower in the selected lines, the LCT (26.1°C) does not differ. Importantly, selected voles also evolved a higher maximum thermogenesis, but thermal conductance did not increase. As a consequence, the minimum tolerated temperature, calculated from an extrapolation of the thermoregulatory curve, is 8.4°C lower in selected (-28.6°C) than in control lines (-20.2°C). Thus, selection for high aerobic exercise performance, even though operating under thermally

  11. Social Capital for College: Network Composition and Access to Selective Institutions among Urban High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lori Diane; Bregman, Allyson; Andrade, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between networks that provide high school students with "social capital for college" (SCFC) and their access to selective institutions. It also explores the link between racial disparities in access to selective colleges and the composition of students' SCFC networks. Findings indicate that while…

  12. Systematic review with meta-analysis: highly selective 5-HT4 agonists (prucalopride, velusetrag or naronapride) in chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Shin, A; Camilleri, M; Kolar, G; Erwin, P; West, C P; Murad, M H

    2014-02-01

    Highly selective 5-HT4 agonists have been suggested for the treatment of chronic constipation (CC). To assess the effects of highly selective 5-HT4 agonists (prucalopride, velusetrag or naronapride) on patient-important clinical efficacy outcomes and safety in adults with CC. We searched the medical literature in January 2013 using MEDLINE/Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science/Scopus for randomised, controlled trials of highly selective 5-HT4 agonists in adults with CC, with no minimum duration of therapy (maximum 12 weeks) or date limitations. Data were extracted from intention-to-treat analyses, pooled using a random-effects model, and reported as relative risk (RR), mean differences, or standardised mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Main outcomes included stool frequency, Patient-Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life (PAC-QOL), PAC of symptoms (PAC-SYM) and adverse events. Thirteen eligible trials were identified: 11 prucalopride, 1 velusetrag, 1 naronapride. Relative to control, treatment with highly selective 5-HT4 agonists was superior for all outcomes: mean ≥3 spontaneous complete bowel movements (SCBM)/week (RR = 1.85; 95% CI 1.23-2.79); mean ≥1 SCBM over baseline (RR = 1.57; 95% CI 1.19, 2.06); ≥1 point improvement in PAC-QOL and PAC-SYM scores. The only active comparator trial of prucalopride and PEG3350 suggested PEG3350 is more efficacious for some end points. Adverse events were more common with highly selective 5-HT4 agonists, but were generally minor; headache was the most frequent. Most trials studied prucalopride. Demonstration of efficacy on patient-important outcomes and a favourable safety profile support the continued use and development of highly selective 5-HT4 agonists in the treatment of chronic constipation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Selection for sex in finite populations.

    PubMed

    Roze, D

    2014-07-01

    Finite population size generates interference between selected loci, which has been shown to favour increased rates of recombination. In this article, I present different analytical models exploring selection acting on a 'sex modifier locus' (that affects the relative investment into asexual and sexual reproduction) in a finite population. Two forms of selective forces act on the modifier: direct selection due to intrinsic costs associated with sexual reproduction and indirect selection generated by one or two other loci affecting fitness. The results show that indirect selective forces differ from those acting on a recombination modifier even in the case of a haploid population: in particular, a single selected locus generates indirect selection for sex, while two loci are required in the case of a recombination modifier. This effect stems from the fact that modifier alleles increasing sex escape more easily from low-fitness genetic backgrounds than alleles coding for lower rates of sex. Extrapolating the results from three-locus models to a large number of loci at mutation-selection balance indicates that in the parameter range where indirect selection is strong enough to outweigh a substantial cost of sex, interactions between selected loci have a stronger effect than the sum of individual effects of each selected locus. Comparisons with multilocus simulation results show that such extrapolations may provide correct predictions for the evolutionarily stable rate of sex, unless the cost of sex is high. © 2014 The Author. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  14. Selenium- or vitamin E-related gene variants, interaction with supplementation, and risk of high-grade prostate cancer in SELECT

    PubMed Central

    Chan, June M.; Darke, Amy K.; Penney, Kathryn L.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lee, Gwo-Shu Mary; Sun, Tong; Peisch, Sam; Tinianow, Alex M.; Rae, James M.; Klein, Eric A.; Thompson, Ian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies and secondary analyses of randomized trials supported the hypothesis that selenium and vitamin E lower prostate cancer risk. However, the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) showed no benefit of either supplement. Genetic variants involved in selenium or vitamin E metabolism or transport may underlie the complex associations of selenium and vitamin E. Methods We undertook a case-cohort study of SELECT participants randomized to placebo, selenium or vitamin E. The subcohort included 1,434 men; our primary outcome was high-grade prostate cancer (N=278 cases, Gleason 7 or higher cancer). We used weighted Cox regression to examine the association between SNPs and high-grade prostate cancer risk. To assess effect modification, we created interaction terms between randomization arm and genotype and calculated log likelihood statistics. Results We noted statistically significant (p<0.05) interactions between selenium assignment, SNPs in CAT, SOD2, PRDX6, SOD3, and TXNRD2 and high-grade prostate cancer risk. Statistically significant SNPs that modified the association of vitamin E assignment and high-grade prostate cancer included SEC14L2, SOD1, and TTPA. In the placebo arm, several SNPs, hypothesized to interact with supplement assignment and risk of high-grade prostate cancer, were also directly associated with outcome. Conclusion Variants in selenium and vitamin E metabolism/transport genes may influence risk of overall and high-grade prostate cancer, and may modify an individual man’s response to vitamin E or selenium supplementation with regards to these risks. Impact The effect of selenium or vitamin E supplementation on high-grade prostate cancer risk may vary by genotype. PMID:27197287

  15. A functional ABCA1 gene variant is associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels and shows evidence of positive selection in Native Americans

    PubMed Central

    Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Flores-Dorantes, Teresa; Kruit, Janine K.; Villarreal-Molina, Teresa; Arellano-Campos, Olimpia; Hünemeier, Tábita; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Ortiz-López, Ma Guadalupe; Villamil-Ramírez, Hugo; León-Mimila, Paola; Villalobos-Comparan, Marisela; Jacobo-Albavera, Leonor; Ramírez-Jiménez, Salvador; Sikora, Martin; Zhang, Lin-Hua; Pape, Terry D.; de Ángeles Granados-Silvestre, Ma; Montufar-Robles, Isela; Tito-Alvarez, Ana M.; Zurita-Salinas, Camilo; Bustos-Arriaga, José; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia; Gómez-Trejo, Celta; Barquera-Lozano, Rodrigo; Vieira-Filho, Joao P.; Granados, Julio; Romero-Hidalgo, Sandra; Huertas-Vázquez, Adriana; González-Martín, Antonio; Gorostiza, Amaya; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Wang, Li; Tusié-Luna, Teresa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Lisker, Ruben; Moises, Regina S.; Menjivar, Marta; Salzano, Francisco M.; Knowler, William C.; Bortolini, M. Cátira; Hayden, Michael R.; Baier, Leslie J.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that the higher susceptibility of Hispanics to metabolic disease is related to their Native American heritage. A frequent cholesterol transporter ABCA1 (ATP-binding cassette transporter A1) gene variant (R230C, rs9282541) apparently exclusive to Native American individuals was associated with low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, obesity and type 2 diabetes in Mexican Mestizos. We performed a more extensive analysis of this variant in 4405 Native Americans and 863 individuals from other ethnic groups to investigate genetic evidence of positive selection, to assess its functional effect in vitro and to explore associations with HDL-C levels and other metabolic traits. The C230 allele was found in 29 of 36 Native American groups, but not in European, Asian or African individuals. C230 was observed on a single haplotype, and C230-bearing chromosomes showed longer relative haplotype extension compared with other haplotypes in the Americas. Additionally, single-nucleotide polymorphism data from the Human Genome Diversity Panel Native American populations were enriched in significant integrated haplotype score values in the region upstream of the ABCA1 gene. Cells expressing the C230 allele showed a 27% cholesterol efflux reduction (P< 0.001), confirming this variant has a functional effect in vitro. Moreover, the C230 allele was associated with lower HDL-C levels (P = 1.77 × 10−11) and with higher body mass index (P = 0.0001) in the combined analysis of Native American populations. This is the first report of a common functional variant exclusive to Native American and descent populations, which is a major determinant of HDL-C levels and may have contributed to the adaptive evolution of Native American populations. PMID:20418488

  16. Chromobacterium spp. harbour Ambler class A β-lactamases showing high identity with KPC.

    PubMed

    Gudeta, Dereje Dadi; Bortolaia, Valeria; Jayol, Aurélie; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice; Guardabassi, Luca

    2016-06-01

    The origin of KPC is unknown. The aim of this study was to detect progenitors of KPC in silico and to functionally verify their β-lactam hydrolysis activity. The sequence of KPC-2 was used to mine the NCBI protein sequence database. The best non-KPC hits were analysed by amino acid (aa) alignment and phylogenetic tree construction. Genes encoding KPC-2 homologues were expressed in Escherichia coli. The carbapenemase activities of the recombinant strains were characterized by the CarbaNP test and UV spectrophotometry and MICs of selected β-lactams were determined. Genes encoding the closest KPC-2 homologues were identified on the chromosome of Chromobacterium piscinae strain ND17 (CRP-1, 76% aa identity), Chromobacterium sp. C-61 (CRS-1, 70% aa identity) and Chromobacterium haemolyticum DSM19808 (CRH-1, 69% aa identity). All three Chromobacterium β-lactamases were phylogenetically more related to KPC than to other Ambler class A β-lactamases. The 27 bp region preceding the start codon of blaCRP-1 displayed high nucleotide identity to the corresponding region upstream from blaKPC (74%). Heterologous expression of blaCRP-1 and to a lesser extent of blaCRH-1 in E. coli significantly increased the MICs of meropenem and most cephalosporins. The CarbaNP test was positive for both recombinant strains, but spectrophotometric analysis confirmed higher carbapenemase activity for CRP-1-producing clones. The recovery of three class A β-lactamases with up to 76% aa identity to KPC from distinct Chromobacterium species is highly indicative of the role played by this genus in the evolution of KPC. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Selection and use of TLDS for high precision NERVA shielding measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodsum, H. C.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental evaluation of thermoluminescent dosimeters was performed in order to select high precision dosimeters for a study whose purpose is to measure gamma streaming through the coolant passages of a simulated flight type internal NERVA reactor shield. Based on this study, the CaF2 chip TLDs are the most reproducible dosimeters with reproducibility generally within a few percent, but none of the TLDs tested met the reproducibility criterion of plus or minus 2%.

  18. Highly selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol over Pt nanoparticles supported on g-C3N4 nanosheets catalysts in water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiufang; Zhang, Ligang; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Xingcui; Mu, Xindong

    2016-06-22

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets were investigated for developing effective Pt catalyst supports for selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol in water. The nanosheets with an average thickness of about 3 nm were synthesized by a simple and green method through thermal oxidation etching of bulk g-C3N4 in air. Combined with the unique feature of nitrogen richness and locally conjugated structure, the g-C3N4 nanosheets with a high surface area of 142 m(2) g(-1) were demonstrated to be an excellent supports for loading small-size Pt nanoparticles. Superior furfural hydrogenation activity in water with complete conversion of furfural and high selectivity of furfuryl alcohol (>99%) was observed for g-C3N4 nanosheets supported Pt catalysts. The large specific surface area, uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles and the stronger furfural adsorption ability of nanosheets contributed to the considerable catalytic performance. The reusability tests showed that the novel Pt catalyst could maintain high activity and stability in the furfural hydrogenation reaction.

  19. Highly selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol over Pt nanoparticles supported on g-C3N4 nanosheets catalysts in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiufang; Zhang, Ligang; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Xingcui; Mu, Xindong

    2016-06-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets were investigated for developing effective Pt catalyst supports for selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol in water. The nanosheets with an average thickness of about 3 nm were synthesized by a simple and green method through thermal oxidation etching of bulk g-C3N4 in air. Combined with the unique feature of nitrogen richness and locally conjugated structure, the g-C3N4 nanosheets with a high surface area of 142 m2 g-1 were demonstrated to be an excellent supports for loading small-size Pt nanoparticles. Superior furfural hydrogenation activity in water with complete conversion of furfural and high selectivity of furfuryl alcohol (>99%) was observed for g-C3N4 nanosheets supported Pt catalysts. The large specific surface area, uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles and the stronger furfural adsorption ability of nanosheets contributed to the considerable catalytic performance. The reusability tests showed that the novel Pt catalyst could maintain high activity and stability in the furfural hydrogenation reaction.

  20. Highly selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol over Pt nanoparticles supported on g-C3N4 nanosheets catalysts in water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiufang; Zhang, Ligang; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Xingcui; Mu, Xindong

    2016-01-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride nanosheets were investigated for developing effective Pt catalyst supports for selective hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol in water. The nanosheets with an average thickness of about 3 nm were synthesized by a simple and green method through thermal oxidation etching of bulk g-C3N4 in air. Combined with the unique feature of nitrogen richness and locally conjugated structure, the g-C3N4 nanosheets with a high surface area of 142 m2 g−1 were demonstrated to be an excellent supports for loading small-size Pt nanoparticles. Superior furfural hydrogenation activity in water with complete conversion of furfural and high selectivity of furfuryl alcohol (>99%) was observed for g-C3N4 nanosheets supported Pt catalysts. The large specific surface area, uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles and the stronger furfural adsorption ability of nanosheets contributed to the considerable catalytic performance. The reusability tests showed that the novel Pt catalyst could maintain high activity and stability in the furfural hydrogenation reaction. PMID:27328834

  1. Investigation of the High-Cycle Fatigue Life of Selective Laser Melted and Hot Isostatically Pressed Ti-6Al-4v

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH -CYCLE FATIGUE LIFE OF SELECTIVE LASER MELTED AND HOT ISOSTATICALLY PRESSED TI-6AL-4V THESIS Kevin D. Rekedal...ENY-MS-15-M-212 INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH -CYCLE FATIGUE LIFE OF SELECTIVE LASER MELTED AND HOT ISOSTATICALLY PRESSED TI-6AL-4V THESIS...AFIT-ENY-MS-15-M-212 INVESTIGATION OF THE HIGH -CYCLE FATIGUE LIFE OF SELECTIVE LASER MELTED AND HOT ISOSTATICALLY PRESSED TI-6AL-4V

  2. A highly selective and picomolar level photoelectrochemical sensor for PCB 101 detection in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Jinzhi; Wang, Yingling; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-07-15

    A highly selective and sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) sensor was fabricated for fast and convenient detection of PCB 101 in environmental water samples with a low detection limit of 1.0×10(-14)molL(-1) based on single crystalline TiO2 nanorods (NRs). By integration with molecular imprinting (MI) technique, the PEC sensor's selectivity towards PCB 101 was significantly improved, so that the interference caused by 100-fold excess of PCB 126 and PCB 77 which had similar structure with PCB 101 was below 37%, not to mention other coexisted pollutants. This high selectivity could be attributed to the high-quality expression of the molecular imprinting sites on the rigid and smooth surface of single crystalline TiO2 NRs on which PCB 101 could be selectively and preferentially adsorbed. The oriented and multiple halogen bonds formed between PCB 101 and the molecular imprinting sites played a critical role in improving the recognition ability of the PEC sensor. Meanwhile, the one dimensional nanorods structure of TiO2 was beneficial for the efficient separation of photogenerated electrons and holes, leading to enhanced photocurrent response and further improving the sensitivity of the PEC sensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Hidden Markov Model Approach to the Problem of Heuristic Selection in Hyper-Heuristics with a Case Study in High School Timetabling Problems.

    PubMed

    Kheiri, Ahmed; Keedwell, Ed

    2017-01-01

    Operations research is a well-established field that uses computational systems to support decisions in business and public life. Good solutions to operations research problems can make a large difference to the efficient running of businesses and organisations and so the field often searches for new methods to improve these solutions. The high school timetabling problem is an example of an operations research problem and is a challenging task which requires assigning events and resources to time slots subject to a set of constraints. In this article, a new sequence-based selection hyper-heuristic is presented that produces excellent results on a suite of high school timetabling problems. In this study, we present an easy-to-implement, easy-to-maintain, and effective sequence-based selection hyper-heuristic to solve high school timetabling problems using a benchmark of unified real-world instances collected from different countries. We show that with sequence-based methods, it is possible to discover new best known solutions for a number of the problems in the timetabling domain. Through this investigation, the usefulness of sequence-based selection hyper-heuristics has been demonstrated and the capability of these methods has been shown to exceed the state of the art.

  4. Comb-based radiofrequency photonic filters with rapid tunability and high selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supradeepa, V. R.; Long, Christopher M.; Wu, Rui; Ferdous, Fahmida; Hamidi, Ehsan; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2012-03-01

    Photonic technologies have received considerable attention regarding the enhancement of radiofrequency electrical systems, including high-frequency analogue signal transmission, control of phased arrays, analog-to-digital conversion and signal processing. Although the potential of radiofrequency photonics for the implementation of tunable electrical filters over broad radiofrequency bandwidths has been much discussed, the realization of programmable filters with highly selective filter lineshapes and rapid reconfigurability has faced significant challenges. A new approach for radiofrequency photonic filters based on frequency combs offers a potential route to simultaneous high stopband attenuation, fast tunability and bandwidth reconfiguration. In one configuration, tuning of the radiofrequency passband frequency is demonstrated with unprecedented (~40 ns) speed by controlling the optical delay between combs. In a second, fixed filter configuration, cascaded four-wave mixing simultaneously broadens and smoothes the comb spectra, resulting in Gaussian radiofrequency filter lineshapes exhibiting an extremely high (>60 dB) main lobe to sidelobe suppression ratio and (>70 dB) stopband attenuation.

  5. High lift selected concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    The benefits to high lift system maximum life and, alternatively, to high lift system complexity, of applying analytic design and analysis techniques to the design of high lift sections for flight conditions were determined and two high lift sections were designed to flight conditions. The influence of the high lift section on the sizing and economics of a specific energy efficient transport (EET) was clarified using a computerized sizing technique and an existing advanced airplane design data base. The impact of the best design resulting from the design applications studies on EET sizing and economics were evaluated. Flap technology trade studies, climb and descent studies, and augmented stability studies are included along with a description of the baseline high lift system geometry, a calculation of lift and pitching moment when separation is present, and an inverse boundary layer technique for pressure distribution synthesis and optimization.

  6. New Fluorescent and Colorimetric Chemosensor for Detection of Cyanide with High Selectivity and Sensitivity in Aqueous Media.

    PubMed

    Zali-Boeini, Hassan; Zareh Jonaghani, Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    A fluorescent and colorimetric chemosensor for detection of cyanide ion based on a styryl quinoline derivative has been designed and synthesized. The chemosensor (E)-2-(4-mercaptostyryl)quinolin-8-ol L showed high selectivity for detection of cyanide over other anions such as F¯, Cl¯, Br¯, I¯, NO 3 ¯, SCN¯, N 3 ¯, ClO 4 ¯, H 2 PO 4 ¯, AcO¯, HCO 3 ¯, SO 4 2 ¯ and HSO 4 ¯in aqueous solution. The chemosensor L displayed an immediate visible and fluorescence changes from nearly colorless to orange and greenish-blue to brick-red upon addition of cyanide ion respectively. It is more likely, these distinct changes can be attributed to hydrogen bonding interaction between phenol group and cyanide anion leading to a 1:1 binding stoichiometry following with deprotonation of phenol group. The detection limit for chemosensor L toward CN¯ was 2.73× 10 -8  M. Thus, the chemosensor can be used efficiently and selectively for detection and monitoring of small amounts of cyanide ion in aqueous media.

  7. Promiscuity drives sexual selection in a socially monogamous bird.

    PubMed

    Webster, Michael S; Tarvin, Keith A; Tuttle, Elaina M; Pruett-Jones, Stephen

    2007-09-01

    Many socially monogamous species paradoxically show signs of strong sexual selection, suggesting cryptic sources of sexual competition among males. Darwin argued that sexual selection could operate in monogamous systems if breeding sex ratios are biased or if some males attract highly fecund females. Alternatively, sexual selection might result from promiscuous copulations outside the pair bond, although several recent studies have cast doubt on this possibility, in particular by showing that variance in apparent male reproductive success (number of social young) differs little from variance in actual male reproductive success (number of young sired). Our results from a long-term study of the socially monogamous splendid fairy-wren (Malurus splendens) demonstrate that such comparisons are misleading and do not adequately assess the effects of extra-pair paternity (EPP). By partitioning the opportunity for selection and calculating Bateman gradients, we show that EPP has a strong effect on male annual and lifetime fitness, whereas other proposed mechanisms of sexual selection do not. Thus, EPP drives sexual selection in this, and possibly other, socially monogamous species.

  8. The Norwegian PMS2 founder mutation c.989-1G > T shows high penetrance of microsatellite instable cancers with normal immunohistochemistry.

    PubMed

    Grindedal, Eli Marie; Aarset, Harald; Bjørnevoll, Inga; Røyset, Elin; Mæhle, Lovise; Stormorken, Astrid; Heramb, Cecilie; Medvik, Heidi; Møller, Pål; Sjursen, Wenche

    2014-01-01

    Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to select cases for mismatch repair (MMR) genetic testing, we failed to identify a large kindred with the deleterious PMS2 mutation c.989-1G > T. The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity of IHC and microsatellite instability-analysis (MSI) to identify carriers of the mutation, and to estimate its penetrance and expressions. All carriers and obligate carriers of the mutation were identified. All cancer diagnoses were confirmed. IHC and MSI-analysis were performed on available tumours. Penetrances of cancers included in the Amsterdam and the Bethesda Criteria, for MSI-high tumours and MSI-high and low tumours were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier algorithm. Probability for co-segregation of the mutation and cancers by chance was 0.000004. Fifty-six carriers or obligate carriers were identified. There was normal staining for PMS2 in 15/18 (83.3%) of tumours included in the AMS1/AMS2/Bethesda criteria. MSI-analysis showed that 15/21 (71.4%) of tumours were MSI-high and 4/21 (19.0%) were MSI-low. Penetrance at 70 years was 30.6% for AMS1 cancers (colorectal cancers), 42.8% for AMS2 cancers, 47.2% for Bethesda cancers, 55.6% for MSI-high and MSI-low cancers and 52.2% for MSI-high cancers. The mutation met class 5 criteria for pathogenicity. IHC was insensitive in detecting tumours caused by the mutation. Penetrance of cancers that displayed MSI was 56% at 70 years. Besides colorectal cancers, the most frequent expressions were carcinoma of the endometrium and breast in females and stomach and prostate in males.

  9. The Norwegian PMS2 founder mutation c.989-1G > T shows high penetrance of microsatellite instable cancers with normal immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) to select cases for mismatch repair (MMR) genetic testing, we failed to identify a large kindred with the deleterious PMS2 mutation c.989-1G > T. The purpose of the study was to examine the sensitivity of IHC and microsatellite instability-analysis (MSI) to identify carriers of the mutation, and to estimate its penetrance and expressions. Methods All carriers and obligate carriers of the mutation were identified. All cancer diagnoses were confirmed. IHC and MSI-analysis were performed on available tumours. Penetrances of cancers included in the Amsterdam and the Bethesda Criteria, for MSI-high tumours and MSI-high and low tumours were calculated by the Kaplan-Meier algorithm. Results Probability for co-segregation of the mutation and cancers by chance was 0.000004. Fifty-six carriers or obligate carriers were identified. There was normal staining for PMS2 in 15/18 (83.3%) of tumours included in the AMS1/AMS2/Bethesda criteria. MSI-analysis showed that 15/21 (71.4%) of tumours were MSI-high and 4/21 (19.0%) were MSI-low. Penetrance at 70 years was 30.6% for AMS1 cancers (colorectal cancers), 42.8% for AMS2 cancers, 47.2% for Bethesda cancers, 55.6% for MSI-high and MSI-low cancers and 52.2% for MSI-high cancers. Conclusions The mutation met class 5 criteria for pathogenicity. IHC was insensitive in detecting tumours caused by the mutation. Penetrance of cancers that displayed MSI was 56% at 70 years. Besides colorectal cancers, the most frequent expressions were carcinoma of the endometrium and breast in females and stomach and prostate in males. PMID:24790682

  10. Reduced genetic variance among high fitness individuals: inferring stabilizing selection on male sexual displays in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Sztepanacz, Jacqueline L; Rundle, Howard D

    2012-10-01

    Directional selection is prevalent in nature, yet phenotypes tend to remain relatively constant, suggesting a limit to trait evolution. However, the genetic basis of this limit is unresolved. Given widespread pleiotropy, opposing selection on a trait may arise from the effects of the underlying alleles on other traits under selection, generating net stabilizing selection on trait genetic variance. These pleiotropic costs of trait exaggeration may arise through any number of other traits, making them hard to detect in phenotypic analyses. Stabilizing selection can be inferred, however, if genetic variance is greater among low- compared to high-fitness individuals. We extend a recently suggested approach to provide a direct test of a difference in genetic variance for a suite of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) in Drosophila serrata. Despite strong directional sexual selection on these traits, genetic variance differed between high- and low-fitness individuals and was greater among the low-fitness males for seven of eight CHCs, significantly more than expected by chance. Univariate tests of a difference in genetic variance were nonsignificant but likely have low power. Our results suggest that further CHC exaggeration in D. serrata in response to sexual selection is limited by pleiotropic costs mediated through other traits. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  11. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  12. Highly Sensitive and Selective Gas Sensor Using Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic Graphenes

    PubMed Central

    Some, Surajit; Xu, Yang; Kim, Youngmin; Yoon, Yeoheung; Qin, Hongyi; Kulkarni, Atul; Kim, Taesung; Lee, Hyoyoung

    2013-01-01

    New hydrophilic 2D graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets with various oxygen functional groups were employed to maintain high sensitivity in highly unfavorable environments (extremely high humidity, strong acidic or basic). Novel one-headed polymer optical fiber sensor arrays using hydrophilic GO and hydrophobic reduced graphene oxide (rGO) were carefully designed, leading to the selective sensing of volatile organic gases for the first time. The two physically different surfaces of GO and rGO could provide the sensing ability to distinguish between tetrahydrofuran (THF) and dichloromethane (MC), respectively, which is the most challenging issue in the area of gas sensors. The eco-friendly physical properties of GO allowed for faster sensing and higher sensitivity when compared to previous results for rGO even under extreme environments of over 90% humidity, making it the best choice for an environmentally friendly gas sensor. PMID:23736838

  13. Net shaped high performance oxide ceramic parts by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yves-Christian, Hagedorn; Jan, Wilkes; Wilhelm, Meiners; Konrad, Wissenbach; Reinhart, Poprawe

    An additive manufacturing technique (AM) for ceramics, based on Al2O3-ZrO2 powder by means of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is presented. Pure ceramic powder is completely melted by a laser beam yielding net-shaped specimens of almost 100% densities without any post-processing. Possible crack formation during the build-up process due to thermal stresses is prevented by a high-temperature preheating of above 1600 ∘C. Specimens with fine-grained nano-sized microstructures and flexural strengths of above 500 MPa are produced. The new technology allows for rapid freeform manufacture of complex net-shaped ceramics, thus, exploiting the outstanding mechanical and thermal properties for high-end medical and engineering disciplines.

  14. Selection on Moral Hazard in Health Insurance

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Ryan, Stephen; Schrimpf, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We use employee-level panel data from a single firm to explore the possibility that individuals may select insurance coverage in part based on their anticipated behavioral (“moral hazard”) response to insurance, a phenomenon we label “selection on moral hazard.” Using a model of plan choice and medical utilization, we present evidence of heterogeneous moral hazard as well as selection on it, and explore some of its implications. For example, we show that, at least in our context, abstracting from selection on moral hazard could lead to over-estimates of the spending reduction associated with introducing a high-deductible health insurance option. PMID:24748682

  15. High-order graph matching based feature selection for Alzheimer's disease identification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Suk, Heung-Il; Wee, Chong-Yaw; Chen, Huafu; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    One of the main limitations of l1-norm feature selection is that it focuses on estimating the target vector for each sample individually without considering relations with other samples. However, it's believed that the geometrical relation among target vectors in the training set may provide useful information, and it would be natural to expect that the predicted vectors have similar geometric relations as the target vectors. To overcome these limitations, we formulate this as a graph-matching feature selection problem between a predicted graph and a target graph. In the predicted graph a node is represented by predicted vector that may describe regional gray matter volume or cortical thickness features, and in the target graph a node is represented by target vector that include class label and clinical scores. In particular, we devise new regularization terms in sparse representation to impose high-order graph matching between the target vectors and the predicted ones. Finally, the selected regional gray matter volume and cortical thickness features are fused in kernel space for classification. Using the ADNI dataset, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method and obtain the accuracies of 92.17% and 81.57% in AD and MCI classification, respectively.

  16. Aspartic acid-promoted highly selective and sensitive colorimetric sensing of cysteine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Qian, Qin; Deng, Jingjing; Wang, Dalei; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-11-06

    Direct selective determination of cysteine in the cerebral system is of great importance because of the crucial roles of cysteine in physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we report a sensitive and selective colorimetric assay for cysteine in the rat brain with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) as the signal readout. Initially, Au-NPs synthesized with citrate as the stabilizer are red in color and exhibit absorption at 520 nm. The addition of an aqueous solution (20 μL) of cysteine or aspartic acid alone to a 200 μL Au-NP dispersion causes no aggregation, while the addition of an aqueous solution of cysteine into a Au-NP dispersion containing aspartic acid (1.8 mM) causes the aggregation of Au-NPs and thus results in the color change of the colloid from wine red to blue. These changes are ascribed to the ion pair interaction between aspartic acid and cysteine on the interface between Au-NPs and solution. The concentration of cysteine can be visualized with the naked eye and determined by UV-vis spectroscopy. The signal output shows a linear relationship for cysteine within the concentration range from 0.166 to 1.67 μM with a detection limit of 100 nM. The assay demonstrated here is highly selective and is free from the interference of other natural amino acids and other thiol-containing species as well as the species commonly existing in the brain such as lactate, ascorbic acid, and glucose. The basal dialysate level of cysteine in the microdialysate from the striatum of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats is determined to be around 9.6 ± 2.1 μM. The method demonstrated here is facile but reliable and durable and is envisaged to be applicable to understanding the chemical essence involved in physiological and pathological events associated with cysteine.

  17. Pillar[n]arene-based supramolecular organic frameworks with high hydrocarbon storage and selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Li-Li; Zhu, Youlong; Long, Hai

    2017-01-01

    We report the high hydrocarbon storage capacity and adsorption selectivity of two low-density pillar[n]arene-based SOFs. Our study would open new perspectives in the development of pillar[n]arene-based SOFs and study of their great potential in gas-storage and gas-separation applications.

  18. Machine learning shows association between genetic variability in PPARG and cerebral connectivity in preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Michelle L.; Wang, Zi; Aljabar, Paul; Ball, Gareth; Mirza, Ghazala; Saxena, Alka; Counsell, Serena J.; Hajnal, Joseph V.; Montana, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Preterm infants show abnormal structural and functional brain development, and have a high risk of long-term neurocognitive problems. The molecular and cellular mechanisms involved are poorly understood, but novel methods now make it possible to address them by examining the relationship between common genetic variability and brain endophenotype. We addressed the hypothesis that variability in the Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) pathway would be related to brain development. We employed machine learning in an unsupervised, unbiased, combined analysis of whole-brain diffusion tractography together with genomewide, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based genotypes from a cohort of 272 preterm infants, using Sparse Reduced Rank Regression (sRRR) and correcting for ethnicity and age at birth and imaging. Empirical selection frequencies for SNPs associated with cerebral connectivity ranged from 0.663 to zero, with multiple highly selected SNPs mapping to genes for PPARG (six SNPs), ITGA6 (four SNPs), and FXR1 (two SNPs). SNPs in PPARG were significantly overrepresented (ranked 7–11 and 67 of 556,000 SNPs; P < 2.2 × 10−7), and were mostly in introns or regulatory regions with predicted effects including protein coding and nonsense-mediated decay. Edge-centric graph-theoretic analysis showed that highly selected white-matter tracts were consistent across the group and important for information transfer (P < 2.2 × 10−17); they most often connected to the insula (P < 6 × 10−17). These results suggest that the inhibited brain development seen in humans exposed to the stress of a premature extrauterine environment is modulated by genetic factors, and that PPARG signaling has a previously unrecognized role in cerebral development. PMID:29229843

  19. Estimation of genetic parameters and selection of high-yielding, upright common bean lines with slow seed-coat darkening.

    PubMed

    Alvares, R C; Silva, F C; Melo, L C; Melo, P G S; Pereira, H S

    2016-11-21

    Slow seed coat darkening is desirable in common bean cultivars and genetic parameters are important to define breeding strategies. The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for plant architecture, grain yield, grain size, and seed-coat darkening in common bean; identify any genetic association among these traits; and select lines that associate desirable phenotypes for these traits. Three experiments were set up in the winter 2012 growing season, in Santo Antônio de Goiás and Brasília, Brazil, including 220 lines obtained from four segregating populations and five parents. A triple lattice 15 x 15 experimental design was used. The traits evaluated were plant architecture, grain yield, grain size, and seed-coat darkening. Analyses of variance were carried out and genetic parameters such as heritability, gain expected from selection, and correlations, were estimated. For selection of superior lines, a "weight-free and parameter-free" index was used. The estimates of genetic variance, heritability, and gain expected from selection were high, indicating good possibility for success in selection of the four traits. The genotype x environment interaction was proportionally more important for yield than for the other traits. There was no strong genetic correlation observed among the four traits, which indicates the possibility of selection of superior lines with many traits. Considering simultaneous selection, it was not possible to join high genetic gains for the four traits. Forty-four lines that combined high yield, more upright plant architecture, slow darkening grains, and commercial grade size were selected.

  20. Highly Selective Upgrading of Biomass-Derived Alcohol Mixtures for Jet/Diesel-Fuel Components.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Xu, Guoqiang; Wang, Xicheng; Liu, Xiaoran; Mu, Xindong

    2016-12-20

    In light of the increasing concern about the energy and environmental problems caused by the combustion of petroleum-based fuels (e.g., jet and diesel fuels), the development of new procedures for their sustainable production from renewable biomass-derived platform compounds has attracted tremendous attention recently. Long-chain ketones/alcohols are promising fuel components owing to the fuel properties that closely resemble those of traditional fuels. The focus of this report is the production of long-chain ketones/alcohols by direct upgrading of biomass-derived short-chain alcohol mixtures (e.g., isopropanol-butanol-ethanol mixtures) in pure water. An efficient Pd catalyst system was developed for these highly selective transformations. Long-chain ketones/alcohols (C 8 -C 19 ), which can be used as precursors for renewable jet/diesel fuel, were obtained in good-to-high selectivity (>90 %) by using the developed Pd catalyst. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Low-Income Students and Highly Selective Private Colleges: Geography, Searching, and Recruiting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.; Winston, Gordon C.

    2010-01-01

    In earlier work, the authors found that only 10% of the students at 28 of the nation's most selective private colleges and universities came from families in the bottom 40% of the US family income distribution and that there is a larger share of low-income high-ability students in the national population than in the student bodies of these…

  2. Assessment System for Junior High Schools in Taiwan to Select Environmental Education Facilities and Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Shyue-Yung; Chen, Wen-Te; Hsu, Wei-Ling

    2017-01-01

    Environmental education is essential for people to pursue sustainable development. In Taiwan, environmental education is taught to students until they graduate from junior high school. This study was conducted to establish an assessment system for junior high schools to select appropriate environmental education facilities and sites. A mix of…

  3. Environmental Selection, Dispersal, and Organism Interactions Shape Community Assembly in High-Throughput Enrichment Culturing

    DOE PAGES

    Justice, N. B.; Sczesnak, A.; Hazen, T. C.; ...

    2017-08-04

    A central goal of microbial ecology is to identify and quantify the forces that lead to observed population distributions and dynamics. However, these forces, which include environmental selection, dispersal, and organism interactions, are often difficult to assess in natural environments. Here in this paper, we present a method that links microbial community structures with selective and stochastic forces through highly replicated subsampling and enrichment of a single environmental inoculum. Specifically, groundwater from a well-studied natural aquifer was serially diluted and inoculated into nearly 1,000 aerobic and anaerobic nitrate-reducing cultures, and the final community structures were evaluated with 16S rRNA genemore » amplicon sequencing. We analyzed the frequency and abundance of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to understand how probabilistic immigration, relative fitness differences, environmental factors, and organismal interactions contributed to divergent distributions of community structures. We further used a most probable number (MPN) method to estimate the natural condition-dependent cultivable abundance of each of the nearly 400 OTU cultivated in our study and infer the relative fitness of each. Additionally, we infer condition-specific organism interactions and discuss how this high-replicate culturing approach is essential in dissecting the interplay between overlapping ecological forces and taxon-specific attributes that underpin microbial community assembly. IMPORTANCEThrough highly replicated culturing, in which inocula are subsampled from a single environmental sample, we empirically determine how selective forces, interspecific interactions, relative fitness, and probabilistic dispersal shape bacterial communities. These methods offer a novel approach to untangle not only interspecific interactions but also taxon-specific fitness differences that manifest across different cultivation conditions and lead to the selection

  4. Environmental Selection, Dispersal, and Organism Interactions Shape Community Assembly in High-Throughput Enrichment Culturing

    SciTech Connect

    Justice, N. B.; Sczesnak, A.; Hazen, T. C.

    A central goal of microbial ecology is to identify and quantify the forces that lead to observed population distributions and dynamics. However, these forces, which include environmental selection, dispersal, and organism interactions, are often difficult to assess in natural environments. Here in this paper, we present a method that links microbial community structures with selective and stochastic forces through highly replicated subsampling and enrichment of a single environmental inoculum. Specifically, groundwater from a well-studied natural aquifer was serially diluted and inoculated into nearly 1,000 aerobic and anaerobic nitrate-reducing cultures, and the final community structures were evaluated with 16S rRNA genemore » amplicon sequencing. We analyzed the frequency and abundance of individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) to understand how probabilistic immigration, relative fitness differences, environmental factors, and organismal interactions contributed to divergent distributions of community structures. We further used a most probable number (MPN) method to estimate the natural condition-dependent cultivable abundance of each of the nearly 400 OTU cultivated in our study and infer the relative fitness of each. Additionally, we infer condition-specific organism interactions and discuss how this high-replicate culturing approach is essential in dissecting the interplay between overlapping ecological forces and taxon-specific attributes that underpin microbial community assembly. IMPORTANCEThrough highly replicated culturing, in which inocula are subsampled from a single environmental sample, we empirically determine how selective forces, interspecific interactions, relative fitness, and probabilistic dispersal shape bacterial communities. These methods offer a novel approach to untangle not only interspecific interactions but also taxon-specific fitness differences that manifest across different cultivation conditions and lead to the selection

  5. Elitist Binary Wolf Search Algorithm for Heuristic Feature Selection in High-Dimensional Bioinformatics Datasets.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinyan; Fong, Simon; Wong, Raymond K; Millham, Richard; Wong, Kelvin K L

    2017-06-28

    Due to the high-dimensional characteristics of dataset, we propose a new method based on the Wolf Search Algorithm (WSA) for optimising the feature selection problem. The proposed approach uses the natural strategy established by Charles Darwin; that is, 'It is not the strongest of the species that survives, but the most adaptable'. This means that in the evolution of a swarm, the elitists are motivated to quickly obtain more and better resources. The memory function helps the proposed method to avoid repeat searches for the worst position in order to enhance the effectiveness of the search, while the binary strategy simplifies the feature selection problem into a similar problem of function optimisation. Furthermore, the wrapper strategy gathers these strengthened wolves with the classifier of extreme learning machine to find a sub-dataset with a reasonable number of features that offers the maximum correctness of global classification models. The experimental results from the six public high-dimensional bioinformatics datasets tested demonstrate that the proposed method can best some of the conventional feature selection methods up to 29% in classification accuracy, and outperform previous WSAs by up to 99.81% in computational time.

  6. The yeast Starmerella bacillaris (synonym Candida zemplinina) shows high genetic diversity in winemaking environments.

    PubMed

    Masneuf-Pomarede, Isabelle; Juquin, Elodie; Miot-Sertier, Cécile; Renault, Philippe; Laizet, Yec'han; Salin, Franck; Alexandre, Hervé; Capozzi, Vittorio; Cocolin, Luca; Colonna-Ceccaldi, Benoit; Englezos, Vasileios; Girard, Patrick; Gonzalez, Beatriz; Lucas, Patrick; Mas, Albert; Nisiotou, Aspasia; Sipiczki, Matthias; Spano, Giuseppe; Tassou, Chrysoula; Bely, Marina; Albertin, Warren

    2015-08-01

    The yeast Candida zemplinina (Starmerella bacillaris) is frequently isolated from grape and wine environments. Its enological use in mixed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been extensively investigated these last few years, and several interesting features including low ethanol production, fructophily, glycerol and other metabolites production, have been described. In addition, molecular tools allowing the characterization of yeast populations have been developed, both at the inter- and intraspecific levels. However, most of these fingerprinting methods are not compatible with population genetics or ecological studies. In this work, we developed 10 microsatellite markers for the C. zemplinina species that were used for the genotyping of 163 strains from nature or various enological regions (28 vineyards/wineries from seven countries). We show that the genetic diversity of C. zemplinina is shaped by geographical localization. Populations isolated from winemaking environments are quite diverse at the genetic level: neither clonal-like behaviour nor specific genetic signature were associated with the different vineyards/wineries. Altogether, these results suggest that C. zemplinina is not under selective pressure in winemaking environments. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Cell-Selective Biological Activity of Rhodium Metalloinsertors Correlates with Subcellular Localization

    PubMed Central

    Komor, Alexis C.; Schneider, Curtis J.; Weidmann, Alyson G.; Barton, Jacqueline K.

    2013-01-01

    Deficiencies in the mismatch repair (MMR) pathway are associated with several types of cancers, as well as resistance to commonly used chemotherapeutics. Rhodium metalloinsertors have been found to bind DNA mismatches with high affinity and specificity in vitro, and also exhibit cell-selective cytotoxicity, targeting MMR-deficient cells over MMR-proficient cells. Ten distinct metalloinsertors with varying lipophilicities have been synthesized and their mismatch binding affinities and biological activities determined. Although DNA photocleavage experiments demonstrate that their binding affinities are quite similar, their cell-selective antiproliferative and cytotoxic activities vary significantly. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) experiments have uncovered a relationship between the subcellular distribution of these metalloinsertors and their biological activities. Specifically, we find that all of our metalloinsertors localize in the nucleus at sufficient concentrations for binding to DNA mismatches. However, the metalloinsertors with high rhodium localization in the mitochondria show toxicity that is not selective for MMR-deficient cells, whereas metalloinsertors with less mitochondrial rhodium show activity that is highly selective for MMR-deficient versus proficient cells. This work supports the notion that specific targeting of the metalloinsertors to nuclear DNA gives rise to their cell-selective cytotoxic and antiproliferative activities. The selectivity in cellular targeting depends upon binding to mismatches in genomic DNA. PMID:23137296

  8. Novel one-pot and facile room temperature synthesis of gold nanodots and application as highly sensitive and selective probes for cyanide detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasimalai, Nagamalai; Fernandez-Arguelles, Maria T.

    2016-11-01

    Highly fluorescent gold nanodots have been synthesized through a novel rapid, facile and one-pot room temperature route using trithiocyanuric acid as mild reducing agent and surface ligand. The proposed synthesis overcomes limitations of other synthetic routes in terms of cost, time, complexity and environmental risks, and gives rise to highly fluorescent gold nanodots within 10 min at room temperature, with a maximum emission wavelength at 623 nm and a large Stokes shift (213 nm). Moreover, the synthesized gold nanodots showed a large emission QY (9.62 × 10-2) and excellent photostability and colloidal properties during long periods. Increasing concentrations of CN- in aqueous solution progressively quenched the fluorescence emission and produced a slight blue shift of the synthesized gold nanodots. A good linear relationship was observed for CN- concentrations between 0.29 and 8.87 μM, obtaining a detection limit estimated according to the 3s IUPAC criteria of 150 nM. Besides, the influence on the fluorescence signal of potential interferents at high concentrations (1000 μM) was studied, including I-, F-, citrate, {{{{PO}}}4}3-, {{{{NO}}}3}-, {{{{SO}}}4}2-, CH3COO-, EDTA, Br-, {{{{CO}}}3}2-, Cl- and S2- K+, Na+, Li+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Al3+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Pb2+, Cd2+, Hg2+ and Co2+. Results showed a high selectivity towards all the investigated ions, except for Pb2+, Cd2+ and Hg2+, although the use of glutathione and BSA as masking agents drastically minimized the effect of such cations at high concentrations. The synthesized gold nanodots were successfully evaluated as highly sensitive and selective probes for cyanide determination in environmental water samples, including tap, river, lake and sea water, indicating the validity of TCA-AuNDs for analytical CN- contamination control.

  9. Microalgal process-monitoring based on high-selectivity spectroscopy tools: status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Podevin, Michael; Fotidis, Ioannis A; Angelidaki, Irini

    2018-08-01

    Microalgae are well known for their ability to accumulate lipids intracellularly, which can be used for biofuels and mitigate CO 2 emissions. However, due to economic challenges, microalgae bioprocesses have maneuvered towards the simultaneous production of food, feed, fuel, and various high-value chemicals in a biorefinery concept. On-line and in-line monitoring of macromolecules such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and high-value pigments will be more critical to maintain product quality and consistency for downstream processing in a biorefinery to maintain and valorize these markets. The main contribution of this review is to present current and prospective advances of on-line and in-line process analytical technology (PAT), with high-selectivity - the capability of monitoring several analytes simultaneously - in the interest of improving product quality, productivity, and process automation of a microalgal biorefinery. The high-selectivity PAT under consideration are mid-infrared (MIR), near-infrared (NIR), and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. The current review contains a critical assessment of these technologies in the context of recent advances in software and hardware in order to move microalgae production towards process automation through multivariate process control (MVPC) and software sensors trained on "big data". The paper will also include a comprehensive overview of off-line implementations of vibrational spectroscopy in microalgal research as it pertains to spectral interpretation and process automation to aid and motivate development.

  10. Optical filter selection for high confidence discrimination of strongly overlapping infrared chemical spectra.

    PubMed

    Major, Kevin J; Poutous, Menelaos K; Ewing, Kenneth J; Dunnill, Kevin F; Sanghera, Jasbinder S; Aggarwal, Ishwar D

    2015-09-01

    Optical filter-based chemical sensing techniques provide a new avenue to develop low-cost infrared sensors. These methods utilize multiple infrared optical filters to selectively measure different response functions for various chemicals, dependent on each chemical's infrared absorption. Rather than identifying distinct spectral features, which can then be used to determine the identity of a target chemical, optical filter-based approaches rely on measuring differences in the ensemble response between a given filter set and specific chemicals of interest. Therefore, the results of such methods are highly dependent on the original optical filter choice, which will dictate the selectivity, sensitivity, and stability of any filter-based sensing method. Recently, a method has been developed that utilizes unique detection vector operations defined by optical multifilter responses, to discriminate between volatile chemical vapors. This method, comparative-discrimination spectral detection (CDSD), is a technique which employs broadband optical filters to selectively discriminate between chemicals with highly overlapping infrared absorption spectra. CDSD has been shown to correctly distinguish between similar chemicals in the carbon-hydrogen stretch region of the infrared absorption spectra from 2800-3100 cm(-1). A key challenge to this approach is how to determine which optical filter sets should be utilized to achieve the greatest discrimination between target chemicals. Previous studies used empirical approaches to select the optical filter set; however this is insufficient to determine the optimum selectivity between strongly overlapping chemical spectra. Here we present a numerical approach to systematically study the effects of filter positioning and bandwidth on a number of three-chemical systems. We describe how both the filter properties, as well as the chemicals in each set, affect the CDSD results and subsequent discrimination. These results demonstrate the

  11. Selection of a high-affinity and in vivo bioactive ssDNA aptamer against angiotensin II peptide.

    PubMed

    Heiat, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Reza; Latifi, Ali Mohammad; Rasaee, Mohammad Javad

    2016-08-01

    Unique features of aptamers have attracted interests for a broad range of applications. Aptamers are able to specifically bind to targets and inhibit their functions. This study, aimed to isolate the high affinity ssDNA aptamers against bio-regulator peptide angiotensin II (Ang II) and investigate their bioactivity in cellular and animal models. To isolate ssDNA aptamers, 12 rounds of affinity chromatography SELEX (Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment) procedure were carried out. The SPR (surface plasmon resonance) and ELONA (enzyme linked oligonucleotide assay) analysis were used to determine the affinity and specificity of aptamers. The ability of selected aptamers to inhibit the proliferative effect of Ang II on human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs) and their performance on Wistar rat urinary system and serum electrolyte levels were investigated. Two full-length aptamers (FLC112 and FLC125) with high affinity of respectively 7.52±2.44E-10 and 5.87±1.3E-9M were isolated against Ang II. The core regions of these aptamers (CRC112 and CRC125) also showed affinity of 5.33±1.15E-9 and 4.11±1.09E-9M. In vitro analysis revealed that FLC112 and FLC125 can inhibit the proliferative effect of Ang II on HA-VSMCs (P<0.05). They also significantly reduced the serum sodium level and increased the urine volume (P<0.05). The core regions of aptamers did not show high inhibitory potential against Ang II. It can be a spotlight that ssDNA aptamers have high potential for blocking Ang II. In conclusion, it appears that the researches focusing on high affinity and bioactive aptamers may lead to excellent results in blocking Ang II activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Why do adults entitled to free or highly subsidized dental services select fully out-of-pocket-paid care?

    PubMed

    Bayat, Fariborz; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Murtomaa, Heikki; Tala, Heikki

    2010-02-01

    To investigate patients' reasons for selecting a dental clinic given their choice of free or highly-subsidized dental services. The study was based on cross-sectional data obtained through phone interviews with adults in Tehran, Iran. The present study included those entitled to free or highly-subsidized dental services (n = 726). The data covered the patients' awareness of subsidized dental services and type of dental clinic for their most recent visit and their reasons for selecting that clinic. Awareness of subsidized dental services was dichotomized as being either aware or unaware of such subsidy. The type of clinic was dichotomized as providing either free or highly-subsidized (FHS) or fully out-of-pocket paid (FOP) services. Free format answers about the subjects' reasons for selecting a particular clinic were later sub-grouped as: convenient access, good technical aspects, good interpersonal aspects, low or reasonable fees, recommendation by a friend, and no reason. Socio-demographic status was based on background. Data analysis included the chi-square test and logistic regression model. Of the subjects (n = 726), 60% were women and 58% were under 35 years of age. The subjects' mean age was 33.5 years with no difference by gender (P = 0.24) and the majority had public insurance (91%). Of all the subjects, 60% selected FOP. Good interpersonal aspects were the strongest reason for selecting FOP (OR = 4.6), follow by good technical aspects (OR = 2.3). Those subjects who were unaware of their benefit had 4.6 times the odds of selecting FOP. Despite the opportunity to use highly-subsidized dental services, good interpersonal and good technical aspects lead patients to select private dentists and to pay fully out of pocket.

  13. Alternating high and low climate variability: The context of natural selection and speciation in Plio-Pleistocene hominin evolution.

    PubMed

    Potts, Richard; Faith, J Tyler

    2015-10-01

    Interaction of orbital insolation cycles defines a predictive model of alternating phases of high- and low-climate variability for tropical East Africa over the past 5 million years. This model, which is described in terms of climate variability stages, implies repeated increases in landscape/resource instability and intervening periods of stability in East Africa. It predicts eight prolonged (>192 kyr) eras of intensified habitat instability (high variability stages) in which hominin evolutionary innovations are likely to have occurred, potentially by variability selection. The prediction that repeated shifts toward high climate variability affected paleoenvironments and evolution is tested in three ways. In the first test, deep-sea records of northeast African terrigenous dust flux (Sites 721/722) and eastern Mediterranean sapropels (Site 967A) show increased and decreased variability in concert with predicted shifts in climate variability. These regional measurements of climate dynamics are complemented by stratigraphic observations in five basins with lengthy stratigraphic and paleoenvironmental records: the mid-Pleistocene Olorgesailie Basin, the Plio-Pleistocene Turkana and Olduvai Basins, and the Pliocene Tugen Hills sequence and Hadar Basin--all of which show that highly variable landscapes inhabited by hominin populations were indeed concentrated in predicted stages of prolonged high climate variability. Second, stringent null-model tests demonstrate a significant association of currently known first and last appearance datums (FADs and LADs) of the major hominin lineages, suites of technological behaviors, and dispersal events with the predicted intervals of prolonged high climate variability. Palynological study in the Nihewan Basin, China, provides a third test, which shows the occupation of highly diverse habitats in eastern Asia, consistent with the predicted increase in adaptability in dispersing Oldowan hominins. Integration of fossil, archeological

  14. Charge Transfer Directed Radical Substitution Enables para-Selective C–H Functionalization

    PubMed Central

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Efficient C–H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C–H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho- and meta- selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C–H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein, we introduce a previously unappreciated concept which enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit areneto-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate that the selectivity is predictable by a simple theoretical tool and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of charge transfer directed radical substitution could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C–H functionalization reactions. PMID:27442288

  15. Charge-transfer-directed radical substitution enables para-selective C-H functionalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursalian, Gregory B.; Ham, Won Seok; Mazzotti, Anthony R.; Ritter, Tobias

    2016-08-01

    Efficient C-H functionalization requires selectivity for specific C-H bonds. Progress has been made for directed aromatic substitution reactions to achieve ortho and meta selectivity, but a general strategy for para-selective C-H functionalization has remained elusive. Herein we introduce a previously unappreciated concept that enables nearly complete para selectivity. We propose that radicals with high electron affinity elicit arene-to-radical charge transfer in the transition state of radical addition, which is the factor primarily responsible for high positional selectivity. We demonstrate with a simple theoretical tool that the selectivity is predictable and show the utility of the concept through a direct synthesis of aryl piperazines. Our results contradict the notion, widely held by organic chemists, that radical aromatic substitution reactions are inherently unselective. The concept of radical substitution directed by charge transfer could serve as the basis for the development of new, highly selective C-H functionalization reactions.

  16. Selection of antigenic markers on a GFP-C{kappa} fusion scaffold with high sensitivity by eukaryotic ribosome display

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yongmin; IgE Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121-2233; Barankiewicz, Teresa J.

    2007-07-27

    Ribosome display is a cell-free system permitting gene selection through the physical association of genetic material (mRNA) and its phenotypic (protein) product. While often used to select single-chain antibodies from large libraries by panning against immobilized antigens, we have adapted ribosome display for use in the 'reverse' format in order to select high affinity antigenic determinants against solid-phase antibody. To create an antigenic scaffold, DNA encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP) was fused to a light chain constant domain (C{kappa}) with stop codon deleted, and with 5' signals (T7 promoter, Kozak) enabling coupled transcription/translation in a eukaryotic cell-free system. Epitopes onmore » either GFP (5') or C{kappa} (3') were selected by anti-GFP or anti-C{kappa} antibodies, respectively, coupled to magnetic beads. After selection, mRNA was amplified directly from protein-ribosome-mRNA (PRM) complexes by in situ PCR followed by internal amplification and reassembly PCR. As little as 10 fg of the 1 kb DNA construct, i.e. approximately 7500 molecules, could be recovered following a single round of interaction with solid-phase anti-GFP antibody. This platform is highly specific and sensitive for the antigen-antibody interaction and may permit selection and reshaping of high affinity antigenic variants of scaffold proteins.« less

  17. Multivariate Profiles of Selected versus Non-Selected Elite Youth Brazilian Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Isabella S.; Padilha, Maickel B.; Casanova, Filipe; Puggina, Enrico F.; Maia, José

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This study determined whether a multivariate profile more effectively discriminated selected than non-selected elite youth Brazilian soccer players. This examination was carried out on 66 youth soccer players (selected, n = 28, mean age 16.3 ± 0.1; non-selected, n = 38, mean age 16.7 ± 0.4) using objective instruments. Multivariate profiles were assessed through anthropometric characteristics, biological maturation, tactical-technical skills, and motor performance. The Student’s t-test identified that selected players exhibited significantly higher values for height (t = 2.331, p = 0.02), lean body mass (t = 2.441, p = 0.01), and maturity offset (t = 4.559, p < 0.001), as well as performed better in declarative tactical knowledge (t = 10.484, p < 0.001), shooting (t = 2.188, p = 0.03), dribbling (t = 5.914, p < 0.001), speed – 30 m (t = 8.304, p < 0.001), countermovement jump (t = 2.718, p = 0.008), and peak power tests (t = 2.454, p = 0.01). Forward stepwise discriminant function analysis showed that declarative tactical knowledge, running speed –30 m, maturity offset, dribbling, height, and peak power correctly classified 97% of the selected players. These findings may have implications for a highly efficient selection process with objective measures of youth players in soccer clubs. PMID:29339991

  18. Stabilizing selection on sperm number revealed by artificial selection and experimental evolution.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Silvia; Di Nisio, Andrea; Pilastro, Andrea

    2018-03-01

    Sperm competition is taxonomically widespread in animals and is usually associated with large sperm production, being the number of sperm in the competing pool the prime predictor of fertilization success. Despite the strong postcopulatory selection acting directionally on sperm production, its genetic variance is often very high. This can be explained by trade-offs between sperm production and traits associated with mate acquisition or survival, that may contribute to generate an overall stabilizing selection. To investigate this hypothesis, we first artificially selected male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) for high and low sperm production for three generations, while simultaneously removing sexual selection. Then, we interrupted artificial selection and restored sexual selection. Sperm production responded to divergent selection in one generation, and when we restored sexual selection, both high and low lines converged back to the mean sperm production of the original population within two generations, indicating that sperm number is subject to strong stabilizing total sexual selection (i.e., selection acting simultaneously on all traits associated with reproductive success). We discuss the possible mechanisms responsible for the maintenance of high genetic variability in sperm production despite strong selection acting on it. © 2018 The Author(s). Evolution © 2018 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Synthesis of molecularly imprinted dye-silica nanocomposites with high selectivity and sensitivity: Fluorescent imprinted sensor for rapid and efficient detection of τ-fluvalinate in vodka.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunyun; Wang, Jixiang; Cheng, Rujia; Sun, Lin; Dai, Xiaohui; Yan, Yongsheng

    2018-04-01

    An imprinted fluorescent sensor was fabricated based on SiO 2 nanoparticles encapsulated with a molecularly imprinted polymer containing allyl fluorescein. High fluorine cypermethirin as template molecules, methyl methacrylate as functional monomer, and allyl fluorescein as optical materials synthesized a core-shell fluorescent molecular imprinted sensor, which showed a high and rapid sensitivity and selectivity for the detection of τ-fluvalinate. The sensor presented appreciable sensitivity with a limit of 13.251 nM, rapid detection that reached to equilibrium within 3 min, great linear relationship in the relevant concentration range from 0 to 150 nM, and excellent selectivity over structural analogues. In addition, the fluorescent sensor demonstrated desirable regeneration ability (eight cycling operations). The molecularly imprinted polymers ensured specificity, while the fluorescent dyes provided the stabile sensitivity. Finally, an effective application of the sensor was implemented by the detection of τ-fluvalinate in real samples from vodka. The molecularly imprinted fluorescent sensor showed a promising potential in environmental monitoring and food safety. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. The Skylab Student Project. [high school winners selection and experiments description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, H. B.

    1973-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Science Teachers' Association (NSTA) undertook in 1971 a cooperative effort which brought high school students of the Nation into the mainstream of Skylab research through the Skylab Student Project. This paper presents the background, objectives and scope of the project, experiment selection procedures, as well as experiment descriptions and status. The paper includes observations on student caliber and inclinations and implications of some developments for the benefit of future researchers.

  1. The Impact of Legalized Abortion on High School Graduation through Selection and Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    This analysis examines whether the legalization of abortion changed high school graduation rates among the children selected into birth. Unless women in all socio-economic circumstances sought abortions to the same extent, increased use of abortion must have changed the distribution of child development inputs. I find that higher abortion ratios…

  2. Perceptual load influences selective attention across development.

    PubMed

    Couperus, Jane W

    2011-09-01

    Research suggests that visual selective attention develops across childhood. However, there is relatively little understanding of the neurological changes that accompany this development, particularly in the context of adult theories of selective attention, such as N. Lavie's (1995) perceptual load theory of attention. This study examined visual selective attention across development from 7 years of age to adulthood. Specifically, the author examined if changes in processing as a function of selective attention are similarly influenced by perceptual load across development. Participants were asked to complete a task at either low or high perceptual load while processing of an unattended probe stimulus was examined using event related potentials. Similar to adults, children and teens showed reduced processing of the unattended stimulus as perceptual load increased at the P1 visual component. However, although there were no qualitative differences in changes in processing, there were quantitative differences, with shorter P1 latencies in teens and adults compared with children, suggesting increases in the speed of processing across development. In addition, younger children did not need as high a perceptual load to achieve the same difference in performance between low and high perceptual load as adults. Thus, this study demonstrates that although there are developmental changes in visual selective attention, the mechanisms by which visual selective attention is achieved in children may share similarities with adults.

  3. Mass and metallicity scaling relations of high-redshift star-forming galaxies selected by GRBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Møller, P.; Perley, D. A.; Freudling, W.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Le Floc'h, E.; Zwaan, M. A.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Christensen, L.; Levan, A. J.; Jakobsson, P.; Malesani, D.; Cano, Z.; Covino, S.; D'Elia, V.; Goldoni, P.; Gomboc, A.; Heintz, K. E.; Sparre, M.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vergani, S. D.

    2018-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the relations between gas kinematics, metallicity and stellar mass in a sample of 82 gamma-ray burst (GRB)-selected galaxies using absorption and emission methods. We find the velocity widths of both emission and absorption profiles to be a proxy of stellar mass. We also investigate the velocity-metallicity correlation and its evolution with redshift. Using 33 GRB hosts with measured stellar mass and metallicity, we study the mass-metallicity relation for GRB host galaxies in a stellar mass range of 108.2-1011.1 M⊙ and a redshift range of z ∼ 0.3-3.4. The GRB-selected galaxies appear to track the mass-metallicity relation of star-forming galaxies but with an offset of 0.15 towards lower metallicities. This offset is comparable with the average error bar on the metallicity measurements of the GRB sample and also the scatter on the mass-metallicity relation of the general population. It is hard to decide whether this relatively small offset is due to systematic effects or the intrinsic nature of GRB hosts. We also investigate the possibility of using absorption-line metallicity measurements of GRB hosts to study the mass-metallicity relation at high redshifts. Our analysis shows that the metallicity measurements from absorption methods can significantly differ from emission metallicities and assuming identical measurements from the two methods may result in erroneous conclusions.

  4. Chromosomal Fragmentation: A Possible Marker for the Selection of High Gymnemic Acid Yielding Accessions of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br.

    PubMed

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-10-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. a member of family Asclepiadaceae as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia popular among the researchers because of stimulatory effect of its phytoconstituent on pancreatic cells and potential to treat Type I and II type of diabetes. Development of cost-effective marker system for the selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions of G. sylvestre . Presoaked seeds of Brassica campestris treated with different dilutions of gymnemagenin and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of G. sylvestre . Root tips of germinated seeds were fixed, and chromosomal studies were made by root tip bioassay method. Exposure of seeds to treatment solutions promotes various types of chromosomal anomalies in root meristem, and surprisingly, direct correlation between the percentage of chromosomal fragmentation and the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution were observed. Later finding may be explored for the development of a novel methodology or marker system for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre . An experiment was carried out using root tip bioassay method for the study of effect of different dilutions of standard gymnemic acid and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of Gymnema sylvestre on root tip meristem of Brassica campestris . Various types of chromosomal anomalies were observed. Of which, percentage of chromosomal fragmentation was showed a direct (∞) relationship with the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution. This interesting result after more and more exploration and revalidation could be utilized for the development of a novel methodology for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre . Abbreviations used: MI: Mitotic index; CP: Condensed prophase; CM: Clumped metaphase; MC: Metaphase cleft; FR: Fragmentation; AP: Anaphase with persistent nucleolous; LA: Laggard, BR: Bridge; BI: Bi-nucleated cell; DA: Disturbed

  5. Chromosomal Fragmentation: A Possible Marker for the Selection of High Gymnemic Acid Yielding Accessions of Gymnema sylvestre R. Br

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ashutosh Kumar; Dhawan, Sunita Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. a member of family Asclepiadaceae as mentioned in Indian Pharmacopoeia popular among the researchers because of stimulatory effect of its phytoconstituent on pancreatic cells and potential to treat Type I and II type of diabetes. Objectives: Development of cost-effective marker system for the selection of high gymnemic acid yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. Materials and Methods: Presoaked seeds of Brassica campestris treated with different dilutions of gymnemagenin and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of G. sylvestre. Root tips of germinated seeds were fixed, and chromosomal studies were made by root tip bioassay method. Results: Exposure of seeds to treatment solutions promotes various types of chromosomal anomalies in root meristem, and surprisingly, direct correlation between the percentage of chromosomal fragmentation and the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution were observed. Conclusion: Later finding may be explored for the development of a novel methodology or marker system for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. SUMMARY An experiment was carried out using root tip bioassay method for the study of effect of different dilutions of standard gymnemic acid and 10% leaf extract of twenty different accessions of Gymnema sylvestre on root tip meristem of Brassica campestris. Various types of chromosomal anomalies were observed. Of which, percentage of chromosomal fragmentation was showed a direct (∞) relationship with the percentage of gymnemic acid shared by treatment solution. This interesting result after more and more exploration and revalidation could be utilized for the development of a novel methodology for the selection of high active principle yielding accessions of G. sylvestre. Abbreviations used: MI: Mitotic index; CP: Condensed prophase; CM: Clumped metaphase; MC: Metaphase cleft; FR: Fragmentation; AP: Anaphase with persistent

  6. Selective oviposition of the mayfly Baetis bicaudatus.

    PubMed

    Encalada, Andrea C; Peckarsky, Barbara L

    2006-06-01

    Selective oviposition can have important consequences for recruitment limitation and population dynamics of organisms with complex life cycles. Temporal and spatial variation in oviposition may be driven by environmental or behavioral constraints. The goals of this study were to: (1) develop an empirical model of the substrate characteristics that best explain observed patterns of oviposition by Baetis bicaudatus (Ephemeroptera), whose females lay eggs under rocks protruding from high-elevation streams in western Colorado; and (2) test experimentally selective oviposition of mayfly females. We surveyed the number and physical characteristics of potential oviposition sites, and counted the number and density of egg masses in different streams of one watershed throughout two consecutive flight seasons. Results of surveys showed that variability in the proportion of protruding rocks with egg masses and the density of egg masses per rock were explained primarily by seasonal and annual variation in hydrology, and variation in geomorphology among streams. Moreover, surveys and experiments showed that females preferred to oviposit under relatively large rocks located in places with high splash associated with fast current, which may provide visual, mechanical or both cues to females. Experiments also showed that high densities of egg masses under certain rocks were caused by rock characteristics rather than behavioral aggregation of ovipositing females. While aggregations of egg masses provided no survival advantage, rocks selected by females had lower probabilities of desiccating during egg incubation. Our data suggest that even when protruding rocks are abundant, not all rocks are used as oviposition sites by females, due to female selectivity and to differences in rock availability within seasons, years, or streams depending on variation in climate and hydrogeomorphology. Therefore, specialized oviposition behavior combined with variation in availability of quality

  7. All-in-one centrifugal microfluidic device for size-selective circulating tumor cell isolation with high purity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ada; Park, Juhee; Lim, Minji; Sunkara, Vijaya; Kim, Shine Young; Kim, Gwang Ha; Kim, Mi-Hyun; Cho, Yoon-Kyoung

    2014-11-18

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have gained increasing attention owing to their roles in cancer recurrence and progression. Due to the rarity of CTCs in the bloodstream, an enrichment process is essential for effective target cell characterization. However, in a typical pressure-driven microfluidic system, the enrichment process generally requires complicated equipment and long processing times. Furthermore, the commonly used immunoaffinity-based positive selection method is limited, as its recovery rate relies on EpCAM expression of target CTCs, which shows heterogeneity among cell types. Here, we propose a centrifugal-force-based size-selective CTC isolation platform that can isolate and enumerate CTCs from whole blood within 30 s with high purity. The device was validated using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line spiked in phosphate-buffered saline and whole blood, and an average capture efficiency of 61% was achieved, which is typical for size-based filtration. The capture efficiency for whole blood samples varied from 44% to 84% under various flow conditions and dilution factors. Under the optimized operating conditions, a few hundred white blood cells per 1 mL of whole blood were captured, representing a 20-fold decrease compared to those obtained using a commercialized size-based CTC isolation device. In clinical validation, normalized CTC counts varied from 10 to 60 per 7.5 mL of blood from gastric and lung cancer patients, yielding a detection rate of 50% and 38%, respectively. Overall, our CTC isolation device enables rapid and label-free isolation of CTCs with high purity, which should greatly improve downstream molecular analyses of captured CTCs.

  8. Catalytic conversion of methanol/ethanol to isobutanol--a highly selective route to an advanced biofuel.

    PubMed

    Wingad, Richard L; Bergström, Emilie J E; Everett, Matthew; Pellow, Katy J; Wass, Duncan F

    2016-04-14

    Catalysts based on ruthenium diphosphine complexes convert methanol/ethanol mixtures to the advanced biofuel isobutanol, with extremely high selectivity (>99%) at good (>75%) conversion via a Guerbet-type mechanism.

  9. Statistical approach for selection of biologically informative genes.

    PubMed

    Das, Samarendra; Rai, Anil; Mishra, D C; Rai, Shesh N

    2018-05-20

    Selection of informative genes from high dimensional gene expression data has emerged as an important research area in genomics. Many gene selection techniques have been proposed so far are either based on relevancy or redundancy measure. Further, the performance of these techniques has been adjudged through post selection classification accuracy computed through a classifier using the selected genes. This performance metric may be statistically sound but may not be biologically relevant. A statistical approach, i.e. Boot-MRMR, was proposed based on a composite measure of maximum relevance and minimum redundancy, which is both statistically sound and biologically relevant for informative gene selection. For comparative evaluation of the proposed approach, we developed two biological sufficient criteria, i.e. Gene Set Enrichment with QTL (GSEQ) and biological similarity score based on Gene Ontology (GO). Further, a systematic and rigorous evaluation of the proposed technique with 12 existing gene selection techniques was carried out using five gene expression datasets. This evaluation was based on a broad spectrum of statistically sound (e.g. subject classification) and biological relevant (based on QTL and GO) criteria under a multiple criteria decision-making framework. The performance analysis showed that the proposed technique selects informative genes which are more biologically relevant. The proposed technique is also found to be quite competitive with the existing techniques with respect to subject classification and computational time. Our results also showed that under the multiple criteria decision-making setup, the proposed technique is best for informative gene selection over the available alternatives. Based on the proposed approach, an R Package, i.e. BootMRMR has been developed and available at https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/BootMRMR. This study will provide a practical guide to select statistical techniques for selecting informative genes

  10. YSK2 Type Dehydrin (SbDhn1) from Sorghum bicolor Showed Improved Protection under High Temperature and Osmotic Stress Condition.

    PubMed

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Ray, Sudipta

    2017-01-01

    YSK2 type dehydrin from Sorghum bicolor (SbDhn1) showed a high level of transcript accumulation when subjected to high temperature and osmotic stress. The high transcript level occurring in such stress situation might lead to a protective effect; though the exact mechanism by which this is achieved remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, our results provide compelling evidence to prove that transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing SbDhn1 gene showed improve stress tolerance as assessed by reduced membrane damage and low MDA content. Furthermore, we demonstrate here SbDhn1 expressing lines were only able to recover after stress treatment. In this study, we have provided direct evidence for the protection rendered by SbDHN1 protein to a temperature-sensitive enzyme under both high temperature and osmotic stress. We extended this analysis to the whole plant proteome where the addition of SbDHN1 protein helped in retaining the solubility of the protein was demonstrated. Interestingly, in vitro experiments carried out with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), showed aggregate formation upon subjecting it to high temperature. However, in presence of SbDHN1 protein very few aggregates were observed. Aggregation assay showed a high level of aggregates in wild-type or empty vector transformed plants as compared to SbDhn1 transgenic lines. Confocal microscopy images in leaf peel sections of wild-type plants showed high amounts of aggregates as compared with transgenic lines. This study provides evidence for the protection rendered by SbDHN1 protein under high temperature by inhibiting the aggregate formation and provide the rational for the mechanism how these proteins ameliorate the adverse stress conditions.

  11. YSK2 Type Dehydrin (SbDhn1) from Sorghum bicolor Showed Improved Protection under High Temperature and Osmotic Stress Condition

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Ray, Sudipta

    2017-01-01

    YSK2 type dehydrin from Sorghum bicolor (SbDhn1) showed a high level of transcript accumulation when subjected to high temperature and osmotic stress. The high transcript level occurring in such stress situation might lead to a protective effect; though the exact mechanism by which this is achieved remains poorly understood. Nevertheless, our results provide compelling evidence to prove that transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing SbDhn1 gene showed improve stress tolerance as assessed by reduced membrane damage and low MDA content. Furthermore, we demonstrate here SbDhn1 expressing lines were only able to recover after stress treatment. In this study, we have provided direct evidence for the protection rendered by SbDHN1 protein to a temperature-sensitive enzyme under both high temperature and osmotic stress. We extended this analysis to the whole plant proteome where the addition of SbDHN1 protein helped in retaining the solubility of the protein was demonstrated. Interestingly, in vitro experiments carried out with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), showed aggregate formation upon subjecting it to high temperature. However, in presence of SbDHN1 protein very few aggregates were observed. Aggregation assay showed a high level of aggregates in wild-type or empty vector transformed plants as compared to SbDhn1 transgenic lines. Confocal microscopy images in leaf peel sections of wild-type plants showed high amounts of aggregates as compared with transgenic lines. This study provides evidence for the protection rendered by SbDHN1 protein under high temperature by inhibiting the aggregate formation and provide the rational for the mechanism how these proteins ameliorate the adverse stress conditions. PMID:28611819

  12. A highly selective and stable ZnO-ZrO2 solid solution catalyst for CO2 hydrogenation to methanol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jijie; Li, Guanna; Li, Zelong; Tang, Chizhou; Feng, Zhaochi; An, Hongyu; Liu, Hailong; Liu, Taifeng; Li, Can

    2017-01-01

    Although methanol synthesis via CO hydrogenation has been industrialized, CO2 hydrogenation to methanol still confronts great obstacles of low methanol selectivity and poor stability, particularly for supported metal catalysts under industrial conditions. We report a binary metal oxide, ZnO-ZrO2 solid solution catalyst, which can achieve methanol selectivity of up to 86 to 91% with CO2 single-pass conversion of more than 10% under reaction conditions of 5.0 MPa, 24,000 ml/(g hour), H2/CO2 = 3:1 to 4:1, 320° to 315°C. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that the synergetic effect between Zn and Zr sites results in the excellent performance. The ZnO-ZrO2 solid solution catalyst shows high stability for at least 500 hours on stream and is also resistant to sintering at higher temperatures. Moreover, no deactivation is observed in the presence of 50 ppm SO2 or H2S in the reaction stream. PMID:28989964

  13. Highly Selective Photothermal Therapy by a Phenoxylated-Dextran-Functionalized Smart Carbon Nanotube Platform.

    PubMed

    Han, Seungmin; Kwon, Taeyun; Um, Jo-Eun; Haam, Seungjoo; Kim, Woo-Jae

    2016-05-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) photothermal therapy using biocompatible single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is advantageous because as-produced SWNTs, without additional size control, both efficiently absorb NIR light and demonstrate high photothermal conversion efficiency. In addition, covalent attachment of receptor molecules to SWNTs can be used to specifically target infected cells. However, this technique interrupts SWNT optical properties and inevitably lowers photothermal conversion efficiency and thus remains major hurdle for SWNT applications. This paper presents a smart-targeting photothermal therapy platform for inflammatory disease using newly developed phenoxylated-dextran-functionalized SWNTs. Phenoxylated dextran is biocompatible and efficiently suspends SWNTs by noncovalent π-π stacking, thereby minimizing SWNT bundle formations and maintaining original SWNT optical properties. Furthermore, it selectively targets inflammatory macrophages by scavenger-receptor binding without any additional receptor molecules; therefore, its preparation is a simple one-step process. Herein, it is experimentally demonstrated that phenoxylated dextran-SWNTs (pD-SWNTs) are also biocompatible, selectively penetrate inflammatory macrophages over normal cells, and exhibit high photothermal conversion efficiency. Consequently, NIR laser-triggered macrophage treatment can be achieved with high accuracy by pD-SWNT without damaging receptor-free cells. These smart targeting materials can be a novel photothermal agent candidate for inflammatory disease. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A Novel Ion - selective Polymeric Membrane Sensor for Determining Thallium(I) With High Selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassim, Anuar; Rezayi, Majid; Ahmadzadeh, Saeid; Rounaghi, Gholamhossein; Mohajeri, Masoomeh; Azah Yusof, Noor; Tee, Tan Wee; Yook Heng, Lee; Halim Abdullah, Abd

    2011-02-01

    Thallium is a toxic metal that introduced into the environment mainly as a waste from the production of zinc, cadmium, and lead and by combustion of coal. Thallium causes gastrointestinal irritation and nerve damage when people are exposed to it for relatively short period of time. For long term, thallium has the potential to cause the following effects: change in blood chemistry, damage to liver, kidney, intestinal and testicular tissue, and hair loss. In this work a membrane was prepared by use of 4'-nitrobenzo -18-crown-6 (4'NB18C6) as an ion carrier, polyvinylchloride (PVC) as a matrix, and diocthylphetalate (DOP) as a plasticizer for making an ion selective electrode for measurement of Tl+ cation in solutions. The amount of 4'-nitrobenzo-18C6 and polyvinylchloride were optimized in the preparation of the membrane. The response of the electrode was Nernstian within the concentration range 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M. This sensor displays a drift in Nernstian response for this cation with increasing the amount of ionophore and decreasing the amount of polyvinylchloride.The results of potentiometric measurements showed that, this electrode also responses to Cu2+ Ni2+ and Pb2+ cations, but the electrode has a wider dynamic range and a lower detection limit to Tl+ cation. The effects of various parameters such as pH, different cations interferences, effect of the amount of ionophore and polyvinylchloride and time on response of the coated ion selective electrode were investigated. Finally the constructed electrode was used in complexometric and precipitation titrations of Tl+ cation with EDTA and KBr, respectively. The response of the fabricated electrode at concentration range from 1.0 × 10-8 to 1.0 × 10-1M is linear with a Nernstian slope of 57.27 mV.

  15. When Does Frequency-Independent Selection Maintain Genetic Variation?

    PubMed

    Novak, Sebastian; Barton, Nicholas H

    2017-10-01

    Frequency-independent selection is generally considered as a force that acts to reduce the genetic variation in evolving populations, yet rigorous arguments for this idea are scarce. When selection fluctuates in time, it is unclear whether frequency-independent selection may maintain genetic polymorphism without invoking additional mechanisms. We show that constant frequency-independent selection with arbitrary epistasis on a well-mixed haploid population eliminates genetic variation if we assume linkage equilibrium between alleles. To this end, we introduce the notion of frequency-independent selection at the level of alleles, which is sufficient to prove our claim and contains the notion of frequency-independent selection on haploids. When selection and recombination are weak but of the same order, there may be strong linkage disequilibrium; numerical calculations show that stable equilibria are highly unlikely. Using the example of a diallelic two-locus model, we then demonstrate that frequency-independent selection that fluctuates in time can maintain stable polymorphism if linkage disequilibrium changes its sign periodically. We put our findings in the context of results from the existing literature and point out those scenarios in which the possible role of frequency-independent selection in maintaining genetic variation remains unclear. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  16. Controlled Pyrolysis of Ni-MOF-74 as a Promising Precursor for the Creation of Highly Active Ni Nanocatalysts in Size-Selective Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Kazuki; Yoshii, Takeharu; Kuwahara, Yasutaka; Mori, Kohsuke; Yamashita, Hiromi

    2018-01-19

    Metal organic frameworks (MOFs) are a class of porous organic-inorganic crystalline materials that have attracted much attention as H 2 storage devices and catalytic supports. In this paper, the synthesis of highly-dispersed Ni nanoparticles (NPs) for the hydrogenation of olefins was achieved by employing Ni-MOF-74 as a precursor. Investigations of the structural transformation of Ni species derived from Ni-MOF-74 during heat treatment were conducted. The transformation was monitored in detail by a combination of XRD, in situ XAFS, and XPS measurements. Ni NPs prepared from Ni-MOF-74 were easily reduced by the generation of reducing gases accompanied by the decomposition of Ni-MOF-74 structures during heat treatment at over 300 °C under N 2 flow. Ni-MOF-74-300 exhibited the highest activity for the hydrogenation of 1-octene due to efficient suppression of excess agglomerated Ni species during heat treatment. Moreover, Ni-MOF-74-300 showed not only high activity for the hydrogenation of olefins but also high size-selectivity because of the selective formation of Ni NPs covered by MOFs and the MOF-derived carbonaceous layer. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. α1-Antitrypsin Portland, a bioengineered serpin highly selective for furin: Application as an antipathogenic agent

    PubMed Central

    Jean, François; Stella, Kori; Thomas, Laurel; Liu, Gseping; Xiang, Yang; Reason, Andrew J.; Thomas, Gary

    1998-01-01

    The important role of furin in the proteolytic activation of many pathogenic molecules has made this endoprotease a target for the development of potent and selective antiproteolytic agents. Here, we demonstrate the utility of the protein-based inhibitor α1-antitrypsin Portland (α1-PDX) as an antipathogenic agent that can be used prophylactically to block furin-dependent cell killing by Pseudomonas exotoxin A. Biochemical analysis of the specificity of a bacterially expressed His- and FLAG-tagged α1-PDX (α1-PDX/hf) revealed the selectivity of the α1-PDX/hf reactive site loop for furin (Ki, 600 pM) but not for other proprotein convertase family members or other unrelated endoproteases. Kinetic studies show that α1-PDX/hf inhibits furin by a slow tight-binding mechanism characteristic of serpin molecules and functions as a suicide substrate inhibitor. Once bound to furin’s active site, α1-PDX/hf partitions with equal probability to undergo proteolysis by furin at the C-terminal side of the reactive center -Arg355-Ile-Pro-Arg358-↓ or to form a kinetically trapped SDS-stable complex with the enzyme. This partitioning between the complex-forming and proteolytic pathways contributes to the ability of α1-PDX/hf to differentially inhibit members of the proprotein convertase family. Finally, we propose a structural model of the α1-PDX-reactive site loop that explains the high degree of enzyme selectivity of this serpin and which can be used to generate small molecule furin inhibitors. PMID:9636142

  18. Enrichment of rare earth metal ions by the highly selective adsorption of phytate intercalated layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Liu, Huimin; Kong, Xianggui; Yan, Hong; Lei, Xiaodong

    2018-02-27

    Phytate intercalated MgAl layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) was prepared by an anion exchange method with the precursor NO 3 - containing MgAl-LDH. The final as-synthesized product [Mg 0.69 Al 0.31 (OH) 2 ] (phytateNa 6 ) 0.05 (NO 3 ) 0.01 ·mH 2 O (phytate-LDH) has highly selective adsorption ability for some metal ions and can be used to enrich rare earth metal ions in mixed solution, such as Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ from a mixed solution of them with Pb 2+ and Co 2+ . At first, phytate-LDH has good adsorption performance for these ions in single metal ion solutions. At low concentration (below 10 mg L -1 ), all the capture rates of the four metal ions were more than 97%, for highly toxic Pb 2+ it was even up to nearly 100%, and a high capture rate (99.87%) was maintained for Pb 2+ at a high concentration (100 mg L -1 ). When all the four metal ions are co-existing in aqueous solution, the selectivity order is Pb 2+ ≫ Pr 3+ ≈ Ce 3+ > Co 2+ . In a solution containing mixtures of the three metal ions of Pr 3+ , Ce 3+ , and Co 2+ , the selectivity order is Pr 3+ ≈ Ce 3+ ≫ Co 2+ , and in a solution containing mixtures of Pr 3+ with Co 2+ and Ce 3+ with Co 2+ , the selectivity orders are Pr 3+ ≫ Co 2+ and Ce 3+ ≫ Co 2+ , respectively. The high selectivity and adsorption capacities for Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , Pr 3+ , and Ce 3+ result in the efficient removal of Pb 2+ and enrichment of the rare earth metal ions Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ by phytate-LDH. Based on the elemental analysis, it is found that the difference of the adsorption capacities is mainly due to the different coordination number of them with phytate-LDH. With molecular simulation, we believe that the adsorption selectivity is due to the difference of the binding energy between the metal ion and phytate-LDH. Therefore, the phytate-LDH is promising for the enrichment and/or purification of the rare earth metal ions and removal of toxic metal ions from waste water.

  19. Students Choosing Colleges: Understanding the Matriculation Decision at a Highly Selective Private Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nurnberg, Peter; Schapiro, Morton; Zimmerman, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an econometric analysis of the matriculation decisions made by students accepted to Williams College, one of the nation's most highly selective colleges and universities. Using data for the Williams classes of 2008 through 2012 to estimate a yield model, we find that--conditional on the student applying to and being accepted by…

  20. Access: Net Prices, Affordability, and Equity at a Highly Selective College. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catherine B.; Winston, Gordon C.

    All of the financial aid decisions at Williams College (Williamstown, Massachusetts) for the past 14 years--nearly 14,000 of them--were reviewed to see how much students actually paid for tuition, room, board, and fees to go to that highly selective and expensive school, their net prices. Williams practices need-blind admission with full…