Science.gov

Sample records for shrimp branchinecta sandiegonensis

  1. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  2. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Wood, D.A.; Simovich, M.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. ?? Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Is distribution of cold stenotherms constrained by temperature? The case of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa O.F. Müller 1788).

    PubMed

    Lindholm, M; Hessen, D O; Færøvig, P J; Rognerud, B; Andersen, T; Stordal, F

    2015-10-01

    Small water bodies in cold climate respond fast to global warming, and species adapted to such habitats may be valuable indicators for climate change. We investigated the geographical and physiological temperature limits of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa), which is common in cold water arctic ponds, but at present retracts its range in alpine areas along its southern outreach of Norway. Seasonal logging of water temperatures along an altitudinal transect revealed an upper temperature limit of 12.7°C for its presence, which closely matched a calculated upper temperature limit of 12.9°C throughout its entire Norwegian range. Field data hence point to cold stenotherm features, which would be consistent with its Arctic, circumpolar distribution. Lab experiments, on the other hand, revealed a linear increase in respiration over 10-20°C. When fed ad libitum somatic growth increased with temperature, as well, without negative physiological impacts of higher temperatures. The absence of Branchinecta paludosa in ponds warmer than 13°C could still be due to a mismatch between temperature dependent metabolism and limited energy supply in these ultraoligotrophic water bodies. We discuss the concept of cold stenothermy in this context, and the impacts of regional warming on the future distribution of the Arctic fairy shrimp. PMID:26590455

  4. Is distribution of cold stenotherms constrained by temperature? The case of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa O.F. Müller 1788).

    PubMed

    Lindholm, M; Hessen, D O; Færøvig, P J; Rognerud, B; Andersen, T; Stordal, F

    2015-10-01

    Small water bodies in cold climate respond fast to global warming, and species adapted to such habitats may be valuable indicators for climate change. We investigated the geographical and physiological temperature limits of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa), which is common in cold water arctic ponds, but at present retracts its range in alpine areas along its southern outreach of Norway. Seasonal logging of water temperatures along an altitudinal transect revealed an upper temperature limit of 12.7°C for its presence, which closely matched a calculated upper temperature limit of 12.9°C throughout its entire Norwegian range. Field data hence point to cold stenotherm features, which would be consistent with its Arctic, circumpolar distribution. Lab experiments, on the other hand, revealed a linear increase in respiration over 10-20°C. When fed ad libitum somatic growth increased with temperature, as well, without negative physiological impacts of higher temperatures. The absence of Branchinecta paludosa in ponds warmer than 13°C could still be due to a mismatch between temperature dependent metabolism and limited energy supply in these ultraoligotrophic water bodies. We discuss the concept of cold stenothermy in this context, and the impacts of regional warming on the future distribution of the Arctic fairy shrimp.

  5. A new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Lorenz, Helen Racz

    2015-10-22

    Branchinecta uruguayensis, a new species of fairy shrimp, is described from a single seasonally astatic aquatic habitat in coastal Uruguay. This is the first record of an anostracan from the nation of Uruguay. Male B. uruguayensis n. sp. are separated from other Branchinecta species by the form of the second antennae. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. share the distal antennomere lobiform projection with B. papillata Rogers, De los Rios, & Zúñiga, 2008 and B. achalensis César, 1985. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. females are readily separated from all other Branchinecta by the presence of posteriolateral thoracic spines and lateral crenulations on the first abdomen segment margins. A key is provided to the Branchinectidae of South America.

  6. Genetic utility of natural history museum specimens: endangered fairy shrimp (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Adam R.; Campo, Daniel; Wetzer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We examined the potential utility of museum specimens as a source for genetic analysis of fairy shrimp. Because of loss of their vernal pool habitat, some fairy shrimp (including Branchinecta sandiegonensis and Branchinecta lynchi) are listed as threatened or endangered in Southern California by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Management of those species requires extensive population genetics studies and the resolution of important genetic complexity (e.g. possible hybridization between endangered and non-endangered species). Regulations mandating deposition of specimens of listed species have resulted in thousands of specimens accessioned into the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County that have been preserved in a variety of solutions. We subsampled those specimens, as well as other Anostraca with known collection and preservation histories, to test their potential for genetic analysis by attempting DNA extraction and amplification for mt16SrDNA. Fixation and preservation in not denatured ethanol had a far greater sequencing success rate than other (and unknown) fixatives and preservatives. To maximize scientific value we recommend field preservation in 95% not denatured ethanol (or, if pure ethanol is unavailable, high-proof drinking spirits, e.g. Everclear™, or 151 proof white rum), followed by storage in 95% not denatured ethanol. PMID:25561827

  7. 77 FR 36287 - Receipt of Application for the Amendment of the Incidental Take Permit for the Multiple Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... provided in the Federal Register on March 28, 1997 (62 FR 14938) and November 14, 1997 (62 FR 61140). The... Diego fairy shrimp (Branchinecta sandiegonensis) and the burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia), an...

  8. Annotated Checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA, with the "rediscovery" of a new species of Branchinecta (Anostraca: Branchinectidae).

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Hill, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    We present a checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA. New distributional records are presented for most species, including the first records of Branchinecta constricta Rogers, 2006 and Lepidurus cryptus Rogers, 2001 from Idaho, the first record of B. oriena Belk & Rogers 2002 from Oregon, the first record of B. mackini Dexter, 1956 and Artemiafranciscana Kellogg, 1906 co-occurring, and the first record of L. cryptus from Washington. Furthermore, we present the first record of Eulimnadia diversa Mattox, 1937 from west of the continental divide, which we interpret as an accidental introduction. In 1959, Lynch collected a new fairy shrimp species from Washington, deposited that material in the US National Museum, labeled "muddy fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lutulenta", but never described it. Numerous efforts have been made to rediscover extant populations since 1999. We rediscovered this species in 2011, from two small pools from the vicinity of Lynch's original collection site, which appears to have been destroyed. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is most closely related to B. lindahli Packard, 1883 and B. oterosanvicentei Obregón-Barboza et al., 2002. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is readily separable from all other Branchinecta species by the form of the male second antennal distal antennomere and the ornamentation of the female dorsum.

  9. Annotated Checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA, with the "rediscovery" of a new species of Branchinecta (Anostraca: Branchinectidae).

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Hill, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    We present a checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA. New distributional records are presented for most species, including the first records of Branchinecta constricta Rogers, 2006 and Lepidurus cryptus Rogers, 2001 from Idaho, the first record of B. oriena Belk & Rogers 2002 from Oregon, the first record of B. mackini Dexter, 1956 and Artemiafranciscana Kellogg, 1906 co-occurring, and the first record of L. cryptus from Washington. Furthermore, we present the first record of Eulimnadia diversa Mattox, 1937 from west of the continental divide, which we interpret as an accidental introduction. In 1959, Lynch collected a new fairy shrimp species from Washington, deposited that material in the US National Museum, labeled "muddy fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lutulenta", but never described it. Numerous efforts have been made to rediscover extant populations since 1999. We rediscovered this species in 2011, from two small pools from the vicinity of Lynch's original collection site, which appears to have been destroyed. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is most closely related to B. lindahli Packard, 1883 and B. oterosanvicentei Obregón-Barboza et al., 2002. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is readily separable from all other Branchinecta species by the form of the male second antennal distal antennomere and the ornamentation of the female dorsum. PMID:26312287

  10. Morphometric and preliminary genetic characteristics of Branchinecta orientalis populations from Iran (Crustacea: Anostraca).

    PubMed

    Atashbar, Behroz; Agh, Naser; Manaffar, Ramin; Stappen, Gilbert Van; Mohamadyari, Ali; Mertens, Johan; Beladjal, Lynda

    2016-01-01

    Branchinecta orientalis is a fairy shrimp endemic to the Palearctic region, from Mongolia to Spain. The patchy nature of its habitat is thought to result in a high degree of subdivision among populations, potentially promoting speciation. We combined morphometric characteristics with molecular phylogeny of cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) to test whether B. orientalis could be a species complex and whether there is any correlation between the genetic variation, morphometric characteristics and geographical variables. We studied six populations from Iran based on the comparison of morphometric and molecular datasets, we confirmed that the Aigher Goli (AIG) population is biometrically well separated from the Akh Gol, Hassar, Rashakan, Khaslou and Garagojanlou populations in northwestern Iran. The relatively high genetic divergence in the AIG from the other populations and its congruence with morphometric data were observed in B. orientalis populations. However, as these results were generated using a small sample size and on a limited sampling range, they should be considered as preliminary. PMID:27394849

  11. Acute toxicity of ten chemicals to fairy shrimp relative to other crustaceans and mollusks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several species of fairy shrimp in the genus Branchinecta (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) are protected under the federal Endangered Species Act due to destruction of seasonal wetland habitats in Oregon and California, making protection of the hydrology and water quality of the limited...

  12. Fairy, tadpole, and clam shrimps (Branchiopoda) in seasonally inundated clay pans in the western Mojave Desert and effect on primary producers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fairy shrimps (Anostraca), tadpole shrimps (Notostraca), clam shrimps (Spinicaudata), algae (primarily filamentous blue-green algae [cyanobacteria]), and suspended organic particulates are dominant food web components of the seasonally inundated pans and playas of the western Mojave Desert in California. We examined the extent to which these branchiopods controlled algal abundance and species composition in clay pans between Rosamond and Rogers Dry Lakes. We surveyed branchiopods during the wet season to estimate abundances and then conducted a laboratory microcosm experiment, in which dried sediment containing cysts and the overlying algal crust were inundated and cultured. Microcosm trials were run with and without shrimps; each type of trial was run for two lengths of time: 30 and 60 days. We estimated the effect of shrimps on algae by measuring chlorophyll content and the relative abundance of algal species. Results We found two species of fairy shrimps (Branchinecta mackini and B. gigas), one tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus lemmoni), and a clam shrimp (Cyzicus setosa) in our wet-season field survey. We collected Branchinecta lindahli in a pilot study, but not subsequently. The dominant taxa were C. setosa and B. mackini, but abundances and species composition varied greatly among playas. The same species found in field surveys also occurred in the microcosm experiment. There were no significant differences as a function of experimental treatments for either chlorophyll content or algal species composition (Microcoleus vaginatus dominated all treatments). Conclusions The results suggest that there was no direct effect of shrimps on algae. Although the pans harbored an apparently high abundance of branchiopods, these animals had little role in regulating primary producers in this environment. PMID:21143855

  13. ``Cleaner'' shrimps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotte, Stephen

    1998-03-01

    In the western North Atlantic, some shrimps of the genus Periclimenes interact with fishes. Accoring to prevailing wisdom, these shrimps “clean” the fishes (i.e. they remove parasites, diseased tissue, or detritus from their exposed surfaces). With one exception, the numerous literature entries recite anecdotal evidence. The only report based on empirical studies has dismissed the notion that “cleaner” shrimps perform the services attributed to them, leaving the nature of the relationship unresolved.

  14. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Lovelle

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

  15. Mantis shrimp allergy.

    PubMed

    Alonso, R Eiró; Zavala, B Bartolomé; Escoda, J M Soler

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old female who experienced two immediate episodes of labial, lingual and larynx angiodema after eating fried mantis shrimp (Squilla empusa), a crustacean belonging to the Squillidae family, and a third episode after eating shellfish pudding. Prick by prick tests to mantis shrimp and to other crustacean were positive. Serum specific IgE showed higher values than 0.35 kU/L to extracts from mantis shrimp shell, prawn, large prawn and crab. Serum specific IgE against large prawn tropomyosin were below 0.35 kU/L. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting results with raw mantis shrimp shell revealed IgE-binding bands of 46 kDa and 25 kDa, in non reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Cross-reactivity studies using the enzyme allergo sorbent test (EAST)-inhibition and Immunoblotting-inhibition methods showed the existence of significant cross-reactivity between the IgE-binding proteins present in mantis shrimp and those from prawn, large prawn and small crab. PMID:17153890

  16. Mantis shrimp allergy.

    PubMed

    Alonso, R Eiró; Zavala, B Bartolomé; Escoda, J M Soler

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 25-year-old female who experienced two immediate episodes of labial, lingual and larynx angiodema after eating fried mantis shrimp (Squilla empusa), a crustacean belonging to the Squillidae family, and a third episode after eating shellfish pudding. Prick by prick tests to mantis shrimp and to other crustacean were positive. Serum specific IgE showed higher values than 0.35 kU/L to extracts from mantis shrimp shell, prawn, large prawn and crab. Serum specific IgE against large prawn tropomyosin were below 0.35 kU/L. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) immunoblotting results with raw mantis shrimp shell revealed IgE-binding bands of 46 kDa and 25 kDa, in non reducing and reducing conditions, respectively. Cross-reactivity studies using the enzyme allergo sorbent test (EAST)-inhibition and Immunoblotting-inhibition methods showed the existence of significant cross-reactivity between the IgE-binding proteins present in mantis shrimp and those from prawn, large prawn and small crab.

  17. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  18. [Shrimp as an allergen source].

    PubMed

    Múnera, Marlon; Gómez, Luis; Puerta, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Allergy to shellfish is one of the most prevalent food allergies in several countries, especially the one induced by consuming or having contact with shrimp. Several shrimp species are known to induce allergy diseases. However, the whole spectrum of allergens they contain is unknown and few of them have been completely characterized. This study was done in order to know the recent advances in the characterization of shrimp allergens and its relationship with allergens from other arthropods of importance in allergic diseases. We emphasize the species Litopenaeus vannamei , the most consumed shrimp in Colombia. Well characterized shrimp allergens are named following an official classification; nevertheless, they are better known according to the biological function associated with them. Tropomiosin, the main and most studied allergen in different shrimp species, is involved in crossreactivity among shrimp and other arthropods like domestic mites. The other characterized allergens seem to have a minor participation in this cross-reactivity. The allergenic potential of L. vannamei is not well known and few of its allergens have been characterized, whilst others that were recently identified such as the hemocyanin and the fatty acid binding proteins are beginning to be studied. Preliminary results suggest that these allergens are involved in the cross-reactivity between shrimp and domestic mites, which deserves further evaluation. The molecular and immunological characterization of all allergens present in shrimp would help understanding its allergenic role.

  19. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pink shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1984-01-01

    Shrimp support the most valuable seafood industry in the United States (Roedel 1973; National Marine Fisheries Service 1983). The three most important commercial species are the white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus L.), brown shrimp (P. aztecus Ives), and pink shrimp (P. duorarum Burkenroad). Adult pink shdmp are caught "in commercial quantities throughout most of the geographic ranqe of the species (L indner 1957), and juveni les support a sizable bait shrimp industry along the Florida coast and throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Saloman 1965).

  20. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  1. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  3. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  4. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  5. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  6. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp.

  8. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  9. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  10. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  11. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  12. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  13. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  14. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  15. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  16. Selenium requirement of shrimp Penaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yuchuan; Liu, Fayi

    1993-09-01

    Penaeus chinensis were reared in fibreglass tanks for the study of their selenium requirements. The shrimp were fed semipurified diets containing graded levels of selenium, and weight gains, activities of glutatione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and selenium contents in muscle and hepatopancreas were determined. Weight gain and GSH-Px activity were the highest when the shrimp were fed diet containing 20 mg/kg selenium. Good linear correlation was found between GSH-Px activities and selenium contents in the diets, and the number of healthy shrimp. The experiment showed that 20 mg/kg selenium in the diet is optimal for the shrimp and that GSH-Px activity can be an important biochemical index of the selenium nutrition status of the animal.

  17. Ultraviolet photoreception in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T W; Marshall, N J; Quinn, C A; King, C A

    1994-06-01

    An UV-sensitive class of photoreceptors exists in all regions of the retinas of mantis shrimps. UV photosensitivity apparently resides in rhabdomeres of the eighth retinular cell (R8) that lies atop each rhabdom; and in ommatidia where the R8 rhabdomere consists of microvilli parallel in a single direction, sensitivity is maximal when the e-vector of plane-polarized light is parallel to the microvilli. Spectral sensitivity of the UV photoreceptor peaks at 345 nm and is best explained by the presence of a photopigment with lambda max near 325 nm overlain by material that absorbs UV light at wavelengths below approximately 350 nm. Rhabdomeres of R8 cells in several different retinal regions of a variety of species examined contain a photopigment absorbing maximally below 340 nm. Under appropriate conditions, a metapigment with lambda max near 460 nm can be formed. UV vision may be useful for enhancing the visual contrast of midwater predators or prey. PMID:8023455

  18. Development of a quantal assay in primary shrimp cell culture for yellow head baculovirus (YBV) of penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; Tapay, L M; Loh, P C; Brock, J A; Gose, R

    1995-03-01

    A 50% tissue culture infectious dose assay (TCID50) using primary culture of shrimp lymphoid organ (Oka) cells was developed for the quantitative titration of yellow-head baculovirus (YBV), a newly isolated virus of penaeid shrimp. The assay protocol includes the use of Primaria-grade 96-well tissue culture plates to grow the primary lymphoid organ cells of penaeid shrimp. A 15% gill suspension from YBV-infected shrimp was determined to have an infectious virus titer of 5 x 10(5.75) TCID50/ml. This report represents the first convenient assay protocol using cell culture derived from penaeid shrimp to titer a shrimp virus.

  19. Effect of high intensity ultrasound on the allergenicity of shrimp*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhen-Xing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Li-Min; Jameel, Khalid

    2006-01-01

    The tropomyosin fraction of shrimp proteins is potentially responsible for allergic reaction in individuals with genetic predisposition to allergy. However, there are no efficient and safe methods to reduce its allergenicity. High intensity ultrasound is known to change the structure of proteins. This study is aimed at assessing high intensity ultrasound’s effect on the allergenicity of shrimp allergen. Shrimp and purified shrimp allergen were treated with high intensity ultrasound for 30~180 min. Extracts of treated samples were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with pool serum of shrimp allergy patients and polyclonal anti-allergen antibodies and by immunoblotting after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Shrimp treated with high intensity ultrasound showed a decrease in allergenicity measured with ELISA. A linear relationship between the immune response induced by treated shrimp allergen and the applied treatment time was observed. The decrease in allergenicity was confirmed by immunoblot assays with shrimp allergic patients serum. Allergenicity of shrimp allergen extracted from treated shrimp was higher than that of purified shrimp allergen with the same treatment time. Gel-filtration HPLC was applied for analysis of shrimp allergen after treatment with high intensity ultrasound. Some fractions were appeared with increasing treatment time. The results suggested that high intensity ultrasound could be used to reduce the allergenicity of shrimp. PMID:16532525

  20. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  1. Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  2. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  3. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  4. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  5. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  6. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  7. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  8. Distribution of marine red yeasts in shrimps and the environments of shrimp culture.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Ping; Wu, Zao-He; Jian, Ji-Chang

    2011-05-01

    Populations of marine red yeast from shrimps and the environments of shrimp culture were investigated from various areas at Zhanjiang in China. All strains were studied for the production of biomass and carotenoids. We isolated 88 marine red yeast strains and the average populations of marine red yeast in seawater and the water from shrimp culture ponds were 70.0 and 172.4 CFU per 100 ml water, respectively. For shrimp samples, average populations of marine red yeast from gills, intestines, and stomachs were 178.0, 15.0, and 8.0 CFU per shrimp, respectively. The isolates were grouped into nine species belonging to three genera as follows: Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Sporidiobolus. R. sphaerocarpum had the highest average biomass yield (10.3 ± 0.88 g/l), followed by S. ruineniae (10.1 g/l) and Rh. mucilaginosa (9.9 ± 1.75 g/l). R. paludigenum had the highest average carotenoid yield (2.83 ± 0.589 mg/l), followed by S. pararoseus (2.72 mg/l) and R. sphaerocarpum (2.59 ± 0.454 mg/l). The results showed that marine red yeasts were normal microbial components in the environments of shrimp culture and shrimps, and carotenoids are abundant in these marine red yeast.

  9. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to β-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline. PMID:25918714

  10. Antibiotic-resistant vibrios in farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to β-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline.

  11. Vulnerability of coastal livelihoods to shrimp farming: Insights from Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Blythe, Jessica; Flaherty, Mark; Murray, Grant

    2015-05-01

    Millions of people around the world depend on shrimp aquaculture for their livelihoods. Yet, the phenomenal growth of shrimp farming has often given rise to considerable environmental and social damage. This article examines the impacts of commercial, export-oriented shrimp aquaculture on local livelihood vulnerability by comparing the exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity of shrimp farm employees with non-farm employees in rural Mozambique. Exposure to stressors was similar between the two groups. Shrimp farm employees had higher assets and higher adaptive capacity than non-farm employees. However, because their income is heavily dependent on a single commodity, shrimp farm employees were highly susceptible to the boom crop nature of intensive shrimp farming. The implications for aquaculture policy and vulnerability research are discussed. The article argues that coastal vulnerability is dynamic, variable, and influenced by multiple processes operating at multiple scales.

  12. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  13. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the contiguous United States. These species are decapod crustaceans, but not true shrimp. They are harvested as bait by recreational and commercial oyster-growing operations. Ghost shrimp larvae develop in summer in nearshore coastal waters and settle to the substrate surface, where they rapidly metamorphose; the life cycle of the blue mud shrimp is presumed to be similar. Both species spend their lives in burrows in the mudflat, where the ghost shrimp is primarily a deposit feeder and the blue mud shrimp is a suspension feeder.

  14. COBALT-60 Gamma Irradiation of Shrimp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Nancy L. B.

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine were measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  15. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  16. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  17. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment.

  18. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment. PMID:26475295

  19. 78 FR 33350 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Thailand. The period of investigation is January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  20. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  1. Shrimp laminin receptor binds with capsid proteins of two additional shrimp RNA viruses YHV and IMNV.

    PubMed

    Busayarat, Nattaphon; Senapin, Saengchan; Tonganunt, Moltira; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Meemetta, Watcharachai; Unajak, Sasimanas; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Lo, Chu-Fang; Phongdara, Amornrat

    2011-07-01

    Laminin receptor (Lamr) in shrimp was previously proposed to be a potential receptor protein for Taura syndrome virus (TSV) based on yeast two-hybrid assays. Since shrimp Lamr bound to the VP1 capsid protein of TSV, we were interested to know whether capsid/envelope proteins from other shrimp viruses would also bind to Lamr. Thus, capsid/envelope encoding genes from 5 additional shrimp viruses were examined. These were Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus (MrNV), and yellow head virus (YHV). Protein interaction analysis using yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that Lamr specifically interacted with capsid/envelope proteins of RNA viruses IMNV and YHV but not MrNV and not with the capsid/envelope proteins of DNA viruses PstDNV and WSSV. In vitro pull-down assay also confirmed the interaction between Lamr and YHV gp116 envelope protein, and injection of recombinant Lamr (rLamr) protein produced in yeast cells protected shrimp against YHV in laboratory challenge tests. PMID:21414409

  2. Growth and enterotoxin production of Staphylococcus aureus in shrimp.

    PubMed Central

    Beckers, H. J.; Van Leusden, F. M.; Tips, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from shrimp were examined for phage pattern and enterotoxin production; 63% of the strains isolated from North Sea shrimp were typable with the International and additional set of phages, as were 38% of the strains isolated from South-East Asian shrimp. Staphylococcal enterotoxin(s) (SE) were produced by 48% and 35% of strains isolated from North Sea and South-East Asian shrimp respectively. Growth and enterotoxin production by S. aureus in shrimp was examined in storage experiments at 22 degrees C. S. aureus increased by 1-2 log units in 24 h when the organism was only a minor part of the total microflora of shrimp. When S. aureus was an equivalent part of the total flora its numbers increased by 3-4 log units in 24 h. Enterotoxins A and B became detectable when the number of S. aureus exceeded 10(7) per g in aseptically peeled shrimp. Results indicate that S. aureus is able to produce enterotoxin in shrimp, but its production depends upon a number of factors, including the relationship between S. aureus and competitive micro-organisms. It is concluded that the presence of S. aureus on commercially produced shrimp represents a potential hazard to health. PMID:4093610

  3. Do brine shrimp diagnose cystic fibrosis?

    PubMed

    Hodes, M E; Thomas, J; Morgan, S; Merritt, A D

    1975-11-01

    The nauplii of the brine shrimp Artemia salina are dependent upon the function of their salt gland to maintain osmotic pressure within narrow limits. A number of drugs interfere with this function and are lethal to the nauplii. Saliva and serum from normal persons, patients with cystic fibrosis, and obligate heterozygotes were tested for lethal effect against brine shrimp nauplii. At salt concentrations between 100 mM and 2.5 no difference was found among the phenotypes. At lower concentrations a difference was noted occasionally between some normal subjects and some individuals carrying one or two genes for cystic fibrosis. Data from an independent series of experiments indicate that the naupliar deaths result from distorted ratios of Na+/K+ and not from a specific gene product. No difference was noted in the O2 uptake of nauplii treated with saliva or serum obtained from normal subjects, patients with cystic fibrosis, or obligate heterozygotes. PMID:1187245

  4. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent. PMID:11933129

  5. Brine shrimp lethality assay of Bacopa monnieri.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Prashanth; Deepak, Mundkinajeddu; Rani, Padmaja; Kadamboor, Sandhya; Mathew, Anjana; Chandrashekar, Arun P; Agarwal, Amit

    2002-03-01

    Successive petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water extracts, a saponin rich fraction (SRF) and bacoside A isolated from Bacopa monnieri were tested for brine shrimp lethality. Successive ethanol extracts and SRF showed potent activity. Bacoside A showed the maximum activity with a LC(50) of 38.3 microg/mL. The results confirmed the previous reports of an anticancer effect of Bacopa monnieri and suggest bacoside A as the active constituent.

  6. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  7. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats).

  8. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  9. Vortex formation with a snapping shrimp claw.

    PubMed

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

  10. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  11. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses.

  12. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  13. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  14. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  15. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  16. Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

  17. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  18. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  19. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  20. Shrimps remove ectoparasites from fishes in temperate waters

    PubMed Central

    Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H.A; Nilsson, Göran E

    2005-01-01

    We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48 h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation. PMID:17148231

  1. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  2. 77 FR 36998 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the shrimp fishery in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and...

  3. 78 FR 33344 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty... are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from... frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or farm-raised (produced...

  4. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) manages the shrimp fishery in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico under the Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and...

  5. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  6. 78 FR 33342 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam). The period of... Investigation The products covered by this investigation are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns,...

  7. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  8. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  9. 78 FR 56211 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review, 77 FR... FR 55800 (September 11, 2012) (``AR6 VN Shrimp''). \\21\\ In AR5 VN Shrimp, the Department found...

  10. 78 FR 33346 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from the People's Republic of China (PRC). The period of investigation (POI... are certain frozen warmwater shrimp and prawns, whether wild-caught (ocean harvested) or...

  11. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  12. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  13. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-01

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453.

  14. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  15. Immunization with Hypoallergens of shrimp allergen tropomyosin inhibits shrimp tropomyosin specific IgE reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wai, Christine Y Y; Leung, Nicki Y H; Ho, Marco H K; Gershwin, Laurel J; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S C; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.

  16. 77 FR 25112 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California and Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... FR 41448). lethoporus. Paiute cutthroat trout........ Oncorhynchus Threatened U.S.A. (CA) July 16, 1975 clarki (40 FR 29863). seleniris. Riverside fairy shrimp........ Streptocephalus Endangered U.S.A. (CA) August 3, 1993 woottoni. (58 FR 41384). San Diego fairy shrimp........ Branchinecta Endangered...

  17. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  18. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  19. Comparative studies on nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhen-Xiong; Li, De-Shang; Zhang, Man-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2001-09-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% 83.9% of the total input nitrogen 3.2% 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9% respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% 60.8% of the total, input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% 6. 2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% 8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging rates for all the studied polyculture systems ranged from 3.0% to 6. 0% of total input nitrogen.

  20. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production, based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurements of shoreline length and area of marsh having more than 5.0 km shoreline/sq km for the coast of Louisiana, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield. The mathematical model relating these parameters and the shrimp production is consistent with an energy flow model describing the interaction of detritus producing marshlands with shrimp nursery grounds and inshore shrimping areas. The analysis supports the basic hypothesis and further raises the possibility of applications to coastal zone management requirements.

  1. Toward improved environmental and social management of Indian shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Hein, Lars

    2002-03-01

    In the last decade, Indian shrimp aquaculture production tripled from 30,000 tons (1990) to 102,000 tons (1999). This fast development, combined with a lack of adequate planning and regulation, caused a number of environmental problems and social conflicts, including conversion of mangroves, water pollution, and salinization of drinking water wells. Because of the significant investments made in shrimp culture and the size of the environmental and social impacts, the formulation of a regulatory framework for shrimp aquaculture has been subject to an intensive debate between the aquaculture and the environmental lobbies. Following an order from the Supreme Court (1996), the Aquaculture Authority was established and a regulatory and institutional framework for the shrimp aquaculture sector has been set up. However, implementation of the system is still defective, and there is an urgent need for improvement. Farmers are increasingly able to prevent the devastating white spot disease in shrimps, and in the absence of proper planning and regulation, further expansion of shrimp production could result in significant additional environmental and social costs. The environmental and social management of Indian shrimp farming can be improved through a mix of policy measures, including strengthening of the license system, more effective enforcement of regulations, the use of economic incentives, and increased monitoring of environmental and social impacts.

  2. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  3. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  4. Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

    2013-02-01

    The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively.

  5. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  6. Improved methodology for the estimation of sulfur dioxide in shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, B.J. III

    1987-01-01

    A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.

  7. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  8. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  9. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  10. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  11. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

  12. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sufficient to retard development of dark spots on the shrimp; and (2) The antioxidant preservatives listed in... “Ascorbic acid added to retard discoloration of shrimp”. If any other antioxidant preservative, as...

  13. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  14. How Snapping Shrimp Snap: Through Cavitating Bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versluis, Michel; Schmitz, Barbara; von der Heydt, Anna; Lohse, Detlef

    2000-09-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed exceeding cavitation conditions. Hydrophone measurements in conjunction with time-controlled high-speed imaging of the claw closure demonstrate that the sound is emitted at the cavitation bubble collapse and not on claw closure. A model for the bubble dynamics based on a Rayleigh-Plesset-type equation quantitatively accounts for the time dependence of the bubble radius and for the emitted sound.

  15. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices. PMID:23239886

  16. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  17. Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald III, Kenneth S.; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  18. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  19. Determination of storage conditions for shrimp extracts: analysis of specific IgE-allergen profiles.

    PubMed

    Piboonpocanun, Surapon; Boonchoo, Siribangon; Pariyaprasert, Wipada; Visitsunthorn, Nualanong; Jirapongsananuruk, Orathai

    2010-03-01

    The consumption of shrimp is a common cause of food hypersensitivity reactions. Shrimp allergy is diagnosed using a skin prick test (SPT) as well as by food challenges. Due to the lack of a wide variety of commercial shrimp extracts for SPTs, we selected various shrimp species for the preparation of local shrimp extracts. However, optimal storage conditions for the shrimp extracts which also maintains allergenic potency has not yet been identified. The objective of the present study was to determine the potency of the shrimp extracts under different storage conditions and durations. Specific IgE-allergen profiles of eight shrimp-allergic patients were investigated by using sera incubated with extracts prepared from lyophilized raw or boiled shrimp, which were stored at 4 degress C or -20 degress C for up to 4 weeks. When stored at -20 degress C, most allergens were preserved after 4 weeks. However, storage at 4 degress C results in few allergens remaining after 2 weeks. Boiled-shrimp extracts stored at 4 degree C and -20 degress C contained higher amounts of IgE-allergen complexes than raw-shrimp extracts. Moreover, in both raw and boiled shrimp extracts, the IgE bound 36-40 kDa allergens constituted the major proteins since they were observed in all IgE-allergen profiles. In conclusion, we recommend that shrimp extracts are stored at -20 degress C for 4 weeks to prevent the loss of allergens.

  20. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... connection with the subject investigations concerning Indonesia (78 FR 50379) and Thailand (78 FR 50383... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  1. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  2. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...: Initiation of Countervailing Duty Investigations, 78 FR 5416 (January 25, 2013) (Initiation Notice...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia,...

  3. ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

  4. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  5. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., Inc.; Dean Blanchard Seafood, Inc.; Dominick Seafood; Fisherman's Reef Packing Plant; Golden Gulf... Jade Shrimp Company, LLC; David Chauvin's Seafood Company, LLC; and Rountree Enterprises, Inc. (dba... Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33350 (June 4,...

  6. 75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Respondents: Business or other for-profit organizations Estimated Number of Respondents: 3,000 Estimated... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number:...

  7. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    PubMed

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.

  8. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  9. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622.208 Section 622.208 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod...

  10. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Review, 72 FR 52065 (Sept. 12, 2007). The period of review (POR) is August 4, 2004, through January 31... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  11. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  12. 78 FR 15699 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Administrative Review, 77 FR... FR 55800 (September 11, 2012) (``AR6 VN Shrimp''). \\9\\ In AR5 VN Shrimp, the Department found the... Decision, 76 FR 23277 (April 26, 2011), remains dispositive. \\5\\ See Preliminary Decision Memorandum for...

  13. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or... Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers. (a) Identity. (1) Canned wet pack shrimp is the food consisting of the processed meat of...

  14. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  15. 78 FR 15691 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 73619 (December 11, 2012). \\2\\ On September 13, 2012, we... Part, 75 FR 41813, 41814 (July 19, 2010). However, shrimp produced by other Indian producers and...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147, 5148 (February 1, 2005). Notification to...

  16. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or... Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers. (a) Identity. (1) Canned wet pack shrimp is the food consisting of the processed meat of...

  17. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  18. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  19. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing... countervailable subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp (frozen shrimp) from Malaysia. The period of investigation (POI) is January 1, 2011, through December 31,...

  20. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or... Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers. (a) Identity. (1) Canned wet pack shrimp is the food consisting of the processed meat of...

  2. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  3. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622.208 Section 622.208 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod...

  4. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  5. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  6. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  7. 78 FR 15800 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... menardmm@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Importer's.... Abstract of proposed collection: The Form DS-2031 is necessary to document imports of shrimp pursuant...

  8. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Partial Revocation of the Antidumping Duty Order on Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 74 FR 5638... Review, 73 FR 12103, 12106 (Mar. 6, 2008), unchanged in Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final... FR at 9994, unchanged in Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results and...

  9. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  10. 76 FR 18157 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Administrative Review, 72 FR 52055, (Sept. 12, 2007) ] (2004-2006 Indian Shrimp Final Results). Initiation of..., 74 FR 9991, 9994 (Mar. 9, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Preliminary Results) unchanged in Certain... Administrative Review, 74 FR 33409 (July 13, 2009) (2007-2008 Indian Shrimp Final Results). Absent information...

  11. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant to Public... in their shrimp fisheries comparable to the program in effect in the United States. The Department... (``Section 609'') prohibits imports of certain categories of shrimp unless the President certifies to...

  12. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam (70 FR 5143-5156).\\2\\ The Commission is... shrimp from Thailand with respect to certain manufacturer/exporters. 74 FR 5638 (January 30, 2009). On... affirmative determinations on frozen warmwater shrimp from India and Thailand. 70 FR 23384 (May 5, 2005)....

  14. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or... Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers. (a) Identity. (1) Canned wet pack shrimp is the food consisting of the processed meat of...

  15. 78 FR 39824 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095 Type of Request... imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public Law...

  16. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825 (March 31, 2011) (``Initiation Notice''). The preliminary results are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to January 30, 2012....

  17. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB... document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public...

  18. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or... Specific Standardized Fish and Shellfish § 161.173 Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers. (a) Identity. (1) Canned wet pack shrimp is the food consisting of the processed meat of...

  19. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  20. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). Pursuant to section 751... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of...

  1. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Shipper Review, 75 FR 60730 (October 1, 2010). The preliminary results of this review are currently due no... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review...

  2. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ..., 75 FR 3446 (January 21, 2010) (``Preliminary Rescission''). The final results of this review are... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers...

  3. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  4. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 3, 2010... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... factors including, but not limited to, changes in the following: (1) Management; (2) production...

  5. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... factors including, but not limited to, changes in the following: (1) Management; (2) production...

  6. Relationship between the risk for a shrimp allergy and freshness or cooking.

    PubMed

    Usui, Masakatsu; Harada, Akihito; Yasumoto, Shinya; Sugiura, Yoshimasa; Nishidai, Anri; Ikarashi, Maria; Takaba, Honami; Miyasaki, Taiko; Azakami, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Masakazu

    2015-01-01

    Tropomyosins are defined as risk factors for shrimp allergy. However, their concentration in different preparations has not been clarified. We quantified the tropomyosin concentration in shrimp meat, which was cooked using several methods or was stored under various conditions. The results demonstrated that shrimp meat from various preparations and storage conditions maintained tropomyosin concentrations that were sufficient to cause food allergies.

  7. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasornchandra, J; Khongpradit, R; Ekpanithanpong, U; Boonyaratpalin, S

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. However, basal medium supplemented with 0.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic- like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Within 3 days, 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed. PMID:10627677

  8. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  9. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses.

    PubMed

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-02-12

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  11. Progress in the development of shrimp cell cultures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kasornchandra, J; Khongpradit, R; Ekpanithanpong, U; Boonyaratpalin, S

    1999-01-01

    Primary shrimp cell cultures were developed from lymphoid organ and ovaries of black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon, in double-strength Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 15% fetal bovine serum, 1% glucose, 5 g/L NaCl, 15% shrimp meat extract. The optimum conditions for primary culture in vitro were obtained in L-15 medium with an osmolality of approximately 730 +/- 10 mmol/kg, a temperature range of 25--28 degrees C and incubation in a normal atmosphere. However, basal medium supplemented with 0.01% cholesterol could enhance good growth and cells performance initiated from lymphoid organ. Both epithelial-like and fibroblastic- like cells were observed from those organs within 2 days incubation. Within 3 days, 80% confluent monolayers were obtained from the lymphoid organ while cultures from other tissues required 5 days. Cultures were maintained for at least 43 days. Only cells from lymphoid organ could be subcultured and confluent monolayers achieved within 10 days post-spilt. Healthy cultures of the lymphoid cells did not persist beyond the third passage. Application of these primary shrimp cell cultures for studying pathogenic viruses of shrimp in vitro will be discussed.

  12. [Detection of allergenic substances (shrimp, crab) in processed seafood].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Saita, Kiyotaka; Akaboshi, Chie; Ohsawa, Nobuhiko; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Maki

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a study (2009-2012) on processed seafood products in order to determine the level of contamination with shrimp and crab. In 2010-2012, after the Allergy Labeling Regulation went into effect, the detection rate of crustacean protein in processed seafood products including small fish, such as niboshi, tukudani and so on (both boiled and dried), was 63%. Detection rates for processed seafood products in which crustacean protein levels were below 1 μg/g were 36% with and 58% without advisory labels, allowing us to conclude that 60% of labels were adequate. On the other hand, the detection rate for processed seafood products with crustacean protein levels higher than the baseline of 10 μg/g was 9%, of which 60% carried no advisory labels. The rate of shrimp DNA detection using the Akiami primer in processed foods containing shrimp and crab was high (73%). This suggests that it is necessary to test these products using the Akiami primer for supplemental analyses of shrimp DNA. The PCR analysis for crab DNA detection failed due to combined detection of mantis shrimp DNA, which accounted for 8% of the total detected. PMID:24598226

  13. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  14. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  15. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  16. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  17. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J.; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  18. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment 9 AGENCY... Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 9 (Amendment 9) to the Fishery Management Plan for the Shrimp... of the penaeid shrimp (brown, pink, and white shrimp) commercial sector in the exclusive...

  19. Effects of boiling on the IgE-binding properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Liu, Guang-Ming; Cheng, Hsiaopo; Nesbit, Jacqueline B; Su, Wen-Jin; Cao, Min-Jie; Maleki, Soheila J

    2010-01-01

    The thermal stability and IgE binding of raw and boiled shrimp extracts and the tropomyosins (TM) have not been reported. In this study, we compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vannamei and evaluate how boiling may alter the allergenicity of L. vannamei. Extracts were prepared from raw and boiled shrimp and analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and two-dimensional electrophoresis. The IgE-binding of the extracts was determined by western-blot and competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA). The TM was then purified from raw and boiled shrimp, the secondary structures analyzed by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and the IgE binding compared by slot blot analysis. The soluble protein content decreased and the higher molecular weight proteins increased in the extracts from boiled versus raw shrimp. Similar IgE binding characteristics were seen by extracts when using western blot analysis. Although iELISA results showed that extracts from raw shrimp bound higher IgE than extracts from boiled shrimp, dot-blot assay demonstrates higher IgE binding to purified TM from boiled shrimp than raw shrimp. The purified TM had a typical alpha-helical secondary structure and the stability of boiled TM was lower than that of raw TM. Extracts from boiled shrimp produce lower IgE binding than extracts from raw shrimp, which suggest that boiling can be used as a tool in attempting to reduce shrimp allergenicity. However, the purified TM from boiled shrimp, which shows enhanced IgE binding over that of raw shrimp, may be a more effective antigen in diagnosing shrimp allergy through immunoassay.

  20. The functional property of Bacillus for shrimp feeds.

    PubMed

    Leonel Ochoa-Solano, J; Olmos-Soto, Jorge

    2006-09-01

    In shrimp cultures, feed represents the most expensive production cost. The quantity and quality of diets are primary factors influencing shrimp growth, nitrogen loading of the culture system and disease proliferation. For these reasons there is an interest in developing 'environmentally friendly' feeds for optimal growth. In this study, Bacillus strains were isolated from marine environments. The isolates were qualitatively assayed for proteases, carbohydrolases and lipases using selective media. The selected strains (9b, 31 and 33) were molecularly identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium, respectively. Subsequently the strains were grown in an inexpensive culture medium (soybean mineral medium (MMS)). The information generated from the present investigation may contribute towards better feed formulations for shrimp at low cost, including bacterial strains as probiotics. PMID:16943046

  1. Shrimp oncoprotein nm23 is a functional nucleoside diphosphate kinase.

    PubMed

    Quintero-Reyes, Idania E; Garcia-Orozco, Karina D; Sugich-Miranda, Rocio; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Velazquez-Contreras, Enrique F; Castillo-Yañez, Francisco J; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R

    2012-06-01

    Biosynthesis of nucleoside triphosphates is critical for bioenergetics and nucleic acid replication, and this is achieved by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDK). As an emerging biological model and the global importance of shrimp culture, we have addressed the study of the Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) NDK. We demonstrated its activity and affinity towards deoxynucleoside diphosphates. Also, the quaternary structure obtained by gel filtration chromatography showed that shrimp NDK is a trimer. Affinity was in the micro-molar range for dADP, dGDP, dTDP and except for dCDP, which presented no detectable interaction by isothermal titration calorimetry, as described previously for Plasmodium falciparum NDK. This information is particularly important, as this enzyme could be used to test nucleotide analogs that can block white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) viral replication and to study its bioenergetics role during hypoxia and fasting.

  2. Microprobe analysis of brine shrimp grown on meteorite extracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Mautner, M. N.; Barry, B.; Markwitz, A.

    2007-07-01

    Nuclear microprobe methods have been used to investigate the uptake and distribution of various elements by brine shrimps and their unhatched eggs when grown in extracts of the Murchison and Allende carbonaceous meteorites, which were selected as model space resources. Measurements were carried out using a focussed 2 MeV proton beam raster scanned over the samples in order to obtain the average elemental concentrations. Line scans across the egg and shrimp samples show uptake of elements such as Mg, Ni, S and P which are present in the meteorites. The results confirmed that carbonaceous chondrite materials can provide nutrients, including high levels of the essential nutrient phosphate. The concentrations of these elements varied significantly between shrimp and eggs grown in extracts of the two meteorite types, which can help in identifying optimal growth media. Our results illustrate that nuclear microprobe techniques can determine elemental concentrations in organisms exposed to meteorite derived media and thus help in identifying useful future resources.

  3. The recreation of a unique shrimp's mechanically induced cavitation bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Ryan; Dougherty, Christopher; Eliasson, Veronica; Khanolkar, Gauri

    2014-11-01

    The Alpheus heterochaelis, appropriately nicknamed the ``pistol shrimp,'' possesses an oversized claw that creates a cavitation bubble upon rapid closure. The implosion of this bubble results in a shock wave that can stun or even kill the shrimp's prey (Versluis et al., 2000). Additionally, the implosion is so violent that sonoluminescence may occur. This light implies extreme temperatures, which have been recorded to reach as high as 10,000 K (Roach, 2001). By developing an analogous mechanism to the oversized claw, the goal of this experiment is to verify that cavitation can be produced similar to that of the pistol shrimp in nature as well as to analyze the resulting shock wave and sonoluminescence. High-speed schlieren imaging was used to observe the shock dynamics. Furthermore, results on cavitation collapse and light emission will be presented. USC Provost Undergraduate Research Fellowship/Rose Hills Undergraduate Research Fellowship.

  4. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies.

    PubMed

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp.

  5. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  6. Biomechanics: deadly strike mechanism of a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Korff, W L; Caldwell, R L

    2004-04-22

    Stomatopods (mantis shrimp) are well known for the feeding appendages they use to smash shells and impale fish. Here we show that the peacock mantis shrimp (Odontodactylus scyllarus) generates an extremely fast strike that requires major energy storage and release, which we explain in terms of a saddle-shaped exoskeletal spring mechanism. High-speed images reveal the formation and collapse of vapour bubbles next to the prey due to swift movement of the appendage towards it, indicating that O. scyllarus may use destructive cavitation forces to damage its prey. PMID:15103366

  7. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  8. Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2000-03-01

    Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

  9. Molecule capture by olfactory antennules: mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Mark T; Mead, Kristina S; Koehl, Mimi A R

    2002-01-01

    A critical step in the process of olfaction is the movement of odorant molecules from the environment to the surface of a chemosensory structure. Many marine crustaceans capture odorant molecules with arrays of chemosensory sensilla (aesthetascs) on antennules that they flick through the water. We developed a model to calculate molecule flux to the surfaces of aesthetascs in order to study how the size, aesthetasc spacing, and flick kinematics of olfactory antennules affect their performance in capturing molecules from the surrounding water. Since the three-dimensional geometry of an aesthetasc-bearing antennule is complex, dynamically-scaled physical models can often provide an efficient method of determining the fluid velocity field through the array. Here we present a method to optimize the incorporation of such measured velocity vector fields into a numerical simulation of the advection and diffusion of odorants to aesthetasc surfaces. Furthermore, unlike earlier models of odorant interception by antennae, our model incorporates odorant concentration distributions that have been measured in turbulent ambient flows. By applying our model to the example of the olfactory antennules of mantis shrimp, we learned that flicking velocity can have profound effects on odorant flux to the aesthetascs if they operate in the speed range in which the leakiness of the gaps between the aesthetascs to fluid movement is sensitive to velocity. This sensitivity creates an asymmetry in molecule fluxes between outstroke and return stroke, which results in an antennule taking discrete samples in space and time, i.e. "sniffing". As stomatopods grow and their aesthetasc Reynolds number increases, the aesthetasc arrangement on the antennule changes in a way that maintains these asymmetries in leakiness and molecule flux between the outstroke and return stroke, allowing the individual to continue to take discrete samples as it develops. PMID:11942523

  10. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  11. A feasibility study of gamma irradiation on Thailand frozen shrimps ( PENEAUS MONODON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, M. L.; Charbonneau, R.; Jobin, M.; Thibault, C.; Nouchpramool, K.; Charoen, S.; Gagnon, M.

    1995-02-01

    Two lots of frozen precooked shrimps from Thaïland "PENAEUS MONODON" Black tiger variety were irradiated at 1.8 to 3.6 kGy. This way, it was hoped to compare the effects of gamma irradiation on the microbiological quality and the organoleptic properties of frozen precooked shrimps after transportation from Thailand to Canada. The results indicated that the extension of shelf-life based on mesophiles content was from 33 days for the control to more than 47 days for the irradiated shrimps stored at 3 ± 1 °C. The results of sensory evaluation gave slightly fresher odor for the control than the irradiated shrimps. On day one, this effect was more apparent. The results of hedonic tests showed that the irradiated shrimps were acceptable during storage. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the combined treatments (freezing plus irradiation) of precooked shrimps are useful for increasing the storage life of shrimps without affecting consumer acceptability.

  12. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when supplemented with 50 mg/kg tryptophol, indicating that virus replication was inhibited by tryptophol. Consequently, tryptophol represents an effective antiviral dietary supplement for shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture.

  13. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  14. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  15. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  16. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  17. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  18. Multilevel analysis of elastic morphology: The mantis shrimp's spring.

    PubMed

    Rosario, M V; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Spring systems, whether natural or engineered, are composed of compliant and rigid regions. Biological springs are often similar to monolithic structures that distribute compliance and rigidity across the whole system. For example, to confer different amounts of compliance in distinct regions within a single structure, biological systems typically vary regional morphology through thickening or elongation. Here, we analyze the monolithic spring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) raptorial appendages to rapidly acquire or process prey. We quantified the shape of cross-sections of the merus segment of the raptorial appendage. We also examined specific regions of the merus that are hypothesized to either store elastic energy or provide structural support to permit energy storage in other regions of the system. We found that while all mantis shrimp contain thicker ventral bars in distal cross-sections, differences in thickness are more pronounced in high-impact "smasher" mantis shrimp than in the slower-striking "spearer" mantis shrimp. We also found that spearer cross-sections are more circular while those of smashers are more eccentric with elongation along the dorso-ventral axis. The results suggest that the regional thickening of ventral bars provides structural support for resisting spring compression and also reduces flexural stiffness along the system's long axis. This multilevel morphological analysis offers a foundation for understanding the evolution and mechanics of monolithic systems in biology. PMID:26195244

  19. 77 FR 27411 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... presenting various approaches to regulating trawl fisheries in the Atlantic Ocean (74 FR 21627). The scoping... mortality of sea turtles in the southeastern U.S. shrimp fisheries, and to aid in the protection and... turtles in U.S. waters are listed as either endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act...

  20. Issues, impacts, and implications of shrimp aquaculture in Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierberg, Forrest E.; Kiattisimkul, Woraphan

    1996-09-01

    Water quality impacts to and from intensive shrimp aquaculture in Thailand are substantial. Besides the surface and subsurface salinization of freshwaters, loadings of solids, oxygen-consuming organic matter, and nutrients to receiving waters are considerable when the cumulative impacts from water exchange during the growout cycle, pond drainage during harvesting, and illegal pond sediment disposal are taken into account. Although just beginning to be considered in Thailand, partial recirculating and integrated intensive farming systems are producing promising, if somewhat limited, results. By providing on-site treatment of the effluent from the shrimp growout ponds, there is less reliance on using outside water supplies, believed to be the source of the contamination. The explosion in the number of intensively operated shrimp farms has not only impacted the coastal zone of Thailand, but has also resulted in an unsustainable aquaculture industry. Abandonment of shrimp ponds due to either drastic, disease-caused collapses or more grandual, year-to-year reductions in the productivity of the pond is common. To move Thailand towards a more sustainable aquaculture industry and coastal zone environment, integrated aquaculture management is needed. Components of integrated aquaculture management are technical and institutional. The technical components involve deployment of wastewater treatment and minimal water-use systems aimed at making aquaculture operations more hydraulically closed. Before this is possible, technical and economic feasibility studies on enhanced nitrification systems and organic solids removal by oxidation between production cycles and/or the utilization of plastic pond liners need to be conducted. The integration of semi-intensive aquaculture within mangrove areas also should be investigated since mangrove losses attributable to shrimp aquaculture are estimated to be between 16 and 32% of the total mangrove area destroyed betweeen 1979 and 1993

  1. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  2. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt). PMID:22004830

  3. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  4. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  5. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  6. Advances, challenges, and directions in shrimp disease control: the guidelines from an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    High-density aquaculture has led to increasing occurrences of diseases in shrimp. Thus, it is imperative to establish effective and quantitative strategies for preventing and predicting these diseases. Water quality indices and investigations of specific pathogen abundance provide only a qualitative evaluation of the risk of shrimp disease and can be inaccurate. To address these shortcomings, we introduced intestinal indicative assemblages as independent variables with which to quantitatively predict incidences of shrimp disease. Given the ignorance regarding the niches differences in the shrimp intestine throughout its developmental stages, the use of probiotics in aquaculture has had limited success. Therefore, we propose the exploration of effective probiotic bacteria from shrimp intestinal flora and the establishment of therapeutic strategies dependent on shrimp age. Following ecological selection principles, we hypothesize that the larval stage provides the best opportunity to establish a desired gut microbiota through preemptive colonization of the treated rearing water with known probiotics. To employ this strategy, however, substantial barriers must be overcome.

  7. Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

  8. Cross-reactivity among shrimp, crab and scallops in a patient with a seafood allergy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Matsuo, Hiroaki; Morita, Eishin

    2006-03-01

    Shrimp is known to be the most common causative agent in seafood allergy. Patients with shrimp allergy often exhibit allergic symptoms to a variety of seafoods such as crabs and clams. We experienced a 14-year-old girl with shrimp allergy who developed oral swelling and pain accompanied with an uncomfortable feeling after ingestion of scallops followed by intensive exercise. Laboratory investigation showed that she had serum immunoglobulin (Ig)E molecules reacting with several kinds of crustaceans and mollusks, including shrimp, crab and scallops. Immunoblotting revealed that her serum IgE reacted with the 38 kDa bands for shrimp, crab and scallops, suggesting that tropomyosin was the major allergen. Dot-blot inhibition analysis showed a cross-reactivity among shrimp, crab and scallops. We conclude that the cross-reactivity of IgE in this patient resulted from the high homology of tropomyosins.

  9. The role of selective breeding and biosecurity in the prevention of disease in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Moss, Shaun M; Moss, Dustin R; Arce, Steve M; Lightner, Donald V; Lotz, Jeffrey M

    2012-06-01

    About 3.5 million metric tons of farmed shrimp were produced globally in 2009 with an estimated value greater than USD$14.6 billion. Despite the economic importance of farmed shrimp, the global shrimp farming industry continues to be plagued by disease. There are a number of strategies a shrimp farmer can employ to mitigate crop loss from disease, including the use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF), selectively bred shrimp and the adoption of on-farm biosecurity practices. Selective breeding for disease resistance began in the mid 1990s in response to outbreaks of Taura syndrome, caused by Taura syndrome virus (TSV), which devastated populations of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) throughout the Americas. Breeding programs designed to enhance TSV survival have generated valuable information about the quantitative genetics of disease resistance in shrimp and have produced shrimp families which exhibit high survival after TSV exposure. The commercial availability of these selected shrimp has benefitted the shrimp farming industry and TSV is no longer considered a major threat in many shrimp farming regions. Although selective breeding has been valuable in combating TSV, this approach has not been effective for other viral pathogens and selective breeding may not be the most effective strategy for the long-term viability of the industry. Cost-effective, on-farm biosecurity protocols can be more practical and less expensive than breeding programs designed to enhance disease resistance. Of particular importance is the use of SPF shrimp stocked in biosecure environments where physical barriers are in place to mitigate the introduction and spread of virulent pathogens.

  10. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

  11. Bacterial clearance rate and a new differential hemocyte staining method to assess immunostimulant activity in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Archakunakorn, Somwit; Fegan, Daniel; Flegel, Timothy W

    2005-01-25

    New methods were developed to assess immunostimulant efficacy in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Test shrimp were fed with 2 or 4 % yeast extract (YE)-coated feed while controls were fed non-coated feed. After 4 wk of feeding, individual shrimp were assessed for total hemocyte counts (THC), the number of granular hemocytes (GH) and rate of bacterial clearance. For hemocyte counts, formalin-fixed hemolymph was stained with 1.2 % Rose Bengal in 50 % ethanol for 20 min at room temperature. Some of this mixture was used for THC with a hemocytometer while some was smeared on a microscope slide and left to dry before counterstaining with hematoxylin for GH counts. By this technique, high quality smears were obtained for accurate differential counts. Bacterial clearance assays were used to assess the sum effect of humoral and cellular defense mechanisms. Vibrio harveyi was injected intramuscularly at 1 x 10(8) cells per shrimp and hemolymph was collected in anticoagulant at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-injection for quadruplicate drop counts (20 microl) on TCBS agar. Total hemocyte counts for shrimp fed with 4 % YE were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those for shrimp fed with non-coated feed. The percentage of granular cells and the rates of bacterial clearance for the YE-fed shrimp were higher than those for shrimp fed the control diet. These 2 methods provide a simple and rapid comparison of shrimp groups for differences in anti-bacterial defense capacity.

  12. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/μg pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity.

  13. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  14. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  15. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production. PMID:24386621

  16. Differential detection of shrimp and crab for food labeling using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Temmei, Yusuke; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakata, Kozue; Urisu, Atsuo; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-27

    Shrimp and crab are well-known as allergenic ingredients. According to Japanese food allergy labeling regulations, shrimp species (including prawns, crayfishes, and lobsters) and crab species must be differentially declared when ≥10 ppm (total protein) of an allergenic ingredient is present. However, the commercial ELISA tests for the detection of crustacean proteins cannot differentiate between shrimp and crab. Therefore, two methods were developed to discriminate shrimp and crab: a shrimp-PCR method with postamplification digestion and a crab-PCR method that specifically amplifies a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The sensitivity and specificity of both PCR methods were verified by experiments using DNA extracted from 15 shrimp species, 13 crab species, krill, mysid, mantis shrimp, other food samples (cephalopod, shellfish, and fish), incurred foods, and commercial food products. Both PCR methods could detect 5 pg of DNA extracted from target species and 50 ng of genomic DNA extracted from incurred foods containing 10 ppm (μg/g) total protein of shrimp or crab. The two PCR methods were considered to be specific enough to separately detect species belonging to shrimp and crab. Although false-positive and false-negative results were obtained from some nontarget crustacean species, the proposed PCR methods, when used in conjunction with ELISA tests, would be a useful tool for confirmation of the validity of food allergy labeling and management of processed food safety for allergic patients. PMID:21395255

  17. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Shrimp Powder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Chun, Soon-Sil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) powder to Appenzeller cheese on quality and characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared containing 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% shrimp powder. Changes in the lactic acid bacterial populations, pH, water-soluble nitrogen concentrations, consumer acceptability, colour and texture were monitored during ripening. The addition of shrimp powder did not affect the appearance or consumer sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Likewise, cheese cohesiveness, fracturability, and springiness were not significantly altered. It was concluded that the quality of the Appenzeller cheese was not affected by adding shrimp powder. PMID:26761833

  18. 78 FR 33349 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Indonesia: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... rates and preliminarily determined that no countervailable subsides are being provided to the production..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis),...

  19. The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F

    2001-07-01

    Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm facilities. Additionally, mitigating alternatives are discussed. To date, approximately 1-1.5 million ha of coastal lowlands have been converted into shrimp ponds, comprising mainly salt flats, mangrove areas, marshes, and agricultural lands. The impact of shrimp farming of most concern is the destruction of mangroves and salt marshes for pond construction. Compatibility with other users, the presence of buffer zones, maintaining an acceptable balance between mangroves and shrimp pond area, improved pond design, reduction of water exchange, and an improved residence time of water, size and capacity to assimilate effluents of the water body, are examples of ways to mitigate the adverse effects. The use of mangroves and halophytes as biofilters of shrimp pond effluents offers an attractive tool for reducing the impact in those regions where mangrove wetlands and appropriate conditions for halophyte plantations exist. Healthy seed supply, good feed with the use of prophylactic agents (including probiotics), good water quality, and lower stocking densities are examples of actions suggested to control disease in shrimp farming. Finally, in the context of integrated management, research priorities are suggested.

  20. Penaeus monodon tropomyosin induces CD4 T-cell proliferation in shrimp-allergic patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Delgado, Julio C; Ravkov, Eugene; Eckels, David D; Georgelas, Ann; Pavlov, Igor Y; Cusick, Matthew; Sebastian, Kate; Gleich, Gerald J; Wagner, Lori A

    2012-04-01

    Shellfish allergy affects approximately 2% of the population and can cause immediate hypersensitivity reactions such as urticaria, swelling, difficulty breathing, and, in some cases, anaphylaxis. Tropomyosin is the major shrimp allergen and binds IgE in two-thirds of patients. A total of 38 shrimp-allergic patients and 20 negative control subjects were recruited and evaluated on the basis of history, skin prick testing, specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, and peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation in response to shrimp tropomyosin or shrimp tropomyosin-derived peptides. Of the classically allergic patients by history, 59% tested positive for serum shrimp IgE antibodies. Of patients with shrimp-specific IgE in sera, 70% also had significant IgE levels specific for shrimp tropomyosin. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from classically shrimp-allergic patients proliferated in a dose-dependent manner in response to to tropomyosin. In addition, a T-cell line derived from a shrimp-allergic patient proliferated specifically in response to tropomyosin-derived peptides. These studies suggest a strategy for immunotherapy using a tropomyosin-derived T-cell epitope vaccination.

  1. Developmental arrest in grass shrimp embryos exposed to selected toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.H.

    1998-12-31

    Excised embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to single pulse concentrations of selected pollutants for 4 days. The following toxicity endpoints were monitored: rate of embryonic development, embryo mortality, and types of embryo malformation. Each endpoint exhibited concentration--response relationships which were modified by the embryonic age at which exposure commenced. Developmental retardation of up to 3 days was effected by phenol at 0.01% (V/V) and complete developmental arrest occurred at 0.05% and 0.1% (V/V). Similarly for methylene chloride, developmental retardation of 1003 days were observed at 0.1% (V/V) depending on the age of the embryos at the start of the tests. The morphological abnormalities of the embryos are described. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of short-term toxicity tests using grass shrimp embryos are discussed.

  2. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  3. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification.

  4. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

  5. The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, T H; Cronin, T W

    1993-01-01

    Eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, contain the greatest diversity of visual pigments yet described in any species, with as many as ten or more spectral classes present in a single retina. In this study, the eyes of seven species of mantis shrimp from three superfamilies of stomatopods were examined for their content of retinoids. Only retinal and retinol were found; neither hydroxyretinoids nor dehydroretinoids were detected. The principal isomers were 11-cis and all-trans. The eyes of most of these species contain stores of 11-cis retinol, principally as retinyl esters, and in amounts in excess of retinal. Squilla empusa is particularly noteworthy, with over 5000 pmoles of retinol per eye. PMID:8217940

  6. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification. PMID:26034560

  7. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification. PMID:26034560

  8. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  10. Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

  11. Sensory adaptation. Tunable colour vision in a mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Cronin, T W; Caldwell, R L; Marshall, J

    2001-05-31

    Systems of colour vision are normally identical in all members of a species, but a single design may not be adequate for species living in a diverse range of light environments. Here we show that in the mantis shrimp Haptosquilla trispinosa, which occupies a range of depths in the ocean, long-wavelength colour receptors are individually tuned to the local light environment. The spectral sensitivity of specific classes of photoreceptor is adjusted by filters that vary between individuals. PMID:11385560

  12. Polysaccharides as Alternative Moisture Retention Agents for Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Torti, Michael J; Sims, Charles A; Adams, Charles M; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents (MRAs) by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates. Treatments included a 0.5% fibercolloid solution isolated from citrus peel, an 8% pectin solution, a 0.5% xanthan gum (XG) solution, a 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and conventionally used 4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. For moisture loss by freezing, 4% STP and the 0.5% fibercolloid solution functioned the best. The 4% STP treated shrimp lost the least amount of moisture during boiling. The 0.5% fibercolloid and 0.5% XG treatment outperformed phosphates in respect to moisture uptake ability. None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates.

  13. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  14. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  15. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  16. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  17. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  18. Effect of Shrimp Chitin and Shrimp Chitin Hydrolysate on the Freeze-Induced Denaturation, and on the Amount of Unfreezable Water of Wanieso Lizardfish Myofibrillar Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somjit, Kingduean; Kongpun, Orawan; Osatomi, Kiyoshi; Hara, Kenji; Nozaki, Yukinori

    In view of potential utilization of shrimp waste, shrimp chitin (SC) and shrimp chitin hydrolysate (SCH) were prepared from 3 kinds of shrimp species, namely: black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, endeavour shrimp Metapenaeus endeavouri and giant freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The effects of 5% SC and SCH (dry weight) on the state of water and on the denaturation of wanieso lizardfish Saurida wanieso myofibrillar protein (Mf) were evaluated based on changes in Mf Ca-ATPase activity and the amount of unfreezable water during frozen storage. Each effect was compared with those of Mf without additives (control) and Mf with glucose. The changes in Ca-ATPase activity of control and Mf with SC during frozen storage were exhibited biphasic pattern while those of SCH and glucose exhibited monophasic pattern. The amount of unfreezable water of Mf with SC was lower than that of control while those of Mf with SCH and glucose were higher than that of control. Present findings suggested that the preventive effect of SCH on freeze-induced denaturation of Mf is caused by the stabilizing the hydrated water molecule surrounding the Mf.

  19. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  20. DISTRIBUTION AND ABUNDANCE OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN TWO OREGON ESTUARIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE-SCALE NITROGEN DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of Pacific estuarine tide flats, from British Columbia to Baja California. The spatial distribution of shrimp populations within estuaries has rarely been quantified because ...

  1. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON C, N CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  2. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-01

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  3. Antimicrobials in shrimp aquaculture in the United States: regulatory status and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Park, E D; Lightner, D V; Park, D L

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of seafood, especially shrimp, increases yearly in the U.S. The U.S. is the second largest importer of shrimp in the world, consuming more than 11% of the total world production. Aquaculture is becoming an increasingly important source of the world's shrimp, currently accounting for approximately 30% of the world's supply. Unfortunately, in this era of international trade deficits, U.S. production of aquacultured shrimp is insignificant (< 0.1%) compared with world production. As shrimp aquaculture expands in the U.S., so does the use of intensive farming techniques. Shrimp aquaculture is like any other animal husbandry industry in that shrimp are subject to disease, especially under intensive farming methods. In penaeid shrimp, the primary diseases associated with mortalities are usually viral or bacterial. The majority of bacterial infections in penaeid shrimp are attributable to Vibrio species, with mortalities ranging from insignificant to 100%. However, the rapid growth of this industry has outpaced efforts by researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and federal regulatory agencies to provide approved therapeutants for shrimp disease management. Approval of drugs and their surveillance for compliance with regulations applicable to seafoods, including aquacultured goods, is the responsibility of the FDA. There are three general areas of concern regarding human health when chemotherapeutants are used in aquaculture: (1) residues of drugs in fish destined for human consumption; (2) development of drug resistance in human pathogenic bacteria; and (3) direct toxic effects to humans from handling of drugs. Currently, there are no antibacterials approved for shrimp aquaculture in the U.S. One of the major obstacles in the development and approval of new drugs for aquaculture is the cost of conducting the required studies. The high cost to pharmaceutical companies discourages investment in shrimp chemotherapeutant research, since the current U.S. market

  4. Abundance and Size of Gulf Shrimp in Louisiana's Coastal Estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill

    PubMed Central

    van der Ham, Joris L.; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  5. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens.

  6. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  7. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens.

  8. These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona; Juračka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

  9. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events. PMID:25272142

  10. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  11. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  12. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  13. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  14. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  16. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  17. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  18. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order... Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR... Changed Circumstances Review, 68 FR 25327 (May 12, 2003). This determination and this notice are...

  19. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  20. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  1. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  2. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  3. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  4. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  5. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  6. 75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 32915 (June 10... frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009, through January 31, 2010. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice...

  7. 75 FR 24883 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limits...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, the People's Republic of China, India, Thailand..., 75 FR 103 (January 4, 2010). On January 19, 2010, domestic interested parties, the Ad Hoc Shrimp... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of...

  8. 76 FR 61668 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... frozen warmwater shrimp From India and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2010, through January 31, 2011. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of...

  9. 75 FR 28760 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... Atlantic Shrimp FMP (73 FR 18536, April 16, 1997) established BRD requirements in the South Atlantic EEZ... certification. Regulations implementing Amendment 9 to the Gulf Shrimp FMP were published April 14, 1998 (63 FR... Gulf FMP (69 FR 1538, January 9, 2004) required BRDs in shrimp trawls fished in the EEZ east of 85...

  10. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004) (``Brazil Final Determination... Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (``Ecuador Final Determination''); Notice of Final...: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR 76916 (December 23, 2004) (``India...

  11. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004); Notice of Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23... of Critical Circumstances: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From India, 69 FR...

  12. 78 FR 18958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China and Diamond Sawblades and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... FR 77722 (December 27, 2006) (``Final Modification for Investigations''). \\1\\ See Notice of Final... Republic of China, 69 FR 70997 (December 8, 2004) (``PRC Shrimp Final Determination''). See also Notice of... Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005) (``PRC Shrimp...

  13. Effect of cryogenic freezing on salmonella and listeria recovery from inoculated shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, shrimp is number one in seafood consumption. Shrimp is usually imported frozen, and the Food and Drug Administration has isolated Salmonella spp. from this frozen product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of two cryogenic freezing protocols (time and tempe...

  14. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  15. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp...

  16. 75 FR 51756 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review, 75 FR 13492 (Mar... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005). On January 25... Initiation, 75 FR at 13493. In April, June, and July 2010, we requested further information and...

  17. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    PubMed

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P < 0.05). Yet a double injection (DnaK and Vibrio) seemed to cause an antagonistic response at the level of expression, which was not equalled at the level of PO activity. Those results suggest that DnaK is able to modulate immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon.

  18. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  19. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). The preliminary results of the... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers...

  20. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Bozeman, E.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance brown shrimp fishing grounds extend from Fort Pierce, Florida, to Pamlico Sound and Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Most of the commercial harvest is taken inside the 10-fathom contour. Brown shrimp are omnivorous and eat food items ranging from detritus to small invertebrates and fishes. Many predators, including fishes and crustaceans, feed on brown shrimp. Brown shrimp survival is reduced by adverse temperature or salinities. Intertidal vegetation is an important characteristic of brown shrimp nursery areas. The suitability of some estuaries as nursery areas may be reduced by bulkheading, ditching, disposal of dredged materials, and drainage from agricultural and silvicultural areas. Existing estuarine areas must be preserved to ensure the continued production of brown shrimp. 57 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``Order''). \\2\\ See, generally, Goldenquality... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') meets the statutory and...

  2. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... responses to its notice of institution (75 FR 1078, January 8, 2010) were adequate for each order under... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand,...

  3. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Administrative Reviews, Requests for Revocation in Part, and Deferral of Administrative Review, 76 FR 17825... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  4. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ..., 77 FR 53856 (``PRC Shrimp AR6 Final''). \\3\\ In the final results of the recently completed seventh... Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005). Analysis of Comments...: Notice of Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 72 FR 33447 (June 18, 2007). \\2\\...

  5. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... notice in the Federal Register of January 4, 2013 (76 FR 764). The conference was held in Washington, DC... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10...

  6. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp...

  7. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  8. 77 FR 23222 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-18

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). \\2\\ See VN Shrimp Order; see also... Rescission of Antidumping Administrative Review, 73 FR 52273 (September 9, 2008). \\3\\ See Certain Frozen... Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 47771 (August 9, 2010). On December 13, 2011, C. P....

  9. 75 FR 12175 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... Devi Sea Foods Limited (Devi), Falcon Marine Exports Limited (Falcon), and the Liberty Group.\\2\\ The... Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order... Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 74 FR...

  10. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1, 2010... Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (Feb. 1, 2010). In..., 75 FR 17693 (Apr. 7, 2010) (Initiation Notice). In the Initiation Notice, the Department...

  11. 76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 70 FR 5145 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). On February 1..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (Feb. 1, 2010... Reviews, 75 FR 17693 (Apr. 7, 2010) (Initiation Notice).\\2\\ \\2\\ In the Initiation Notice, the...

  12. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  13. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final Determination..., 70 FR 5156 (February 1, 2005) (Ecuador Amended Final Determination & Order); Notice of Amended Final... Value: Certain Frozen and Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, 69 FR 76910 (December 23, 2004)...

  14. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  15. 75 FR 12188 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ..., 74 FR 5638, 5639 (January 30, 2009) (Section 129 Determination); Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from..., 74 FR 52452 (October 13, 2009). We preliminarily determine that sales were made by MRG, Pakfood and... Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand, 70 FR 5145 (February 1, 2005). On February 4, 2009, the Department...

  16. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Packing Plant; Golden Gulf Coast Pkg. Co., Inc. (and Gollott's Oil Dock & Ice House); Graham Fisheries....; Wood's Fisheries; Mariah Jade Shrimp Company, LLC; David Chauvin's Seafood Company, LLC; and Rountree... Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33344 (June 4,...

  17. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review, 76 FR 20627... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the period...

  18. [Shrimp community structure and its influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary during spring and autumn].

    PubMed

    Qi, Hai-Ming; Sun, Yue; Xu, Zhao-Li; Sun, Lu-Feng; Gao, Qian; Que, Jiang-Long; Tian, Wei

    2013-12-01

    Based on the data from two oceanographic surveys during April and October 2010, the spatial and seasonal variations in composition, dominance, and diversity of shrimp communities, as well as the influential factors in the Jiaojiang River estuary were analyzed. A total of 16 species of shrimp were found, which belonged to 12 families under 8 genera. 14 species of shrimp were found in spring (April) and 12 species in autumn (October). With the employment of index of relative importance (IRI), in spring 6 dominant species were identified, as Acetes chinensis, Alpheus distinguendus, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii, Leptochela gracilis, Alpheus juponicus and Palaemon gravieri, and in autumn 3 dominant species were found as Solenocera crassicornis, Parapenaeopsis hardwickii and Metapenaeus joyneri. Eurythermal and eurysaline shrimp community prevailed in the Jiaojiang River estuary, followed by eurythermal and hyposaline shrimp community. Margalef index (D), Shannon index (H) and Pielou's evenness index were used to evaluate the diversity of shrimp community in the studied area. The stations with higher value of D and H were mainly located in the west of the Dachen Island, whereas the Pielou's evenness index was stable all across the Jiaojiang River estuary. By hierarchical cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) method, the results indicated that shrimp communities had significant seasonal and spatial variations. Depth was the most important factor that affected variations in the shrimp community structure in the Jiaojiang River estuary.

  19. Prediction of spoilage of tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) under dynamic temperature regimes.

    PubMed

    Dabadé, D Sylvain; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Robert; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H; den Besten, Heidy M W

    2015-10-01

    The spoilage activity of Pseudomonas psychrophila and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, two tropical shrimp (Penaeus notialis) spoilage organisms, was assessed in cooked shrimps stored at 0 to 28 °C. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed during storage. P. psychrophila had a higher growth rate and showed a higher spoilage activity at temperatures from 0 to 15 °C, while at 28 °C, C. maltaromaticum had a higher growth rate. The spoilage activity of P. psychrophila was found to be higher in cooked shrimp than in fresh shrimp. Observed shelf-life data of shrimps stored at constant temperatures were used to validate a previously developed model that predicts tropical shrimp shelf-life at constant storage temperatures. Models predicting the growth of the spoilage organisms as a function of temperature were constructed. The validation of these models under dynamic storage temperatures simulating temperature fluctuation in the shrimp supply chain showed that they can be used to predict the shelf-life of cooked and fresh tropical shrimps.

  20. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  1. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review, 75 FR...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... provided evidence of changed circumstances sufficient to warrant a review. See Initiation Notice, 75 FR...

  2. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). Grobest & I... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... Changed Circumstances Review: Carbon and Certain Alloy Steel Wire Rod From Mexico, 75 FR 67685 (November...

  3. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1, 2005) (``VN Shrimp Order''). Phuong Nam Co., Ltd., and Phuong..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... examines a number of factors including, but not limited to, changes in management, production...

  4. 77 FR 13275 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ..., 75 FR 41815 (July 19, 2010). 1. Calculation of Cost of Production In accordance with section 773(b)(3... Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (Feb. 1, 2005) (Shrimp Order). \\2\\ See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order, Finding, or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 76...

  5. Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

    2013-12-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was <2 (mg/L DO) and between 2 and 3 (mg/L DO) for 0 and 255min at WBM, and for 285 and 1035min at WC, respectively. Weight and length of WBM grass shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding

  6. Effect of peach gum polysaccharides on quality changes of white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xing-Cun; Chang, Cheng-Fei; Wu, Sheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Peach gum polysaccharides (PGPs) have both antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, the retardation effect of the PGPs on the quality changes of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage was investigated. Shrimp samples were untreated with different concentrations of the PGPs solution and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions for 10 days. During refrigerated storage, shrimp samples were taken periodically and their total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score were evaluated. Compared to the control, treatment of the PGPs solution effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH changes, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results indicate that treatment of PGPs could be a promising means to preserve white shrimp (P. vannamei). PMID:25450827

  7. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  8. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhenxing, Li; Hong, Lin; Limin, Cao

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  9. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  10. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments.

    PubMed

    DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Spooner, B

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  11. Predation by dipteran larvae on fairy shrimp (Crustacea: Anostraca) in Utah rock pools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, T.B.

    1994-01-01

    A series of experiments examined how ecological factors affect notonectid foraging success on fairy shrimp. Variation in pond depth over natural ranges had no direct effect on notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. Decreases in water clarity over natural ranges led to decreased notonectid ability to capture fairy shrimp. This corresponds with the observation that six weeks after the fairy shrimp hatched they were more likely to be present in cloudy ponds than in ponds containing clearer water. If correct, this is a situation where physical factors have a major effect on how a biological interaction influences the local distribution of species. It appears water depth indirectly affects notonectid foraging rates, as shallow ponds are apparently made cloudy by wind-driven waves disturbing the bottom mud. These results suggest the notonectid-fairy shrimp interaction will not be a constant for any given pond, but will depend on abiotic factors like amount of rainfall and frequency of windy conditions.

  12. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  13. Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment in the Gulf of California ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Gracia, A; Flores-Verdugo, F; Lyle-Fritch, L P; Alonso-Rodríguez, R; Roque, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C

    2003-07-01

    Beginning in the middle of the 1980s, the Gulf of California ecoregion experienced a boom in shrimp aquaculture and became the second largest producer in the western hemisphere. The moderated, but continual development of shrimp farming, in conjunction with municipal and agriculture effluents has been accompanied by concern about: (a) depletion of fishing stocks, (b) reduction of mangrove forest, (c) frequent harmful algal blooms in coastal waters and shrimp ponds, and (d) water quality deterioration. We demonstrate that environmental degradation resulted from a conjunction of factors including agriculture, untreated municipal effluents, shrimp aquaculture, increasing number of fishermen, and an absence of an effective regulatory program. We recommend the immediate implementation of an integrated coastal management program to protect the integrity of the coastal ecosystems and operate upon the principle of environmental sustainability for the different economic activities including shrimp aquaculture.

  14. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  15. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs.

  16. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs. PMID:25218685

  17. Polysaccharides as Alternative Moisture Retention Agents for Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Torti, Michael J; Sims, Charles A; Adams, Charles M; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents (MRAs) by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates. Treatments included a 0.5% fibercolloid solution isolated from citrus peel, an 8% pectin solution, a 0.5% xanthan gum (XG) solution, a 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and conventionally used 4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. For moisture loss by freezing, 4% STP and the 0.5% fibercolloid solution functioned the best. The 4% STP treated shrimp lost the least amount of moisture during boiling. The 0.5% fibercolloid and 0.5% XG treatment outperformed phosphates in respect to moisture uptake ability. None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates. PMID:26849189

  18. Micrometeorology of a Shrimp Farm: a Case Study in Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Jose Luis

    A low cost micrometeorological data acquisition system (less than 10,000) was devised and deployed at a Shrimp Farm located along the coast of Ecuador in order to monitor environmental parameters important for the management of such ponds. The Surface Boundary Layer conditions on the Shrimp Farm were found to be more dependent on the size and density distribution of the ponds rather than on the climatic characteristics of the region. Fluxes and other micrometeorological quantities in the Surface Boundary Layer were estimated with an error of up to 25%, although this error is considerable larger than what is possible to obtain with state of the art sensors now commercially available, nevertheless it is accurate enough to be used as inputs to help predict the physical and chemical characteristics of the water in the pond and thus be used as a tool for improving the management of aquacultural sites. The Planetary Boundary Layer over the Shrimp Farm was found to be almost always under unstable conditions; Surface Energy Balance calculations indicated that the turbulent losses to the atmosphere were more as latent rather than sensible heat, with a day-time Bowen Ratio having an average value between 0.4 and 0.5. The development and evolution of Internal Boundary Layers due to changes in surface conditions in going from water to ground during the day was found to be more dependent to the step change in temperature, while at night the step change in surface roughness was found to be of equal importance.

  19. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    PubMed

    deVries, Maya S; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S; Dawson, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  20. Strike mechanics of an ambush predator: the spearing mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    deVries, M S; Murphy, E A K; Patek, S N

    2012-12-15

    Ambush predation is characterized by an animal scanning the environment from a concealed position and then rapidly executing a surprise attack. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) consist of both ambush predators ('spearers') and foragers ('smashers'). Spearers hide in sandy burrows and capture evasive prey, whereas smashers search for prey away from their burrows and typically hammer hard-shelled, sedentary prey. Here, we examined the kinematics, morphology and field behavior of spearing mantis shrimp and compared them with previously studied smashers. Using two species with dramatically different adult sizes, we found that strikes produced by the diminutive species, Alachosquilla vicina, were faster (mean peak speed 5.72±0.91 m s(-1); mean duration 3.26±0.41 ms) than the strikes produced by the large species, Lysiosquillina maculata (mean peak speed 2.30±0.85 m s(-1); mean duration 24.98±9.68 ms). Micro-computed tomography and dissections showed that both species have the spring and latch structures that are used in other species for producing a spring-loaded strike; however, kinematic analyses indicated that only A. vicina consistently engages the elastic mechanism. In the field, L. maculata ambushed evasive prey primarily at night while hidden in burrows, striking with both long and short durations compared with laboratory videos. We expected ambush predators to strike with very high speeds, yet instead we found that these spearing mantis shrimp struck more slowly and with longer durations than smashers. Nonetheless, the strikes of spearers occurred at similar speeds and durations to those of other aquatic predators of evasive prey. Although counterintuitive, these findings suggest that ambush predators do not actually need to produce extremely high speeds, and that the very fastest predators are using speed to achieve other mechanical feats, such as producing large impact forces. PMID:23175528

  1. Characteristics of salt-fermented sauces from shrimp processing byproducts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Soo; Shahidi, Fereidoon; Heu, Min-Soo

    2003-01-29

    A salt-fermented sauce from shrimp processing byproducts (heads, shells, and tails) was prepared and characterized. Three types of sauces were prepared; sauce C, with 30 g of salt/100 g of byproduct (high salt); sauce E, with 30 g of salt and 0.2 g of sodium erythorbate (high salt); and sauce L, with 20 g of salt, 0.2 g of sodium erythorbate, 6 g of sorbitol, 0.5 mL of lactic acid, and 5 mL of ethanol (low salt). Sauces C and E showed higher exopeptidase activities than sauce L, whereas sauce L showed the highest endopeptidase activity. After 3 months of fermentation, the amino N content of sauce increased from 150-200 to 500-600 mg/100 g and the nonprotein nitrogen content increased from 300 to 950-1050 mg/100 g. Volatile basic nitrogen content increased significantly from 18 to 60 mg/100 g. The total carotenoids retained in sauces C, E, and L were 26.3, 76.2, and 73%, respectively, thus indicating that the addition of sodium erythorbate to sauces E and L retarded oxidation. Water activities of sauces C, E, and L were 0.753, 0.751, and 0.773, respectively. According to the omission test, the taste of sauces was influenced by the content of free amino acids, mainly glutamic acid and aspartic acid. All three sauces examined showed a 35% higher total amino acid content than commercial salt-fermented shrimp sauces. Therefore, shrimp processing byproducts may lend themselves to the preparation of high-quality salt-fermented sauces.

  2. Pathogenesis of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lai, Hung-Chiao; Ng, Tze Hann; Ando, Masahiro; Lee, Chung-Te; Chen, I-Tung; Chuang, Jie-Cheng; Mavichak, Rapeepat; Chang, Sheng-Hsiung; Yeh, Mi-De; Chiang, Yi-An; Takeyama, Haruko; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o; Lo, Chu-Fang; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2015-12-01

    Acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND), also called early mortality syndrome (EMS), is a recently emergent shrimp bacterial disease that has resulted in substantial economic losses since 2009. AHPND is known to be caused by strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus that contain a unique virulence plasmid, but the pathology of the disease is still unclear. In this study, we show that AHPND-causing strains of V. parahaemolyticus secrete the plasmid-encoded binary toxin PirAB(vp) into the culture medium. We further determined that, after shrimp were challenged with AHPND-causing bacteria, the bacteria initially colonized the stomach, where they started to produce PirAB(vp) toxin. At the same early time point (6 hpi), PirB(vp) toxin, but not PirA(vp) toxin, was detected in the hepatopancreas, and the characteristic histopathological signs of AHPND, including sloughing of the epithelial cells of the hepatopancreatic tubules, were also seen. Although some previous studies have found that both components of the binary PirAB(vp) toxin are necessary to induce a toxic effect, our present results are consistent with other studies which have suggested that PirB(vp) alone may be sufficient to cause cellular damage. At later time points, the bacteria and PirA(vp) and PirB(vp) toxins were all detected in the hepatopancreas. We also show that Raman spectroscopy "Whole organism fingerprints" were unable to distinguish between AHPND-causing and non-AHPND causing strains. Lastly, by using minimum inhibitory concentrations, we found that both virulent and non-virulent V. parahaemolyticus strains were resistant to several antibiotics, suggesting that the use of antibiotics in shrimp culture should be more strictly regulated. PMID:26549178

  3. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin β (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system.

  4. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch.

  5. Hydrostatic pressure affects selective tidal stream transport in the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon).

    PubMed

    Tielmann, Moritz; Reiser, Stefan; Hufnagl, Marc; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Eckardt, André; Temming, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) is a highly abundant invertebrate in the North Sea, with its life cycle stages ranging from deep offshore spawning to shallow onshore nursery areas. To overcome the long distances between these two habitats, brown shrimp are suspected to use selective tidal stream transport (STST), moving with the cyclic tide currents towards their preferred water depths. However, it is not known which stimulus actually triggers STST behavior in brown shrimp. In this work, we determined the influence of different hyperbaric pressures on STST behavior of juvenile brown shrimp. Brown shrimp activity was recorded in a hyperbaric pressure chamber that supplied constant and dynamic pressure conditions simulating different depths, with and without a tidal cycle. Subsequent wavelet and Fourier analysis were performed to determine the periodicity in the activity data. The results of the experiments show that STST behavior in brown shrimp varies with pressure and therefore with depth. We further show that STST behavior can be initiated by cyclic pressure changes. However, an interaction with one or more other environmental triggers remains possible. Furthermore, a security ebb-tide activity was identified that may serve to avoid potential stranding in shallow waters and is 'remembered' by shrimp for about 1.5 days without contact with tidal triggers.

  6. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds.

  7. The role of shrimp miR-965 in virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shu, Le; Li, Changrun; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-07-01

    RNAi, mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs), has attracted increasing attention for its important role in cross-talk between host and virus. However, the role of host miRNA in the virus infection in vivo has not been intensively investigated. In this study, the effects of a shrimp miRNA (miR-965) on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection were characterized. The results indicated that the expression of miR-965 was significantly upregulated in shrimp in response to the WSSV challenge, suggesting its involvement in the virus infection. The miR-965 silencing led to significant increases of WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, while the miR-965 overexpression resulted in the decreased WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, indicating that miR-965 played a negative role in the WSSV infection. The further data revealed that miR-965 inhibited the virus infection by targeting the viral wsv240 gene, an important gene required for the WSSV infection in shrimp. The results demonstrated that miR-965 could promote the shrimp phagocytosis against virus infection by targeting the shrimp ATG5 (autophagy related 5) gene. Therefore, our findings presented novel evidence to better understand the anfractuous host-virus interactions in vivo.

  8. Purification and partial characterization of the plasma clotting protein from the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis.

    PubMed

    Perazzolo, Luciane M; Lorenzini, Daniel M; Daffre, Sirlei; Barracco, Margherita A

    2005-11-01

    A clotting protein (CP) was purified from the plasma of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus paulensis by sequential anion-exchange chromatography. The shrimp CP was able to form stable clots in vitro in the presence of hemocyte lysate and Ca2+, suggesting that the clotting reaction is catalyzed by a Ca2+-dependent transglutaminase present in shrimp hemocytes. Dansylcadaverine was incorporated into the shrimp CP in the presence of endogenous transglutaminase (hemocyte lysate), confirming that the shrimp purified CP is the substrate for the transglutaminase enzyme. The molecular mass of the CP was determined by gel filtration to be 341 kDa and 170 kDa by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. These results suggest that the shrimp CP consists of two identical subunits, covalently linked by disulphide bonds. The amino acid sequence at the N-terminus was 100% identical to that of the penaeids Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon and 66% to 80% identical to the CPs of other decapods. This is the first report of a CP characterization in an Atlantic penaeid species. Further studies, including a molecular cloning approach would enable to detect which tissues express the gene of the clotting protein. It would be also useful to understand the mechanism by which the coagulation time is delayed in shrimps under stress conditions.

  9. Occurrence and recent long-distance dispersal of deep-sea hydrothermal vent shrimps.

    PubMed

    Tokuda, Gaku; Yamada, Akinori; Nakano, Kazuma; Arita, Nao; Yamasaki, Hideo

    2006-06-22

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and methane seeps are extreme environments that have a high concentration of hydrogen sulphide. However, abundant unique invertebrates including shrimps of the family Bresiliidae have been found in such environments. The bresiliid shrimps are believed to have radiated in the Miocene (less than 20 Myr); however, the period when and the mechanisms by which they dispersed across the hydrothermal vents and cold seeps in oceans worldwide have not been clarified. In the present study, we collected the deep-sea blind shrimp Alvinocaris longirostris from the hydrothermal vent site in the Okinawa Trough and carried out the first investigation of the 18S rRNA gene of a bresiliid shrimp. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bresiliid shrimp is situated at an intermediate lineage within the infraorder Caridea and shows monophyly with palaemonid shrimps, which live in shallow sea and freshwater. Furthermore, the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) gene sequences were analysed to determine the phylogenetic relationship with known bresiliid shrimps. A. longirostris of the Okinawa Trough had two haplotypes of the COI gene, one of which was identical to the Alvinocaris sp. of the cold seeps in Sagami Bay. These results indicate that a long-distance dispersal of A. longirostris occurred possibly within the last 100,000 years.

  10. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  11. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp.

  12. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  13. Cyanobacterial cytotoxicity versus toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Hisem, Daniel; Hrouzek, Pavel; Tomek, Petr; Tomšíčková, Jana; Zapomělová, Eliška; Skácelová, Kateřina; Lukešová, Alena; Kopecký, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Heterocytous cyanobacteria from various habitats were screened for toxicity to brine shrimp Artemia salina and the murine lymphoblastic cell line Sp/2 in order to compare these two testing models for evaluation of risk posed by cyanobacteria to human health. Methanol extracts of biomass and cultivation media were tested for toxicity and selected extracts were fractionated to determine the active fraction. We found a significant toxic effect to A. salina and to Sp/2 cells in 5.2% and 31% of studied extracts, respectively. Only 8.6% of the tested strains were highly toxic to both A. salina and the Sp/2 cell line, and only two of the tested strains were toxic to A. salina and not to the murine cell line. Therefore, it is likely that the toxic effect of cyanobacterial secondary metabolites mostly targets basal metabolic pathways present in mammal cells and so is not manifested in A. salina. We conclude that it is insufficient to monitor cytotoxicity of cyanobacteria using only the brine shrimp bioassay as was usual in the past, since cytotoxicity is a more frequent feature in cyanobacteria in comparison with toxicity to A. salina. A. salina toxicity test should not be used when estimating the possible health risk for humans. We suggest that in vitro mammal cells be used for these purposes. PMID:20946912

  14. Control of social monogamy through aggression in a hermaphroditic shrimp

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sex allocation theory predicts that in small mating groups simultaneous hermaphroditism is the optimal form of gender expression. Under these conditions, male allocation is predicted to be very low and overall per-capita reproductive output maximal. This is particularly true for individuals that live in pairs, but monogamy is highly susceptible to cheating by both partners. However, certain conditions favour social monogamy in hermaphrodites. This study addresses the influence of group size on group stability and moulting cycles in singles, pairs, triplets and quartets of the socially monogamous shrimp Lysmata amboinensis, a protandric simultaneous hermaphrodite. Results The effect of group size was very strong: Exactly one individual in each triplet and exactly two individuals in each quartet were killed in aggressive interactions, resulting in group sizes of two individuals. All killed individuals had just moulted. No mortality occurred in single and pair treatments. The number of moults in the surviving shrimp increased significantly after changing from triplets and quartets to pairs. Conclusion Social monogamy in L. amboinensis is reinforced by aggressive expulsion of supernumerous individuals. We suggest that the high risk of mortality in triplets and quartets results in suppression of moulting in groups larger than two individuals and that the feeding ecology of L. amboinensis favours social monogamy. PMID:22078746

  15. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  16. Elastic energy storage in the mantis shrimp's fast predatory strike.

    PubMed

    Zack, T I; Claverie, T; Patek, S N

    2009-12-01

    Storage of elastic energy is key to increasing the power output of many biological systems. Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) must store considerable elastic energy prior to their rapid raptorial strikes; however, little is known about the dynamics and location of elastic energy storage structures in this system. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualize the mineralization patterns in Gonodactylaceus falcatus and high speed videography of Odontodactylus scyllarus to observe the dynamics of spring loading. Using a materials testing apparatus, we measured the force and work required to contract the elastic structures in G. falcatus. There was a positive linear correlation between contraction force and contraction distance; alternative model tests further supported the use of a linear model. Therefore, we modeled the system as a Hookean spring. The force required to fully compress the spring was positively correlated with body mass and appendage size, but the spring constant did not scale with body size, suggesting a possible role of muscle constraints in the scaling of this system. One hypothesized elastic storage structure, the saddle, only contributed approximately 11% of the total measured force, thus suggesting that primary site of elastic energy storage is in the mineralized ventral bars found in the merus segment of the raptorial appendages. Furthermore, the intact system exhibited 81% resilience and severing the saddle resulted in a non-significant reduction to 77% resilience. The remarkable shapes and mineralization patterns that characterize the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage further reveal a highly integrated mechanical power amplification system based on exoskeletal elastic energy storage. PMID:19946078

  17. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda).

    PubMed

    Green, P A; Patek, S N

    2015-09-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour 'telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  18. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems. PMID:17921168

  19. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. A.; Patek, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour ‘telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  1. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp.

  2. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp. PMID:27368541

  3. Bacterial clearance rate and a new differential hemocyte staining method to assess immunostimulant activity in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya; Gangnonngiw, Warachin; Archakunakorn, Somwit; Fegan, Daniel; Flegel, Timothy W

    2005-01-25

    New methods were developed to assess immunostimulant efficacy in the black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Test shrimp were fed with 2 or 4 % yeast extract (YE)-coated feed while controls were fed non-coated feed. After 4 wk of feeding, individual shrimp were assessed for total hemocyte counts (THC), the number of granular hemocytes (GH) and rate of bacterial clearance. For hemocyte counts, formalin-fixed hemolymph was stained with 1.2 % Rose Bengal in 50 % ethanol for 20 min at room temperature. Some of this mixture was used for THC with a hemocytometer while some was smeared on a microscope slide and left to dry before counterstaining with hematoxylin for GH counts. By this technique, high quality smears were obtained for accurate differential counts. Bacterial clearance assays were used to assess the sum effect of humoral and cellular defense mechanisms. Vibrio harveyi was injected intramuscularly at 1 x 10(8) cells per shrimp and hemolymph was collected in anticoagulant at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-injection for quadruplicate drop counts (20 microl) on TCBS agar. Total hemocyte counts for shrimp fed with 4 % YE were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than those for shrimp fed with non-coated feed. The percentage of granular cells and the rates of bacterial clearance for the YE-fed shrimp were higher than those for shrimp fed the control diet. These 2 methods provide a simple and rapid comparison of shrimp groups for differences in anti-bacterial defense capacity. PMID:15759805

  4. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  5. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life.

  6. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp Paraglypturus tonganus (Crustacea, Axiidea, Callianassidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Se-Joo; Kim, Jonguk; Ahn, Dong-Ha; Ju, Se-Jong; Min, Gi-Sik; Kim, Sanghee

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps are burrowing decapods that serve as bioturbators and habitat providers in seafloor environments. The hydrothermal vent ghost shrimp, Paraglypturus tonganus, was collected from a hydrothermal vent in the Tonga Arc. This species has a mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of 15,924 bp in length with an AT content of 66.1%. The mitogenome was identical to the typical gene arrangement and transcriptional polarity of the infraorder Axiidea. Paraglypturus tonganus showed 65.3-70.1% nucleotide similarity with the known mitogenomes of other axiid shrimps. These results are useful for understanding the phylogenetic relationships among the members of Axiidea within the decapods.

  8. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life. PMID:24491494

  9. Improvement of shrimp allergy after sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cortellini, G; Spadolini, I; Santucci, A; Cova, V; Conti, C; Corvetta, A; Passalacqua, G

    2011-10-01

    The appropriateness of house dust mite specific immunotherapy in patients allergic to shrimps still remains unclear We present a clinical case as an immunological model for the strong sensitization to tropomyosin with symptoms of anaphylaxis due to shrimps and coexisting asthma due to house dust mite. The improvement in respiratory symptoms for house dust mite and in the food challenge for shrimps during mite immunotherapy with a known and high dosage of tropomyosin suggests the hypothesis that efficacy of mite immunotherapy in food allergy to tropomyosin may be dose dependent.

  10. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons. PMID:25686945

  11. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons.

  12. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  13. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ..., or Suspended Investigation; Opportunity to Request Administrative Review, 75 FR 5037 (February 1... and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of Administrative Reviews, 75 FR 17693 (April 7, 2010) (Initiation... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission...

  14. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  15. Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

  16. The potential of Yucca schidigera extract to reduce the ammonia pollution from shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Santacruz-Reyes, Roberto A; Chien, Yew-Hu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Yucca schidigera extract (YUPE) to reduce ammonia pollution resulting from shrimp farming. YUPE was added at ratios of 18, 36, and 72 mg L(-1) to effluent from an experimental shrimp culture system containing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 0.592, 0.672, and 0.718 mg L(-1). TAN reduction increased with an increase in YUPE, and at 18 mg L(-1) reduced TAN by 71-72% and 86-87% at 6 and 24h, respectively. Shrimp feed containing YUPE at 300, 600, and 1200 mg kg(-1) was submerged, allowing the ammonia to leach out. The addition of YUPE in feed reduced TAN leaching by 50-83% compared with the control. The application of YUPE in water or feed could considerably reduce the accumulation of ammonia in waste water discharge during shrimp production, thereby providing a feasible solution to ammonia pollution in coastal environments.

  17. Inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase from cephalothoraxes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-28

    The inhibitory effect of mimosine on polyphenoloxidase (PPO) from the cephalothorax of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied. Mimosine showed inhibitory activity toward PPO from white shrimp with an apparent molecular weight of 210 kDa as evidenced by the decrease in the activity staining band, as compared to the control. An inhibition kinetic study revealed that mimosine exhibited the mixed type reversible inhibition on PPO from white shrimp with a Ki value of 3.7 mM. Mimosine showed copper (Cu2+) reduction and chelating capacity in a dose dependent manner. Mimosine could react with the intermediate browning product, thereby rendering lower red-brown color formation. Therefore, mimosine could inhibit PPO by different modes of inhibition and could be used to prevent melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp. PMID:21863871

  18. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  19. The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed.

  20. Dynamics of phytoplankton communities in eutrophying tropical shrimp ponds affected by vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Lemonnier, Hugues; Lantoine, François; Courties, Claude; Guillebault, Delphine; Nézan, Elizabeth; Chomérat, Nicolas; Escoubeyrou, Karine; Galinié, Christian; Blockmans, Bernard; Laugier, Thierry

    2016-09-15

    Tropical shrimp aquaculture systems in New Caledonia regularly face major crises resulting from outbreaks of Vibrio infections. Ponds are highly dynamic and challenging environments and display a wide range of trophic conditions. In farms affected by vibriosis, phytoplankton biomass and composition are highly variable. These conditions may promote the development of harmful algae increasing shrimp susceptibility to bacterial infections. Phytoplankton compartment before and during mortality outbreaks was monitored at a shrimp farm that has been regularly and highly impacted by these diseases. Combining information from flow cytometry, microscopy, pigment and phylogenetic analysis, the presence of Picocyanobacteria, Prasinophyceae and Diatomophyceae were detected as dominant phytoplankton groups and Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae and Dinophyceae as minor components. At the onset of the first shrimp mortalities, Bacillariophyceae increased while Cyanobacteria, Prymnesiophyceae and Dinophyceae decreased in the water column, followed by proliferation of Prasinophyceae. Several taxa were identified as potential harmful algae (Cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates and Phaeocystis).

  1. 78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Blanchard Seafood, Inc.; Dominick Seafood; Fisherman's Reef Packing Plant; Golden Gulf Coast Pkg. Co., Inc... Co., Inc.; Tommy's Seafood; Vincent Piazza & Sons Seafood, Inc.; Wood's Fisheries; Mariah Jade Shrimp...: Negative Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination, 78 FR 33349 (June 4, 2013)...

  2. The occurrence of semicarbazide in the meat and shell of Bangladeshi fresh-water shrimp.

    PubMed

    McCracken, Robert; Hanna, Bob; Ennis, David; Cantley, Lynne; Faulkner, Dermot; Kennedy, D Glenn

    2013-02-15

    There is evidence that semicarbazide (SEM), a marker for the banned nitrofuran nitrofurazone, can arise from other, unrelated sources. Recently, Belgium rejected 54 consignments of Bangladeshi freshwater shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii), following a laboratory decision to test meat and exoskeleton combined. To study the possible natural occurrence of SEM in wild shrimp, samples were collected and analysed from 29 sites across Bangladesh. SEM (<1.0 μg/kg) was detected in ∼65% of meat samples. However, SEM concentrations were approximately 100 times higher in the exoskeleton, and were unrelated to sampling location, strongly suggesting natural occurrence. In meat, most SEM was surface-associated. When the shrimp was shelled, some of the epidermal layer (which synthesises new exoskeleton) remained with the shell and some remained with the meat--leading to differing levels of natural SEM on the shrimp surface. This has implications for the use of SEM and the analytical strategy used to control nitrofuran use. PMID:23194563

  3. Detection of yellowhead virus and Chinese baculovirus in penaeid shrimp by the Western blot technique.

    PubMed

    Nadala, E C; Tapay, L M; Cao, S; Loh, P C

    1997-12-01

    The continuing threat posed by viral diseases in cultured shrimp calls for the development of detection technologies for monitoring the animals, especially broodstock. Two of the most highly pathogenic viruses of penaeid shrimp are the yellow-head virus (YHV) and Chinese baculovirus (CBV, also called white spot baculovirus). A Western blot (WB) protocol capable of detecting YHV and CBV in the hemolymph of infected shrimp was developed. The use of the hemolymph as material for virus detection allowed for sample collection without sacrificing the animals. This protocol was highly specific, rapid, and sensitive enough to detect the presence of the viruses before the appearance of overt symptoms. It was also useful for demonstrating the growth of both viruses in primary shrimp lymphoid cell cultures.

  4. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  5. Transboundary movement of shrimp viruses in crustaceans and their products: a special risk?

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Shrimp and shrimp products form the most valuable internationally traded fisheries commodity, and the volumes are huge, estimated to be about 3.6 million tonnes. However, despite the existence under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the activities of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), viral shrimp epizootics have spread and continue to spread, affecting world production. Though most attention has focussed on the movement of live shrimp product, the spread of new and emerging diseases through other crustaceans and their nonviable products is of increasing concern. The risks associated with the unrestricted movement of nonviable product will be outlined and measures that can be taken to mitigate the risk are discussed. Ultimately, for crustacean diseases, the paradigm under which the OIE has operated for the past 80 years needs to change.

  6. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  7. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations.

  8. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity.

  9. Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology.

  10. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma

  11. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity. PMID:26747903

  12. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  13. Do omnivorous shrimp influence mayfly nymph life history traits in a tropical island stream?

    PubMed

    Macías, Nicholas A; Colón-Gaud, Checo; Duggins, Jonathan W; Ramírez, Alonso

    2014-04-01

    Interspecific interactions can play an important role in determining habitat selection and resource use between competing species. We examined interactions between an omnivorous shrimp and a grazing mayfly, two co-dominant taxa found in Puerto Rican headwater streams, to assess how predator presence may influence mayfly resource use and instantaneous growth in a tropical rainforest ecosystem. We conducted a series of behavioral and growth experiments to determine the effects of the freshwater shrimp, Xiphocaris elongata, on the growth rate and resource selection of mayfly nymphs in the family Leptophlebiidae. For resource choice assessments, we conducted a series of five day laboratory experiments where mayflies were given access to two resource substrate choices (cobble vs. leaves) in the presence or absence of shrimp. To assess for the effects of shrimp on mayfly fitness, we measured mayfly growth in laboratory aquaria after five days using four treatments (cobble, leaves, cobble + leaves, no resource) in the presence or absence of shrimp. In resource choice experiments, mayflies showed preference for cobble over leaf substrata (p < 0.05) regardless of the presence of shrimps, however, the preference for cobble was significantly greater when shrimp were present in the leaf habitat. In growth experiments, there were no statistical differences in mayfly growth in the presence or absence of shrimp (p = 0.07). However, we measured increased mayfly nymph growth in the absence of predators and when both cobble and leaves were available. Our results suggest that interspecific interactions between these taxa could potentially influence organic matter resource dynamics (e.g., leaf litter processing and export) in Puerto Rican streams.

  14. Lysmata leptodactylus, a new species of lysmatid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-01-01

    A new species of lysmatid shrimp, Lysmata leptodactylus n. sp., is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the subtidal zone in Guangdong province, South China Sea. The new species bears distinctly unequal second pereiopods and uniquely elongated gracile dactyli of the ambulatory pereiopods. These characters, combined with the rostral formula, and stylocerite proportion, immediately distinguish Lysmata leptodactylus n. sp. from all known species of lysmatid shrimp. PMID:27470759

  15. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  16. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866. PMID:27395620

  17. Lysmata leptodactylus, a new species of lysmatid shrimp (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea) from China.

    PubMed

    Gan, Zhibin; Li, Xinzheng

    2016-01-01

    A new species of lysmatid shrimp, Lysmata leptodactylus n. sp., is described and illustrated based on specimens collected from the subtidal zone in Guangdong province, South China Sea. The new species bears distinctly unequal second pereiopods and uniquely elongated gracile dactyli of the ambulatory pereiopods. These characters, combined with the rostral formula, and stylocerite proportion, immediately distinguish Lysmata leptodactylus n. sp. from all known species of lysmatid shrimp.

  18. Patterns of genome size variation in snapping shrimp.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Hultgren, Kristin; Chak, Solomon Tin Chi; Gregory, T Ryan; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2016-06-01

    Although crustaceans vary extensively in genome size, little is known about how genome size may affect the ecology and evolution of species in this diverse group, in part due to the lack of large genome size datasets. Here we investigate interspecific, intraspecific, and intracolony variation in genome size in 39 species of Synalpheus shrimps, representing one of the largest genome size datasets for a single genus within crustaceans. We find that genome size ranges approximately 4-fold across Synalpheus with little phylogenetic signal, and is not related to body size. In a subset of these species, genome size is related to chromosome size, but not to chromosome number, suggesting that despite large genomes, these species are not polyploid. Interestingly, there appears to be 35% intraspecific genome size variation in Synalpheus idios among geographic regions, and up to 30% variation in Synalpheus duffyi genome size within the same colony.

  19. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination. PMID:24458639

  20. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination.

  1. Shrimp processing assessed by low field nuclear magnetic resonance, near infrared spectroscopy, and physicochemical measurements--the effect of polyphosphate content and length of prebrining on shrimp muscle.

    PubMed

    Gudjónsdóttir, María; Jónsson, Ásbjörn; Bergsson, Arnljótur Bjarki; Arason, Sigurjón; Rustad, Turid

    2011-05-01

    The effect of using polyphosphates during prebrining and the effect of prebrining time of cold water shrimp (Pandalus borealis) was studied with low field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) transverse relaxation time measurements (benchtop and unilateral) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with the aim of improving shrimp processing. Strong calibrations were obtained for moisture content and water-holding capacity (WHC) using the NIR technique. Multivariate analysis indicated significant correlations between benchtop NMR parameters and moisture content and WHC, as measured with physicochemical methods and NIR spectroscopy. Significant correlations were also observed between NMR parameters and muscle pH, protein content, and phosphate content. The study showed that LF-NMR contribute to improved understanding of the shrimp brining process and to improved process control on-line or at-line, especially in combination with NIR measurements. However, optimization of the unilateral device is necessary. PMID:22417356

  2. Isotopic Incorporation Rates and Discrimination Factors in Mantis Shrimp Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    deVries, Maya S.; del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0–1 ‰ and 3–4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps’ incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  3. Multimeric hemoglobin of the Australian brine shrimp Parartemia.

    PubMed

    Coleman, M; Matthews, C M; Trotman, C N

    2001-04-01

    The hemoglobin molecule of the commercially important brine shrimp Artemia sp. has been used extensively as a model for the study of molecular evolution. It consists of nine globin domains joined by short linker sequences, and these domains are believed to have originated through a series of duplications from an original globin gene. In addition, in Artemia, two different polymers of hemoglobin, called C and T, are found which differ by 11.7% at the amino acid level and are believed to have diverged about 60 MYA. This provides a set of data of 18 globin domain sequences that have evolved in the same organism. The pattern of amino acid substitution between these two polymers is unusual, with pairs of equivalent domains displaying differences of up to 2.7-fold in total amino acid substitution. Such differences would reflect a similar range of molecular-clock rates in what appear to be duplicate, structurally equivalent domains. In order to provide a reference outgroup, we sequenced the cDNA for a nine-domain hemoglobin (P) from another genus of brine shrimp, Parartemia zietziana, which differs morphologically and ecologically from Artemia and is endemic to Australia. Parartemia produces only one hundredth the amount of hemoglobin that Artemia produces and does not upregulate production in response to low oxygen partial pressure. Comparison of the globin domains at the amino acid and DNA levels suggests that the Artemia globin T gene has accumulated substitutions differently from the Parartemia P and Artemia C globin genes. We discuss the questions of accelerated evolution after duplication and possible functions for the Parartemia globin. PMID:11264409

  4. Prevalence of the infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus in shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) broodstock in northwestern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Cano, Fernando; Enríquez-Espinoza, Tania; Encinas-García, Trinidad; Sánchez-Paz, Arturo

    2014-11-01

    The Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV or IHHNV) is the smallest of the known shrimp viruses. It causes severe mortalities in juveniles and sub-adults of the blue shrimp Penaeus stylirostris, while specimens of the white shrimp Penaeus vannamei infected by this virus exhibit reduced growth rates and negative effects on the feed-conversion rate (FCR). To date, no descriptive epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of this virus in shrimp broodstock have been performed. In this study, the prevalence of IHHNV in broodstock of the white shrimp P. vannamei from hatcheries on the northwest of Mexico region was estimated. Prevalence vary across different regions from high (63%) to low (6%) in shrimp broodstock. Several factors, as transport of pathogens by human activities, or the absence or implementation of ineffective biosecurity measures, may explain the observed differences. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine the prevalence of IHHNV on broodstock.

  5. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D.; Chan, Tin-Yam; O’Leary, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade’s ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently. PMID:27415002

  6. Effects of three Caribbean cleaner shrimps on ectoparasitic monogeneans in a semi-natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, A.; Sikkel, P. C.; Nemeth, D.

    2010-06-01

    Most research on cleaning symbioses on coral reefs has focused on fish clients being cleaned by smaller fishes. While many shrimps and other crustaceans are reported as cleaners, whether they remove parasites from fish hosts and can effectively regulate populations of ectoparasites is unclear. The effects of Pederson shrimp ( Periclimenes pedersoni) , spotted shrimp ( P. yucatanicus), and banded coral shrimp ( Stenopus hispidus), on the parasitic monogenean Neobenedenia melleni on a host reef fish, blue tang ( Acanthurus coeruleus), were investigated. The abundance and size of N. melleni from fish with and without access to shrimps in a semi-natural macrocosm was quantified. P. pedersoni had a strong effect on both the abundance and size of parasites. In contrast, P. yucatanicus and S. hispidus had no effect on the abundance of parasites but had a small yet statistically significant effect on average size. These data suggest that P. pedersoni can play a significant role in the biological regulation of at least some ectoparasites on Caribbean reef fishes, but further suggest that some other shrimps regarded as “cleaners” may have little or no effectiveness at removing parasites and underscore the need for further verification before this term is applied.

  7. Differential expression of microRNAs in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus in response to Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Wang, Zhi; Sun, Bao-Zhen

    2016-02-01

    Till date numerous microRNAs (miRNAs) have been discovered from various organisms, including mammals, plants, insects, nematodes and viruses. They are known to have antiviral functions in crustaceans such as shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicas. However, little is known about the role of miRNAs against bacterial infection in this shrimp caused by Vibrio alginolyticus. We performed small RNA sequencing to characterize the differentially expressed microRNAs in V. alginolyticus challenged shrimp, in comparison to that in control uninfected shrimp, at 24 h and 48 h. In total, 55 host miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to the infection and most of these were downregulated at both the time-points. TargetScan and miRanda algorithms showed that the target genes of these down-regulated miRNAs were related to innate immune functions such as production of phenoloxidase enzyme, apoptosis and phagocytosis. Further, gene ontology analysis revealed that many immune signaling pathways were mediated by these miRNAs. This study is one of the earliest attempts at characterizing shrimp miRNAs that respond to V. alginolyticus infection, and will help unravel the miRNA pathways involved in antibacterial action in shrimp.

  8. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Chan, Tin-Yam; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently. PMID:27415002

  9. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  10. Protection of yellow head virus infection in shrimp by feeding of bacteria expressing dsRNAs.

    PubMed

    Sanitt, Poohrawind; Attasart, Pongsopee; Panyim, Sakol

    2014-06-10

    Although prevention of shrimp mortality from yellow head virus (YHV) infection via dsRNA injection has been well demonstrated for many years, it has not yet been applied in a farm culture because of its impracticality. Hence, oral administration of dsRNA becomes an alternative and desirable approach. This study is the first to demonstrate that oral feeding of Escherichia coli expressing shrimp Rab7 gene (dsRab7) or YHV protease gene (dsYHV) could inhibit YHV replication and lowered shrimp mortality. E. coli HT115 expressing dsRab7 or dsYHV or a combination of these dsRNAs were embedded in agar and used to feed vannamei shrimp at early juvenile stage before YHV challenge. After 4 days of continuous feeding of dsRNAs, strong inhibitory effect on shrimp mortality was observed in which dsRab7 gave the highest effect (70% reduction from the control) whereas dsYHV showed a 40% reduction. Our results reveal the potential of anti-YHV strategy via orally delivered dsRNA for application in the shrimp farm industry.

  11. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed.

  12. Knowledge and innovation relationships in the shrimp industry in Thailand and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Louis; Garden, Po; Luers, Amy; Manuel-Navarrete, David; Giap, Dao Huy

    2016-04-26

    Experts, government officials, and industry leaders concerned about the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture believe they know what farmers need to know and should be doing. They have framed sustainability as a technical problem that, at the farm level, is to be solved by better shrimp and management of ponds and businesses. Codes of conduct, standards, and regulations are expected to bring deviant practices into line. Shrimp farmers are often cornered in a challenging game of knowledge in which their livelihoods are at stake. In the commodity chain there are multiple relations with both suppliers and buyers, not all of which are trustworthy. The social networks shrimp farmers belong to are crucial for sifting out misinformation and multiplying insights from personal experience in learning by doing. Successful farmers become part of a learning culture through seminars, workshops, and clubs in which knowledge and practices are continually re-evaluated. The combination of vertical and horizontal relationships creates a set of alternative arenas that together are critical to bridging knowledge and action gaps for shrimp farmers. Government and industry initiatives for improving links between knowledge and practice for sustainability have largely succeeded when incentives are aligned: shrimp grow better in healthy environments, and using fewer resources means higher profits.

  13. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Chan, Tin-Yam; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently.

  14. Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J.; Porter, D.; Edwards, D.

    1995-12-31

    Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

  15. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D.; Grey, B.; McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  16. Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Torres, María L

    2012-01-01

    During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences.

  17. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    PubMed

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-01

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  18. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  19. Use of acidic electrolyzed water ice for preserving the quality of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ting; Wang, Jing Jing; Li, Ji Bing; Liao, Chao; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

    2013-09-11

    Electrolyzed water ice is a relatively new concept developed in food industry in recent years. The effect of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on preserving the quality of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was investigated. Physical, chemical, and microbiological changes of the shrimp were examined during the storage. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice displayed a potential ability in limiting the pH changes of shrimp flesh and significantly (p < 0.05) retarded the changes of color difference and the formation of total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN). And AEW ice treatment had no adverse effects on the firmness of shrimp. Conventional plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE demonstrated that AEW ice had a capability of inhibiting growth of bacteria on raw shrimp, and the maximum reductions of population reached >1.0 log CFU/g (>90%) on the sixth day. Moreover, AEW ice was clearly more efficient in maintaining the initial attachments between muscle fibers in shrimp according to histological section analysis. On the basis of above analysis, AEW ice can be a new alternative of traditional sanitizer to better preserve the quality of seafood in the future.

  20. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients. PMID:15854910

  1. Edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract inhibits melanosis in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirayama, Jinto; Terayama, Makoto; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the potential of an aqueous extract of an edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) to prevent melanosis in cultured Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) with other antimelanosic compounds in vivo. The mushroom extract contained 9.1 mg/mL ergothioneine (ESH). Immersion of live full-grown shrimp in a 0.5% w/v solution of mushroom extract significantly reduced PPO activity in shrimp hemolymph. In addition, expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in hemocytes, suggesting that the extract blocked the activation of the proPO cascade. Consequently, the development of melanosis in the treated shrimp was significantly suppressed during ice storage. Treatment with a 0.05% w/v solution of sodium ascorbate and 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol had the same effect. In vitro experiments showed that ESH effectively inhibited PPO activity and activation of the proPO cascade in hemocyte lysate supernatant. This study suggests that in vivo application of F. velutipes mushroom extract is an effective natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis in shrimp. Practical Application: The extract of an edible mushroom (F. velutipes) containing ergothioneine can be a promising natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents used to prevent postharvest melanosis in shrimp and other crustaceans. Furthermore, utilization of the mushroom trimmings could also help address the growing concerns on the disposal of such agricultural wastes and instead use it into a novel purpose as a source of antimelanosic and antioxidants for food and industrial application.

  2. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocaoğlu, Aslı; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

  3. Knowledge and innovation relationships in the shrimp industry in Thailand and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Louis; Garden, Po; Luers, Amy; Manuel-Navarrete, David; Giap, Dao Huy

    2016-01-01

    Experts, government officials, and industry leaders concerned about the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture believe they know what farmers need to know and should be doing. They have framed sustainability as a technical problem that, at the farm level, is to be solved by better shrimp and management of ponds and businesses. Codes of conduct, standards, and regulations are expected to bring deviant practices into line. Shrimp farmers are often cornered in a challenging game of knowledge in which their livelihoods are at stake. In the commodity chain there are multiple relations with both suppliers and buyers, not all of which are trustworthy. The social networks shrimp farmers belong to are crucial for sifting out misinformation and multiplying insights from personal experience in learning by doing. Successful farmers become part of a learning culture through seminars, workshops, and clubs in which knowledge and practices are continually re-evaluated. The combination of vertical and horizontal relationships creates a set of alternative arenas that together are critical to bridging knowledge and action gaps for shrimp farmers. Government and industry initiatives for improving links between knowledge and practice for sustainability have largely succeeded when incentives are aligned: shrimp grow better in healthy environments, and using fewer resources means higher profits. PMID:19892739

  4. Pulsed ultraviolet light reduces immunoglobulin E binding to Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract.

    PubMed

    Shriver, Sandra; Yang, Wade; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan

    2011-07-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract.

  5. Assessment and monitoring of nutrient loading in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thuyet D; Luong-Van, Jim; Maier, Stefan W; Austin, Chris M

    2013-10-01

    Coastal shrimp farming may lead to the contamination of sediments of surrounding estuarine and marine ecosystems as shrimp farm effluent often contains high levels of pollutants including a range of organic compounds (from uneaten feed, shrimp feces, and living and dead organisms) which can accumulate in the sediments of receiving waterways. The assessment and monitoring of sediment quality in tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent can support environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas since sediment quality often shows essential information on long-term aquatic ecosystem health. Within this context, this paper investigates nutrient loadings in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam, which now have a high concentration of intensive and semi-intensive shrimp farms. Sediment samples taken from inside creek sections directly receiving effluent from concentrated shrimp farms (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC), and few kilometers away from shrimp farms (ASF) as reference sites were collected and analyzed before and after shrimp crops to investigate spatial and temporal variation. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon among IEC, OEC, and ASF sites while the seasonal variation being limited over study times. A sediment nutrient index (SNI) computed from coefficient scores of the factor analysis efficiently summarizes sediment nutrient loads, which are high, albeit quite variable, in canals directly receiving effluents from farms but then decline sharply with distance from shrimp farms. The visualization and monitoring of sediment quality data including SNI on maps can strongly support managers to manage eutrophication at concentrated shrimp farming areas, contributing to sustainable

  6. Properties, translucence, and microstructure of Pacific white shrimp treated with mixed phosphates as affected by freshness and deveining.

    PubMed

    Rattanasatheirn, N; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-01-01

    Effects of freshness and deveining on some properties, translucence, and microstructure of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing different phosphates were studied. Shrimp soaked in all solutions had increases in weight gain and cooking yield with lowered cooking loss, compared with the control (P < 0.05). However, efficacy of mixed phosphates in quality improvement of ice-stored shrimp was lower than fresh shrimp. Deveining resulted in increased weight gain and yield (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, samples treated with phosphates became more translucent. Shrimp stored in ice for 7 d and treated with mixed phosphates were generally more translucent than fresh counterparts (P < 0.05). Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing 0.875% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) and 2.625% tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) were generally less translucent and had high weight gain and cooking yield along with low cooking loss. The microstructure study revealed that the muscle fibers were less attached with the loss of Z-disks after being treated with mixed phosphates. Cooked meats of fresh shrimp and ice-stored shrimp had more compact fiber arrangement with the shrinkage of sarcomere compared with raw samples. Disintegration was observed at the M-line in ice-stored shrimp treated with mixed phosphates after cooking, while such a phenomenon was not found in the cooked fresh sample treated with phosphates. T(max) and enthalpy of both myosin and actin peaks shifted to lower values when shrimp were treated with mixed phosphates (P < 0.05). Those changes were generally more pronounced in ice-stored shrimp. Therefore, freshness and deveining process had an impact on the quality of Pacific white shrimp treated with phosphates.

  7. Measurement of pollution levels of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in water, soil, sediment, and shrimp to identify possible impacts on shrimp production at Jiquilisco Bay.

    PubMed

    Nomen, Rosa; Sempere, Julià; Chávez, Francisco; de López, Nelly Amaya; Rovira, Ma Dolores

    2012-09-01

    This study aims to identify levels of several organochlorine and organophosphorus compounds in shrimp-raising areas of coastal El Salvador, to assess potential impacts on shrimp growth and survival that hamper the sustainability of aquaculture in the region. The paper reports the current levels of γ-HCH, 4,4'-DDT, 4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-DDD, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor, parathion, methyl parathion, and etoprophos in soils (depth 20 cm), sediments (depth 5 cm), shrimp (Penaeus sp.), and water of three rearing ponds and also in the sediment (depth 5 cm) and water surrounding those ponds in Jiquilisco Bay. Sampling was carried out during the dry (January-March) and rainy (June-August) seasons of 2008. The presence of pesticides in the samples of water, shrimp, and sediment at shrimp ponds was not detected in either season; however, in soil samples (depth 20 cm) taken from these ponds, heptachlor, endrin, dieldrin, 4,4'-DDD, and 4,4'-DDT were identified at concentrations below the method limit of quantification (LOQ), and 4,4'-DDE was found in a concentration falling in the range from 3.85 to 19.61 ng/g. In samples of water taken at the bay water intakes to the rearing ponds, we observed dieldrin concentrations in the range between 0.085 ng/mL and 0.182 ng/mL during the dry season. In the samples of sediments taken in the surrounding areas of shrimp ponds, we found-for both seasons-that in 60 % of the samples, 4,4'-DDE was present in concentrations ranging from 3.75 ng/g to 30.97 ng/g. Additionally, in the rainy season, we observed heptachlor in sediment at concentrations below the method quantification limit. It was concluded that organochlorine compounds from pesticides are still present in Jiquilisco Bay, trapped in deep sediment, even though they have been banned since the 1980s. These were not detected in shrimp tissue, surface water, and shallow sediment in rearing ponds, and hence, we do not believe their presence has any major impact on shrimp production in sampled

  8. A formulated double-stranded RNA diet for reducing Penaeus monodon densovirus infection in black tiger shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chimwai, Chaweewan; Tongboonsong, Punnee; Namramoon, Orathai; Panyim, Sakol; Attasart, Pongsopee

    2016-02-01

    Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in the aquaculture industry in Thailand. Significant reductions in levels of PmDNV as assessed by PCR analysis of shrimp hepatopancreas were seen in both prophylactic and curative experiments after feeding shrimp with a formulated diet containing mixed inactivated bacteria harboring dsRNAs corresponding to the PmDNV ns1 and vp genes. Significant reductions of approximately 88% (prophylactic) and 64% (curative) of PmDNV were observed, suggesting that this diet has a high potential for application in commercial aquaculture for reducing PmDNV associated stunted growth of shrimp.

  9. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  10. Relating large-scale climate variability to local species abundance: ENSO forcing and shrimp in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Bryan P.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Keim, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Climate creates environmental constraints (filters) that affect the abundance and distribution of species. In estuaries, these constraints often result from variability in water flow properties and environmental conditions (i.e. water flow, salinity, water temperature) and can have significant effects on the abundance and distribution of commercially important nekton species. We investigated links between large-scale climate variability and juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus abundance in Breton Sound estuary, Louisiana (USA). Our goals were to (1) determine if a teleconnection exists between local juvenile brown shrimp abundance and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and (2) relate that linkage to environmental constraints that may affect juvenile brown shrimp recruitment to, and survival in, the estuary. Our results identified a teleconnection between winter ENSO conditions and juvenile brown shrimp abundance in Breton Sound estuary the following spring. The physical connection results from the impact of ENSO on winter weather conditions in Breton Sound (air pressure, temperature, and precipitation). Juvenile brown shrimp abundance effects lagged ENSO by 3 mo: lower than average abundances of juvenile brown shrimp were caught in springs following winter El Niño events, and higher than average abundances of brown shrimp were caught in springs following La Niña winters. Salinity was the dominant ENSO-forced environmental filter for juvenile brown shrimp. Spring salinity was cumulatively forced by winter river discharge, winter wind forcing, and spring precipitation. Thus, predicting brown shrimp abundance requires incorporating climate variability into models.

  11. A homologue gene of β-catenin participates in the development of shrimps and immune response to bacteria and viruses.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ya-Kai; Ding, Ding; Wang, Hui-Min; Kang, Cui-Jie

    2015-11-01

    β-Catenin is a multifunctional protein that is involved in many physiological processes, including development, cell proliferation, cell migration, and apoptosis. However, the function of β-Catenin in crustacean is unknown. In this study, the first shrimp homologous gene of β-catenin in Marsupenaeus japonicus (i.e., Mjβ-catenin) was identified and characterized. The full-length of the complementary DNA of Mjβ-catenin is 3130 bp, including a 2463 bp open reading frame that encodes 821 amino acid. Multiple alignment of β-Catenin proteins suggested that the Armadillo/β-Catenin-like repeat domains were conserved. Phylogenetic analysis showed that β-Catenin from shrimp was clustered into one group with invertebrate β-Catenin. The transcription of β-catenin in various development stages of shrimp was detected and persistently increased as the shrimp matured. In adult shrimp, β-catenin was widely distributed in detected tissues and has the relatively high expression level in gills, hemocytes, testes, and ovaries. The transcripts of β-catenin in tissues of adult shrimp were significantly up-regulated at various time points after infecting with Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio anguillarum, and white-spot syndrome virus. Furthermore, knockdown of β-catenin resulted in impaired bacterial clearance ability and increased virus copy in shrimp in vivo. Therefore, β-Catenin in shrimp participates in the development and immune response of shrimps. PMID:26334791

  12. Dietary effect of Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immune gene expression in white leg shrimp, Penaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Dharaneedharan; Jang, Yeoung-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Kang, Bong-Jo; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of a Rubus coreanus ethanolic extract on immunostimulatory response in white leg shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Shrimps with an average initial weight of 0.5 ± 0.04 g were collected and acclimatized for 10 days. Four experimental diets including a control diet, a probiotic diet and 0.25 and 0.5% of R. coreanus ethanolic extract (RcEE) diets were used to feed the shrimps. After 8 weeks of culture, shrimp fed with probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet had showed significant enhancement in the growth while shrimp fed with 0.5% RcEE diet showed significantly increased expression of immune genes and antioxidant enzymes activities. One week of challenge experiments for all the four diets fed shrimps showed decreased cumulative mortality in the 0.5% RcEE diets fed shrimps, when compared with the probiotic and 0.25% RcEE diet fed shrimp groups. The results indicates that R. coreanus ethanolic extract could be used as a herbal immunostimulant for shrimps to increase its immunity and disease resistance against the bacterial pathogen, Vibrio alginolyticus. PMID:23811352

  13. Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

  14. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  15. A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2008-11-01

    Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

  16. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  17. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  18. A precollaborative study of weight determination methods for quick frozen shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dobson, J E; McClure, F D; Rainosek, A P

    1998-01-01

    A precollaborative study compared the accuracy and precision of official AOAC methods with other selected methods for determining net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp, assessed the ruggedness of the methods with respect to changes in the levels of the factors under study, and selected candidate methods for use in a collaborative study. Methods tested for determining deglazed (frozen) net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 963.18 and (2) the Water Bath Dip Method. Methods tested for determining thawed net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 967.13, (2) Modified AOAC Method(mnb) 967.13, (3) Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13, (4) the Codex Method, (5) the Air Thaw Method, and (6) Modified AOAC Method 963.18. The same methods except Modified AOAC Method 963.18 were tested for determining thawed net weight of block-glazed shrimp. A total of 864 0.45 kg (1 lb), 0.90 kg (2 lb), and 1.35 kg (3 lb) IQF-glazed shrimp test samples and 234 2.25 kg (5 lb) block-glazed shrimp test samples were collected. During sample preparation, test samples were subjected to either water with or without sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). During deglazing (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and/or thawing, test samples were allocated in a factorial design to assess the effects of STP presence (no STP and STP), sieve mesh sizes (2.83 and 2.38 mm; 0.11 and 0.09 in.), and sieve diameters (20 and 30 cm; 8 and 12 in.). During weighing, test samples were further allocated to a sequence of weighing procedures designed to assess the effects of using sieve weights (dry and wet) in combination with paper towel use (no and yes) and tared pan weights when calculating determined net weights. On the basis of the results of this precollaborative study, Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method seem to be the best methods to determine net weight of IQF-glazed and block-glazed shrimp. Therefore, to validate method choices in the collaborative study, the authors

  19. LINKING HABITAT CHANGE AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS: COMPARISON OF FOOD WEBS AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN BURROWING SHRIMP- AND OYSTER-DOMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endemic thalassinid burrowing shrimps are simultaneously dominant ecosystem engineering species and economic pests within Pacific estuaries. Dense populations of two shrimps (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) commonly occupy >75% of intertidal and shallow subti...

  20. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    PubMed

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens.

  1. Putative Promoters Isolated From Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus of Shrimp Drive Expression of a Reporter Gene in Bacteria, Insect Cells, Fish Cells, and Shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV) of shrimp contains a linear single-stranded DNA genome of approximately 4.1 kb with three putative open reading frames (ORFs) namely, the left ORF, middle ORF and the right ORF on the same DNA strand. Whereas the left ORF codes for non-s...

  2. An evolutionarily ancient NO synthase (NOS) in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Hung; Siva, Vinu S; Song, Yen-Ling

    2013-11-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a well known essential molecule that is involved in multiple functions such as neuron transduction, cardiac disease, immune responses, etc.; nitric oxide synthase (NOS) is a critical enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of it. A very few crustacean NOS molecules were biochemically characterized so far. In the present study, we cloned and characterized a NOS cDNA from haemocytes of tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) (PmNOS). The full-length of PmNOS cDNA contained 3997 bp, including a 5'UTR of 249 bp, ORF of 3582 bp and a 3'UTR of 166 bp. The putative peptide was 1193 amino acid residues in length, with an estimated molecular weight of 134.7 kDa and pI 6.7. Structurally, PmNOS contained oxygenase and reductase domains at N-terminal and C-terminal, respectively, and connected with a calmodulin binding motif. The deduced amino acid sequence of PmNOS shared 98% identical to the Chinese shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) NOS. Phylogenetically, PmNOS clustered with invertebrate NOS, but not clustered with iNOS, eNOS or nNOS found in vertebrates. PmNOS mRNA was expressed in many tissues or organs including thoracic and ventral nerves, midgut, gill, eyestalk, haemocytes, subcuticular epithelium and heart, but not found in hepatopancreas, muscle and lymphoid organ. But there was no significant difference in PmNOS mRNA expression after stimulation with LPS either by different concentration or time course or against CpG-ODN 2006. The enzyme activities of rPmNOS or crude homogenates from different tissues were detected, and were shown its highest activity in thoracic and ventral nerves, moderate in midgut and haemocytes but the lowest activity were seen in muscle. The addition of NOS antibody against NADPH binding domain leads to less activity which suggested that NADPH was an essential cofactor for PmNOS catalytic activity. The calcium dependency of PmNOS was ascertained using calmodulin inhibitor, Trifluroperazine. To confirm the population of haemocyte which

  3. Investigations on juvenile fish excluder cum shrimp sorting device (JFE-SSD).

    PubMed

    Boopendranath, Menothuparambil Ravunny; Pravin, Puthra; Gibinkumar, Therodath Rajan; Sabu, Sarasan; Madhu, Vettiyattil Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Penaeid shrimp is a major resource in India contributing about 7.4% of the total marine fish landings. They are mostly landed by small mechanized trawlers. Shrimp trawling generates large quantities of bycatch mostly consisting of juvenile fishes, due to use of small mesh size in codends of trawl nets. Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) is a bycatch reduction device with an in situ sorting mechanism, which replaces the conventional codend in a trawl. The device was designed to catch shrimps and commercially important fish species using a specially designed oval sorting grid with appropriate bar spacing and dual codends. Shrimp sorting efficiency and bycatch exclusion characteristics of JFE-SSD attached to a 29.6 m shrimp trawl, was tested by experimental fishing along the coastal waters off Cochin, India. Out of a total of 317.07 kg of catch encountered in the JFE-SSD installed trawl, 58.22% was retained in lower codend, 17.53% in upper codend and 24.25%, mostly consisting of juveniles and sub-adults of finfishes and shellfishes, was excluded from upper codend. The mean CPUE registered for upper and lower codend were 7.23±1.04 SE and 5.84±0.96 SE kg h(-1) respectively. The CPUE of shrimps retained in upper and lower codends were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test (1,62), P<0.001), but the mean CPUE for fishes did not vary significantly. The average escapement of shrimps and juvenile fishes from upper codend were 0.06±0.02 SE kg h(-1) and 2.40±0.44 SE kg h(-1) respectively. Significant differences in the length composition between upper and lower codends were noticed for Megalaspis cordyla, Stolephorus waitei, Metapenaeus dobsoni and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The experiments demonstrated in situ sorting ability of the device and its potential to reduce the bycatch of juveniles and sub-adults in shrimp trawls.

  4. Differences in prey capture in grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an environmental impact gradient.

    PubMed

    Perez, M H; Wallace, W G

    2004-01-01

    The waterways and associated salt marshes along the western border of Staten Island, New York (Arthur Kill) have long been under environmental duress. Environmental threats include industrial and municipal discharges, oil spills, and possible leachate from landfills. These impacts are compounded due to the low flushing of this body of water. Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, inhabiting the Arthur Kill are, therefore, potentially at risk of exposure to metal and organic pollutants. Successful prey capture (of live brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana) was used to compare the relative health of shrimp collected from three sites along an environmental impact gradient. Study sites included a relatively unimpacted harbor (Great Kills Harbor, GK) and two creeks adjoining the Arthur Kill (Nassau Creek, NC, and Richmond Creek, RC). Shrimp originating from GK exhibited a rate of prey capture (6.3 prey h(-1)) that was about two times greater (p < 0.05) than that of shrimp originating from a creek behind a series of landfills (RC, 3.2 prey h(-1)). The rate of prey capture for shrimp collected from a creek impacted by historic smelting activities (NC) was intermediate (5.4 prey h(-1)). Laboratory studies with shrimp from a pristine site (Tuckerton, NJ) exposed to RC conditions (i.e., sediment and water) for eight weeks indicate that reduced prey capture can be induced in healthy shrimp. Finally, video analysis suggests that reduced prey capture in RC shrimp may not be the result of less effort, but rather the combination of (1) 80% fewer (p < 0.05) prey being captured with a lunge type of attack and (2) a greater reliance (p < 0.05) on a less efficient grab type of foraging behavior (64% success rate for RC versus 87% success rate for GK; p = 0.058). These results indicate that sublethal toxicity in environmentally impacted populations can occur and that prey capture may be used to assay the relative health of field specimens. Additionally, impaired prey capture may have

  5. Comparative Transcriptomic Characterization of the Early Development in Pacific White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research. PMID:25197823

  6. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Jeffrey A; Chang, Andrew L; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic "army men." These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats. PMID:27547551

  7. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments.

  8. Catalase eliminates reactive oxygen species and influences the intestinal microbiota of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Guo, Fang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal innate immune response is an important defense mechanism of animals and humans against external pathogens. The mechanism of microbiota homeostasis in host intestines has been well studied in mammals and Drosophila. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antimicrobial peptides have been reported to play important roles in homeostasis. However, how to maintain the microbiota homeostasis in crustacean intestine needs to be elucidated. In this study, we identified a novel catalase (MjCAT) involved in ROS elimination in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjCAT mRNA was widely distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. After the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic bacteria via oral infection, the expression level of MjCAT was upregulated, and the enzyme activity was increased in the intestine. ROS level was also increased in the intestine at early time after oral infection and recovered rapidly. When MjCAT was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), high ROS level maintained longer time, and the number of bacteria number was declined in the shrimp intestinal lumen than those in the control group, but the survival rate of the MjCAT-RNAi shrimp was declined. Further study demonstrated that the intestinal villi protruded from epithelial lining of the intestinal wall were damaged by the high ROS level in MjCAT-knockdown shrimp. These results suggested that MjCAT participated in the intestinal host-microbe homeostasis by regulating ROS level.

  9. Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S

    2014-02-15

    Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9 ± 16.3 μg/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6 ± 97.9 μg/g of lipids after 90 days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp.

  10. Soil salinity and sodicity in a shrimp farming coastal area of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tho, Nguyen; Vromant, N.; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Hens, L.

    2008-06-01

    Soil salinity and sodicity are environmental problems in the shrimp farming areas of the Cai Nuoc district, Ca Mau province, Vietnam. In 2000, farmers in the district switched en masse from rice cropping to shrimp culture. Due to recent failure in shrimp farming, many farmers wish to revert to a rotational system with rice in the wet season and shrimps in the dry season. So far, all their attempts to grow rice have failed. To assess soil salinity and sodicity, 25 boreholes in shrimp ponds were analysed in four consecutive seasons from 2002 to 2004. The results showed that soil salinity was quite serious (mean ECe 29.25 dS m-1), particularly in the dry season (mean ECe 33.44 dS m-1). In the wet season, significant amounts of salts still remained in the soil (mean ECe 24.65 dS m-1) and the highest soil salinity levels were found near the sea. Soil sodicity is also a problem in the district (exchangeable sodium percentage range 9.63-72.07%). Sodicity is mainly a phenomenon of topsoils and of soils near the sea. Both soil salinity and sodicity are regulated by seasonal rainfall patterns. They could together result in disastrous soil degradation in the Cai Nuoc district.

  11. Reducing nutrient impacts from shrimp effluents in a subtropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Bernardello, Raffaele; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Molino-Minero-Re, Erik; Cruzado, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    Shrimp farm aquaculture causes environmental impacts, notably decreased water quality due to the release of nutrient-rich effluents. Pond wastewater is usually discharged without treatment, and tidal conditions are not taken into account in the management plans. However, natural variability of nutrients makes difficult field evaluation and attribution of impacts. Here we implemented a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (spatial resolution=50m×50m, time resolution=4s) in order to evaluate the dispersion conditions under specific tidal conditions of nutrient discharges from a semi-intensive shrimp farm during spring and neap tide. Ammonia was quickly assimilated by plankton and its concentration recovered initial levels 10days after the beginning of the harvest. Due to the higher salinity of the pond effluents, shrimp farm discharges accumulate in waters and sediments of the upper lagoon creeks, mostly affecting the benthos, thus implying a potential risk of shrimp farm self-contamination. Maximum concentrations of most biogeochemical tracers occurred when the harvest ends and the ponds are fully emptied. We show that maximum nutrient concentrations can be reduced by ~10% when the harvest ends during spring tides compared to harvests ending during neap tides. This work may be useful to improve the management of shrimp farm effluents by reducing, easily and at little cost, nutrient impacts on tropical and sub-tropical receiving ecosystems.

  12. Species profiles - life histories and environmental requirements (Gulf of Mexico): brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R.

    1983-02-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable ($302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normally taken in water temperatures above 10/sup 0/C and rapid growth occurs above 18/sup 0/C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populations are associated with coastal marshes.

  13. [Applicability of PCR methods for detection of shrimp and crab in processed food].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Ryo; Hirao, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to Japanese food allergen labeling regulations, an ELISA screening test is used for detection of crustacean proteins in food and a shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test is used to confirm a positive ELISA screening test and to exclude false positives. Forty-six kinds of processed foods labeled as containing shrimp/crab were subjected to ELISA screening test and PCR confirmation test and the usefulness of the shrimp/crab-PCR was evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 46 samples contained total crustacean protein levels of 10 ppm or more in the ELISA screening test. All of the samples were positive in the shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test. The results of the confirmation test were consistent with the declaration in the list of ingredients and with the results of the ELISA screening test. The shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test was demonstrated to be applicable to various kinds of foods, including powder, extract, seasoning paste, prepared frozen food, snack food, retort food and canned food. PMID:24598221

  14. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments. PMID:27069905

  15. Quality evaluation of farmed whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, treated with different slaughter processing by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-lin; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yanbo

    2014-05-15

    The present study was to evaluate two slaughter processing methods (ice water immersion (T-1) and individual beheaded (T-2)) on whiteleg shrimp quality farmed in freshwater culture systems using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) technology. In addition, the corresponding physical, chemical and microbial properties of shrimp samples were also determined. No significant differences were observed in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and K value as well as the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash between groups of T-1 and T-2. However, significantly higher springiness and chewiness (P<0.05) were observed in T-1 as compared to those of T-2. As for the result of total viable counts (TVC), significantly lower value (P<0.05) was shown in T-1 than that of T-2, indicating that the quality and shelf life of whiteleg shrimp killed by ice water immersion could be improved and prolonged. Furthermore, all the samples were successfully divided into two categories regarding the two slaughter methods by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the infrared spectra. By analysis of the regression coefficients of PLS-DA, it can be supposed that the quality differences of whiteleg shrimp with different slaughter processing are largely caused by structural changes of their protein and fat. All together, our results indicated that the springiness and chewiness of whiteleg shrimp with different processing could be correctly distinguished using infrared spectroscopy.

  16. Physiochemical Changes and Optimization of Phosphate-Treated Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei ) Using Response Surface Methodology.

    PubMed

    Omar, Saiah Djebbour; Yang, Je-Eun; Oh, Sang-Cheol; Kim, Dae-Wook; Lee, Yang-Bong

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the factors responsible for the changed physiochemical properties of unpeeled shrimp treated in cold phosphate solution (2~4°C) with the intervention of 4 factors: phosphate concentration, dipping time, rotation speed, and volume of brine solution. Response surface analysis was used to characterize the effect of the phosphate treatment on shrimps by running 33 treatments for optimizing the experiment. For each treatment, phosphate amount, moisture content, and weight gain were measured. The results showed that phosphate concentration is the most important factor than other factors for facilitating phosphate penetration in the meat of the shrimp and for getting the best result. The optimum condition of phosphate-treated shrimp in this study was 110 to 120 min dipping time, 500 to 550 mL brine solution for 100 g shrimp sample, and 190 to 210 rpm agitation speed. The studied conditions can be applied in fisheries and other food industries for good phosphate treatments. PMID:27069905

  17. [Applicability of PCR methods for detection of shrimp and crab in processed food].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Ryo; Hirao, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to Japanese food allergen labeling regulations, an ELISA screening test is used for detection of crustacean proteins in food and a shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test is used to confirm a positive ELISA screening test and to exclude false positives. Forty-six kinds of processed foods labeled as containing shrimp/crab were subjected to ELISA screening test and PCR confirmation test and the usefulness of the shrimp/crab-PCR was evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 46 samples contained total crustacean protein levels of 10 ppm or more in the ELISA screening test. All of the samples were positive in the shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test. The results of the confirmation test were consistent with the declaration in the list of ingredients and with the results of the ELISA screening test. The shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test was demonstrated to be applicable to various kinds of foods, including powder, extract, seasoning paste, prepared frozen food, snack food, retort food and canned food.

  18. Quantification of viable Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Macé, Sabrina; Guilbaud, Morgan; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Ferchichi, Mounir; Prévost, Hervé; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2012-05-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered as the predominant spoilage microbiota of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) shrimp and fish. Traditional methods currently used to detect B. thermosphacta in foods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment step to monitor the population of B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon. The specificity of the two primers MO405 and MO404 used to amplify a 70 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 30 strains, among 21 bacterial species including 22 reference strains. Using these primers for real-time PCR and in pure culture, a good correlation was obtained between real-time PCR and the conventional plating method. Quantification was linear over 7-log units using artificially inoculated samples. The method performed successfully when tested on naturally contaminated cooked shrimp and fresh salmon, with a minimum threshold of 1.9×10² CFU/g for accurate quantification of B. thermosphacta. The correlation between the B. thermosphacta counts obtained by real-time PCR and plate counts on naturally contaminated shrimp and salmon was high (R²=0.895). Thus, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and fresh salmon.

  19. A physical model of the extreme mantis shrimp strike: kinematics and cavitation of Ninjabot.

    PubMed

    Cox, S M; Schmidt, D; Modarres-Sadeghi, Y; Patek, S N

    2014-03-01

    To study the mechanical principles and fluid dynamics of ultrafast power-amplified systems, we built Ninjabot, a physical model of the extremely fast mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda). Ninjabot rotates a to-scale appendage within the environmental conditions and close to the kinematic range of mantis shrimp's rotating strike. Ninjabot is an adjustable mechanism that can repeatedly vary independent properties relevant to fast aquatic motions to help isolate their individual effects. Despite exceeding the kinematics of previously published biomimetic jumpers and reaching speeds in excess of 25 m s(-1) at accelerations of 3.2 × 10(4) m s(-2), Ninjabot can still be outstripped by the fastest mantis shrimp, Gonodactylus smithii, measured for the first time in this study. G. smithii reached 30 m s(-1) at accelerations of 1.5 × 10(5) m s(-2). While mantis shrimp produce cavitation upon impact with their prey, they do not cavitate during the forward portion of their strike despite their extreme speeds. In order to determine how closely to match Ninjabot and mantis shrimp kinematics to capture this cavitation behavior, we used Ninjabot to produce strikes of varying kinematics and to measure cavitation presence or absence. Using Akaike Information Criterion to compare statistical models that correlated cavitation with a variety of kinematic properties, we found that in rotating and accelerating biological conditions, cavitation inception is best explained only by maximum linear velocity.

  20. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future. PMID:26925334

  1. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  2. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew L.; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic “army men.” These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats. PMID:27547551

  3. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    PubMed

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation. PMID:26292104

  4. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure.

    PubMed

    Crooks, Jeffrey A; Chang, Andrew L; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic "army men." These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats.

  5. Reducing nutrient impacts from shrimp effluents in a subtropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Bernardello, Raffaele; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Molino-Minero-Re, Erik; Cruzado, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    Shrimp farm aquaculture causes environmental impacts, notably decreased water quality due to the release of nutrient-rich effluents. Pond wastewater is usually discharged without treatment, and tidal conditions are not taken into account in the management plans. However, natural variability of nutrients makes difficult field evaluation and attribution of impacts. Here we implemented a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (spatial resolution=50m×50m, time resolution=4s) in order to evaluate the dispersion conditions under specific tidal conditions of nutrient discharges from a semi-intensive shrimp farm during spring and neap tide. Ammonia was quickly assimilated by plankton and its concentration recovered initial levels 10days after the beginning of the harvest. Due to the higher salinity of the pond effluents, shrimp farm discharges accumulate in waters and sediments of the upper lagoon creeks, mostly affecting the benthos, thus implying a potential risk of shrimp farm self-contamination. Maximum concentrations of most biogeochemical tracers occurred when the harvest ends and the ponds are fully emptied. We show that maximum nutrient concentrations can be reduced by ~10% when the harvest ends during spring tides compared to harvests ending during neap tides. This work may be useful to improve the management of shrimp farm effluents by reducing, easily and at little cost, nutrient impacts on tropical and sub-tropical receiving ecosystems. PMID:27473772

  6. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    PubMed

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  7. [Thermal and salinity tolerance of eurybiotic freshwater shrimp Gmelinoides fasciatus (Stebbing) under different acclimation conditions].

    PubMed

    Verbitskiĭ, V B; Berezina, N A

    2009-01-01

    Critical thermal maximum and critical salinity maximum in their dependence on the water temperature and salinity were studied in the freshwater shrimps, Gmelinoides fasciatus, during their acclimation. Nine combinations of temperature (12.7-14.7, 16.3-21.3, 22.0-25.6 degrees C) and salinity (0.2, 2.5 per thousand) were studied. The shrimps were shown to be largest CTM in the fresh water at 22-26 degrees C and to be smallest CTM at 12-14 degrees C. The thermal effect on the thermal stability was similar in the brackish water (2 per thousand), while its effect on the salinity stability was reverse, that is, the shrimps' endurance to the high salinity decreased with the temperature growth. During acclimation, viability reached 50 to 100 per cent at 5 per thousand, the individuals adapted to the lower temperature (12-14 degrees C) appearing to be most endurant. Thermal stability was revealed to increase with the body length growth reaching the stable level at the body length of 7-8 mm. Salinity stability of the shrimps acclimated in the brackish water at 22-26 degrees C tend to increase with the body length growth, while it did not depend on the body length at other temperature regimes reaching about the same level in both fresh and brackish waters. The data obtained indicate that the temperature below 22 degrees C would be optimal for the shrimps acclimation in the brackish water. PMID:19530602

  8. Retardation of quality changes of Pacific white shrimp by green tea extract treatment and modified atmosphere packaging during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-10-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with or without green tea extract (1g/L; GTE) in combination with or without ascorbic acid (0.05g/L; AA) during refrigerated storage of 10days was investigated. Shrimp without treatment stored under MAP had lowered psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and H(2)S-producing bacteria count (P<0.05) but similar lactic acid bacteria count (P>0.05), in comparison with shrimp stored in air (control). The coincidental lowered rate of increase in pH, total volatile base (TVB) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were obtained in shrimp stored under MAP (P<0.05). However, MAP slightly lowered melanosis formation and improved likeness score to some extent. When shrimp were treated with GTE and stored under MAP, the lower microbiological and chemical changes as well as the lowest melanosis formation were observed, compared to shrimp kept under MAP without treatment and the control (P<0.05). GTE treatment in combination with MAP could retard chemical changes and melanosis formation, regardless of AA incorporation (P>0.05). Nevertheless, GTE in combination with AA had higher inhibition on microbial growth and yielded the shrimp with higher likeness, compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Therefore, shrimp treated with GTE in combination with AA prior to MAP had the lowest losses in quality during refrigerated storage.

  9. Determination of oxytetracycline residue in shrimp using a portable time-resolved analyzer and HPLC-MS/MS validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most prominent antibiotic in shrimp aquaculture. In this work, OTC residue in shrimp muscle is determined using a portable analyzer built in this laboratory based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). First, OTC is extracted in McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 with 0.1 ...

  10. 76 FR 30034 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Act, and, therefore, implemented the closure effective as of March 22, 2011 (76 FR 16698..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Reopening of Commercial Penaeid Shrimp Trawling Off South Carolina AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service...

  11. Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

  12. 77 FR 66434 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005) (``PRC Amended Final... People's Republic of China, 69 FR 42654 (July 16, 2004) (``Preliminary Determination''). \\7\\ See Red... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China:...

  13. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  14. PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

  15. 78 FR 28146 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Texas estuaries to the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) so the shrimp may reach a larger, more valuable size and to... TPWD. This sampling is used to project when brown shrimp in Texas bays and estuaries will reach a mean size of 3.54 in (90 mm), and begin strong emigrations out of the bays and estuaries during...

  16. Current status of genetics and genomics of reared penaeid shrimp: information relevant to access and benefit sharing.

    PubMed

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Feng, Tingting; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-08-01

    At present, research and progress in shrimp genomics and genetics show significant developments. Shrimp genetics and genomics also show immense potential for an increased production in a way that meets shrimp culture progress goals for the third millennium. This review article aims to provide an overview of its current status and future direction, discusses questions that need focused research to address them, and summarizes areas where genetics and genomics knowledge can make a positive difference to shrimp culture sustainability. Sustainable progress of penaeid shrimps will depend upon feasible solutions for environmental, research, economic, consumer problems, proper development, and planning policy enforcement. It is recommended that increased funding for biotechnology research and progress be directed to expand worldwide commercial shrimp culture and address environmental and public health issues. For any researcher or shrimp company member who has attempted to or whom would like to thoroughly search the literature to gain a complete understanding of the current state of shrimp genetics and genomics, this publication will be an invaluable source of reference materials, some of which is reported here for the first time.

  17. 78 FR 17178 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... FMP (70 FR 73383, December 12, 2005). Amendment 6 established a (B MSY ) proxy for pink shrimp based... announced in the Federal Register on March 4, 2013 (78 FR 14069). Written comments on Amendment 9 must be... white shrimp) when state waters close as a result of severe winter weather. Amendment 9 would...

  18. 75 FR 20548 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... South Atlantic Shrimp FMP (73 FR 18536, April 16, 1997) established BRD requirements in the South... April 14, 1998 (63 FR 18139), and established a requirement, with limited exceptions, for the use of... implementing Amendment 10 to the Gulf FMP (69 FR 1538, January 9, 2004) required BRDs in shrimp trawls...

  19. 75 FR 27299 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, 70 FR 5143 (February 1, 2005...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India, 70 FR 5147 (February 1, 2005); Notice of Amended Final... the People's Republic of China, 70 FR 5149 (February 1, 2005); and Notice of Amended...

  20. 76 FR 30100 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ... Republic of Vietnam and the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 18154 (April 9, 2010). On February 14, 2011... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the...

  1. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin

    2015-12-01

    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge. PMID:26585281

  2. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

  3. [Effects of antibiotics on bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lü-ping; Hu, Chao-Qun; Luo, Peng; Xie, Zhen-Yu; Li, Zhuo-Jia

    2009-10-01

    With bacterial 16S rRNA gene (rDNA) as molecular marker and by using PCR-DGGE technique, the fingerprints of bacterial community were constructed to study the effects of applying streptomycin sulfate, terramycin, and penicillin on the bacterial community in shrimp hatchery system. Within the 120 h experimental period, significant difference in the diversity of the bacterial community was observed between the treatments applied with 0.5 mg x L(-1) of test antibiotics and the control. In the control, the band patterns in 0-30 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 56-120 h were clustered into another; while in the treatments applied with test antibiotics, the band patterns in 0-56 h were clustered into one clade, and those in 72-120 h were clustered into another. After the sequencing of DGGE bands, the BLAST-N searches for sequence similarity showed great diversity of bacterial species, including culturable bacteria (mainly Sulfitobacter sp., Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Synechoccoccus sp., Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Filamentous photosynthetic, Mucus, and Vibrio harveyi) and some uncultured marine bacteria, among which, Rhodobacteraceae sp., Photobacterium damselae, Actinomycetales, Flavobacteriaceae, Mucus, and two unculturable bacteria were less affected by the three antibiotics, while Sulfitobacter sp., Filamentous photosynthetic, and other eight unculturable marine bacteria changed in different spatiotemporal patterns with the kinds of test antibiotics.

  4. An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2011-12-01

    The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp.

  5. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in shrimps by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M; Muñoz, P; Aranda, A; Rodriguez, I; Diaz, R; Blanca, J

    2003-07-01

    A liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection and identification (LC-MS) is presented for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in shrimp tissues. Homogenized shrimp samples were extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Clean-up was carried out on a C(18) SPE cartridge. Chloramphenicol was determined by LC-MS-ESI in negative mode. The column used was a Symmetry Shield with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (25:75) as mobile phase. Shrimp samples were fortified at CAP levels between 0.2 and 50 ng g(-1) with 5D-CAP as internal standard. At these levels, accuracies lay between 101 and 110% and between-day reproducibilities were lower than 7.1%, expressed as the variation coefficient of the mean. Limit of decision (CCalpha) was 0.02 ng g(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.2 ng g(-1).

  6. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  7. Concentrations of selected chlorinated pesticides in shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. )

    1990-05-01

    For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.

  8. Distribution of Hydrothermal Alvinocaridid Shrimps: Effect of Geomorphology and Specialization to Extreme Biotopes

    PubMed Central

    Lunina, Anastasia A.; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three - six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

  9. Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Wang, Jing Jing; Sun, Xiao Hong; Pan, Ying Jie; Zhao, Yong

    2015-06-01

    Preliminary mechanism of acidic electrolyzed water (AEW) ice on improving the quality and safety of shrimp was investigated by examining the physicochemical and microbiological changes, sarcoplasmic proteins and enzymatic activities. The results showed that compared with tap water (TW) ice, AEW ice had an obvious (p<0.05) capability in limiting the changes of pH and shrinkage of muscle fibers in shrimp. Plate count enumeration and PCR-DGGE indicated that AEW greatly inhibited growth of bacteria on shrimp. Additionally, AEW ice had no adverse effects on sarcoplasmic proteins by SDS-PAGE method. And AEW ice displayed inhibitory activity (p<0.05) toward cathepsin B and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), although it did not present positive effects on inhibiting cathepsin D, acid phosphatase and lipase activity. Thus, this study brought new evidence to further demonstrate that AEW ice can serve as a promising technology for improving the quality of aquatic products in food industry.

  10. Effect of dandelion polysaccharides on the retardation of the quality changes of white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bin

    2014-07-01

    Dandelion polysaccharides (DPs) have antibacterial and antioxidant activities. In this study, investigated were the effects of the DPs on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during refrigerated storage. Shrimp samples were untreated or soaked in the DPs solution, and then they were stored under refrigerated conditions. Samples were taken periodically and evaluated for total viable count, pH value, total volatile basic nitrogen, and overall acceptability score. Treatment of the DPs effectively retarded bacterial growth and pH increasing, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen, and increased overall acceptability score of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during refrigerated storage. The results show that the DPs treatment could prolong shelf life for up to 10 days.

  11. Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus.

  12. Molecular cloning of crustins from the hemocytes of Brazilian penaeid shrimps.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Rafael Diego; Bandeira, Paula Terra; Barracco, Margherita Anna

    2007-09-01

    Crustins are antimicrobial peptides initially identified in the hemocytes of the crab Carcinus maenas (11.5-kDa peptide or carcinin) and recently also recognized in penaeid shrimps and other crustacean species. The aim of this study was to identify sequences encoding for crustins from the hemocytes of four Brazilian penaeid species: Farfantepenaeus paulensis, Farfantepenaeus subtilis, Farfantepenaeus brasiliensis and Litopenaeus schmitti. Using primers based on consensus nucleotide alignment of crustins from different crustaceans, cDNA sequences coding for crustins in all indigenous penaeid species were amplified. The obtained four crustin sequences encoded for peptides containing a hydrophobic N-terminal region rich in glycine repeats and a C-terminal part with 12 cysteine residues and a conserved whey acidic protein domain. All obtained crustin sequences showed high amino acidic similarity among each other and with crustins from litopenaeid shrimps (76-98%). This is the first report of crustins in native Brazilian penaeid shrimps.

  13. Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus. PMID:24676215

  14. Bromine and Iodine Contents in Raw and Cooked Shrimp and Its Parts.

    PubMed

    Mesko, Marcia F; Toralles, Isis G; Hartwig, Carla A; Coelho, Gilberto S; Muller, Aline L H; Bizzi, Cezar A; Mello, Paola A

    2016-03-01

    The concentration of bromine and iodine was determined in shrimp and its parts (tissue and shells), and changes in the analyte concentration were evaluated after the cooking procedure. Bromine and iodine concentrations were determined by a method recently developed by our research group based on microwave-induced combustion for sample preparation and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for analyte determination. The accuracy was evaluated using a reference material (NIST 8414) that was digested using the proposed method. No statistical difference was observed between certified and determined values (Student's t test, 95% confidence level). Suitable limits of detection (Br, 0.02 μg g(-1) and I, 0.01 μg g(-1)) were obtained for both analytes. Higher concentrations of both analytes were observed in shrimp shells in comparison to shrimp tissue for raw and cooked samples. Moreover, losses of Br and I (between 24 and 43%) were observed after cooking.

  15. Detection of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in wild shrimp from India by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

    PubMed

    Manjanaik, B; Umesha, K R; Karunasagar, Indrani; Karunasagar, Iddya

    2005-02-28

    The prevalence of hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) in wild penaeid shrimp samples from India was studied by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers designed in our laboratory. The virus could be detected in 9 out of 119 samples by non-nested PCR. However, by nested PCR 69 out of 119 samples were positive. The PCR results were confirmed by hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled DNA probe. Shrimp species positive by non-nested PCR included Penaeus monodon, Penaeus indicus and Penaeus semisulcatus and by nested PCR Parapenaeopsis stylifera, Penaeus japonicus, Metapenaeus monoceros, M. affinis, M. elegans, M. dobsoni, M. ensis and Solenocera choprai. This is the first report on the prevalence of HPV in captured wild shrimp from India. PMID:15819441

  16. The northern shrimp (Pandalus borealis) offshore fishery in the Northeast Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Elena Guijarro

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the development and current situation of the offshore shrimp fisheries in Iceland, Greenland, Svalbard, Jan Mayen and the Norwegian Barents Sea area, with information on the biology of Pandalus borealis and its relation to the environment. Some additional information about the inshore shrimp fisheries of Iceland and Greenland of relevance to this study is also included. The Icelandic offshore shrimp fishery started in 1975 and has formed between 68% and 94% of the annual catch of shrimp since 1984. Landings peaked at 66,000 tons in 1997. The offshore fleet increased threefold from 1983 to 1987, and catch per unit of effort doubled. The first signs of overfishing were detected in 1987, when the first total allowable catch (TAC) was set, and catches decreased during the next few years despite the discovery of new fishing grounds. Good recruitment allowed catches to rise steadily from 1990 to 1996. However, catches and stock index have decreased markedly since then, with a minimum catch for the period 1998-2003 of 21,500 tons in 2000. It has been suggested that predation by cod is an important factor affecting shrimp stock size, but mortality from predation is slightly lower than fishing mortality, so that the impact of fishing cannot be disregarded. The Greenland offshore shrimp fishery is one of the largest in the North Atlantic and it generates 90% of the export value of the country. The fishery started in 1970 in West Greenland with landings of 1200 tons, but since 1974 it has formed between 59% and 89% of the annual shrimp catch. In 2004, landings reached 113,000 tons and the fishable stock was estimated at 300,000 tons. The significant spatial expansion of the fishery from the original fishing grounds off the Disko Island area to all of the West coast south of 75 degrees N and the fleet improvement over the past three decades have made possible this spectacular growth. Other fishing grounds off the East coast have been fished since 1978

  17. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  18. Process optimization for extraction of carotenoids from shrimp waste with vegetable oils.

    PubMed

    Sachindra, N M; Mahendrakar, N S

    2005-07-01

    Shrimp waste is an important source of natural carotenoid. Studies were carried out to determine the extraction yield of shrimp waste carotenoids in different vegetable oils. Highest yield was obtained by extraction using refined sunflower oil compared to groundnut oil, gingelly oil, mustard oil, soy oil, coconut oil and rice bran oil. The extraction yield of carotenoids in sunflower oil was significantly influenced by level of oil to waste (p < 0.05), time (p < 0.01) and temperature (p < 0.001) of heating waste with oil before centrifugation to separate pigmented oil. A regression equation was derived for carotenoid yield as a function of time of heating, temperature of heating and oil level to waste. The optimized conditions for extraction of shrimp waste carotenoids in sunflower oil were determined to be oil level to waste of 2, temperature of 70 degrees C and heating time of 150 min.

  19. Effects of predation on diel activity and habitat use of the coral-reef shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni (Rhynchocinetidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ory, Nicolas C.; Dudgeon, David; Duprey, Nicolas; Thiel, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Nonlethal effects of predators on prey behaviour are still poorly understood, although they may have cascading effects through food webs. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted on a shallow fringing coral reef in Malaysia to examine whether predation risks affect diel activity, habitat use, and survival of the rhynchocinetid shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni. The study site was within a protected area where predatory fish were abundant. Visual surveys and tethering experiments were conducted in April-May 2010 to compare the abundance of shrimps and predatory fishes and the relative predation intensity on shrimps during day and night. Shrimps were not seen during the day but came out of refuges at night, when the risk of being eaten was reduced. Shrimp preferences for substrata of different complexities and types were examined at night when they could be seen on the reef; complex substrata were preferred, while simple substrata were avoided. Shrimps were abundant on high-complexity columnar-foliate Porites rus, but tended to make little use of branching Acropora spp. Subsequent tethering experiments, conducted during daytime in June 2013, compared the relative mortality of shrimps on simple (sand-rubble, massive Porites spp.) and complex ( P. rus, branching Acropora spp.) substrata under different predation risk scenarios (i.e., different tether lengths and exposure durations). The mortality of shrimps with short tethers (high risk) was high on all substrata while, under low and intermediate predation risks (long tethers), shrimp mortality was reduced on complex corals relative to that on sand-rubble or massive Porites spp. Overall, mortality was lowest on P. rus. Our study indicates that predation risks constrain shrimp activity and habitat choice, forcing them to hide deep inside complex substrata during the day. Such behavioural responses to predation risks and their consequences for the trophic role of invertebrate mesoconsumers warrant further

  20. BAC end sequencing of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: a glimpse into the genome of Penaeid shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Cui; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Huan, Pin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai; Huang, Chao

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the genome of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei). To address this, we conducted BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) end sequencing of L. vannamei. We selected and sequenced 7 812 BAC clones from the BAC library LvHE from the two ends of the inserts by Sanger sequencing. After trimming and quality filtering, 11 279 BAC end sequences (BESs) including 4 609 pairedends BESs were obtained. The total length of the BESs was 4 340 753 bp, representing 0.18% of the L. vannamei haploid genome. The lengths of the BESs ranged from 100 bp to 660 bp with an average length of 385 bp. Analysis of the BESs indicated that the L. vannamei genome is AT-rich and that the primary repeats patterns were simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and low complexity sequences. Dinucleotide and hexanucleotide repeats were the most common SSR types in the BESs. The most abundant transposable element was gypsy, which may contribute to the generation of the large genome size of L. vannamei. We successfully annotated 4 519 BESs by BLAST searching, including genes involved in immunity and sex determination. Our results provide an important resource for functional gene studies, map construction and integration, and complete genome assembly for this species.

  1. Dual oxidases participate in the regulation of intestinal microbiotic homeostasis in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Shi, Xiu-Zhen; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2016-06-01

    The metazoan gut lumen harbors numerous microbial communities. Tolerance for high bacterial counts and maintenance of microbiota homeostasis remain insufficiently studied. In this study, we identified a novel dual oxidase (MjDUOX2) involved in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the kuruma shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjDUOX2 is a transmembrane protein with an N-signal peptide region (19 aa) and a peroxidase homology domain (PHD, 554 aa) in the extracellular region; seven transmembrane regions; and three EF (calcium-binding region) domains (110 aa), a FAD-binding domain (104 aa), and a NAD-binding domain (156 aa) in the intracellular region. The novel MjDUOX2 exhibits a relatively low similarity (26.84% identity) to a previously reported DUOX in the shrimp (designated as MjDUOX1). The mRNA of MjDUOXs was widely distributed in the hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. Oral infection of the shrimp with pathogenic bacteria upregulated the mRNA expression of MjDUOXs and increased the ROS level in the intestine. However, High ROS level could inhibit the expression of MjDUOXs in shrimp after Vibrio anguillarum infection. Knockdown of MjDUOXs by RNA interference (RNAi) decreased the ROS level, increased the bacterial count in the intestine, and decreased the survival rate of the MjDUOX-RNAi shrimp infected with V. anguillarum. These results suggest that MjDUOXs play an important role for microbiota homeostasis in intestine of shrimp.

  2. Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.

    PubMed

    Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions.

  3. Histopathological and biochemical evidence of hepatopancreatic toxicity caused by cadmium in white shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus.

    PubMed

    Chiodi Boudet, L N; Polizzi, P; Romero, M B; Robles, A; Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S

    2015-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is one of the most common pollutants in the environment and induces a range of tissue changes or damages and organ dysfunction. The histopathological effects of Cd and lipid peroxidation (LPO) on hepatopancreas of the freshwater shrimp, Palaemonetes argentinus, were studied. Shrimp were obtained from two lagoons with contrasting environmental quality, De los Padres (LP, impacted site) and Nahuel Rucá (NR, reference site), and were exposed to 3.06 and 12.24µgCdL(-1) for 3, 7, 10 and 15 days. The health status of both populations was also evaluated by histological analysis of control individuals. After exposure, shrimp were transferred to clean water for 28 days to evaluate the recuperation capacity of hepatopancreas. Control shrimp from NR exhibited a normal hepatopancreas structure; unlike control shrimp from LP which showed several alterations. These results were attributed to the different environmental quality of lagoons. The exposure to Cd resulted in several alterations in the histological structure of the hepatopancreas of both populations. The observed alterations included haemocytic and connective infiltrations in the intertubular space, erosioned microvilli, ripple of basal lamina, atrophied epithelium and necrosis, however, the latter was only observed in shrimp from LP. The exposure also caused an increase of LPO levels in both populations. P. argentinus was able to repair the hepatopancreas structure from the damage caused by Cd, evidenced by the histopathological results and LPO levels. Obtained results are indicating that the histological analysis of the hepatopancreas proved to be a highly sensitive method for evaluating water quality, in both environmental and laboratory conditions. PMID:25521337

  4. Maladaptive sex ratio adjustment by a sex-changing shrimp in selective-fishing environments.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Susumu; Yoshino, Kenji; Kanaiwa, Minoru; Kawajiri, Toshifumi; Goshima, Seiji

    2013-05-01

    1. Selective harvesting is acknowledged as a serious concern in efforts to conserve wild animal populations. In fisheries, most studies have focused on gradual and directional changes in the life-history traits of target species. While such changes represent the ultimate response of harvested animals, it is also well known that the life history of target species plastically alters with harvesting. However, research on the adaptive significance of these types of condition-dependent changes has been limited. 2. We explored the adaptive significance of annual changes in the age at sex-change of the protandrous (male-first) hermaphroditic shrimp and examined how selective harvesting affects life-history variation, by conducting field observations across 13 years and a controlled laboratory experiment. In addition, we considered whether plastic responses by the shrimp would be favourable, negligible or negative with respect to the conservation of fishery resources. 3. The age at sex-change and the population structure of the shrimp fluctuated between years during the study period. The results of the field observations and laboratory experiment both indicated that the shrimp could plastically change the timing of sex-change in accordance with the age structure of the population. These findings provide the first concrete evidence of adult sex ratio adjustment by pandalid shrimp, a group that has been treated as a model in the sex allocation theory. 4. The sex ratio adjustment by the shrimp did not always seem to be sufficient, however, as the supplement of females is restricted by their annual somatic growth rate. In addition, adjusted sex ratios are further skewed by the unintentional female-selectivity of fishing activity prior to the breeding season, indicating that the occurrence of males that have postponed sex-change causes sex ratio adjustment to become unfavourable. 5. We conclude that the plastic responses of harvested animals in selective fishing environments

  5. [Shrimp community structure and its relationships with environmental factors in the Yellow Sea in summer].

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhi-wei; Li, Xian-sen; Ying, Yi-ping; Wu, Qiang; Luan, Qing-shan

    2015-11-01

    Based on the data collected from the bottom trawl survey in Yellow Sea, August, 2014, the community structure of shrimp assemblage and its relationships with environmental factors in summer was examined by using index of relative importance, ecological diversity indices and multivariate statistical analysis. A total of 20 shrimp species were captured, belonging to 3 orders, 10 families, 16 genera. The relative abundance of shrimp of all stations ranged from 13 to 45047 g · h(-1) and its mean value was 6838 g · h(-1). The dominant species was Crangon affinis, and the common species was Eualus sinensis. The rare species were Metapenaeopsis dalei, Palaemon gravieri and Oratosquilla oratoria. The ranges of Shannon diversity index (H) , Pielou' s evenness index (J) and the Margalef' s species richness index (D) of all stations of the shrimp community structure were 0.007-1.538, 0.101-1.138 and 0.006-0.947, respectively, and the mean values of H, Jand D were 0.391, 0.374 and 0.298, respectively. MDS and Cluster analyses revealed that two clusters of Group I named cold water mass group and Group II named coastal group, which were bounded by the 45 m isobaths, were identified for all the sampling stations. Significant difference was detected by ANOSIM analysis between Group I and Group II. BIOENV analysis indicated that bottom temperature and bottom salinity were the most important environmental factors for structuring the spatial distribution of the shrimp assemblage. Cold water mass group accounted for absolute advantage and Yellow Sea cold mass had a decisive influence on the distribution pattern of the shrimp community in the Yellow Sea in summer.

  6. Effect of speciation on uptake and toxicity of cadmium to shrimp Crangon Crangon (L. )

    SciTech Connect

    Simoes Goncalves, M.L.S.; Vilhena, M.F.C.; Machado, L.M.V.F.; Pescada, C.M.R.; Legrand de Moura, M. )

    1989-08-01

    A study is presented on speciation of seawater with shrimps Crangon Crangon (L.) contaminated with cadmium in the presence and absence of pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (a rough model of a chelate group of humic acids). Ultrafiltration and ion exchange Chelex columns were associated with atomic absorption (AA) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPASV). The uptake and toxicity of cadmium were studied and the organs where this heavy metal accumulated were examined. It was noticed that the cadmium complex with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic was not available to the shrimps and that during the 5 days of the experiment cadmium was preferentially accumulated in the hepatopancreas and carapace.

  7. Effects of copper, cadmium, and zinc on the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana).

    PubMed

    Brix, K V; Gerdes, R M; Adams, W J; Grosell, M

    2006-11-01

    Previous studies indicate that the hatching success of brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) cysts is surprisingly sensitive to ambient metal concentrations. These studies estimated median effective concentrations (EC50s) of 7, 5, and 28 microg l-1 for Cd, Cu, and Zn, suggesting that the hatching end point for A. franciscana is the most sensitive tested to date for Cd and Zn in saline environments and comparable in sensitivity with the most sensitive tested to date for Cu. Furthermore, these data suggest that brine shrimp are at significant risk from Cu and Zn in Great Salt Lake (GSL), UT, where ambient concentrations as high as 10 and 14 microg l-1, respectively, have been measured. Given that brine shrimp appear to be successfully reproducing in GSL, we hypothesized that these toxicity values were either biased low as a result of an artifact of the test method used or that site-specific water-quality conditions in the lake had decreased metal bioavailability such that brine shrimp could successfully reproduce. To test these hypotheses, we initiated a step-wise series of experiments. First we investigated the effects of pretreatment of brine shrimp cysts with antibiotics on brine shrimp sensitivity to metals because previous investigators as part of their test methods have used antibiotics. Next we considered the effect of ionic composition of the artificial test media on sensitivity. Finally, we evaluated the effects of the site-specific water quality of the GSL on metal bioavailability and toxicity. Results indicate that pretreatment of cysts with antibiotics had no effect on sensitivity. However, we were unable to repeat the previous values for Cd and Zn, obtaining EC50s of 11,859 and 289 microg l-1 for Cd and Zn, respectively. For Cu, however, we estimated an EC50 of 12 microg l-1, so we conducted further testing on the artificial media, adjusting the media composition to better reflect the Ca2+ and HCO3- concentration of normal seawater. This increased the EC50

  8. The brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) as encapsulation organism for prophylactic chemotherapy of fish and prawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Ji-Xiang; Bian, Bo-Zhong; Li, Ming-Ren

    1996-06-01

    Brine shrimp ( Artemia parthenogenetica) which had ingested three water-insoluble antibacterial drugs i.e. sulfadiazine(SD), oxytetracycline (OTC) and erythromycin estolate (ERY-Es) were fed to Tilapia and Mysis III of Penaeus orientalis K. The drug contents in the predators were then determined. After administration of drugs to Tilapia and Mysis III, through the bio-encapsulation of the brine shrimp, efficacious therapeutical concentration of OTC and ERY-Es (but not SD) in the predators could be reached and maintained for more than 8 hours.

  9. Environmental Impact Assessment of Shrimp Culture Practice in Southwest Coastal Region of Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, M. M.; Rouf, M. A.; Hambrey, J.

    2008-12-01

    The rapid unplanned expansion of coastal aquaculture in Bangladesh poses risks in degrading environment. The unsustainable aquaculture practices are suspected to impart significant nutrient load to the ecosystem. Nevertheless, shrimp production is very less and susceptible to sever mortality. For this, the study aimed to understand the management practices and nutrient flux from some represented shrimp ponds in southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. A comprehensive study from 2002 to 2004 was done in an aquatic system comprising a river (Semi diurnal tidal system), a canal and 10 shrimp ponds along with wider area survey to verify the issues under a DFID-funded research project involving Nautilus Consultants Ltd. (UK). In the study area (Dumuria under the district Khulna) shrimp culture practices were mostly improved extensive. Shrimp were being produced without proper pond preparation, fry nursing, stocking or feed management due to lack of technical somehow and the risks involved with higher levels of investment. Consequently production rates were very low, averaging only 191 Kg/ha. Very high mortality of shrimp was reported in some of the farms using shallow ponds immediately after heavy rainfall. This may due to the sudden fluctuation of water pH and/or water temperature and salinity. The water quality in shrimp ponds during grow out period was in acceptable range except lower trend of DO and ammonia nitrogen. Year round water quality observations indicated that there were no major differences among the river, canal and pond water that might be due to the high water flushing rate (468%). The nutrient dynamics estimation indicates that 48.7 kg/ha/cycle of nitrogen and 28.96 kg/ha/cycle of phosphorus were added to the pond as an input mostly from fertilizer and feed. Among the inputs, only 33.4% of nitrogen and 6% of phosphorus were removed as harvested form. A large portion, 39.1% N and 92% P were remained in the sediments and unaccounted for. Average intake of

  10. Evolution and phylogeny of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda) revealed from complete mitochondrial genomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The evolutionary history and relationships of the mud shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gebiidea and Axiidea) are contentious, with previous attempts revealing mixed results. The mud shrimps were once classified in the infraorder Thalassinidea. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses, however, suggest separation of the group into two individual infraorders, Gebiidea and Axiidea. Mitochondrial (mt) genome sequence and structure can be especially powerful in resolving higher systematic relationships that may offer new insights into the phylogeny of the mud shrimps and the other decapod infraorders, and test the hypothesis of dividing the mud shrimps into two infraorders. Results We present the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of five mud shrimps, Austinogebia edulis, Upogebia major, Thalassina kelanang (Gebiidea), Nihonotrypaea thermophilus and Neaxius glyptocercus (Axiidea). All five genomes encode a standard set of 13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA genes, 22 transfer RNA genes and a putative control region. Except for T. kelanang, mud shrimp mitochondrial genomes exhibited rearrangements and novel patterns compared to the pancrustacean ground pattern. Each of the two Gebiidea species (A. edulis and U. major) and two Axiidea species (N. glyptocercus and N. thermophiles) share unique gene order specific to their infraorders and analyses further suggest these two derived gene orders have evolved independently. Phylogenetic analyses based on the concatenated nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes indicate the possible polyphyly of mud shrimps, supporting the division of the group into two infraorders. However, the infraordinal relationships among the Gebiidea and Axiidea, and other reptants are poorly resolved. The inclusion of mt genome from more taxa, in particular the reptant infraorders Polychelida and Glypheidea is required in further analysis. Conclusions Phylogenetic analyses on the mt genome sequences and the

  11. Geographical distribution of pelagic decapod shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Judkins, David C

    2014-12-16

    Ninety-one species of pelagic decapod shrimp were identified in 938 midwater-trawl collections taken between 1963 and 1974 from the North and South Atlantic. Distributional maps are provided for the most frequently occurring species. Nighttime abundance of most species was greatest within the upper 200 m. Degree of geographical overlap was estimated using the geometric mean of the proportion of joint occurrences with a value ≥ 0.5 deemed significant. Geographical distributions tended to be unique, and only 31 species had values ≥ 0.5 with one or more other species. Species within genera and within phylogenetic subgroups of Sergia were generally parapatric or partially overlapping in distribution. Five geographical groupings of co-occurring species across genera were identified: Subpolar-Temperate, Southern Hemisphere, Central, Tropical, Eastern Tropical and Western Tropical. The two species of the Southern Hemisphere group are circumpolar at temperate latitudes. The 12 species of the Central group occurred throughout the subtropical and tropical North and South Atlantic. The eight species of the Tropical group occurred broadly across the equatorial Atlantic and Caribbean with ranges usually extending into the Gulf of Mexico and northward in the Gulf Stream. The two species of the Western Tropical group occurred most often in the western tropics, but there were scattered occurrences at subtropical latitudes. The four species of the Eastern Tropical group were endemic to the Mauritanian Upwelling and the Angola-Benguela Frontal zones off western Africa. Two of the three species in the Subpolar-Temperate group had bipolar distributions, and all three occurred in the Mediterranean and in the Mauritanian Upwelling zone. Most Central, Tropical and Western Tropical species were present in the in the Gulf of Mexico. The 10 species from the Mediterranean were a mixture of Subpolar-Temperate, Central and benthopelagic species. Patterns of distribution in Atlantic pelagic

  12. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Gulf of Mexico). White shrimp. [Penaeus setiferus

    SciTech Connect

    Muncy, R.J.

    1984-09-01

    They are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessment. The white shrimp, Penaeus setiferus, is the second most abundant species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable fishery in the United States. It serves as food for many fishes and is sold in the bait industry. Spawning occurs in at least 27 ppt salinity at water depths of 8 to 31 m, from April through September. Postlarvae move on flood tides into inshore estuarine nursery areas; peak abundances are in June and September. Juvenile white shrimp move farther inland than do brown shrimp and prefer shallow water with soft substrate. Growth of 1.6 mm per day occurs at water temperatures above 20/sup 0/C before the shrimp move offshore when inshore waters begin to cool in fall. Juveniles and adults return inshore when water temperatures increase in fall or the following spring. Survival at 8/sup 0/ to 30/sup 0/C was related to temperature and salinities. Juvenile and adult white shrimp are omnivorous, selective-particulate, benthic feeders. Population abundance has been correlated with coastal marshes and freshwater inflows. Maintaining suitable nursery grounds will decide the future of Gulf Coast white shrimp resources. 71 refs. 2 figs.

  13. Potential Bacillus probiotics enhance bacterial numbers, water quality and growth during early development of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Nimrat, Subuntith; Suksawat, Sunisa; Boonthai, Traimat; Vuthiphandchai, Verapong

    2012-10-12

    Epidemics of epizootics and occurrence of multiresistant antibiotics of pathogenic bacteria in aquaculture have put forward a development of effective probiotics for the sustainable culture. This study examined the effectiveness of forms of mixed Bacillus probiotics (probiotic A and probiotic B) and mode of probiotic administration on growth, bacterial numbers and water quality during rearing of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in two separated experiments: (1) larval stages and (2) postlarval (PL) stages. Forms of Bacillus probiotics and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of larval to PL shrimp. The compositions of Bacillus species in probiotic A and probiotic B did not affect growth and survival of larvae. However, postlarvae treated with probiotic B exhibited higher (P<0.05) growth than probiotic A and controls, indicating Bacillus probiotic composition affects the growth of PL shrimp. Total heterotrophic bacteria and Bacillus numbers in larval and PL shrimp or culture water of the treated groups were higher (P<0.05) than in controls. Levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of the treated shrimp were significantly decreased, compared to the controls. Microencapsulated Bacillus probiotic was effective for rearing of PL L. vannamei. This investigation showed that administration of mixed Bacillus probiotics significantly improved growth and survival of PL shrimp, increased beneficial bacteria in shrimp and culture water and enhanced water quality for the levels of pH, ammonia and nitrite of culture water.

  14. High prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in shrimps Penaeus monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei sampled from slow growth ponds in India.

    PubMed

    Biju, Narayanan; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Raj, Mithun; Shanmugam, Venu; Baskaran, Babu; Govindan, Umamaheswari; Kumaresan, Gayathri; Kasthuriraju, Karthick Kannan; Chellamma, Thampi Sam Raj Yohannan

    2016-08-01

    Hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis in cultivated Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon is caused by the newly emerged pathogen Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP). It has been detected in shrimp cultured in China, Vietnam and Thailand and is suspected to have occurred in Malaysia and Indonesia and to be associated with severely retarded growth. Due to retarded shrimp growth being reported at farms in the major grow-out states of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Odisha in India, shrimp were sampled from a total of 235 affected ponds between March 2014 and April 2015 to identify the presence of EHP. PCR and histology detected a high prevalence of EHP in both P. monodon and L. vannamei, and infection was confirmed by in situ hybridization using an EHP-specific DNA probe. Histology revealed basophilic inclusions in hepatopancreas tubule epithelial cells in which EHP was observed at various developmental stages ranging from plasmodia to mature spores. The sequence of a region of the small subunit rDNA gene amplified by PCR was found to be identical to EHP sequences deposited in GenBank. Bioassays confirmed that EHP infection could be transmitted orally to healthy shrimp. Histology also identified bacterial co-infections in EHP-infected shrimp sampled from slow-growth ponds with low-level mortality. The data confirm that hepatopancreatic microsporidiosis caused by EHP is prevalent in shrimp being cultivated in India. EHP infection control measures thus need to be implemented urgently to limit impacts of slowed shrimp growth. PMID:27503918

  15. Distribution and bioturbation effects of the tropical alpheid shrimp Alpheus macellarius in sediments impacted by milkfish farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmer, Marianne; Heilskov, Anna Cecelie

    2008-02-01

    The impact of milkfish fish pens on the distribution of the alpheid shrimp Alpheus macellarius was studied in the Bolinao area, Philippines. In addition, the impact of the alpheid shrimp on sediment biogeochemistry, including organic matter mineralization, nutrient and sulfur cycling was compared in sediments affected and unaffected by fish farming. The fish farming activity had negative impact on the distribution of shrimps by reducing the abundance up to 60% in the vicinity of the net pens, and to almost absence inside the net pens. At a farm site abandoned seven month prior to sampling the abundance of shrimps was still low and sediment pools of reduced sulfur high, indicating a slow benthic recovery. The shrimp had large physical impact on the sediments, and the mineralization rates were stimulated by the presence of the shrimp in pristine sediments, whereas the fish farm impacted sites showed high mineralization rates both in sediments with and without the presence of the shrimp suggesting that the organic matter enrichment stimulated the mineralization in these low-organic sediments, whereas the shrimp had less impact. Sulfate reduction rates and in particular pools of sulfides increased in the farm impacted sediments, and sulfate reduction was an important process for organic matter mineralization (>67%) in all sediments. Although the shrimp had minor effect on the organic matter mineralization and nutrient fluxes in the farm impacted sediments, they appeared to increase the oxidation of sulfides by increasing the zone of oxidized surface sediment and thereby improving the sediment conditions for recolonization after fish farming has ceased.

  16. Exposure of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, to antimicrobial compounds affects associated Vibrio bacterial density and development of antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, M E; Brooker, J; Chung, K W; Kelly, M; Martinez, J; Moore, J G; Thomas, M

    2016-04-01

    Antimicrobial compounds are widespread, emerging contaminants in the aquatic environment and may threaten ecosystem and human health. This study characterized effects of antimicrobial compounds common to human and veterinary medicine, aquaculture, and consumer personal care products [erythromycin (ERY), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), oxytetracycline (OTC), and triclosan (TCS)] in the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on grass shrimp mortality and lipid peroxidation activity were measured. The effects of antimicrobial treatments on the bacterial community of the shrimp were then assessed by measuring Vibrio density and testing bacterial isolates for antibiotic resistance. TCS (0.33 mg/L) increased shrimp mortality by 37% and increased lipid peroxidation activity by 63%. A mixture of 0.33 mg/L TCS and 60 mg/L SMX caused a 47% increase in shrimp mortality and an 88% increase in lipid peroxidation activity. Exposure to SMX (30 mg/L or 60 mg/L) alone and to a mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC did not significantly affect shrimp survival or lipid peroxidation activity. Shrimp exposure to 0.33 mg/L TCS increased Vibrio density 350% as compared to the control whereas SMX, the SMX/TCS mixture, and the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC decreased Vibrio density 78-94%. Increased Vibrio antibiotic resistance was observed for all shrimp antimicrobial treatments except for the mixture of SMX/ERY/OTC. Approximately 87% of grass shrimp Vibrio isolates displayed resistance to TCS in the control treatment suggesting a high level of TCS resistance in environmental Vibrio populations. The presence of TCS in coastal waters may preferentially increase the resistance and abundance of pathogenic bacteria. These results indicate the need for further study into the potential interactions between antimicrobials, aquatic organisms, and associated bacterial communities.

  17. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp. PMID:25420421

  18. Iron oxide deposits associated with the ectosymbiotic bacteria in the hydrothermal vent shrimp Rimicaris exoculata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbari, L.; Cambon-Bonavita, M.-A.; Long, G. J.; Grandjean, F.; Zbinden, M.; Gaill, F.; Compère, P.

    2008-04-01

    The Rimicaris exoculata shrimp is considered a primary consumer that dominates the fauna of most Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR) hydrothermal ecosystems. These shrimps harbour in their gill chambers an important ectosymbiotic community of chemoautotrophic bacteria associated with iron oxide deposits. The structure and elemental composition of the minerals associated with these bacteria have been investigated by using X-ray microanalyses, light microscopy, and transmission, environmental scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopy. The nature of the iron oxides in shrimps obtained from the Rainbow vent field at 36°14.0' N, has also been determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This multidisciplinary approach has revealed that the three step-levels of mineral crust found in the Rimicaris exoculata shrimps consist of heavy concretions formed by nanoparticles of two-line ferrihydrite intermixed with minor inorganic SiO2, (Ca,Mg)SO4, and (Ca,Mg)3(PO4)2 minerals that may stabilise the ferrihydrite form of iron oxides. Morphological observations on the bacteria have revealed their close interactions with these minerals and, thus, indicate the biogenic origin of the iron oxide deposits. The evolution of the bacterial density in the three mineral crust levels is related to the amount of the iron deposits and it is proposed that the lower crust level is the most likely region for the location of the iron-oxidizing bacteria.

  19. The effect of cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation on the survival of Salmonella on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Unfortunately, contraction of foodborne illness due to consumption of contaminated seafood, including shrimp, is an occasional occurrence. Cryogenic freezing and gamma irradiation are safe and effective technologies that can be used to control and inactivate pathogenic bacteria in foods. In this stu...

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF COPPER SULFATE AND METHYLENE CHLORIDE TO SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) have shown sensitivity to the water-soluble fraction of Number 2 fuel oil which indicates they may be a useful test species in estuarine developmental toxicity tests. Detailed concentration-response curves for copper sulfate an...