Science.gov

Sample records for shrimp branchinecta sandiegonensis

  1. Optimized DNA extraction methods for encysted embryos of the endangered fairy shrimp, Branchinecta sandiegonensis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, A.N.; Simovich, M.A.; Pepino, D.; Schroeder, K.M.; Vandergast, A.G.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    The San Diego fairy shrimp Branchinecta sandiegonensis is a federally endangered species endemic to vernal pools in southern California, USA. Filling events in these habitats are highly variable, with some pools failing to hold water long enough for reproduction over many successive years. Studies of this species are thus hindered by the relatively rare appearance of aquatically active life history phases. Because diapausing cysts are abundant and present at all times, they provide an underutilized opportunity for both species identification and genetic studies. However, methods for extracting DNA from cysts are technically challenging because of their structure and size. Here we present a protocol for extracting DNA from B. sandiegonensis cysts in sufficient quantities for "DNA Barcoding", microsatellite analysis and other genotyping and sequencing applications. The technique will aid in population genetic studies and species identification (since taxonomic keys only distinguish among adults), and will be applicable to other crustaceans with similar diapausing cysts. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  2. Identification of co-occurring Branchinecta fairy shrimp species from encysted embryos using multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, A.G.; Wood, D.A.; Simovich, M.; Bohonak, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    Morphological identification of many fairy shrimp species is difficult because distinguishing characters are restricted to adults. We developed two multiplex polymerase chain reaction assays that differentiate among three Branchinecta fairy shrimp with distributional overlap in southern California vernal pools. Two of the species are federally listed as threatened. Molecular identification of Branchinecta from cysts allows for species surveys to be conducted during the dry season, expanding the timeframe for population assessment and providing a less intrusive method of sampling sensitive vernal pool habitats. ?? Published 2009. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ivey, Chris D; Besser, John M; Ingersoll, Chris G; Wang, Ning; Rogers, D Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R; Hammer, Edward J

    2017-03-01

    Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r(2 ) = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol

  4. Acute sensitivity of the vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi (Anostraca; Branchinectidae), and surrogate species to 10 chemicals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ivey, Chris D.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Wang, Ning; Rogers, Christopher; Raimondo, Sandy; Bauer, Candice R.; Hammer, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Vernal pool fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lynchi, (Branchiopoda; Anostraca) and other fairy shrimp species have been listed as threatened or endangered under the US Endangered Species Act. Because few data exist about the sensitivity of Branchinecta spp. to toxic effects of contaminants, it is difficult to determine whether they are adequately protected by water quality criteria. A series of acute (24-h) lethality/immobilization tests was conducted with 3 species of fairy shrimp (B. lynchi, Branchinecta lindahli, and Thamnocephalus platyurus) and 10 chemicals with varying modes of toxic action: ammonia, potassium, chloride, sulfate, chromium(VI), copper, nickel, zinc, alachlor, and metolachlor. The same chemicals were tested in 48-h tests with other branchiopods (the cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia) and an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and in 96-h tests with snails (Physa gyrina and Lymnaea stagnalis). Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for B. lynchi were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.975) with EC50s for the commercially available fairy shrimp species T. platyurus for most chemicals tested. Comparison of EC50s for fairy shrimp and EC50s for invertebrate taxa tested concurrently and with other published toxicity data indicated that fairy shrimp were relatively sensitive to potassium and several trace metals compared with other invertebrate taxa, although cladocerans, amphipods, and mussels had similar broad toxicant sensitivity. Interspecies correlation estimation models for predicting toxicity to fairy shrimp from surrogate species indicated that models with cladocerans and freshwater mussels as surrogates produced the best predictions of the sensitivity of fairy shrimp to contaminants. The results of these studies indicate that fairy shrimp are relatively sensitive to a range of toxicants, but Endangered Species Act-listed fairy shrimp of the genus Branchinecta were not consistently more sensitive than other fairy shrimp taxa. Environ Toxicol Chem

  5. Is distribution of cold stenotherms constrained by temperature? The case of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa O.F. Müller 1788).

    PubMed

    Lindholm, M; Hessen, D O; Færøvig, P J; Rognerud, B; Andersen, T; Stordal, F

    2015-10-01

    Small water bodies in cold climate respond fast to global warming, and species adapted to such habitats may be valuable indicators for climate change. We investigated the geographical and physiological temperature limits of the Arctic fairy shrimp (Branchinecta paludosa), which is common in cold water arctic ponds, but at present retracts its range in alpine areas along its southern outreach of Norway. Seasonal logging of water temperatures along an altitudinal transect revealed an upper temperature limit of 12.7°C for its presence, which closely matched a calculated upper temperature limit of 12.9°C throughout its entire Norwegian range. Field data hence point to cold stenotherm features, which would be consistent with its Arctic, circumpolar distribution. Lab experiments, on the other hand, revealed a linear increase in respiration over 10-20°C. When fed ad libitum somatic growth increased with temperature, as well, without negative physiological impacts of higher temperatures. The absence of Branchinecta paludosa in ponds warmer than 13°C could still be due to a mismatch between temperature dependent metabolism and limited energy supply in these ultraoligotrophic water bodies. We discuss the concept of cold stenothermy in this context, and the impacts of regional warming on the future distribution of the Arctic fairy shrimp.

  6. A new species of Branchinecta (Crustacea: Anostraca) from Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Lorenz, Helen Racz

    2015-10-22

    Branchinecta uruguayensis, a new species of fairy shrimp, is described from a single seasonally astatic aquatic habitat in coastal Uruguay. This is the first record of an anostracan from the nation of Uruguay. Male B. uruguayensis n. sp. are separated from other Branchinecta species by the form of the second antennae. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. share the distal antennomere lobiform projection with B. papillata Rogers, De los Rios, & Zúñiga, 2008 and B. achalensis César, 1985. Branchinecta uruguayensis n. sp. females are readily separated from all other Branchinecta by the presence of posteriolateral thoracic spines and lateral crenulations on the first abdomen segment margins. A key is provided to the Branchinectidae of South America.

  7. Genetic utility of natural history museum specimens: endangered fairy shrimp (Branchiopoda, Anostraca)

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Adam R.; Campo, Daniel; Wetzer, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We examined the potential utility of museum specimens as a source for genetic analysis of fairy shrimp. Because of loss of their vernal pool habitat, some fairy shrimp (including Branchinecta sandiegonensis and Branchinecta lynchi) are listed as threatened or endangered in Southern California by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Management of those species requires extensive population genetics studies and the resolution of important genetic complexity (e.g. possible hybridization between endangered and non-endangered species). Regulations mandating deposition of specimens of listed species have resulted in thousands of specimens accessioned into the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County that have been preserved in a variety of solutions. We subsampled those specimens, as well as other Anostraca with known collection and preservation histories, to test their potential for genetic analysis by attempting DNA extraction and amplification for mt16SrDNA. Fixation and preservation in not denatured ethanol had a far greater sequencing success rate than other (and unknown) fixatives and preservatives. To maximize scientific value we recommend field preservation in 95% not denatured ethanol (or, if pure ethanol is unavailable, high-proof drinking spirits, e.g. Everclear™, or 151 proof white rum), followed by storage in 95% not denatured ethanol. PMID:25561827

  8. Annotated Checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA, with the "rediscovery" of a new species of Branchinecta (Anostraca: Branchinectidae).

    PubMed

    Rogers, D Christopher; Hill, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    We present a checklist of the large branchiopod crustaceans of Idaho, Oregon and Washington, USA. New distributional records are presented for most species, including the first records of Branchinecta constricta Rogers, 2006 and Lepidurus cryptus Rogers, 2001 from Idaho, the first record of B. oriena Belk & Rogers 2002 from Oregon, the first record of B. mackini Dexter, 1956 and Artemiafranciscana Kellogg, 1906 co-occurring, and the first record of L. cryptus from Washington. Furthermore, we present the first record of Eulimnadia diversa Mattox, 1937 from west of the continental divide, which we interpret as an accidental introduction. In 1959, Lynch collected a new fairy shrimp species from Washington, deposited that material in the US National Museum, labeled "muddy fairy shrimp, Branchinecta lutulenta", but never described it. Numerous efforts have been made to rediscover extant populations since 1999. We rediscovered this species in 2011, from two small pools from the vicinity of Lynch's original collection site, which appears to have been destroyed. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is most closely related to B. lindahli Packard, 1883 and B. oterosanvicentei Obregón-Barboza et al., 2002. Branchinecta lutulenta sp. nov. is readily separable from all other Branchinecta species by the form of the male second antennal distal antennomere and the ornamentation of the female dorsum.

  9. Acute toxicity of ten chemicals to fairy shrimp relative to other crustaceans and mollusks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several species of fairy shrimp in the genus Branchinecta (Crustacea: Branchiopoda) are protected under the federal Endangered Species Act due to destruction of seasonal wetland habitats in Oregon and California, making protection of the hydrology and water quality of the limited...

  10. 76 FR 70160 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ..., and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta... take (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), the...

  11. 77 FR 5045 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ..., and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), longhorn fairy shrimp (Branchinecta... browni) and take (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio..., and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), longhorn fairy shrimp...

  12. ``Cleaner'' shrimps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotte, Stephen

    1998-03-01

    In the western North Atlantic, some shrimps of the genus Periclimenes interact with fishes. Accoring to prevailing wisdom, these shrimps “clean” the fishes (i.e. they remove parasites, diseased tissue, or detritus from their exposed surfaces). With one exception, the numerous literature entries recite anecdotal evidence. The only report based on empirical studies has dismissed the notion that “cleaner” shrimps perform the services attributed to them, leaving the nature of the relationship unresolved.

  13. Shrimp Farming in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruggiero, Lovelle

    2000-01-01

    Describes a project on culturing shrimp. Presents observational labs and the experimentation procedure. Provides general information about shrimp, their life span, optimum temperatures, and other important information. (YDS)

  14. Investigating Brine Shrimp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duran, Lena Ballone

    2003-01-01

    Presents a brine shrimp activity designed for students in grades 5-12 to foster authentic scientific inquiry in addition to providing an engaging and exciting avenue for student exploration. Emphasizes that inquiry should be a critical component in the science classroom. (KHR)

  15. 75 FR 20857 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... take (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), the longhorn... californiense) and to take (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio..., California. The applicant requests a permit to take (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy fairy...

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pink shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mulholland, Rosemarie

    1984-01-01

    Shrimp support the most valuable seafood industry in the United States (Roedel 1973; National Marine Fisheries Service 1983). The three most important commercial species are the white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus L.), brown shrimp (P. aztecus Ives), and pink shrimp (P. duorarum Burkenroad). Adult pink shdmp are caught "in commercial quantities throughout most of the geographic ranqe of the species (L indner 1957), and juveni les support a sizable bait shrimp industry along the Florida coast and throughout the Gulf of Mexico (Saloman 1965).

  17. Shrimp Farms, Ecuador

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    In many parts of the world, wetlands are being converted to shrimp ponds in order to farm these crustaceans for food and sale. One example is on the west coast of Ecuador, south of Guayaquil. The 1991 Landsat image on top shows a coastal area where 143 square kilometers of wetlands were converted to shrimp ponds. By the time ASTER acquired the bottom image in 2001, 243 square kilometers had been converted, eliminating 83% of the wetlands. These scenes cover an area of 30 x 31 km, and are centered near 3.4 degrees south latitude and 80.2 degrees west longitude.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 30 by 31 kilometers (18.6 by 19.2 miles) Location: 3.4 degrees South latitude, 80.2 degrees West longitude Orientation: North at top Image Data

  18. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  19. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  20. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  1. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  2. 21 CFR 161.175 - Frozen raw breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... optional forms of shrimp are: (1) Fantail or butterfly: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; the shrimp are... may be left attached. (2) Butterfly, tail off: Prepared by splitting the shrimp; tail fins and all...) “Breaded fantail shrimp.” The word “butterfly” may be used in lieu of “fantail” in the name. (2)...

  3. Polarization signals in mantis shrimps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cronin, Thomas W.; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Caldwell, Roy L.; Roberts, Nicholas; Marshall, Justin

    2009-08-01

    While color signals are well known as a form of animal communication, a number of animals communicate using signals based on patterns of polarized light reflected from specialized body parts or structures. Mantis shrimps, a group of marine crustaceans, have evolved a great diversity of such signals, several of which are based on photonic structures. These include resonant scattering devices, structures based on layered dichroic molecules, and structures that use birefringent layers to produce circular polarization. Such biological polarizers operate in different spectral regions ranging from the near-UV to medium wavelengths of visible light. In addition to the structures that are specialized for signal production, the eyes of many species of mantis shrimp are adapted to detect linearly polarized light in the ultraviolet and in the green, using specialized sets of photoreceptors with oriented, dichroic visual pigments. Finally, a few mantis shrimp species produce biophotonic retarders within their photoreceptors that permit the detection of circularly polarized light and are thus the only animals known to sense this form of polarization. Mantis shrimps use polarized light in species-specific signals related to mating and territorial defense, and their means of manipulating light's polarization can inspire designs for artificial polarizers and achromatic retarders.

  4. Opportunities for training in shrimp diseases.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Redman, R M

    2007-01-01

    Opportunities for formal training in shrimp diseases were not available 30 years ago. This was because the shrimp farming industry was in its infancy with few significant disease issues and even fewer shrimp disease specialists investigating the causes of production losses. In 2006, more than two million metric tons of the marine penaeid shrimp were farmed, accounting for more than half of the world's supply. With most of the world's shrimp fisheries at maximum sustainable yields, the ratio of farmed to fished shrimp appears likely to continue to increase. The remarkable growth of sustainable shrimp farming was made possible through the development of methods to diagnose and manage disease in the world's shrimp farms. This occurred as the result of the development of training opportunities in shrimp disease diagnosis and control methods and the application of that knowledge, by an ever increasing number of shrimp diseases specialists, to disease management at shrimp farms. The first type of formal training to become generally available to the industry was in the form of special short courses and workshops. The first of these, which was open to international participants, was given at the University of Arizona in 1989. Since that first course several dozen more special short courses and workshops on shrimp diseases have been given by the University of Arizona. Dozens more special courses and workshops on shrimp diseases have been given by other groups, including other universities, industry cooperatives, governments and international aid agencies, in a wide range of countries (and languages) where shrimp farming constitutes an important industry. In parallel, graduate study programs leading to post graduate degrees, with shrimp disease as the research topic, have developed while formal courses in shrimp diseases have not become widely available in veterinary or fisheries college curricula in the USA and Europe, such courses are appearing in university programs

  5. Arsenic in shrimp from Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Bou-Olayan, A.H.; Al-Yakoob, S.; Al-Hossaini, M.

    1995-04-01

    Arsenic is ubiquitous in the environment and can accumulate in food via contaminated soil, water or air. It enters the food chain through dry and wet atmospheric deposition. Combustion of oil and coal, use of arsenical fertilizers and pesticides and smelting of ores contributes significantly to the natural background of arsenic in soils and sediments. The metal can be transferred from soil to man through plants. In spite of variation in acute, subacute, and chronic toxic effects to plants and animals, evidence of nutritional essentiality of arsenic for rats, goats, and guinea pigs has been suggested, but has not been confirmed for humans. Adverse toxic effects of arsenic as well as its widespread distribution in the environment raises concern about levels of arsenic in man`s diet. Higher levels of arsenic in the diet can result in a higher accumulation rate. Arsenic levels in marine organisms are influenced by species differences, size of organism, and human activities. Bottom dwellers such as shrimp, crab, and lobster accumulate more arsenic than fish due to their frequent contact with bottom sediments. Shrimp constitute approximately 30% of mean total seafood consumption in Kuwait. This study was designed to determine the accumulation of arsenic in the commercially important jinga shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis) and grooved tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus). 13 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Function of shrimp STAT during WSSV infection.

    PubMed

    Wen, Rong; Li, Fuhua; Li, Shihao; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-06-01

    JAK/STAT signaling pathway plays key roles in the antiviral immunity of mammals, fish and insect. However, limited knowledge is known about the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp although virus disease has caused severe mortality in shrimp aquaculture. In order to understand the function of JAK/STAT signaling pathway in the antiviral immunity of shrimp, dsRNA interfering technique was used to silence the expression of STAT gene in Litopenaeus vannamei, and the mortality of shrimp was detected after WSSV infection. Furthermore, the expressions of some potential target genes regulated by STAT or genes related to RNA interfering pathway were detected in STAT silenced shrimp during WSSV infection. The WSSV copy number in STAT silenced shrimp was 10(2)-10(3) copies/ng DNA which was much lower than that in the control. The mortality in STAT silenced shrimp caused by WSSV infection decreased very significantly compared to their controls. The function of STAT was verified in vitro cultured cells of hematopoietic tissue of crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus by adding specific inhibitor of STAT3(S3I-201), and the cultured cells treated with S3I-201 showed much less WSSV copy number than their controls, which further suggested that STAT might be helpful for the replication of WSSV. Expression analysis on the potential STAT target genes and genes in RNA interfering pathway provide important information for understanding the functional mechanism of STAT in antiviral immunity of shrimp.

  7. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  8. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  9. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  10. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  11. 75 FR 53708 - Endangered Species Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... Pendleton, California. The applicant requests a permit to take (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy... (capture, collect, and kill) the Conservancy fairy shrimp (Branchinecta conservatio), the longhorn fairy..., [[Page 53709

  12. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost Shrimp and Blue Mud Shrimp

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    lived (MacGinitie Female ghost shrimp are ovigerous 1930). (capable of producing fertile eggs) throughout the year, but the principal Habitat spawning...estuaries (Johnson the blue mud shrimp (Morris et al. and Gonor 1982). 1980). MacGinitie ( 1930, 1935 ) 6 Table 1. Habitat preferences of ghost shrimp and...1969) measured oxy- Dungeness crabs are known to eat ghost gen levels in burrows ir Yaquina Bay, shrimp, but the shrimp does not appear Oregon, and

  13. Probiotics as antiviral agents in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Viswanath, Buddolla; Sai Gopal, D V R

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases.

  14. Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi, Bestha; Sai Gopal, D. V. R.

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimps or prawns for human consumption and is now considered as a major economic and food production sector as it is an increasingly important source of protein available for human consumption. Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. Viral diseases stand as the major constraint causing an enormous loss in the production in shrimp farms. Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and prevention of viral diseases in shrimp aquaculture is a novel and efficient method. This review discusses the benefits of probiotics and their criteria for selection in shrimp aquaculture and their role in immune power enhancement towards viral diseases. PMID:23738078

  15. Cationic antimicrobial peptides in penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tassanakajon, Anchalee; Amparyup, Piti; Somboonwiwat, Kunlaya; Supungul, Premruethai

    2011-08-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture has been consistently affected worldwide by devastating diseases that cause a severe loss in production. To fight a variety of harmful microbes in the surrounding environment, particularly at high densities (of which intensive farming represents an extreme example), shrimps have evolved and use a diverse array of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as part of an important first-line response of the host defense system. Cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps composed of penaeidins, crustins, and anti-lipopolysaccharide factors are comprised of multiple classes or isoforms and possess antibacterial and antifungal activities against different strains of bacteria and fungi. Shrimp AMPs are primarily expressed in circulating hemocytes, which is the main site of the immune response, and hemocytes expressing AMPs probably migrate to infection sites to fight against pathogen invasion. Indeed, most AMPs are produced as early as the nauplii developmental stage to protect shrimp larvae from infections. In this review, we discuss the sequence diversity, expression, gene structure, and antimicrobial activities of cationic AMPs in penaeid shrimps. The information available on antimicrobial activities indicates that these shrimp AMPs have potential therapeutic applications in the control of disease problems in aquaculture.

  16. Thiamin requirement of juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Wu, F C; Tang, S Y

    1991-12-01

    In a 9-wk feeding trial, juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were fed semipurified diets containing seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg diet) of supplemental thiamin hydrochloride. The dietary thiamin level required for optimal growth in P. monodon was found to be approximately 14 mg/kg diet based on hemolymph (blood) thiamin analysis. The minimum dietary thiamin level that produced substantial shrimp growth was approximately 13 mg/kg diet. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diets (thiamin content of 0.12 mg/kg diet) did not demonstrate specific deficiency signs, except those universal signs such as retarded growth, poor food conversion and low survival rates.

  17. Antiviral defense in shrimp: from innate immunity to viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Hui; Huang, Tianzhi; Zhang, Xiaobo; He, Jian-Guo

    2014-08-01

    The culture of penaeid shrimp is rapidly developing as a major business endeavor worldwide. However, viral diseases have caused huge economic loss in penaeid shrimp culture industries. Knowledge of shrimp innate immunity and antiviral responses has made important progress in recent years, allowing the design of better strategies for the prevention and control of shrimp diseases. In this study, we have updated information on shrimp antiviral immunity and interactions between shrimp hosts and viral pathogens. Current knowledge and recent progress in immune signaling pathways (e.g., Toll/IMD-NF-κB and JAK-STAT signaling pathways), RNAi, phagocytosis, and apoptosis in shrimp antiviral immunity are discussed. The mechanism of viral infection in shrimp hosts and the interactions between viruses and shrimp innate immune systems are also analyzed.

  18. Incidence and inactivation of Listeria spp. on frozen shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Foodborne illness outbreaks occasionally occur as a result of microbiologically contaminated crustaceans, including shrimp. Foodborne pathogens occasionally found on shrimp include Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrios. In this study the microbiological qualit...

  19. Shrimp Farms and Mangroves, Gulf of Fonseca

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    For decades, astronauts on space missions have documented land use changes around the world. In this pair of images, astronauts track the development of shrimp farming along the Honduran coastline of the Gulf of Fonseca between 1989 and 2001. Mariculture, primarily shrimp farming, has become a leading agricultural effort in Honduras. The regional transformation of large tracts of coastal swamps into shrimp farms blossomed throughout the 1990s. The top image was taken with color infrared film in 1989. Dense vegetation, like the coastal mangrove swamps and the forested slopes of Volcan Cosiguina show up as dark red. The bottom image, taken with color visible film by the crew of the most recent Space Shuttle mission in December 2001 shows that hundreds of square kilometers of coastal swamp, primarily in Honduras, have been converted to shrimp ponds. These appear as the light-colored, rectilinear land use pattern. The Honduras shrimp farms were hit hard by flooding after Hurricane Mitch in 1998, and a devastating virus in 1999-2000. It is not known how many of the ponds in this view are still functional. A vigorous debate continues about the sustainability of the shrimp farms and the impacts to the environment and coastal ecosystem due to mangrove clearing and mariculture waste production. Apart from the shrimp farms, the other prominent feature on these images is the impressive volcano Cosiguina, which erupted explosively in 1859 (the largest recorded eruption in the Western Hemisphere). Photograph STS-108-717-85 was taken in the December 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. Photograph STS030-93-15 was taken in May 1989 using a Hasselblad camera and color infrared film. Both images are provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  20. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  1. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  2. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  3. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The... described by § 161.175(c)(6) of this chapter, except that the food is made from comminuted shrimp and is...

  4. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with...

  5. Burrowing shrimp as foundation species in NE Pacific estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    My talk will be about the my research to characterize the role that burrowing shrimp play as foundation/engineering species in Pacific NW estuaries. My research has focused on measuring the abundance & distribution of two species (ghost shrimp & mud shrimp) at ecosystem scales, ...

  6. Biological treatment of shrimp production wastewater.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, Raj

    2009-07-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increase in consumer demand for shrimp, which has resulted in its worldwide aquaculture production. In the United States, the stringent enforcement of environmental regulations encourages shrimp farmers to develop new technologies, such as recirculating raceway systems. This is a zero-water exchange system capable of producing high-density shrimp yields. The system also produces wastewater characterized by high levels of ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and organic carbon, which make waste management costs prohibitive. Shrimp farmers have a great need for a waste management method that is effective and economical. One such method is the sequencing batch reactor (SBR). A SBR is a variation of the activated sludge biological treatment process. This process uses multiple steps in the same reactor to take the place of multiple reactors in a conventional treatment system. The SBR accomplishes equalization, aeration, and clarification in a timed sequence in a single reactor system. This is achieved through reactor operation in sequences, which includes fill, react, settle, decant, and idle. A laboratory scale SBR was successfully operated using shrimp aquaculture wastewater. The wastewater contained high concentrations of carbon and nitrogen. By operating the reactors sequentially, namely, aerobic and anoxic modes, nitrification and denitrification were achieved as well as removal of carbon. Ammonia in the waste was nitrified within 4 days. The denitrification of nitrate was achieved by the anoxic process, and 100% removal of nitrate was observed within 15 days of reactor operation.

  7. Biophysics. For certain shrimp, life's a snap.

    PubMed

    Brown, K

    2000-09-22

    On page 2114 of this issue, physicists report that a collapsing bubble outside the claw of the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis causes its characteristic clack. According to this new study, A. heterochaelis clamps its claw so rapidly that a water jet gushing from the claw first loses and then gains pressure, causing an air bubble in the jet to swell and collapse with a pronounced "snap!" The imploding bubble generates shock waves that stun nearby prey and ward off other shrimp, who have learned to keep their distance.

  8. Antibiotic-Resistant Vibrios in Farmed Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque Costa, Renata; Araújo, Rayza Lima; Souza, Oscarina Viana; Vieira, Regine Helena Silva dos Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern was determined in 100 strains of Vibrio isolated from the Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp and identified phenotypically. A high antibiotic-resistance index (75%) was observed, with the following phenotypic profiles: monoresistance (n = 42), cross-resistance to β-lactams (n = 20) and multiple resistance (n = 13). Plasmid resistance was characterized for penicillin (n = 11), penicillin + ampicillin (n = 1), penicillin + aztreonam (n = 1), and ampicillin (n = 1). Resistance to antimicrobial drugs by the other strains (n = 86) was possibly mediated by chromosomal genes. The findings of this study support the conclusion that the cultured shrimps can be vehicles of vibrios resistant to β-lactam and tetracycline. PMID:25918714

  9. Alkanes in shrimp from the Buccaneer Oil Field

    SciTech Connect

    Middleditch, B.S.; Basile, B.; Chang, E.S.

    1982-07-01

    A total of 36 samples of shrimp were examined from the region of the Buccaneer oil field, eighteen of which were representatives of the commercial species Penaeus aztecus and the rest were various other species: Penaeus duorarum (pink shrimp), Trachypenaeus duorarum (sugar shrimp), Squilla empusa (mantis shrimp), and Sicyonia dorsalis (chevron shrimp). The alkanes and deuteriated alkanes were completely separated by GC, so a mass spectrometer was not required for their detection and quantitation. To confirm the identities of individual compounds, however, some samples were examined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results show that only thirteen of the forty shrimp collected from the region of the Buccaneer oil field contained petroleum alkanes, and the majority of these were obtained from trawls immediately adjacent to the production platforms. It appears that shrimp caught in the region of the Buccaneer oil field are not appreciably tainted with hydrocarbons discharged from the production platforms. (JMT)

  10. Microbial quality of shrimp products of export trade produced from aquacultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Hatha, A A; Maqbool, T K; Suresh Kumar, S

    2003-05-15

    Bacteriological quality of individually quick frozen (IQF) shrimp products produced from aquacultured tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) has been analysed in terms of aerobic plate count (APC), coliforms, Escherichia coli, coagulase-positive staphylococci, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes. Eight hundred forty-six samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-on (RPTO), 928 samples of cooked, peeled, and deveined tail-on (CPTO), 295 samples of headless, undeveined shell-on (HLSO), and 141 samples of raw, peeled, and deveined tail-off (RPND) shrimps were analysed for the above bacteriological parameters. Salmonella was isolated in only one sample of raw, peeled tail-on. Serotyping of the strain revealed that it was S. typhimurium. While none of the cooked, peeled tail-on shrimp samples exceeded the aerobic plate count (APC) of 10(5) colony forming units per gram (cfu/g), 2.5% of raw, peeled, tail-on, 6.4% of raw, peeled tail-off, and 7.5% of headless shell-on shrimp samples exceeded that level. Coliforms were detected in all the products, though at a low level. Prevalence of coliforms was higher in headless shell-on (26%) shrimps followed by raw, peeled, and deveined tail-off (19%), raw, peeled tail-on (10%), and cooked, peeled tail-on (3.8%) shrimps. While none of the cooked, peeled tail-on shrimp samples were positive for coagulase-positive staphylococci and E. coli, 0.6-1.3% of the raw, peeled tail-on were positive for staphylococci and E. coli, respectively. Prevalence of staphylococci was highest in raw, peeled tail-off (5%) shrimps and the highest prevalence of E. coli (4.8%) was noticed in headless shell-on shrimps. L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the cooked, peeled tail-on shrimps. Overall results revealed that the plant under investigation had exerted good process control in order to maintain superior bacteriological quality of their products.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Northern Gulf of Mexico brown shrimp and white shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Robert Eugene; Brody, Michael S.

    1983-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop estuarine habitat models for brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus). The models are scaled to produce an index of habitat suitability between 0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1 (optimally suitable habitat) for estuarine areas of the northern Gulf of Mexico. Habitat suitability indexes are designed for use with the habitat evaluation procedures developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  12. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Northwest): Ghost shrimp and blue mud shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Horning, S.; Sterling, A.; Smith, S.D.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. The profiles are prepared to assist in environmental impact assessments. The ghost shrimp (Callianassa californiensis) and blue mud shrimp (Upogebia pugettensis) are common residents of intertidal mudflats of the Pacific Northwest, as well as of the entire West Coast of the contiguous United States. These species are decapod crustaceans, but not true shrimp. They are harvested as bait by recreational and commercial oyster-growing operations. Ghost shrimp larvae develop in summer in nearshore coastal waters and settle to the substrate surface, where they rapidly metamorphose; the life cycle of the blue mud shrimp is presumed to be similar. Both species spend their lives in burrows in the mudflat, where the ghost shrimp is primarily a deposit feeder and the blue mud shrimp is a suspension feeder.

  13. Cobalt-60 gamma irradiation of shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, N.L.B.

    1993-01-01

    Meta- and ortho-tyrosine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) in conjunction with electrochemical detection in shrimp irradiated using cobalt-60 gamma radiation in the absorbed dose range 0.8 to 6.0 kGy, in nonirradiated shrimp, and in bovine serum albumin (BSA) irradiated in dilute aqueous solution at 25.0 kGy. Ortho-tyrosine was measured in nonirradiated BSA. Para-, meta-, and ortho-tyrosine was measured using HPLC in conjunction with uv-absorption detection in dilute aqueous solutions of phenylalanine irradiated in the absorbed dose range 16.0 to 195.0 kGy. The measured yields of tyrosine isomers were approximately linear as a function of absorbed dose in shrimp, and in irradiated solutions of phenylalanine up to 37.0 kGy. The occurrence of meta- and ortho-tyrosine, which had formerly been considered unique radiolytic products, has not previously been reported in nonirradiated shrimp or BSA. The conventional hydrolyzation and analytical techniques used in the present study to measure meta- and ortho-tyrosine may provide the basis for a method to detect and determine the dose used in food irradiation.

  14. CO₂ efflux from shrimp ponds in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored 'blue' carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO₂) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO₂ efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO₂ efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the walls and 1.60 kg CO₂ m⁻² y⁻¹ from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO₂ emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y⁻¹. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO₂ emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO₂ released to atmosphere.

  15. Probiotics in shrimp aquaculture: avenues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ninawe, A S; Selvin, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    As an alternative strategy to antibiotic use in aquatic disease management, probiotics have recently attracted extensive attention in aquaculture. However, the use of terrestrial bacterial species as probiotics for aquaculture has had limited success, as bacterial strain characteristics are dependent upon the environment in which they thrive. Therefore, isolating potential probiotic bacteria from the marine environment in which they grow optimally is a better approach. Bacteria that have been used successfully as probiotics belong to the genus Vibrio and Bacillus, and the species Thalassobacter utilis. Most researchers have isolated these probiotic strains from shrimp culture water, or from the intestine of different penaeid species. The use of probiotic bacteria, based on the principle of competitive exclusion, and the use of immunostimulants are two of the most promising preventive methods developed in the fight against diseases during the last few years. It also noticed that probiotic bacteria could produce some digestive enzymes, which might improve the digestion of shrimp, thus enhancing the ability of stress resistance and health of the shrimp. However, the probiotics in aquatic environment remain to be a controversial concept, as there was no authentic evidence / real environment demonstrations on the successful use of probiotics and their mechanisms of action in vivo. The present review highlights the potential sources of probiotics, mechanism of action, diversity of probiotic microbes and challenges of probiotic usage in shrimp aquaculture.

  16. Lipid Adaptation of Shrimp Rimicaris exoculata in Hydrothermal Vent.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si; Ye, Mengwei; Yan, Xiaojun; Zhou, Yadong; Wang, Chunsheng; Xu, Jilin

    2015-12-01

    The shrimp Rimicaris exoculata is the most abundant species in hydrothermal vents. Lipids, the component of membranes, play an important role in maintaining their function normally in such extreme environments. In order to understand the lipid adaptation of R. exoculata (HV shrimp) to hydrothermal vents, we compared its lipid profile with the coastal shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (EZ shrimp) which lives in the euphotic zone, using ultra performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As a result, the following lipid adaptation can be observed. (1) The proportion of 16:1 and 18:1, and non-methylene interrupted fatty acid (48.9 and 6.2 %) in HV shrimp was higher than that in EZ shrimp (12.7 and 0 %). While highly-unsaturated fatty acids were only present in the EZ shrimp. (2) Ceramide and sphingomyelin in the HV shrimp were enriched in d14:1 long chain base (96.5 and 100 %) and unsaturated fatty acids (67.1 and 57.7 %). While in the EZ shrimp, ceramide and sphingomyelin had the tendency to contain d16:1 long chain base (68.7 and 75 %) and saturated fatty acids (100 and 100 %). (3) Triacylglycerol content (1.998 ± 0.005 nmol/mg) in the HV shrimp was higher than that in the EZ shrimp (0.092 ± 0.005 nmol/mg). (4) Phosphatidylinositol and diacylglycerol containing highly-unsaturated fatty acids were absent from the HV shrimp. (5) Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylethanolamine were rarely detected in the HV shrimp. A possible reason for such differences was the result of food resources and inhabiting environments. Therefore, these lipid classes mentioned above may be the biomarkers to compare the organisms from different environments, which will be benefit for the further exploitation of the hydrothermal environment.

  17. 76 FR 12025 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp (Trachypenaeus... February 28, 2011. b. Falcon: i. We adjusted Falcon's reported G&A expenses to include property taxes....

  18. 77 FR 13547 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\23\\ As a general matter, the Department prefers...

  19. 76 FR 12054 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...), southern brown shrimp (Penaeus subtilis), southern pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp..., publicly available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\10\\ As a general...

  20. 76 FR 6603 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand; Notice of Amended Final... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand. See Certain Frozen...

  1. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; Metcalf, J.; DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Noren, W.; Guikema, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  2. Development of the brine shrimp Artemia is accelerated during spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Spooner, B S; Metcalf, J; DeBell, L; Paulsen, A; Noren, W; Guikema, J A

    1994-07-01

    Developmentally arrested brine shrimp cysts have been reactivated during orbital spaceflight on two different Space Shuttle missions (STS-50 and STS-54), and their subsequent development has been compared with that of simultaneously reactivated ground controls. Flight and control brine shrimp do not significantly differ with respect to hatching rates or larval morphology at the scanning and transmission EM levels. A small percentage of the flight larvae had defective nauplier eye development, but the observation was not statistically significant. However, in three different experiments on two different flights, involving a total of 232 larvae that developed in space, a highly significant difference in degree of flight to control development was found. By as early as 2.25 days after reactivation of development, spaceflight brine shrimp were accelerated, by a full instar, over ground control brine shrimp. Although developing more rapidly, flight shrimp grew as long as control shrimp at each developmental instar or stage.

  3. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris), southern white... available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\11\\ As a general matter,...

  4. Seafood consumption habits of South Carolina shrimp baiters.

    PubMed

    Laska, Deborah; Vahey, Grace; Faith, Trevor; Vena, John; Williams, Edith M

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp baiting is a fishing technique used by many South Carolinians and has been regulated in the state since the late 1980s. A postcard survey was developed and included with 400 South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) annual surveys of registered shrimp baiters over a two-year period. The survey contained questions concerning frequency, portion size, baiting locations, and preparation techniques for shrimp as well as other species consumed and demographic information. An overall response rate of 37% was received. The majority of respondents were men over the age of 55 years. Charleston and Beaufort counties were the most common locations for shrimp baiting. Almost half (45.9%) of respondents reported eating locally caught shrimp at least 2-3 times per month. The most common portion size was ½ pound (8 oz. or 277 g), with 44.8% of respondents reporting this as their typical amount of shrimp ingested at one meal. Only 3.7% of respondents reported typically eating the whole shrimp, while all other respondents ingested shrimp with the head removed. The most commonly consumed species besides shrimp were blue crab, oysters, and flounder. According to the US Food and Drug Administration mercury (Hg) guidelines, the majority (97%) of our respondents were not at risk for consuming unsafe levels of Hg from locally caught shrimp. However, this does not take into account other local seafood eaten or other contaminants of concern. These consumption results may be used in conjunction with data on contaminant levels in shrimp to determine potential adverse health risks associated with consumption of locally caught shrimp.

  5. Quantitative role of shrimp fecal bacteria in organic matter fluxes in a recirculating shrimp aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Christine; Moss, Shaun; Malfatti, Francesca; Azam, Farooq

    2011-07-01

    Microorganisms play integral roles in the cycling of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) for fish and shellfish production. We quantified the pathways of shrimp fecal bacterial activities and their role in C- and N-flux partitioning relevant to culturing Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, in RAS. Freshly produced feces from P. vannamei contained 0.6-7 × 10(10) bacteria g(-1) dry wt belonging to Bacteroidetes (7%), Alphaproteobacteria (4%), and, within the Gammaproteobacteria, almost exclusively to the genus Vibrio (61%). Because of partial disintegration of the feces (up to 27% within 12 h), the experimental seawater became inoculated with fecal bacteria. Bacteria grew rapidly in the feces and in the seawater, and exhibited high levels of aminopeptidase, chitinase, chitobiase, alkaline phosphatase, α- and β-glucosidase, and lipase activities. Moreover, fecal bacteria enriched the protein content of the feces within 12 h, potentially enriching the feces for the coprophagous shrimp. The bacterial turnover time was much faster in feces (1-10 h) than in mature RAS water (350 h). Thus, shrimp fecal bacteria not only inoculate RAS water but also contribute to bacterial abundance and productivity, and regulate system processes important for shrimp health.

  6. Shrimp viral diseases, import risk assessment and international trade.

    PubMed

    Karunasagar, Iddya; Ababouch, Lahsen

    2012-09-01

    Shrimp is an important commodity in international trade accounting for 15 % in terms of value of internationally traded seafood products which reached $102.00 billion in 2008. Aquaculture contributes to over 50 % of global shrimp production. One of the major constraints faced by shrimp aquaculture is the loss due to viral diseases like white spot syndrome, yellow head disease, and Taura syndrome. There are several examples of global spread of shrimp diseases due to importation of live shrimp for aquaculture. Though millions of tonnes of frozen or processed shrimp have been traded internationally during the last two decades despite prevalence of viral diseases in shrimp producing areas in Asia and the Americas, there is no evidence of diseases having been transmitted through shrimp imported for human consumption. The guidelines developed by the World Animal Health Organisation for movement of live animals for aquaculture, frozen crustaceans for human consumption, and the regulations implemented by some shrimp importing regions in the world are reviewed.

  7. The use of probiotics in shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Farzanfar, Ali

    2006-11-01

    Shrimp aquaculture, as well as other industries, constantly requires new techniques in order to increase production yield. Modern technologies and other sciences such as biotechnology and microbiology are important tools that could lead to a higher quality and greater quantity of products. Feeding and new practices in farming usually play an important role in aquaculture, and the addition of various additives to a balanced feed formula to achieve better growth is a common practice of many fish and shrimp feed manufacturers and farmers. Probiotics, as 'bio-friendly agents' such as lactic acid bacteria and Bacillus spp., can be introduced into the culture environment to control and compete with pathogenic bacteria as well as to promote the growth of the cultured organisms. In addition, probiotics are nonpathogenic and nontoxic microorganisms without undesirable side-effects when administered to aquatic organisms. These strains of bacteria have many other positive effects, which are described in this article.

  8. Dead Shrimp Blues: A Global Assessment of Extinction Risk in Freshwater Shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats). PMID:25807292

  9. Dead shrimp blues: a global assessment of extinction risk in freshwater shrimps (Crustacea: Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    De Grave, Sammy; Smith, Kevin G; Adeler, Nils A; Allen, Dave J; Alvarez, Fernando; Anker, Arthur; Cai, Yixiong; Carrizo, Savrina F; Klotz, Werner; Mantelatto, Fernando L; Page, Timothy J; Shy, Jhy-Yun; Villalobos, José Luis; Wowor, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    We present the first global assessment of extinction risk for a major group of freshwater invertebrates, caridean shrimps. The risk of extinction for all 763 species was assessed using the IUCN Red List criteria that include geographic ranges, habitats, ecology and past and present threats. The Indo-Malayan region holds over half of global species diversity, with a peak in Indo-China and southern China. Shrimps primarily inhabit flowing water; however, a significant subterranean component is present, which is more threatened than the surface fauna. Two species are extinct with a further 10 possibly extinct, and almost one third of species are either threatened or Near Threatened (NT). Threats to freshwater shrimps include agricultural and urban pollution impact over two-thirds of threatened and NT species. Invasive species and climate change have the greatest overall impact of all threats (based on combined timing, scope and severity of threats).

  10. Abundance of Ohio shrimp (Macrobrachium ohione) and Glass shrimp (Palaemonetes kadiakensis) in the unimpounded Upper Mississippi River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barko, V.A.; Hrabik, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    Large rivers of the United States have been altered by construction and maintenance of navigation channels, which has resulted in habitat loss and degradation. Using 7 y of Long Term Resource Monitoring Program data collected from the unimpounded upper Mississippi River, we investigated Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance collected from four physical habitats of the unimpounded upper Mississippi River: main channel border, main channel border with wing dike, open side channel and closed side channel. Our objective was to assess associations between Ohio and Glass Shrimp abundance, environmental measurements and the four habitats to better understand the ecology of these species in a channelized river system. Ohio Shrimp were most abundant in the open side channels, while Glass Shrimp were most abundant in the main channel border wing dike habitat. Thirty-two percent of the variance in Glass Shrimp abundance was explained by year 1995, year 1998, water temperature, depth of gear deployment, Secchi disk transparency and river elevation. Approximately 8% of variation in Ohio Shrimp abundance was explained by Secchi disk transparency. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) was greatest in 1998 for Glass Shrimp but lowest in 1997. Conversely, CPUE was greatest in 1996 for Ohio Shrimp and lowest in 2000. Both species exhibited inter-annual variability in CPUE. Long-term impacts of river modifications on aquatic invertebrates have not been well documented in many large, river systems and warrants further study. The findings from this study provide ecological information on Glass and Ohio Shrimp in a channelized river system.

  11. Carbon cycle in shrimp polyculture mesocosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guo-Cai; Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2000-03-01

    The carbon cycle in shrimp polyculture mesocosm ecosystems was studied in the shrimp farm of the Huanghai Fisheries Group Corporation in Shandong Province from May to August, 1997. The results showed that the plankton community respiration rate fluctuated between 0.07 and 2.28 mgC/(L·d), average of 0.82±0.42 mgC/(L·d), which was 49 percent of the rate of phytoplankton gross production; that the average respiration rates (mgC/(L·d)) of micro-, nano- and pico-plankton were 0.07, 0.38 and 0.31, which were 175, 30 and 207 percent of the corresponding sized phytoplankton production rates; that the sediment respiration rate (mgC/(m2·d)) varied from 178.64 to 373.23, average of 262.60±48.68, and increased gradually with the lapse of culture time; and that the organic carbon accumulation and the respiration in the sediment of the shrimp monoculture mesocosm was higher than that in the polyculture mesocosms. The total sediment respiration per 25 m2 mesocosm in the culture period averaged 571.16 gC, which was 10 percent of the total organic carbon input of the mesocosm.

  12. Vortex Formation with a Snapping Shrimp Claw

    PubMed Central

    Hess, David; Brücker, Christoph; Hegner, Franziska; Balmert, Alexander; Bleckmann, Horst

    2013-01-01

    Snapping shrimp use one oversized claw to generate a cavitating high speed water jet for hunting, defence and communication. This work is an experimental investigation about the jet generation. Snapping shrimp (Alpheus-bellulus) were investigated by using an enlarged transparent model reproducing the closure of the snapper claw. Flow inside the model was studied using both High-Speed Particle Image Velocimetry (HS-PIV) and flow visualization. During claw closure a channel-like cavity was formed between the plunger and the socket featuring a nozzle-type contour at the orifice. Closing the mechanism led to the formation of a leading vortex ring with a dimensionless formation number of approximate ΔT*≈4. This indicates that the claw might work at maximum efficiency, i.e. maximum vortex strength was achieved by a minimum of fluid volume ejected. The subsequent vortex cavitation with the formation of an axial reentrant jet is a reasonable explanation for the large penetration depth of the water jet. That snapping shrimp can reach with their claw-induced flow. Within such a cavitation process, an axial reentrant jet is generated in the hollow cylindrical core of the cavitated vortex that pushes the front further downstream and whose length can exceed the initial jet penetration depth by several times. PMID:24244273

  13. Closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiongfei; Zhao, Zhidong; Li, Deshang; Chang, Kangmei; Tong, Zhuanshang; Si, Liegang; Xu, Kaichong; Ge, Bailin

    2005-12-01

    This paper deals with a new system of aquaculture, i.e., a closed recirculating system for shrimp-mollusk polyculture. The culture system consisted of several shrimp ponds, a mollusk water-purifying pond and a reservoir. During the production cycle, water circulated between the shrimp and mollusk ponds, and the reservoir compensated for water loss from seepage and evaporation. Constricted tagelus, Sinonovacula constricta, was selected as the cultured mollusk, and Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, as the cultured shrimp. The main managing measures during the production cycle were: setting and using the aerators; introducting the probiotic products timely into the shrimp ponds; adopting a “pen-closing” method for controlling shrimp viral epidemics; setting the flow diversion barriers in the mollusk pond to keep the circulating water flowing through the pond along a sine-like curve and serve as substrate for biofilm; no direct feeding was necessary for the cultured mollusk until the co-cultured shrimp was harvested; natural foods in the water from the shrimp ponds was used for their foods. Two sets of the system were used in the experiment in 2002 and satisfactory results were achieved. The average yield of the shrimp was 11 943.5 kg/hm2, and that of the mollusk was 16 965 kg/hm2. After converting the mollusk yield into shrimp yield at their market price ratio, the food coefficient of the entire system averaged at as low as 0.81. The water quality in the ponds was maintained at a desirable level and no viral epidemics were discovered during the production cycle.

  14. Biology, genome organization, and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Arun K; Robles-Sikisaka, Refugio; Saksmerprome, Vanvimon; Lakshman, Dilip K

    2014-01-01

    As shrimp aquaculture has evolved from a subsistent farming activity to an economically important global industry, viral diseases have also become a serious threat to the sustainable growth and productivity of this industry. Parvoviruses represent an economically important group of viruses that has greatly affected shrimp aquaculture. In the early 1980s, an outbreak of a shrimp parvovirus, infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHHNV), led to the collapse of penaeid shrimp farming in the Americas. Since then, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the parvoviruses of shrimp and developing diagnostic methods aimed to preventing the spread of diseases caused by these viruses. To date, four parvoviruses are known that infect shrimp; these include IHHNV, hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV), spawner-isolated mortality virus (SMV), and lymphoid organ parvo-like virus. Due to the economic repercussions that IHHNV and HPV outbreaks have caused to shrimp farming over the years, studies have been focused mostly on these two pathogens, while information on SMV and LPV remains limited. IHHNV was the first shrimp virus to be sequenced and the first for which highly sensitive diagnostic methods were developed. IHHNV-resistant lines of shrimp were also developed to mitigate the losses caused by this virus. While the losses due to IHHNV have been largely contained in recent years, reports of HPV-induced mortalities in larval stages in hatchery and losses due to reduced growth have increased. This review presents a comprehensive account of the history and current knowledge on the biology, diagnostics methods, genomic features, mechanisms of evolution, and management strategies of shrimp parvoviruses. We also highlighted areas where research efforts should be focused in order to gain further insight on the mechanisms of parvoviral pathogenicity in shrimp that will help to prevent future losses caused by these viruses.

  15. Convergent Evolution of the Osmoregulation System in Decapod Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaojun; Liu, Chengzhang; Duan, Hu; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2017-02-01

    In adaptating to different aquatic environments, seawater (SW) and freshwater (FW) shrimps have exploited different adaptation strategies, which should generate clusters of genes with different adaptive features. However, little is known about the genetic basis of these physiological adaptations. Thus, in this study, we performed comparative transcriptomics and adaptive evolution analyses on SW and FW shrimps and found that convergent evolution may have happened on osmoregulation system of shrimps. We identified 275 and 234 positively selected genes in SW and FW shrimps, respectively, which enriched in the functions of ion-binding and membrane-bounded organelles. Among them, five (CaCC, BEST2, GPDH, NKA, and Integrin) and four (RasGAP, RhoGDI, CNK3, and ODC) osmoregulation-related genes were detected in SW and FW shrimps, respectively. All five genes in SW shrimps have been reported to have positive effects on ion transportation, whereas RasGAP and RhoGDI in FW shrimps are associated with negative control of ion transportation, and CNK3 and ODC play central roles in cation homeostasis. Besides, the phylogenetic tree reconstructed from the positively selected sites separated the SW and FW shrimps into two groups. Distinct subsets of parallel substitutions also have been found in these osmoregulation-related genes in SW and FW shrimps. Therefore, our results suggest that distinct convergent evolution may have occurred in the osmoregulation systems of SW and FW shrimps. Furthermore, positive selection of osmoregulation-related genes may be beneficial for the regulation of water and salt balance in decapod shrimps.

  16. Bacterial dynamics in intestines of the black tiger shrimp and the Pacific white shrimp during Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota play important roles in health of their host, contributing to maintaining the balance and resilience against pathogen. To investigate effects of pathogen to intestinal microbiota, the bacterial dynamics upon a shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi, exposures were determined in two economically important shrimp species; the black tiger shrimp (BT) and the Pacific white shrimp (PW). Both shrimp species were reared under the same diet and environmental conditions. Shrimp survival rates after the V. harveyi exposure revealed that the PW shrimp had a higher resistance to the pathogen than the BT shrimp. The intestinal bacterial profiles were determined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA sequences under no pathogen challenge control and under pathogenic V. harveyi challenge. The DGGE profiles showed that the presence of V. harveyi altered the intestinal bacterial patterns in comparison to the control in BT and PW intestines. This implies that bacterial balance in shrimp intestines was disrupted in the presence of V. harveyi. The barcoded pyrosequencing analysis showed the similar bacterial community structures in intestines of BT and PW shrimp under a normal condition. However, during the time course exposure to V. harveyi, the relative abundance of bacteria belong to Vibrio genus was higher in the BT intestines at 12h after the exposure, whereas relative abundance of vibrios was more stable in PW intestines. The principle coordinates analysis based on weighted-UniFrac analysis showed that intestinal bacterial population in the BT shrimp lost their ability to restore their bacterial balance during the 72-h period of exposure to the pathogen, while the PW shrimp were able to reestablish their bacterial population to resemble those seen in the unexposed control group. This observation of bacterial disruption might correlate to different mortality rates observed between the two shrimp species

  17. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  18. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Chennai, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bavinck, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Shrimp trawling represents an important fishing metier in South India, generating high levels of employment and economic value. It is also a contested metier, ostensibly contributing to environmental degradation and social inequality. This paper investigates the job satisfaction of crew members (captains and workers) on board the shrimp trawlers…

  19. Job Satisfaction in the Shrimp Trawl Fisheries of Vietnam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinh, Le Xuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the job satisfaction of small-scale shrimp trawl fishers in the vicinity of Camau National Park in southern Vietnam. The research sample consisted of 77 fishers who belong to a growing population of shrimp fishers in the region. The results suggest that 60% would change their fishing metier, 78% would leave fishing for…

  20. Pink shrimp as an indicator for restoration of everglades ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    The pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum, familiar to most Floridians as either food or bait shrimp, is ubiquitous in South Florida coastal and offshore waters and is proposed as an indicator for assessing restoration of South Florida's southern estuaries: Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay, and the mangrove estuaries of the lower southwest coast. Relationships between pink shrimp and salinity have been determined in both field and laboratory studies. Salinity is directly relevant to restoration because the salinity regimes of South Florida estuaries, critical nursery habitat for the pink shrimp, will be altered by changes in the quantity, timing, and distribution of freshwater inflow planned as part of the Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Project (CERP). Here we suggest performance measures based on pink shrimp density (number per square meter) in the estuaries and propose a restoration assessment and scoring scheme using these performance measures that can readily be communicated to managers, policy makers, and the interested public. The pink shrimp is an appropriate restoration indicator because of its ecological as well as its economic importance and also because scientific interest in pink shrimp in South Florida has produced a wealth of information about the species and relatively long time series of data on both juveniles in estuarine nursery habitats and adults on the fishing grounds. We suggest research needs for improving the pink shrimp performance measure.

  1. Characterization of Sterol Oxidation Products in Two Breaded Shrimp Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  2. Molecular Biology and Epidemiology of Hepatopancreatic parvovirus of Penaeid Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Safeena, Muhammed P; Rai, Praveen; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2012-09-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) is one of the major shrimp parvovirus which is known to cause slow growth in penaeid shrimps. HPV has been found in wild and cultured penaeid shrimps throughout the world and there is high genetic variation among the different geographic isolates/host species. Given its high prevalence, wide distribution and ability to cause considerable economic loss in shrimp aquaculture industry, HPV deserves more attention than it has received. Till date, a total of four complete genome sequences of HPV have been reported in addition to a large number of partial sequences. HPV infection is seldom observed alone in epizootics and has occurred in multiple infections with other more pathogenic viruses and in most cases, heavy infections result in no visible inflammatory response. A great deal of information has accumulated in recent years on the clinical signs, geographical distribution, transmission and genetic diversity of HPV infection in shrimp aquaculture. However, the mechanism by which HPV enters the shrimp tissues and pathogenesis of virus is still unknown. To date, no effective prophylactic measures are available to reduce the infection in shrimps. To control and prevent HPV infection, considerable research efforts are on. This review provides information on current knowledge on HPV infection in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.

  3. Biology, genome organization and evolution of parvoviruses in marine shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of parvoviruses are now know to infect marine shrimp, and these viruses alone or in combination with other viruses have the potential to cause major losses in shrimp aquaculture globally. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the biology, genome organization, gene expression, and...

  4. Shrimp monitor/locator for conservation of fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    A demonstration project of a new type Shrimp Detector/Monitor has been completed. The test project proved the efficiency of the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in detecting shrimp, in identifying the number and size, in real time, but indicated that improvement could be effected which would enhance the operation. Data obtained from the test cruises indicate significant savings in diesel fuel will occur for those trawlers using the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in place of the usual trynet operation; 25% savings for the series model number 400, (the prototype tested) and expected 35%+ if the advanced series model number 500 were used. Fabrication and operational costs for the Shrimp Monitor/Detector are reasonable and well within the financial abilities of the usual large offshore trawler. Research and testing during this program resulted in the design of an advanced model incorporating significant improvements, and fabrication was commenced but the extra cost involved beyond the set value of this contract made the further experiments non-viable. Recommendations have been submitted for an extended program to fabricate and test the advanced model series number 500 which may be of more value and interest, market use, to the operating offshore shrimp trawlers. A marketing/sales program will be instituted to place the Shrimp Monitor/Detector in the commercial area serving the shrimp fleet.

  5. 21 CFR 102.55 - Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... largest type used in the words “breaded shrimp sticks” or the other comparable words required by this... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.55 Nonstandardized breaded composite shrimp units. (a) The common on usual name of the food product that conforms to the definition and standard of...

  6. Environmental Assessment for a Global Reach Deployment Center and Ancillary Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-07

    endangered plant species • Vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi), a federally threatened invertebrate species • Vernal pool tadpole shrimp...Clerk’s Filing Stamp) PUBLIC NOTICE Proof of Publication of I PUB CNOTICE 1 5-DA Y PUB-LIC COM ENT PERIOD ON · ENVIRO ENTAL A$SESS.MENT -’ND

  7. 77 FR 40848 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The period of review (POR) is February 1, 2010, through... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on shrimp from India.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Certain Frozen...

  8. 78 FR 15691 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India; Preliminary Results of... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from India. The...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India, 77 FR 73619 (December 11, 2012). \\2\\ On September 13, 2012,...

  9. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  10. 50 CFR 622.201 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.201 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access. (a) Commercial Vessel Permits for Rock Shrimp (South Atlantic EEZ). For a person aboard a...

  11. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  12. 50 CFR 622.19 - South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.19 South Atlantic rock shrimp limited access... for rock shrimp in the South Atlantic EEZ off Georgia or off Florida or possess rock shrimp in or...

  13. 78 FR 65277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Partial... of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the People's... Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Selection...

  14. 75 FR 60730 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, 70 FR 5152 (February 1,...

  15. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The period of review for... notice of initiation of the new shipper review in the antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam...

  16. 75 FR 20563 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the... in the antidumping duty order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain...

  17. Shrimps remove ectoparasites from fishes in temperate waters

    PubMed Central

    Östlund-Nilsson, Sara; Becker, Justine H.A; Nilsson, Göran E

    2005-01-01

    We have found that two very common species of North Atlantic shallow water shrimp, Palaemon adspersus and Palaemon elegans, remove and feed on ectoparasites on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa L.). The relationship could be mutualistic, as we did not observe any attempts by the fishes to feed on the shrimps. The ectoparasites removed included monogenean worms (Gyrodactylus sp.) and sea lice (Lepeophtheirus pectoralis). An experiment showed that there were 65% more Gyrodactylus parasites on the fishes that had been apart from compared with those that had been together with shrimps for 48 h. Shrimps on coral reefs are known for cleaning fishes, but that shrimps in temperate waters show parasite-cleaning behaviour is, to our knowledge, a new observation. PMID:17148231

  18. Suppression of shrimp melanization during white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Sutthangkul, Jantiwan; Amparyup, Piti; Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Senapin, Saengchan; Phiwsaiya, Kornsunee; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2015-03-06

    The melanization cascade, activated by the prophenoloxidase (proPO) system, plays a key role in the production of cytotoxic intermediates, as well as melanin products for microbial sequestration in invertebrates. Here, we show that the proPO system is an important component of the Penaeus monodon shrimp immune defense toward a major viral pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Gene silencing of PmproPO(s) resulted in increased cumulative shrimp mortality after WSSV infection, whereas incubation of WSSV with an in vitro melanization reaction prior to injection into shrimp significantly increased the shrimp survival rate. The hemolymph phenoloxidase (PO) activity of WSSV-infected shrimp was extremely reduced at days 2 and 3 post-injection compared with uninfected shrimp but was fully restored after the addition of exogenous trypsin, suggesting that WSSV probably inhibits the activity of some proteinases in the proPO cascade. Using yeast two-hybrid screening and co-immunoprecipitation assays, the viral protein WSSV453 was found to interact with the proPO-activating enzyme 2 (PmPPAE2) of P. monodon. Gene silencing of WSSV453 showed a significant increase of PO activity in WSSV-infected shrimp, whereas co-silencing of WSSV453 and PmPPAE2 did not, suggesting that silencing of WSSV453 partially restored the PO activity via PmPPAE2 in WSSV-infected shrimp. Moreover, the activation of PO activity in shrimp plasma by PmPPAE2 was significantly decreased by preincubation with recombinant WSSV453. These results suggest that the inhibition of the shrimp proPO system by WSSV partly occurs via the PmPPAE2-inhibiting activity of WSSV453.

  19. Immunization with Hypoallergens of Shrimp Allergen Tropomyosin Inhibits Shrimp Tropomyosin Specific IgE Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Wai, Christine Y. Y.; Leung, Nicki Y. H.; Ho, Marco H. K.; Gershwin, Laurel J.; Shu, Shang An; Leung, Patrick S. C.; Chu, Ka Hou

    2014-01-01

    Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy. PMID:25365343

  20. Comparative studies on nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhen-Xiong; Li, De-Shang; Zhang, Man-Ping; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2001-09-01

    April to October, 1997 comparative studies on the nitrogen budgets of closed shrimp polyculture systems showed that, in all the studied polyculture systems, nitrogen from feeds and fertilizers were the main input items, which comprised 70.7% 83.9% of the total input nitrogen 3.2% 7.4% of which was provided by nitrogen fixation. It was in monoculture enclosures (Y-4, Y-11 and Y-12) that the percentage reached the maximum value. The output nitrogen in harvested products comprised 10.8% 24.6% of total input nitrogen, and the highest percentage, 24.6%, was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems. In shrimp monoculture and shrimp-fish polyculture systems, they were 19.1% and 21.9% respectively. The nitrogen utilization efficiency was different and varied from 12.2% was found in shrimp-tagelus polyculture systems. The lowest, 12.2%, was found in shrimp monoculture systems. All the nitrogen utilization efficiencies in shrimp-fish systems or shrimp-scallop systems seemed to be higher than that of the monoculture system, but they showed little statistical difference. The main outputs of nitrogen were found in sediment mud, and comprised 48.2% 60.8% of the total, input, the lowest percentage was found in shrimp-fish-tagelus polyculture systems, and the highest percentage in shrimp-scallop systems. During the experiment, nitrogen lost through denitrification and ammonia volatilization comprised 1.9% 6. 2%, averaged 2.8%, of the total input, and the loss through seepage comprised 5.9% 8.9% of the total. The estimated nitrogen attached to the enclosure wall comprised 3.7% 13.3% of the total, and was highest in shrimp monoculture systems. Compared with the classic shrimp farming industry, the closed shrimp polyculture systems may improve the nitrogen utilization efficiency, and hence reduce the environmental impacts on coastal waters. The nitrogen discharging rates for all the studied polyculture systems ranged from 3.0% to 6. 0% of total input nitrogen.

  1. Consumer method to control Salmonella and Listeria species in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Genevieve; Janes, Marlene; Lampila, Lucina; Supan, John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the current consumer method of boiling shrimp until floating and pink in color is adequate for destroying Listeria and Salmonella. Shrimp samples were submerged in bacterial suspensions of Listeria and Salmonella for 30 min and allowed to air dry for 1 h under a biosafety cabinet. Color parameters were then measured with a spectrophotometer programmed with the CIELAB system. Twenty-four shrimp samples were divided into groups (days 0, 1, or 2) and stored at 4°C. The samples were treated by placing them in boiling water (100°C) on days 0, 1, and 2. The shrimp were immediately removed from the boiling water once they floated to the surface, and color parameters were measured. Bacterial counts were determined, and the log CFU per gram was calculated. The effect of sodium tripolyphosphate on the color change of cooked shrimp also was determined. Initial bacterial counts on shrimp after air drying were 5.31 ± 0.14 log CFU/g for Salmonella Enteritidis, 5.24 ± 0.31 log CFU/g for Salmonella Infantis, 5.40 ± 0.16 log CFU/g for Salmonella Typhimurium, 3.91 + 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria innocua, 4.45 ± 0.11 log CFU/g for Listeria monocytogenes (1/2a), and 3.70 ± 0.22 log CFU/g for Listeria welshimeri. On days 0, 1, and 2, all bacterial counts were reduced to nondetectable levels for shrimp samples that floated. The average time for shrimp to float was 96 ± 8 s. The bacterial counts remained at nondetectable levels (<10 log CFU/g) during refrigerated (4°C) storage of cooked shrimp for 2 days. The redness, yellowness, and lightness were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) for the cooked shrimp than for the uncooked shrimp on all days tested. The standard deviation for redness in the cooked shrimp was large, indicating a wide range of pink coloration on all days tested. The results suggest that boiling shrimp until they float will significantly reduce Listeria and Salmonella contamination, but color change is not a good

  2. Toward improved environmental and social management of Indian shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Hein, Lars

    2002-03-01

    In the last decade, Indian shrimp aquaculture production tripled from 30,000 tons (1990) to 102,000 tons (1999). This fast development, combined with a lack of adequate planning and regulation, caused a number of environmental problems and social conflicts, including conversion of mangroves, water pollution, and salinization of drinking water wells. Because of the significant investments made in shrimp culture and the size of the environmental and social impacts, the formulation of a regulatory framework for shrimp aquaculture has been subject to an intensive debate between the aquaculture and the environmental lobbies. Following an order from the Supreme Court (1996), the Aquaculture Authority was established and a regulatory and institutional framework for the shrimp aquaculture sector has been set up. However, implementation of the system is still defective, and there is an urgent need for improvement. Farmers are increasingly able to prevent the devastating white spot disease in shrimps, and in the absence of proper planning and regulation, further expansion of shrimp production could result in significant additional environmental and social costs. The environmental and social management of Indian shrimp farming can be improved through a mix of policy measures, including strengthening of the license system, more effective enforcement of regulations, the use of economic incentives, and increased monitoring of environmental and social impacts.

  3. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production, based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurements of shoreline length and area of marsh having more than 5.0 km shoreline/sq km for the coast of Louisiana, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield. The mathematical model relating these parameters and the shrimp production is consistent with an energy flow model describing the interaction of detritus producing marshlands with shrimp nursery grounds and inshore shrimping areas. The analysis supports the basic hypothesis and further raises the possibility of applications to coastal zone management requirements.

  4. Optimum cooking conditions for shrimp and Atlantic salmon.

    PubMed

    Brookmire, Lauren; Mallikarjunan, P; Jahncke, M; Grisso, R

    2013-02-01

    The quality and safety of a cooked food product depends on many variables, including the cooking method and time-temperature combinations employed. The overall heating profile of the food can be useful in predicting the quality changes and microbial inactivation occurring during cooking. Mathematical modeling can be used to attain the complex heating profile of a food product during cooking. Studies were performed to monitor the product heating profile during the baking and boiling of shrimp and the baking and pan-frying of salmon. Product color, texture, moisture content, mass loss, and pressed juice were evaluated during the cooking processes as the products reached the internal temperature recommended by the FDA. Studies were also performed on the inactivation of Salmonella cocktails in shrimp and salmon. To effectively predict inactivation during cooking, the Bigelow, Fermi distribution, and Weibull distribution models were applied to the Salmonella thermal inactivation data. Minimum cooking temperatures necessary to destroy Salmonella in shrimp and salmon were determined. The heating profiles of the 2 products were modeled using the finite difference method. Temperature data directly from the modeled heating profiles were then used in the kinetic modeling of quality change and Salmonella inactivation during cooking. The optimum cooking times for a 3-log reduction of Salmonella and maintaining 95% of quality attributes are 100, 233, 159, 378, 1132, and 399 s for boiling extra jumbo shrimp, baking extra jumbo shrimp, boiling colossal shrimp, baking colossal shrimp, baking Atlantic salmon, and pan frying Atlantic Salmon, respectively.

  5. Beyond Symbiosis: Cleaner Shrimp Clean Up in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Militz, Thane A.; Hutson, Kate S.

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to “client” organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections. PMID:25706952

  6. Beyond symbiosis: cleaner shrimp clean up in culture.

    PubMed

    Militz, Thane A; Hutson, Kate S

    2015-01-01

    Cleaner organisms exhibit a remarkable natural behaviour where they consume ectoparasites attached to "client" organisms. While this behaviour can be utilized as a natural method of parasitic disease control (or biocontrol), it is not known whether cleaner organisms can also limit reinfection from parasite eggs and larvae within the environment. Here we show that cleaner shrimp, Lysmata amboinensis, consume eggs and larvae of a harmful monogenean parasite, Neobenedenia sp., in aquaculture. Shrimp consumed parasite eggs under diurnal (63%) and nocturnal (14%) conditions as well as infectious larvae (oncomiracidia) diurnally (26%). Furthermore, we trialled the inclusion of cleaner shrimp for preventative parasite management of ornamental fish, Pseudanthias squamipinnis, and found shrimp reduced oncomiracidia infection success of host fish by half compared to controls (held without shrimp). Fish held without cleaner shrimp exhibited pigmentation changes as a result of infection, possibly indicative of a stress response. These results provide the first empirical evidence that cleaner organisms reduce parasite loads in the environment through non-symbiotic cleaning activities. Our research findings have relevance to aquaculture and the marine ornamental trade, where cleaner shrimp could be applied for prophylaxis and control of ectoparasite infections.

  7. Improved methodology for the estimation of sulfur dioxide in shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, B.J. III

    1987-01-01

    A large portion of the shrimp harvested in the Gulf of Mexico are treated with sodium bisulfite to prevent melanosis. The Food and Drug Administration recognizes the need for this additive and regards a one minute dip in a 1.2% sodium bisulfite solution as current good manufacturing practice. Recently, sulfites have come under close scrutiny by regulatory authorities because they have been implicated as causing severe reaction in asthmatics. The objective of this study was to develop a rapid, efficient method for determining SO/sub 2/ in shrimp and to determine the stability of SO/sub 2/ in shrimp during frozen storage.

  8. Lead in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone in sublethal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Osuna Flores, Israel; Meyer-Willerer, Alejandro O; Olivos-Ortiz, Aramis; Barragán Vázquez, Francisco J; Marmolejo-Rodríguez, Ana J

    2014-01-01

    Determination of the accumulation and elimination of sublethal lead (Pb) in different shrimp tissues may be useful as an indicator of uptake and elimination characteristics of this metal. Aquaculture ponds are particularly influenced by Pb contamination, where aquatic animals may acquire the metal through adsorption to exoskeletons or gills from the surrounding water. Cationic Pb is accumulated preferentially in the nonedible fraction of shrimp, followed by exoskeleton, and to a minor extent in muscle. Lead contents in different tissues were lower than metal levels in exoskeleton. However, the presence of Pb in sediment due to purging may exert adverse consequences on shrimp as bottom feeders.

  9. Interaction between Penaeid Shrimp and Fish Populations in the Gulf of Mexico: Importance of Shrimp as Forage Species

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masami; Zhou, Can; Acres, Chelsea; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of shrimp stocks in supporting the production of valuable predator species. Fishery-independent data on white shrimp, brown shrimp, and selected fish species (spotted seatrout, red drum, and southern flounder) were collected from 1986 to 2014 by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and converted to catch-per-unit effort (CPUE). Here, the associations between the CPUEs of fish species as predators and those of shrimp species as prey in each sampled bay and sampling season were analyzed using co-integration analysis and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Co-integration analysis revealed significant associations between 31 of 70 possible fish/shrimp pairings. The analysis also revealed discernible seasonal and spatial patterns. White shrimp in August and brown shrimp in May were associated with fish CPUEs in bays located along the lower coast of Texas, whereas white shrimp in November was more strongly associated with fish CPUEs in bays located on the upper coast. This suggests the possible influence of latitudinal environmental gradient. The results of the PLSR, on the other hand, were not conclusive. This may reflect the high statistical error rates inherent to the analysis of short non-stationary time series. Co-integration is a robust method when analyzing non-stationary time series, and a majority of time series in this study was non-stationary. Based on our co-integration results, we conclude that the CPUE data show significant associations between shrimp abundance and the three predator fish species in the tested regions. PMID:27832213

  10. Interaction between Penaeid Shrimp and Fish Populations in the Gulf of Mexico: Importance of Shrimp as Forage Species.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Masami; Zhou, Can; Acres, Chelsea; Martinez-Andrade, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of shrimp stocks in supporting the production of valuable predator species. Fishery-independent data on white shrimp, brown shrimp, and selected fish species (spotted seatrout, red drum, and southern flounder) were collected from 1986 to 2014 by the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, and converted to catch-per-unit effort (CPUE). Here, the associations between the CPUEs of fish species as predators and those of shrimp species as prey in each sampled bay and sampling season were analyzed using co-integration analysis and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Co-integration analysis revealed significant associations between 31 of 70 possible fish/shrimp pairings. The analysis also revealed discernible seasonal and spatial patterns. White shrimp in August and brown shrimp in May were associated with fish CPUEs in bays located along the lower coast of Texas, whereas white shrimp in November was more strongly associated with fish CPUEs in bays located on the upper coast. This suggests the possible influence of latitudinal environmental gradient. The results of the PLSR, on the other hand, were not conclusive. This may reflect the high statistical error rates inherent to the analysis of short non-stationary time series. Co-integration is a robust method when analyzing non-stationary time series, and a majority of time series in this study was non-stationary. Based on our co-integration results, we conclude that the CPUE data show significant associations between shrimp abundance and the three predator fish species in the tested regions.

  11. COMPARISON OF CARBON AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN TIDEFLAT FOOD WEBS DOMINATED BY BURROWING SHRIMP OR BY CULTURED OYSTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two species of indigenous, thalassinid burrowing shrimps are pests to the benthic culture of Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) because deposition of sediment excavated by the shrimps buries or smothers the oysters. Carbaryl pesticide is used to reduce burrowing shrimp densitie...

  12. Shrimp culture in Thailand: environmental impacts and social responses.

    PubMed

    Gronski, R

    2000-01-01

    Black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a major aquaculture commodity among Southeast Asian producers and remains a popular food export world-wide. Food brokers in Japan and the United States purchase huge quantities of these farmed shrimp and return significant foreign exchange earnings to developing nations like Thailand, a major producer and exporter since the early 1990s. However, coastal areas cannot sustain intensive shrimp farm production and local growers often end up in debt. Can the needs of farm communities around the world be suitably met when they join into a corporate-managed and export-oriented food system? What are the sustainable benefits and eventual costs to susceptible localities? The shrimp industry in Thailand reveals the difficult terrain to cross and powerful obstacles to overcome if authentic sustainable development is to be realized.

  13. 77 FR 29586 - Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Part 223 RIN 0648-BC10 Sea Turtle Conservation; Shrimp Trawling Requirements; Correction AGENCY... turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in their nets, and announced five public hearings to be held in...

  14. MAPPING BURROWING SHRIMP AND SEAGRASS IN YAQUINA ESTUARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp and seagrasses create extensive intertidal and shallow subtidal habitats within Pacific NW estuaries. Maps of their populations are useful to inform estuarine managers of locations that deserve special consideration for conservation, and to inform oyster farmers...

  15. Shoreline as a controlling factor in commercial shrimp production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faller, K. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An ecological model was developed that relates marsh detritus export and shrimp production. It was based on the hypothesis that the shoreline is a controlling factor in the production of shrimp through regulation of detritus export from the marsh. LANDSAT data were used to develop measurement of shoreline length and areas of marsh having more than 5.0 kilometers of shoreline per square kilometer of area for the Louisiana coast, demonstrating the capability of remote sensing to provide important geographic information. These factors were combined with published tidal ranges and salinities to develop a mathematical model that predicted shrimp production for nine geographic units of the Louisiana coast, as indicated by the long term average commercial shrimp yield.

  16. GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A BURROWING SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ghost shrimp, (Neotypaea californiensis) are burrowers, whose bioturbation and sediment destabilizations have a negative effect on mariculture of the commercially important oyster (Crassostrea gigas). Oyster farmers in Washington and Oregon estuaries have been poisoning these shr...

  17. INFECTIVITY OF METARHIZIUM ANISOPLIAE IN GRASS SHRIMP EMBRYOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developing embryos of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, were exposed to Metarhizium anisopliae conidiospores. Attachment of conidiospores was often followed by germination and outgrowth on embryo surface. Penetration of the embryonic envelopes by M. anisopliae allow...

  18. Detection of virus in shrimp using digital color correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Borrego, Josue; Chavez-Sanchez, Cristina; Bueno-Ibarra, Mario A.

    1999-07-01

    Detection of virus in shrimp tissue using digital color correlation is presented. Phase filters in three channels (red, green and blue) were used in order to detect HPV virus like target. These first results obtained showed that is possible to detect virus in shrimp tissue. More research must be made with color correlation in order to consider natural morphology of the virus, color, scale and rotation and noise in the samples.

  19. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  20. Comparative spring mechanics in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Rosario, M V; Taylor, J R A

    2013-04-01

    Elastic mechanisms are fundamental to fast and efficient movements. Mantis shrimp power their fast raptorial appendages using a conserved network of exoskeletal springs, linkages and latches. Their appendages are fantastically diverse, ranging from spears to hammers. We measured the spring mechanics of 12 mantis shrimp species from five different families exhibiting hammer-shaped, spear-shaped and undifferentiated appendages. Across species, spring force and work increase with size of the appendage and spring constant is not correlated with size. Species that hammer their prey exhibit significantly greater spring resilience compared with species that impale evasive prey ('spearers'); mixed statistical results show that species that hammer prey also produce greater work relative to size during spring loading compared with spearers. Disabling part of the spring mechanism, the 'saddle', significantly decreases spring force and work in three smasher species; cross-species analyses show a greater effect of cutting the saddle on the spring force and spring constant in species without hammers compared with species with hammers. Overall, the study shows a more potent spring mechanism in the faster and more powerful hammering species compared with spearing species while also highlighting the challenges of reconciling within-species and cross-species mechanical analyses when different processes may be acting at these two different levels of analysis. The observed mechanical variation in spring mechanics provides insights into the evolutionary history, morphological components and mechanical behavior, which were not discernible in prior single-species studies. The results also suggest that, even with a conserved spring mechanism, spring behavior, potency and component structures can be varied within a clade with implications for the behavioral functions of power-amplified devices.

  1. 78 FR 50381 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Final Affirmative... subsidies are being provided to producers and exporters of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Malaysia...) Sdn. Bhd., and Charoen Pokphand Foods (Malaysia) Sdn. Bhd., (collectively, the Asia...

  2. 78 FR 33345 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Malaysia: Preliminary Countervailing... shrimp) from Malaysia. The period of investigation (POI) is January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2011... Malaysia,'' dated concurrently with this notice (Preliminary Decision Memorandum). For this...

  3. MORE THAN JUST BAIT: BURROWING SHRIMP AS ECOSYSTEM ENGINEERS IN OREGON ESTUARIES - SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing shrimp may be most widely known as excellent fishing bait, but they also play important roles in estuaries of the Pacific Northwest. These shrimps strongly affect carbon and nutrient cycling, phytoplankton abundance, food web structure and dynamics, sediment stability,...

  4. 78 FR 54912 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Indonesia and Thailand; Termination of Investigations AGENCY: United...(a)), the countervailing duty investigations concerning frozen warmwater shrimp from Indonesia...

  5. RESPONSE OF GHOST SHRIMP (NEOTRYPAEA CALIFORNIENSIS) BIOTURBATION TO ORGANIC MATTER ENRICHMENT OF ESTUARINE INTERTIDAL SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Populations of burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia p;ugettensis) are the dominant invertebrate fauna on Pacific estuarine tide flats, occupying >80% of intertidal area in some estuaries. Burrowing shrimp are renowned for their bioturbation of intertidal sedi...

  6. 78 FR 13325 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...-815] Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia... of China,Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and the Socialist Republic of...

  7. Quality perceptions of stakeholders in Beninese export-oriented shrimp chain.

    PubMed

    Dabade, D Sylvain; den Besten, Heidy M W; Azokpota, Paulin; Nout, M J Rob; Hounhouigan, D Joseph; Zwietering, Marcel H

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, the Beninese shrimp sector has faced a ban on export to the European Union due to lack of compliance with food safety standards. The present study aimed at obtaining insight into the factors that determine shrimp quality and safety in Benin. A survey was conducted to investigate the relationships between stakeholders, the conditions under which shrimps are handled at fishing areas and processed at shrimp plants, and the stakeholders' perceptions of quality. A total of 325 fishermen, 128 intermediate traders, 12 collectors, and 3 shrimp processing plant managers were interviewed face to face. The results showed that various specific relations existed between the stakeholders. For example, loyalty was ensured by family relationships, or incentives were provided to ensure a supply of shrimps between stakeholders. Shrimp handling practices during the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants were not in agreement with the requirements of the European regulations. For example, shrimps were kept at ambient temperature (28 ± 1°C) by 94.1% of fishermen and 60.9% of intermediate traders. Shrimps were also stored in inappropriate holding containers and washed with nonpotable water. Fishermen, intermediate traders, and collectors considered shrimp size and texture their priority quality attributes, whereas plant managers considered shrimp appearance (freshness) and texture their priority quality attributes. This survey demonstrated that the steps prior to shrimp processing at the plants are the critical steps for shrimp quality and safety because of temperature abuse and inappropriate hygienic conditions. There is a need to communicate and provide incentives for the stakeholders in the first part of the chain to give priority to shrimp freshness. Moreover, training in Good Fishing Practices and safe food handling practices and evaluation of compliance with the practices through monitoring will contribute to better shrimp quality and safety management.

  8. 75 FR 16436 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  9. 75 FR 54847 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Final Results and Partial Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  10. 75 FR 13492 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  11. 75 FR 41813 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\3\\ deveined or not..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... to as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on...

  12. 78 FR 50389 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  13. 78 FR 50385 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Final Affirmative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China... flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  14. 78 FR 50387 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and... fresh (or thawed-from-frozen) and peeled shrimp; (2) to which a ``dusting'' layer of rice or wheat flour... thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  15. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  16. 50 CFR 654.24 - Shrimp/stone crab separation zones.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. 654.24... Measures § 654.24 Shrimp/stone crab separation zones. Five zones are established in the management area and Florida's waters off Citrus and Hernando Counties for the separation of shrimp trawling and stone...

  17. Adhesive Property of Bacteria and Its Relationship to Microbial Spoilage of Shrimp.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-04

    bacterial flora of the shrimp. Pseudomonas spp. tend *: to become predominant, if present on the shrimp following process- ing. Lactobacillus spp. will...is part of the normal flora of the shrimp and retains good adhesiveness in a multitude of growth conditions. Here again, 47 good processing techniques

  18. 77 FR 19612 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of... antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Brazil, India, and Thailand. The...), Henry Almond at (202) 482-0049 (India), and Holly Phelps at (202) 482-0656 (Thailand), AD/CVD...

  19. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  20. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  1. 78 FR 15800 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... menardmm@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Importer's.... Abstract of proposed collection: The Form DS-2031 is necessary to document imports of shrimp pursuant...

  2. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  3. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... shrimp off Georgia and Florida. 622.208 Section 622.208 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND... CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Shrimp Fishery of the South Atlantic Region § 622.208 Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod...

  4. 75 FR 33375 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration, OMB Control... Reduction Act of 1995. Title of Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration. OMB... document imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public...

  5. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  6. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  7. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  8. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. 40 CFR 408.100 - Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.100 Section 408.100 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.100 Applicability; description of the remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are...

  10. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  11. 78 FR 39824 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's Declaration ACTION: Notice of... Collection: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095 Type of Request... imports of shrimp pursuant to the State Department's implementation of Section 609 of Public Law...

  12. 40 CFR 408.90 - Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. 408.90 Section 408.90 Protection of Environment... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Non-Remote Alaskan Shrimp Processing Subcategory § 408.90 Applicability; description of the non-remote Alaskan shrimp processing subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  13. 76 FR 50718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the PRC. See Initiation of...

  14. 78 FR 13324 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice... review (``CCR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's... entity.\\4\\ \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of China: Notice of...

  15. 78 FR 72635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... Department'') initiated a new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp... Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping Duty...

  16. 75 FR 844 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-06

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') is extending the time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review of certain frozen... order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...

  17. 75 FR 55740 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... frozen warmwater shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). The review covers the... of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam and the...

  18. 75 FR 56988 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China... frozen warmwater shrimp from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The review covers the period... initiation of the administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen shrimp from...

  19. 75 FR 32915 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-10

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 7, 2009, the Department published a...

  20. 77 FR 32498 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review...), for an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp...

  1. 75 FR 22424 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... concerning the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and... antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam would...

  2. 76 FR 38360 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the period of review... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil. On April 1, 2011, the Department published a...

  3. 78 FR 11221 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21.10 and... of frozen warmwater shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and...

  4. 78 FR 40436 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Mandatory Shrimp Vessel and Gear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... Shrimp Vessel and Gear Characterization Survey AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Shrimp Fishery Management Plan (FMP). The regulations for the Gulf Shrimp Vessel and Gear... Gear Characterization Form. The form will be provided by NMFS at the time of permit application...

  5. Strong population genetic structure and larval dispersal capability of the burrowing ghost shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing ghost shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis, is a vital member of the estuarine benthic community. Dense populations of shrimp are found in the major estuaries of Washington and Oregon. Our study determines the genetic structure of shrimp populations in order to gain ...

  6. The effects of boiling on the allergenic properties of tropomyosin of shrimp (litopenaeus vannamei).

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp play an important role in human nutrition, and is responsible for severe hypersensitivity reactions. The thermal stability of raw and boiled shrimp tropomyosins (TM) has never been reported. The aims of the study were to compare the stability of raw and boiled shrimp TM of Litopenaeus vanname...

  7. 75 FR 22370 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's... warmwater shrimp from Brazil, Ecuador, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and the Socialist... Canned Warmwater Shrimp From Ecuador, 69 FR 76913 (December 23, 2004) (Ecuador Final...

  8. 75 FR 27705 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final Results of Antidumping... Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''). This review covers the period February 1, 2008 through January... duty order on shrimp from Vietnam for Nhat Duc Co., Ltd. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...

  9. 76 FR 16384 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam''), received on February 28, 2011, meets the statutory and regulatory requirements for...

  10. Dietary pantothenic acid requirement of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Hsu, C W

    1999-03-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary pantothenic acid (PA) requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with seven levels (0, 20, 40, 60, 120, 240, and 480 mg/kg) of supplemental PA were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0.88 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. The level of PA detected in the unsupplemented diet was 0.02 mg/kg. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Feed efficiencies (FE) and protein efficiency ratios were highest in shrimp fed the diets supplemented with 120, 240, and 480 mg PA/kg diet, followed by the groups fed 60 mg/kg, then 40 mg/kg, and finally the unsupplemented control group (P < 0.05). Shrimp fed diets supplemented with PA had significantly higher survival percentages and lower hepatopancreatic lipid concentration than those fed the unsupplemented, control diets. Broken-line regression analyses of weight gain percentage and hepatopancreatic CoA and PA concentrations of the shrimp indicated that the adequate dietary PA concentration in growing P. monodon is 101-139 mg/kg.

  11. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp.

    PubMed

    Luz, Roger B; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B; Soliman, Mayra C; Souza, Fernanda G; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D; Spilki, Fernando R

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems.

  12. [Detection of allergenic substances (shrimp, crab) in processed seafood].

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroko; Saita, Kiyotaka; Akaboshi, Chie; Ohsawa, Nobuhiko; Hashiguchi, Shigeki; Miyazawa, Maki

    2014-01-01

    We have carried out a study (2009-2012) on processed seafood products in order to determine the level of contamination with shrimp and crab. In 2010-2012, after the Allergy Labeling Regulation went into effect, the detection rate of crustacean protein in processed seafood products including small fish, such as niboshi, tukudani and so on (both boiled and dried), was 63%. Detection rates for processed seafood products in which crustacean protein levels were below 1 μg/g were 36% with and 58% without advisory labels, allowing us to conclude that 60% of labels were adequate. On the other hand, the detection rate for processed seafood products with crustacean protein levels higher than the baseline of 10 μg/g was 9%, of which 60% carried no advisory labels. The rate of shrimp DNA detection using the Akiami primer in processed foods containing shrimp and crab was high (73%). This suggests that it is necessary to test these products using the Akiami primer for supplemental analyses of shrimp DNA. The PCR analysis for crab DNA detection failed due to combined detection of mantis shrimp DNA, which accounted for 8% of the total detected.

  13. Immunological-based assays for specific detection of shrimp viruses

    PubMed Central

    Chaivisuthangkura, Parin; Longyant, Siwaporn; Sithigorngul, Paisarn

    2014-01-01

    Among shrimp viral pathogens, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and yellow head virus (YHV) are the most lethal agents, causing serious problems for both the whiteleg shrimp, Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei, and the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus (Penaeus) monodon. Another important virus that infects P. vannamei is infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), which induces the white discoloration of affected muscle. In the cases of taura syndrome virus and Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV; formerly known as infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus), their impacts were greatly diminished after the introduction of tolerant stocks of P. vannamei. Less important viruses are Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV; formerly called hepatopancreatic parvovirus), and Penaeus monodon nucleopolyhedrovirus (PemoNPV; previously called monodon baculovirus). For freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii nodavirus and extra small virus are considered important viral pathogens. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific to the shrimp viruses described above have been generated and used as an alternative tool in various immunoassays such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dot blotting, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Some of these MAbs were further developed into immunochromatographic strip tests for the detection of WSSV, YHV, IMNV and PemoNPV and into a dual strip test for the simultaneous detection of WSSV/YHV. The strip test has the advantages of speed, as the result can be obtained within 15 min, and simplicity, as laboratory equipment and specialized skills are not required. Therefore, strip tests can be used by shrimp farmers for the pond-side monitoring of viral infection. PMID:24567913

  14. Bioaccumulation of animal adenoviruses in the pink shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Roger B.; Staggemeier, Rodrigo; Fabres, Rafael B.; Soliman, Mayra C.; Souza, Fernanda G.; Gonçalves, Raoni; Fausto, Ivone V.; Rigotto, Caroline; Heinzelmann, Larissa S.; Henzel, Andréia; Fleck, Juliane D.; Spilki, Fernando R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoviruses are among the most promising viral markers of fecal contamination. They are frequently found in the water, sediment and soil of regions impacted by human activity. Studies of the bioaccumulation of enteric viruses in shrimp are scarce. The cities located in the northern coast of the lake systems in Southern Brazil have high urbanization and intensive farming rates, and poor sewage collection and treatment. One hundred (n = 100) Farfantepenaeus paulensis pink-shrimp specimens and 48 water samples were collected from coastal lagoons between June 2012 and May 2013. Water samples were concentrated and the shrimp, mashed. After DNA extraction, samples were analyzed by real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in order to detect and quantify viral genomes. Thirty-five percent of shrimp samples were positive for contamination, predominantly by avian adenoviruses. A total of 91.7% of water samples contained adenoviruses DNA, with the human form being the most frequent. Our results provided evidence of significant bioaccumulation of adenoviruses in shrimp, showing the extent of the impact of fecal pollution on aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26413052

  15. Evaluating the impact of seismic prospecting on artisanal shrimp fisheries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriguetto-Filho, José M.; Ostrensky, Antonio; Pie, Marcio R.; Silva, Ubiratã A.; Boeger, Walter A.

    2005-09-01

    The constant need to discover new hydrocarbon deposits is causing the use of air-guns to become a very widespread method of seismic prospecting. However, there is still disagreement regarding their impact on the marine environment. This uncertainty is particularly severe in the case of shellfish, which account for a substantial share of commercial fisheries and seafood trade in many parts of the world. In this paper we report on the first study to explicitly assess the impact of seismic prospecting on shrimp resources. We measured bottom trawl yields of a nonselective commercial shrimp fishery comprising the Southern white shrimp, Litopenaeus schmitti, the Southern brown shrimp, Farfantepenaeus subtilis, and the Atlantic Seabob, Xyphopenaeus kroyeri (Decapoda: Penaeidae), before and after the use of an array of four synchronized air-guns, each with 635 in 3 of total capacity, 2.000 psi, and peak pressure of 196 dB (re 1 μPa at 1 m). Our results did not detect significant deleterious impact of seismic prospecting on the studied species, suggesting that shrimp stocks are resilient to the disturbance by air-guns under our experimental conditions.

  16. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Baeza, J. Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J.; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males. PMID:26934109

  17. Monogamy in a Hyper-Symbiotic Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Baeza, J Antonio; Simpson, Lunden; Ambrosio, Louis J; Guéron, Rodrigo; Mora, Nathalia

    2016-01-01

    Theory predicts that monogamy is adaptive in resource-specialist symbiotic crustaceans inhabiting relatively small and morphologically simple hosts in tropical environments where predation risk away from hosts is high. We tested this prediction in Pontonia manningi, a hyper-symbiotic shrimp that dwells in the mantle cavity of the Atlantic winged oyster Pteria colymbus that, in turn, infects gorgonians from the genus Pseudopterogorgia in the Caribbean Sea. In agreement with theory, P. manningi were found dwelling as heterosexual pairs in oysters more frequently than expected by chance alone. Males and females also inhabited the same host individual independent of the female gravid condition or of the developmental stage of brooded embryos. While the observations above argue in favor of monogamy in P. manningi, there is evidence to suggest that males of the studied species are moderately promiscuous. That females found living solitary in oysters most often brooded embryos, and that males allocated more to weaponry (major claw size) than females at any given size suggest that males might be roaming among host individuals in search of and, fighting for, receptive females. All available information depicts a rather complex mating system in P. manningi: primarily monogamous but with moderately promiscuous males.

  18. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Winton, James R

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  19. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winton, James R.; Walker, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change.

  20. Environmental regulation through trade: the case of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Darren; Hite, Diane; Jaffar, Abdul; Kari, Fatimah

    2003-07-01

    The implications of a potential ban on shrimp imports by the US from countries that do not utilize the Turtle Excluder Device on commercial shrimp nets is explored in this paper. A Linear Expenditure System (LES) was used to determine the own-price elasticities of demand for shrimp imports. The system of estimated equations was then solved for quantity levels under assumptions made about the trade restrictions, resulting in a set of prices for those import levels. These estimated prices were then used to estimate the compensating variation impact of the trade restrictions. Findings suggest that the environmental regulation would have a negative impact on US consumers, but the magnitude of that effect depends on assumptions made regarding the distribution of US imports after the trade restriction is imposed.

  1. The functional property of Bacillus for shrimp feeds.

    PubMed

    Leonel Ochoa-Solano, J; Olmos-Soto, Jorge

    2006-09-01

    In shrimp cultures, feed represents the most expensive production cost. The quantity and quality of diets are primary factors influencing shrimp growth, nitrogen loading of the culture system and disease proliferation. For these reasons there is an interest in developing 'environmentally friendly' feeds for optimal growth. In this study, Bacillus strains were isolated from marine environments. The isolates were qualitatively assayed for proteases, carbohydrolases and lipases using selective media. The selected strains (9b, 31 and 33) were molecularly identified as Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium and B. megaterium, respectively. Subsequently the strains were grown in an inexpensive culture medium (soybean mineral medium (MMS)). The information generated from the present investigation may contribute towards better feed formulations for shrimp at low cost, including bacterial strains as probiotics.

  2. Microbiological Evaluation of Cold-Water Shrimp (Pandalus borealis)

    PubMed Central

    Zapatka, Francis A.; Bartolomeo, Beverly

    1973-01-01

    A bacteriological survey of the Maine shrimp industry was conducted to investigate the conditions associated with the production of frozen, raw, peeled shrimp. In-plant samples and finished product units were collected from seven plants. The most probable number of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci, as well as aerobic plate counts (APC), were determined. Freshly harvested shrimp collected from fishing vessels had an APC geometric mean of 510/g, and E. coli, coliforms, and coagulase-positive staphylococci were absent. Subsequent storage and insanitary practices during processing increased the APC and introduced coliforms. However, the low air temperatures (18 to 45 F) in the plants and the large volumes of cold water (34 F) used during processing inhibited significant bacterial buildup in the finished product. PMID:4577485

  3. Cloning of penaeidin gene promoter in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Ho, Shih-Hu; Song, Yen-Ling

    2009-07-01

    Penaeidins belong to a family of antimicrobial peptides that are expressed in the hemocytes of penaeid shrimps. Using an extender PCR method and a nested PCR, we cloned two types of genomic fragment flanking the 5' end of penaeidin gene in tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon): Type536 and Type411 sequences. Both fragments contained TATA box, GATA, dorsal and AP-1 motifs and were ligated to an expression vector with a luciferase reporter gene. The constructs were then delivered into Drosophila S2 cell line. The promoter functions of the two fragments were determined using a luciferase expression assay. The study demonstrated that Type411 sequence performed higher transcriptional activity than Type536. Alignment of the upstream sequences of penaeidin genes in P. monodon and Litopenaeus vannamei showed that the promoter regions were obviously more diverse than the 5'UTRs. Phylogenetic analysis indicated the presence of two types of promoters that are not species-specific in the two shrimps.

  4. Cloning of profilin (FcPFN) from the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis, a highly expressed protein in white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-infected shrimp.

    PubMed

    Kong, H J; Hong, G-E; Cho, H K; Nam, B-H; Kim, Y-O; Kim, W-J; Lee, S-J; Kim, K-K

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and characterized the profilin (FcPFN) cDNA from hemocytes of Fenneropenaeus chinensis, a unique shrimp species from the Yellow Sea. The FcPFN cDNA consists of 830 bp and encodes a polypeptide of 125 amino acids, having a predicted isoelectric point of 5.06. The deduced amino acid sequence of FcPFN shows 36% and 90% amino acid sequence identity to the profilin genes of Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, respectively. The FcPFN mRNA was highly expressed in hemocytes and hepatopancreas and moderately in muscle of normal shrimp. The higher expression of FcPFN mRNA is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which is a major concern in all shrimp-growing regions of the world. These results suggest a potential role for FcPFN in viral host defense mechanisms.

  5. Recombinant shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) trypsinogen production in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha; Escamilla-Treviño, Luis L; Castillo-Galván, Mauricio; Gallegos-López, Juan A; Viader-Salvadó, José M

    2009-01-01

    Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) trypsinogen has never been isolated from its natural source. To assess the production of L. vannamei trypsinogen, we engineered Pichia pastoris strains and evaluated two culture approaches with three induction culture media, to produce recombinant shrimp trypsinogen for the first time. The trypsinogen II cDNA was fused to the signal sequence of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha mating factor, placed under the control of the P. pastoris AOX1 promoter, and integrated into the genome of P. pastoris host strain GS115. Using standard culture conditions for heterologous gene induction of a GS115 strain in shake flasks, recombinant shrimp trypsinogen was not detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. Growth kinetics revealed a toxicity of recombinant shrimp trypsinogen or its activated form over the cell host. Thus, a different culture approach was tested for the induction step, involving the use of high cell density cultures, a higher frequency of methanol feeding (every 12 h), and a buffered minimal methanol medium supplemented with sorbitol or alanine; alanine supplemented medium was found to be more efficient. After 96 h of induction with alanine supplemented medium, a 29-kDa band from the cell-free culture medium was clearly observed by SDS-PAGE, and confirmed by Western blot to be shrimp trypsinogen, at a concentration of 14 microg/mL. Our results demonstrate that high density cell cultures with alanine in the induction medium allow the production of recombinant shrimp trypsinogen using the P. pastoris expression system, because of improved cell viability and greater stability of the recombinant trypsinogen.

  6. The Effect of Latitudinal Variation on Shrimp Reproductive Strategies

    PubMed Central

    van de Kerk, Madelon; Jones Littles, Chanda; Saucedo, Omar; Lorenzen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive strategies comprise the timing and frequency of reproductive events and the number of offspring per reproductive event, depending on factors such as climate conditions. Therefore, species that exhibit plasticity in the allocation of reproductive effort can alter their behavior in response to climate change. Studying how the reproductive strategy of species varies along the latitudinal gradient can help us understand and predict how they will respond to climate change. We investigated the effects of the temporal allocation of reproductive effort on the population size of brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus aztecus) along a latitudinal gradient. Multiple shrimp species exhibit variation in their reproductive strategies, and given the economic importance of brown shrimp to the commercial fishing sector of the Unites States, changes in the timing of their reproduction could have significant economic and social consequences. We used a stage-based, density-dependent matrix population model tailored to the life history of brown shrimp. Shrimp growth rates and environmental carrying capacity were varied based on the seasonal climate conditions at different latitudes, and we estimated the population size at equilibrium. The length of the growing season increased with decreasing latitude and the reproductive strategy leading to the highest population size changed from one annual birth pulse with high reproductive output to continuous low-output reproduction. Hence, our model confirms the classical paradigm of continuous reproduction at low latitudes, with increased seasonality of the breeding period towards the poles. Our results also demonstrate the potential for variation in climate to affect the optimal reproductive strategy for achieving maximum population sizes. Certainly, understanding these dynamics may inform more comprehensive management strategies for commercially important species like brown shrimp. PMID:27158895

  7. Summary of studies on closed-polyculture of penaeid shrimp with fishes and moluscans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, De-Shang; Dong, Shuang-Lin

    2000-03-01

    Closed-polyculture of Chinese penaeid shrimp, Taiwan red tilapia, and molluscans(constricted tagelus and bay scallop) was studied from 1995 to 1997 with the enclosure-experiment method, on a shrimp farm in Haiyang County, Shandong Province. Four structure-optimized closed-polyculture systems, i. e., the “shrimp-tagelus” system, the “shrimp-scallop” system, the “shrimp-tilapia” system and the “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system, were worked out. All these polyculture systems were superior to shrimp monoculture system in economic and ecological efficiencies. The order of these polyculture systems in efficiencies was “shrimptilapia-tagelus” > “shrimp-tagelus”>“shrimp-tilapia”>“shrimp-scallop”. The “shrimp-tilapia-tagelus” system raised the production by 28% and the utilization efficiency of input nitrogen by 85%. These closed-polyculture systems reduced the nitrogen discharge ratio to 6% 8%, instead of 40% 90% in the usual open culture systems. The ecological features of the systems were also investigated and many meaningful results have been obtained. The mechanism enhancing the efficiencies of these systems, the ways to enhance the efficiencies further and those to reuse the sedimented materials are disscussed.

  8. Polyculture of penaeid shrimp in ponds receiving brackish heated effluent from a power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Ojeda, J.L.W.

    1983-01-01

    White shrimp Penaeus setiferus, were grown in monoculture or in polyculture with blue shrimp P. stylirostris, or striped mullet Mugil cephalus in 0.1-ha earthen ponds receiving heated effluent from the Houston Lighting and Power Company's Cedar Bayou Generating Station east of Baytown, Texas during 1978 and 1979. No detrimental effect of either species on white shrimp survival or yield was found. Blue shrimp was greater than that of white shrimp in the same ponds. Total yield was increased by polyculture. An experiment was performed in which blue shrimp were stocked conventionally into ponds, or stocked in three successive increments (staggered stocking study). A preliminary experiment was made in 1978, followed by a more expanded version in 1979. Staggered stocking increased pond yields compared to expected values from the control pond yields. There was no detrimental effect of staggered stocking on shrimp survival. Pond salinities were much lower in 1979 than in 1978, associated with lower shrimp growth, survival and yield. A distribution study performed in the staggered stocking study ponds revealed that blue shrimp in mixed-size culture tend to segregate by size, and that small shrimp show somewhat different distribution patterns and temporal activity patterns than large shrimp. All the organisms used also served as biological monitors of water quality. No detectable levels of pesticides were found in any of the cultured animals. The only heavy metal found in higher concentrations than in previous years at this site was chromium.

  9. The effects of a thermophile metabolite, tryptophol, upon protecting shrimp against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Fei; Jin, Min

    2015-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a shrimp pathogen responsible for significant economic loss in commercial shrimp farms and until now, there has been no effective approach to control this disease. In this study, tryptophol (indole-3-ethanol) was identified as a metabolite involved in bacteriophage-thermophile interactions. The dietary addition of tryptophol reduced the mortality in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus when orally challenged with WSSV. Our results revealed that 50 mg/kg tryptophol has a better protective effect in shrimp than 10 or 100 mg/kg tryptophol. WSSV copies in shrimp were reduced significantly (P < 0.01) when supplemented with 50 mg/kg tryptophol, indicating that virus replication was inhibited by tryptophol. Consequently, tryptophol represents an effective antiviral dietary supplement for shrimp, and thus holds significant promise as a novel and efficient therapeutic approach to control WSSV in shrimp aquaculture.

  10. Emerging viral diseases of fish and shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Peter J.; Winton, James R.

    2010-01-01

    The rise of aquaculture has been one of the most profound changes in global food production of the past 100 years. Driven by population growth, rising demand for seafood and a levelling of production from capture fisheries, the practice of farming aquatic animals has expanded rapidly to become a major global industry. Aquaculture is now integral to the economies of many countries. It has provided employment and been a major driver of socio-economic development in poor rural and coastal communities, particularly in Asia, and has relieved pressure on the sustainability of the natural harvest from our rivers, lakes and oceans. However, the rapid growth of aquaculture has also been the source of anthropogenic change on a massive scale. Aquatic animals have been displaced from their natural environment, cultured in high density, exposed to environmental stress, provided artificial or unnatural feeds, and a prolific global trade has developed in both live aquatic animals and their products. At the same time, over-exploitation of fisheries and anthropogenic stress on aquatic ecosystems has placed pressure on wild fish populations. Not surprisingly, the consequence has been the emergence and spread of an increasing array of new diseases. This review examines the rise and characteristics of aquaculture, the major viral pathogens of fish and shrimp and their impacts, and the particular characteristics of disease emergence in an aquatic, rather than terrestrial, context. It also considers the potential for future disease emergence in aquatic animals as aquaculture continues to expand and faces the challenges presented by climate change. PMID:20409453

  11. Distribution and biology of Indo-Pacific insular hypogeal shrimps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maciolek, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ten species of caridean shrimps, representing nine genera in five families, have been found in exposures of the marine water table at 28 islands from Hawaii to the western Indian Ocean. Synthesis of literature information and personal observations indicate that, as a group, these shrimps are characterized by red body pigment, reduced but pigmented eyes, euryhalinity, a proclivity for interstitial seawater in limestone or lava rock, generalized food requirements, and probable pre-Pleistocene origins. The shrimps have not been found in waters cooler than about 20°C.Species are often solitary, but as many as five are known to coexist. Six of the species have widely scattered populations, some as far apart as Hawaii and the Red Sea. Passive oceanic dispersal is endorsed as a general explanation for such apparently disjunct distributions. On the basis of an assumed primary habitat requirement of interstitial marine water, which could include that in shallow submerged rock as well as that in emergent (insular) rock, I hypothesize a much more cosmopolitan distribution of these shrimps in the Indo-Pacific Tropical Zone.

  12. Occurrence of toxigenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus strains in shrimp in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Ebrahim; Ameri, Mehrdad; Doosti, Abbas; Gholampour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-09-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a common cause of foodborne gastroenteritis in people, is frequently isolated from a variety of seafood, including shrimp. The virulence of clinical V. parahaemolyticus strains is commonly associated with expression of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) and TDH-related hemolysin (TRH), which are encoded by the tdh and trh genes. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence rate of total and toxigenic V. parahaemolyticus in shrimp caught off the south coast of Iran. Three hundred freshly caught shrimp from four different species, Penaeus monodon, Penaeus semisulcatus, Penaeus indicus, and Penaeus merguiensis, were collected in three provinces along Persian Gulf in the south coast of Iran. Shrimp were collected at the end of each month from July 2008 to July 2009. The samples were analyzed for the presence of V. parahaemolyticus and the occurrence of toxigenic strains. Using conventional bacteriological techniques, 29 V. parahaemolyticus isolates were identified in which 28 strains were confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction assay targeting the tlh gene of V. parahaemolyticus. Using polymerase chain reaction assays targeting the tdh and trh genes, five (1.7%) and two (0.7%) isolates were tdh positive and trh positive, respectively. The tdh-positive isolates were commonly detected in summer, whereas no toxigenic strain was isolated in winter. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first report of the presence of toxigenic tdh- and trh-positive V. parahaemolyticus strains in the seafood in Iran.

  13. Halogenated contaminants in farmed salmon, trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, S P J; van Velzen, M J M; Swart, C P; van der Veen, I; Traag, W A; de Boer, J

    2009-06-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-p-furans (PCDD/Fs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers (HBCDs), and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were analyzed in popular farmed fish such as salmon, trout, tilapia, and pangasius and in farmed shrimp. The samples originated from southeast Asia, Europe, and South America. Results show the following: (i) Carnivorous species contained higher contaminant concentrations than omnivorous species. (ii) Contaminant concentrations generally decreased per species in the following order of salmon > trout > tilapia approximately equal to pangasius approximately equal to shrimp. (iii) Most contaminant concentrations decreased in the following order of PCBs approximately equal to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs) > hexachlorobenzene approximately equal to pentachlorobenzene approximately equal to dieldrin approximately equal to PBDEs approximately equal to alpha-HBCD approximately equal to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) > World Health Organization toxic equivalents (WHO-TEQ) [PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like (dl)-PCBs]. (iv) Contaminant concentrations were very low (mostly <1 ng/g wet weight) and far below the European and Dutch legislative limits. (v) Contaminant concentrations in farmed shrimp, pangasius, and tilapia were lower than those in wild fish, whereas contaminant concentrations in farmed salmon and trout were higher than those in lean wild marine fish. From the five species investigated, salmon is predominantly responsible (97%) for human exposure to the sum of the investigated contaminants. The contribution of trout, tilapia, pangasius, and shrimp is small (3%) because contaminant concentrations and consumption volumes were much lower.

  14. Talking about Brine Shrimps: Three Ways of Analysing Pupil Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Applies three distinct analyses to recorded and transcribed student conversations (n=240) about brine shrimps. The complementary analytic methods provide information on the content of pupils' conversations in terms of the observations made, the ways in which pupils make sense of their observations, and the ways in which students use conversation…

  15. Soybean meal, distillers grains replace fishmeal in experimental shrimp diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate inclusion of distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as partial replacement of commercial, solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) in fish meal-free diets for Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaria connected to a recirculating biofiltratio...

  16. Brine Shrimp and Their Habitat, An Environmental Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This environmental unit is one of a series designed for integration within the existing curriculum. The unit is self-contained and students are encouraged to work at their own speed. The philosophy of the unit is based on an experience-oriented process that encourages independent student work. This unit explores the life cycle of brine shrimp and…

  17. CO2 Efflux from Shrimp Ponds in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Sidik, Frida; Lovelock, Catherine E.

    2013-01-01

    The conversion of mangrove forest to aquaculture ponds has been increasing in recent decades. One of major concerns of this habitat loss is the release of stored ‘blue’ carbon from mangrove soils to the atmosphere. In this study, we assessed carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from soil in intensive shrimp ponds in Bali, Indonesia. We measured CO2 efflux from the floors and walls of shrimp ponds. Rates of CO2 efflux within shrimp ponds were 4.37 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the walls and 1.60 kg CO2 m−2 y−1 from the floors. Combining our findings with published data of aquaculture land use in Indonesia, we estimated that shrimp ponds in this region result in CO2 emissions to the atmosphere between 5.76 and 13.95 Tg y−1. The results indicate that conversion of mangrove forests to aquaculture ponds contributes to greenhouse gas emissions that are comparable to peat forest conversion to other land uses in Indonesia. Higher magnitudes of CO2 emission may be released to atmosphere where ponds are constructed in newly cleared mangrove forests. This study indicates the need for incentives that can meet the target of aquaculture industry without expanding the converted mangrove areas, which will lead to increased CO2 released to atmosphere. PMID:23755306

  18. Bringing Scientific Inquiry Alive Using Real Grass Shrimp Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aultman, Terry; Curran, Mary Carla; Partridge, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This lesson was developed for middle school students using actual research on grass shrimp ("Palaemonetes pugio") to illustrate the process of a scientific investigation. The research was conducted at Savannah State University and funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Education through the Living Marine…

  19. Quantifying the vitamin K requirement of juvenile marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) with menadione.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Liu, J S

    1994-02-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the optimum dietary vitamin K requirement for juvenile marine shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 5, 10, 20, 50, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg) of supplemental menadione were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 1.33 +/- 0.05 g) for 12 wk. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with vitamin K (5-320 mg/kg) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain and feed efficiency than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with > or = 50 mg/kg vitamin K had higher protein efficiency ratios than shrimp fed the control diet. Calcium deposition in shrimp generally increased as dietary vitamin K supplementation increased. Vitamin K-dependent carboxylase activity was highest in shrimp fed the control diet, followed by shrimp fed 5-160 mg menadione/kg diet, and lowest in those fed 320 mg menadione/kg diet. Vitamin K-dependent protein precursor concentrations were high in shrimp fed 0-10 mg menadione/kg diet, lower in those fed 20 mg/kg, and lowest in shrimp fed > or = 50 mg/kg diet. Protein efficiency ratio and vitamin K-dependent protein precursor concentration analyzed by broken-line regression indicated that the adequate dietary vitamin K concentration in growing P. monodon is 30-40 mg/kg diet.

  20. Viral ubiquitin ligase WSSV222 is required for efficient white spot syndrome virus replication in shrimp.

    PubMed

    He, Fang; Syed, Syed Musthaq; Hameed, A S Sahul; Kwang, Jimmy

    2009-06-01

    The E3 ligase WSSV222 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is involved in anti-apoptosis regulation by ubiquitin-mediated degradation of tumour suppressor-like protein (TSL), a shrimp tumour suppressor. In the present study, WSSV222 gene expression was silenced by using specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) in Sf9 and BHK cells. Based on the results of the in vitro silencing, WSSV-challenged shrimp were treated with anti-WSSV222 siRNA to knock down WSSV222 protein expression. The survival rate of shrimp and the efficiency of WSSV replication were assessed to evaluate the efficacy of anti-WSSV222 siRNA in regulating WSSV infection in shrimp. The anti-WSSV222 siRNA reduced the cumulative mortality in shrimp challenged with 10(3) copies of WSSV and delayed the mean time to death in shrimp challenged with the higher dose of 10(6) copies. The results of real-time quantitative PCR showed that virus replication was delayed and reduced in WSSV-challenged shrimp treated with anti-WSSV222 siRNA in comparison with challenged shrimp treated with random-control siRNA. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed that WSSV222 silencing inhibited the degradation of TSL in WSSV-challenged shrimp, indicating the requirement for WSSV222 for efficient replication of WSSV in shrimp.

  1. Detection of shrimp-derived components in food by real-time fluorescent PCR.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jijuan; Yu, Bing; Ma, Lidan; Zheng, Qiuyue; Zhao, Xin; Xu, Junyi

    2011-10-01

    Crustaceans such as shrimp and crabs and their products are important allergens in food, and allergic reactions due to the consumption of shrimp and crabs are frequently reported. However, the chemical properties of shrimp-derived allergens, except for Pen a I, are still unclear. Therefore, it is important to establish a more sensitive and specific method for detecting the composition of foods containing shrimp. In the present study, we developed a real-time fluorescent PCR to identify the specific shrimp-derived components in food. The primers and TaqMan probes for real-time fluorescent PCR were designed based on 16S rRNA genes through comparing a large number of nucleic acid sequences from different species of shrimp that have been published by the National Center for Biotechnology Information. In total, 56 kinds of samples, including different kinds of shrimp, crab, fish, shellfish, and octopus, were subjected to detection by real-time PCR. The results indicated that real-time fluorescent PCR could successfully identify the shrimp-derived components. In order to explore the effect of food processing on detection sensitivity, fish powder containing shrimp powder was treated by heating at 133°C for 30 min. The limit of detection of shrimp-derived components in fish powder was 0.05% (wt/wt).

  2. Fish and opossum shrimp entrainment in the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maiolie, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Impacts of operating the Mt. Elbert Pumped-Storage Power Plant on fish and opossum shrimp (mysis relicta) were investigated from 1981 to 1985 at Twin Lakes, Colorado to determine any negative effects on the Twin Lakes fishery. Daytime generation cycles entrained shrimp at densities averaging 0.05 to 0.23 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Eight hour daytime generation cycles would entrain 50,000 to 300,000 shrimp at these rates. Generation cycles which occurred after dark entrained many times more shrimp with densities as high as 1.21 shrimp/m/sup 3/ of discharge. Entrainment density during nighttime pump-back cycles was much greater; averaging 2 to 17 shrimp/m/sup 3/ discharged. Six to 44 million shrimp were entrained during typical 8 h pump-back cycles. Differences between daytime and nighttime entrainment rates appeared to be caused by migration of shrimp into the water column at night making them more vulnerable to entrainment. Losses were estimated to have reduced Lower Twin Lake shrimp abundance by 39% in 1985.

  3. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-02-01

    Cold-water coral reefs are highly heterogeneous ecosystems comprising of a range of diverse microhabitats. In a typical European cold-water coral reef various biogenic habitats (live colonies of locally common coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, dead coral structure, coral rubble) may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic habitats (soft sediment, hardground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across these microhabitats have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC habitat categories at the Røst reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with habitat. We found shrimp abundances at the Røst reef to be on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef habitats than in non-biogenic habitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea habitats (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis habitats (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa habitats (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic habitats shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. We conclude that CWC reef habitats clearly support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic habitats on the Norwegian margin.

  4. Microhabitat and shrimp abundance within a Norwegian cold-water coral ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, A.; Ontrup, J.; Schoening, T.; Thomsen, L.; Tong, R.; Unnithan, V.; Nattkemper, T. W.

    2013-09-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) reefs are heterogeneous ecosystems comprising numerous microhabitats. A typical European CWC reef provides various biogenic microhabitats (within, on and surrounding colonies of coral species such as Lophelia pertusa, Paragorgia arborea and Primnoa resedaeformis, or formed by their remains after death). These microhabitats may be surrounded and intermixed with non-biogenic microhabitats (soft sediment, hard ground, gravel/pebbles, steep walls). To date, studies of distribution of sessile fauna across CWC reefs have been more numerous than those investigating mobile fauna distribution. In this study we quantified shrimp densities associated with key CWC microhabitat categories at the Røst Reef, Norway, by analysing image data collected by towed video sled in June 2007. We also investigated shrimp distribution patterns on the local scale (<40 cm) and how these may vary with microhabitat. Shrimp abundances at the Røst Reef were on average an order of magnitude greater in biogenic reef microhabitats than in non-biogenic microhabitats. Greatest shrimp densities were observed in association with live Paragorgia arborea microhabitat (43 shrimp m-2, SD = 35.5), live Primnoa resedaeformis microhabitat (41.6 shrimp m-2, SD = 26.1) and live Lophelia pertusa microhabitat (24.4 shrimp m-2, SD = 18.6). In non-biogenic microhabitat, shrimp densities were <2 shrimp m-2. CWC reef microhabitats appear to support greater shrimp densities than the surrounding non-biogenic microhabitats at the Røst Reef, at least at the time of survey.

  5. Application of molecular diagnostic methods to penaeid shrimp diseases: advances of the past 10 years for control of viral diseases in farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V; Poulos, B T; Tang-Nelson, K F J; Pantoja, C R; Nunan, L M; Navarro, S A; Redman, R M; Mohney, L L

    2006-01-01

    The most important diseases of farmed penaeid shrimp have infectious aetiologies. Among these are diseases with viral, rickettsial, bacterial, fungal and parasitic aetiologies. Diagnostic methods for these pathogens include the traditional methods of gross pathology, histopathology, classical microbiology, animal bioassay, antibody-based methods, and molecular methods using DNA probes and DNA amplification. While methods using clinical chemistry and tissue culture are standard methods in veterinary and human diagnostic laboratories, the former has not been routinely applied to the diagnosis of penaeid shrimp diseases and the latter has yet to be developed, despite considerable research and development efforts that have spanned the past 40 years. No continuous shrimp cell lines, or lines from other crustaceans, have been developed. Hence, when molecular methods began to be routinely applied to the diagnosis of infectious diseases in humans and domestic animals in the mid- to late 1980s, the technology was applied to the diagnosis of certain important diseases of penaeid shrimp for which only classical diagnostic methods were previously available. A DNA hybridization assay for the parvovirus IHHNV was the first molecular test developed for a shrimp disease. This was followed within a year by the first PCR test for MBV, an important baculovirus disease of shrimp. Today, shrimp disease diagnostic laboratories routinely use molecular tests for diagnostic and surveillance purposes for most of the important penaeid shrimp diseases.

  6. Microbial changes and growth of Listeria monocytogenes during chilled storage of brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis).

    PubMed

    Mejlholm, Ole; Kjeldgaard, Jette; Modberg, Anne; Vest, Mette Bohn; Bøknaes, Niels; Koort, Joanna; Björkroth, Johanna; Dalgaard, Paw

    2008-06-10

    Thirteen storage trials and ten challenge tests were carried out to examine microbial changes, spoilage and the potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in brined shrimp (Pandalus borealis). Shrimp in brine as well as brined and drained shrimp in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) were produced and studied. Different recipes were used to study the effect of preserving parameters (organic acids, pH and NaCl) on growth of microorganisms and shelf life at 7-8 degrees C or 12 degrees C. Particularly, brines with different concentrations of (i) benzoic, citric and sorbic acids or (ii) acetic, citric and lactic acids were studied. Furthermore, the effect of adding diacetate to brined shrimp was evaluated. A single batch of cooked and peeled shrimp was used to study both industrially and manually processed brined shrimp with respect to the effect of process hygiene on microbial changes and the shelf life of products. Concentrations of microorganisms on newly produced brined shrimp from an industrial scale processing line were 1.0-2.3 log (CFU g(-1)) higher than comparable concentrations in manually processed samples. This resulted in a substantially shorter shelf life and a more diverse spoilage microflora of the industrially processed brined shrimp. In addition, shelf life of brined shrimp was affected by the types and concentrations of organic acids and by the storage temperature as expected. The effect of MAP was less pronounced. Eighty-two isolates from the spoilage microflora of brined shrimp were identified and they included 53 lactic acid bacteria, 6 coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp., 18 Pseudomonas fluorescens and 5 yeast isolates. After storage at 7 degrees C, P. fluorescens, Enterococcus-like isolates, E. malodoratus, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. and Lactobacillus sakei constituted the dominating microflora of shrimp in brines that contained benzoic, citric and sorbic acids as preservatives. L. sakei dominated the

  7. Extension of shelf life of whole and peeled shrimp with organic acid salts and bifidobacteria.

    PubMed

    Al-Dagal, M M; Bazaraa, W A

    1999-01-01

    Microbiological and sensory characteristics of treated whole and peeled shrimp from the east coast of Saudi Arabia were evaluated. Shrimp samples were treated with organic acid salts with or without Bifidobacterium breve culture and stored in ice. Peeling alone extended the microbiological shelf life by 4 days. Treatment of whole shrimp with sodium acetate alone or potassium sorbate with bifidobacteria prolonged the microbiological shelf life by 3 days and increased the microbial generation time from 12.8 h (control) to 30.1 h or 31.4 h, respectively. The microbiological and sensory shelf life of peeled shrimp treated with sodium acetate was more than 17 days. Sodium acetate extended the microbial lag phase and lengthened the generation time (38.7 h compared to 15.8 h for the control). Micrococci and coryneforms were the predominant microorganisms in whole shrimp during storage. Treatment with sodium acetate maintained better sensory characteristics for peeled shrimp than potassium sorbate combined with bifidobacteria.

  8. Snapping shrimp prefer natural as opposed to artificial materials as their habitat in laboratory conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Lai Kean; Ghazali, Shahriman M.

    2014-09-01

    This study analyzed the habitat selection behavior of the snapping shrimp, Alpheus spp., comparing natural shelters (Rocks with oysters attached on the surface Sh; rocks with smooth surface, Ro and coral rubble, Co with plastic bottle. Controlled laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the habitat preference, effect of photoperiod and shrimp orientation at shelter. The current study indicated that snapping shrimp preferred natural materials but rejected plastic bottle as their shelter. Among the natural shelters, coral rubble was the most preferred habitat followed by shell and rock. Photoperiod showed minimum effect on the shrimp where they spend most of the time inside and underneath the shelters. In conclusion the current study showed that snapping shrimp preferred coral rubble as opposed to other natural material and plastic bottle. The result also suggested that plastic debris in the marine environment is not an alternative habitat for snapping shrimp.

  9. The effect of copper on the color of shrimps: redder is not always healthier.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500-700 nm): P=0.0015; red chroma (625-700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps.

  10. Insights into Cryoprotective Roles of Carrageenan Oligosaccharides in Peeled Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hui-Cheng; Tang, He; Hao, Gui-Juan; Zhang, Yang-Yang; Deng, Shang-Gui

    2017-03-01

    The cryoprotective effects of carrageenan oligosaccharides on peeled whiteleg shrimp were investigated and compared with sodium pyrophosphate treatment during frozen storage, primarily the interaction mechanisms between oligosaccharides and shrimp myosin. Data revealed significant profitable effects on water-holding capacity and textural variables in oligosaccharide-treated shrimp compared to the control. Chemical analyses showed that these saccharides maintained a higher myofibrillar protein content and Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in frozen shrimp. Additionally, the hematoxylin and eosin staining results indicated that the saccharides significantly slowed the damage to muscle tissue structures. The assumption was that water replacement hypothesis played a leading role in cryoprotection of frozen shrimp. Furthermore, the homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed that the saccharides substituted water molecules around the shrimp myosin surface by forming hydrogen bonds with polar residues of amino acids, thereby stabilizing the structures in the absence of water, leading to an increase in protein stability during frozen storage.

  11. Advances, challenges, and directions in shrimp disease control: the guidelines from an ecological perspective.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Li, Chenghua

    2016-08-01

    High-density aquaculture has led to increasing occurrences of diseases in shrimp. Thus, it is imperative to establish effective and quantitative strategies for preventing and predicting these diseases. Water quality indices and investigations of specific pathogen abundance provide only a qualitative evaluation of the risk of shrimp disease and can be inaccurate. To address these shortcomings, we introduced intestinal indicative assemblages as independent variables with which to quantitatively predict incidences of shrimp disease. Given the ignorance regarding the niches differences in the shrimp intestine throughout its developmental stages, the use of probiotics in aquaculture has had limited success. Therefore, we propose the exploration of effective probiotic bacteria from shrimp intestinal flora and the establishment of therapeutic strategies dependent on shrimp age. Following ecological selection principles, we hypothesize that the larval stage provides the best opportunity to establish a desired gut microbiota through preemptive colonization of the treated rearing water with known probiotics. To employ this strategy, however, substantial barriers must be overcome.

  12. The Effect of Copper on the Color of Shrimps: Redder Is Not Always Healthier

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Ana; Romero, Yanet; Castillo, Tania; Mascaró, Maite; López-Rull, Isabel; Simões, Nuno; Arcega-Cabrera, Flor; Gaxiola, Gabriela; Barbosa, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to test the effects of copper on the color of pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in vivo. Forty-eight shrimps (L. vannamei) were exposed to a low concentration of copper (1 mg/L; experimental treatment) and forty-eight shrimps were used as controls (no copper added to the water). As a result of this experiment, it was found that shrimps with more copper are significantly redder than those designated as controls (hue (500–700 nm): P = 0.0015; red chroma (625–700 nm): P<0.0001). These results indicate that redder color may result from exposure to copper and challenge the commonly held view that highly pigmented shrimps are healthier than pale shrimps. PMID:25229639

  13. Ecological limitations and appropriation of ecosystem support by shrimp farming in Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsson, Jonas; Folke, Carl; Kautsky, Nils

    1994-09-01

    Shrimp farming in mangrove areas has grown dramatically in Asia and Latin America over the past decade. As a result, demand for resources required for farming, such as feed, seed, and clean water, has increased substantially. This study focuses on semiintensive shrimp culture as practiced on the Caribbean coast of Colombia. We estimated the spatial ecosystem support that is required to produce the food inputs, nursery areas, and clean water to the shrimp farms, as well as to process wastes. We also made an estimate of the natural and human-made resources necessary to run a typical semiintensive shrimp farm. The results show that a semiintensive shrimp farm needs a spatial ecosystem support—the ecological footprint—that is 35-190 times larger than the surface area of the farm. A typical such shrimp farm appropriates about 295 J of ecological work for each joule of edible shrimp protein produced. The corresponding figure for industrial energy is 40:1. More than 80% of the ecological primary production required to feed the shrimps is derived from external ecosystems. In 1990 an area of 874-2300 km2 of mangrove was required to supply shrimp postlarvae to the farms in Colombia, corresponding to a total area equivalent to about 20-50% of the country’s total mangrove area. The results were compared with similar estimates for other food production systems, particularly aquacultural ones. The comparison indicates that shrimp farming ranks as one of the most resource-intensive food production systems, characterizing it as an ecologically unsustainable throughput system. Based on the results, we discuss local, national, and regional appropriation of ecological support by the semiintensive shrimp farms. Suggestions are made for how shrimp farming could be transformed into a food production system that is less environmentally degrading and less dependent on external support areas.

  14. Draft Genome Sequence Of The Shrimp Pathogen Vibrio harveyi CAIM 1792

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    etiologic agent of the ?bright red? syndrome of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei . 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...of the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei . Vibrio harveyi is a member of the Vibrio core group and anorganism with an important role in the...Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is caused by Vibrio harveyi. Dis. Aquat. Org. 92:11–19. Received 1 February 2012 Accepted 6 February 2012

  15. Effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) on shrimp preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guang-Li; Wang, Yuan-Hong; Liu, Shu-Qing; Tian, Xue-Lin

    1996-06-01

    This study on the effects of low molecular weight chitosan (LMC-1) and shrimp preserving agents such as phytic acid (PA), sodium bisulfite (SB), and crustacean preservative (CP) on the preservation of shrimp ( Trachypenaeus curvirostris) and the bacteriostasis of LMC-1 showed that: (1) Different LMC-1 concentration has different bacteriostasis on E. coli, B. subtilis and S. aureau; (2) LMC-1 and CP are better than PA and SB for preserving the freshness of shrimp stored at 4 °C.

  16. The role of selective breeding and biosecurity in the prevention of disease in penaeid shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Moss, Shaun M; Moss, Dustin R; Arce, Steve M; Lightner, Donald V; Lotz, Jeffrey M

    2012-06-01

    About 3.5 million metric tons of farmed shrimp were produced globally in 2009 with an estimated value greater than USD$14.6 billion. Despite the economic importance of farmed shrimp, the global shrimp farming industry continues to be plagued by disease. There are a number of strategies a shrimp farmer can employ to mitigate crop loss from disease, including the use of Specific Pathogen Free (SPF), selectively bred shrimp and the adoption of on-farm biosecurity practices. Selective breeding for disease resistance began in the mid 1990s in response to outbreaks of Taura syndrome, caused by Taura syndrome virus (TSV), which devastated populations of farmed shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) throughout the Americas. Breeding programs designed to enhance TSV survival have generated valuable information about the quantitative genetics of disease resistance in shrimp and have produced shrimp families which exhibit high survival after TSV exposure. The commercial availability of these selected shrimp has benefitted the shrimp farming industry and TSV is no longer considered a major threat in many shrimp farming regions. Although selective breeding has been valuable in combating TSV, this approach has not been effective for other viral pathogens and selective breeding may not be the most effective strategy for the long-term viability of the industry. Cost-effective, on-farm biosecurity protocols can be more practical and less expensive than breeding programs designed to enhance disease resistance. Of particular importance is the use of SPF shrimp stocked in biosecure environments where physical barriers are in place to mitigate the introduction and spread of virulent pathogens.

  17. 76 FR 20318 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... Sheet and Strip From Canada; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 57 FR 20460...

  18. Alterations in prey capture and induction of metallothioneins in grass shrimp fed cadmium-contaminated prey

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.G.; Hoexum Brouwer, T.M.; Brouwer, M.; Lopez, G.R.

    2000-04-01

    The aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri from a Cd-contaminated cove on the Hudson River, Foundry Cove, New York, USA, has evolved Cd resistance. Past studies have focused on how the mode of detoxification of Cd by these Cd-resistant worms influences Cd trophic transfer to the grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio. In the present study, the authors investigate reductions in prey capture in grass shrimp fed Cd-contaminated prey. They also investigate the induction of metal-binding proteins, metallothioneins, in these Cd-exposed shrimp. Grass shrimp were fed field-exposed Cd-contaminated Foundry Cove oligochaetes or laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated Artemia salina. Following these exposures, the ability of Cd- dosed and control shrimp to capture live A. salina was compared. Results show that shrimp fed laboratory-exposed Cd-contaminated A. salina for 2 weeks exhibit significant reductions in their ability to successfully capture prey (live A. salina). Reductions in prey capture were also apparent, though not as dramatic in shrimp fed for 1 week on field-exposed Cd-contained Foundry Cove oligochaetes. Shrimp were further investigated for their subcellular distribution of Cd to examine if alterations in prey capture could be linked to saturation of Cd-metallothionein. Cd-dosed shrimp produced a low molecular weight CD-binding metallothionein protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Most importantly, successful prey capture decreased with increased Cd body burdens and increased Cd concentration bound to high molecular weight proteins.

  19. Mining ESTs to determine the usefulness of SNPs across shrimp species.

    PubMed

    Gorbach, Danielle M; Hu, Zhi-Liang; Du, Zhi-Qiang; Rothschild, Max F

    2010-04-01

    Expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries from members of the Penaeidae family and brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) are currently the primary source of sequence data for shrimp species. Penaeid shrimp are the most commonly farmed worldwide, but selection methods for improving shrimp are limited. A better understanding of shrimp genomics is needed for farmers to use genetic markers to select the best breeding animals. The ESTs from Litopenaeus vannamei have been previously mined for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This present study took publicly available ESTs from nine shrimp species, excluding L. vannamei, clustered them with CAP3, predicted SNPs within them using SNPidentifier, and then analyzed whether the SNPs were intra- or interspecies. Major goals of the project were to predict SNPs that may distinguish shrimp species, locate SNPs that may segregate in multiple species, and determine the genetic similarities between L. vannamei and the other shrimp species based on their EST sequences. Overall, 4,597 SNPs were predicted from 4,600 contigs with 703 of them being interspecies SNPs, 735 of them possibly predicting species' differences, and 18 of them appearing to segregate in multiple species. While sequences appear relatively well conserved, SNPs do not appear to be well conserved across shrimp species.

  20. [Application of electron spin resonance spectroscopy for the detection of irradiated crustaceans (prawn, shrimp, and crabs)].

    PubMed

    Kameya, Hiromi; Takatsuki, Satoshi; Matsuda, Rieko; Tsutsumi, Tomoaki; Todoriki, Setsuko

    2014-01-01

    Prawn, shrimp and crabs sold in Japan are mostly imported from overseas. Detection of irradiated crustaceans is very important for quality assurance. In this study, we used ESR to detect radiation-induced radicals after irradiation of prawn, shrimp and crabs of major species. No radiation-induced radicals were detected in prawn (black tiger prawn) or shrimp (white leg shrimp). Radiation-induced radicals due to hydroxyapatite were detected in the claws of snow crab, red king crab, and swimming crab. Our results indicate that ESR measurement on the claw parts of these three species of crab can be used to determine their irradiation history.

  1. Determination of the infectious nature of the agent of acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome affecting penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Tran, Loc; Nunan, Linda; Redman, Rita M; Mohney, Leone L; Pantoja, Carlos R; Fitzsimmons, Kevin; Lightner, Donald V

    2013-07-09

    A new emerging disease in shrimp, first reported in 2009, was initially named early mortality syndrome (EMS). In 2011, a more descriptive name for the acute phase of the disease was proposed as acute hepatopancreatic necrosis syndrome (AHPNS). Affecting both Pacific white shrimp Penaeus vannamei and black tiger shrimp P. monodon, the disease has caused significant losses in Southeast Asian shrimp farms. AHPNS was first classified as idiopathic because no specific causative agent had been identified. However, in early 2013, the Aquaculture Pathology Laboratory at the University of Arizona was able to isolate the causative agent of AHPNS in pure culture. Immersion challenge tests were employed for infectivity studies, which induced 100% mortality with typical AHPNS pathology to experimental shrimp exposed to the pathogenic agent. Subsequent histological analyses showed that AHPNS lesions were experimentally induced in the laboratory and were identical to those found in AHPNS-infected shrimp samples collected from the endemic areas. Bacterial isolation from the experimentally infected shrimp enabled recovery of the same bacterial colony type found in field samples. In 3 separate immersion tests, using the recovered isolate from the AHPNS-positive shrimp, the same AHPNS pathology was reproduced in experimental shrimp with consistent results. Hence, AHPNS has a bacterial etiology and Koch's Postulates have been satisfied in laboratory challenge studies with the isolate, which has been identified as a member of the Vibrio harveyi clade, most closely related to V. parahemolyticus.

  2. The environmental impact of shrimp aquaculture: causes, effects, and mitigating alternatives.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F

    2001-07-01

    Attracted by the demand for shrimp in the developed countries, shrimp aquaculture has expanded rapidly, mainly in the subtropical and tropical lowlands of America and Asia. This work provides a global review and viewpoint on the environmental impacts of shrimp aquaculture, considering the causes and effects of the siting and operation of shrimp ponds and abandonment of farm facilities. Additionally, mitigating alternatives are discussed. To date, approximately 1-1.5 million ha of coastal lowlands have been converted into shrimp ponds, comprising mainly salt flats, mangrove areas, marshes, and agricultural lands. The impact of shrimp farming of most concern is the destruction of mangroves and salt marshes for pond construction. Compatibility with other users, the presence of buffer zones, maintaining an acceptable balance between mangroves and shrimp pond area, improved pond design, reduction of water exchange, and an improved residence time of water, size and capacity to assimilate effluents of the water body, are examples of ways to mitigate the adverse effects. The use of mangroves and halophytes as biofilters of shrimp pond effluents offers an attractive tool for reducing the impact in those regions where mangrove wetlands and appropriate conditions for halophyte plantations exist. Healthy seed supply, good feed with the use of prophylactic agents (including probiotics), good water quality, and lower stocking densities are examples of actions suggested to control disease in shrimp farming. Finally, in the context of integrated management, research priorities are suggested.

  3. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  4. Differential detection of shrimp and crab for food labeling using polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Watanabe, Satoshi; Temmei, Yusuke; Hirao, Takashi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Sakai, Shinobu; Adachi, Reiko; Sakata, Kozue; Urisu, Atsuo; Teshima, Reiko

    2011-04-27

    Shrimp and crab are well-known as allergenic ingredients. According to Japanese food allergy labeling regulations, shrimp species (including prawns, crayfishes, and lobsters) and crab species must be differentially declared when ≥10 ppm (total protein) of an allergenic ingredient is present. However, the commercial ELISA tests for the detection of crustacean proteins cannot differentiate between shrimp and crab. Therefore, two methods were developed to discriminate shrimp and crab: a shrimp-PCR method with postamplification digestion and a crab-PCR method that specifically amplifies a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene. The sensitivity and specificity of both PCR methods were verified by experiments using DNA extracted from 15 shrimp species, 13 crab species, krill, mysid, mantis shrimp, other food samples (cephalopod, shellfish, and fish), incurred foods, and commercial food products. Both PCR methods could detect 5 pg of DNA extracted from target species and 50 ng of genomic DNA extracted from incurred foods containing 10 ppm (μg/g) total protein of shrimp or crab. The two PCR methods were considered to be specific enough to separately detect species belonging to shrimp and crab. Although false-positive and false-negative results were obtained from some nontarget crustacean species, the proposed PCR methods, when used in conjunction with ELISA tests, would be a useful tool for confirmation of the validity of food allergy labeling and management of processed food safety for allergic patients.

  5. Contrasting Ecological Processes and Functional Compositions Between Intestinal Bacterial Community in Healthy and Diseased Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jinyong; Dai, Wenfang; Qiu, Qiongfen; Dong, Chunming; Zhang, Jinjie; Xiong, Jinbo

    2016-11-01

    Intestinal bacterial communities play a pivotal role in promoting host health; therefore, the disruption of intestinal bacterial homeostasis could result in disease. However, the effect of the occurrences of disease on intestinal bacterial community assembly remains unclear. To address this gap, we compared the multifaceted ecological differences in maintaining intestinal bacterial community assembly between healthy and diseased shrimps. The neutral model analysis shows that the relative importance of neutral processes decreases when disease occurs. This pattern is further corroborated by the ecosphere null model, revealing that the bacterial community assembly of diseased samples is dominated by stochastic processes. In addition, the occurrence of shrimp disease reduces the complexity and cooperative activities of species-to-species interactions. The keystone taxa affiliated with Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria in healthy shrimp gut shift to Gammaproteobacteria species in diseased shrimp. Changes in intestinal bacterial communities significantly alter biological functions in shrimp. Within a given metabolic pathway, the pattern of enrichment or decrease between healthy and deceased shrimp is correlated with its functional effects. We propose that stressed shrimp are more prone to invasion by alien strains (evidenced by more stochastic assembly and higher migration rate in diseased shrimp), which, in turn, disrupts the cooperative activity among resident species. These findings greatly aid our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that govern shrimp intestinal community assembly between health statuses.

  6. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion reduces the allergic reactivity of shrimp extract proteins and tropomyosin.

    PubMed

    Gámez, Cristina; Zafra, Ma Paz; Sanz, Verónica; Mazzeo, Carla; Ibáñez, Ma Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; del Pozo, Victoria

    2015-04-15

    Shrimp are highly allergenic foods. Current management are limited to the avoidance of foods. Therefore, there is an unmet need for a safe and effective therapy using modified allergens. This study focuses on assessing the potential for modification of the allergenicity of shrimp proteins following heat treatment or simulated gastric digestion. Shrimp proteins do not reduce their IgE reactivity after heat treatment but it is reduced by simulated gastric digestion in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Tropomyosin in shrimp extract is worse digested than purified tropomyosin. After 60 min of 10 U/μg pepsin digestion, a strong inhibition was produced in the in vivo skin reactivity of shrimp extracts and in activation of basophils from allergic patients. Immunisation experiments performed in rabbits demonstrated that digested boiled shrimp extract is able to induce IgG antibodies that block the IgE binding to the untreated boiled shrimp extract in shrimp-allergic patients. Building on our observations, digestion treatment could be an effective method for reducing shrimp allergenicity while maintaining the immunogenicity.

  7. Social and ecological challenges of market-oriented shrimp farming in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Lan, Ngo Thi Phuong

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam is one of the largest shrimp exporters in the world. Since 2010, Vietnam has earned about two billion dollars annually through shrimp exports. As a fertile area of greatest potential for agricultural production in Vietnam, the Mekong Delta has been a major contributor to the country's achievements, especially in the agricultural sector. During recent decades, trade liberation along with various policies in support of aquaculture has accelerated the development of shrimp production in the Delta. Based on an ethnographic study of shrimp farming in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, I assert that along with great rewards arising from the expansion of shrimp farming areas, productivity, and export value, the shrimp industry has brought various environmental, economic and social challenges. Consequently, shrimp farming is a risky business and local inhabitants have relied on various strategies to cope with these challenges. Risk mitigation in shrimp production and labor migration are the two important strategies of local inhabitants for securing their livelihoods. Water pollution and poor quality post-larvae shrimp are direct consequences of market-oriented production.

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Appenzeller Cheese Supplemented with Shrimp Powder

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hee-Young; Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Chun, Soon-Sil

    2015-01-01

    The effects of adding shrimp (Periclimenes imperator) powder to Appenzeller cheese on quality and characteristics during ripening were investigated. Cheese samples were prepared containing 1.0%, 2.0%, and 3.0% shrimp powder. Changes in the lactic acid bacterial populations, pH, water-soluble nitrogen concentrations, consumer acceptability, colour and texture were monitored during ripening. The addition of shrimp powder did not affect the appearance or consumer sensory characteristics of the cheeses. Likewise, cheese cohesiveness, fracturability, and springiness were not significantly altered. It was concluded that the quality of the Appenzeller cheese was not affected by adding shrimp powder. PMID:26761833

  9. Shrimp Lipids: A Source of Cancer Chemopreventive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    López-Saiz, Carmen-María; Suárez-Jiménez, Guadalupe-Miroslava; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Burgos-Hernández, Armando

    2013-01-01

    Shrimp is one of the most popular seafoods worldwide, and its lipids have been studied for biological activity in both, muscle and exoskeleton. Free fatty acids, triglycerides, carotenoids, and other lipids integrate this fraction, and some of these compounds have been reported with cancer chemopreventive activities. Carotenoids and polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied for chemopreventive properties, in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Their mechanisms of action depend on the lipid chemical structure and include antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-mutagenic, and anti-inflammatory activities, among others. The purpose of this review is to lay groundwork for future research about the properties of the lipid fraction of shrimp. PMID:24135910

  10. Evolution of neural computations: Mantis shrimp and human color decoding

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Qasim; Marshall, Justin; Thoen, Hanne; Conway, Bevil R.

    2014-01-01

    Mantis shrimp and primates both possess good color vision, but the neural implementation in the two species is very different, a reflection of the largely unrelated evolutionary lineages of these creatures. Mantis shrimp have scanning compound eyes with 12 classes of photoreceptors, and have evolved a system to decode color information at the front-end of the sensory stream. Primates have image-focusing eyes with three classes of cones, and decode color further along the visual-processing hierarchy. Despite these differences, we report a fascinating parallel between the computational strategies at the color-decoding stage in the brains of stomatopods and primates. Both species appear to use narrowly tuned cells that support interval decoding color identification. PMID:26034560

  11. Guiding brine shrimp through mazes by solving reaction diffusion equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singal, Krishma; Fenton, Flavio

    Excitable systems driven by reaction diffusion equations have been shown to not only find solutions to mazes but to also to find the shortest path between the beginning and the end of the maze. In this talk we describe how we can use the Fitzhugh-Nagumo model, a generic model for excitable media, to solve a maze by varying the basin of attraction of its two fixed points. We demonstrate how two dimensional mazes are solved numerically using a Java Applet and then accelerated to run in real time by using graphic processors (GPUs). An application of this work is shown by guiding phototactic brine shrimp through a maze solved by the algorithm. Once the path is obtained, an Arduino directs the shrimp through the maze using lights from LEDs placed at the floor of the Maze. This method running in real time could be eventually used for guiding robots and cars through traffic.

  12. Developmental arrest in grass shrimp embryos exposed to selected toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.E.H.

    1998-12-31

    Excised embryos of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) were exposed to single pulse concentrations of selected pollutants for 4 days. The following toxicity endpoints were monitored: rate of embryonic development, embryo mortality, and types of embryo malformation. Each endpoint exhibited concentration--response relationships which were modified by the embryonic age at which exposure commenced. Developmental retardation of up to 3 days was effected by phenol at 0.01% (V/V) and complete developmental arrest occurred at 0.05% and 0.1% (V/V). Similarly for methylene chloride, developmental retardation of 1003 days were observed at 0.1% (V/V) depending on the age of the embryos at the start of the tests. The morphological abnormalities of the embryos are described. The ecological significance of these findings and implications for the development of short-term toxicity tests using grass shrimp embryos are discussed.

  13. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of uraniferous opals

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nemchin, A.A.; Neymark, L.A.; Simons, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    U-Pb and U-series analyses of four U-rich opal samples using sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) demonstrate the potential of this technique for the dating of opals with ages ranging from several tens of thousand years to millions of years. The major advantages of the technique, compared to the conventional thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), are the high spatial resolution (???20 ??m), the ability to analyse in situ all isotopes required to determine both U-Pb and U-series ages, and a relatively short analysis time which allows obtaining a growth rate of opal as a result of a single SHRIMP session. There are two major limitations to this method, determined by both current level of development of ion probes and understanding of ion sputtering processes. First, sufficient secondary ion beam intensities can only be obtained for opal samples with U concentrations in excess of ???20 ??g/g. However, this restriction still permits dating of a large variety of opals. Second, U-Pb ratios in all analyses drifted with time and were only weakly correlated with changes in other ratios (such as U/UO). This drift, which is difficult to correct for, remains the main factor currently limiting the precision and accuracy of the U-Pb SHRIMP opal ages. Nevertheless, an assumption of similar behaviour of standard and unknown opals under similar analytical conditions allowed successful determination of ages with precisions of ???10% for the samples investigated in this study. SHRIMP-based U-series and U-Pb ages are consistent with TIMS dating results of the same materials and known geological timeframes. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Tidal and seasonal effects on transport of pink shrimp postlarvae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Criales, Maria M.; Wang, Jingyuan; Browder, Joan A.; Robblee, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Transport simulations were conducted to investigate a large seasonal peak in postlarvae of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus duorarum that occurs every summer on the northwestern border of Florida Bay. Daily vertical migration, a known behavior in pink shrimp postlarvae, was assumed in all scenarios investigated. A Lagrangian trajectory model was developed using a current field derived from a 3 yr ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) time series. To fit the estimated planktonic development time of pink shrimp, the model simulated larvae traveling at night over a 30 d period. We investigated 2 types of effects: (1) the effect of mismatch periodicity between tidal constituents and daily migration, and (2) the effect of seasonal changes in night length. The maximum eastward displacement with the semidiurnal lunar tidal constituent (M2) was 4 km, with periods of enhanced transport in both summer and winter. In contrast, eastward displacement with the semidiurnal solar tidal constituent (S2) and the lunisolar diurnal K1 was 65 km and the period of maximum distance occurred in summer every year. Because the periods of S2 and K1 are so close to the 24 h vertical migration period, and the eastward current (flood) of these constituents matches the diel cycle over extended intervals, they can induce strong horizontal transport during summer. Thus, diel vertical migration can interact with the S2 and the K1 tidal constituents and with the annual cycle of night length to produce a distinct annual cycle that may enhance transport of pink shrimp and other coastal species during summer in shallow areas of the Gulf of Mexico. ?? Inter-Research 2005.

  15. Water Diagnosis in Shrimp Aquaculture based on Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbajal Hernández, J. J.; Sánchez Fernández, L. P.

    2007-05-01

    In many countries, the shrimp aquaculture has not advanced computational systems to supervise the artificial habitat of the farms and laboratories. A computational system of this type helps significantly to improve the environmental conditions and to elevate the production and its quality. The main idea of this study is the creation of a system using an artificial neural network (ANN), which can help to recognize patterns of problems and their evolution in shrimp aquaculture, and thus to respond with greater rapidity against the negative effects. Bad control on the shrimp artificial habitat produces organisms with high stress and as consequence losses in their defenses. It generate low nutrition, low reproduction or worse still, they prearrange to acquire lethal diseases. The proposed system helps to control this problem. Environmental variables as pH, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity have an important effect in the suitable growth of the shrimps and influence in their health. However, the exact mathematical model of this relationship is unspecified; an ANN is useful for establishing a relationship between these variables and to classify a status that describes a problem into the farm. The data classification is made to recognize and to quantify two states within the pool: a) Normal: Everything is well. b) Risk: One, some or all environmental variables are outside of the allowed interval, which generates problems. The neural network will have to recognize the state and to quantify it, in others words, how normal or risky it is, which allows finding trend of the water quality. A study was developed for designing a software tool that allows recognizing the status of the water quality and control problems for the environment into the pond.

  16. Role of probiotics on the environment of shrimp pond.

    PubMed

    Sambasivam, S; Chandran, R; Khan, S Ajmal

    2003-01-01

    Recent disease outbreak in shrimp farming caused mainly by bacteria, virus, fungi or a combination of these etiologic agents is attributed to disturbance in the environment of pond. To combat this, different antibiotics and chemicals are being used which are reported to be not environment friendly. Of late, a new and unique biotechnological product called "Probiotics " is being used widely by all the shrimp farmers worldwide, which is found to be more effective and environmentally safe also. In the present study 2 probiotics were used in a small 0.7 ha shrimp farm near Pattukottai in Tamil Nadu State for one culture period for the management of pond environment and also the gut ecology of Penaeus monodon. The environmental parameters analysed were within the acceptable limits. It was evident from the results that the production was better in the experimental pond where the probiotics were used. The biological parameters such as the average body weight, FCR and total harvest achieved were better in the experimental pond than the control pond, all due to congenial environment, which obtained in the former mainly due to the use of probiotics.

  17. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans.

    PubMed

    Marshall, N J; Land, M F; Cronin, T W

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a 'primate-like' awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly.

  18. Predation by native brown shrimp on invasive Pacific oyster spat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weerman, E. J.; Eriksson, B. K.; Olff, H.; van der Heide, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the invasive Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) increased dramatically in the Wadden Sea. One of the driving mechanisms for the success of the Pacific oyster could be a relatively low predation pressure by epibenthic predators and shore birds on oyster spat. Nevertheless, observations and experiments on predation rates on early life-stages of the Pacific oyster are rare. Therefore, we examined predation rates of brown shrimps on Pacific oyster spat in a number of laboratory experiments. Our results demonstrate that spat of Pacific oysters are most susceptible to predation by brown shrimps (Crangon crangon) in the first days after settlement, when attachment to the substrate (unglazed tiles in our study) is still absent or weak. At this stage the shell length of oyster spat is around ~ 300 μm, and around 50% of the individuals in the experiment were consumed in the two hour trials. Predation rates decreased rapidly as the spat grew larger and reached zero within 10 days after settlement of the spat (shell length > 700 μm). Additional experiments revealed that the attachment of oysters is probably limiting predation by brown shrimps rather than the size of the spat. This indicates that Pacific oyster spat may limit predation loss faster compared to native bivalves, which commonly depend on size to reduce predation rates. Overall, our results suggest that the invasive success of Pacific oysters may in part be explained by relatively low predation rates throughout their life stages.

  19. Shrimps that pay attention: saccadic eye movements in stomatopod crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, N. J.; Land, M. F.; Cronin, T. W.

    2014-01-01

    Discovering that a shrimp can flick its eyes over to a fish and follow up by tracking it or flicking back to observe something else implies a ‘primate-like’ awareness of the immediate environment that we do not normally associate with crustaceans. For several reasons, stomatopods (mantis shrimp) do not fit the general mould of their subphylum, and here we add saccadic, acquisitional eye movements to their repertoire of unusual visual capabilities. Optically, their apposition compound eyes contain an area of heightened acuity, in some ways similar to the fovea of vertebrate eyes. Using rapid eye movements of up to several hundred degrees per second, objects of interest are placed under the scrutiny of this area. While other arthropod species, including insects and spiders, are known to possess and use acute zones in similar saccadic gaze relocations, stomatopods are the only crustacean known with such abilities. Differences among species exist, generally reflecting both the eye size and lifestyle of the animal, with the larger-eyed more sedentary species producing slower saccades than the smaller-eyed, more active species. Possessing the ability to rapidly look at and assess objects is ecologically important for mantis shrimps, as their lifestyle is, by any standards, fast, furious and deadly. PMID:24395969

  20. Polysaccharides as Alternative Moisture Retention Agents for Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Torti, Michael J; Sims, Charles A; Adams, Charles M; Sarnoski, Paul J

    2016-03-01

    Phosphates are used as moisture retention agents (MRAs) by the shrimp industry. Although they are effective, phosphates are expensive, need to be listed on a food label, and overuse can often lead to a higher product cost for consumers. Polysaccharides were researched as alternative MRAs. Polysaccharides are usually inexpensive, are considered natural, and can have nutritional benefits. Research was conducted to determine whether polysaccharides yielded similar functional impacts as phosphates. Treatments included a 0.5% fibercolloid solution isolated from citrus peel, an 8% pectin solution, a 0.5% xanthan gum (XG) solution, a 1% carboxymethyl cellulose solution, and conventionally used 4% sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). Experimental treatments were compared to a distilled water control to gauge effectiveness. Freezing, boiling, and oven drying studies were performed to determine how moisture retention in shrimp differed using these different treatments. Water activity was measured to determine any potential differences in shelf life. Solution uptake was also determined to understand how well the treatments enhanced water binding. For moisture loss by freezing, 4% STP and the 0.5% fibercolloid solution functioned the best. The 4% STP treated shrimp lost the least amount of moisture during boiling. The 0.5% fibercolloid and 0.5% XG treatment outperformed phosphates in respect to moisture uptake ability. None of the treatments had a major effect on water activity. All treatments were rated similar in consumer sensory acceptability tests except for pectin, which was rated lower by the sensory panel. Overall, polysaccharides were found to be viable alternatives to phosphates.

  1. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30-35 ind m(-2) and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m(3) kg(-1) cycle(-1)), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha(-1) shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming.

  2. Enhancing Ecoefficiency in Shrimp Farming through Interconnected Ponds

    PubMed Central

    Barraza-Guardado, Ramón Héctor; Arreola-Lizárraga, José Alfredo; Miranda-Baeza, Anselmo; Juárez-García, Manuel; Juvera-Hoyos, Antonio; Casillas-Hernández, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The future development of shrimp farming needs to improve its ecoefficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate water quality, flows, and nitrogen balance and production parameters on a farm with interconnected pond design to improve the efficiency of the semi-intensive culture of Litopenaeus vannamei ponds. The study was conducted in 21 commercial culture ponds during 180 days at densities of 30–35 ind m−2 and daily water exchange <2%. Our study provides evidence that by interconnecting ponds nutrient recycling is favored by promoting the growth of primary producers of the pond as chlorophyll a. Based on the mass balance and flow of nutrients this culture system reduces the flow of solid, particulate organic matter, and nitrogen compounds to the environment and significantly increases the efficiency of water (5 to 6.5 m3 kg−1 cycle−1), when compared with traditional culture systems. With this culture system it is possible to recover up to 34% of the total nitrogen entering the system, with production in excess of 4,000 kg ha−1 shrimp. We believe that the production system with interconnected ponds is a technically feasible model to improve ecoefficiency production of shrimp farming. PMID:26525070

  3. 78 FR 14069 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... overfished and overfishing status determination criteria for pink shrimp. DATES: Written comments must be... closure. Overfished and Overfishing Status Determination Criteria for Pink Shrimp Amendment 9 would update the overfished and overfishing status determination criteria (biomass at maximum sustainable yield...

  4. IMPACT OF BURROWING SHRIMP POPULATIONS ON NITROGEN CYCLING AND WATER QUALITY IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICAN TEMPERATE ESTUARIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalassinid burrowing shrimp (predominantly, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) inhabit large expanses of tide flats in North American Pacific estuaries, from British Columbia to Baja California. Feeding, burrowing, and burrow irrigation by burrowing shrimp can ...

  5. 78 FR 28146 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery of the Gulf of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... duration ebb tides. Sampling during the spring of 2013 indicates that brown shrimp will be leaving the... shrimp will reach a mean size of 4.41 in (112 mm), and when maximum duration ebb tides will occur....

  6. Chromatographic, NMR and vibrational spectroscopic investigations of astaxanthin esters: application to "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" obtained from processing of Nordic shrimps.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, B; Thibault, M-H; Djaoued, Y; Pelletier, C; Touaibia, M; Tchoukanova, N

    2015-11-07

    Astaxanthin (ASTX) is a keto carotenoid, which possesses a non-polar linear central conjugated chain and polar β-ionone rings with ketone and hydroxyl groups at the extreme ends. It is well known as a super anti-oxidant, and recent clinical studies have established its nutritional benefits. Although it occurs in several forms, including free molecule, crystalline, aggregates and various geometrical isomers, in nature it exists primarily in the form of esters. Marine animals accumulate ASTX from primary sources such as algae. Nordic shrimps (P. borealis), which are harvested widely in the Atlantic Ocean, form a major source of astaxanthin esters. "Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil" was developed as a novel product in a shrimp processing plant in Eastern Canada. A compositional analysis of the shrimp oil was performed, with a view to possibly use it as a nutraceutical product for humans and animals. Astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil contains 50% MUFAs and 22% PUFAs, of which 20% are omega-3. In addition, the shrimp oil contains interesting amounts of EPA and DHA, with 10%/w and 8%/w, respectively. Astaxanthin concentrations varied between 400 and 1000 ppm, depending on the harvesting season of the shrimp. Astaxanthin and its esters were isolated from the oil and analysed by NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Astaxanthin mono- and diesters were synthesized and used as standards for the analysis of astaxanthin-rich shrimp oil. NMR and vibrational spectroscopy techniques were successfully used for the rapid characterization of monoesters and diesters of astaxanthin. Raman spectroscopy provided important intermolecular interactions present in the esterified forms of astaxanthin molecules. Also discussed in this paper is the use of NMR, FTIR and Micro-Raman spectroscopy for the detection of astaxanthin esters in shrimp oil.

  7. Antimicrobials in shrimp aquaculture in the United States: regulatory status and safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Park, E D; Lightner, D V; Park, D L

    1994-01-01

    The consumption of seafood, especially shrimp, increases yearly in the U.S. The U.S. is the second largest importer of shrimp in the world, consuming more than 11% of the total world production. Aquaculture is becoming an increasingly important source of the world's shrimp, currently accounting for approximately 30% of the world's supply. Unfortunately, in this era of international trade deficits, U.S. production of aquacultured shrimp is insignificant (< 0.1%) compared with world production. As shrimp aquaculture expands in the U.S., so does the use of intensive farming techniques. Shrimp aquaculture is like any other animal husbandry industry in that shrimp are subject to disease, especially under intensive farming methods. In penaeid shrimp, the primary diseases associated with mortalities are usually viral or bacterial. The majority of bacterial infections in penaeid shrimp are attributable to Vibrio species, with mortalities ranging from insignificant to 100%. However, the rapid growth of this industry has outpaced efforts by researchers, pharmaceutical companies, and federal regulatory agencies to provide approved therapeutants for shrimp disease management. Approval of drugs and their surveillance for compliance with regulations applicable to seafoods, including aquacultured goods, is the responsibility of the FDA. There are three general areas of concern regarding human health when chemotherapeutants are used in aquaculture: (1) residues of drugs in fish destined for human consumption; (2) development of drug resistance in human pathogenic bacteria; and (3) direct toxic effects to humans from handling of drugs. Currently, there are no antibacterials approved for shrimp aquaculture in the U.S. One of the major obstacles in the development and approval of new drugs for aquaculture is the cost of conducting the required studies. The high cost to pharmaceutical companies discourages investment in shrimp chemotherapeutant research, since the current U.S. market

  8. Virus diseases of farmed shrimp in the Western Hemisphere (the Americas): a review.

    PubMed

    Lightner, D V

    2011-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp aquaculture is an important industry in the Americas, and the industry is based almost entirely on the culture of the Pacific White Shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei. Western Hemisphere shrimp farmers in 14 countries in 2004 produced more than 200,000 metric tons of shrimp, generated more than $2 billion in revenue, and employed more than 500,000 people. Disease has had a major impact on shrimp aquaculture in the Americas since it became a significant commercial entity in the 1970s. Diseases due to viruses, rickettsial-like bacteria, true bacteria, protozoa, and fungi have emerged as major diseases of farmed shrimp in the region. Many of the bacterial, fungal and protozoan caused diseases are managed using improved culture practices, routine sanitation, and the use of chemotherapeutics. However, the virus diseases have been far more problematic to manage and they have been responsible for the most costly epizootics. Examples include the Taura syndrome pandemic that began in 1991-1992 when the disease emerged in Ecuador, and the subsequent White Spot Disease pandemic that followed its introduction to Central America from Asia in 1999. Because of their socioeconomic significance to shrimp farming, seven of the nine crustacean diseases listed by the World Animal Organization (OIE) are virus diseases of shrimp. Of the seven virus diseases of penaeid shrimp, five are native to the Americas or have become enzootic following their introduction. The shrimp virus diseases in the Americas are increasingly being managed by exclusion using a combination of biosecurity and the practice of culturing domesticated specific pathogen-free (SPF) stocks or specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) stocks. Despite the significant challenges posed by disease, the shrimp farming industry of the Americas has responded to the challenges posed by disease and it has developed methods to manage its diseases and mature into a sustainable industry.

  9. Potential of RNAi applications to control viral diseases of farmed shrimp.

    PubMed

    Itsathitphaisarn, Ornchuma; Thitamadee, Siripong; Weerachatyanukul, Wattana; Sritunyalucksana, Kallaya

    2016-11-17

    Viral pathogens pose a primary threat to global shrimp aquaculture. Despite the urgent industry need for them, practical anti-viral control methods are unavailable due, in part, to lack of an adaptive immune response in crustaceans that renders conventional vaccination methods ineffective. One currently studied method of high interest for protecting shrimp against viral infection relies on the post-transcriptional gene silencing mechanism called RNA interference (RNAi) that is induced by gene-specific constructs of double stranded RNA (dsRNA). Although this approach was first described for successful protection of shrimp against white spot disease (WSD) by injecting dsRNA specific to genes of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) into shrimp in the laboratory in 2005 no practical method for use of dsRNA in shrimp farms has been developed to date. The apparent bottleneck for farm-scale applications of RNAi-mediated viral control in shrimp aquaculture is the lack of simple and cost-effective delivery methods. This review summarizes recent studies on use and delivery of dsRNA to shrimp via injection and oral routes in hatcheries and on farms and it discusses the research directions that might lead to development of practical methods for applications with farmed shrimp. Oral delivery methods tested so far include use of dsRNA-expressing bacteria as a component of dry feed pellets or use of living brine shrimp (Artemia) pre-fed with dsRNA before they are fed to shrimp. Also tested have been dsRNA enclosed in nanocontainers including chitosan, liposomes and viral-like particles (VLP) before direct injection or use as components of feed pellets for hatchery or pond-reared shrimp.

  10. Evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2014-10-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens.

  11. Abundance and size of Gulf shrimp in Louisiana's coastal estuaries following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    van der Ham, Joris L; de Mutsert, Kim

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacted Louisiana's coastal estuaries physically, chemically, and biologically. To better understand the ecological consequences of this oil spill on Louisiana estuaries, we compared the abundance and size of two Gulf shrimp species (Farfantepeneus aztecus and Litopeneus setiferus) in heavily affected and relatively unaffected estuaries, before and after the oil spill. Two datasets were used to conduct this study: data on shrimp abundance and size before the spill were available from Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries (LDWF). Data on shrimp abundance and size from after the spill were independently collected by the authors and by LDWF. Using a Before-After-Control-Impact with Paired sampling (BACIP) design with monthly samples of two selected basins, we found brown shrimp to become more abundant and the mean size of white shrimp to become smaller. Using a BACIP with data on successive shrimp year-classes of multiple basins, we found both species to become more abundant in basins that were affected by the spill, while mean shrimp size either not change after the spill, or increased in both affected and unaffected basins. We conclude that following the oil spill abundances of both species increased within affected estuaries, whereas mean size may have been unaffected. We propose two factors that may have caused these results: 1) exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may have reduced the growth rate of shrimp, resulting in a delayed movement of shrimp to offshore habitats, and an increase of within-estuary shrimp abundance, and 2) fishing closures established immediately after the spill, may have resulted in decreased fishing effort and an increase in shrimp abundance. This study accentuates the complexities in determining ecological effects of oil spills, and the need of studies on the organismal level to reveal cause-and-effect relationships of such events.

  12. Reprint of "evolution of specific immunity in shrimp - a vaccination perspective against white spot syndrome virus".

    PubMed

    Syed Musthaq, Syed Khader; Kwang, Jimmy

    2015-02-01

    Invertebrates lack true adaptive immunity and it solely depends on the primitive immunity called innate immunity. However, various innate immune molecules and mechanisms are identified in shrimp that plays potential role against invading bacterial, fungal and viral pathogens. Perceiving the shrimp innate immune mechanisms will contribute in developing effective vaccine strategies against major shrimp pathogens. Hence this review intends to explore the innate immune molecules of shrimp with suitable experimental evidences together with the evolution of "specific immune priming" of invertebrates. In addition, we have emphasized on the development of an effective vaccine strategy against major shrimp pathogen, white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The baculovirus displayed rVP28 (Bac-VP28), a major envelope protein of WSSV was utilized to study its vaccine efficacy by oral route. A significant advantage of this baculovirus expression cassette is the use of WSSV-immediate early 1 (ie1) promoter that derived the abundant expression of rVP28 protein at the early stage of the infection in insect cell. The orally vaccinated shrimp with Bac-VP28 transduced successfully in the shrimp cells as well as provided highest survival rate. In support to our vaccine efficacy we analysed Pattern Recognition Proteins (PRPs) β-1,3 glucan lipopolysaccharides (LGBP) and STAT gene profiles in the experimental shrimp. Indeed, the vaccination of shrimp with Bac-VP28 demonstrated some degree of specificity with enhanced survival rate when compared to control vaccination with Bac-wt. Hence it is presumed that the concept of "specific immune priming" in relevant to shrimp immunity is possible but may not be common to all shrimp pathogens.

  13. These Squatters Are Not Innocent: The Evidence of Parasitism in Sponge-Inhabiting Shrimps

    PubMed Central

    Ďuriš, Zdeněk; Horká, Ivona; Juračka, Petr Jan; Petrusek, Adam; Sandford, Floyd

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges are frequently inhabited by a wide range of associated invertebrates, including caridean shrimps. Symbiotic shrimps are often considered to be commensals; however, in most cases, the relationship with sponge hosts remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that sponge-inhabiting shrimps are often parasites adapted to consumption of sponge tissues. First, we provide detailed examination of morphology and stomach contents of Typton carneus (Decapoda: Palaemonidae: Pontoniinae), a West Atlantic tropical shrimp living in fire sponges of the genus Tedania. Remarkable shear-like claws of T. carneus show evidence of intensive shearing, likely the result of crushing siliceous sponge spicules. Examination of stomach contents revealed that the host sponge tissue is a major source of food for T. carneus. A parasitic mode of life is also reflected in adaptations of mouth appendages, in the reproduction strategy, and in apparent sequestration of host pigments by shrimp. Consistent results were obtained also for congeneric species T. distinctus (Western Atlantic) and T. spongicola (Mediterranean). The distribution of shrimps among sponge hosts (mostly solitary individuals or heterosexual pairs) suggests that Typton shrimps actively prevent colonisation of their sponge by additional conspecifics, thus protecting their resource and reducing the damage to the hosts. We also demonstrate feeding on host tissues by sponge-associated shrimps of the genera Onycocaris, Periclimenaeus, and Thaumastocaris (Pontoniinae) and Synalpheus (Alpheidae). The parasitic mode of life appears to be widely distributed among sponge-inhabiting shrimps. However, it is possible that under some circumstances, the shrimps provide a service to the host sponge by preventing a penetration by potentially more damaging associated animals. The overall nature of interspecific shrimp-sponge relationships thus warrants further investigation. PMID:21814564

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of a Vibrio harveyi Strain Associated with Vibriosis in Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Emille; Parks, Marci; Pinnell, Lee J.; Tallman, James J.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vibrio harveyi is a Gram-negative bacterium associated with vibriosis in penaeid shrimp. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of a V. harveyi strain isolated from Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during a vibriosis outbreak. The availability of this genome will aid future studies of vibriosis in shrimp aquaculture. PMID:28209836

  15. 75 FR 49889 - Notice of Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed-Circumstances Review: Frozen Warmwater Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not... include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis... as coldwater shrimp, in any state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on...

  16. 75 FR 34976 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... International Trade Administration A-549-822 Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Notice of Extension... certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Thailand covering the period February 1, 2008, through January 31, 2009. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

  17. 75 FR 62099 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension of Time Limits for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India and Thailand: Notice of Extension... frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand covering the period February 1, 2009, through January 31, 2010. See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice...

  18. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  19. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  20. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  1. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  2. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  3. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  4. 78 FR 16754 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Vietnam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam. Specifically, Vietnam challenges: the... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final ] Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

  5. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  6. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  7. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  8. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  9. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  10. 77 FR 3224 - Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic; Revisions of Bycatch Reduction Device...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-23

    ... CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 111104664-1798-01] RIN 0648-BB61 Shrimp Fisheries of the Gulf of Mexico and... published on January 9, 2012, regarding proposed changes to shrimp regulations. The proposed rule stated that the ``Expanded Mesh BRD'' would be decertified for use by the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery...

  11. 40 CFR 408.130 - Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.130 Section 408.130 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Breaded Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.130 Applicability; description of the breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  12. 75 FR 32533 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... reviews conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... reviews, and sunset review conducted by the Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp...

  13. 40 CFR 408.120 - Applicability; description of the Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Southern non-breaded shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.120 Section 408.120... CANNED AND PRESERVED SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Southern Non-Breaded Shrimp Processing in... shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 75 FR 8177 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam, referring in particular to the use of what...

  15. Inactivation of natural microflora and Listeria innocua on raw whole shrimp by ozonated water, antimicrobial coatings, and cryogenic freezing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp have been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks. A survey was conducted to investigate the microbiological safety and quality of frozen raw whole shrimp in local US markets. Results from 32 brands of raw whole shrimp samples available in local retail markets representing 9 countries of ...

  16. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  17. 40 CFR 408.110 - Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous States subcategory. 408.110 Section 408.110 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Northern Shrimp Processing in the Contiguous States Subcategory § 408.110 Applicability; description of the Northern shrimp processing in the contiguous...

  18. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (South Atlantic): Brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, S.C.; Van Den Avyle, M.J.; Bozeman, E.L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries of the life history, distribution, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates. Profiles are prepared to assist with environmental impact assessment. Brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) account for about one-third of the commercial shrimp harvest in the South Atlantic Region; the landing were worth $20 million in 1982. In the South Atlantic Region, commercially importance brown shrimp fishing grounds extend from Fort Pierce, Florida, to Pamlico Sound and Ocracoke Inlet, North Carolina. Most of the commercial harvest is taken inside the 10-fathom contour. Brown shrimp are omnivorous and eat food items ranging from detritus to small invertebrates and fishes. Many predators, including fishes and crustaceans, feed on brown shrimp. Brown shrimp survival is reduced by adverse temperature or salinities. Intertidal vegetation is an important characteristic of brown shrimp nursery areas. The suitability of some estuaries as nursery areas may be reduced by bulkheading, ditching, disposal of dredged materials, and drainage from agricultural and silvicultural areas. Existing estuarine areas must be preserved to ensure the continued production of brown shrimp. 57 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Dietary biotin requirement for maximum growth of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Shiau, S Y; Chin, Y H

    1998-12-01

    A feeding trial was conducted to estimate the minimal dietary biotin requirement for juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Purified diets with eight levels (0, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 mg/kg) of supplemental biotin were fed to P. monodon (mean weight 0. 26 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 wk. Each diet was fed to three replicate groups of shrimp. Shrimp fed diets supplemented with biotin (0.2-20.0 mg/kg) had significantly (P < 0.05) higher weight gain, feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio than those fed the unsupplemented control diet. Weight gain was high in shrimp fed 3. 0-10.0 mg biotin/kg diet and lowest in shrimp fed shrimp generally increased as dietary biotin supplementation increased. Highest hepatopancreatic pyruvate carboxylase and acetyl CoA carboxylase activity were in shrimp fed diets with 10 and 20 mg biotin/kg and 3. 0 mg biotin/kg, respectively. Weight gain percentage and protein efficiency ratio of the shrimp analyzed by broken-line regression indicated that the minimal dietary biotin concentration in growing P. monodon is 2.0-2.4 mg/kg.

  20. 75 FR 49460 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ...-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\12\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or..., white-leg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis... processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.0020 and...

  1. 75 FR 52718 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  2. 75 FR 12175 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\5\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  3. 78 FR 35643 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from China, Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam..., Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in subheadings 0306.17.00, 1605.21... found to be subsidized by the Governments of China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam and that...

  4. 78 FR 50379 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Negative Countervailing Duty Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China... ``dusting'' ' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the...

  5. 78 FR 50391 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Final Affirmative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., ``Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Ecuador, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China... ``dusting''' layer of rice or wheat flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the...

  6. 78 FR 50383 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Republic of Indonesia: Final Negative Countervailing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., Indonesia, Malaysia, People's Republic of China, Thailand, and Socialist Republic of Vietnam--Final Scope... flour of at least 95 percent purity has been applied; (3) with the entire surface of the shrimp flesh thoroughly and evenly coated with the flour; (4) with the non-shrimp content of the end product...

  7. Characterization of lipids and their oxidation products in baked or fried breaded shrimp products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two breaded shrimp products were examined for the changes in cholesterol, phytosterols, and fatty acids that occurred during cooking. The products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) in the raw, baked, and fried states after separation into breading and shrimp components. Cholesterol, campest...

  8. 77 FR 31062 - Programs To Reduce Incidental Capture of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... of Sea Turtles in Shrimp Fisheries; Certifications Pursuant to Public Law 101-162 SUMMARY: On April... nations have adopted programs to reduce the incidental capture of sea turtles in their shrimp fisheries... environments in 26 other countries and one economy do not pose a threat of the incidental taking of sea...

  9. White spot syndrome virus epizootic in cultured Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Lin, W-H; Wang, P-C; Tsai, M-A; Hsu, J-P; Chen, S-C

    2013-12-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has caused significant losses in shrimp farms worldwide. Between 2004 and 2006, Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) were collected from 220 farms in Taiwan to determine the prevalence and impact of WSSV infection on the shrimp farm industry. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis detected WSSV in shrimp from 26% of farms. Juvenile shrimp farms had the highest infection levels (38%; 19/50 farms) and brooder shrimp farms had the lowest (5%; one of 20 farms). The average extent of infection at each farm was as follows for WSSV-positive farms: post-larvae farms, 71%; juvenile farms, 61%; subadult farms, 62%; adult farms, 49%; and brooder farms, 40%. Characteristic white spots, hypertrophied nuclei and basophilic viral inclusion bodies were found in the epithelia of gills and tail fans, appendages, cephalothorax and hepatopancreas, and virions of WSSV were observed. Of shrimp that had WSSV lesions, 100% had lesions on the cephalothorax, 96% in gills and tail fans, 91% on appendages and 17% in the hepatopancreas. WSSV was also detected in copepoda and crustaceans from the shrimp farms. Sequence comparison using the pms146 gene fragment of WSSV showed that isolates from the farms had 99.7-100% nucleotide sequence identity with four strains in the GenBank database--China (AF332093), Taiwan (AF440570 and U50923) and Thailand (AF369029). This is the first broad study of WSSV infection in L. vannamei in Taiwan.

  10. Hydraulic activities by ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis induce oxic-anoxic oscillations in sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied porewater pressure sensing, time-lapse photography and planar optode imaging of oxygen to investigate hydraulic behaviors of the Thalassinidean ghost shrimp Neotrypaea californiensis and the associated dynamics of oxygen in and around their burrows. Ghost shrimp were h...

  11. Effect of cryogenic freezing on salmonella and listeria recovery from inoculated shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the United States, shrimp is number one in seafood consumption. Shrimp is usually imported frozen, and the Food and Drug Administration has isolated Salmonella spp. from this frozen product. This research was conducted to determine the effect of two cryogenic freezing protocols (time and tempe...

  12. FEEDING RATES OF THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the clam Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities of the shrimp and its commensal clam, as well as particle settlement within t...

  13. 75 FR 17693 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of Initiation of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, and Thailand: Notice of... (shrimp) from Brazil, India and Thailand. The anniversary month of these orders is February. In accordance... at (202) 482-3874 (India), and Kate Johnson at (202) 482-4929 (Thailand), AD/CVD Operations, Office...

  14. 50 CFR Figures 19a and 19b to Part... - Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Chauvin Shrimp Deflector Installation Details 19a Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE... AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Figs. 19 Figures 19a and 19b to Part 223—Chauvin Shrimp...

  15. Priming the immune system of Penaeid shrimp by bacterial HSP70 (DnaK).

    PubMed

    Phuoc, L H; Hu, B; Wille, M; Hien, N T; Phuong, V H; Tinh, N T N; Loc, N H; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to test the effect of DnaK on priming immune responses in Penaeid shrimp. Juvenile-specific pathogen-free (SPF) P. vannamei shrimp were injected with 0.05 μg recombinant DnaK. One hour post-DnaK priming, a non-lethal dose of Vibrio campbellii (10(5) CFU shrimp(-1)) was injected. Other treatments include only DnaK or V. campbellii injection or control with blank inocula. The haemolymph of three shrimp from each treatment was collected at 1.5, 6, 9 and 12 h post-DnaK priming (hpp). It was verified that injection with DnaK and V. campbellii challenge affected the transcription of 3 immune genes, transglutaminase-1 (TGase-1), prophenoloxidase-2 (proPO-2) and endogenous HSP70 (lvHSP70). In P. monodon, shrimp were first injected with DnaK at a dose of 10 μg shrimp(-1) and one hour later with 10(6) CFU of V. harveyi (BB120) shrimp(-1). Shrimp injected with DnaK showed a significant increase in proPO expression compared to the control (P < 0.05). Yet a double injection (DnaK and Vibrio) seemed to cause an antagonistic response at the level of expression, which was not equalled at the level of PO activity. Those results suggest that DnaK is able to modulate immune responses in P. vannamei and P. monodon.

  16. Little Shrimp, Big Results: A Model of an Integrative, Cross-Curricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerson, Nicole; Piser, Carol; Walka, Keith

    2010-01-01

    This integrative, cross-curricular lab engages middle school biology students in an exercise involving ecology, arthropod biology, and mathematics. Students research the anatomy and behavioral patterns of a species of brine shrimp, compare the anatomy of adult and juvenile brine shrimp, and graph and interpret results. In this article, the authors…

  17. 75 FR 1078 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... (Review)] Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam AGENCY: United States... on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam. SUMMARY: The Commission... (19 U.S.C. 1675(c)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty orders on...

  18. 78 FR 64009 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam Determinations On the... imports from China, Ecuador, India, Malaysia, and Vietnam of frozen warmwater shrimp, provided for in... Commission following notification of preliminary determinations by Commerce that imports of frozen...

  19. 78 FR 30272 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil: Notice of Rescission of... Administrative Review'' of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil for the....213(b), for an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater...

  20. 76 FR 65178 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... preliminary results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  1. 77 FR 2958 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Preliminary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... results of the sixth administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam....

  2. 78 FR 59650 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Initiation of Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam... that a request for a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen... Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Duty Order: Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From...

  3. 76 FR 18782 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-05

    ... COMMISSION Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, China, India, Thailand, and Vietnam Determinations On the.... 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on frozen warmwater shrimp from Brazil, China...\\ Commissioner Daniel R. Pearson determines that revocation of the antidumping duty orders covering...

  4. 76 FR 41760 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam...'') is extending the time limit for the final results of the new shipper review of certain frozen... results are currently due no later than July 5, 2011. \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from...

  5. 78 FR 76106 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Notice... completed changed circumstances review (``CCR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater... the PRC-wide entity.\\4\\ \\1\\ See Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from the People's Republic of...

  6. 76 FR 12033 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ...The Department of Commerce (Department) is conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (shrimp) from Thailand with respect to 152 companies. The respondents which the Department selected for individual examination are Marine Gold Products Co., Ltd. (MRG) and Pakfood Public Company Limited and its affiliated subsidiaries (collectively,......

  7. MODELING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SHRIMP MARICULTURE AND WATER QUALITY IN THE RIO CHONE ESTUARY, ECUADOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Rio Chone estuary in Ecuador has been heavily altered by the conversion of over 90% of the original mangrove forest to shrimp ponds. We carried out computational experiments using both hydrodynamic and shrimp pond models to investigate factors leading to declines in estuarine...

  8. Effect of Two Oil Dispersants on Larval Grass Shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, P.; Key, P. B.; Chung, K. W.; DeLorenzo, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    The study focused on the effects that two oil dispersants, Corexit® EC9500A and Finasol® OSR52, have on the development of larval grass shrimp, (Palaemonetes pugio). The hypothesis was that Finasol would have a greater effect on larval grass shrimp development than Corexit. The experiment was conducted using 300 grass shrimp larvae that were 24 hours old. Each larva was exposed individually. In total, five sub-lethal concentrations were tested for each dispersant (control, 1.25, 2.50, 5.0,10.0 mg/L). The larvae were exposed for five days then transferred to clean seawater until metamorphosis into the juvenile stage. Key data measurements recorded included number of days to become juveniles, number of instars, length, dry weight, and mortality. Data from exposed shrimp was compared to the results of the control for each dispersant concentration. Corexit and Finasol exposure treatments of 5 mg/L and 10 mg/L showed significantly higher values for number of days and number of instars to reach juvenile status than values obtained from unexposed, control shrimp. Overall, mortality was higher in the Finasol treatments but the two dispersants did not respond significantly different from one another. Future studies are needed to determine the long term effects of dispersant exposure on all grass shrimp life stages and how any dispersant exposure impacts grass shrimp populations. Grass shrimp serve as excellent toxicity indicators of estuaries, and further studies will help to develop better oil spill mitigation techniques.

  9. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 130.12(a) of this chapter. Cut-out weight is determined by the following method: Keep the unopened... (dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp containing not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing the dark vein from the first five segments by deliberate...

  10. 21 CFR 161.173 - Canned wet pack shrimp in transparent or nontransparent containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 130.12(a) of this chapter. Cut-out weight is determined by the following method: Keep the unopened... (dorsal tract, back vein, or sand vein). (ii) Deveined shrimp containing not less than 95 percent by weight of shrimp prepared by removing the dark vein from the first five segments by deliberate...

  11. Field study of cyclic hypoxic effects on gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiandao; Brouwer, Marius

    2013-12-01

    Grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, are widely used for ecological and toxicological research. They commonly experience cyclic hypoxia in their natural habitats. The response of grass shrimp to laboratory-controlled cyclic hypoxia has been studied in detail, but little is known about how field acclimatized grass shrimp regulate the gene expression and response to cyclic hypoxia. In this study we examined morphometric parameters, relative fecundity and gene expression of grass shrimp collected from two areas in Weeks Bay (Mobile, Alabama). One is a traditionally normoxic location (WBM), and the other is a traditionally cyclic hypoxic location (WC). In the week preceding grass shrimp collection dissolved oxygen (DO) at the field sites was measured continuously. DO was <2 (mg/L DO) and between 2 and 3 (mg/L DO) for 0 and 255min at WBM, and for 285 and 1035min at WC, respectively. Weight and length of WBM grass shrimp were significantly greater than weight and length of WC shrimp. WBM shrimp had more eggs than WC shrimp, but the difference was not significant. Shrimp from WC had a significant higher number of parasites than those from WBM. A cDNA microarray was utilized to investigate the changes in gene expression in grass shrimp hepatopancreas. Five genes, previously identified as hypoxia/cyclic hypoxia-responsive genes in laboratory exposure studies, were significantly up-regulated in WC shrimp relative to WBM. A total of 5 genes were significantly down-regulated in the field study. Only one of those genes, vitellogenin, has been previously found in chronic and cyclic hypoxic studies. Up and down-regulation of 7 selected genes was confirmed by qPCR. The overall pattern of gene expression in wild shrimp from cyclic DO sites in Weeks Bay showed only weak correlations with gene expression in shrimp from chronic and cyclic hypoxic laboratory studies. It appears therefore that transcriptome profiles of laboratory acclimated animals are of limited utility for understanding

  12. Shrimp aquaculture development and the environment in the Gulf of California ecoregion.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Gracia, A; Flores-Verdugo, F; Lyle-Fritch, L P; Alonso-Rodríguez, R; Roque, A; Ruiz-Fernández, A C

    2003-07-01

    Beginning in the middle of the 1980s, the Gulf of California ecoregion experienced a boom in shrimp aquaculture and became the second largest producer in the western hemisphere. The moderated, but continual development of shrimp farming, in conjunction with municipal and agriculture effluents has been accompanied by concern about: (a) depletion of fishing stocks, (b) reduction of mangrove forest, (c) frequent harmful algal blooms in coastal waters and shrimp ponds, and (d) water quality deterioration. We demonstrate that environmental degradation resulted from a conjunction of factors including agriculture, untreated municipal effluents, shrimp aquaculture, increasing number of fishermen, and an absence of an effective regulatory program. We recommend the immediate implementation of an integrated coastal management program to protect the integrity of the coastal ecosystems and operate upon the principle of environmental sustainability for the different economic activities including shrimp aquaculture.

  13. [Cholesterol oxidation products in fresh and frozen shrimps, raw and grilled].

    PubMed

    Echarte, M; Conchillo, A; Ansoren, D; Astiasarán, I

    2005-01-01

    Cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) have been related to different toxic effects, being the atherosclerotic process one of the best known. The presence of cholesterol oxides in freshly and frozenly commercialised shrimps, both raw and grilled, was studied. The determination was made by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS). Fresh shrimps showed significant amounts of all analysed COPs, except for 7alpha-hydroxycholesterol, accounting in total for 33.15 microg COPs/g fat. In contrast, in frozen commercialised shrimps only 7-ketocholesterol and 7beta-hydroxycholesterol were detected. These results point out the great effectiveness of the commercialisation of this type of products under freezing, in terms of to the minimisation of the COPs formation. The cooking method (grilling) increased the COPs content in both types of shrimps, reaching 55.43 microg COPs/g fat in fresh shrimps and only 13.06 microg COPs/g fat in frozen ones.

  14. Influence of ultrasonic treatment on the allergenic properties of Shrimp ( Penaeus vannamei) Allergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenxing; Lin, Hong; Cao, Limin

    2006-04-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether high intensity ultrasound could reduce the allergic properties of shrimp allergens. Reducing the allergenic properties of these allergens will be beneficial to allergic individuals. Samples of shrimp protein extract and shrimp muscle were treated by high-intensity ultrasound with water bathing at 0°C or 50°C for different time periods. The treated and untreated samples were then analyzed by SDS-PAGE, Western blots and competitive inhibition ELISA (Ci-ELISA) to determine the shrimp allergenicity. The results show that high-intensity ultrasound has no effect on allergenicity when the extracts were treated at 0°C. However, a significant decrease was observed in the level of the major shrimp allergen, Pen a 1, when the samples were treated at 50°C. In the determination of allergenicity with Ci-ELISA, a reduction in IgE binding was also observed.

  15. Scanning electron microscope observations of brine shrimp larvae from space shuttle experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeBell, L.; Paulsen, A.; Spooner, B.

    1992-01-01

    Brine shrimp are encysted as gastrula stage embryos, and may remain dehydrated and encysted for years without compromising their viability. This aspect of brine shrimp biology is desirable for studying development of animals during space shuttle flight, as cysts placed aboard a spacecraft may be rehydrated at the convenience of an astronaut, guaranteeing that subsequent brine shrimp development occurs only on orbit and not on the pad during launch delays. Brine shrimp cysts placed in 5 ml syringes were rehydrated with salt water and hatched during a 9 day space shuttle mission. Subsequent larvae developed to the 8th larval stage in the sealed syringes. We studied the morphogenesis of the brine shrimp larvae and found the larvae from the space shuttle experiments similar in rate of growth and extent of development, to larvae grown in sealed syringes on the ground. Extensive differentiation and development of embryos and larvae can occur in a microgravity environment.

  16. SNPs of hemocyanin C-terminal fragment in shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xianliang; Guo, Lingling; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Yao; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lun, Jingsheng; Chen, Jiehui; Li, Yuanyou

    2012-02-17

    In this study, we identified a variable region in the C-terminus of hemocyanin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (2288-2503bp, HcSC) by sequence alignments. A total of 13 SNPs were identified by PCR-SSCP and HcSC clone sequencing. The SSCP patterns of HcSC could be modulated in Vibro parahaemolyticus-treated shrimps. A novel SSCP band with four SNP sites was identified in V. parahaemolyticus-resistant shrimps. More importantly, three of these four SNPs introduced variations in amino acid sequence and possibly secondary structure of the HcSC polypeptide and resulted in a higher agglutinative activity against seven pathogenic bacteria. These results suggest that the C-terminus of shrimp L. vannamei hemocyanin possesses SNPs, which may be related to shrimp resistance to different pathogens.

  17. The Role of Cytokine PF4 in the Antiviral Immune Response of Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulei; Cao, Jiao; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    During viral infection in vertebrates, cytokines play important roles in the host defense against the virus. However, the function of cytokines in invertebrates has not been well characterized. In this study, shrimp cytokines involved in viral infection were screened using a cytokine antibody microarray. The results showed that three cytokines, the Fas receptor (Fas), platelet factor 4 (PF4) and interleukin-22 (IL-22), were significantly upregulated in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)-challenged shrimp, suggesting that these cytokines played positive regulatory roles in the immune response of shrimp against the virus. Further experiments revealed that PF4 had positive effects on the antiviral immunity of shrimp by enhancing the shrimp phagocytic activity and inhibiting the apoptotic activity of virus-infected hemocytes. Therefore, our study presented a novel mechanism of cytokines in the innate immunity of invertebrates. PMID:27631372

  18. Optimization of microbial inactivation of shrimp by dense phase carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongwu; Zhang, Liang; Liu, Shucheng; Qu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Chaohua; Gao, Jialong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial inactivation of Litopenaeus vannamei by dense phase carbon dioxide (DPCD) treatment was investigated and neural network was used to optimize the process parameters of microbial inactivation. The results showed that DPCD treatment had a remarkable bactericidal effect on microorganism of shrimp. A 3×5×2 three-layer neural network model was established. According to the neural network model, the inactivation effect was enhanced with pressure, temperature and exposure time increasing and temperature was the most important factor affecting microbial inactivation of shrimp. Cooked appearance of shrimp by DPCD treatment was observed and seemed to be more positively acceptable by Chinese diet custom. Therefore, color change of shrimp by DPCD treatment could have a positive effect on quality attributes. Moderate temperature 55 °C with 15 MPa for 26 min treatment time achieved a 3.5-log reduction of total aerobic plate counts (TPC). The parameters combination might be appropriate for shrimp process by DPCD.

  19. A multi-biomarker approach to assess the impact of farming systems on black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp. On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems.

  20. Dietary vitamin C and its derivatives affect immune responses in grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Hsien; Shiau, Shi Yen

    2002-02-01

    Effects of L-ascorbic acid (AA) and its four derivatives, namely L-ascorbyl-2-sulfate (C2S), L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (C2PP), L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Na (C2MP-Na) and L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate-Mg (C2MP-Mg) on the immune responses of juvenile grass shrimp, Penaeus monodon, were studied. The vitamin C deprived diet together with diets supplemented with either adequate or high (five times adequate) levels of AA, C2S, C2PP, C2MP-Na and C2MP-Mg were each fed to triplicate groups of shrimp (mean initial weight: 0.37 +/- 0.01 g) for 8 weeks. Significantly (P<0.01) higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), survival, total haemocyte count (THC), superoxide anion (O2) production ratio and phenoloxidase (PO) activity were observed in shrimp fed diets supplemented with adequate and high levels of ascorbate than shrimp fed the vitamin C deprived diet, regardless of the ascorbate source. Among the ascorbate sources, shrimp fed C2MP-Mg and C2PP containing diets had higher THC than shrimp fed AA, C2S and C2MP-Na containing diets, regardless of the supplementation level. Shrimp fed adequate levels of C2MP-Mg and C2PP and high levels of C2MP-Mg containing diets had higher O2 production ratios than shrimp fed AA and C2S containing diets. Shrimp fed adequate levels of C2MP-Mg and C2PP and high levels of C2PP containing diets had higher PO activity than shrimp fed AA, C2S and C2MP-Na containing diets. These data suggest that dietary ascorbate enhances immune responses in P. monodon and different ascorbate sources may affect the immune responses differently.

  1. Immune response and disease resistance of shrimp fed biofloc grown on different carbon sources.

    PubMed

    Ekasari, Julie; Hanif Azhar, Muhammad; Surawidjaja, Enang H; Nuryati, Sri; De Schryver, Peter; Bossier, Peter

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to document the immunological effects of growing shrimp in biofloc systems. The experiment consisted of four types of biofloc systems in which bioflocs were produced by daily supplementation of four different carbon sources, i.e. molasses, tapioca, tapioca-by-product, and rice bran, at an estimated C/N ratio of 15 and a control system without any organic carbon addition. Each biofloc system was stocked with Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles that were reared for 49 days. The use of tapioca-by-product resulted in a higher survival (93%) of the shrimp as compared to the other carbon sources and the control. The highest yield and protein assimilation was observed when tapioca was used as the carbon source. After 49 days, phenoloxidase (PO) activity of the shrimp grown in all biofloc systems was higher than that of the shrimp from the control system. Following a challenge test by injection with infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV), the levels of PO and respiratory burst (RB) activity in the shrimp of all biofloc treatments were higher than that of the challenged shrimp from the control treatment. An increased immunity was also suggested by the survival of the challenged shrimp from the experimental biofloc groups that was significantly higher as compared to the challenged shrimp from the control treatment, regardless of the organic carbon source used to grow the bioflocs. Overall, this study demonstrated that the application of biofloc technology may contribute to the robustness of cultured shrimp by immunostimulation and that this effect is independent of the type of carbon source used to grow the flocs.

  2. Isotopic incorporation rates and discrimination factors in mantis shrimp crustaceans.

    PubMed

    deVries, Maya S; Del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S; Dawson, Todd E

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0-1 ‰ and 3-4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps' incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals.

  3. Influence of a Trematode Parasite (Microphallus turgidus) on Grass Shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) Response to Refuge and Predator Presence.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Sara T

    2016-12-01

    The grass shrimp ( Palaemonetes pugio ) is a staple prey species in the diet of many ecologically and economically important species such as blue crab and striped bass and is commonly infected with a trematode parasite, Microphallus turgidus. To complete its life cycle, M. turgidus must be consumed as a metacercaria by a bird or mammal definitive host. Previous research has found that infected grass shrimp behave more conspicuously than uninfected shrimp around predators, which include mummichogs ( Fundulus heteroclitus ). In addition, grass shrimp are more likely to avoid predation when they have access to coarse woody debris (CWD). Aquaria experiments revealed that uninfected shrimp significantly reduce the amount of time spent swimming in the presence of a fish predator, whereas infected shrimp did not exhibit this predation avoidance behavior. Uninfected shrimp also increased predator avoidance behavior ("backthrusts") in the absence of CWD, whereas infected shrimp did not. These findings suggest that M. turgidus does not influence grass shrimp usage of CWD, but it alters shrimp swimming and backthrust behavior, thereby rendering infected shrimp more susceptible to predation. The implications of increased predation by a fish (nonhost or possible paratenic host) versus by a bird or mammal (definitive host) for parasite transmission are discussed.

  4. [Exploitation of the shrimp trawl fishery in the period 1991-1999 at the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Tabash Blanco, Farid A

    2007-03-01

    In Costa Rica, the Gulf of Nicoya shrimp fishery originated in 1952 and represented one of the most important economic activities in the region. Nevertheless, overfishery reduced the captured volumes to levels that prevent this commercial activity. I analyzed official fishery statistics between 1991 and 1999. These species involved are: two species of white shrimp, (Litopenaeus occidentalis and L. stylirostris), the "titi" shrimp (Xiphopenaeus riveti), the brown shrimp (Farfantepenaeus californiensis), the "pinki" shrimp (F. brevirostris) and the "fidel" shrimp (Solenocera agassizi). All the species reached the Maximum Sustainable Yield in the decades of 1970 and 1980 and are now found at over-exploitation levels. I recommend that this shrimp trawl fishery be completely closed down.

  5. Crowding of white shrimp Litopenaeus vananmei depresses their immunity to and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Chen, Li-Li; Huang, Chien-Lun; Hsieh, Jen-Fang; Li, Chang-Che

    2015-07-01

    Immunity parameters and the expression levels of several immune-related proteins, including lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), intergin β (IB), prophenoloxidase (proPO) I, proPO II, α2-macroglobulin (α2-M), cytosolic mangangese superoxide dismutase (cytMnSOD), mitochondria manganese superoxide dismutase (mtMnSOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), lysozyme, and penaeidin 3a were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei reared at stocking densities of 2, 10, 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 3, 6, and 12 h. All immune parameters including haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and haemolymph protein were negatively related to density and time. The PO activity, SOD activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp reared at 10 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h significantly decreased. The transcript levels of these immune-related proteins were down-regulated in shrimp reared at 20, 30, and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to Vibrio alginolyticus were significantly lower in shrimp reared at 30 and 40 shrimp L(-1) after 12 h. The mortality rates of shrimp reared at 20 and 40 shrimp L(-1) were significantly higher than shrimp reared at 2 shrimp L(-1) over 12-144 h and 12-48 h, respectively. Shrimp reared at high densities (>10 shrimp L(-1)) exhibited decreased resistance against pathogens as evidenced by reductions in immune parameters together with decreased expression levels of immune-related proteins, indicating perturbations of the immune system.

  6. Quality of shrimp analogue product as affected by addition of modified potato starch.

    PubMed

    Remya, S; Basu, S; Venkateshwarlu, G; Mohan, C O

    2015-07-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of addition of modified potato starch on the biochemical and textural properties of shrimp analogue/imitation shrimp, a popular value-added product prepared from surimi. Three batches of shrimp analogues were prepared with 0 % (NPS), 50 % (CPS) and 100 % (MPS) of modified starch incorporation and various quality attributes were monitored at regular intervals during frozen storage (-20 °C). Loss of myofibrillar protein was least for the shrimp analogue sample added with 100 % modified potato starch. The expressible moisture content of MPS (2.48 %) was less affected by long term storage compared to CPS (3.38 %) and NPS (3.99 %). During extended low temperature storage, the textural quality of sea food analogue was highly influenced by the type of starch added to it. The percentage of modified potato starch added to shrimp analogue significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected its hardness and fracturability. MPS samples did not show significant changes in hardness during storage as compared to other two samples. Springiness of shrimp analogue increased 2.57, 1.5 and 1.77 times with the storage period for samples with NPS, CPS and MPS, respectively. Addition of modified potato starch improved the sensory quality and textural properties of shrimp analogue and reduced the quality degradation during frozen storage as compared to NPS which contained only native potato starch.

  7. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk.

  8. The role of shrimp miR-965 in virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shu, Le; Li, Changrun; Zhang, Xiaobo

    2016-07-01

    RNAi, mediated by microRNAs (miRNAs), has attracted increasing attention for its important role in cross-talk between host and virus. However, the role of host miRNA in the virus infection in vivo has not been intensively investigated. In this study, the effects of a shrimp miRNA (miR-965) on the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection were characterized. The results indicated that the expression of miR-965 was significantly upregulated in shrimp in response to the WSSV challenge, suggesting its involvement in the virus infection. The miR-965 silencing led to significant increases of WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, while the miR-965 overexpression resulted in the decreased WSSV copies and virus-infected shrimp mortality, indicating that miR-965 played a negative role in the WSSV infection. The further data revealed that miR-965 inhibited the virus infection by targeting the viral wsv240 gene, an important gene required for the WSSV infection in shrimp. The results demonstrated that miR-965 could promote the shrimp phagocytosis against virus infection by targeting the shrimp ATG5 (autophagy related 5) gene. Therefore, our findings presented novel evidence to better understand the anfractuous host-virus interactions in vivo.

  9. Transmission of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) from Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) to penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Haryadi, D; Verreth, J A J; Verdegem, M C J; Vlak, J M

    2015-05-01

    Dendronereis spp. (Peters) (Nereididae) is a common polychaete in shrimp ponds built on intertidal land and is natural food for shrimp in traditionally managed ponds in Indonesia. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), an important viral pathogen of the shrimp, can replicate in this polychaete (Desrina et al. 2013); therefore, it is a potential propagative vector for virus transmission. The major aim of this study was to determine whether WSSV can be transmitted from naturally infected Dendronereis spp. to specific pathogen-free (SPF) Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) through feeding. WSSV was detected in naturally infected Dendronereis spp. and Penaeus monodon Fabricius from a traditional shrimp pond, and the positive animals were used in the current experiment. WSSV-infected Dendronereis spp. and P. monodon in a pond had a point prevalence of 90% and 80%, respectively, as measured by PCR. WSSV was detected in the head, gills, blood and mid-body of Dendronereis spp. WSSV from naturally infected Dendronereis spp was transmitted to SPF L. vannamei and subsequently from this shrimp to new naïve-SPF L. vannamei to cause transient infection. Our findings support the contention that Dendronereis spp, upon feeding, can be a source of WSSV infection of shrimp in ponds.

  10. The effects of Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis) coating on the quality of shrimp during cold storage.

    PubMed

    Soltanizadeh, Nafiseh; Mousavinejad, Mohsen S

    2015-10-01

    Green tiger shrimp (Penaeus semisulcatus) is an important aquaculture species worldwide. Its perishable nature, however, needs preservation methods to ensure its quality and shelf life. In this study, the effects of Aloe vera coating on the quality and shelf life of shrimps during cold storage were investigated. Shrimp samples were dipped in aqueous solutions containing 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% Aloe vera gel before storage at 4 °C for 7 days. Drip loss, pH, TBA, TVB-N, and texture of both the control and treated shrimp samples were analyzed periodically. There were significant differences between coated shrimps and the control group in all parameters evaluated. Aloe vera at 75% and 100% concentrations was able to prevent lipid oxidation and drip loss properly; however, coatings containing 25% Aloe vera did not have the desired effects on these characteristics. Shrimps coated with higher concentrations of Aloe vera had better textural properties during cold storage. Results also indicated the positive effects of Aloe vera coating on the sensory quality of shrimp.

  11. Evaluation of green tea extract as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing.

    PubMed

    Sundararajan, Srijanani; Prudente, Alfredo; Bankston, J David; King, Joan M; Wilson, Paul; Sathivel, Subramaniam

    2011-09-01

    Solutions of green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract (GTE) in distilled water were evaluated as a glazing material for shrimp frozen by cryogenic freezing. Total of 2%, 3%, and/or 5% GTE solutions (2GTE, 3GTE, 5GTE) were used for glazing. Distilled water glazed (GDW) and nonglazed shrimp (NG) served as controls. The GTE was characterized by measuring color, pH, (o) Brix, total phenols, and % antiradical activity. Individual catechins were identified by HPLC. The freezing time, freezing rate, and energy removal rate for freezing shrimp by cryogenic freezing process were estimated. The frozen shrimp samples were stored in a freezer at -21 °C for 180 d. Samples were analyzed for pH, moisture content, glazing yield, thaw yield, color, cutting force, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) after 1, 30, 90, and 180 d. The HPLC analysis of GTE revealed the presence of catechins and their isomers and the total polyphenol content was 148.10 ± 2.49 g/L. The freezing time (min) and energy removal rate (J/s) were 48.67 ± 2.3 and 836.67 ± 78.95, respectively. Glazed samples had higher moisture content compared to NG shrimp after 180 d storage. GTE was effective in controlling the lipid oxidation in shrimp. Glazing with GTE affected a* and b* color values, but had no significant effect on the L* values of shrimp.

  12. Hydrostatic pressure affects selective tidal stream transport in the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon).

    PubMed

    Tielmann, Moritz; Reiser, Stefan; Hufnagl, Marc; Herrmann, Jens-Peter; Eckardt, André; Temming, Axel

    2015-10-01

    The brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) is a highly abundant invertebrate in the North Sea, with its life cycle stages ranging from deep offshore spawning to shallow onshore nursery areas. To overcome the long distances between these two habitats, brown shrimp are suspected to use selective tidal stream transport (STST), moving with the cyclic tide currents towards their preferred water depths. However, it is not known which stimulus actually triggers STST behavior in brown shrimp. In this work, we determined the influence of different hyperbaric pressures on STST behavior of juvenile brown shrimp. Brown shrimp activity was recorded in a hyperbaric pressure chamber that supplied constant and dynamic pressure conditions simulating different depths, with and without a tidal cycle. Subsequent wavelet and Fourier analysis were performed to determine the periodicity in the activity data. The results of the experiments show that STST behavior in brown shrimp varies with pressure and therefore with depth. We further show that STST behavior can be initiated by cyclic pressure changes. However, an interaction with one or more other environmental triggers remains possible. Furthermore, a security ebb-tide activity was identified that may serve to avoid potential stranding in shallow waters and is 'remembered' by shrimp for about 1.5 days without contact with tidal triggers.

  13. Social Relation between Businessman and Community in Management of Intensive Shrimp Pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gumay Febryano, Indra; Sinurat, James; Lovinia Salampessy, Messalina

    2017-02-01

    Expansion of aquaculture, especially shrimp culture, is the primary cause of deforestation of mangrove along coastal zone. This phenomenon is pretty much related to social relation between businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community around coastal zone. The objective of this research is to explain social relation between businessman and community in managing intensive shrimp pond. This research is a kind of qualitative research and the method used is a case study. The result of this research shows that the behaviour of the majority of businessman of intensive shrimp pond is not accordingly with environmental concerns as they compelled conversion of mangrove and they disposed waste of shrimp pond into the sea. Such kind of behaviour caused degradation of water ecosystem and marginalizing local community. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) which was implemented by businessman of intensive shrimp pond in the area of social, religion, and education can downgrade the coming up of social turbulence. Otherwise, CSR in enabling economic community and environmental management was not conducted yet. CSR in environmental management can be conducted by businessman of intensive shrimp pond by considering the existence of mangrove and pond management and waste in a better way, so that environment around ponds is not polluted and the sustainability of shrimp pond business as well as income of community can be guaranteed. Accordingly with the result of this research, CSR is not only involving businessman of intensive shrimp pond and community, but also involving local government in terms of right and responsibility of citizen as well as management and development of community.

  14. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Vibrio spp. in Retail and Farm Shrimps in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Sperling, L; Alter, T; Huehn, S

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Vibrio spp. in shrimp at retail and in shrimp farms in Ecuador and to determine the antimicrobial agent resistance patterns of farm isolates. The presence of genes linked to early mortality syndrome (EMS) or acute hepatopancreatic necrosis disease (AHPND) also was evaluated. Vibrio spp. were isolated from retail shrimps in Cuenca, Ecuador, and farm shrimps originating from provinces El Oro and Guayas, Ecuador. A total of 229 shrimp samples were collected, of which 71 originated from retail markets in Cuenca and 158 came from shrimp farms. Overall, 219 (95.6%) samples tested positive for Vibrio spp. Vibrio parahaemolyticus (80.8%) was the most common species detected, followed by Vibrio alginolyticus (50.2%), Vibrio cholerae (11.3%), and Vibrio vulnificus (3.5%). None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the virulence-associated tdh and trh genes. In V. parahaemolyticus shrimp farm isolates, high resistance was found to ampicillin (92.2%), and intermediate resistance was found to tetracycline (51.3%) and amikacin (22.1%). Of the V. parahaemolyticus strains, 68 were resistant to at least three antimicrobial agents, and 2 were resistant to seven antimicrobial agents simultaneously. Up to 18 resistant isolates were found for V. alginolyticus, whereas V. vulnificus and V. cholerae isolates were more susceptible. None of the V. parahaemolyticus isolates carried the EMS-AHPND plasmid. The results of this study revealed the ubiquitous occurrence of Vibrio spp. in shrimps at retail and on shrimp farms in Ecuador.

  15. Spirulina elicits the activation of innate immunity and increases resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Tayag, Carina Miranda; Li, Hui-Fang; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Bai, Jia-Chin; Chang, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-08-01

    The effect of Spirulina dried powder (SDP) on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was studied in vitro and in vivo. Incubating shrimp haemocytes in 0.5 mg ml(-1) SDP caused the degranulation of haemocytes and a reduction in the percentage of large cells within 30 min. Shrimp haemocytes incubated in 1 mg ml(-1) SDP significantly increased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity, serine proteinase activity, and respiratory burst activity (RB, release of superoxide anion). A recombinant protein of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP) of the white shrimp was produced, named rLvLGBP, and examined for its binding with SDP. An ELISA binding assay showed that rLvLGBP binds to SDP with a dissociation constant of 0.0507 μM. In another experiment, shrimp fed diets containing SDP at 0 (control), 30, and 60 g kg(-1) after four weeks were examined for LGBP transcript level and lysozyme activity, as well as phagocytic activity, clearance efficiency, and resistance to Vibrio alginolyticus. These parameters were significantly higher in shrimp receiving diets containing SDP at 60 g kg(-1) or 30 g kg(-1) than in controls. In conclusion, shrimp haemocytes receiving SDP provoked the activation of innate immunity as evidenced by the recognition and binding of LGBP, degranulation of haemocytes, reduction in the percentage of large cells, increases in PO activity, serine proteinase activity, superoxide anion levels, and up-regulated LGBP transcript levels. Shrimp receiving diets containing SDP had increased lysozyme activity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection. This study showed the mechanism underlying the immunostimulatory action of Spirulina and its immune response in shrimp.

  16. Characterization of intestinal bacteria in wild and domesticated adult black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2014-01-01

    The black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P. monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp.

  17. Multiple origins of eusociality among sponge-dwelling shrimps (Synalpheus).

    PubMed

    Duffy, J E; Morrison, C L; Ríos, R

    2000-04-01

    As the most extreme expression of apparent altruism in nature, eusociality has long posed a central paradox for behavioral and evolutionary ecology. Because eusociality has arisen rarely among animals, understanding the selective pressures important in early stages of its evolution remains elusive. Employing a historical approach to this problem, we used morphology and DNA sequences to reconstruct the phylogeny of 13 species of sponge-dwelling shrimps (Synalpheus) with colony organization ranging from asocial pair-bonding through eusociality. We then used phylogenetically independent contrasts to test whether sociality was associated with evidence of enhanced competitive ability, as suggested by hypotheses invoking an advantage of cooperation in crowded habitats. The molecular, morphological, and combined data each strongly supported three independent origins of monogynous, multigenerational (eusocial) colony organization within this genus. Phylogenetically independent contrasts confirmed that highly social taxa, with strong reproductive skew, have significantly higher relative abundance within the host sponge than do less social taxa, a result that was robust to uncertainty in tree topology and varying models of character change. A similar tendency for highly social species to share their sponge with fewer congener species was suggestive, but not significant. Because unoccupied habitat appears to be limiting for many sponge-dwelling shrimp species, these data are consistent with hypotheses that cooperative social groups enjoy a competitive advantage over less organized groups or individuals, where independent establishment is difficult, and that enemy pressure is of central importance in the evolution of animal sociality.

  18. Contests with deadly weapons: telson sparring in mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda)

    PubMed Central

    Green, P. A.; Patek, S. N.

    2015-01-01

    Mantis shrimp strike with extreme impact forces that are deadly to prey. They also strike conspecifics during territorial contests, yet theoretical and empirical findings in aggressive behaviour research suggest competitors should resolve conflicts using signals before escalating to dangerous combat. We tested how Neogonodactylus bredini uses two ritualized behaviours to resolve size-matched contests: meral spread visual displays and telson (tailplate) strikes. We predicted that (i) most contests would be resolved by meral spreads, (ii) meral spreads would reliably signal strike force and (iii) strike force would predict contest success. The results were unexpected for each prediction. Contests were not resolved by meral spreads, instead escalating to striking in 33 of 34 experiments. The size of meral spread components did not strongly correlate with strike force. Strike force did not predict contest success; instead, winners delivered more strikes. Size-matched N. bredini avoid deadly combat not by visual displays, but by ritualistically and repeatedly striking each other's telsons until the loser retreats. We term this behaviour ‘telson sparring', analogous to sparring in other weapon systems. We present an alternative framework for mantis shrimp contests in which the fight itself is the signal, serving as a non-lethal indicator of aggressive persistence or endurance. PMID:26399976

  19. Evaluation of space adequateness of shrimp farms in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Rodrigo R; Hartmann, Carlos; Tagliani, Paulo R A; Poersch, Luís H

    2011-09-01

    In Rio Grande do Sul State, there are four marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) farms in the municipal districts of São José do Norte and Rio Grande, and other four with previous license for operation. Thus, the present study aimed to identify and characterize areas for marine shrimp farming located in the Southern portion of the Patos Lagoon estuary (32º00'S 52º00'W) by employing the analysis of satellite remote sensing (Landsat TM and ETM+/Google Earth), airborne remote sensing (35mm system ADAR 1000), terrestrial remote sensing (RICOH 500SE), and field expeditions, integrating data in a Geographical Information System (IDRISI Andes). As a result, the enterprises were built on coastal fields or in obliterated dune areas, which are favorable for cultivation. The proximity of possible consuming markets and local labor, relatively good access roads and local technical support also favor the projects. However, there must be caution in terms of changes in the original projects, which could cause environmental impacts and noncompliance of environmental norms, such as the occupation of salt marsh areas. Based on the obtained information, instruments can be created to help inherent legal decision-making to manage the activity for futures enterprises.

  20. Structure of Penaeus stylirostris Densovirus, a Shrimp Pathogen

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Bärbel; Bowman, Valorie D.; Li, Yi; Szelei, Jozsef; Waddell, Peter J.; Tijssen, Peter; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-16

    Penaeus stylirostris densovirus (PstDNV), a pathogen of penaeid shrimp, causes significant damage to farmed and wild shrimp populations. In contrast to other parvoviruses, PstDNV probably has only one type of capsid protein that lacks the phospholipase A2 activity that has been implicated as a requirement during parvoviral host cell infection. The structure of recombinant virus-like particles, composed of 60 copies of the 37.5-kDa coat protein, the smallest parvoviral capsid protein reported thus far, was determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The structure represents the first near-atomic resolution structure within the genus Brevidensovirus. The capsid protein has a {beta}-barrel 'jelly roll' motif similar to that found in many icosahedral viruses, including other parvoviruses. The N-terminal portion of the PstDNV coat protein adopts a 'domain-swapped' conformation relative to its twofold-related neighbor similar to the insect parvovirus Galleria mellonella densovirus (GmDNV) but in stark contrast to vertebrate parvoviruses. However, most of the surface loops have little structural resemblance to any of the known parvoviral capsid proteins.

  1. Linkage mechanics and power amplification of the mantis shrimp's strike.

    PubMed

    Patek, S N; Nowroozi, B N; Baio, J E; Caldwell, R L; Summers, A P

    2007-10-01

    Mantis shrimp (Stomatopoda) generate extremely rapid and forceful predatory strikes through a suite of structural modifications of their raptorial appendages. Here we examine the key morphological and kinematic components of the raptorial strike that amplify the power output of the underlying muscle contractions. Morphological analyses of joint mechanics are integrated with CT scans of mineralization patterns and kinematic analyses toward the goal of understanding the mechanical basis of linkage dynamics and strike performance. We test whether a four-bar linkage mechanism amplifies rotation in this system and find that the rotational amplification is approximately two times the input rotation, thereby amplifying the velocity and acceleration of the strike. The four-bar model is generally supported, although the observed kinematic transmission is lower than predicted by the four-bar model. The results of the morphological, kinematic and mechanical analyses suggest a multi-faceted mechanical system that integrates latches, linkages and lever arms and is powered by multiple sites of cuticular energy storage. Through reorganization of joint architecture and asymmetric distribution of mineralized cuticle, the mantis shrimp's raptorial appendage offers a remarkable example of how structural and mechanical modifications can yield power amplification sufficient to produce speeds and forces at the outer known limits of biological systems.

  2. Chitin extraction from shrimp shell waste using Bacillus bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ghorbel-Bellaaj, Olfa; Younes, Islem; Maâlej, Hana; Hajji, Sawssen; Nasri, Moncef

    2012-12-01

    The ability of six protease-producing Bacillus species (Bacillus pumilus A1, Bacillus mojavencis A21, Bacillus licheniformis RP1, Bacillus cereus SV1, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens An6 and Bacillus subtilis A26) to ferment media containing only shrimp shell waste, for chitin extraction, was investigated. More than 80% deproteinization was attained by all the strains tested. However, demineralization rates not exceeding 67% were registered. Cultures conducted in media containing shrimp shell waste supplemented with 5% (w/v) glucose were found to remarkably promote demineralization efficiency, without affecting deproteinization rates. The antioxidant activities of hydrolysates, at different concentrations, produced during fermentation in medium supplemented with glucose, were determined using different tests: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging method, reducing power assay and chelating activity. All hydrolysates showed varying degrees of antioxidant activity. Hydrolysate produced by B. pumilus A1 exhibited the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity, with an IC(50) value of 0.3 mg/ml. Highest reducing power (DO 700 nm=1.55 at 1.5 mg/ml) and metal chelating activity (98% at 5mg/ml) were obtained with B. pumilus A1 and B. licheniformis RP1 hydrolysates, respectively.

  3. Salmonella agona isolated from fish meal and a Salmonella strain isolated from shrimps in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Roumani, B M; Abdelnoor, A M; Hilan, C

    1981-01-01

    Salmonella agona was isolated from an imported fish meal specimen and a Salmonella strain not listed in the Kauffmann-White Scheme was isolated from a shrimp specimen obtained from the Mediterranean coast of Lebanon. The biochemical and serological properties of the S. agona fish meal strain was identical to a standard strain. The serotype of the shrimp strain was O13,22 Vi. With the exception of hydrogen sulfide production the biochemical properties of the shrimp strain were similar to S. agona.

  4. Effect of chitosan-based edible coating on preservation of white shrimp during partially frozen storage.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengjun

    2014-04-01

    Chitosan and chitooligosaccharides are preservatives with proven antibacterial activity, while glutathione has antioxidant activity. This study investigated the effects of chitosan coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione (0.8% glutathione+1% chitooligosaccharides+1% chitosan) on preservation of white shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Chitosan-based coating treatments effectively inhibited bacterial growth, reduced total volatile basic nitrogen and malondialdehyde, and basically maintained the sensory properties of white shrimp (P. vannamei) during partially frozen storage. Therefore, chitosan-based edible coating combined with chitooligosaccharides and glutathione could be a promising antimicrobial and oxidant method to prevent metamorphism of white shrimp with extended shelf life.

  5. A Brine Shrimp Bioassay for Measuring Toxicity and Remediation of Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Marya

    1999-12-01

    A bioassay using Artemia franciscana (brine shrimp) was adapted to measure the toxicity of household chemicals. One project is described in which students collect dose-response curves for seven commercial flea-killing products. Next, groups of students researched the insecticidal ingredients of the flea products. On the basis of the structures of the active ingredients, they chose remediation methods to make the flea product less toxic to brine shrimp; procedures included copper-catalyzed hydrolysis, adsorption onto activated charcoal, bleach treatment, and photodegradation. No special equipment or supplies are necessary for the bioassay other than the brine shrimp eggs, which can be obtained at any aquarium store.

  6. Modulation of the innate immune system in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei following long-term low salinity exposure.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Li, Chang-Che; Morni, Wan Zabidii W; Suhaili, Awangku Shahrir N A; Kuo, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Li-Li; Tsui, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2012-08-01

    Immune parameters, haemocyte lifespan, and gene expressions of lipopolysaccharide and β-glucan-binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), integrin β, and α2-macroglobulin (α2-M) were examined in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles (0.48 ± 0.05 g) which had been reared at different salinity levels of 2.5‰, 5‰, 15‰, 25‰, and 35‰ for 24 weeks. All shrimp survived during the first 6 weeks. The survival rate of shrimp reared at 2.5‰ and 5‰ was much lower (30%) than that of shrimp reared at 15‰, 25‰, and 35‰ (76%~86%) after 24 weeks. Shrimp reared at 25% grew faster. Shrimp reared at 2.5‰ and 5‰ showed lower hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs), phenoloxidase activity (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and lysozyme activity, but showed a longer haemocyte lifespan, and higher expressions of LGBP, PX, integrin β, and α2-M. In another experiment, shrimp which had been reared at different salinity levels for 24 weeks were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus (6 × 10(6) cfu shrimp(-1)), and WSSV (10(3) copies shrimp(-1)) and then released to their respective seawater. At 96-144 h, cumulative mortalities of shrimp reared at 2.5‰ and 5‰ were significantly higher than those of shrimp reared at 15‰, 25‰, and 35‰. It was concluded that following long-term exposure to 2.5‰ and 5‰ seawater, white shrimp juveniles exhibited decreased resistance against a pathogen due to reductions in immune parameters. Increases in the haemocyte lifespan and gene expressions of LGBP, integrin β, PX, and α2-M indicated that shrimp had the ability to expend extra energy to modulate the innate immune system to prevent further perturbations at low salinity levels.

  7. Fucoidan effectively provokes the innate immunity of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against experimental Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    PubMed

    Kitikiew, Suwaree; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Liou, Chyng-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of fucoidan on the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus infection. Fucoidan induced degranulation, caused changes in the cell morphology, and increased activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and the production of superoxide anions in vitro. Shrimp that received fucoidan via immersion at 100, 200, and 400 mg l(-1) after 3 h showed haemocyte proliferation and a higher mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue. In another experiment, the haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, and respiratory bursts (RBs) were examined after the shrimp had been fed diets containing fucoidan at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg(-1) for 7-21 days. Results indicated that these parameters directly increased with time. The immune parameters of shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 2.0 g kg(-1) diet after 14 and 21 days. Phagocytic activity and the clearance efficiency against V. alginolyticus were significantly higher in shrimp fed the 1.0 g kg(-1) diet compared to those of shrimp fed the 0, 0.5 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets. In a separate experiment, shrimp that had been fed diets containing fucoidan for 21 days were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 10(6) colony-forming units shrimp(-1). Survival rates of shrimp fed the 1.0 and 2.0 g kg(-1) diets were significantly higher than those of shrimp fed the 0 and 0.5 g kg(-1) diets for 96-120 h. We concluded that fucoidan provokes innate immunity of shrimp as evidenced by haemocyte degranulation, proPO activation, and the mitotic index of haematopoietic tissue, and that dietary administration of fucoidan at 1.0 g kg(-1) enhanced the immune response of shrimp and their resistance against V. alginolyticus infection.

  8. Shrimp Oil Extracted from the Shrimp Processing Waste Reduces the Development of Insulin Resistance and Metabolic Phenotypes in Diet-induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sandhya; Gagnon, Jacques; Pelletier, Claude; Tchoukanova, Nadia; Zhang, Junzeng; Ewart, H Stephen; Ewart, Vanya; Jiao, Guangling; Wang, Yanwen

    2017-03-31

    Diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, chronic inflammation and oxidative stress represent the main features of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The present study was conducted to examine the efficacy and mechanisms of shrimp oil on glucose homeostasis in obese rats. Male CD rats fed a high-fat diet (60 kcal% fat) and 20% fructose-drinking water were divided into four groups and treated with the dietary replacement of 0, 10% (SO10), 15% (SO15), or 20% (SO20) of lard with shrimp oil for 10 weeks. Age-matched rats fed a low-fat diet (10 kcal% fat) were used as the normal control. Rats on the high-fat diet showed impaired (p < 0.05) glucose tolerance and insulin resistance compared with rats fed the low-fat diet. Shrimp oil improved (p < 0.05) oral glucose tolerance, insulin response and homeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance index, decreased serum insulin, leptin and hemoglobin A1c and free fatty acids, and increased adiponectin. Shrimp oil also increased (p < 0.05) antioxidant capacity and reduced oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The results demonstrated that shrimp oil dose-dependently improved glycemic control in obese rats through multiple mechanisms.

  9. An investigation into mechanical strength of exoskeleton of hydrothermal vent shrimp (Rimicaris exoculata) and shallow water shrimp (Pandalus platyceros) at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Verma, Devendra; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    This investigation reports a comparison of the exoskeleton mechanical strength of deep sea shrimp species Rimicaris exoculata and shallow water shrimp species Pandalus platyceros at temperatures ranging from 25°C to 80°C using nanoindentation experiments. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations suggest that both shrimp exoskeletons have the Bouligand structure. Differences in the structural arrangement and chemical composition of both shrimps are highlighted by SEM and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray) analyses. The variation in the elastic moduli with temperature is found to be correlated with the measured compositional differences. The reduced modulus of R. exoculata is 8.26±0.89GPa at 25°C that reduces to 7.61±0.65GPa at 80°C. The corresponding decrease in the reduced modulus of P. platyceros is from 27.38±2.3GPa at 25°C to 24.58±1.71GPa at 80°C. The decrease in reduced moduli as a function of temperature is found to be dependent on the extent of calcium based minerals in exoskeleton of both types of shrimp exoskeletons.

  10. Transboundary movement of shrimp viruses in crustaceans and their products: a special risk?

    PubMed

    Jones, Brian

    2012-06-01

    Shrimp and shrimp products form the most valuable internationally traded fisheries commodity, and the volumes are huge, estimated to be about 3.6 million tonnes. However, despite the existence under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, of the Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) and the activities of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), viral shrimp epizootics have spread and continue to spread, affecting world production. Though most attention has focussed on the movement of live shrimp product, the spread of new and emerging diseases through other crustaceans and their nonviable products is of increasing concern. The risks associated with the unrestricted movement of nonviable product will be outlined and measures that can be taken to mitigate the risk are discussed. Ultimately, for crustacean diseases, the paradigm under which the OIE has operated for the past 80 years needs to change.

  11. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars.

  12. Effects of different diets on the dietary attractability and selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Guoqiang; Dong, Shuanglin; Wang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Attractabilities of different diets and dietary selectivity of Chinese shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis were studied through behavior observation and feeding experiment, respectively. The five diets used in the experiment are: Fish Flesh (FF), Shrimp Flesh (SF), Clam Foot (CF), Polychaete Worm (PW), and Formulated Diet (FD). No significant differences of attractability exist between any two different diets when every two natural diets or all five diets are provided simultaneously. On the other hand, significant differences of attractability exist between FD and every single natural diet when they are provided simultaneously. Results of behavioral observation indicate that natural diets are more attractive than FD. In feeding experiment, Chinese shrimp has distinct selectivity on different diets. It positively selects CF and PW, negatively selects FF and SF, and excludes FD absolutely. The results of the present studies indicate that the dietary selectivity of shrimp was based not only on the attractabilities of the diets, but also on the responses such as growth and food conversion.

  13. 75 FR 37757 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Vietnam: Initiation and Preliminary Results of Changed-Circumstances...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ..., but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy... its predecessor. See Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Notice of Final Results of Antidumping...

  14. 75 FR 44229 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from India: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Changed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... 69941 (Nov. 18, 2005) (Brake Rotors), citing Brass Sheet and Strip from Canada; Final Results...

  15. 76 FR 40881 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip in...

  16. 77 FR 40574 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus...; Countervailing Duties; Final rule, 62 FR 27296, 27393 (May 19, 1997); see also Stainless Steel Sheet and Strip...

  17. Clonal Occurrence of Salmonella Weltevreden in Cultured Shrimp in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Noor Uddin, Gazi Md.; Larsen, Marianne Halberg; Barco, Lisa; Minh Phu, Tran; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the occurrence, serovar and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella spp. in shrimp samples from intensive and extensive farms located in three different provinces in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp from 11 of the 48 farms all contained S. Weltevreden, except for one farm yielding S. Agona, with no difference in Salmonella occurrence between the two production systems. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of S. Weltevreden showed closely related XbaI pulse types, suggesting a clonal relationship despite the farms and shrimp samples being epidemiologically unrelated. S. Weltevreden was susceptible to most antimicrobials tested, with a few strains being resistant to florfenicol, chloramphenicol, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim. Future studies of the ecology of S. Weltevreden should establish if this serovar may survive better and even multiply in warm-water shrimp farm environments compared to other Salmonella serovars. PMID:26222547

  18. Microbiological quality of frozen shrimp and lobster tail in the retail market.

    PubMed Central

    Swartzentruber, A; Schwab, A H; Duran, A P; Wentz, B A; Read, R B

    1980-01-01

    The microbiological quality of three frozen shrimp products and frozen lobster tail at the retail level was determined. The number of retail units of the four products examined and the geometric means for aerobic plate counts at 30 and 35 degrees C, respectively, were: 1,464 units of cooked, peeled shrimp--13,000 and 7,200 per g; 1,468 units of raw, peeled shrimp--860,000 and 300,000 per g; 1,300 units of raw, in-shell shrimp--800,000 and 300,000 per g; 1,315 units of lobster tail--140,000 and 42,000 per g. Geometric means for coliform, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus counts for all products were < 10 per g. PMID:6999997

  19. 50 CFR 622.208 - Minimum mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... mesh size applicable to rock shrimp off Georgia and Florida. (a) The minimum mesh size for the cod end...), stretched mesh. This minimum mesh size is required in at least the last 40 meshes forward of the cod...

  20. Crassostrea gigas oysters as a shrimp farm bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Boucard, C; Escobedo-Fregoso, C; Duran-Avelar, Ma de J; Mercier, L; Llera-Herrera, R; Escobedo-Bonilla, C; Vibanco-Perez, N

    2012-04-26

    This study explored whether Crassostrea gigas oysters can be used as a bioindicator of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp farm water canals. Bioassays showed that C. gigas can accumulate WSSV in their gills and digestive glands but do not become infected, either by exposure to seawater containing WSSV or by cohabitation with infected shrimp. The use of a WSSV nested PCR to screen oysters placed in water canals at the entry of a shrimp farm allowed WSSV to be detected 16 d prior to the disease occurring. The finding that C. gigas can concentrate small amounts of WSSV present in seawater without being harmed makes it an ideal sentinel species at shrimp farms.

  1. The potential of Yucca schidigera extract to reduce the ammonia pollution from shrimp farming.

    PubMed

    Santacruz-Reyes, Roberto A; Chien, Yew-Hu

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using Yucca schidigera extract (YUPE) to reduce ammonia pollution resulting from shrimp farming. YUPE was added at ratios of 18, 36, and 72 mg L(-1) to effluent from an experimental shrimp culture system containing total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) of 0.592, 0.672, and 0.718 mg L(-1). TAN reduction increased with an increase in YUPE, and at 18 mg L(-1) reduced TAN by 71-72% and 86-87% at 6 and 24h, respectively. Shrimp feed containing YUPE at 300, 600, and 1200 mg kg(-1) was submerged, allowing the ammonia to leach out. The addition of YUPE in feed reduced TAN leaching by 50-83% compared with the control. The application of YUPE in water or feed could considerably reduce the accumulation of ammonia in waste water discharge during shrimp production, thereby providing a feasible solution to ammonia pollution in coastal environments.

  2. Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., associated with mortalities in Penaeus vannamei, Pacific white shrimp.

    PubMed

    Nunan, Linda M; Lightner, Donald V; Oduori, Marietta A; Gasparich, Gail E

    2005-11-01

    A new bacterial strain, designated SHRIMP(T), isolated from the haemolymph of the Pacific white shrimp, Penaeus vannamei, was serologically distinct from other spiroplasmas. Cells of this strain were helical in form and variable in length. Examination by electron microscopy revealed wall-less cells delineated by a single cytoplasmic membrane. The organisms grew well in M1D media supplemented with 2 % NaCl. Strain SHRIMP(T) grew at temperatures of 20-37 degrees C, with optimum growth occurring at 28 degrees C. The strain catabolized glucose and hydrolysed arginine, but did not hydrolyse urea. The G+C content of the DNA was 29 +/-1 mol%. Strain SHRIMP(T) (=ATCC BAA-1082T=CAIM 1252T) is designated the type strain of a novel species, Spiroplasma penaei sp. nov., which represents a new subgroup (I-9) of the group I spiroplasmas.

  3. 77 FR 53856 - Administrative Review of Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ..., 2012, the Petitioner,\\5\\ Domestic Processors,\\6\\ and Hilltop submitted additional surrogate value information. On May 7, 2012, Domestic Processors and Hilltop submitted rebuttal surrogate value information... domestic parties are the American Shrimp Processors Association (hereinafter referred to as...

  4. 75 FR 10338 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: DS-2031, Shrimp Exporter's/Importer's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...: Shrimp Exporter's/ Importer's Declaration OMB Control Number: 1405-0095 Type of Request: Extension of a... other for-profit organizations Estimated Number of Respondents: 3,000 Estimated Number of Responses:...

  5. The impact of shrimp farming effluent on bacterial communities in mangrove waters, Ceará, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sousa, O V; Macrae, A; Menezes, F G R; Gomes, N C M; Vieira, R H S F; Mendonça-Hagler, L C S

    2006-12-01

    The effects of shrimp farm effluents on bacterial communities in mangroves have been infrequently reported. Classic and molecular biology methods were used to survey bacterial communities from four mangroves systems. Water temperature, salinity, pH, total heterotrophic bacteria and maximum probable numbers of Vibrio spp. were investigated. Genetic profiles of bacterial communities were also characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of eubacterial and Vibrio 16S rDNA using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Highest heterotrophic counts were registered in the mangrove not directly polluted by shrimp farming. The Enterobacteriaceae and Chryseomonas luteola dominated the heterotrophic isolates. Vibrio spp. pathogenic to humans and shrimps were identified. Eubacterial genetic profiles suggest a shared community structure independent of mangrove system. Vibrio genetic profiles were mangrove specific. Neither microbial counts nor genetic profiling revealed a significant decrease in species richness associated with shrimp farm effluent. The complex nature of mangrove ecosystems and their microbial communities is discussed.

  6. Use of a Brine Shrimp Assay to Study Herbal Teas in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opler, Annette; Mizell, Rebecca; Robert, Alexander; Cervantes-Cervantes, Miguel; Kincaid, Dwight; Kennelly, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Introduces a brine shrimp assay to demonstrate the effects of the biological activity of herbal remedies. Describes two protocols, one using aqueous extracts and the other using methanol extracts. (Contains 21 references.) (YDS)

  7. Genetic improvement of Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei]: perspectives for genomic selection

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Juárez, Héctor; Campos-Montes, Gabriel R.; Caballero-Zamora, Alejandra; Montaldo, Hugo H.

    2015-01-01

    The uses of breeding programs for the Pacific white shrimp [Penaeus (Litopenaeus) vannamei] based on mixed linear models with pedigreed data are described. The application of these classic breeding methods yielded continuous progress of great value to increase the profitability of the shrimp industry in several countries. Recent advances in such areas as genomics in shrimp will allow for the development of new breeding programs in the near future that will increase genetic progress. In particular, these novel techniques may help increase disease resistance to specific emerging diseases, which is today a very important component of shrimp breeding programs. Thanks to increased selection accuracy, simulated genetic advance using genomic selection for survival to a disease challenge was up to 2.6 times that of phenotypic sib selection. PMID:25852740

  8. Requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis O'sbeck for potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fa-Yi; Li, He-Fang; Wang, Hui-Liang; Liang, De-Hai; Tian, Yu-Chuan

    1995-06-01

    Potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine requirements of shrimp, Penaeus chinensis were studied. Orthogonal design was employed in this experiment. The composition of the basal diet consisted of fish meal, peanut cake, corn meal, soybean cake, wheat bran, vitamin mix and mineral mix, and supplementations of potassium, sodium, magnesium and iodine in the basal diet were made according to the L9(34) orthogonal table. The results indicated that iodine supplementation improved growth of the shrimp significantly and raised survival very significantly, iodine requirement of the shrimp was 0.003%; sodium requirement was 0.87% or less; and that 1.1 1.3% potassium and 0.18 0.38% magnesium in the diet were proper nutrition supplements for the shrimp.

  9. Shrimp pond effluent dominates foliar nitrogen in disturbed mangroves as mapped using hyperspectral imagery.

    PubMed

    Fauzi, Anas; Skidmore, Andrew K; van Gils, Hein; Schlerf, Martin; Heitkönig, Ignas M A

    2013-11-15

    Conversion of mangroves to shrimp ponds creates fragmentation and eutrophication. Detection of the spatial variation of foliar nitrogen is essential for understanding the effect of eutrophication on mangroves. We aim (i) to estimate nitrogen variability across mangrove landscapes of the Mahakam delta using airborne hyperspectral remote sensing (HyMap) and (ii) to investigate links between the variation of foliar nitrogen mapped and local environmental variables. In this study, multivariate prediction models achieved a higher level of accuracy than narrow-band vegetation indices, making multivariate modeling the best choice for mapping. The variation of foliar nitrogen concentration in mangroves was significantly influenced by the local environment: (1) position of mangroves (seaward/landward), (2) distance to the shrimp ponds, and (3) predominant mangrove species. The findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbances, in this case shrimp ponds, influence nitrogen variation in mangroves. Mangroves closer to the shrimp ponds had higher foliar nitrogen concentrations.

  10. 78 FR 42497 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Thailand: Final Results of Antidumping... AGENCY: Import Administration, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. SUMMARY: On..., Import Administration, International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street...

  11. Genetic characterization of the burrowing shrimp (Neotrypaea californiensis) in Washington and Oregon estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ghost shrimp, (Neotrypaea californiensis) are burrowers, which have a wide demographic distribution along the United States Pacific Coast. Our study used genetic analysis to estimate the source populations of larvae recruiting into estuaries to allow a greater understanding ...

  12. Application of bacterial lipopolysaccharide to improve survival of the black tiger shrimp after Vibrio harveyi exposure.

    PubMed

    Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates an effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as feed supplement to improve immunity of the black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). LPS was coated to commercial feed pellets and given to the shrimp once or twice a day for 10 days before an exposure with shrimp pathogenic bacterium Vibrio harveyi. The growth rates, percent weight gains, total hemocyte and granulocyte counts and survival rates of shrimp between the LPS-coated pellet fed groups and a control group where shrimp fed with commercial feed pellets were compared. After 10 days of the feeding trials, growth rates were not significantly different in all groups, suggesting no toxicity from LPS supplement. To determine beneficial effect of LPS diets, each group was subsequently exposed to V. harveyi by immersion method and the survival rates were recorded for seven days after the immersion. Regardless of the dosages of LPS, the shrimp groups fed with LPS-coated pellets showed higher survival rates than the control group. There was no significant difference in survival rates between the two LPS dosages groups. In addition to survival under pathogen challenge, we also determine effect of LPS on immune-related genes after 10-day feeding trial. Gene expression analysis in the P. monodon intestines revealed that antilipopolysaccharide factor isoform 3 (ALF3), C-type lectin, and mucine-like peritrophin (mucin-like PM) were expressed significantly higher in a group fed with LPS supplemental diet once or twice a day than in a control group. The transcript levels of C-type lectin and mucin-like PM had increased significantly when LPS was given once a day, while significant induction of ALF3 transcripts was observed when shrimp were fed with LPS twice a day. The up-regulation of the immune gene levels in intestines and higher resistance to V. harveyi of the shrimp fed with LPS provide the evidence for potential application of LPS as an immunostimulant in P. monodon farming.

  13. Spectral sensitivity, spatial resolution and temporal resolution and their implications for conspecific signalling in cleaner shrimp.

    PubMed

    Caves, Eleanor M; Frank, Tamara M; Johnsen, Sönke

    2016-02-01

    Cleaner shrimp (Decapoda) regularly interact with conspecifics and client reef fish, both of which appear colourful and finely patterned to human observers. However, whether cleaner shrimp can perceive the colour patterns of conspecifics and clients is unknown, because cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are unstudied. We quantified spectral sensitivity and temporal resolution using electroretinography (ERG), and spatial resolution using both morphological (inter-ommatidial angle) and behavioural (optomotor) methods in three cleaner shrimp species: Lysmata amboinensis, Ancylomenes pedersoni and Urocaridella antonbruunii. In all three species, we found strong evidence for only a single spectral sensitivity peak of (mean ± s.e.m.) 518 ± 5, 518 ± 2 and 533 ± 3 nm, respectively. Temporal resolution in dark-adapted eyes was 39 ± 1.3, 36 ± 0.6 and 34 ± 1.3 Hz. Spatial resolution was 9.9 ± 0.3, 8.3 ± 0.1 and 11 ± 0.5 deg, respectively, which is low compared with other compound eyes of similar size. Assuming monochromacy, we present approximations of cleaner shrimp perception of both conspecifics and clients, and show that cleaner shrimp visual capabilities are sufficient to detect the outlines of large stimuli, but not to detect the colour patterns of conspecifics or clients, even over short distances. Thus, conspecific viewers have probably not played a role in the evolution of cleaner shrimp appearance; rather, further studies should investigate whether cleaner shrimp colour patterns have evolved to be viewed by client reef fish, many of which possess tri- and tetra-chromatic colour vision and relatively high spatial acuity.

  14. Monitoring of shrimp and farmed fish sold in Canada for cyanobacterial toxins.

    PubMed

    Niedzwiadek, Barbara; Scott, Peter M; Lau, Ben P-Y

    2012-01-01

    Sixty-one samples of shrimp and 32 samples of farmed fish collected from retail markets across Canada were analyzed for cyanobacterial toxins, including microcystins, paralytic shellfish poisons (saxitoxins), cylindrospermopsin, and β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, using established methods of analysis. None of these toxins were detected in any of the samples. Some shrimp samples screened for paralytic shellfish poisons showed the presence of unknown peaks in the chromatogram after periodate oxidation.

  15. Systematics, phylogeny, and taphonomy of ghost shrimps (Decapoda): a perspective from the fossil record

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.

    2016-01-01

    Ghost shrimps of Callianassidae and Ctenochelidae are soft-bodied, usually heterochelous decapods representing major bioturbators of muddy and sandy (sub)marine substrates. Ghost shrimps have a robust fossil record spanning from the Early Cretaceous (~ 133 Ma) to the Holocene and their remains are present in most assemblages of Cenozoic decapod crustaceans. Their taxonomic interpretation is in flux, mainly because the generic assignment is hindered by their insufficient preservation and disagreement in the biological classification. Furthermore, numerous taxa are incorrectly classified within the catch-all taxon Callianassa. To show the historical patterns in describing fossil ghost shrimps and to evaluate taphonomic aspects influencing the attribution of ghost shrimp remains to higher level taxa, a database of all fossil species treated at some time as belonging to the group has been compiled: 250 / 274 species are considered valid ghost shrimp taxa herein. More than half of these taxa (160 species, 58.4%) are known only from distal cheliped elements, i.e., dactylus and / or propodus, due to the more calcified cuticle locally. Rarely, ghost shrimps are preserved in situ in burrows or in direct association with them, and several previously unpublished occurrences are reported herein. For generic assignment, fossil material should be compared to living species because many of them have modern relatives. Heterochely, intraspecific variation, ontogenetic changes and sexual dimorphism are all factors that have to be taken into account when working with fossil ghost shrimps. Distal elements are usually more variable than proximal ones. Preliminary results suggest that the ghost shrimp clade emerged not before the Hauterivian (~ 133 Ma). The divergence of Ctenochelidae and Paracalliacinae is estimated to occur within the interval of Hauterivian to Albian (133–100 Ma). Callichirinae and Eucalliacinae likely diverged later during the Late Cretaceous (100–66 Ma

  16. The Underlying Ecological Processes of Gut Microbiota Among Cohabitating Retarded, Overgrown and Normal Shrimp.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Jinbo; Dai, Wenfang; Zhu, Jinyong; Liu, Keshao; Dong, Chunming; Qiu, Qiongfen

    2016-12-13

    Increasing evidence of tight links among the gut microbiota, obesity, and host health has emerged, but knowledge of the ecological processes that shape the variation in microbial assemblages across growth rates remains elusive. Moreover, inadequately control for differences in factors that profoundly affect the gut microbial community, hampers evaluation of the gut microbiota roles in regulating growth rates. To address this gap, we evaluated the composition and ecological processes of the gut bacterial community in cohabitating retarded, overgrown, and normal shrimps from identically managed ponds. Gut bacterial community structures were distinct (P = 0.0006) among the shrimp categories. Using a structural equation modeling (SEM), we found that changes in the gut bacterial community were positively related to digestive activities, which subsequently affected shrimp growth rate. This association was further supported by intensified interspecies interaction and enriched lineages with high nutrient intake efficiencies in overgrown shrimps. However, the less phylogenetic clustering of gut microbiota in overgrown and retarded subjects may offer empty niches for pathogens invasion, as evidenced by higher abundances of predicted functional pathways involved in disease infection. Given no differences in biotic and abiotic factors among the cohabitating shrimps, we speculated that the distinct gut community assembly could be attributed to random colonization in larval shrimp (e.g., priority effects) and that an altered microbiota could be a causative factor in overgrowth or retardation in shrimp. To our knowledge, this is the first study to provide an integrated overview of the direct roles of gut microbiota in shaping shrimp growth rate and the underlying ecological mechanisms.

  17. Genome-wide discovery of novel and conserved microRNAs in white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Xi, Qian-Yun; Xiong, Yuan-Yan; Wang, Yuan-Mei; Cheng, Xiao; Qi, Qi-En; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Wang, Li-Na; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Liu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Of late years, a large amount of conserved and species-specific microRNAs (miRNAs) have been performed on identification from species which are economically important but lack a full genome sequence. In this study, Solexa deep sequencing and cross-species miRNA microarray were used to detect miRNAs in white shrimp. We identified 239 conserved miRNAs, 14 miRNA* sequences and 20 novel miRNAs by bioinformatics analysis from 7,561,406 high-quality reads representing 325,370 distinct sequences. The all 20 novel miRNAs were species-specific in white shrimp and not homologous in other species. Using the conserved miRNAs from the miRBase database as a query set to search for homologs from shrimp expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 32 conserved computationally predicted miRNAs were discovered in shrimp. In addition, using microarray analysis in the shrimp fed with Panax ginseng polysaccharide complex, 151 conserved miRNAs were identified, 18 of which were significant up-expression, while 49 miRNAs were significant down-expression. In particular, qRT-PCR analysis was also performed for nine miRNAs in three shrimp tissues such as muscle, gill and hepatopancreas. Results showed that these miRNAs expression are tissue specific. Combining results of the three methods, we detected 20 novel and 394 conserved miRNAs. Verification with quantitative reverse transcription (qRT-PCR) and Northern blot showed a high confidentiality of data. The study provides the first comprehensive specific miRNA profile of white shrimp, which includes useful information for future investigations into the function of miRNAs in regulation of shrimp development and immunology.

  18. Protein and lipid sources affect cholesterol concentrations of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Z J; Hardy, R W

    2004-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of protein and lipid sources on cholesterol, AA, and fatty acid content, and on biological performance of juvenile Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone). In Exp. 1, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish meal; soybean meal; casein; fish meal + soybean meal; fish meal + casein; soybean meal + casein; and fish meal + soybean meal + casein. In Exp. 2, seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were prepared using fish oil; soy oil; poultry fat; fish oil + soy oil; fish oil + poultry fat; soy oil + poultry fat; and fish oil + soy oil + poultry fat. Nine shrimp (average BW 570 mg) were stocked per 60-L tank, with three tanks per diet in each experiment. Shrimp were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 28 d. Protein sources affected shrimp cholesterol, feed consumption, feed efficiency, protein consumption, protein efficiency ratio, and crude body fat (P < or = 0.05), but not weight gain, survival, hepatosomatic index, body protein, ash, and AA composition. Body (without hepatopancreas) cholesterol concentrations were the highest in shrimp fed the diet containing fish meal (0.81%), lowest for those fed the casein diet (0.64%), and intermediate in the other dietary treatment groups (range 0.71 to 0.74%). Lipid source also affected shrimp body cholesterol, body fatty acid profiles, and fatty acid profiles in the hepatopancreas (P < or = 0.05), but not growth performance, body protein, fat, ash, and cholesterol concentrations in the hepatopancreas. Shrimp fed the fish oil diet had the highest body cholesterol (0.75%), whereas those fed the soy oil or poultry fat diets were lowest (0.66 and 0.65%, respectively). Results indicate that by replacing fish meal and fish oil with soybean meal and soy oil, shrimp growth performance is not affected, but body cholesterol concentration is reduced.

  19. Effects of ghost shrimp on zinc and cadmium in sediments from Tampa Bay, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klerks, P.L.; Felder, D.L.; Strasser, K.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the effects that ghost shrimp have on the distribution of metals in sediment. We measured levels of HNO3-extractable zinc and cadmium in surface sediment, in ghost shrimp burrow walls and in sediment ejected by the ghost shrimp from their burrows, at five sandy intertidal sites in Tampa Bay. Ghost shrimp densities and their rate of sediment ejection were also quantified, as were sediment organic content and silt + clay content. Densities of ghost shrimp (Sergio trilobata and Lepidophthalmus louisianensis) averaged 33/m2 at our sites, and they ejected sediment at an average rate of 28 g/burrow/day. Levels of both Zn and Cd were significantly higher in burrow walls than in surface sediments. Sediment ejected by the shrimp from their burrows had elevated levels of Zn (relative to surface sediments) at one of the sites. Sediment organic content and silt + clay content were higher in burrow-wall sediments than in ejected sediment, which in turn tended to have values above those of surface sediments. Differences in levels of HNO3-extractable Zn and Cd among sediment types may be a consequence of these sediments differing in other physiochemical characteristics, though the differences in metal levels remained statistically significant for some sites after correcting for differences in organic content and silt + clay content. We conclude that the presence of ghost shrimp burrows contributes to spatial heterogeneity of sedimentary metal levels, while the ghost shrimp bioturbation results in a significant flux of metals to the sediment surface and is expected to decrease heterogeneity of metal levels in sedimentary depth profiles.

  20. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-06-22

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866.

  1. First record of a parasitic septate gregarines (Apicomplexa: Sporozoea) in the shrimp Peneaus monodon in Sundarbans of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Chakraborti, J; Bandyopadhyay, P K

    2010-04-01

    Investigations on the incidence of septate gregarines in shrimp have immense importance because of severe pathogenicity of the parasite. The septate gregarines infect the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon and severe infection disturbs the intestinal tissues. Mostly gregarines of the genus Nematopsis have been identified from cultured peneaid shrimp. It has worldwide in distribution. In India, gregarine parasites have so far been reported from penaeid shrimps of Bombay and Kerala. The species which was isolated from the midgut of shrimp Peneaus monodon collected from Kharibari area of Sunderbans. 9 out of 20 i.e. 45% of the randomly sampled hosts were found to be infected with a species of the genus Nematopsis. Different developmental stages including trophozoites, sporadins, and gametocysts of the Nematopsis sp. infecting the shrimp have been isolated. No correlations have been established between incidence of infection and environmental parameters.

  2. Shrimp theorem: paddle swimming at low Reynolds number

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Daisuke

    2014-11-01

    A large variety of aquatic organisms, such as small planktonic crustaceans, use multiple legs as paddles; however the resultant dynamics and efficiency of locomotion are not yet clear. I will present a simple model of swimming with multiple pairs of stiff legs. The legs are assumed to oscillate in a metachronal pattern in a model based on slender-body theory for Stokes flow. The model predicts locomotion in the direction of the metachronal wave, as frequently observed in nature. Unlike scallops undergoing reciprocal motion, shrimp can swim at low Reynolds number. This study offers a possible explanation why crustaceans thrive in aquatic environments, and could inspire a new generation of powerful biomimetic robots.

  3. Patterns of genome size variation in snapping shrimp.

    PubMed

    Jeffery, Nicholas W; Hultgren, Kristin; Chak, Solomon Tin Chi; Gregory, T Ryan; Rubenstein, Dustin R

    2016-06-01

    Although crustaceans vary extensively in genome size, little is known about how genome size may affect the ecology and evolution of species in this diverse group, in part due to the lack of large genome size datasets. Here we investigate interspecific, intraspecific, and intracolony variation in genome size in 39 species of Synalpheus shrimps, representing one of the largest genome size datasets for a single genus within crustaceans. We find that genome size ranges approximately 4-fold across Synalpheus with little phylogenetic signal, and is not related to body size. In a subset of these species, genome size is related to chromosome size, but not to chromosome number, suggesting that despite large genomes, these species are not polyploid. Interestingly, there appears to be 35% intraspecific genome size variation in Synalpheus idios among geographic regions, and up to 30% variation in Synalpheus duffyi genome size within the same colony.

  4. Validation of a two-plate microbiological method for screening antibiotic residues in shrimp tissue.

    PubMed

    Dang, Pham Kim; Degand, Guy; Danyi, Sophie; Pierret, Gilles; Delahaut, Philippe; Ton, Vu Dinh; Maghuin-Rogister, Guy; Scippo, Marie-Louise

    2010-07-05

    Microbiological inhibition screening tests could play an important role to detect residues of antibiotics in the different animal food products, but very few are available for the aquaculture products in general, and for shrimps in particular. A two-plate microbiological method to screen shrimp for residues of the most commonly used antibiotics has been developed and validated according to criteria derived from the European Commission Decision 2002/657/CE. Bacillus subtilis was used as a sensitive strain to target antibiotics. Culture conditions on Petri plates (pH of medium) were selected to enhance the capacity of antibiotic detection. Antibiotic residues were extracted from shrimps using acetonitrile/acetone (70/30, v/v) before application on Petri plates seeded with B. subtilis. The method was validated using spiked blank tissues as well as antibiotic treated shrimps with enrofloxacin and tetracycline, two antibiotics often found to be used in shrimp production. For tetracyclines and (fluoro)quinolones, the detection capability was below the maximum residue limit (MRL), while it was around the MRL for sulfonamides. The specificity of the microbiological screening was 100% in all cases while the sensitivity and accuracy was 100% in almost all cases. The capacity of the method to detect contaminated samples was confirmed on antibiotic treated shrimps, analyzed in parallel with a confirmatory method (Liquid Chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS)).

  5. Quantification of vitamin C requirements for juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon) using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Chang, C F

    1994-10-01

    The vitamin C requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) for optimal growth were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial using polyphosphorylated L-ascorbic acid (C2PP), a stable derivative of L-ascorbic acid (C1). Juvenile shrimp (0.55 +/- 0.01 g) were fed purified diets containing graded levels (0, 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg diet) of supplemental C2PP or a high dosage of C1 (2500 mg/kg diet). Their weight gain, survival, feed efficiency and C1 storage in hepatopancreas and muscle were used to quantify the requirements. The growth of the shrimp fed the unsupplemented diet was significantly lower than those of the supplemented groups except the 100 mg C2PP/kg diet group. The C1 concentrations in muscle and hepatopancreas were greatest in shrimp fed 200 or 400 C2PP mg/kg diet. The dietary level required for juvenile P. monodon was found to be 209 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of weight gain, and was 220 mg/kg diet and 210 mg/kg diet, based on the analyses of C1 concentrations of hepatopancreas and muscle, respectively. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet showed a significantly higher mortality than the supplemented groups. Most of the shrimp in the unsupplemented group that died suffered incomplete molting. No other overt deficiency sign was observed in any group.

  6. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) play a pivotal trophic role in enhancing Ruppia maritima.

    PubMed

    McCall, Donna Drury; Rakocinski, Chet F

    2007-03-01

    Coupled trophic-engineer interactions are potentially important for maintaining habitat function and ecosystem services. As ephemeral submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV), Ruppia maritima has a short well-defined growth-senescence cycle and should benefit from any ecological interaction that enhances its physical condition and longevity. Grass shrimp (Palaemonetes spp.) are abundant facultative grazers of epiphytic algae and conveyors of nutrients in tidal marsh and SAV habitats. Grass shrimp addition consistently enhanced Ruppia biomass and shoot density in a series of three field experiments conducted in Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, Mississippi, USA. In two experiments, epiphyte grazing by grass shrimp enhanced Ruppia by inhibiting die-back during the mid- and latter stages of the Ruppia life cycle. Despite a nonsignificant epiphyte grazing effect, grass shrimp also enhanced Ruppia during its early growth stage in a third experiment. In that experiment, nutrient addition also significantly increased epiphyte biomass. Grass shrimp may have fostered the early growth of Ruppia through direct deposition of feces to the sediment in the third experiment. Grass shrimp play a pivotal trophic role in the maintenance of Ruppia through context-dependent interactions involving stage of the SAV life cycle, season, and nutrient limitation.

  7. Edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) extract inhibits melanosis in Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus).

    PubMed

    Encarnacion, Angel B; Fagutao, Fernand; Hirayama, Jinto; Terayama, Makoto; Hirono, Ikuo; Ohshima, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    This study compared the potential of an aqueous extract of an edible mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) to prevent melanosis in cultured Kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) with other antimelanosic compounds in vivo. The mushroom extract contained 9.1 mg/mL ergothioneine (ESH). Immersion of live full-grown shrimp in a 0.5% w/v solution of mushroom extract significantly reduced PPO activity in shrimp hemolymph. In addition, expression of the prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene decreased in hemocytes, suggesting that the extract blocked the activation of the proPO cascade. Consequently, the development of melanosis in the treated shrimp was significantly suppressed during ice storage. Treatment with a 0.05% w/v solution of sodium ascorbate and 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol had the same effect. In vitro experiments showed that ESH effectively inhibited PPO activity and activation of the proPO cascade in hemocyte lysate supernatant. This study suggests that in vivo application of F. velutipes mushroom extract is an effective natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents to inhibit postmortem melanosis in shrimp. Practical Application: The extract of an edible mushroom (F. velutipes) containing ergothioneine can be a promising natural alternative to synthetic antimelanosic agents used to prevent postharvest melanosis in shrimp and other crustaceans. Furthermore, utilization of the mushroom trimmings could also help address the growing concerns on the disposal of such agricultural wastes and instead use it into a novel purpose as a source of antimelanosic and antioxidants for food and industrial application.

  8. Inhibition of melanosis formation in Pacific white shrimp by the extract of lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-09-15

    Lead (Leucaena leucocephala) seed extract was prepared using distilled water as a medium. An extraction yield of 26.16g/100g of seed was obtained after extraction at room temperature for 12h. Total phenolic and mimosine contents in the lead seed extract powder (LSEP) were 17.4g GAE/100g and 8.8g/100g, respectively. LSEP at different concentrations (0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1%, w/v) showed inhibitory activity towards polyphenoloxidase (PPO) of Pacific white shrimp in a dose dependent manner. When the whole Pacific white shrimp were treated with 0.25% and 0.5% (w/v) LSEP, the shrimp treated with 0.5% LSEP had the lower melanosis score throughout the storage of 12days and showed a higher score for colour and odour, as well as overall likeness, compared with the control (without treatment) and 1.25% sodium metabisulphite treated samples at day 12 (P<0.05). Meat of shrimps treated with LSEP at both levels had the increase in mimosine content up to 8days, suggesting the migration of mimosine into shrimp muscle during extended storage. Therefore, 0.5% LSEP can be used as a novel melanosis inhibitor for Pacific white shrimp.

  9. White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) exposed to low and high salinity.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Carreño, Santiago; Valencia-Yáñez, Ricardo; Correa-Sandoval, Francisco; Ruíz-García, Noé; Díaz-Herrera, Fernando; Giffard-Mena, Ivone

    2014-09-01

    White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has a worldwide distribution and is considered one of the most pathogenic and devastating viruses to the shrimp industry. A few studies have explored the effect of WSSV on shrimp acclimated to low (5 practical salinity units [psu]) or high ([40 psu) salinity conditions. In this work, we analysed the physiological response of WSSV-infected Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles that were acclimated to different salinities (5, 15, 28, 34 and 54 psu). We evaluated the osmotic response and survival of the shrimp at different times after infection (0 to 48 hours), and we followed the expression levels of a viral gene (vp664) in shrimp haemolymph using real-time PCR. Our results indicate that the susceptibility of the shrimp to the virus increased at extreme salinities (5 and 54 psu), with higher survival rates at 15 and 28 psu, which were closer to the iso-osmotic point (24.7 psu, 727.5 mOsmol/kg). Acute exposure to the virus made the haemolymph less hyperosmotic at 5 and 15 psu and less hypo-osmotic at higher salinities ([28 psu). The capacity of white shrimp to osmoregulate, and thus survive, significantly decreased following WSSV infection. According to our results, extreme salinities (5 or 54 psu) are more harmful than seawater.

  10. Knowledge and innovation relationships in the shrimp industry in Thailand and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Lebel, Louis; Garden, Po; Luers, Amy; Manuel-Navarrete, David; Giap, Dao Huy

    2016-04-26

    Experts, government officials, and industry leaders concerned about the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture believe they know what farmers need to know and should be doing. They have framed sustainability as a technical problem that, at the farm level, is to be solved by better shrimp and management of ponds and businesses. Codes of conduct, standards, and regulations are expected to bring deviant practices into line. Shrimp farmers are often cornered in a challenging game of knowledge in which their livelihoods are at stake. In the commodity chain there are multiple relations with both suppliers and buyers, not all of which are trustworthy. The social networks shrimp farmers belong to are crucial for sifting out misinformation and multiplying insights from personal experience in learning by doing. Successful farmers become part of a learning culture through seminars, workshops, and clubs in which knowledge and practices are continually re-evaluated. The combination of vertical and horizontal relationships creates a set of alternative arenas that together are critical to bridging knowledge and action gaps for shrimp farmers. Government and industry initiatives for improving links between knowledge and practice for sustainability have largely succeeded when incentives are aligned: shrimp grow better in healthy environments, and using fewer resources means higher profits.

  11. Unruly women and invisible workers: the shrimp traders of Mazatlán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Torres, María L

    2012-01-01

    During the 1980s, a group of women from rural communities in the Mexican state of Sinaloa organized a grassroots social movement in order to gain legal access to the sale of shrimp. The movement reached its peak in 1984, with the formation of a shrimp traders union and the establishment of a shrimp marketplace in the tourist city of Mazatlán. Despite the long trajectory of the movement and the success of the shrimp market, these women and their work have been completely ignored by government agencies in charge of the development and management of the fishing industry. For the most part, one gets to read about the shrimp traders only in tourist-oriented brochures depicting them as a “local attraction,” something to be seen while one is touring the city on a private charter bus en route to the Archaeological Museum or to the upscale jewelry shops in the Golden Zone. In this article, I examine how women used their gender and their identity as rural workers to defy the state and its policies, overcome poverty, and take control of the local marketing of shrimp. Another objective of this article is to show why and how women engaged in collective action so they could be legitimized as workers and how gender shaped their individual experiences.

  12. Pulsed Ultraviolet Light Reduces Immunoglobulin E Binding to Atlantic White Shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) Extract

    PubMed Central

    Shriver, Sandra; Yang, Wade; Chung, Si-Yin; Percival, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed ultraviolet light (PUV), a novel food processing and preservation technology, has been shown to reduce allergen levels in peanut and soybean samples. In this study, the efficacy of using PUV to reduce the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin (36-kDa), and to attenuate immunoglobulin E (IgE) binding to shrimp extract was examined. Atlantic white shrimp (Litopenaeus setiferus) extract was treated with PUV (3 pulses/s, 10 cm from light source) for 4 min. Tropomyosin was compared in the untreated, boiled, PUV-treated and [boiled+PUV]-treated samples, and changes in the tropomyosin levels were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). IgE binding of the treated extract was analyzed via immunoblot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using pooled human plasma containing IgE antibodies against shrimp allergens. Results showed that levels of tropomyosin and IgE binding were reduced following PUV treatment. However, boiling increased IgE binding, while PUV treatment could offset the increased allergen reactivity caused by boiling. In conclusion, PUV treatment reduced the reactivity of the major shrimp allergen, tropomyosin, and decreased the IgE binding capacity of the shrimp extract. PMID:21845146

  13. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Robalino, Javier; Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Chan, Tin-Yam; O'Leary, Maureen A

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade's ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical, microbial quality and shelf life of shrimp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocaoğlu, Aslı; Sükrü Demirci, Ahmet; Gümüs, Tuncay; Demirci, Mehmet

    2012-12-01

    In the present study the combined effect of gamma irradiation (1, 3 and 5 kGy) and storage at two temperatures: refrigeration (+4 °C) and frozen (-18 °C), on the shelf-life extension of fresh shrimp meat was investigated. The study was based on microbiological and physicochemical changes occuring in the shrimp samples. Total volatile base nitrogen values and trimethylamine values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly lower than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures, and the rate of decrease was more pronounced in samples irradiated at the higher dose (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values for irradiated shrimp samples were significantly higher than non-irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). pH values of shrimp samples were affected significantly by both irradiating dose and storage temperatures (p<0.05). Microbial counts for non-irradiated shrimp samples were higher than the respective irradiated samples at both storage temperatures (p<0.05). The results revealed that irradiation at high dose (5 kGy) might enhance lipid oxidation, although the growth of microorganisms and protein oxidation was inhibited.

  15. The effect of three culture methods on intensive culture system of pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zhen; Wan, Rong; Song, Xiefa; Gao, Lei

    2013-09-01

    Different culture methods may affect the intensive culture system of Pacific white shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei) regarding water quality and growth and economic performance. This study evaluated the potential effects of three culture methods through cultivation of juvenile shrimps under consistent tank management conditions for 84 d. The three methods involved shrimp cultivation in different tanks, i.e., outdoor tanks with cement bottom (mode-C), greenhouse tanks with cement bottom (mode-G) and outdoor tanks with mud-substrate (mode-M). Results showed that water temperature was significantly higher in mode-G than that in mode-C ( P < 0.05). In contrast to the other two treatments, mode-M had stable pH after 50 d cultivation of shrimps. In the mid-late period, the average concentrations of TAN, NO2-N, DIP and COD were significantly lower in mode-M and mode-G compared with those in mode-C ( P < 0.05). Despite lack of differences in the final shrimp weight among different treatments ( P > 0.05), mode-M had significantly higher shrimp yield, survival rate and feed conversion rate ( P < 0.05) than other modes. There were significant differences in revenue and net return among different treatments ( P < 0.05). These demonstrated that the treatments of mode-G and mode-M were conductive to the intensive culture system of L. vannamei.

  16. Knowledge and innovation relationships in the shrimp industry in Thailand and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Lebel, Louis; Garden, Po; Luers, Amy; Manuel-Navarrete, David; Giap, Dao Huy

    2016-01-01

    Experts, government officials, and industry leaders concerned about the sustainability of shrimp aquaculture believe they know what farmers need to know and should be doing. They have framed sustainability as a technical problem that, at the farm level, is to be solved by better shrimp and management of ponds and businesses. Codes of conduct, standards, and regulations are expected to bring deviant practices into line. Shrimp farmers are often cornered in a challenging game of knowledge in which their livelihoods are at stake. In the commodity chain there are multiple relations with both suppliers and buyers, not all of which are trustworthy. The social networks shrimp farmers belong to are crucial for sifting out misinformation and multiplying insights from personal experience in learning by doing. Successful farmers become part of a learning culture through seminars, workshops, and clubs in which knowledge and practices are continually re-evaluated. The combination of vertical and horizontal relationships creates a set of alternative arenas that together are critical to bridging knowledge and action gaps for shrimp farmers. Government and industry initiatives for improving links between knowledge and practice for sustainability have largely succeeded when incentives are aligned: shrimp grow better in healthy environments, and using fewer resources means higher profits. PMID:19892739

  17. Hematological changes in white spot syndrome virus-infected shrimp, Fenneropenaeus chinensis (Osbeck)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Shouming; Zhan, Wenbin; Xing, Jing; Li, Jun; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jing

    2008-08-01

    The pathological changes of hemocytes in the haemolymph and hepatopancreas were examined in experimentally and naturally WSSV (white spot syndrome virus) infected Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The results showed that the pathological manifestations of hemocytes were similar among moribund shrimps infected via injection, feeding and by nature. Firstly, the total hemocyte counts (THCs) in WSSV-infected shrimp were significantly lower than those in healthy shrimp. Secondly, necrotic, broken and disintegrated cells were often observed, and a typical hematolysis was present in the haemolymph smear of WSSV-infected shrimp. Thirdly, necrosis and typical apoptosis of hemocytes were detected with TEM in the peripheral haemolymph of WSSV-infected shrimp. Hyalinocytes and semi-granulocytes with masses of WSSVs in their nuclei often appeared, whereas no granular hemocytes with WSSV were found in the hepatopancreas of moribund infected shrimps. All our results supported that hemocytes were the main target cells of WSSV, and hyalinocytes and semigranular hemocytes seemed to be more favorable for WSSV infection in F. chinensis.

  18. Prevalence and distribution of White Spot Syndrome Virus in cultured shrimp.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A; Nandi, S P; Siddique, M A; Sanyal, S K; Sultana, M; Hossain, M A

    2015-02-01

    White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a dsDNA virus causing White Spot Syndrome Disease (WSSD) in shrimp with almost 100% morality rate within 3-10 days. In Bangladesh, WSSD is one of the major impediments of shrimp farming. This study first investigated the prevalence and distribution of WSSV in cultured shrimps of the coastal regions in Bangladesh. A total of 60 shrimp samples, collected from the 25 shrimp farms of different coastal regions (Satkhira, Khulna, Bagerhat and Cox's Bazar), were analysed during 2013-2014 by conventional PCR using VP28 and VP664 gene-specific primers; 39 of 60 samples were found WSSV positive. SYBR green real-time PCR using 71-bp amplicon for VP664 gene correlated well with conventional PCR data. The prevalence rates of WSSV among the collected 60 samples were Satkhira 79%, Khulna 50%, Bagerhat 38% and Cox's Bazar 25%. Sequencing of WSSV-positive PCR amplicons of VP28 showed 99% similarity with WSSV NCBI Ref/Seq Sequences. Molecular analysis of the VP28 gene sequences of WSSV revealed that Bangladeshi strains phylogenetically affiliated to the strains belong to India. This work concluded that WSSV infections are widely distributed in the coastal regions cultured shrimp in Bangladesh.

  19. The Origin of Large-Bodied Shrimp that Dominate Modern Global Aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, Blake; Bracken-Grissom, Heather D.; Chan, Tin-Yam; O’Leary, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    Several shrimp species from the clade Penaeidae are farmed industrially for human consumption, and this farming has turned shrimp into the largest seafood commodity in the world. The species that are in demand for farming are an anomaly within their clade because they grow to much larger sizes than other members of Penaeidae. Here we trace the evolutionary history of the anomalous farmed shrimp using combined data phylogenetic analysis of living and fossil species. We show that exquisitely preserved fossils of †Antrimpos speciosus from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen limestone belong to the same clade as the species that dominate modern farming, dating the origin of this clade to at least 145 mya. This finding contradicts a much younger Late Cretaceous age (ca. 95 mya) previously estimated for this clade using molecular clocks. The species in the farmed shrimp clade defy a widespread tendency, by reaching relatively large body sizes despite their warm water lifestyles. Small body sizes have been shown to be physiologically favored in warm aquatic environments because satisfying oxygen demands is difficult for large organisms breathing in warm water. Our analysis shows that large-bodied, farmed shrimp have more gills than their smaller-bodied shallow-water relatives, suggesting that extra gills may have been key to the clade’s ability to meet oxygen demands at a large size. Our combined data phylogenetic tree also suggests that, during penaeid evolution, the adoption of mangrove forests as habitats for young shrimp occurred multiple times independently. PMID:27415002

  20. Recent insights into host-pathogen interaction in white spot syndrome virus infected penaeid shrimp.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Ponniah, A G

    2015-07-01

    Viral disease outbreaks are a major concern impeding the development of the shrimp aquaculture industry. The viral disease due to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) observed in early 1990s still continues unabated affecting the shrimp farms and cause huge economic loss to the shrimp aquaculture industry. In the absence of effective therapeutics to control WSSV, it is important to understand viral pathogenesis and shrimp response to WSSV at the molecular level. Identification and molecular characterization of WSSV proteins and receptors may facilitate in designing and development of novel therapeutics and antiviral drugs that may inhibit viral replication. Investigations into host-pathogen interactions might give new insights to viral infectivity, tissue tropism and defence mechanism elicited in response to WSSV infection. However, due to the limited information on WSSV gene function and host immune response, the signalling pathways which are associated in shrimp pathogen interaction have also not been elucidated completely. In the present review, the focus is on those shrimp proteins and receptors that are potentially involved in virus infection or in the defence mechanism against WSSV. In addition, the major signalling pathways involved in the innate immune response and the role of apoptosis in host-pathogen interaction is discussed.

  1. Spatial distributions of grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio) populations in southeastern estuarine ecosystems influenced by urbanization

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, G.; Daugomah, J.; Devane, J.; Porter, D.; Edwards, D.

    1995-12-31

    Urbanization of coastal regions has resulted in the increased discharge of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons trace metals and habitat changes/modifications in adjacent upland areas which may affect grass shrimp populations. A study was conducted comparing larval abundance and adult grass shrimp biomass, abundance, size structure and sex ratios in an urbanized estuary, Murrells Inlet with pristine North Inlet, a NOAA national estuarine research reserve and sanctuary site. A total of 60 sites were sampled during the peak of grass shrimp abundance and compared in terms of spatial distributions and other relevant ancillary information. Factors such as sediment contaminant levels, physico-chemical parameters and land-use habitat modification were statistically compared using a Geographical Information Processing (GIP) techniques and appropriate spatial statistical methods. GIP results indicated similar levels of larval abundance in both estuaries and identified specific nursery ground regions in both estuaries. Adult grass shrimp abundances were greatly reduced in urban areas and grass shrimp desert regions were identified. These areas were correlated with regions having high levels of chemical contaminants and greatest physical disturbances. The mortality rate between larval and adult stages was much higher in urban areas suggesting that urbanization had a profound impact on grass shrimp.

  2. Effect of stocking density on extensive production of freshwater shrimp in coal mine reclamation ponds

    SciTech Connect

    Tidwell, J.H.; Wynne, F.; Coyle, S.D.; Grey, B.; McGuire, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of post-mining reclamation ponds for the production of freshwater shrimp was evaluated by examining different stocking densities. Juvenile shrimp (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) averaging 0.5g each were stocked into four existing ponds at Peabody`s Ken Surface Mine at 6,175; 12,350; 18,500; and 24,700/ha (2,500, 5,000, 7,500, and 10,000/acre) on June 1, 1995. Shrimp were fed twice a week for 103 days, with harvest conducted September 13, 1995. Survival averaged 40%, overall. Average individual weight size was inversely related to stocking density ranging from 52 g (8.7 shrimp/lb) at 6,175/ha to 20.3 g (22.7 shrimp/lb) at 18,500/acre. Total production was directly related to stocking density ranging from 97 kg/ha (86 lbs/acre) at low density to 211 kg/ha (188 lbs/acre) at 18,500/ha shrimp acre. The major difficulty was at harvest due to difficulty in draining ponds. Construction of designed culture ponds with gravity drains during reclamation could greatly enhance survival, harvestability, and commercial feasibility.

  3. Transgene expression in Penaeus monodon cells: evaluation of recombinant baculoviral vectors with shrimp specific hybrid promoters.

    PubMed

    Puthumana, Jayesh; Philip, Rosamma; Bright Singh, I S

    2016-08-01

    It has been realized that shrimp cell immortalization may not be accomplished without in vitro transformation by expressing immortalizing gene in cells. In this process, efficiency of transgene expression is confined to the ability of vectors to transmit gene of interests to the genome. Over the years, unavailability of such vectors has been hampering application of such a strategy in shrimp cells. We report the use of recombinant baculovirus mediated transduction using hybrid promoter system for transgene expression in lymphoid cells of Penaeus monodon. Two recombinant baculovirus vectors with shrimp viral promoters (WSSV-Ie1 and IHHNV-P2) were constructed (BacIe1-GFP and BacP2-GFP) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) used as the transgene. The GFP expression in cells under the control of hybrid promoters, PH-Ie1 or PH-P2, were analyzed and confirmed in shrimp cells. The results indicate that the recombinant baculovirus with shrimp specific viral promoters (hybrid) can be employed for delivery of foreign genes to shrimp cells for in vitro transformation.

  4. Assessment of environmental loads of Cu and Zn from intensive inland shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    León-Cañedo, J A; Alarcón-Silvas, S G; Fierro-Sañudo, J F; Mariscal-Lagarda, M M; Díaz-Valdés, T; Páez-Osuna, F

    2017-02-01

    An experiment was developed to simulate inland shrimp farming using diluted seawater (1.9 g L(-1)) containing 75 shrimps (Litopenaeus vannamei) per square meter during a growth cycle of 120 days. In this study, the environmental loads of copper and zinc were estimated and compared to anthropogenic sources and shrimp aquacultures in other locations. Both metals resulted primarily from feeding, which accounted for 91.8% of Cu and 97.0% of Zn. Concentrations of Cu (110.8 ± 11.8 μg g(-1)) and Zn (69.0 ± 0.7 μg g(-1)) measured in the harvested shrimp had higher Cu and lower Zn concentrations compared to those reported for farmed shrimp from Brazil and Mexico. Clearly, organic sludge was the main route of removal for both metals (Cu 46.2%; Zn 92.6%). The annual environmental loads estimated for inland shrimp aquaculture were 598 ± 74 g Cu ha(-1) and 5080 ± 328 g Zn ha(-1).

  5. Cleaner shrimp use a rocking dance to advertise cleaning service to clients.

    PubMed

    Becker, Justine H A; Curtis, Lynda M; Grutter, Alexandra S

    2005-04-26

    Signals transmit information to receivers about sender attributes, increase the fitness of both parties, and are selected for in cooperative interactions between species to reduce conflict [1, 2]. Marine cleaning interactions are known for stereotyped behaviors [3-6] that likely serve as signals. For example, "dancing" and "tactile dancing" in cleaner fish may serve to advertise cleaning services to client fish [7] and manipulate client behavior [8], respectively. Cleaner shrimp clean fish [9], yet are cryptic in comparison to cleaner fish. Signals, therefore, are likely essential for cleaner shrimp to attract clients. Here, we show that the yellow-beaked cleaner shrimp [10] Urocaridella sp. c [11] uses a stereotypical side-to-side movement, or "rocking dance," while approaching potential client fish in the water column. This dance was followed by a cleaning interaction with the client 100% of the time. Hungry cleaner shrimp, which are more willing to clean than satiated ones [12], spent more time rocking and in closer proximity to clients Cephalopholis cyanostigma than satiated ones, and when given a choice, clients preferred hungry, rocking shrimp. The rocking dance therefore influenced client behavior and, thus, appears to function as a signal to advertise the presence of cleaner shrimp to potential clients.

  6. Rapid identification of enterovirulent Escherichia coli strains using polymerase chain reaction from shrimp farms.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debashis; Biswas, Bhabananda; Islam, H M Rakibul; Ahmed, Md Shamim; Rasheduzzaman, Md; Sarower, Md Golam

    2013-11-01

    Although, Escherichia coli is widely distributed in the environment, only a small percentage is pathogenic to humans. The most commonly encountered are those belonging to the Enterotoxigenic (ETEC), Enteroinvasive (EIEC), Enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and Enteropathogenic (EPEC) subtypes. Aquaculture premises specially shrimp farm in tropical and subtropical countries largely susceptive to different types of E. coli strains. With the PCR system, an attempt was taken to identify the virulent E. coli in a rapid basis from water, sediment and live shrimp from different shrimp farms established in the shrimp production areas of southwest part of Bangladesh. The target genes chosen for this investigation included the PhoA, a housekeeping gene in all E. coli and thereafter the virulent genes LT1, LT1 and ST1 of ETEC, the VT of EHEC and EAE of EPEC, which were amplified with the primers designed for their specific genes. The restriction enzyme conformation and the gel electrophoresis bands showed the presence of E. coli, among which ETEC and EPEC groups were present in the environmental and biological samples of shrimp farms, brings up into the human health concern. The sanitation conditions amid farm were also investigated to find the link of pathogenic E. coli, which came into the result of less infection if the farm maintains improved sanitation. This study has clearly urged the exigency of periodical quick check of virulent E. coli with the versatile PCR system from brood management to post-harvest handling of shrimp.

  7. [Bacterial community structure in intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei].

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Zheng, Tian-ling; Tian, Yun; Yuan, Jian-jun

    2007-08-01

    The composition of bacterial community in the intestine of the white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei under laboratory culture condition was determined using the 16S rDNA clone library. 16s rRNA gene was amplified and a library was constructed by using the genomic DNA extracted from the bacteria in the shrimp intestine as template. 12 different RFLP patterns of the clones were obtained by restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis using Afa I and Msp I. Compared with the published sequences in GenBank database, sequencing results of cloned 16S rDNA amplicons revealed a diverse community including gamma-proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the intestine of artificial diet-fed shrimp. Results showed that the Firmicutes group can be a dominant component (75.4%) in the shrimp intestinal microflora and other clones belong to gamma-proteobacteria (24.6%) which were identified as Shewanella sp., Pantoea sp., Aranicola sp., Pseudomonas sp. and Vibrio sp., respectively. These results provide the first comprehensive description of microbial diversity of the white shrimp intestine and suggest that most of the bacteria associated with shrimp intestine are uncultured and novel species.

  8. Estimation of the dietary riboflavin required to maximize tissue riboflavin concentration in juvenile shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Chen, H Y; Hwang, G

    1992-12-01

    The riboflavin requirements of marine shrimp (Penaeus monodon) were evaluated in a 15-wk feeding trial. Juvenile shrimp (initial mean weight, 0.13 +/- 0.05 g) were fed purified diets containing seven levels (0, 8, 12, 16, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg diet) of supplemental riboflavin. There were no significant differences in weight gains, feed efficiency ratios and survival of shrimp over the dietary riboflavin range. The riboflavin concentrations in shrimp bodies increased with the increasing vitamin supplementation. Hemolymph (blood) glutathione reductase activity coefficient was not a sensitive and specific indicator of riboflavin status of the shrimp. The dietary riboflavin level required for P. monodon was found to be 22.3 mg/kg diet, based on the broken-line model analysis of body riboflavin concentrations. Shrimp fed unsupplemented diet (riboflavin concentration of 0.48 mg/kg diet) for 15 wk showed signs of deficiency: light coloration, irritability, protuberant cuticle at intersomites and short-head dwarfism.

  9. Effects of three Caribbean cleaner shrimps on ectoparasitic monogeneans in a semi-natural environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCammon, A.; Sikkel, P. C.; Nemeth, D.

    2010-06-01

    Most research on cleaning symbioses on coral reefs has focused on fish clients being cleaned by smaller fishes. While many shrimps and other crustaceans are reported as cleaners, whether they remove parasites from fish hosts and can effectively regulate populations of ectoparasites is unclear. The effects of Pederson shrimp ( Periclimenes pedersoni) , spotted shrimp ( P. yucatanicus), and banded coral shrimp ( Stenopus hispidus), on the parasitic monogenean Neobenedenia melleni on a host reef fish, blue tang ( Acanthurus coeruleus), were investigated. The abundance and size of N. melleni from fish with and without access to shrimps in a semi-natural macrocosm was quantified. P. pedersoni had a strong effect on both the abundance and size of parasites. In contrast, P. yucatanicus and S. hispidus had no effect on the abundance of parasites but had a small yet statistically significant effect on average size. These data suggest that P. pedersoni can play a significant role in the biological regulation of at least some ectoparasites on Caribbean reef fishes, but further suggest that some other shrimps regarded as “cleaners” may have little or no effectiveness at removing parasites and underscore the need for further verification before this term is applied.

  10. Antennular sensilla of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina.

    PubMed

    Tyson, G E; Sullivan, M L

    1979-06-01

    1. Scanning electron microscopy was used to characterize the external morphology of setae found on the antennules of adults and nauplii of the brine shrimp, Artemia salina (L.). The permeability of the antennular setae was studied by means of Slifer's crystal violet method. 2. Each antennule of an adult brine shrimp possessed a terminal cluster of sensory setae. Within a cluster there were two morphologically distinct kinds of sensilla, here designated type 1 and type 2. Three type 1 sensilla were observed on every antennule examined. The number of type 2 sensilla per antennule was usually four or five. 3. Type 1 sensilla of adults were 43 to 80 micrometer long and simple in external morphology. They were widest at the base, decreased in diameter gradually, and terminated as a finely tapered tip. No pores were resolved by scanning electron microscopy. 4. Type 2 sensilla of adults were shorter (shaft length, 12 to 23 micrometer) and displayed a single pore at the tip (average pore diameter, 0.4 micrometer). In thin section they were seen to possess a distinctive articular specialization of the cuticle at the base of the seta. 5. Dye penetration experiments indicated that type 2 sensilla were permeable to aqueous crystal violet, whereas type 1 sensilla were not. 6. The antennular setae of nauplii resembled type 1 sensilla in general shape, in being impermeable to crystal violet, and in lacking a terminal pore and basal articular specialization. Moreover, a total of three setae was normally present on each naupliar antennule, and the same number of type 1 sensilla was found on each adult antennule examined. If the three naupliar setae represent a developmental stage in the formation of three adult sensilla, available observations suggest that the larval setae are developmentally related to type 1, rather than to type 2 adult sensilla.

  11. Isotopic Incorporation Rates and Discrimination Factors in Mantis Shrimp Crustaceans

    PubMed Central

    deVries, Maya S.; del Rio, Carlos Martínez; Tunstall, Tate S.; Dawson, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Stable isotope analysis has provided insights into the trophic ecology of a wide diversity of animals. Knowledge about isotopic incorporation rates and isotopic discrimination between the consumer and its diet for different tissue types is essential for interpreting stable isotope data, but these parameters remain understudied in many animal taxa and particularly in aquatic invertebrates. We performed a 292-day diet shift experiment on 92 individuals of the predatory mantis shrimp, Neogonodactylus bredini, to quantify carbon and nitrogen incorporation rates and isotope discrimination factors in muscle and hemolymph tissues. Average isotopic discrimination factors between mantis shrimp muscle and the new diet were 3.0 ± 0.6 ‰ and 0.9 ± 0.3 ‰ for carbon and nitrogen, respectively, which is contrary to what is seen in many other animals (e.g. C and N discrimination is generally 0–1 ‰ and 3–4 ‰, respectively). Surprisingly, the average residence time of nitrogen in hemolymph (28.9 ± 8.3 days) was over 8 times longer than that of carbon (3.4 ± 1.4 days). In muscle, the average residence times of carbon and nitrogen were of the same magnitude (89.3 ± 44.4 and 72.8 ± 18.8 days, respectively). We compared the mantis shrimps’ incorporation rates, along with rates from four other invertebrate taxa from the literature, to those predicted by an allometric equation relating carbon incorporation rate to body mass that was developed for teleost fishes and sharks. The rate of carbon incorporation into muscle was consistent with rates predicted by this equation. Our findings provide new insight into isotopic discrimination factors and incorporation rates in invertebrates with the former showing a different trend than what is commonly observed in other animals. PMID:25835953

  12. Transcript Analysis of White spot syndrome virus Latency and Phagocytosis Activating Protein Genes in Infected Shrimp (Penaeus monodon).

    PubMed

    Shekhar, M S; Dillikumar, M; Vinaya Kumar, K; Gopikrishna, G; Rajesh, S; Kiruthika, J; Ponniah, A G

    2012-12-01

    Viral latency has been recently observed to be associated with White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in shrimp. In the present study, shrimp samples (Penaeus monodon) surviving WSSV infection were examined for presence of WSSV in latent phase. Virus latency was observed in shrimp which were either experimentally challenged with WSSV and survived the infection or those which survived the natural infection. Three viral transcripts (ORFs 427, 151, 366) associated with latency were analyzed by real-time PCR. The shrimp surviving the natural WSSV infection on estimation with RT-PCR were found to have low grade of WSSV infection (less than 56 copies of WSSV). All the shrimp samples were RT-PCR negative for structural protein genes of WSSV, VP24 and VP28, indicating that these samples were harboring latent phase virus. RT-PCR of all the shrimp samples which survived WSSV infection revealed amplification of phagocytosis activating protein (PAP) gene (435 bp) with higher gene expression levels in experimentally challenged shrimp when compared to naturally infected shrimp. The expression of PAP in WSSV infected shrimp samples indicates its possible role in host response for resistance against WSSV infection. PAP was cloned and expressed as recombinant protein for protection studies. Shrimp were injected with three doses (5, 15 and 20 μg g(-1) body weight) of recombinant PAP. Relative percent survival of 10 % was observed in shrimp immunized with the dose of 15 μg g(-1) body weight of recombinant PAP. The expression of both WSSV latency associated and PAP genes obtained from shrimp surviving the WSSV infection, indicates the possible role of these genes in host-pathogen interaction.

  13. Properties, translucence, and microstructure of Pacific white shrimp treated with mixed phosphates as affected by freshness and deveining.

    PubMed

    Rattanasatheirn, N; Benjakul, S; Visessanguan, W; Kijroongrojana, K

    2008-01-01

    Effects of freshness and deveining on some properties, translucence, and microstructure of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing different phosphates were studied. Shrimp soaked in all solutions had increases in weight gain and cooking yield with lowered cooking loss, compared with the control (P < 0.05). However, efficacy of mixed phosphates in quality improvement of ice-stored shrimp was lower than fresh shrimp. Deveining resulted in increased weight gain and yield (P < 0.05). Nevertheless, samples treated with phosphates became more translucent. Shrimp stored in ice for 7 d and treated with mixed phosphates were generally more translucent than fresh counterparts (P < 0.05). Shrimp soaked in 2.5% NaCl containing 0.875% sodium acid pyrophosphate (SAPP) and 2.625% tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) were generally less translucent and had high weight gain and cooking yield along with low cooking loss. The microstructure study revealed that the muscle fibers were less attached with the loss of Z-disks after being treated with mixed phosphates. Cooked meats of fresh shrimp and ice-stored shrimp had more compact fiber arrangement with the shrinkage of sarcomere compared with raw samples. Disintegration was observed at the M-line in ice-stored shrimp treated with mixed phosphates after cooking, while such a phenomenon was not found in the cooked fresh sample treated with phosphates. T(max) and enthalpy of both myosin and actin peaks shifted to lower values when shrimp were treated with mixed phosphates (P < 0.05). Those changes were generally more pronounced in ice-stored shrimp. Therefore, freshness and deveining process had an impact on the quality of Pacific white shrimp treated with phosphates.

  14. Assessment and monitoring of nutrient loading in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thuyet D; Luong-Van, Jim; Maier, Stefan W; Austin, Chris M

    2013-10-01

    Coastal shrimp farming may lead to the contamination of sediments of surrounding estuarine and marine ecosystems as shrimp farm effluent often contains high levels of pollutants including a range of organic compounds (from uneaten feed, shrimp feces, and living and dead organisms) which can accumulate in the sediments of receiving waterways. The assessment and monitoring of sediment quality in tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent can support environmental protection and decision making for sustainable development in coastal areas since sediment quality often shows essential information on long-term aquatic ecosystem health. Within this context, this paper investigates nutrient loadings in the sediments of tidal creeks receiving shrimp farm effluent in Quang Ninh, Vietnam, which now have a high concentration of intensive and semi-intensive shrimp farms. Sediment samples taken from inside creek sections directly receiving effluent from concentrated shrimp farms (IEC), from main creeks adjacent to points of effluent discharge outside concentrated shrimp farms (OEC), and few kilometers away from shrimp farms (ASF) as reference sites were collected and analyzed before and after shrimp crops to investigate spatial and temporal variation. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the concentrations of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon among IEC, OEC, and ASF sites while the seasonal variation being limited over study times. A sediment nutrient index (SNI) computed from coefficient scores of the factor analysis efficiently summarizes sediment nutrient loads, which are high, albeit quite variable, in canals directly receiving effluents from farms but then decline sharply with distance from shrimp farms. The visualization and monitoring of sediment quality data including SNI on maps can strongly support managers to manage eutrophication at concentrated shrimp farming areas, contributing to sustainable

  15. A formulated double-stranded RNA diet for reducing Penaeus monodon densovirus infection in black tiger shrimp.

    PubMed

    Chimwai, Chaweewan; Tongboonsong, Punnee; Namramoon, Orathai; Panyim, Sakol; Attasart, Pongsopee

    2016-02-01

    Penaeus monodon densovirus (PmDNV) is one of the major causes of stunted shrimp in the aquaculture industry in Thailand. Significant reductions in levels of PmDNV as assessed by PCR analysis of shrimp hepatopancreas were seen in both prophylactic and curative experiments after feeding shrimp with a formulated diet containing mixed inactivated bacteria harboring dsRNAs corresponding to the PmDNV ns1 and vp genes. Significant reductions of approximately 88% (prophylactic) and 64% (curative) of PmDNV were observed, suggesting that this diet has a high potential for application in commercial aquaculture for reducing PmDNV associated stunted growth of shrimp.

  16. Increasing production in Korean shrimp farms with white-spot syndrome virus PCR-negative brood stock.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hyeok Seung; Baek, Min Won; Lee, Hui Young; Kim, Dong Jae; Chun, Myung Sun; Kim, Jong Sheek; Chang, Se Ok; Park, Jae Hak

    2007-03-01

    White-spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is a devastating, infectious virus affecting shrimp. Although sensitive techniques involving PCR have been developed to assist farmers in screening shrimp (brood stock) for WSSV prior to stocking ponds, such practices have not yet been applied in Korea. Despite the rationality of implementing screening, there has been some doubt as to whether the stocking of WSSV-PCR-negative fry epidemiologically decreases white-spot disease outbreaks. Here, we report a retrospective analysis of data from shrimp farms in the western coast of Korea where WSSV-PCR-negative brood stocks were used to stock rearing ponds. A total of 366 shrimp from Heuksan Island were sampled for WSSV with PCR. Of the tested shrimp, 7.2% (28 brood stocks) were identified as WSSV positive; only WSSV-PCR-negative shrimp were used for brood stocks. Total unit production (final shrimp production/ the area of the ponds) was higher, at 1.96, in ponds where WSSV-PCR-negative shrimp were used, as compared with 1.02 in other ponds in Korea in 2004. This retrospective analysis of WSSV in Korea may be useful to the shrimp aquaculture industry, suggesting a testable hypothesis that may contribute to the eventual control of WSSV outbreaks.

  17. MicroRNA-100 is involved in shrimp immune response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Fei

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we discovered that shrimp miR-100 was up-regulated at 24 h after WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus infection, confirming its participation in the innate immune system of shrimp. The anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO-miR-100) was applied to inhibit the expression of miR-100. After AMO-miR-100 treatment, the shrimp was challenged with WSSV or V. alginolyticus. The knockdown of miR-100 expression decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp from 24 h to 72 h post-infection and enhanced the mortality of V. alginolyticus-infected shrimp significantly. The knockdown of miR-100 affected phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total hemocyte count (THC) after the infection with WSSV or V. alginolyticus, indicating a regulative role of miR-100 in the immune potential of shrimp in the response to WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection. The knockdown of miR-100 induced the apoptosis of shrimp hemocytes, and V. alginolyticus + AMO-miR-100 treatment caused more hemocyte apoptosis than V. alginolyticus treatment. The miR-100 influenced also the morphology of shrimp hemocytes and regulated the phagocytosis of WSSV or V. alginolyticus. Thus, we concluded that miR-100 may promote the anti-Vibrio immune response of shrimp through regulating apoptosis, phagocytosis and PO activity and affects the progression of WSSV infection at a certain level. PMID:28181552

  18. Peptidomic analysis of Chinese shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) hemolymph by magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baojie; Liu, Mei; Jiang, Keyong; Zhang, Guofan; Wang, Lei

    2013-03-01

    Peptides in shrimp hemolymph play an important role in the innate immune response. Analysis of hemolymph will help to detect and identify potential novel biomarkers of microbial infection. We used magnetic bead-based purification (ClinProt system) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to characterize shrimp hemolymph peptides. Shrimp serum and plasma were used as the source of samples for comparative analysis, and it was found that serum was more suitable for shrimp hemolymph peptidomic analysis. To screen potential specific biomarkers in serum of immune-challenged shrimps, we applied magnetic bead-based MALDI-TOF MS to serum samples from 10 immune-challenged and 10 healthy shrimps. The spectra were analyzed using FlexAnalysis 3.0 and ClinProTools 2.1 software. Thirteen peptide peaks significantly different between the two groups were selected as candidate biomarkers of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-infection. The diagnostic model established by genetic algorithm using five of these peaks was able to discriminate LPS-challenged shrimps from healthy control shrimps with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 100%. Our approach in MALDITOF MS-based peptidomics is a powerful tool for screening bioactive peptides or biomarkers derived from hemolymph, and will help to enable a better understanding of the innate immune response of shrimps.

  19. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  20. Bacterial virulence analysis using brine shrimp as an infection model in relation to the importance of quorum sensing and proteases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Nan; Kim, Soo-Kyoung; Li, Xi-Hui; Lee, Joon-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Brine shrimp are aquatic crustaceans belonging to a genus of Artemia. This organism is widely used for testing the toxicity of chemicals. In this study, brine shrimp were evaluated as an infection model organism to study bacterial virulence. Artemia nauplii were infected with various pathogenic bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia vietnamiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, and the susceptibility to these bacteria was investigated by counting the survival of the infected nauplii. While all of the tested bacteria have significant virulence to brine shrimp, killing the nauplii in a few days, V. vulnificus showed the strongest virulence. P. aeruginosa also showed a dose-dependent virulence to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weaker than that of V. vulnificus. The virulence tests using the virulence-attenuated mutants of V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, such as quorum sensing (QS) mutants or protease-deficient mutants showed a significant attenuation of virulence, demonstrating that the QS mechanism is important in the virulence of these bacteria to brine shrimp. B. vietnamiensis, S. aureus, and E. coli were also virulent to brine shrimp and the virulence was correlated with dosage within 24 h under our conditions. Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Bacillus subtilis were also virulent to brine shrimp, but the virulence was weak and slowly exerted compared with that of other bacteria. Taken together, we suggest that brine shrimp are a good infection model to assay bacterial virulence, especially for V. vulnificus and P. aeruginosa, and QS is important in the bacterial virulence to brine shrimp.

  1. A Study on the contribution of different food sources to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yuepeng; Ma, Shen; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin

    2008-11-01

    Stable isotope methods can be used to determine the food sources and prey items of aquatic organisms accurately and reliably. This study examined the relative contribution of artificial foods (the formulated feed and Artemia) and natural foods to shrimp growth in an intensive Fenneropenaeus chinensis pond by using carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes. The results showed that the nutrition utilization efficiency of the harvested shrimp was low, only 33.18% of feed nitrogen and 21.73% of feed carbon being converted to shrimp flesh. Our stable isotope results showed that the shrimp obtained nutrition for maximum growth from artificial foods, whose contribution was 93.5%, with the remaining attributed to the natural foods. However, there was 0.94 t harvested shrimp derived from natural foods (the rest of 13.56 t harvested shrimp derived from artificial foods) in 1ha intensive pond with a shrimp production of 14.50 t ha-1. Therefore, unit area shrimp production can be increased by increasing the contribution proportion of natural foods in intensive shrimp farming.

  2. MicroRNA-100 is involved in shrimp immune response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio alginolyticus infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Fei

    2017-02-09

    In this study, we discovered that shrimp miR-100 was up-regulated at 24 h after WSSV or Vibrio alginolyticus infection, confirming its participation in the innate immune system of shrimp. The anti-miRNA oligonucleotide (AMO-miR-100) was applied to inhibit the expression of miR-100. After AMO-miR-100 treatment, the shrimp was challenged with WSSV or V. alginolyticus. The knockdown of miR-100 expression decreased the mortality of WSSV-infected shrimp from 24 h to 72 h post-infection and enhanced the mortality of V. alginolyticus-infected shrimp significantly. The knockdown of miR-100 affected phenoloxidase (PO) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total hemocyte count (THC) after the infection with WSSV or V. alginolyticus, indicating a regulative role of miR-100 in the immune potential of shrimp in the response to WSSV or V. alginolyticus infection. The knockdown of miR-100 induced the apoptosis of shrimp hemocytes, and V. alginolyticus + AMO-miR-100 treatment caused more hemocyte apoptosis than V. alginolyticus treatment. The miR-100 influenced also the morphology of shrimp hemocytes and regulated the phagocytosis of WSSV or V. alginolyticus. Thus, we concluded that miR-100 may promote the anti-Vibrio immune response of shrimp through regulating apoptosis, phagocytosis and PO activity and affects the progression of WSSV infection at a certain level.

  3. Relating large-scale climate variability to local species abundance: ENSO forcing and shrimp in Breton Sound, Louisiana, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piazza, Bryan P.; LaPeyre, Megan K.; Keim, B.D.

    2010-01-01

    Climate creates environmental constraints (filters) that affect the abundance and distribution of species. In estuaries, these constraints often result from variability in water flow properties and environmental conditions (i.e. water flow, salinity, water temperature) and can have significant effects on the abundance and distribution of commercially important nekton species. We investigated links between large-scale climate variability and juvenile brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus abundance in Breton Sound estuary, Louisiana (USA). Our goals were to (1) determine if a teleconnection exists between local juvenile brown shrimp abundance and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and (2) relate that linkage to environmental constraints that may affect juvenile brown shrimp recruitment to, and survival in, the estuary. Our results identified a teleconnection between winter ENSO conditions and juvenile brown shrimp abundance in Breton Sound estuary the following spring. The physical connection results from the impact of ENSO on winter weather conditions in Breton Sound (air pressure, temperature, and precipitation). Juvenile brown shrimp abundance effects lagged ENSO by 3 mo: lower than average abundances of juvenile brown shrimp were caught in springs following winter El Niño events, and higher than average abundances of brown shrimp were caught in springs following La Niña winters. Salinity was the dominant ENSO-forced environmental filter for juvenile brown shrimp. Spring salinity was cumulatively forced by winter river discharge, winter wind forcing, and spring precipitation. Thus, predicting brown shrimp abundance requires incorporating climate variability into models.

  4. The effect of dietary Panax ginseng polysaccharide extract on the immune responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Long; Xi, Qian-Yun; Yang, Lin; Li, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Qing-Yan; Shu, Gang; Wang, Song-Bo; Gao, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Tong; Zhang, Yong-Liang

    2011-02-01

    The immunostimulatory effects of orally administered Panax ginseng root or its polysaccharides (GSP) in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were investigated in this study. Shrimp were fed a diet containing 0.4 g kg⁻¹ GSP over a period of 84 days, during which the activities of total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), acid phosphatase (ACP), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and expressions of cytosolic superoxide dismutase (cyt-SOD), CAT, GSH-Px, and peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes were determined in various tissues of the shrimp. Results showed that the shrimp fed the GSP diet had significantly increased ACP and AKP activities in the gills. The GSP-fed shrimp also displayed significantly increased T-SOD and GSH-Px activities in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp; meanwhile there was enhanced CAT activity in the gills, but decreased MDA content in the gills, hepatopancreas and muscle. The mRNA expressions of cyt-SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and Prx were significantly elevated in the gills and hepatopancreas of the shrimp fed the GSP diet for 84 days, compared with that of the control. Therefore, GSP can be used as an immunostimulant for shrimp through dietary administration to increase immune enzyme activity and modify expression of immune genes in shrimp.

  5. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    PubMed

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  6. The known two types of transglutaminases regulate immune and stress responses in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-Chyuan; Chang, Hao-Che; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Cheng, Winton

    2016-06-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) play critical roles in blood coagulation, immune responses, and other biochemical functions, which undergo post-translational remodeling such as acetylation, phosphorylation and fatty acylation. Two types of TG have been identified in white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, and further investigation on their potential function was conducted by gene silencing in the present study. Total haemocyte count (THC), differential haemocyte count (DHC), phenoloxidase activity, respiratory bursts (release of superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase activity, transglutaminase (TG) activity, haemolymph clotting time, and phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency to the pathogen Vibrio alginolyticus were measured when shrimps were individually injected with diethyl pyrocarbonate-water (DEPC-H2O) or TG dsRNAs. In addition, haemolymph glucose and lactate, and haemocytes crustin, lysozyme, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), transglutaminaseI (TGI), transglutaminaseII (TGII) and clotting protein (CP) mRNA expression were determined in the dsRNA injected shrimp under hypothermal stress. Results showed that TG activity, phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were significantly decreased, but THC, hyaline cells (HCs) and haemolymph clotting time were significantly increased in the shrimp which received LvTGI dsRNA and LvTGI + LvTGII dsRNA after 3 days. However, respiratory burst per haemocyte was significantly decreased in only LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp. In hypothermal stress studies, elevation of haemolymph glucose and lactate was observed in all treated groups, and were advanced in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp following exposure to 22 °C. LvCHH mRNA expression was significantly up-regulated, but crustin and lysozyme mRNA expressions were significantly down-regulated in LvTGI and LvTGI + LvTGII silenced shrimp; moreover, LvTGII was significantly increased, but LvTGI was significantly decreased in LvTGI silenced shrimp

  7. A precollaborative study of weight determination methods for quick frozen shrimp.

    PubMed

    Dobson, J E; McClure, F D; Rainosek, A P

    1998-01-01

    A precollaborative study compared the accuracy and precision of official AOAC methods with other selected methods for determining net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp and block-glazed shrimp, assessed the ruggedness of the methods with respect to changes in the levels of the factors under study, and selected candidate methods for use in a collaborative study. Methods tested for determining deglazed (frozen) net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 963.18 and (2) the Water Bath Dip Method. Methods tested for determining thawed net weight of IQF-glazed shrimp were (1) AOAC Method 967.13, (2) Modified AOAC Method(mnb) 967.13, (3) Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13, (4) the Codex Method, (5) the Air Thaw Method, and (6) Modified AOAC Method 963.18. The same methods except Modified AOAC Method 963.18 were tested for determining thawed net weight of block-glazed shrimp. A total of 864 0.45 kg (1 lb), 0.90 kg (2 lb), and 1.35 kg (3 lb) IQF-glazed shrimp test samples and 234 2.25 kg (5 lb) block-glazed shrimp test samples were collected. During sample preparation, test samples were subjected to either water with or without sodium tripolyphosphate (STP). During deglazing (IQF-glazed shrimp only) and/or thawing, test samples were allocated in a factorial design to assess the effects of STP presence (no STP and STP), sieve mesh sizes (2.83 and 2.38 mm; 0.11 and 0.09 in.), and sieve diameters (20 and 30 cm; 8 and 12 in.). During weighing, test samples were further allocated to a sequence of weighing procedures designed to assess the effects of using sieve weights (dry and wet) in combination with paper towel use (no and yes) and tared pan weights when calculating determined net weights. On the basis of the results of this precollaborative study, Modified AOAC Method(pb) 967.13 and the Air Thaw Method seem to be the best methods to determine net weight of IQF-glazed and block-glazed shrimp. Therefore, to validate method choices in the collaborative study, the authors

  8. LINKING HABITAT CHANGE AND NUTRIENT DYNAMICS: COMPARISON OF FOOD WEBS AND NITROGEN FLUXES IN BURROWING SHRIMP- AND OYSTER-DOMINATED HABITATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endemic thalassinid burrowing shrimps are simultaneously dominant ecosystem engineering species and economic pests within Pacific estuaries. Dense populations of two shrimps (Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis) commonly occupy >75% of intertidal and shallow subti...

  9. Detoxification mechanisms in shrimp: comparative approach between hydrothermal vent fields and estuarine environments.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Rey, Maria; Serafim, Angela; Company, Rui; Gomes, Tânia; Bebianno, Maria João

    2008-07-01

    Hydrothermal vents are extreme deep-sea habitats that, due to their singular features, still intrigue scientific communities. Swift growth rates and profuse biomass of biological communities can be observed, despite of their inherently unstable physical-chemical and toxic conditions, indicating that organisms inhabiting this environment must be well adapted to these inhospitable conditions. The caridean shrimp, Chorocaris chacei, Mirocaris fortunata and Rimicaris exoculata, together with bathymodiolid mussels, dominate the vent fauna along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge (MAR). Crustacean species are widely used as biological indicators of environmental alterations, since they play a key ecological role as planktivorous grazers, epibenthic scavengers or as prey species. The biological consequences of the hydrothermal metal-rich environment in shrimp species are still largely unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was the determination of the metal levels (Ag, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn), metallothioneins (MT) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in shrimp species collected in Rainbow, Lucky Strike and Menez-Gwen vent sites, in order to evaluate their different adaptation strategies toward metals when compared with two common coastal shrimp species (Palaemon elegans and Palaemonetes varians) from a fairly unpolluted estuarine system in south Portugal (Ria Formosa). Results show significant differences in metal concentrations, MT levels and lipid peroxidation between vent and coastal shrimp and also between shrimp species from the same site. This indicates that biochemical responses in both vent and coastal shrimp are affected not only by the environmental characteristics but also by inter-specific differences. Nevertheless, these responses apparently grant a successful adaptation for the survival in a metal-extreme environment.

  10. Tangential flow ultrafiltration for detection of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in shrimp pond water.

    PubMed

    Alavandi, S V; Ananda Bharathi, R; Satheesh Kumar, S; Dineshkumar, N; Saravanakumar, C; Joseph Sahaya Rajan, J

    2015-06-15

    Water represents the most important component in the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) transmission pathway in aquaculture, yet there is very little information. Detection of viruses in water is a challenge, since their counts will often be too low to be detected by available methods such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In order to overcome this difficulty, viruses in water have to be concentrated from large volumes of water prior to detection. In this study, a total of 19 water samples from aquaculture ecosystem comprising 3 creeks, 10 shrimp culture ponds, 3 shrimp broodstock tanks and 2 larval rearing tanks of shrimp hatcheries and a sample from a hatchery effluent treatment tank were subjected to concentration of viruses by ultrafiltration (UF) using tangential flow filtration (TFF). Twenty to 100l of water from these sources was concentrated to a final volume of 100mL (200-1000 fold). The efficiency of recovery of WSSV by TFF ranged from 7.5 to 89.61%. WSSV could be successfully detected by PCR in the viral concentrates obtained from water samples of three shrimp culture ponds, one each of the shrimp broodstock tank, larval rearing tank, and the shrimp hatchery effluent treatment tank with WSSV copy numbers ranging from 6 to 157mL(-1) by quantitative real time PCR. The ultrafiltration virus concentration technique enables efficient detection of shrimp viral pathogens in water from aquaculture facilities. It could be used as an important tool to understand the efficacy of biosecurity protocols adopted in the aquaculture facility and to carry out epidemiological investigations of aquatic viral pathogens.

  11. Transcriptional Profiling of Banana Shrimp Fenneropenaeus merguiensis with Differing Levels of Viral Load.

    PubMed

    Powell, Daniel; Knibb, Wayne; Nguyen, Nguyen Hong; Elizur, Abigail

    2016-12-01

    Viral pathogens are of serious concern to the culture of penaeid shrimps worldwide. However, little is known about the molecular response of shrimp to viral infection. Selective breeding has been suggested as an effective long-term strategy to manage viral disease, though more information on gene function is needed to help inform breeding programs. The study of cultured banana shrimp (Fenneropenaeus merguiensis) infected with hepatopancreatic parvo-like virus (HPV) provides a unique opportunity to explore the host response to viral infection independent of challenge testing. To gain insight into the genetic mechanisms underlying resistance to high levels of HPV, we examined hepatopancreas tissue from six full-sib groups of banana shrimp with differing levels of HPV infection for differences in gene expression. A total of 404 differentially expressed genes were identified with 180 being over-expressed and 224 under-expressed among high-HPV full-sib groups. Based on homology analysis, a large proportion of these genes were associated with processes reported to be involved in the immune response of crustaceans, including pattern recognition proteins, antimicrobial peptides, components of the prophenoloxidase system, and antiviral activity. The results indicate shrimp from high-HPV full-sib groups appear to have a lower presence of important immune response elements, yet possess upregulated putative antiviral pathways. Within the differentially expressed genes, over 4000 sequence variants were identified to be exclusive to either the high- or low-HPV full-sib groups. To our knowledge, this is the first report of differential expression analysis using RNA-Seq to explore differences in viral load among high- and low-HPV full-sib groups of cultured shrimp. This research has provided additional insight into our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the response of this shrimp species to a naturally occurring viral pathogen. Sequence variants identified in this study

  12. Cation-dependent nutrient transport in shrimp digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Tamla; Mozo, Julie; Wilson, Jennifer; Ahearn, Gregory A

    2012-02-01

    Purified epithelial brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) were produced from the hepatopancreas of the Atlantic White shrimp, Litopeneaus setiferus, using standard methods originally developed for mammalian tissues and previously applied to other crustacean and echinoderm epithelia. These vesicles were used to study the cation dependency of sugar and amino acid transport across luminal membranes of hepatopancreatic epithelial cells. (3)H-D: -glucose uptake by BBMV against transient sugar concentration gradients occurred when either transmembrane sodium or potassium gradients were the only driving forces for sugar accumulation, suggesting the presence of a possible coupled transport system capable of using either cation. (3)H-L: -histidine transport was only stimulated by a transmembrane potassium gradient, while (3)H-L: -leucine uptake was enhanced by either a sodium or potassium gradient. These responses suggest the possible presence of a potassium-dependent transporter that accommodates either amino acid and a sodium-dependent system restricted only to L: -leucine. Uptake of (3)H-L: -leucine was significantly stimulated (P < 0.05) by several metallic cations (e.g., Zn(2+), Cu(2+), Mn(2+), Cd(2+), or Co(2+)) at external pH values of 7.0 or 5.0 (internal pH 7.0), suggesting a potential synergistic role of the cations in the transmembrane transfer of amino acids. (3)H-L: -histidine influxes (15 suptakes) were hyperbolic functions of external [zinc] or [manganese], following Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The apparent affinity constant (e.g., K (m)) for manganese was an order of magnitude smaller (K (m) = 0.22 μM Mn) than that for zinc (K (m) = 1.80 μM Zn), while no significant difference (P > 0.05) occurred between their maximal transport velocities (e.g., J (max)). These results suggest that a number of cation-dependent nutrient transport systems occur on the shrimp brush border membrane and aid in the absorption of these important dietary elements.

  13. Direct Nitrous Oxide Emission from the Aquacultured Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Heisterkamp, Ines M.; Schramm, Andreas; de Beer, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is widely used in aquaculture, where it is reared at high stocking densities, temperatures, and nutrient concentrations. Here we report that adult L. vannamei shrimp emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at an average rate of 4.3 nmol N2O/individual × h, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously measured N2O emission rates for free-living aquatic invertebrates. Dissection, incubation, and inhibitor experiments with specimens from a shrimp farm in Germany indicated that N2O is mainly produced in the animal's gut by microbial denitrification. Microsensor measurements demonstrated that the gut interior is anoxic and nearly neutral and thus is favorable for denitrification by ingested bacteria. Dinitrogen (N2) and N2O accounted for 64% and 36%, respectively, of the nitrogen gas flux from the gut, suggesting that the gut passage is too fast for complete denitrification to be fully established. Indeed, shifting the rearing water bacterial community, a diet component of shrimp, from oxic to anoxic conditions induced N2O accumulation that outlasted the gut passage time. Shrimp-associated N2O production was estimated to account for 6.5% of total N2O production in the shrimp farm studied here and to contribute to the very high N2O supersaturation measured in the rearing tanks (2,099%). Microbial N2O production directly associated with aquacultured animals should be implemented into life cycle assessments of seafood production. IMPORTANCE The most widely used shrimp species in global aquaculture, Litopenaeus vannamei, is shown to emit the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) at a particularly high rate. Detailed experiments reveal that N2O is produced in the oxygen-depleted gut of the animal by bacteria that are part of the shrimp diet. Upon ingestion, these bacteria experience a shift from oxic to anoxic conditions and therefore switch their metabolism to the anaerobic denitrification

  14. Investigations on juvenile fish excluder cum shrimp sorting device (JFE-SSD).

    PubMed

    Boopendranath, Menothuparambil Ravunny; Pravin, Puthra; Gibinkumar, Therodath Rajan; Sabu, Sarasan; Madhu, Vettiyattil Ramakrishnan

    2013-12-01

    Penaeid shrimp is a major resource in India contributing about 7.4% of the total marine fish landings. They are mostly landed by small mechanized trawlers. Shrimp trawling generates large quantities of bycatch mostly consisting of juvenile fishes, due to use of small mesh size in codends of trawl nets. Juvenile Fish Excluder cum Shrimp Sorting Device (JFE-SSD) is a bycatch reduction device with an in situ sorting mechanism, which replaces the conventional codend in a trawl. The device was designed to catch shrimps and commercially important fish species using a specially designed oval sorting grid with appropriate bar spacing and dual codends. Shrimp sorting efficiency and bycatch exclusion characteristics of JFE-SSD attached to a 29.6 m shrimp trawl, was tested by experimental fishing along the coastal waters off Cochin, India. Out of a total of 317.07 kg of catch encountered in the JFE-SSD installed trawl, 58.22% was retained in lower codend, 17.53% in upper codend and 24.25%, mostly consisting of juveniles and sub-adults of finfishes and shellfishes, was excluded from upper codend. The mean CPUE registered for upper and lower codend were 7.23±1.04 SE and 5.84±0.96 SE kg h(-1) respectively. The CPUE of shrimps retained in upper and lower codends were significantly different (Kruskal-Wallis test (1,62), P<0.001), but the mean CPUE for fishes did not vary significantly. The average escapement of shrimps and juvenile fishes from upper codend were 0.06±0.02 SE kg h(-1) and 2.40±0.44 SE kg h(-1) respectively. Significant differences in the length composition between upper and lower codends were noticed for Megalaspis cordyla, Stolephorus waitei, Metapenaeus dobsoni and Parapenaeopsis stylifera. The experiments demonstrated in situ sorting ability of the device and its potential to reduce the bycatch of juveniles and sub-adults in shrimp trawls.

  15. Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from digestive tract of wild shrimp on growth and survival of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Kongnum, Khanitta; Hongpattarakere, Tipparat

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from digestive tracts of cultivated and wild adult shrimp, including Litopenaeus vannamei, Metapenaeus brevicornis and Penaeus merguiensis were selected based on their antibacterial activity against Vibrio harveyi. LAB strain of MRO3.12 exhibiting highest reduction of V. harveyi was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum MRO3.12 based on the nucleotide sequence of its 16S rDNA, which showed 99% (780/786 bp) homology to L. plantarum strain L5 (GenBank accession number DQ 239698.1). Co-cultivation of V. harveyi and L. plantarum MRO3.12 showed complete reduction of V. harveyi at 24 h under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, whereas L. plantarum increased from 5.29 to 9.47 log CFU ml(-1). After 6-week feeding trial with L. plantarum supplemented diet, white shrimp (L. vannamei) exhibited significant differences (p < 0.05) in relative growth rate (% RGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival compared to the control group fed with non-supplemented diet. LAB-fed group showed 98.89% survival, whereas only 68.89% survival was observed in the control group. LAB from the digestive tract of probiotic-fed shrimp showed higher level of 5.0 ± 0.14 log CFU/g than the non-supplemented ones (3.34 ± 0.21 log CFU/g). However, total bacterial and non-fermenting vibrios counts decreased in shrimps fed on L. plantarum. Ten days after infection with V. harveyi (5.3-5.5 log CFU ml(-1)), significant survival (p < 0.05) of 77% was observed in LAB supplemented shrimp, while only 67% survival was observed in the control.

  16. Prevalence of vibrio cholerae and salmonella in a major shrimp production area in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, A; Huss, H H; H-Kittikun, A; Larsen, J L

    1995-11-01

    In 1992 and 1993, a 7 months study carried out in a major shrimp-producing area in Southern Thailand to study the prevalence of Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella. A total of 158 samples were examined including water, sediment, shrimp, pelleted feed, shrimp gut, and chicken manure. Salmonella was not recovered from any sample type studied. V. cholerae O1 was isolated from 2 (2%) and V. cholerae non-O1 was isolated from 35 (33%) of 107 samples examined. The occurrence of V. cholerae was not significantly influenced by water salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen or pH. There was no correlation between fecal coliform counts and the prevalence of V. cholerae. The results indicate that V. cholerae non-O1 is ubiquitous in aquatic environments where shrimp culture is practised under a variety of environmental conditions. The public health significance of non-O1 V. cholerae in shrimp culture remains to be determined. V. cholerae O1 and Salmonella do not appear to constitute a hygienic problem even if chicken manure was used as fertilizer.

  17. Nursery function of an estuarine tidal marsh for the brown shrimp Crangon crangon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattrijsse, André; Dankwa, Hederick R.; Mees, Jan

    1997-12-01

    The brown shrimp Crangon crangon migrates into the brackish part of the Westerschelde estuary (southwest Netherlands) shortly after metamorphosis and uses the tidal marsh habitat as a nursery until reaching a total length of about 15 mm. The importance of the marsh as a nursery was evaluated by estimating foraging activity, predation mortality and residence time. In early postlarval stages, C. crangon utilised the intertidal creeks of an estuarine tidal marsh from early spring (March-April) until late autumn (October-November). Postlarval shrimp leaving the marsh with the ebb tide always had significantly more food in their stomachs than shrimp entering the marsh with the incoming flood water. Predation upon the shrimp population was relatively low during most months, but in increased between August and October when common gobies, Pomatoschistus microps, were present in high densities. There was also predation by the small seabass Dicentrarchus labrax. The marsh creeks function both as foraging areas and as predation refuge. Depending on temperature, postlarval shrimp stayed in the marsh for a period of two to three weeks. Quantitatively, the value of the marsh as a nursery area had changed drastically during a second year of sampling, illustrating high natural year-to-year variability. However, the seasonal pattern remained. Recruitment to the subtidal adult population represents an export of animals from the marsh to the estuary. This export is negligible in terms of biomass (as compared to the total biomass of the estuarine population) but it may be important in terms of numbers of individuals.

  18. Catalase eliminates reactive oxygen species and influences the intestinal microbiota of shrimp.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming-Chong; Sun, Jie-Jie; Guo, Fang; Lan, Jiang-Feng; Wang, Xian-Wei; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-11-01

    Intestinal innate immune response is an important defense mechanism of animals and humans against external pathogens. The mechanism of microbiota homeostasis in host intestines has been well studied in mammals and Drosophila. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antimicrobial peptides have been reported to play important roles in homeostasis. However, how to maintain the microbiota homeostasis in crustacean intestine needs to be elucidated. In this study, we identified a novel catalase (MjCAT) involved in ROS elimination in kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus. MjCAT mRNA was widely distributed in hemocytes, heart, hepatopancreas, gills, stomach, and intestine. After the shrimp were challenged with pathogenic bacteria via oral infection, the expression level of MjCAT was upregulated, and the enzyme activity was increased in the intestine. ROS level was also increased in the intestine at early time after oral infection and recovered rapidly. When MjCAT was knocked down by RNA interference (RNAi), high ROS level maintained longer time, and the number of bacteria number was declined in the shrimp intestinal lumen than those in the control group, but the survival rate of the MjCAT-RNAi shrimp was declined. Further study demonstrated that the intestinal villi protruded from epithelial lining of the intestinal wall were damaged by the high ROS level in MjCAT-knockdown shrimp. These results suggested that MjCAT participated in the intestinal host-microbe homeostasis by regulating ROS level.

  19. [Applicability of PCR methods for detection of shrimp and crab in processed food].

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiromu; Nagatomi, Yasuaki; Kikuchi, Ryo; Hirao, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    According to Japanese food allergen labeling regulations, an ELISA screening test is used for detection of crustacean proteins in food and a shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test is used to confirm a positive ELISA screening test and to exclude false positives. Forty-six kinds of processed foods labeled as containing shrimp/crab were subjected to ELISA screening test and PCR confirmation test and the usefulness of the shrimp/crab-PCR was evaluated. Twenty-seven of the 46 samples contained total crustacean protein levels of 10 ppm or more in the ELISA screening test. All of the samples were positive in the shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test. The results of the confirmation test were consistent with the declaration in the list of ingredients and with the results of the ELISA screening test. The shrimp/crab-PCR confirmation test was demonstrated to be applicable to various kinds of foods, including powder, extract, seasoning paste, prepared frozen food, snack food, retort food and canned food.

  20. Toxicity of the insecticide etofenprox to three life stages of the grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Marie E; De Leon, Ryan G

    2010-05-01

    Opportunities for environmental contamination by the insecticide etofenprox are increasing as its uses expand from primarily indoor residential to rice cultivation and mosquito control. To provide toxicity data for sensitive saltwater species, effects of etofenprox were assessed using three life stages of the estuarine grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio. Adults, larvae, and embryos were tested in aqueous exposures, while adults and larval shrimp were also tested in the presence of sediment. In addition, sublethal cellular stress biomarkers, glutathione and lipid peroxidation, were examined. Larval shrimp was the most sensitive life stage, with 96-h median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.89 microg/l, compared with 1.26 microg/l for adults and 100 microg/l for embryos. Presence of sediment significantly decreased toxicity of etofenprox to both adult and larval shrimp. Etofenprox exposure (100 micog/l) increased time to hatch in embryos. Lipid peroxidation levels were reduced in adult and larval shrimp after 96 h exposure to etofenprox, while no effect on glutathione was detected. The results of this study provide new information on the toxicity of etofenprox to estuarine invertebrates. These data may prove beneficial to the regulation of this pesticide and management of its uses in coastal areas.

  1. Ultrastructural effect of gamma radiation on grass shrimps ( Penaeus monodon fabricius)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perng, Fang-Shiow; Yang, Jui-Sen

    The effect of ionizing radiation (2, 5, and 10 KGy of gamma rays) on muscle ultrastructure of grass shrimps ( Penaeus monodon Fabricius) tails at ambient or frozen (-18°C) temperature was investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). No significant change was found in muscle ultrastructure of shrimp meat irradiated at doses of 2 or 5 KGy and then stored at 4°C for 0 and 8 days. However, in shrimps which were irradiated at ambient temperature at a dose of 10 KGy, the margin of A-band of the myofibrils in longitudinal sections exhibited an irregular zig-zag pattern. In cross section some myosin filaments in the A-band regions were missing. A possible interpretation of these results would be that 10 KGy gamma irradiation dose at ambient temperature depolymerized myosin in the A-band from the tail of thick filament. Actin damage was also observed in some cross sections. Irradiation damage of sarcoplasmic membranes appeared in the specimens irradiated at a dose of 10KGy at ambient temperature. Shrimps frozen at -18°C and then irradiated with 10 KGy did not exhibit filament damage. Freezing apparently protected shrimp meat from irradiation injury.

  2. Quantification of viable Brochothrix thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Macé, Sabrina; Guilbaud, Morgan; Jaffrès, Emmanuel; Ferchichi, Mounir; Prévost, Hervé; Pilet, Marie-France; Dousset, Xavier

    2012-05-01

    Brochothrix thermosphacta, a Gram-positive bacterium, is considered as the predominant spoilage microbiota of modified atmosphere packing (MAP) shrimp and fish. Traditional methods currently used to detect B. thermosphacta in foods are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The aim of this study was to develop a real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide (PMA) sample treatment step to monitor the population of B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and salmon. The specificity of the two primers MO405 and MO404 used to amplify a 70 bp fragment of the 16S rRNA gene was demonstrated by using purified DNA from 30 strains, among 21 bacterial species including 22 reference strains. Using these primers for real-time PCR and in pure culture, a good correlation was obtained between real-time PCR and the conventional plating method. Quantification was linear over 7-log units using artificially inoculated samples. The method performed successfully when tested on naturally contaminated cooked shrimp and fresh salmon, with a minimum threshold of 1.9×10² CFU/g for accurate quantification of B. thermosphacta. The correlation between the B. thermosphacta counts obtained by real-time PCR and plate counts on naturally contaminated shrimp and salmon was high (R²=0.895). Thus, this study presents a rapid tool for producing reliable quantitative data on B. thermosphacta in cooked shrimp and fresh salmon.

  3. The Importance of Supratidal Habitats for Wintering Shorebirds and the Potential Impacts of Shrimp Aquaculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasué, M.; Dearden, P.

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal ( N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  4. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    PubMed

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (p<0.05). The total suspended settleable solids were also lower in the treatment of low alkalinity. No significant difference was observed in other physico-chemical and biological parameters in the water quality assessed, as well as the zootechnical parameters of cultivation between treatments (p≥0.05). The results of survival and growth rate of shrimps were considered suitable for the cultivation system used in the different treatments. The cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  5. The past, present and future distribution of a deep-sea shrimp in the Southern Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Costello, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    Shrimps have a widespread distribution across the shelf, slope and seamount regions of the Southern Ocean. Studies of Antarctic organisms have shown that individual species and higher taxa display different degrees of sensitivity and adaptability in response to environmental change. We use species distribution models to predict changes in the geographic range of the deep-sea Antarctic shrimp Nematocarcinus lanceopes under changing climatic conditions from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present and to the year 2100. The present distribution range indicates a pole-ward shift of the shrimp population since the last glaciation. This occurred by colonization of slopes from nearby refugia located around the northern part of Scotia Arc, southern tip of South America, South Georgia, Bouvet Island, southern tip of the Campbell plateau and Kerguelen plateau. By 2100, the shrimp are likely to expand their distribution in east Antarctica but have a continued pole-ward contraction in west Antarctica. The range extension and contraction process followed by the deep-sea shrimp provide a geographic context of how other deep-sea Antarctic species may have survived during the last glaciation and may endure with projected changing climatic conditions in the future. PMID:26925334

  6. Species profiles - life histories and environmental requirements (Gulf of Mexico): brown shrimp

    SciTech Connect

    Lassuy, D.R.

    1983-02-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable ($302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normally taken in water temperatures above 10/sup 0/C and rapid growth occurs above 18/sup 0/C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populations are associated with coastal marshes.

  7. Reducing nutrient impacts from shrimp effluents in a subtropical coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Mohedano, José-Gilberto; Bernardello, Raffaele; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Molino-Minero-Re, Erik; Cruzado, Antonio

    2016-11-15

    Shrimp farm aquaculture causes environmental impacts, notably decreased water quality due to the release of nutrient-rich effluents. Pond wastewater is usually discharged without treatment, and tidal conditions are not taken into account in the management plans. However, natural variability of nutrients makes difficult field evaluation and attribution of impacts. Here we implemented a three-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (spatial resolution=50m×50m, time resolution=4s) in order to evaluate the dispersion conditions under specific tidal conditions of nutrient discharges from a semi-intensive shrimp farm during spring and neap tide. Ammonia was quickly assimilated by plankton and its concentration recovered initial levels 10days after the beginning of the harvest. Due to the higher salinity of the pond effluents, shrimp farm discharges accumulate in waters and sediments of the upper lagoon creeks, mostly affecting the benthos, thus implying a potential risk of shrimp farm self-contamination. Maximum concentrations of most biogeochemical tracers occurred when the harvest ends and the ponds are fully emptied. We show that maximum nutrient concentrations can be reduced by ~10% when the harvest ends during spring tides compared to harvests ending during neap tides. This work may be useful to improve the management of shrimp farm effluents by reducing, easily and at little cost, nutrient impacts on tropical and sub-tropical receiving ecosystems.

  8. Comparative transcriptomic characterization of the early development in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiankai; Zhang, Xiaojun; Yu, Yang; Huang, Hao; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2014-01-01

    Penaeid shrimp has a distinctive metamorphosis stage during early development. Although morphological and biochemical studies about this ontogeny have been developed for decades, researches on gene expression level are still scarce. In this study, we have investigated the transcriptomes of five continuous developmental stages in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) with high throughput Illumina sequencing technology. The reads were assembled and clustered into 66,815 unigenes, of which 32,398 have putative homologues in nr database, 14,981 have been classified into diverse functional categories by Gene Ontology (GO) annotation and 26,257 have been associated with 255 pathways by KEGG pathway mapping. Meanwhile, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between adjacent developmental stages were identified and gene expression patterns were clustered. By GO term enrichment analysis, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and functional gene profiling, the physiological changes during shrimp metamorphosis could be better understood, especially histogenesis, diet transition, muscle development and exoskeleton reconstruction. In conclusion, this is the first study that characterized the integrated transcriptomic profiles during early development of penaeid shrimp, and these findings will serve as significant references for shrimp developmental biology and aquaculture research.

  9. Transcriptional profiling of immune-related genes in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) during ontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Quispe, Ruth L; Justino, Emily B; Vieira, Felipe N; Jaramillo, Michael L; Rosa, Rafael D; Perazzolo, Luciane M

    2016-11-01

    We have performed here a gene expression analysis to determine the developmental stage at the main genes involved in crustacean immune response begin to be expressed and their changes in mRNA abundance during shrimp development. By using a quantitative PCR-based approach, we have measured the mRNA abundance of 24 immune-related genes from different functional categories in twelve developmental stages ranging from fertilized eggs to larval and postlarval stages and also in juveniles. We showed for the first time that the main genes from the RNAi-based post-transcriptional pathway involved in shrimp antiviral immunity are transcribed in all developmental stages, but exhibit a diverse pattern of gene expression during shrimp ontogenesis. On the other hand, hemocyte-expressed genes mainly involved in antimicrobial defenses appeared to be transcribed in larval stages, indicating that hematopoiesis initiates early in development. Moreover, transcript levels of some genes were early detected in fertilized eggs at 0-4 h post-spawning, suggesting a maternal contribution of immune-related transcripts to shrimp progeny. Altogether, our results provide important clues regarding the ontogenesis of hemocytes as well the establishment of antiviral and antimicrobial defenses in shrimp.

  10. Litopenaeus vannamei inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (LvIAP1) is essential for shrimp survival.

    PubMed

    Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Yen-Chen; Chen, Li-Li; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Huang, Huai-Ting; Ho, Jan-Ming; Lo, Chu-Fang

    2012-09-01

    The members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family are involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis, signal transduction and mitosis. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of three IAP genes from Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei: LvIAP1, LvIAP2 and LvSurvivin. LvIAP1, the orthologue of Penaeus monodon IAP (PmIAP), consists of three BIR domains and one RING domain; LvIAP2 consists of two BIR domains and LvSurvivin has only one BIR domain. Expression profiling by absolute quantitative real-time RT-PCR revealed that of the three IAP genes, LvIAP1 had the highest expression levels in almost all examined tissues and LvSurvivin had the lowest expression levels. Furthermore, among the examined tissues, the lymphoid organs most strongly expressed all three genes. When LvIAP1 expression was silenced by injection of its corresponding dsRNA, the shrimp died within 48h after injection, whereas injection of the other two dsRNAs did not cause shrimp death. In LvIAP1-silenced shrimp, the number of circulating haemocytes decreased dramatically because of extensive apoptosis. This suggested that LvIAP1 is central to the regulation of shrimp haemocyte apoptosis.

  11. Cholesterol oxidation and astaxanthin degradation in shrimp during sun drying and storage.

    PubMed

    Hernández Becerra, Josafat A; Ochoa Flores, Angélica A; Valerio-Alfaro, Gerardo; Soto-Rodriguez, Ida; Rodríguez-Estrada, María T; García, Hugo S

    2014-02-15

    Dried salted shrimps are made from raw shrimps, which are cooked and dried under direct sunlight. The preparation and storage include treatments and conditions that can promote oxidative changes in different components. The aim of this study was to monitor the formation of major cholesterol oxidation products and the changes in the astaxanthin content and fatty acid profile in dried salted shrimp during cooking, sun drying and storage. During sun drying, most of the astaxanthin (75%) was degraded in cooked shrimp, while cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) showed a dramatic increase (8.6-fold), reaching a total concentration of 372.9 ± 16.3 μg/g of lipids. Further storage favoured both astaxanthin degradation (83%) and COPs formation (886.6 ± 97.9 μg/g of lipids after 90 days of storage). The high degradation of astaxanthin and the elevated formation of COPs during sun drying and storage indicate the necessity to re-evaluate the processing and storage conditions of salted dried shrimp.

  12. Species Profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements (Gulf of Mexico): Brown shrimp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lassuy, Dennis R.

    1983-01-01

    Species profiles are literature summaries on the taxonomy, morphology, range, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal aquatic species. They are designed to assist in environmental impact assessment. The brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, is the major species in the Gulf of Mexico shrimp fishery, the most valuable $302 million in 1980) commercial fishery in the United States. It is heavily preyed on by many fishes. Spawning occurs offshore from about September to May and most postlarvae move into estuaries from February through April. Within the estuary they occupy shallow water near marshes with soft substrate. Juveniles emigrate from estuaries to offshore areas from May through August. They grow as fast as 3.3 mm per day in estuaries. Adults concentrate around the 55-m contour offshore. Postlarval and juvenile shrimp are normal1y taken in water temperatures above 10?C and rapid growth occurs above 18?C. Few shrimp are collected below 5 ppt salinity. Brown shrimp are benthic feeders and prefer soft substrates. High populatiorls are associated with coastal marshes.

  13. Quality evaluation of farmed whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, treated with different slaughter processing by infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ling-lin; Chen, Xiaojing; Wang, Yanbo

    2014-05-15

    The present study was to evaluate two slaughter processing methods (ice water immersion (T-1) and individual beheaded (T-2)) on whiteleg shrimp quality farmed in freshwater culture systems using attenuated total reflection infrared (ATR-IR) technology. In addition, the corresponding physical, chemical and microbial properties of shrimp samples were also determined. No significant differences were observed in pH, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbutiric acid (TBA) and K value as well as the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat and ash between groups of T-1 and T-2. However, significantly higher springiness and chewiness (P<0.05) were observed in T-1 as compared to those of T-2. As for the result of total viable counts (TVC), significantly lower value (P<0.05) was shown in T-1 than that of T-2, indicating that the quality and shelf life of whiteleg shrimp killed by ice water immersion could be improved and prolonged. Furthermore, all the samples were successfully divided into two categories regarding the two slaughter methods by principal component analysis (PCA) according to the infrared spectra. By analysis of the regression coefficients of PLS-DA, it can be supposed that the quality differences of whiteleg shrimp with different slaughter processing are largely caused by structural changes of their protein and fat. All together, our results indicated that the springiness and chewiness of whiteleg shrimp with different processing could be correctly distinguished using infrared spectroscopy.

  14. Freshwater shrimps as sensitive test species for the risk assessment of pesticides in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Daam, Michiel A; Rico, Andreu

    2016-08-17

    The aquatic risk assessment of pesticides in tropical areas has often been disputed to rely on toxicity data generated from tests performed with temperate species. Given the differences in ecosystem structure between temperate and tropical ecosystems, test species other than those used in temperate regions have been proposed as surrogates for tropical aquatic effect assessments. Freshwater shrimps, for example are important components of tropical freshwater ecosystems, both in terms of their role in ecosystem functioning and their economic value. In the present study, available toxicity data of (tropical and sub-tropical) freshwater shrimps for insecticides and fungicides were compiled and compared with those available for Daphnia magna and other aquatic invertebrates. Freshwater shrimps appeared to be especially sensitive to GABA-gated chloride channel antagonist and sodium channel modulator insecticides. However, shrimp taxa showed a moderate and low sensitivity to acetylcholinesterase inhibiting insecticides and fungicides respectively. Implications for the use of freshwater shrimps in tropical pesticide effect assessments and research needs are discussed.

  15. Spawning stress triggers WSSV replication in brooders via the activation of shrimp STAT.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shin-Jen; Hsia, Hui-Lan; Liu, Wang-Jing; Huang, Jiun-Yan; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Wei-Yu; Yeh, Ying-Chun; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Lo, Chu-Fang; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Wang, Han-Ching

    2012-09-01

    In the early days of shrimp aquaculture, wild-captured brooders usually spawned repeatedly once every 2-4days. However, since the first outbreaks of white spot disease (WSD) nearly 20years ago, captured female brooders often died soon after a single spawning. Although these deaths were clearly attributable to WSD, it has always been unclear how spawning stress could lead to an outbreak of the disease. Using real-time qPCR, we show here that while replication of the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV; the causative agent of WSD) is triggered by spawning, there was no such increase in the levels of another shrimp DNA virus, IHHNV (infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus). We also show that levels of activated STAT are increased in brooders during and after spawning, which is important because shrimp STAT is known to transactivate the expression of the WSSV immediate early gene ie1. Lastly, we used dsRNA silencing experiment to show that both WSSV ie1 gene expression and WSSV genome copy number were reduced significantly after shrimp STAT was knocked-down. This is the first report to demonstrate in vivo that shrimp STAT is important for WSSV replication and that spawning stress increases activated STAT, which in turn triggers WSSV replication in WSSV-infected brooders.

  16. Protection of shrimp Penaeus monodon from WSSV infection using antisense constructs.

    PubMed

    Ahanger, Sajad; Sandaka, Supriyanka; Ananad, Deepika; Mani, Madhu K; Kondadhasula, Ravinder; Reddy, Chandra Sekhar; Marappan, Makesh; Valappil, Rajendran K; Majumdar, Kshitish C; Mishra, Rakesh K

    2014-02-01

    White spot syndrome caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is one of the most threatening diseases of shrimp culture industry. Previous studies have successfully demonstrated the use of DNA- and RNA-based vaccines to protect WSSV infection in shrimp. In the present study, we have explored the protective efficacy of antisense constructs directed against WSSV proteins, VP24, and VP28, thymidylate synthase (TS), and ribonucleotide reductase-2 (RR2) under the control of endogenous shrimp histone-3 (H3) or penaedin (Pn) promoter. Several antisense constructs were generated by inserting VP24 (pH3-VP24, pPn-VP24), VP28 (pH3-VP28, pPn-VP28), TS (pH3-TS, pPn-TS), and RR2 (pH3-RR2) in antisense orientation. These constructs were tested for their protective potential in WSSV infected cell cultures, and their effect on reduction of the viral load was assessed. A robust reduction in WSSV copy number was observed upon transfection of antisense constructs in hemocyte cultures derived from Penaeus monodon and Scylla serrata. When tested in vivo, antisense constructs offered a strong protection in WSSV challenged P. monodon. Constructs expressing antisense VP24 and VP28 provided the best protection (up to 90 % survivability) with a corresponding decrease in the viral load. Our work demonstrates that shrimp treated with antisense constructs present an efficient control strategy for combating WSSV infection in shrimp aquaculture.

  17. 'Bright-red' syndrome in Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei is caused by Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Soto-Rodriguez, Sonia A; Gomez-Gil, Bruno; Lozano, Rodolfo

    2010-10-26

    Since July 2005, recurrent outbreaks of vibriosis have occurred in shrimp farms in northwestern Mexico. Moribund Litopenaeus vannamei associated with mass mortalities were lethargic and displayed red discoloration spots on their abdomen, and hence were called 'bright-reds' by farmers. Shrimp submitted for diagnosis were examined using wet tissue mounts, bacteriological assays and their respective minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and histology. A dominant yellow bacterial colony was isolated in thiosulphate citrate bile salts-sucrose (TCBS) agar and identified by molecular methods as Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM 1792. Pathogenicity of the V. harveyi strain was demonstrated in L. vannamei. The lowest MIC against Vibrio isolates from bright-red shrimp was obtained with enrofloxacine (3.01, SD = 5.96 pg ml(-1)). Histology detected severe necrosis in lymphoid organ tubules, muscle fibers, and connective tissue, as well as melanization and hemocytic nodules associate with microcolonies of Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteria from severely affected shrimp were dispersed from the haemocoel to other tissues causing a systemic vibriosis. The data indicate that V. harveyi strain CAIM 1792 is the cause of bright-red syndrome (BRS) and represents a threat to the Mexican shrimp farming industry.

  18. The importance of supratidal habitats for wintering shorebirds and the potential impacts of shrimp aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Yasué, M; Dearden, P

    2009-06-01

    Intensive black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon) aquaculture ponds have replaced significant areas of coastal wetlands throughout tropical Asia. Few studies have assessed potential impacts on avian foraging habitats. At Khao Sam Roi Yod National Park, Thailand, seminatural wetlands have been converted to either shrimp ponds or to salinization ponds that provide saline water for shrimp aquaculture. Although shorebirds cannot feed in aquaculture ponds, hypersaline ponds can provide productive foraging areas. Thus, the overall impact of the shrimp industry on shorebirds depends partly on the relative quality of the salt ponds compared to seminatural wetlands. In this study, we examined wintering shorebird use of tidal (N = 5 sites) and supratidal areas (four wetland sites, four salt pond sites) and compared the shorebird community (14 species), prey availability, profitability, and disturbance rates between wetlands and salt ponds. Two shorebird species fed in higher densities in wetlands, whereas seven species were more abundant in salt ponds. Large juvenile fish and dragonfly larvae were more abundant in wetlands, whereas there were more small Chironomid midge and fly larvae in salt ponds. We conclude that salt ponds might provide higher-quality foraging habitats compared to wetlands for small shorebirds species because of the abundance of small larvae. However, the shrimp aquaculture industry reduces habitat availability for shorebirds feeding on larger prey. This study demonstrates a comprehensive, multispecies approach to assess the impacts of a large-scale change in coastal habitats for wintering shorebirds.

  19. Diet supplemented with probiotic for Nile tilapia in polyculture system with marine shrimp.

    PubMed

    Jatobá, Adolfo; Vieira, Felipe do Nascimento; Buglione-Neto, Celso Carlos; Mouriño', José Luiz Pedreira; Silva, Bruno Corrêa; Seiftter, Walter Quadros; Andreatta, Edemar Roberto

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a probiotic (Lactobacillus plantarum) supplemented diet on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in a polyculture system with marine shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) as regards culture performance, hematology, and gut bacterial microbiota. Ten 20-m² pens were arranged in one earthen pond and stocked with 2 fish (41.9 g) m(-2) and 10 shrimp (2.3 g) m(-2), in total of 40 Nile tilapias and 200 shrimp per experimental unit. Tilapia groups in five of the experimental units were fed a commercial diet supplemented with L. plantarum and the other five with an unsupplemented commercial diet (control). After 12 weeks of culture, the tilapia groups fed the probiotic-supplemented diet presented values 13.6, 7.5, and 7.1% higher for feed efficiency, yield, and final weight, respectively. Viable culturable heterotrophic bacteria counts were reduced, and the number of lactic acid bacteria was increased in the gut of fish and shrimp fed the probiotic-supplemented diet. Hematological analyses showed higher number of thrombocytes and leukocytes in tilapia fed the supplemented diet. L. plantarum utilized in this study colonized the gut of tilapia and shrimp and resulted in reduced number of total bacteria and increased tilapia final weight and feed efficiency.

  20. Melanization reaction products of shrimp display antimicrobial properties against their major bacterial and fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Charoensapsri, Walaiporn; Amparyup, Piti; Suriyachan, Chawapat; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2014-11-01

    Melanization is a rapid defense mechanism in invertebrates. The substrate specificity of phenoloxidases (POs) and the role of melanization reaction products were investigated in the black tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon. Two PmPOs (PmproPO1 and PmproPO2) were found to display a substrate specificity towards monophenols and diphenols, and exhibit relatively weak activity against 5,6-dihydroxyindole (DHI). Systemic infection of the PmproPO1/2 co-silenced shrimp with the fungus, Fusarium solani, led to a significantly increased mortality, suggesting an important role of PmproPOs in shrimp's defense against fungal infection. Using L-DOPA, dopamine or DHI as a substrate, the melanization reaction products exhibited in vitro antimicrobial activities towards Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrioparahaemolyticus) and Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis), whereas the lower effect was detected against the fungus (F. solani). SEM analysis revealed the morphological changes and damage of cell membranes of V. harveyi and F. solani after treatment with shrimp melanization reaction products. Together, these findings demonstrate the crucial functions of the proPO system and the importance of melanization reaction products in the shrimp's immune defense.

  1. Decoupling the response of an estuarine shrimp to architectural components of habitat structure

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andrew L.; Ruiz, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore biotic attraction to structure, we examined how the amount and arrangement of artificial biotic stalks affected responses of a shrimp, Palaemon macrodactylus, absent other proximate factors such as predation or interspecific competition. In aquaria, we tested the effect of differing densities of both un-branched and branched stalks, where the amount of material in the branched stalk equaled four-times that of the un-branched. The results clearly showed that it was the amount of material, not how it was arranged, that elicited responses from shrimp. Also, although stalks were not purposefully designed to mimic structural elements found in nature, they did resemble biogenic structure such as hydroids, algae, or plants. In order to test shrimp attraction to a different, perhaps more unfamiliar habitat type, we examined responses to plastic “army men.” These structural elements elicited similar attraction of shrimp, and, in general, shrimp response correlated well with the fractal dimension of both stalks and army men. Overall, these results indicate that attraction to physical structure, regardless of its nature, may be an important driver of high abundances often associated with complex habitats. PMID:27547551

  2. 75 FR 75965 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  3. 76 FR 30648 - Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\1... species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  4. 75 FR 36635 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Rescission of New Shipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... harvested) or farm-raised (produced by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or...-caught warmwater species include, but are not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana... prawns whether shell- on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp...

  5. 75 FR 53947 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\11\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or raw, or... (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus chinensis), giant river prawn... shrimp, in any state of processing; (3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell- on or peeled...

  6. 76 FR 23277 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China, Thailand, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ...), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\8\\ deveined or not deveined, cooked or... not limited to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn... shell- on or peeled (HTS subheadings 0306.23.00.20 and 0306.23.00.40); (4) shrimp and prawns in...

  7. 75 FR 27299 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp from Brazil, India, the People's Republic of China and Thailand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... by aquaculture), head-on or head-off, shell-on or peeled, tail-on or tail-off,\\2\\ deveined or not... to, whiteleg shrimp (Penaeus vannemei), banana prawn (Penaeus merguiensis), fleshy prawn (Penaeus... any state of processing; 3) fresh shrimp and prawns whether shell-on or peeled (HTSUS subheadings...

  8. 76 FR 30034 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    .... SUMMARY: NMFS reopens commercial penaeid shrimp trawling, i.e., for brown, pink, and white shrimp, in the... to South Atlantic states that have closed their waters to the harvest of brown, pink, and white... South Carolina closed its waters on January 10, 2011, to the harvest of brown, pink, and white...

  9. PROVISIONING ECOSYSTEM SERVICES AND CLIMATE CHANGE: A CASE STUDY USING GULF OF MEXICO BROWN SHRIMP, FARFANTEPENAEUS AZTECUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brown shrimp are commercially important shellfish that support one of the largest fisheries in the southeastern United States, contributing to a shrimp harvest revenue that can exceed $100 million per year. Therefore, understanding how climate-driven changes in habitat availabil...

  10. 78 FR 17178 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Shrimp Fishery Off the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... white shrimp) when state waters close as a result of severe winter weather. Amendment 9 would also... has been severely depleted by cold weather. Based on information from standardized assessments, if a... current regulatory text within Sec. 622.35(d), ``South Atlantic shrimp cold weather closure.'' This...

  11. PARTICLE REMOVAL RATES BY THE MUD SHRIMP UPOGEBIA PUGETTENSIS, ITS BURROW, AND A COMMENSAL CLAM: EFFECTS ON ESTUARINE PHYTOPLANKTON ABUNDANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The burrowing shrimp Upogebia pugettensis is an abundant intertidal inhabitant of Pacific Northwest bays and estuaries where it lives commensally with the bivalve Cryptomya californica. Suspension-feeding activities by the shrimp and by its commensal clam, as well as particle se...

  12. Determination of oxytetracycline residue in shrimp using a portable time-resolved analyzer and HPLC-MS/MS validation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxytetracycline (OTC) is the most prominent antibiotic in shrimp aquaculture. In this work, OTC residue in shrimp muscle is determined using a portable analyzer built in this laboratory based on europium-sensitized luminescence (ESL). First, OTC is extracted in McIlvaine buffer at pH 4.0 with 0.1 ...

  13. Replacement of fish meal with black soldier fly meal in practical diets for Pacific whiteleg shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shrimp account for 15 percent of the total value of internationally traded fishery products, and currently are the largest single aquaculture commodity in value terms. The Pacific whiteleg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) generated USD 11 billion from a production volume of 2.7 million metric tons (mm...

  14. Emigration of penaeid shrimp from the once-through cooling lake of Cedar Bayou Steam Electric Generating Station, Baytown, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    Migration and distribution of two decapod shrimp, Penaeus setiferus and P. aztecus, in the cooling-water system of a power plant on the Texas coast were investigated, with emphasis on the seaward emigration from the cooling lake. Samples were collected every two weeks for a year by straining water leaving the lake over a drop structure, trawling in the cooling lake, and flushed from the intake screen. Shrimp catches at the drop structure were positively correlated with the standing population in the cooling lake. Significantly more shrimp passed over the drop structure nocturnally than diurnally. Shrimp caught at the drop structure diurnally averaged either smaller or similar in size to the shrimp taken there at night. The passage of a cold front enhanced migration and initially increased and then reduced the mean size of shrimp passing the drop structure. Higher percentages of the shrimp population in the cooling lake emigrated near new moon than full moon. The moon-phase effects appeared to be due to the moon cycle itself rather than to the intinsity of moon light. Significantly more shrimp of both species emigrated during the hours of ebbing than incoming tide. As the lake surface was above high tide level, an endogenous timing mechanism rather than evironmental factors associated with tidal rhythms controlled this emigration pattern. A temperature drop of up to 0.23 C/hour significantly increased P. aztecus emigration.

  15. Antimicrobial effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella contamination of raw shrimp is a food safety concern in the U.S. and other countries. This research evaluated the effects of vapor phase thymol, modified atmosphere (MA) and their combination against Salmonella spp. on raw shrimp. Growth profiles of a Salmonella spp. cocktail (6 strains),...

  16. Retardation of quality changes of Pacific white shrimp by green tea extract treatment and modified atmosphere packaging during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Nirmal, Nilesh Prakash; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-10-03

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the quality changes of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) treated with or without green tea extract (1g/L; GTE) in combination with or without ascorbic acid (0.05g/L; AA) during refrigerated storage of 10days was investigated. Shrimp without treatment stored under MAP had lowered psychrotrophic bacteria, enterobacteriaceae and H(2)S-producing bacteria count (P<0.05) but similar lactic acid bacteria count (P>0.05), in comparison with shrimp stored in air (control). The coincidental lowered rate of increase in pH, total volatile base (TVB) content and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were obtained in shrimp stored under MAP (P<0.05). However, MAP slightly lowered melanosis formation and improved likeness score to some extent. When shrimp were treated with GTE and stored under MAP, the lower microbiological and chemical changes as well as the lowest melanosis formation were observed, compared to shrimp kept under MAP without treatment and the control (P<0.05). GTE treatment in combination with MAP could retard chemical changes and melanosis formation, regardless of AA incorporation (P>0.05). Nevertheless, GTE in combination with AA had higher inhibition on microbial growth and yielded the shrimp with higher likeness, compared with the other treatments (P<0.05). Therefore, shrimp treated with GTE in combination with AA prior to MAP had the lowest losses in quality during refrigerated storage.

  17. 76 FR 67418 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Extension of Time Limit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ...The Department of Commerce (the ``Department'') has decided to extend the time limit for the preliminary results of the new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on certain frozen warmwater shrimp (``shrimp'') from the Socialist Republic of Vietnam (``Vietnam'') to December 9, 2011. The period of review (``POR'') for this NSR is February 1, 2010, through January 31,...

  18. 75 FR 28235 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Final Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... International Trade Administration Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the People's Republic of China...'') is extending the time limit for the final results of the administrative review of certain frozen... administrative reviews of the antidumping duty orders on certain frozen shrimp from the Socialist Republic...

  19. Current status of genetics and genomics of reared penaeid shrimp: information relevant to access and benefit sharing.

    PubMed

    Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Feng, Tingting; Xiang, Jianhai

    2013-08-01

    At present, research and progress in shrimp genomics and genetics show significant developments. Shrimp genetics and genomics also show immense potential for an increased production in a way that meets shrimp culture progress goals for the third millennium. This review article aims to provide an overview of its current status and future direction, discusses questions that need focused research to address them, and summarizes areas where genetics and genomics knowledge can make a positive difference to shrimp culture sustainability. Sustainable progress of penaeid shrimps will depend upon feasible solutions for environmental, research, economic, consumer problems, proper development, and planning policy enforcement. It is recommended that increased funding for biotechnology research and progress be directed to expand worldwide commercial shrimp culture and address environmental and public health issues. For any researcher or shrimp company member who has attempted to or whom would like to thoroughly search the literature to gain a complete understanding of the current state of shrimp genetics and genomics, this publication will be an invaluable source of reference materials, some of which is reported here for the first time.

  20. Tenacibaculum litopenaei sp. nov., isolated from a shrimp mariculture pond.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Shih-Yi; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chou, Jui-Hsing; Chang, Poh-Shing; Arun, A B; Young, Chiu-Chung; Chen, Wen-Ming

    2007-05-01

    A yellow-coloured, aerobic, Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated B-I(T), was isolated from the water of a shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) mariculture pond in Taiwan. No species with a validly published name showed 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of more than 96.5 % to this novel isolate. The highest sequence similarities displayed by strain B-I(T) (93.2-96.1 %) were to members of the genus Tenacibaculum. The phenotypic properties of this organism were consistent with its classification in the genus Tenacibaculum. The novel isolate could be distinguished from all Tenacibaculum species by several phenotypic characteristics. The major fatty acids were iso-C(15 : 0) (22 %), summed feature 3 (C(16 : 1)omega7c and/or iso-C(15 : 0) 2-OH; 21.3 %), iso-C(17 : 0) 3-OH (12.7 %) and iso-C(15 : 1) (8.7 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 35.2 mol%. Hence, genotypic and phenotypic data demonstrate that strain B-I(T) should be classified within a novel species in the genus Tenacibaculum, for which the name Tenacibaculum litopenaei sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B-I(T) (=BCRC 17590(T)=LMG 23706(T)).

  1. Developmental and comparative aspects of brine shrimp tubulin.

    PubMed Central

    Macrae, T H; Ludueña, R F

    1984-01-01

    Tubulin from embryos of the brine shrimp Artemia has been purified to apparent homogeneity by chromatography on phosphocellulose P11 and DEAE-cellulose, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation and assembly-disassembly of microtubules. Peptide mapping indicated that Artemia and bovine brain tubulin were very similar in spite of differences in the electrophoretic behaviour of tubulin from these two organisms. Isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis were used to resolve and identify several Artemia isotubulins . The isotubulin composition and the quantity of tubulin did not change during pre-emergence development of Artemia embryos. Formation of microtubules with tubulin purified from embryos at different stages of development did not require glycerol or microtubule-associated proteins and formation of structurally normal microtubules was actually hindered by glycerol and Mg2+. The characteristics of Artemia tubulin, in concert with the unusual life history of Artemia, suggest that this organism will be very useful for the study of tubulin gene expression and tubulin utilization during embryo development. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6721849

  2. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp.

    PubMed

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-10-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval-adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism.

  3. Proficiency study for the determination of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimps.

    PubMed

    Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Verdon, E; Blot, J; Sanders, P

    2006-06-01

    A proficiency test for the determination of nitrofuran metabolites in shrimp tissue was organized in the first half of 2003. This test was intended to allow the participants to use their routine method and to assess their competence on this specific analysis. The participation in this proficiency test was offered to all the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) of the European Union (EU) in charge of the analysis of nitrofurans, to Official Laboratories of the then 10 Candidate Countries for entry in EU and to some countries exporting food to the EU. The participants (20) analysed nitrofuran metabolites in eight randomly coded frozen samples including three blank samples. All participants performed a confirmatory method using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to detect total nitrofuran metabolite residues. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses of the results were investigated. Qualitatively, 16 laboratories out of 20 gave the correct interpretation of the results in term of compliant/non-compliant sample. Quantitatively, laboratory performance was evaluated by calculating the z-scores.

  4. Circularly Polarized Light as a Communication Signal in Mantis Shrimps.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Yakir Luc; Templin, Rachel Marie; How, Martin John; Marshall, N Justin

    2015-12-07

    Animals that communicate using conspicuous body patterns face a trade-off between desired detection by intended receivers and undesired detection from eavesdropping predators, prey, rivals, or parasites. In some cases, this trade-off favors the evolution of signals that are both hidden from predators and visible to conspecifics. Animals may produce covert signals using a property of light that is invisible to those that they wish to evade, allowing them to hide in plain sight (e.g., dragonfish can see their own, otherwise rare, red bioluminescence). The use of the polarization of light is a good example of a potentially covert communication channel, as very few vertebrates are known to use polarization for object-based vision. However, even these patterns are vulnerable to eavesdroppers, as sensitivity to the linearly polarized component of light is widespread among invertebrates due to their intrinsically polarization sensitive photoreceptors. Stomatopod crustaceans appear to have gone one step further in this arms race and have evolved a sensitivity to the circular polarization of light, along with body patterns producing it. However, to date we have no direct evidence that any of these marine crustaceans use this modality to communicate with conspecifics. We therefore investigated circular polarization vision of the mantis shrimp Gonodactylaceus falcatus and demonstrate that (1) the species produces strongly circularly polarized body patterns, (2) they discriminate the circular polarization of light, and (3) that they use circular polarization information to avoid occupied burrows when seeking a refuge.

  5. Critical factors in chitin production by fermentation of shrimp biowaste.

    PubMed

    Rao, M S; Muñoz, J; Stevens, W F

    2000-12-01

    Factors affecting Lactobacillus fermentation of shrimp waste for chitin and protein liquor production were determined. The objective of the fermentation is medium conditioning by Lactobacillus through production of proteases and lowering of the pH. The efficiency was tested by conducting fermentation of biowaste in 1-1 beakers with or without pH adjustment using different acids. Addition of 5% glucose to the biowaste supported the growth of lactic acid bacteria and led to better fermentation. Among four acids tested to control pH at the start and during fermentation, acetic acid and citric acid proved to be the most effective. In biowaste fermented with 6.7% L. plantarum inoculum, 5% glucose, and pH 6.0 adjusted with acetic acid, 75% deproteination and 86% demineralization was achieved. Replacement of acetic acid by citric acid gave 88% deproteination and 90% demineralization. The fermentation carried out in the presence of acetic acid resulted in a protein fraction that smelled good and a clean chitin fraction.

  6. Adaptive radiation and ecological diversification of Sulawesi's ancient lake shrimps.

    PubMed

    Von Rintelen, Kristina; Glaubrecht, Matthias; Schubart, Christoph D; Wessel, Andreas; Von Rintelen, Thomas

    2010-11-01

    Ancient lakes are natural laboratories for the study of adaptive radiation. Recently, two lake systems on the Indonesian island Sulawesi have emerged as promising new model systems. A species flock of atyid freshwater shrimps in the Malili lake system comprises 15 colorful endemic taxa. Mitochondrial DNA data suggest two independent colonizations by riverine ancestors. Only one colonization event led to subsequent radiation into 14 species, while the second clade comprises just one species. The vast majority of species (n= 12) are habitat specialists, which are confined to the larger Malili clade and include all taxa with species-specific color patterns and a restricted distribution within the five connected Malili lakes. Morphological, genetic, and ecological data are consistent with the existence of an adaptive radiation in the Malili lakes, involving the habitat-specific diversification of trophic morphology. In addition to testing criteria for the recognition of an adaptive radiation, an ancestral state reconstruction reveals an equal probability for either a riverine generalist or a lacustrine specialist as ancestor of the large Malili clade, which is interpreted as indicative of an early stage of habitat specialization within this radiation. Finally, our results suggest that species diversification may have been primarily driven by ecological specialization and allopatric speciation.

  7. Phylogenetics links monster larva to deep-sea shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Bracken-Grissom, Heather D; Felder, Darryl L; Vollmer, Nicole L; Martin, Joel W; Crandall, Keith A

    2012-01-01

    Mid-water plankton collections commonly include bizarre and mysterious developmental stages that differ conspicuously from their adult counterparts in morphology and habitat. Unaware of the existence of planktonic larval stages, early zoologists often misidentified these unique morphologies as independent adult lineages. Many such mistakes have since been corrected by collecting larvae, raising them in the lab, and identifying the adult forms. However, challenges arise when the larva is remarkably rare in nature and relatively inaccessible due to its changing habitats over the course of ontogeny. The mid-water marine species Cerataspis monstrosa (Gray 1828) is an armored crustacean larva whose adult identity has remained a mystery for over 180 years. Our phylogenetic analyses, based in part on recent collections from the Gulf of Mexico, provide definitive evidence that the rare, yet broadly distributed larva, C. monstrosa, is an early developmental stage of the globally distributed deepwater aristeid shrimp, Plesiopenaeus armatus. Divergence estimates and phylogenetic relationships across five genes confirm the larva and adult are the same species. Our work demonstrates the diagnostic power of molecular systematics in instances where larval rearing seldom succeeds and morphology and habitat are not indicative of identity. Larval–adult linkages not only aid in our understanding of biodiversity, they provide insights into the life history, distribution, and ecology of an organism. PMID:23145324

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Shrimp White Spot Bacilliform Virus

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feng; He, Jun; Lin, Xionghui; Li, Qin; Pan, Deng; Zhang, Xiaobo; Xu, Xun

    2001-01-01

    We report the first complete genome sequence of a marine invertebrate virus. White spot bacilliform virus (WSBV; or white spot syndrome virus) is a major shrimp pathogen with a high mortality rate and a wide host range. Its double-stranded circular DNA genome of 305,107 bp contains 181 open reading frames (ORFs). Nine homologous regions containing 47 repeated minifragments that include direct repeats, atypical inverted repeat sequences, and imperfect palindromes were identified. This is the largest animal virus that has been completely sequenced. Although WSBV is morphologically similar to insect baculovirus, the two viruses are not detectably related at the amino acid level. Rather, some WSBV genes are more homologous to eukaryotic genes than viral genes. In fact, sequence analysis indicates that WSBV differs from all known viruses, although a few genes display a weak homology to herpesvirus genes. Most of the ORFs encode proteins that bear no homology to any known proteins, either suggesting that WSBV represents a novel class of viruses or perhaps implying a significant evolutionary distance between marine and terrestrial viruses. The most unique feature of WSBV is the presence of an intact collagen gene, a gene encoding an extracellular matrix protein of animal cells that has never been found in any viruses. Determination of the genome of WSBV will facilitate a better understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of the WSBV virus and will also provide useful information concerning the evolution and divergence of marine and terrestrial animal viruses at the molecular level. PMID:11689662

  9. An immersion of Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract improves the immunity and survival of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei challenged with white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Li, Chang-Che; Chen, Li-Li; Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2011-12-01

    The innate immunity and resistance against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received the Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract were examined. Shrimp immersed in seawater containing the extract at 0 (control), 400 and 600 mg L(-1) for 3 h were challenged with WSSV at 2 × 10(4) copies shrimp(-1). Shrimp not exposed to the extract and not received WSSV challenge served as unchallenged control. The survival rate of shrimp immersed in 400 mg L(-1) or 600 mg L(-1) extract was significantly higher than that of challenged control shrimp over 24-120 h. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase activity, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase activity, and lysozyme activity of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 6, 6, 6, 6, and 6-24 h post-challenge. In another experiment, shrimp which had received 3 h immersion of 0, 400, 600 mg L(-1) extract were challenged with WSSV. The shrimp were then received a booster (3 h immersion in the same dose of the extract), and the immune parameters were examined at 12-120 h post-challenge. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg L(-1) extract, and then received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h were significantly higher than those of unchallenged control shrimp at 12-48 h post-challenge. In conclusion, shrimp which had received the extract exhibited protection against WSSV as evidenced by the higher survival rate and higher values of immune parameters. Shrimp which had received the extract and infected by WSSV showed improved immunity when they received a booster at 9, 21, and 45 h post-WSSV challenge. The extract treatment caused less decrease in PO activity, and showed better performance of lysozyme activity and antioxidant response in WSSV-infected shrimp.

  10. Effects of predation on diel activity and habitat use of the coral-reef shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni (Rhynchocinetidae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ory, Nicolas C.; Dudgeon, David; Duprey, Nicolas; Thiel, Martin

    2014-09-01

    Nonlethal effects of predators on prey behaviour are still poorly understood, although they may have cascading effects through food webs. Underwater observations and experiments were conducted on a shallow fringing coral reef in Malaysia to examine whether predation risks affect diel activity, habitat use, and survival of the rhynchocinetid shrimp Cinetorhynchus hendersoni. The study site was within a protected area where predatory fish were abundant. Visual surveys and tethering experiments were conducted in April-May 2010 to compare the abundance of shrimps and predatory fishes and the relative predation intensity on shrimps during day and night. Shrimps were not seen during the day but came out of refuges at night, when the risk of being eaten was reduced. Shrimp preferences for substrata of different complexities and types were examined at night when they could be seen on the reef; complex substrata were preferred, while simple substrata were avoided. Shrimps were abundant on high-complexity columnar-foliate Porites rus, but tended to make little use of branching Acropora spp. Subsequent tethering experiments, conducted during daytime in June 2013, compared the relative mortality of shrimps on simple (sand-rubble, massive Porites spp.) and complex ( P. rus, branching Acropora spp.) substrata under different predation risk scenarios (i.e., different tether lengths and exposure durations). The mortality of shrimps with short tethers (high risk) was high on all substrata while, under low and intermediate predation risks (long tethers), shrimp mortality was reduced on complex corals relative to that on sand-rubble or massive Porites spp. Overall, mortality was lowest on P. rus. Our study indicates that predation risks constrain shrimp activity and habitat choice, forcing them to hide deep inside complex substrata during the day. Such behavioural responses to predation risks and their consequences for the trophic role of invertebrate mesoconsumers warrant further

  11. Molecular cloning of Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor of the shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Kong, Hee Jeong; Cho, Hyun Kook; Park, Eun-Mi; Hong, Gyeong-Eun; Kim, Young-Ok; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Lee, Sang-Jun; Han, Hyon Sob; Jang, In-Kwon; Lee, Chang Hoon; Cheong, Jaehun; Choi, Tae-Jin

    2009-01-01

    Proteinase inhibitors play important roles in host defence systems involving blood coagulation and pathogen digestion. We isolated and characterized a cDNA clone for a Kazal-type proteinase inhibitor (KPI) from a hemocyte cDNA library of the oriental white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. The KPI gene consists of three exons and two introns. KPI cDNA contains an open reading frame of 396 bp, a polyadenylation signal sequence AATAAA, and a poly (A) tail. KPI cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 131 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 21 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of KPI contains two homologous Kazal domains, each with six conserved cysteine residues. The mRNA of KPI is expressed in the hemocytes of healthy shrimp, and the higher expression of KPI transcript is observed in shrimp infected with the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), suggesting a potential role for KPI in host defence mechanisms.

  12. Distribution of hydrothermal Alvinocaridid shrimps: effect of geomorphology and specialization to extreme biotopes.

    PubMed

    Lunina, Anastasia A; Vereshchaka, Alexandr L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to review of our knowledge about distribution of recently known species of vent shrimps and to analyze factors influencing distribution patterns. Analyses are based upon (1) original material taken during eight cruises in the Atlantic Ocean (a total of 5861 individuals) and (2) available literature data from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Vent shrimps have two patterns of the species ranges: local (single vent site) and regional (three--six vent sites). Pacific species ranges are mainly of the local type and the Atlantic species ranges are of the regional type. The regional type of species ranges may be associated with channels providing easy larval dispersal (rift valleys, trenches), while the local type is characteristic for other areas. Specialization of a shrimp genus to extreme vent habitats leads to two effects: (1) an increase in the number of vent fields inhabited by the genus and (2) a decrease of species number within the genus.

  13. Antimutagenicity and Antiproliferative Studies of Lipidic Extracts from White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

    PubMed Central

    Wilson-Sanchez, Griselda; Moreno-Félix, Carolina; Velazquez, Carlos; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Acosta, Anita; Machi-Lara, Lorena; Aldana-Madrid, María-Lourdes; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat-Marina; Robles-Zepeda, Ramón; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando

    2010-01-01

    An organic extract from fresh shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) was studied for antimutagenic and antiproliferative properties using Salmonella typhimurium tester strains TA98 and TA100 with metabolic activation (S9) and a cancer cell line (B-cell lymphoma), respectively. Shrimp extract was sequentially fractionated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and each fraction was tested for antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities. Crude organic extracts obtained from shrimp reduced the number of revertants caused by aflatoxina B1, showing a dose-response type of relationship. Sequential TLC fractionation of the active extracts produced several antimutagenic and/or antiproliferative fractions. These results suggested that the lipid fraction of the tested species contained compounds with chemoprotective properties that reduce the mutagenicity of AFB1 and proliferation of a cancer cell line. PMID:21139845

  14. Determination of chloramphenicol residues in shrimps by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M; Muñoz, P; Aranda, A; Rodriguez, I; Diaz, R; Blanca, J

    2003-07-05

    A liquid chromatographic method with mass spectrometric detection and identification (LC-MS) is presented for the determination of chloramphenicol (CAP) in shrimp tissues. Homogenized shrimp samples were extracted with phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). Clean-up was carried out on a C(18) SPE cartridge. Chloramphenicol was determined by LC-MS-ESI in negative mode. The column used was a Symmetry Shield with a mixture of acetonitrile-water (25:75) as mobile phase. Shrimp samples were fortified at CAP levels between 0.2 and 50 ng g(-1) with 5D-CAP as internal standard. At these levels, accuracies lay between 101 and 110% and between-day reproducibilities were lower than 7.1%, expressed as the variation coefficient of the mean. Limit of decision (CCalpha) was 0.02 ng g(-1). Limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 0.2 ng g(-1).

  15. Endocytic pathway is indicated for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) entry in shrimp.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zih-Jhan; Kang, Shih-Ting; Leu, Jiann-Horng; Chen, Li-Li

    2013-09-01

    The white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has had a serious economic impact on the global shrimp aquaculture industry in the past two decades. Although research has clarified a lot about its genome and structure, the mechanism of how WSSV enters a cell is still unclear. In this study to determine this mechanism, primary cultured hemocytes were used as an experimental model to observe the process of WSSV entry because the stable shrimp cell lines for WSSV infection are lacking. After labeling virions and endosomes with fluorescent dyes followed by observation with a confocal microscope, the results show that the WSSV colocalizes with early endosomes. Hemocytes are further treated with different endocytic inhibitors, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) and chlorpromazine (CPZ). WSSV still can be detected in the hemocytes treated with CPZ, but not in the hemocytes treated with MβCD. Thus, we conclude that WSSV adopts the caveolae-mediated endocytosis to enter the shrimp cell.

  16. Metals in Some Edible Fish and Shrimp Species Collected in Dry Season from Subarnarekha River, India.

    PubMed

    Giri, Soma; Singh, Abhay Kumar

    2015-08-01

    The concentration of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co and Sr were determined in five fish and one shrimp species collected from the Subarnarekha River during pre-monsoon season using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for a risk assessment and source apportionment study. Concentrations of metals in the fish and shrimp exceeded the recommended food standards for As, Cu, Ni, Cd and Zn in many samples. Principal component analysis suggested both innate and anthropogenic activities as contributing sources of metal in the fish and shrimp. The calculated target hazard quotients and hazard indices indicated that high concentrations of metals in some species at some locations present an appreciable risk to the health of consumers of these species.

  17. Influence of probiotics on the growth and digestive enzyme activity of white Pacific shrimp ( Litopenaeus vannamei)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, R. Geovanny D.; Shen, M. A.

    2008-05-01

    The influence of Bacillus probiotics on the digestive enzyme activity and the growth of Litopenaeus vannamei were determined in this study. The shrimp was treated with five percentages (1.5, 3.0, 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5) of probiotics ( Bacillus spp.) supplemented to the feed and cultured for 45d. The growth measured as the weight gain at the end of culturing was significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimps than that of the control (without receiving probiotics). Activities of protease and amylase, two digestive enzymes of the midgut gland and the intestine were significantly ( P<0.05) higher in probiotic-treated shrimp than in the control.

  18. Effects of pesticides on DNA and protein of shrimp larvae Litopenaeus stylirostris of the California Gulf.

    PubMed

    Galindo Reyes, J Guillermo; Leyva, Nancy R; Millan, Olivia A; Lazcano, Guadalupe A

    2002-10-01

    Recently, diverse pathologies and massive mortalities have been presented in shrimp hatcheries located along the California Gulf; therefore, toxic responses of shrimp larvae were used as biomarkers of pesticide pollution, because in this region intensive agriculture is practiced. Shrimp larvae were exposed to DDT, azinphosmethyl, permethrine, parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, endosulfan, and carbaryl, in order to determine LC50, DNA adducts and/or breaks, and total protein in larvae. The results indicate reductions in protein and DNA in larvae exposed to these pesticides, and in those exposed to DDT, breaks and/or adducts were registered. It is possible that pesticide pollution is a cause of these problems, because reduction in protein indicates a decrease in larvae growth rate and DNA breaks or adducts have been related to pathologies and carcinogenesis in many aquatic organisms.

  19. Ultraviolet irradiation and gradient temperature assisted autolysis for protein recovery from shrimp head waste.

    PubMed

    Cao, Wenhong; Tan, Caiyun; Zhan, Xiaojian; Li, Huiyi; Zhang, Chaohua

    2014-12-01

    A novel autolysis method using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and gradient temperature was investigated to efficiently recover proteins from the head of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. The proteolytic activity of shrimp head subjected to 30W UV irradiation for 20 min was increased by 62%, compared with that of untreated samples. After irradiation, the enzymes remained active across a wide range of temperatures (45-60°C) and pH (7-10). An orthogonal design was used to optimize autolysis condition. After 5h autolysis, protein recovery from the UV-heat treated samples was up to 92.1%. These results indicate the potential of using UV irradiation in combination with gradient temperatures to improve recovery of proteins from shrimp head waste.

  20. Concentrations of selected chlorinated pesticides in shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex, Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, H.E.; Beck, J.N. )

    1990-05-01

    For several decades inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems have been affected by a multitude of synthetic chemical substances. This is a consequence of population growth and increased industrial and agricultural activity. Many of these chemicals, the by-products of their production, and degradation products ultimately find their way into the aquatic environment as pollutants. The extent to which these pollutants affect the environment and its inhabitants depends largely upon the quantity and nature of the particular compounds involved. Halogenated hydrocarbons, particularly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the pesticide DDT and its degradation products have received much attention as environmental pollutants. Because of the economic importance of the shrimping industry to southwest Louisiana, the objective of this study was to analyze shrimp collected from the Calcasieu River/Lake Complex for the presence of selected chlorinated pesticides. The presence of these compounds within shrimp tissues would serve as an indicator for the extent of pollution throughout this important estuarine system.