Science.gov

Sample records for shuttle bus demonstration

  1. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethylether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operation in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the campus shuttle route began in early June 2002. However, the work

  2. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on the bus, operation on the

  3. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The laboratory studies have included work with a Navistar V-8 turbodiesel engine, demonstration of engine operation on DME-diesel blends and instrumentation for evaluating fuel properties. The field studies have involved performance, efficiency and emissions measurements with the Champion Motorcoach ''Defender'' shuttle bus which will be converted to DME-fueling. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have completed engine combustion studies on DME-diesel blends up to 30 wt% DME addition.

  4. DIMETHYL ETHER (DME)-FUELED SHUTTLE BUS DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Andre L. Boehman; David Klinikowski

    2003-04-01

    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. The strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. Within the Combustion Laboratory of the Penn State Energy Institute, they have installed and equipped a Navistar V-8 direct-injection turbodiesel engine for measurement of gaseous and particulate emissions and examination of the impact of fuel composition on diesel combustion. They have also reconfigured a high-pressure viscometer for studies of the viscosity, bulk modulus (compressibility) and miscibility of blends of diesel fuel, dimethyl ether and lubricity additives. The results include baseline emissions, performance and combustion measurements on the Navistar engine for operation on a federal low sulfur diesel fuel (300 ppm S). Most recently, they have examined blends of an oxygenated fuel additive (a liquid fuel called CETANER{trademark}) produced by Air Products, for comparison with dimethyl ether blended at the same weight of oxygen addition, 2 wt.%. While they have not operated the engine on DME yet, they are now preparing to do so. A fuel system for delivery of DME/Diesel blends has been configured

  5. 7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. YOSEMITE VALLEY SHUTTLE BUS AT SENTINEL BRIDGE SHUTTLE BUS AND PARKING LOT AREA. LOOKING WNW. GIS: N-37 40 36.2 / W-119 44 45.0 - Yosemite National Park Roads & Bridges, Yosemite Village, Mariposa County, CA

  6. Effect of periodic inflow on speed-controlled shuttle bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2017-03-01

    We investigate the dynamic behavior of a shuttle bus controlled the speed when passengers come periodically at the origin. We propose the nonlinear-map model for the dynamics of the speed-controlled bus with the periodic inflow. The bus schedule is closely connected to the motion. The motion of the speed-controlled bus is affected by the periodic inflow. The motion of the shuttle bus depends highly on both speed control and periodic inflow. The shuttle bus displays the periodic, quasi-periodic, and chaotic motions by varying both periodic inflow and speed control. We clarify the dependence of the bus motion on both speed control and periodic inflow.

  7. ORION II bus demonstration. Demonstration report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, J.

    1989-02-01

    The Central New York Regional Transportation Authority conducted an 18-month demonstration to determine how the ORION II bus operates in actual service. The ORION II vehicle is a small low floor, accessible heavy duty, diesel-powered transit bus designed to meet the needs of the elderly and handicapped. It has the capacity to seat 26 passengers with 4 wheelchair lockdowns. Side and rear doors are equipped with electrically powered ramps. Eight Thomas vehicles (22-foot, 11,500 lbs, wheelchair equipped, gasoline fueled) were also tested during the demonstration period. Operations (fuel and oil usage) and maintenance (scheduled and unscheduled) data were collected and charted-out in the report as well as driver, passenger, and maintenance surveys. This report provides descriptions, photographs, and comparison charts of both the diesel-fueled ORION II transit bus and the gasoline-fueled Thomas vehicles along with the demonstration test plan, evaluations, conclusions, and survey results.

  8. Effect of speedup delay on shuttle bus schedule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    We study the bus schedule in the shuttle bus transportation system controlled by speedup. The bus schedule is closely related to the dynamic motion of the bus. The motion of a shuttle bus depends on the inflow rate of passengers and the delayed speedup control. The delayed speedup control has an important effect on the dynamic motion of the bus. We present the delayed map model for the dynamics of the shuttle bus with the delayed speedup control. The bus motion changes from a stable state, through a periodic state, to a quasi-periodic state by the delayed speedup control. The return map of the tour time displays a smooth closed curve and the bus motion is quasi-periodic. The dynamic transition to the quasi-periodic motion changes greatly with the delay time. We clarify the effect of the delayed speedup control on the bus schedule.

  9. Shuttle bay telerobotics demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chun, W.; Cogeos, P.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration of NASA's robotics capabilities should be a balanced agenda of servicing and assembly tasks combined with selected key technical experiments. The servicing tasks include refueling and module replacement. Refueling involves the mating of special fluid connectors while module replacement requires an array of robotic technologies such as special tools, the arm of a logistics tool, and the precision mating of orbital replacement units to guides. The assembly task involves the construction of a space station node and truss structure. The technological experiments will focus on a few important issues: the precision manipulation of the arms by a teleoperator, the additional use of several mono camera views in conjunction with the stereo system, the use of a general purpose end effector versus a caddy of tools, and the dynamics involved with using a robot with a stabilizer.

  10. Error protection capability of space shuttle data bus designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proch, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    Error protection assurance in the reliability of digital data communications is discussed. The need for error protection on the space shuttle data bus system has been recognized and specified as a hardware requirement. The error protection techniques of particular concern are those designed into the Shuttle Main Engine Interface (MEI) and the Orbiter Multiplex Interface Adapter (MIA). The techniques and circuit design details proposed for these hardware are analyzed in this report to determine their error protection capability. The capability is calculated in terms of the probability of an undetected word error. Calculated results are reported for a noise environment that ranges from the nominal noise level stated in the hardware specifications to burst levels which may occur in extreme or anomalous conditions.

  11. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  12. FUEL CELL BUS DEMONSTRATION IN MEXICO CITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the performance of a cull-size, zero-emission, Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel-cell-powered transit bus in the atmospheric environment of Mexico City. To address the air quality problems caused by vehicle emissions in Mexico City, a seminar on clean vehic...

  13. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective is to characterize the performance capabilities of an inline, shuttle-derived launch vehicle using two design strategies: the first as an early program demonstrator utilizing high structural margins, maximum shuttle assets, and minimal pad impact, the later having undergone structural optimization, flying operational mission GR&A and serving as a baseline for evolutionary upgrades.

  14. SunLine Test Drives Hydrogen Bus: Hydrogen Fuel Cell& Infrastructure Technologies Program, Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Projects (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.

    2003-08-01

    Fact sheet describes the ThunderPower hydrogen fuel cell bus that was demonstrated at SunLine Transit Agency from November 2002 to February 2003. The bus was evaluated by DOE's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity.

  15. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Philips, Alan D.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center undertook a study to define candidate early heavy lift demonstration launch vehicle concepts derived from existing space shuttle assets. The objective was to determine the performance capabilities of these vehicles and characterize potential early demonstration test flights. Given the anticipated budgetary constraints that may affect America's civil space program, and a lapse in U.S. heavy launch capability with the retirement of the space shuttle, an early heavy lift launch vehicle demonstration flight would not only demonstrate capabilities that could be utilized for future space exploration missions, but also serve as a building block for the development of our nation s next heavy lift launch system. An early heavy lift demonstration could be utilized as a test platform, demonstrating capabilities of future space exploration systems such as the Multi Purpose Crew Vehicle. By using existing shuttle assets, including the RS-25D engine inventory, the shuttle equipment manufacturing and tooling base, and the segmented solid rocket booster industry, a demonstrator concept could expedite the design-to-flight schedule while retaining critical human skills and capital. In this study two types of vehicle designs are examined. The first utilizes a high margin/safety factor battleship structural design in order to minimize development time as well as monetary investment. Structural design optimization is performed on the second, as if an operational vehicle. Results indicate low earth orbit payload capability is more than sufficient to support various vehicle and vehicle systems test programs including Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle articles. Furthermore, a shuttle-derived, hydrogen core vehicle configuration offers performance benefits when trading evolutionary paths to maximum capability.

  16. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.; Water, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has the leading role for NASA s preliminary conceptual launch vehicle design and performance analysis. Over the past several years the ACO Earth-to-Orbit Team has evaluated thousands of launch vehicle concept variations for a multitude of studies including agency-wide efforts such as the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS), Constellation, Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV), Heavy Lift Propulsion Technology (HLPT), Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT), and Space Launch System (SLS). NASA plans to continue human space exploration and space station utilization. Launch vehicles used for heavy lift cargo and crew will be needed. One of the current leading concepts for future heavy lift capability is an inline one and a half stage concept using solid rocket boosters (SRB) and based on current Shuttle technology and elements. Potentially, the quickest and most cost-effective path towards an operational vehicle of this configuration is to make use of a demonstrator vehicle fabricated from existing shuttle assets and relying upon the existing STS launch infrastructure. Such a demonstrator would yield valuable proof-of-concept data and would provide a working test platform allowing for validated systems integration. Using shuttle hardware such as existing RS-25D engines and partial MPS, propellant tanks derived from the External Tank (ET) design and tooling, and four-segment SRB s could reduce the associated upfront development costs and schedule when compared to a concept that would rely on new propulsion technology and engine designs. There are potentially several other additional benefits to this demonstrator concept. Since a concept of this type would be based on man-rated flight proven hardware components, this demonstrator has the potential to evolve into the first iteration of heavy lift crew or cargo and serve as a baseline for block upgrades. This vehicle could also serve as a demonstration

  17. City of Chula Vista hydrogen fuel cell bus demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, B.; Bamberger, B.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen as an energy carrier and fuel has potential for various uses including electricity, commercial, residential, transportation, and industrial. It is an energy carrier that can be produced from a variety of primary sources and potentially can accomplish these various uses while significantly reducing pollution by substituting for or reducing the use of fossil fuels. One of the most immediate and potentially viable roles for hydrogen as an energy carrier will be its use as a transportation fuel, especially in densely populated urban areas where automotive emissions contribute significantly to air pollution. The Department of Energy`s commitment to research and development of hydrogen as an alternative fuel, and California`s Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) requirements, both provide the impetus and favorable circumstance for demonstrating hydrogen as a transportation fuel on an urban bus system. The purpose of this project is to demonstrate the feasibility of using solid polymer fuel cells in a hydrogen-powered electric drive system for an urban transit bus application. Fuel cell buses use hydrogen fuel and oxygen from the air to produce electrical power with the only byproduct being pure water. Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells are proposed for this project. Current evidence suggests that fuel cells, which rely on hydrogen and a process known as proton exchange to generate their power, appear to have an infinite life span. All exhaust pollution is completely eliminated, resulting in a Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV). An urban bus system offers the potential for developing a market for the production of hydrogen propulsion technology due to extensive vehicular use in densely populated areas experiencing pollution from numerous sources, and because the central garaging facilities or the bus system facilitates fueling and maintenance functions.

  18. Hydrogen Sensors Demonstrated on the Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Gary W.

    2000-01-01

    Microelectromechanical-systems- (MEMS-) based hydrogen sensor technology developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field and Case Western Reserve University was demonstrated on shuttle missions STS-95 (Senator Glenn s mission) and STS-96. These smart sensors, commercialized by Makel Engineering Inc., were part of an "Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring HEDS Technology Demonstration" series conducted at the NASA Kennedy Space Center. The experiments were designed to demonstrate the effect of technological upgrades on shuttle performance. The hydrogen sensors were micro-fabricated for minimal size, weight, and power consumption. A temperature detector and heater were included on the sensor for temperature control. Two palladium chrome (PdCr) hydrogen detection devices were included in each sensor package: a Schottky diode for low concentrations and a resistor for high concentrations. These sensor designs allow operation in inert environments. "Smart" electronics developed by Makel Engineering were integrated with the sensors to control the sensor temperature and process the output of the various sensors. This complete hydrogen detection system (two sensors on a chip with smart electronics) flew on STS-95 (launched October 1998) and STS-96 (launched May 1999). It was installed in the aft compartment of the shuttle and used to monitor the hydrogen concentration in that region. Up to this time, a mass spectrometer had monitored the hydrogen concentration in the aft compartment before launch, and "grab" bottles had been used after launch. The inside of these bottles is at vacuum. During flight, the grab bottles are pyrotechnically opened for a brief period, and the gas in the aft compartment is captured in the bottle. Several of these bottles are opened at different times during takeoff, and their contents are used to determine the time profile of the gases in the aft chamber. However, this information is not available until after the flight. On the launch

  19. A study of multiplex data bus techniques for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearney, R. J.; Kalange, M. A.

    1972-01-01

    A comprehensive technology base for the design of a multiplexed data bus subsystem is provided. Extensive analyses, both analytical and empirical, were performed. Subjects covered are classified under the following headings: requirements identification and analysis; transmission media studies; signal design and detection studies; synchronization, timing, and control studies; user-subsystem interface studies; operational reliability analyses; design of candidate data bus configurations; and evaluation of candidate data bus designs.

  20. Research, development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Phase 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1990-02-28

    Purpose of the Phase I effort was to demonstrate feasibility of the fuel cell/battery system for powering a small bus (under 30 ft or 9 m) on an urban bus route. A brassboard powerplant was specified, designed, fabricated, and tested to demonstrate feasibility in the laboratory. The proof-of-concept bus, with a powerplant scaled up from the brassboard, will be demonstrated under Phase II.

  1. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Annual report, January 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Wimmer, R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the progress in the Georgetown University research, development and demonstration project of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. The topics addressed in the report include demonstrations, vehicle design and application analysis, technology transfer activities, coordination and monitoring of system design and integration contractor, fuel cell bus test program, current problems, work planned, and manpower, cost and schedule reports.

  2. Thermal test results of the two-phase thermal bus technology demonstration loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred; Liandris, Maria; Rankin, J. Gary

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase heat transport system, the Thermal Bus Technology Demonstrator, has been built and tested for NASA Johnson Space Center for application on Space Station. The loop is a separated two-phase system that uses evaporator flow control valves and liquid condenser flooding to achieve temperature control. Both ambient and thermal vacuum tests have been completed in NASA's Chamber A, initially using Freon-11 and then ammonia as the working fluid. Overall, the tests were quite successful, with the bus achieving all major test objectives, including operation at 19.5 kW and set points at 35 F (1.7 C), 70 F (21.1 C) and 104 F (40.0 C), load sharing, asymmetrical heating and isothermality around the loop. Low plate to vapor temperature drops were obtained for the monogroove cold plate using ammonia and are indicative of the high evaporative film coefficients obtainable with this design.

  3. Thermal test results of the two-phase thermal bus technology demonstration loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Fred; Liandris, Maria; Rankin, J. Gary

    1987-01-01

    A two-phase heat transport system, the Thermal Bus Technology Demonstrator, has been built and tested for NASA Johnson Space Center for application on Space Station. The loop is a separated two-phase system that uses evaporator flow control valves and liquid condenser flooding to achieve temperature control. Both ambient and thermal vacuum tests have been completed in NASA's Chamber A, initially using Freon-11 and then ammonia as the working fluid. Overall, the tests were quite successful, with the bus achieving all major test objectives, including operation at 19.5 kW and set points at 35 F (1.7 C), 70 F (21.1 C) and 104 F (40.0 C), load sharing, asymmetrical heating and isothermality around the loop. Low plate to vapor temperature drops were obtained for the monogroove cold plate using ammonia and are indicative of the high evaporative film coefficients obtainable with this design.

  4. 36 CFR § 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? § 1280.14 Section § 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  5. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  6. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  7. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  8. 36 CFR 1280.14 - May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false May I use the shuttle bus to travel to the National Archives at College Park or to the National Archives Building in Washington, DC? 1280.14 Section 1280.14 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS...

  9. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging.

    PubMed

    Tell, R A; Kavet, Robert; Bailey, J R; Halliwell, John

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public.

  10. Wind Lidar Edge Technique Shuttle Demonstration Mission: Anemos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leete, Stephen J.; Bundas, David J.; Martino, Anthony J.; Carnahan, Timothy M.; Zukowski, Barbara J.

    1998-01-01

    A NASA mission is planned to demonstrate the technology for a wind lidar. This will implement the direct detection edge technique. The Anemos instrument will fly on the Space Transportation System (STS), or shuttle, aboard a Hitchhiker bridge. The instrument is being managed by the Goddard Space Flight Center as an in-house build, with science leadership from the GSFC Laboratory for Atmospheres, Mesoscale Atmospheric Processes Branch. During a roughly ten-day mission, the instrument will self calibrate and adjust for launch induced mis-alignments, and perform a campaign of measurements of tropospheric winds. The mission is planned for early 2001. The instrument is being developed under the auspices of NASA's New Millennium Program, in parallel with a comparable mission being managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center. That mission, called SPARCLE, will implement the coherent technique. NASA plans to fly the two missions together on the same shuttle flight, to allow synergy of wind measurements and a direct comparison of performance.

  11. Gas turbine engines and transmissions for bus demonstration programs. Technical status report, 31 January 1980-30 April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Nigro, D.N.

    1980-05-01

    Activities related to the procurement and delivery of 11 gas turbine engines, 11 automatic transmissions, and software items such as cost reports, drawings and parts lists for the bus demonstration program are reported. (LCL)

  12. SunLine Leads the Way in Demonstrating Hydrogen-Fueled Bus Technologies (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-01-01

    This brochure describes SunLine Transit Agency's newest advanced technology fuel cell electric bus. SunLine is collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus in revenue service. This bus represents the sixth generation of hydrogen-fueled buses that the agency has operated since 2000.

  13. Support and power plant documentation for the gas turbine powered bus demonstration program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nigro, D. N.; Stewart, R. G.; Apple, S. A.

    1982-01-01

    The operational experience obtained for the GT404-4 gas turbine engines in the intercity and intracity Bus Demonstration Programs is described for the period January 1980 through September 1981. Support for the engines and automatic transmissions involved in this program provided engineering and field service, spare parts and tools, training, and factory overhauls. the Greyhound (intercity) coaches accumulated 183,054 mi (294,595 km) and 5154 hr of total operation. The Baltimore Transit (intracity) coaches accumulated 40,567 mi (65,285 km) and 1840 hr of total operation. In service, the turbine powered Greyhound and Transit coaches achieved approximately 25% and 40% lower fuel mileage, respectively, than did the production diesel powered coaches. The gas turbine engine will require the advanced ceramic development currently being sponsored by the DOE and NASA to achieve fuel economy equivalent not only to that of today's diesel engines but also to the projected fuel economy of the advanced diesel engines of the 1990s. Sufficient experience was not achieved with the coaches prior to the start of service to identify and eliminate many of the problems associated with the startup of new equipment. Because of these problems, the mean miles between incident were unacceptably low. The future gas turbine system should be developed sufficiently to establish satisfactory durability prior to evaluation in revenue service. Commercialization of the gas turbine bus engine remains a viable goal for the future.

  14. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1993-02-01

    During 1992, the design of the three test bed buses evolved. Georgetown participated in all the working meetings and the preliminary design review of the Test Bed Bus (TBB). Throughout the Year, Georgetown provided input on system design and integration issues, transit industry requirements, and bus performance. GU also attended technical seminars, presenting papers at two. The computer simulation 'HYBRID', developed by Georgetown, was used to assess performance of different bus designs and system control algorithms. GU also modified the simulation to be more flexible and allow easier evaluation of designs. Georgetown had Exhibitgroup design and construct, to our specifications, a fuel cell bus display with a 1/10 scale model of the TBB for use at trade shows and exhibits. Energy Partners of West Palm Beach, Florida completed their subcontract for the engineering design study of a hydrogen fueled, fuel-cell-powered multi-passenger vehicle. Georgetown performed a study to determine the size of the US bus fleet and expected new bus deliveries over the next 10 years. Trojan Battery Company of Santa Fe Springs, California conducted a study to determine the specific design characteristics required of a lead acid battery to meet the special requirements posed by hybrid vehicle operation. Finally, GU assisted the prime contractor with the design of the system controller and its control algorithms.

  15. NREL's Hydrogen-Powered Bus Serves as Showcase for Advanced Vehicle Technologies (AVT) (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Brochure describes the hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) shuttle bus at NREL. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is funding the lease of the bus from Ford to demonstrate market-ready advanced technology vehicles to visitors at NREL.

  16. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  17. Fuss on the Bus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Katherine L.

    1995-01-01

    Approaches to maintaining order and discipline in school transportation include revoking or suspending a student's bus-riding privileges, using radios and video cameras, and using bus monitors. School leaders must demonstrate support for their school-bus drivers. A sidebar lists 17 suggested rules for student behavior to ensure safe…

  18. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: Second Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2012-07-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 new fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. The first results report was published in August 2011, describing operation of these new FCEBs from September 2010 through May 2011. New results in this report provide an update through April 2012.

  19. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Third Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of 12 fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. The 12 FCEBs operate as a part of the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, which also includes two new hydrogen fueling stations. This effort is the largest FCEB demonstration in the United States and involves five participating transit agencies. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published two previous reports, in August 2011 and July 2012, describing operation of these buses. New results in this report provide an update covering eight months through October 2013.

  20. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results. Fourth Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-07-02

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 12 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The FCEBs in service at AC Transit are 40-foot, low-floor buses built by Van Hool with a hybrid electric propulsion system that includes a US Hybrid fuel cell power system and EnerDel lithium-based energy storage system. The buses began revenue service in May 2010.

  1. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration Results: Fifth Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew; Jeffers, Matthew

    2016-06-01

    This report presents results of a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses (FCEB) operating in Oakland, California. Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) leads the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) demonstration, which includes 13 advanced-design fuel cell buses and two hydrogen fueling stations. The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL has published four previous reports describing operation of these buses. This report presents new and updated results covering data from January 2015 through December 2015.

  2. Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Fuel Cell Bus Demonstration: First Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the early implementation experience for the Zero Emission Bay Area (ZEBA) Demonstration, the largest fleet of fuel cell buses in the United States. The ZEBA Demonstration group includes five participating transit agencies: AC Transit (lead transit agency), Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (VTA), Golden Gate Transit (GGT), San Mateo County Transit District (SamTrans), and San Francisco Municipal Railway (Muni). The ZEBA partners are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate the buses in revenue service.

  3. Third interim report on status of gas turbine transit bus demonstration program

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-15

    Progress in a program for demonstrating the use of gas turbines in city buses is reported. Five prototype gas turbine engines, Model GT-40404, manufactured by the Detroit Diesel Allison Division of General Motors Corporation, are being integrated into five RTS-II model transit coaches, manufactured by General Motors Corporation and supplied by the Mass Transit Administration (MTA) of Baltimore, Maryland. They will be acceptance tested at the Transportation Research Center proving grounds in Ohio, where one gas turbine coach will also be performance and mileage tested against a diesel RTS-II coach. The first diesel-to-turbine engine conversion is done. The second conversion is almost completed. The demonstration plan for the 5 gas turbine coaches has been finalized. (LCL)

  4. Research development and demonstration of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. Interim report, August 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, S.; Wimmer, R.

    1992-04-30

    This report describes the progress in the Georgetown University research, development and demonstration project of a fuel cell/battery powered bus system. The topics addressed in the report include vehicle design and application analysis, technology transfer activities, coordination and monitoring of system design and integration contractor, application of fuel cells to other vehicles, current problems, work planned, and manpower, cost and schedule reports.

  5. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures, Volume 2: Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure (LSS) technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. It is concluded that an LSS flight demonstration using an Automated Beam Builder and the orbiter as a construction base, could be performed in the 1983-1984 time period. The estimated cost is $24 million exclusive of shuttle launch costs. During the mission, a simple space platform could be constructed in-orbit to accommodate user requirements associated with earth viewing and materials exposure experiments needs.

  6. Hydrogen powered bus

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  7. Hydrogen powered bus

    SciTech Connect

    2011-04-07

    Take a ride on a new type of bus, fueled by hydrogen. These hydrogen taxis are part of a Department of Energy-funded deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles and fueling infrastructure at nine federal facilities across the country to demonstrate this market-ready advanced technology. Produced and leased by Ford Motor Company , they consist of one 12- passenger bus and one nine-passenger bus. More information at: http://go.usa.gov/Tgr

  8. Flight Test Results from the Low Power Transceiver Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rush, John; Israel, David; Harlacher, Marc; Haas, Lin

    2003-01-01

    The Low Power Transceiver (LPT) is an advanced signal processing platform that offers a configurable and reprogrammable capability for supporting communications, navigation and sensor functions for mission applications ranging from spacecraft TT&C and autonomous orbit determination to sophisticated networks that use crosslinks to support communications and real-time relative navigation for formation flying. The LPT is the result of extensive collaborative research under NASNGSFC s Advanced Technology Program and ITT Industries internal research and development efforts. Its modular, multi-channel design currently enables transmitting and receiving communication signals on L- or S-band frequencies and processing GPS L-band signals for precision navigation. The LPT flew as a part of the GSFC Hitchhiker payload named Fast Reaction Experiments Enabling Science Technology And Research (FREESTAR) on-board Space Shuttle Columbia s final mission. The experiment demonstrated functionality in GPS-based navigation and orbit determination, NASA STDN Ground Network communications, space relay communications via the NASA TDRSS, on-orbit reconfiguration of the software radio, the use of the Internet Protocol (IP) for TT&C, and communication concepts for space based range safety. All data from the experiment was recovered and, as a result, all primary and secondary objectives of the experiment were successful. This paper presents the results of the LPTs maiden space flight as a part of STS- 107.

  9. TMS communications software. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregor, P. J.

    1979-01-01

    A data bus communication system to support the space shuttle's Trend Monitoring System (TMS) and to provide a basis for evaluation of the bus concept is described. Installation of the system included developing both hardware and software interfaces between the bus and the specific TMS computers and terminals. The software written for the microprocessor-based bus interface units is described. The software implements both the general bus communications protocol and also the specific interface protocols for the TMS computers and terminals.

  10. Development of COTS-based Pico-Satellite Bus and Its Application to Quick and Low Cost On-orbit Demonstration of Novel Space Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funase, Ryu; Nakamura, Yuya; Nagai, Masaki; Enokuchi, Akito; Komatsu, Mitsuhito; Nakasuka, Shinichi; Kawakita, Shirou

    Small satellites, especially pico or nano-class satellites, which can be developed in a very short period and at very low cost, are considered to provide good opportunities for technology demonstration in a space environment. Based on the success of the first pico-satellite XI-IV, which was intended to establish the basic technologies required for this class of satellites, Intelligent Space Systems Laboratory (ISSL) at the University of Tokyo developed its second pico-satellite XI-V with the mission to demonstrate new space technologies such as the verification of copper indium gallium di-selenide (CIGS) thin-film solar cells in space. The pico-satellite bus verified by XI-IV was used for this mission, so that the satellite was completed within as short a development period as one year. XI-V was launched on October 2005 and has been successfully conducting its missions. In this paper, following the introduction of the pico-satellite bus system and its demonstrated results on XI-IV, the details of the missions and on-orbit experimental results of XI-V are described.

  11. Savannah River bus project

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, W.A.

    1998-08-01

    The H2Fuel Bus is the world`s first hybrid hydrogen electric transit bus. It was developed through a public/private partnership involving several leading technology and industrial organizations in the Southeast, with primary funding and program management provided by the Department of Energy. The primary goals of the project are to gain valuable information on the technical readiness and economic viability of hydrogen buses and to enhance the public awareness and acceptance of emerging hydrogen technologies. The bus has been operated by the transit agency in Augusta, Georgia since April, 1997. It employs a hybrid IC engine/battery/electric drive system, with onboard hydrogen fuel storage based on the use of metal hydrides. Initial operating results have demonstrated an overall energy efficiency (miles per Btu) of twice that of a similar diesel-fueled bus and an operating range twice that of an all-battery powered electric bus. Tailpipe emissions are negligible, with NOx less than 0.2 ppm. Permitting, liability and insurance issues were addressed on the basis of extensive risk assessment and safety analyses, with the inherent safety characteristic of metal hydride storage playing a major role in minimizing these concerns. Future plans for the bus include continued transit operation and use as a national testbed, with potential modifications to demonstrate other hydrogen technologies, including fuel cells.

  12. Systems definition study for shuttle demonstration flights of large space structures. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The development of large space structure technology is discussed, with emphasis on space fabricated structures which are automatically manufactured in space from sheet-strip materials and assembled on-orbit. Definition of a flight demonstration involving an Automated Beam Builder and the building and assembling of large structures is presented.

  13. Shuttle flight experiment preliminary proposal: Demonstration of welding applications in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brewer, William V.

    1992-01-01

    In June 1991 work was initiated at MSFC on an end-effector for 'Robotic Assembly of Welded Truss Structures in Space'. The case for welded joint assembly on orbit was discussed in the 1991 SFFP Final Report 'D'. Data drawn from Aerobrake studies (supported by the ISAAC program) allowed the more detailed investigations that accompany a design with relatively concrete goals. This principle guides current efforts to develop scenarios that further demonstrate the utility of welding for space construction and/or repair.

  14. Navigation Flight Test Results from the Low Power Transceiver Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Lin; Massey, Christopher; Baraban, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation results from the Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment flown on STS-107. This experiment was the initial flight of a Low Power Transceiver (LPT) that featured high capacity space- space and space-ground communications and GPS- based navigation capabilities. The LPT also hosted the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) orbit determination software. All CANDOS test data were recovered during the mission using LPT communications links via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). An overview of the LPT s navigation software and the GPS experiment timeline is presented, along with comparisons of test results to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) real-time ground navigation vectors and Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET).

  15. Navigation Flight Test Results from the Low Power Transceiver Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Lin; Massey, Christopher; Baraban, Dmitri

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation results from the Communications and Navigation Demonstration on Shuttle (CANDOS) experiment flown on STS-107. This experiment was the initial flight of a Low Power Transceiver (LPT) that featured high capacity space- space and space-ground communications and GPS- based navigation capabilities. The LPT also hosted the GPS Enhanced Orbit Determination Experiment (GEODE) orbit determination software. All CANDOS test data were recovered during the mission using LPT communications links via the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS). An overview of the LPT s navigation software and the GPS experiment timeline is presented, along with comparisons of test results to the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) real-time ground navigation vectors and Best Estimate of Trajectory (BET).

  16. Monopropellant engine investigation for space shuttle reaction control. Volume 2: Design, fabrication, and demonstration test of a catalytic gas generator for the space shuttle APU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The capability of a catalytic gas generator to meet the requirement specified for the space shuttle APU is established. A full-scale gas generator, designed to operate at a chamber pressure of 750 psia and a flow rate of 0.36 lbm/sec, was fabricated and subjected to three separate life test series. The nickel foam metal used for catalyst retention was investigated. Inspection of the foam metal following the first life test revealed significant degradation. Consequently an investigation was conducted to determine the mechanism of degradation and to provide an improved foam metal.

  17. Bus Training Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorny, Audrea; Cole, ChiKay

    This manual presents guidelines for teaching students with disabilities necessary skills for safe and independent travel on public buses. Six guidelines for teachers include: (1) participate in bus training; (2) use wise and intelligent judgment; (3) utilize the bus checklist; (4) know and teach bus rules; (5) know bus routes; and (6) know bus…

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- United Space Alliance (USA) technicians demonstrate the construction of a thermal blanket used in the Shuttle's thermal protection system for USA Vice President and Space Shuttle Program Manager Howard DeCastro (second from left) and NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Station and Shuttle Programs Michael Kostelnik (right). NASA and USA Space Shuttle program management are participating in a leadership workday. The day is intended to provide management with an in-depth, hands-on look at Shuttle processing activities at KSC.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-12-19

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- United Space Alliance (USA) technicians demonstrate the construction of a thermal blanket used in the Shuttle's thermal protection system for USA Vice President and Space Shuttle Program Manager Howard DeCastro (second from left) and NASA Deputy Associate Administrator for Space Station and Shuttle Programs Michael Kostelnik (right). NASA and USA Space Shuttle program management are participating in a leadership workday. The day is intended to provide management with an in-depth, hands-on look at Shuttle processing activities at KSC.

  19. 76 FR 37184 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program AGENCY: Federal Transit Administration (FTA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of availability of FTA state of good repair bus and bus facilities...) announces the availability of discretionary Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities grant funds in support of...

  20. The Bus Stops Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milshtein, Amy

    1999-01-01

    Explores some of the factors to consider before school planners decide to buy new school buses. Provides a checklist to help build and maintain a bus fleet. Concludes by addressing bus safety and advertising. (GR)

  1. Development and Implementation of a Bus Driver Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchovecky, John G.

    A bus driver training program was developed and implemented in a rural school district in an effort to improve the driving skills of the bus drivers. The program was tailored to meet the needs of the bus drivers and utilized various community agencies for demonstration and teaching purposes. The subject areas included in the program were driver…

  2. Euro Data Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, H.E.; Hall, J.R. II; Schrock, C.B.

    1995-12-31

    With the disintegration of the Soviet Union and the opening of the Iron Curtain, a downsizing of the Defense Establishment in the West is occurring, causing industry to look for opportunities where technology used for military applications can be applied to meet former East Block countries. Among these requirements has been the urgent desire of the people in former East Block countries for access to Western media which had been denied them, and has led to numerous opportunities for the implementation of Cable Television (CATV) systems. In addition, there are also requirements for utility metering for electricity, gas, water, heat, etc. which had previously been provided to the population by the Government at little or no cost. EWT of Augsburg, Germany, previously a subcontractor to ASEC on military security system projects, who has a subsidiary, TSS, which is a prominent CATV systems house, requested ASEC to provide a system which can provide utility meter reading and other control and monitoring services utilizing CATV. Working with CableBus Systems Corporation, a CATV data communications supplier and various utility meter manufacturers, ASEC, as the System Integrator, has developed a utilities monitoring system. This system. in cooperation with EWT, is being marketed and sold in Europe as EURO DATA BUS. This paper describes EURO DATA BUS and its applications, as well as the actual system designs for two pilot applications. One system is oriented at Utility Meter Reading and Demand side Management primarily, but will also be used to demonstrate other system capabilities such as security and fire alarm monitoring, etc. The design is therefore quite straightforward and {open_quotes}standard{close_quotes}. The second system has more of an industrial orientation and involves the monitoring and load control for a Municipal Electric Utility. While well within the capabilities of the system to accomplish, a more customized design was required to meet these requirements.

  3. Fuel Cell Bus Takes a Starring Role in the BurbankBus Fleet (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-05-01

    This fact sheet reports on the City of Burbank, California's fuel cell bus demonstration project and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) involvement. Included are specifications for the fuel cell bus and information about its operation. BurbankBus, the city's mass transit entity, received a grant from the California Air Resources Board to fund its zero-emission bus demonstration and is collaborating with DOE's Fuel Cell Technologies Program to evaluate the bus performance. DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory will collect and analyze performance and operations data for at least one year. Researchers will use the data to better understand the technology and determine future development work. In addition, demonstration information will help fleets make informed purchase decisions.

  4. Transformation of Mycoplasma pulmonis: demonstration of homologous recombination, introduction of cloned genes, and preliminary description of an integrating shuttle system.

    PubMed Central

    Mahairas, G G; Minion, F C

    1989-01-01

    The transposons Tn916 and Tn4001 and a series of integrating plasmids derived from their antibiotic resistance genes were used to examine polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation of Mycoplasma pulmonis. Under optimal conditions, Tn916 and Tn4001 could be introduced into M. pulmonis at frequencies of 1 x 10(-6) and 5 x 10(-5) per CFU, respectively. Integrating plasmids were constructed with the cloned antibiotic resistance determinants of Tn916 and Tn4001, a pMB1-derived plasmid replicon, and mycoplasmal chromosomal DNA and were used to examine recombinational events after transformation into M. pulmonis. Under optimal conditions, chromosomal integrations could be recovered at a frequency of 1 x 10(-4) to 1 x 10(-6) per CFU, depending on the size and nature of the chromosomal insert and the parental plasmid. Integrated plasmids were stable in the absence of selection and could be rescued in Escherichia coli along with adjacent mycoplasma DNA. These studies provide the first direct evidence of a recombination system in the Mollicutes and describe the first E. coli-M. pulmonis shuttle vectors. Images PMID:2539351

  5. Pybus -- A Python Software Bus

    SciTech Connect

    Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.

    2004-10-14

    A software bus, just like its hardware equivalent, allows for the discovery, installation, configuration, loading, unloading, and run-time replacement of software components, as well as channeling of inter-component communication. Python, a popular open-source programming language, encourages a modular design on software written in it, but it offers little or no component functionality. However, the language and its interpreter provide sufficient hooks to implement a thin, integral layer of component support. This functionality can be presented to the developer in the form of a module, making it very easy to use. This paper describes a Pythonmodule, PyBus, with which the concept of a ''software bus'' can be realized in Python. It demonstrates, within the context of the ATLAS software framework Athena, how PyBus can be used for the installation and (run-time) configuration of software, not necessarily Python modules, from a Python application in a way that is transparent to the end-user.

  6. School Bus Safety Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This publication provides a summary and update of school bus-safety activities conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). This report discusses Congressional mandates and NHTSA's actions to improve school-bus safety (which include programs that affect human behavior and motor-vehicle safety performance), the magnitude…

  7. Integrated sensor bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutka, M. J.

    1994-03-01

    In this thesis an integrated sensor bus interface is presented. The proposed bus offers a number of interface procedures to enhance the system flexibility. It enables a 13-bit data exchange per message frame, automatic addressing, device clearing and resetting, and handling of service-request and polling procedures. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the existing data transmission technologies. It presents the most popular digital buses along with their application fields. Also other research activities on sensor buses are described. Chapter 2 deals with the requirements which have to be imposed on the desired sensor bus. It shows both communication and compatibility requirements. Chapter 3 introduces the proposed sensor bus. It presents the interface structure together with implemented bus procedures. The detailed description of the proposed sensor bus protocol is given in Chapter 4. It is divided into two parts; a logical layer description (i.e., sensor bus protocol) and a physical layer description (i.e., transmission medium and electrical characteristics). Chapter 5 deals with the compatibility issue. It investigates differences between typical processes used for sensors and digital circuits. Chapter 6 shows the design of a sensor bus interface prototype. In Chapter 7 the performance of the fabricated interface is discussed.

  8. Shuttle avionics system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardiner, R. A.; Bradford, W. C.

    1975-01-01

    The avionics system of the Space Shuttle is designed in a fail operational/fail safe architecture. The guidance, navigation and control system is implemented, through the onboard Orbiter digital computers. Guidance, navigation and control sensors are triplex, while the flight control effectors are mechanized either in load sharing or quad structure. Two sets of basic flight instruments and controls are provided along with electronic interfaces to allow for multiple selection of input destination and display source selection. Communications, tracking and instrumentation subsystems are mechanized as a dual hardware design for key operational elements. The data processing system allows for quad, triplex, dual or single computer operation. The power distribution subsystem provides a triple bus system with appropriate tie elements. A functional description is given of the computer system, the data bus, the mass memory unit, the multiplexer/demultiplexer and the CRT display system.

  9. PinBus Interface Design

    SciTech Connect

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Adgerson, Jewel D.; Sastry, Chellury; Pratt, Richard M.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2009-12-30

    On behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy, PNNL has explored and expanded upon a simple control interface that might have merit for the inexpensive communication of smart grid operational objectives (demand response, for example) to small electric end-use devices and appliances. The approach relies on bi-directional communication via the electrical voltage states of from one to eight shared interconnection pins. The name PinBus has been suggested and adopted for the proposed interface protocol. The protocol is defined through the presentation of state diagrams and the pins’ functional definitions. Both simulations and laboratory demonstrations are being conducted to demonstrate the elegance and power of the suggested approach. PinBus supports a very high degree of interoperability across its interfaces, allowing innumerable pairings of devices and communication protocols and supporting the practice of practically any smart grid use case.

  10. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR-15 polyimide structural elements. [space shuttle aft body flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The processing requirements for graphite/PMR-15 polyimide composites developed to demonstrate the structural integrity of polyimide composite structural elements at temperatures up to 589K (600 F) are described. Major tasks included: quality assurance development; materials and process development; specification verification; flat panel fabrication; stiffened panel fabrication; honeycomb panel fabrication; chopped fiber moldings; and demonstration component fabrication. Materials, processing, and quality assurance documents were prepared from experimentally derived data. Structural elements consisting of flat panels, corrugated stiffeners, I-beams, hat stiffeners, honeycomb panels, and chopped fiber moldings were made and tested. Property data from 219K (-65 F) to 589K (600 F) were obtained. All elements were made in a production environment. The size of each element was sufficient to insure production capability and structural component applicability. Problems associated with adhesive bonding, laminate and structural element analysis, material variability, and test methods were addressed.

  11. Development and demonstration of manufacturing processes for fabricating graphite/PMR-15 polyimide structural elements. [space shuttle aft body flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheppard, C. H.; Hoggatt, J. T.; Symonds, W. A.

    1979-01-01

    The processing requirements for graphite/PMR-15 polyimide composites developed to demonstrate the structural integrity of polyimide composite structural elements at temperatures up to 589K (600 F) are described. Major tasks included: quality assurance development; materials and process development; specification verification; flat panel fabrication; stiffened panel fabrication; honeycomb panel fabrication; chopped fiber moldings; and demonstration component fabrication. Materials, processing, and quality assurance documents were prepared from experimentally derived data. Structural elements consisting of flat panels, corrugated stiffeners, I-beams, hat stiffeners, honeycomb panels, and chopped fiber moldings were made and tested. Property data from 219K (-65 F) to 589K (600 F) were obtained. All elements were made in a production environment. The size of each element was sufficient to insure production capability and structural component applicability. Problems associated with adhesive bonding, laminate and structural element analysis, material variability, and test methods were addressed.

  12. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  13. On-Orbit Demonstration Of Thin-Film Multi-Junction Solar Cells And Lithium-Ion Capacitors As Bus Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukita, Akio; Takahashi, Masato; Shimazaki, Kazunori; Toyota, Hiroyuki; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; Kobayashi, Yuki; Takamoto, Tatsuya; Uno, Masatoshi; Shimada, Takanobu

    2011-10-01

    This paper describes an on-orbit demonstration plan for a lightweight solar panel using thin-film multi-junction (MJ) solar cells and aluminum-laminated lithium-ion capacitors (LICs). Thin-film MJ solar cells such as inverted metamorphic InGaP/GaAs/InGaAs 3J cells have flexibility as well as conversion efficiencies superior to conventional rigid 3J solar cells. A substantial reduction of satellite mass is achieved by the combination of thin-film MJ solar cells and light flexible paddles. An LIC is a hybrid-type capacitor that uses activated carbon as the cathode and carbon material pre-doped with lithium ion as the anode. LICs can be rapidly charged and discharged, and can operate in a wide temperature range for long periods. LICs are therefore suitable for long-term missions such as planetary explorations. Although these devices are very promising, so far there has been no opportunity to demonstrate their use in orbit. A lightweight thin solar panel with thin-film MJ solar cells will be installed on the Small Scientific Satellite Platform for Rapid Investigation and Test-A (SPRINT-A) satellite, which will be launched on the Epsilon launch vehicle in 2013. Utilizing the capacitor-like voltage behavior of LICs, we will employ a simple constant-power charging circuit without feedback control.

  14. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  15. School Bus Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2001-01-01

    Explains why fewer school students are injured are killed while being transported in school buses than any other mode of transportation. Political and community action in school bus transportation safety is addressed. (GR)

  16. SCSI Communication Test Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Chanh V.; D'Ambrose, John J.; Jaworski, Richard C.; Halula, Elaine M.; Thornton, David N.; Heligman, Robert L.; Turner, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) communication test bus provides high-data-rate, standard interconnection enabling communication among International Business Machines (IBM) Personal System/2 Micro Channel, other devices connected to Micro Channel, test equipment, and host computer. Serves primarily as nonintrusive input/output attachment to PS/2 Micro Channel bus, providing rapid communication for debugger. Opens up possibility of using debugger in real-time applications.

  17. Bus.py

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Timothy; Palmintier, Bryan; Hale, Elaine; Jones, Wesley

    2014-07-21

    GridLAB-D is an agent? based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. GridLAB-D addresses the lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator.

  18. Communication design for multi-boards based on VME bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Song, Fazhi; Wei, Kai; Fu, Zhenxian

    2015-02-01

    As a widely used open-architecture computer bus ,VME bus is increasingly applied in military, aerospace, transportation and other large-scale control systems. Lithography, a very delicate and complicated integrated circuit manufacturing equipment, uses many circuit boards with VME interface in its control system, including one single-board computer, many movement control boards and one data acquisition board. This paper designs communication modules which include VME bus module and VME user-defined bus module for multi-boards in Lithography control system. VME bus module is designed for the communication between the single-board computer and movement control boards and VME user-defined bus is designed for the communication between movement control boards and data acquisition board. The experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.

  19. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Prohaska, Robert; Kelly, Kenneth; Post, Matthew

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  20. Electric-bus life-cycle cost study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    A detailed study of the Santa Barbara Metropolitan Transit District (MTD) electric-bus program was conducted and resulted in a comprehensive set of cost data. These costs are compared with the life cycle costs of diesel buses. Direct comparisons of the life cycle costs of battery-electric buses and of diesel-fueled buses were not found to be meaningful without considering the environmental costs and benefits associated with both vehicle types; some of these factors are discussed in the study. The duty cycles most appropriate to the two bus types are not generally comparable. Electric shuttle-bus life cycle costs with flooded-cell lead-acid battery are 108% of the costs attributable to a diesel shuttle. Costs with the maintenance-free lead-acid and flooded-cell nickel-cadmium batteries are 113% and 117% relative to diesel, respectively. The monetary value attributed to emissions avoided by the use of electric buses depends on the local air quality situation. Labor costs are the major component of electric-bus life cycle costs, incremental advances in the enabling technologies will bring electric-bus costs close to those of diesel-fueled buses. Advances in battery technology will widen the range of duty cycles appropriate to electric buses.

  1. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  2. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  3. Multipurpose satellite bus (MPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School Advanced Design Project sponsored by the Universities Space Research Association Advanced Design Program is a multipurpose satellite bus (MPS). The design was initiated from a Statement of Work (SOW) developed by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). The SOW called for a 'proposal to design a small, low-cost, lightweight, general purpose spacecraft bus capable of accommodating any of a variety of mission payloads. Typical payloads envisioned include those associated with meteorological, communication, surveillance and tracking, target location, and navigation mission areas.' The design project investigates two dissimilar missions, a meteorological payload and a communications payload, mated with a single spacecraft bus with minimal modifications. The MPS is designed for launch aboard the Pegasus Air Launched Vehicle (ALV) or the Taurus Standard Small Launch Vehicle (SSLV).

  4. 77 FR 48592 - Bus and Bus Facilities Discretionary Program Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Livability (BLIV) initiatives funded under the Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities program, which is... used consistent with the competitive proposal and for the eligible purposes defined under 49 U.S.C... under 49 U.S.C. 5309(b)(3). In selecting projects for funding using Bus Program funds, FTA ensured...

  5. Connecticut Transit (CTTRANSIT) Fuel Cell Transit Bus: Preliminary Evaluation Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Eudy, L.

    2008-10-01

    This report provides preliminary results from a National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluation of a protoptye fuel cell transit bus operating at Connecticut Transit in Hartford. Included are descriptions of the planned fuel cell bus demonstration and equipment; early results and agency experience are also provided.

  6. Personal Computer Monitors Instrumentation Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Bruce L.

    1994-01-01

    IBM-compatible personal computer used instead of logic analyzer or other special instrument to monitor IEEE-488 interface data bus that interconnects various pieces of laboratory equipment. Needed is short program for computer, commercial general-purpose interface bus circuit card, and adapter cable to link card to bus. Software available in Ada or Quick Basic language.

  7. Bus-Programmable Slave Card

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, William A.

    1990-01-01

    Slave microprocessors in multimicroprocessor computing system contains modified circuit cards programmed via bus connecting master processor with slave microprocessors. Enables interactive, microprocessor-based, single-loop control. Confers ability to load and run program from master/slave bus, without need for microprocessor development station. Tristate buffers latch all data and information on status. Slave central processing unit never connected directly to bus.

  8. Augmented thermal bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurity of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pump to maintain isothermality in the source.

  9. Augmented Thermal Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrage, Dean S. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an augmented thermal bus. In the present design a plurality of thermo-electric heat pumps are used to couple a source plate to a sink plate. Each heat pump is individually controlled by a model based controller. The controller coordinates the heat pumps to maintain isothermality in the source.

  10. SCHOOL BUS GARAGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PALLIDINO, STEVE; STRIPLING, CHARLES W.

    COUNTY BOARDS, COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS, SCHOOL PERSONNEL, AND ARCHITECTS PLANNING BUS GARAGE FACILITIES WILL FIND THIS PUBLICATION USEFUL. DECISIONS NEED TO BE MADE IN REGARD TO WHO WILL USE THE GARAGE, WHAT PURPOSE IT SHOULD SERVE, AND WHAT KIND OF SPACES ARE NEEDED. SITE SELECTION FACTORS TO BE CONSIDERED ARE LOCATION, PARKING SPACE, MANEUVERING…

  11. Mechanical and embedded systems design for Generic Nanosatellite Bus spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Scott Edward

    The adaptation of the University of Toronto Space Flight Laboratory Generic Nanosatellite Bus (GNB) mechanical design to Earth-observation and communications applications is investigated. The ability of this bus to expand the capabilities of low-cost nanosatellites by accommodating large pre-deployed payload appendages, such as antennas, is demonstrated. In addition, the operational architecture of a cold-gas nanosatellite propulsion system, enabling small satellite constellations and formation flying, is described. Component testing of this system has validated compliance with subsystem requirements. Lastly, the design and development of a multi-mission embedded systems generic firmware is described. This firmware consolidates common and critical software functionality, greatly reducing both the risk and cost of developing software for new embedded systems. The firmware has been designed for a distributed-node microcontroller bus architecture in general, and the Nanosatellite for Earth Monitoring and Observation (NEMO) bus and Generic Nanosatellite Bus in particular.

  12. Bus annunciator system

    SciTech Connect

    Carver, D.W.; Duncan, M.G.

    1981-06-09

    As a means of saving energy while minimizing the need for passenger cars, vans, and trucks in the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, buses are provided which operate along approximately 6 miles of in-plant roads. A bus annunciator system was developed, fabricated, and installed which reduces the waiting time to near zero. The system consists of three separate devices: (1) an ultrasonic transmitter attached to the side of the bus, (2) a solar-powered ultrasonic receiver and radio-frequency transmitter at roadside, and (3) a receiver-annuciator interfaced with building public address systems. The prototype has been tested in only two areas of the Y-12 Plant, but a coded transmitter and receiver make it possible to cover the entire plant. In full operation, approximately 12 roadside units would be employed to give an average of about 2 to 3 min advance notice to personnel in buildings and offices along the two bus routes inside the Y-12 Plant.

  13. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  14. MSFC shuttle lightning research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The shuttle mesoscale lightning experiment (MLE), flown on earlier shuttle flights, and most recently flown on the following space transportation systems (STS's), STS-31, -32, -35, -37, -38, -40, -41, and -48, has continued to focus on obtaining additional quantitative measurements of lightning characteristics and to create a data base for use in demonstrating observation simulations for future spaceborne lightning mapping systems. These flights are also providing design criteria data for the design of a proposed shuttle MLE-type lightning research instrument called mesoscale lightning observational sensors (MELOS), which are currently under development here at MSFC.

  15. 76 FR 37393 - FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Federal Transit Administration FY 2011 Discretionary Livability Funding Opportunity; Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Livability Initiative Program Grants and Section 5339 Alternatives Analysis Program... in support of the Department of Transportation's (DOT) Livability Initiative: the Bus and Bus...

  16. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  17. Hydrogen-oxygen driven Zero Emissions bus drives around KSC Visitor Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Zero Emissions (ZE) transit bus tours the KSC Visitor Complex for a test ride. In the background are a mock-up orbiter named Explorer (left) and a stack of solid rocket boosters and external tank (right), typically used on Shuttle launches. Provided by dbb fuel cell engines inc. of Vancouver, Canada, the ZE bus was brought to KSC as part of the Center's Alternative Fuel Initiatives Program. The bus uses a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell in which hydrogen and oxygen, from atmospheric air, react to produce electricity that powers an electric motor drive system. The by-product 'exhaust' from the fuel cell is water vapor, thus zero harmful emissions. A typical diesel-powered bus emits more than a ton of harmful pollutants from its exhaust every year. The ZE bus is being used on tour routes at the KSC Visitor Complex for two days to introduce the public to the concept.

  18. A Student Get-Away-Special Space Shuttle Experiment to Demonstrate Cold-Cathode Field Emitter Technology in Space (FEGI). NANOSAT FY03

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-09

    Shuttle bay-to-Earth attitude; survive 30 min solar excursions and 90 min deep space viewing Usage life ! 4 mission lifetimes for not easily...very non-reactive to most substances, with the exception of oxygen, and since HOPG reacts with atomic oxygen present in the LEO environment by etching ...the faceplate and if so where. Three distinct designs are to be flown on FEGI: triangular faceplate current collectors, circular SVPE door current

  19. BBIS: Beacon Bus Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasim, Shahreen; Hafit, Hanayanti; Pei Juin, Kong; Afizah Afif, Zehan; Hashim, Rathiah; Ruslai, Husni; Jahidin, Kamaruzzaman; Syafwan Arshad, Mohammad

    2016-11-01

    Lack of bus information for example bus timetable, status of the bus and messy advertisement on bulletin board at the bus stop will give negative impact to tourist. Therefore, a real-time update bus information bulletin board provides all information needed so that passengers can save their bus information searching time. Supported with Android or iOS, Beacon Bus Information System (BBIS) provides bus information between Batu Pahat and Kluang area. BBIS is a system that implements physical web technology and interaction on demand. It built on Backend-as-a-Service, a cloud solution and Firebase non relational database as data persistence backend and syncs between user client in the real-time. People walk through bus stop with smart device and do not require any application. Bluetooth Beacon is used to achieve smart device's best performance of data sharing. Intellij IDEA 15 is one of the tools that that used to develop the BBIS system. Multi-language included front end and backend supported Integration development environment (IDE) helped to speed up integration process.

  20. ROBUS - A retrievable orbiting system of Shuttle-optimised platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pailer, N.

    ROBUS, a retrievable orbiting bus, is a new optimized platform offered by the Federal Republic of Germany with applications in astronomy, earth observations, material sciences, and life sciences. The retrievable multipurpose platform is designed in three versions: ROBUS-1, which has no solar array and has a payload capability of 1800 kg, is designed for short-term demonstration missions. ROBUS-2, which has a payload capability of 2200 kg, is designed for long term astronomical missions. ROBUS-3 is equipped with an orbital transfer system which makes the platform independent of the actual Shuttle orbit. The platform can accommodate three medium-size telescopes: the 1-m EUV telescope, GIRL (German Infrared Laboratory) and SPEXTEL (a telescope for X-ray spectroscopy). In order to meet all demonstration requirements of the Rendezvous and Docking technique and for additional payload accommodation, the ROBUS concept allows a configuration combination of ROBUS-1 and ROBUS-3.

  1. Test Bus Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    4.2.2-1. F-22 Vehicle Management System Architecture This discussion will concentrate on the Processor Interface Control and Communications ( PICC ...module which is used in multiple locations in the F-22 avionics. The PICC module is based on a MIL-STD-1750A processor and supporting chip set. External...differential discrete I/O signals. Each of the PICC ASICs implement the IEEE 1149.1 test bus which is routed to the module connector. 4-12 The

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The Apollo program demonstrated that men could travel into space, perform useful tasks there, and return safely to Earth. But space had to be more accessible. This led to the development of the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRBs), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components.

  3. Tennessee Minimum School Bus Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The School Bus Specifications and Procedures adopted by the 2000 National Conference on School Transportation and the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) were used as guides by the Tennessee State Board of Education Pupil Transportation Advisory Committee in developing the revised minimum specifications for school bus chassis and school…

  4. Data bus system development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, J. S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Two data bus systems were designed fabricated, Data Bus System I and Data Bus System II. The technical features of the delivered hardware include the following: (1) 5 MHz selfclocking data bus; (2) bidirectional communications utilizing Manchester Code at data rates in excess of 20,000 words per second; (3) utilization of MSI COS/MOS technology (4) probability of accepting an erroneous data bit less than 1 in 10 to the 25th power (5) low power consumption (50 to 1 reduction in quiescent current over P/MOS) (6) compatibility with projected high density packaging. Three distinct types of data bus remote terminals were developed: the subsystem interface unit, the combination of an electronic interface unit and a standard interface unit-serial, and an SIU/Preprocessor.

  5. Bus accident analysis of routes with/without bus priority.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin Chun Keong; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-04-01

    This paper summarises findings on road safety performance and bus-involved accidents in Melbourne along roads where bus priority measures had been applied. Results from an empirical analysis of the accident types revealed significant reduction in the proportion of accidents involving buses hitting stationary objects and vehicles, which suggests the effect of bus priority in addressing manoeuvrability issues for buses. A mixed-effects negative binomial (MENB) regression and back-propagation neural network (BPNN) modelling of bus accidents considering wider influences on accident rates at a route section level also revealed significant safety benefits when bus priority is provided. Sensitivity analyses done on the BPNN model showed general agreement in the predicted accident frequency between both models. The slightly better performance recorded by the MENB model results suggests merits in adopting a mixed effects modelling approach for accident count prediction in practice given its capability to account for unobserved location and time-specific factors. A major implication of this research is that bus priority in Melbourne's context acts to improve road safety and should be a major consideration for road management agencies when implementing bus priority and road schemes.

  6. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  7. Spin-bus concept of spin quantum computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehring, Michael; Mende, Jens

    2006-05-01

    We present a spin-bus concept of quantum computing where an electron spin S=1/2 acts as a bus qubit connected to a finite number N of nuclear spins I=1/2 serving as client qubits. Spin-bus clusters are considered as local processing units and may be interconnected with other spin-bus clusters via electron-electron coupling in a scaled up version. Here we lay the ground for the basic functional unit with long qubit registers, provide the theory and experimental verification of correlated qubit states, and demonstrate the Deutsch algorithm. Experiments were performed on a qubyte plus one nuclear spin in a solid state system.

  8. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  9. Space-Shuttle Emulator Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Askew, Bill; Barry, Matthew R.; Leigh, Agnes; Mermelstein, Scott; Owens, James; Payne, Dan; Pemble, Jim; Sollinger, John; Thompson, Hiram; hide

    2007-01-01

    A package of software has been developed to execute a raw binary image of the space shuttle flight software for simulation of the computational effects of operation of space shuttle avionics. This software can be run on inexpensive computer workstations. Heretofore, it was necessary to use real flight computers to perform such tests and simulations. The package includes a program that emulates the space shuttle orbiter general- purpose computer [consisting of a central processing unit (CPU), input/output processor (IOP), master sequence controller, and buscontrol elements]; an emulator of the orbiter display electronics unit and models of the associated cathode-ray tubes, keyboards, and switch controls; computational models of the data-bus network; computational models of the multiplexer-demultiplexer components; an emulation of the pulse-code modulation master unit; an emulation of the payload data interleaver; a model of the master timing unit; a model of the mass memory unit; and a software component that ensures compatibility of telemetry and command services between the simulated space shuttle avionics and a mission control center. The software package is portable to several host platforms.

  10. Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, Dan; Fast, Matthew

    2009-12-31

    The Southern Nevada Alternative Fuels Program is designed to demonstrate, in a day-to-day bus operation, the reliability and efficiency of a hydrogen bus operation under extreme conditions. By using ICE technology and utilizing a virtually emission free fuel, benefits to be derived include air quality enhancement and vehicle performance improvements from domestically produced, renewable energy sources. The project objective is to help both Ford and the City demonstrate and evaluate the performance characteristics of the E-450 H2ICE shuttle buses developed by Ford, which use a 6.8-liter supercharged Triton V-10 engine with a hydrogen storage system equivalent to 29 gallons of gasoline. The technology used during the demonstration project in the Ford buses is a modified internal combustion engine that allows the vehicles to run on 100% hydrogen fuel. Hydrogen gives a more thorough fuel burn which results in more power and responsiveness and less pollution. The resultant emissions from the tailpipe are 2010 Phase II compliant with NO after treatment. The City will lease two of these E-450 H2ICE buses from Ford for two years. The buses are outfitted with additional equipment used to gather information needed for the evaluation. Performance, reliability, safety, efficiency, and rider comments data will be collected. The method of data collection will be both electronically and manually. Emissions readings were not obtained during the project. The City planned to measure the vehicle exhaust with an emissions analyzer machine but discovered the bus emission levels were below the capability of their machine. Passenger comments were solicited on the survey cards. The majority of comments were favorable. The controllable issues encountered during this demonstration project were mainly due to the size of the hydrogen fuel tanks at the site and the amount of fuel that could be dispensed during a specified period of time. The uncontrollable issues encountered during this

  11. Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

  12. High-Speed Ring Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wysocky, Terry; Kopf, Edward, Jr.; Katanyoutananti, Sunant; Steiner, Carl; Balian, Harry

    2010-01-01

    The high-speed ring bus at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) allows for future growth trends in spacecraft seen with future scientific missions. This innovation constitutes an enhancement of the 1393 bus as documented in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1393-1999 standard for a spaceborne fiber-optic data bus. It allows for high-bandwidth and time synchronization of all nodes on the ring. The JPL ring bus allows for interconnection of active units with autonomous operation and increased fault handling at high bandwidths. It minimizes the flight software interface with an intelligent physical layer design that has few states to manage as well as simplified testability. The design will soon be documented in the AS-1393 standard (Serial Hi-Rel Ring Network for Aerospace Applications). The framework is designed for "Class A" spacecraft operation and provides redundant data paths. It is based on "fault containment regions" and "redundant functional regions (RFR)" and has a method for allocating cables that completely supports the redundancy in spacecraft design, allowing for a complete RFR to fail. This design reduces the mass of the bus by incorporating both the Control Unit and the Data Unit in the same hardware. The standard uses ATM (asynchronous transfer mode) packets, standardized by ITU-T, ANSI, ETSI, and the ATM Forum. The IEEE-1393 standard uses the UNI form of the packet and provides no protection for the data portion of the cell. The JPL design adds optional formatting to this data portion. This design extends fault protection beyond that of the interconnect. This includes adding protection to the data portion that is contained within the Bus Interface Units (BIUs) and by adding to the signal interface between the Data Host and the JPL 1393 Ring Bus. Data transfer on the ring bus does not involve a master or initiator. Following bus protocol, any BIU may transmit data on the ring whenever it has data received from its host. There

  13. Lunar shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voyer, P.; Garcia, M.; Higham, D.; Spackman, D.; Garcia, J.; Chapman, T.; Cook, M.; Jelke, J.; Slingerland, G.; Anderson, K.

    1989-01-01

    Current plans for the extension of human presence into the solar system include the establishment of a permanently occupied base on the Moon for use as a source of raw materials, a transportation node, a facility for the fabrication and launch of elements of the space exploration infrastructure, and a base for scientific investigation and astronomical observatories. All of the aforementioned uses of a lunar base foresee the requirement for a lunar shuttle to operate from the lunar surface to one or more orbiting space stations located in low lunar orbits (LLO). The Utah State University lunar shuttle design is baslined for implementation after a mature lunar base has been established. The shuttle is designed to operate between the lunar base and a space station located in a 400-km-altitude orbit. This orbit was chosen with reference to Apollo experience, which has indicated that very low orbits, on the order of 100-km, may be unstable over periods of many months. After a thorough investigation of the anticipated needs and production capabilities of a lunar base, several design requirements were placed upon the shuttle. These requirements are (1) maximum use of lunar-derived propellant; (2) modularity and payload versatility; (3) two-way transport of 25-metric-ton cargo; (4) human transport capability; (5) satellite servicing; and (6) 3000-kg mass budget.

  14. SunLine Transit Agency Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Bus Evaluation: Fourth Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Chandler, K.

    2013-01-01

    SunLine Transit Agency, which provides public transit services to the Coachella Valley area of California, has demonstrated hydrogen and fuel cell bus technologies for more than 10 years. In May 2010, SunLine began demonstrating the advanced technology (AT) fuel cell bus with a hybrid electric propulsion system, fuel cell power system, and lithium-based hybrid batteries. This report describes operations at SunLine for the AT fuel cell bus and five compressed natural gas buses. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is working with SunLine to evaluate the bus in real-world service to document the results and help determine the progress toward technology readiness. NREL has previously published three reports documenting the operation of the fuel cell bus in service. This report provides a summary of the results with a focus on the bus operation from February 2012 through November 2012.

  15. SCHOOL BUS GARAGES, 1966 REVISION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOHNSON, HERBERT F.

    STANDARDS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ARE GIVEN FOR THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF SCHOOL BUS GARAGES INCLUDING BRIEF DISCUSSIONS OF--(1) SITE DEVELOPMENT, (2) DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION, AND (3) MECHANICAL (HEATING, PLUMBING, AND VENTILATION) AND ELECTRICAL FACTORS. (JT)

  16. NREL Showcases Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine Bus, Helps DOE Set Standards for Outreach (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-11-01

    This fact sheet describes the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) accomplishments in showcasing a Ford hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine (H2ICE) bus at The Taste of Colorado festival in Denver. NREL started using its U.S. Department of Energy-funded H2ICE bus in May 2010 as the primary shuttle vehicle for VIP visitors, members of the media, and new employees. In September 2010, NREL featured the bus at The Taste of Colorado. This was the first major outreach event for the bus. NREL's educational brochure, vehicle wrap designs, and outreach efforts serve as a model for other organizations with DOE-funded H2ICE buses. Work was performed by the Hydrogen Education Group and Market Transformation Group in the Hydrogen Technologies and Systems Center.

  17. Space shuttle SRM development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, I. C.; Call, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    The successful static testing of the fourth Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Motor (SRM) is described. Transportation and support equipment concepts and component reusability are demonstrated. The evolution of the SRM transportation support equipment and special test equipment designs are reviewed, and development activities are discussed. Handling and processing aspects of large, heavy components are reviewed briefly.

  18. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers’ route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model. PMID:26214001

  19. An Optimization Model for the Selection of Bus-Only Lanes in a City.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qun

    2015-01-01

    The planning of urban bus-only lane networks is an important measure to improve bus service and bus priority. To determine the effective arrangement of bus-only lanes, a bi-level programming model for urban bus lane layout is developed in this study that considers accessibility and budget constraints. The goal of the upper-level model is to minimize the total travel time, and the lower-level model is a capacity-constrained traffic assignment model that describes the passenger flow assignment on bus lines, in which the priority sequence of the transfer times is reflected in the passengers' route-choice behaviors. Using the proposed bi-level programming model, optimal bus lines are selected from a set of candidate bus lines; thus, the corresponding bus lane network on which the selected bus lines run is determined. The solution method using a genetic algorithm in the bi-level programming model is developed, and two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed model.

  20. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-08

    Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) onboard photo of Pilot Stephen S. Oswald (wearing a headset) uses the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREX-II) while sitting at the pilot's station on the forward flight deck. Oswald smiled from behind the microphone as he talks to amateur radio operators on Earth via the SAREX equipment. SAREX cables and the interface module freefloat in front of Oswald. The anterna located in the forward flight deck window is visible in the background. SAREX was established by NASA, the American Radio League/Amateur Radio Satellite Corporation and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Amateur Radio Club to encourage public participation in the space program through a program to demonstrate the effectiveness of conducting short-wave radio transmissions between the Shuttle and ground-based radio operators at low-cost ground stations with amateur and digital techniques.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-08-08

    The sun rises on the Space Shuttle Discovery as it rests on the runway at Edward’s Air Force Base in California after a safe landing at 5:11 am (PDT) on August 9, 2005. The STS-114 landing concluded a historic 14 day return to flight mission to the International Space Station (ISS) after nearly a two and one half year delay in flight after the Space Shuttle Columbia tragedy in February 2003. Three successful space walks performed during the mission included a demonstration of repair techniques to the Shuttle’s thermal tiles known as the Thermal Protection System, the replacement of a failed Control Moment Gyroscope which helps keep the station oriented properly, and the installation of the External Stowage Platform, a space “shelf” for holding spare parts during Station construction. The shuttle’s heat shield repair was a first for Shuttle repair while still in space.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  3. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  4. Forecast analysis of optical waveguide bus performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledesma, R.; Rourke, M. D.

    1979-01-01

    Elements to be considered in the design of a data bus include: architecture; data rate; modulation, encoding, detection; power distribution requirements; protocol, work structure; bus reliability, maintainability; interterminal transmission medium; cost; and others specific to application. Fiber- optic data bus considerations for a 32 port transmissive star architecture, are discussed in a tutorial format. General optical-waveguide bus concepts, are reviewed. The electrical and optical performance of a 32 port transmissive star bus, and the effects of temperature on the performance of optical-waveguide buses are examined. A bibliography of pertinent references and the bus receiver test results are included.

  5. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  6. Aids to School Bus Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  7. American Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation. Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, Leslie; Post, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    This report presents results of the American Fuel Cell Bus (AFCB) Project, a demonstration of fuel cell electric buses operating in the Coachella Valley area of California. The prototype AFCB was developed as part of the Federal Transit Administration's (FTA's) National Fuel Cell Bus Program. Through the non-profit consortia CALSTART, a team led by SunLine Transit Agency and BAE Systems developed a new fuel cell electric bus for demonstration. SunLine added two more AFCBs to its fleet in 2014 and another in 2015. FTA and the AFCB project team are collaborating with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This report summarizes the performance results for the buses through June 2015.

  8. Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretthauer, Joy W.; Chalfant, Chuck H.; Orlando, Fred J.; Parkerson, P.; Rezek, Ed; Sawyer, Marc

    1999-01-01

    Spaceborne Fiber Optic Data Bus (SFODB) is an IEEE 1393 compliant, gigabit per second, fiber optic network specifically designed to support the real-time, on-board data handling requirements of remote sensing spacecraft. The network is fault tolerant highly reliable, and capable of withstanding the rigors of launch and the harsh space environment. SFODB achieves this operational and environmental performance while maintaining the small size, light weight, and low power necessary for spaceborne applications. On December 9, 1998, SFODB was successfully demonstrated at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  9. Improvement of multiprocessing performance by using optical centralized shared bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xuliang; Chen, Ray T.

    2004-06-01

    multiprocessing performance improvement is expected. To prove the technical feasibility from the architecture standpoint, a conceptual emulation of the centralized shared-memory multiprocessing scheme is demonstrated on a generic PCI subsystem with an optical centralized shared bus.

  10. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients' residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health.

  11. Analyzing the Relationship Between Bus Pollution Policies and Morbidity Using a Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Nicole S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transit buses are used by millions of commuters every day, but they emit toxic diesel fumes. In 1988, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency implemented emission standards for transit buses, which have been continually updated. Yet there is no quantitative evidence of the health benefits from these bus pollution policies due to data constraints and confounding variables. In this study, a quasi-experiment is used to exploit the geographic and temporal variation in emission standards by using bus vintage as a proxy for bus emissions. This is accomplished using a unique, rich panel data set, which includes daily information on bus vintage and route for the New York City Transit bus fleet between 2006 and 2009. This information is merged with daily data on emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory illnesses, which include patients’ residences at the census block level and exact admission date. Economic benefits resulting from these bus pollution policies are then estimated. Results show that stricter transit bus emission standards by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for particulate matter are associated with reduced ED visits for respiratory diseases for patients living within a few hundred feet of a bus route. These findings demonstrate that bus pollution policies have made critical improvements to public health. PMID:26376392

  12. 77 FR 6172 - Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program Funds.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... applicant will need to apply separately in TEAM for these funds. Research funds must adhere to the... Federal Transit Administration Discretionary Bus and Bus Facilities Program and National Research Program...) of FTA Section 5309 Bus and Bus Facilities Program and Section 5312 National Research Program Funds...

  13. School Bus Accidents and Driver Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMichael, Judith

    The study examines the rates and types of school bus accidents according to the age of the school bus driver. Accident rates in North Carolina for the school year 1971-72 were analyzed using three sources of data: accident reports, driver and mileage data, and questionnaires administered to a sample of school bus drivers. Data were obtained on…

  14. The NASA bus communications listening device software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The development of the bus listener is presented. Special software was developed to control the 'bus interface units' (BIU) connecting each of these devices to a communications cable to form the bus communication network. The code used in the BTU is described.

  15. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  16. Data Bus Adapts to Changing Traffic Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lew, Eugene; Deruiter, John; Varga, Mike

    1987-01-01

    Access becomes timed when collisions threaten. Two-mode scheme used to grant terminals access to data bus. Causes bus to alternate between random accessibility and controlled accessibility to optimize performance and adapt to changing data-traffic conditions. Bus is part of 100-Mb/s optical-fiber packet data system.

  17. "Don't Miss the Bus!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Jane A.

    1999-01-01

    Presents observations from the director of the National Association of Pupil Transportation concerning school bus safety, seat belts, and the state of the $15-billion school transportation industry. Increasing student use of bus transportation and delivering the school bus safety message to all concerned are addressed. (GR)

  18. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center workers install Structural Test Article Number Three (STA-3) into a Center test facility. From December 1987 to April 1988, STA-3 (a test model of the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor) underwent a series of six tests at the Marshall Center designed to demonstrate the structural strength of the Space Shuttle's Solid Rocket Booster, redesigned after the January 1986 Challenger accident.

  19. HERMES travels by CAN bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Lewis G.; Shortridge, Keith; Farrell, Tony J.; Vuong, Minh; Muller, Rolf; Sheinis, Andrew I.

    2014-07-01

    The new HERMES spectrograph represents the first foray by AAO into the use of commercial off-the-shelf industrial field bus technology for instrument control, and we regard the final system, with its relatively simple wiring requirements, as a great success. However, both software and hardware teams had to work together to solve a number of problems integrating the chosen CANopen/CAN bus system into our normal observing systems. A Linux system running in an industrial PC chassis ran the HERMES control software, using a PCI CAN bus interface connected to a number of distributed CANopen/CAN bus I/O devices and servo amplifiers. In the main, the servo amplifiers performed impressively, although some experimentation with homing algorithms was required, and we hit a significant hurdle when we discovered that we needed to disable some of the encoders used during observations; we learned a lot about how servo amplifiers respond when their encoders are turned off, and about how encoders react to losing power. The software was based around a commercial CANopen library from Copley Controls. Early worries about how this heavily multithreaded library would work with our standard data acquisition system led to the development of a very low-level CANopen software simulator to verify the design. This also enabled the software group to develop and test almost all the control software well in advance of the construction of the hardware. In the end, the instrument went from initial installation at the telescope to successful commissioning remarkably smoothly.

  20. The Shuttle Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Program is presented. The missions of the space shuttle orbiters, the boosters and main engine, and experimental equipment are described. Crew and passenger accommodations are discussed as well as the shuttle management teams.

  1. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  2. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implications of using the Shuttle with the SOC were analyzed, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design. All the considerations involved in the use of the shuttle as a part of the SOC concept were identified.

  3. High Speed Multiplex Bus Protocol Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-15

    Transaction 42-45 3.3.4.1-1 High Level Bus State Transition Diagram; BC-RT 48 Poll or Transaction Request 3.3.4.1-2 Response Time Out Interval Measurement 49...61 3.4-2 General Message Types 62 3.4.3-1 High Level BC State Transition Diagram - BC-RT 64 Transaction Request 3.4.3-2 High Level RT State Transition...the data base for each bus unit contains the current state of that bus unit with respect to ongoing bus communications. The bus control data base

  4. Analysis of robustness of urban bus network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Ren; Yi-Fan, Wang; Miao-Miao, Liu; Yan-Jie, Xu

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the invulnerability and cascade failures are discussed for the urban bus network. Firstly, three static models(bus stop network, bus transfer network, and bus line network) are used to analyse the structure and invulnerability of urban bus network in order to understand the features of bus network comprehensively. Secondly, a new way is proposed to study the invulnerability of urban bus network by modelling two layered networks, i.e., the bus stop-line network and the bus line-transfer network and then the interactions between different models are analysed. Finally, by modelling a new layered network which can reflect the dynamic passenger flows, the cascade failures are discussed. Then a new load redistribution method is proposed to study the robustness of dynamic traffic. In this paper, the bus network of Shenyang City which is one of the biggest cities in China, is taken as a simulation example. In addition, some suggestions are given to improve the urban bus network and provide emergency strategies when traffic congestion occurs according to the numerical simulation results. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61473073, 61374178, 61104074, and 61203329), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (Grant Nos. N130417006, L1517004), and the Program for Liaoning Excellent Talents in University (Grant No. LJQ2014028).

  5. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbraten, Gordon L.; Henderson, Edward M.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively flying the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Completing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle (Orion) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (Ares I). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the Vision for Space Exploration, and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  6. Space Shuttle Strategic Planning Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Norbraten, Gordon L.

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program is aggressively planning the Space Shuttle manifest for assembling the International Space Station and servicing the Hubble Space Telescope. Implementing this flight manifest while concurrently transitioning to the Exploration architecture creates formidable challenges; the most notable of which is retaining critical skills within the Shuttle Program workforce. The Program must define a strategy that will allow safe and efficient fly-out of the Shuttle, while smoothly transitioning Shuttle assets (both human and facility) to support early flight demonstrations required in the development of NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) and Crew and Cargo Launch Vehicles (CLV). The Program must accomplish all of this while maintaining the current level of resources. Therefore, it will be necessary to initiate major changes in operations and contracting. Overcoming these challenges will be essential for NASA to fly the Shuttle safely, accomplish the President s "Vision for Space Exploration," and ultimately meet the national goal of maintaining a robust space program. This paper will address the Space Shuttle Program s strategy and its current status in meeting these challenges.

  7. Electrical system architecture having high voltage bus

    DOEpatents

    Hoff, Brian Douglas [East Peoria, IL; Akasam, Sivaprasad [Peoria, IL

    2011-03-22

    An electrical system architecture is disclosed. The architecture has a power source configured to generate a first power, and a first bus configured to receive the first power from the power source. The architecture also has a converter configured to receive the first power from the first bus and convert the first power to a second power, wherein a voltage of the second power is greater than a voltage of the first power, and a second bus configured to receive the second power from the converter. The architecture further has a power storage device configured to receive the second power from the second bus and deliver the second power to the second bus, a propulsion motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus, and an accessory motor configured to receive the second power from the second bus.

  8. Texas Hydrogen Highway Fuel Cell Hybrid Bus and Fueling Infrastructure Technology Showcase - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hitchcock, David

    2012-06-29

    , and regenerative braking for battery charging. It uses a 19.3 kW Ballard PEM fuel cell, will store 12.6 kg of hydrogen at 350 Bar, and includes a 60 kWh battery storage system. The objectives of the project included the following: (a) To advance commercialization of hydrogen-powered transit buses and supporting infrastructure; (b) To provide public outreach and education by showcasing the operation of a 22-foot fuel cell hybrid shuttle bus and Texas first hydrogen fueling infrastructure; and (c) To showcase operation of zero-emissions vehicle for potential transit applications. As mentioned above, the project successfully demonstrated an early vehicle technology, the Ebus plug-in hybrid fuel cell bus, and that success has led to the acquisition of a more advanced vehicle that can take advantage of the same fueling infrastructure. Needed hydrogen station improvements have been identified that will enhance the capabilities of the fueling infrastructure to serve the new bus and to meet the transit agency needs. Over the course of this project, public officials, local government staff, and transit operators were engaged in outreach and education activities that acquainted them with the real world operation of a fuel cell bus and fueling infrastructure. Transit staff members in the Dallas/Ft. Worth region were invited to a workshop in Arlington, Texas at the North Central Texas Council of Governments to participate in a workshop on hydrogen and fuel cells, and to see the fuel cell bus in operation. The bus was trucked to the meeting for this purpose so that participants could see and ride the bus. Austin area transit staff members visited the fueling site in Austin to be briefed on the bus and to participate in a fueling demonstration. This led to further meetings to determine how a fuel cell bus and fueling station could be deployed at Capital Metro Transit. Target urban regions that expressed additional interest during the project in response to the outreach meetings and

  9. New shuttle vector-based expression system to generate polyhistidine-tagged fusion proteins in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Schwendener, Sybille; Perreten, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Four Staphylococcus aureus-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors were constructed for gene expression and production of tagged fusion proteins. Vectors pBUS1-HC and pTSSCm have no promoter upstream of the multiple cloning site (MCS), and this allows study of genes under the control of their native promoters, and pBUS1-Pcap-HC and pTSSCm-Pcap contain the strong constitutive promoter of S. aureus type 1 capsule gene 1A (Pcap) upstream of a novel MCS harboring codons for the peptide tag Arg-Gly-Ser-hexa-His (rgs-his6). All plasmids contained the backbone derived from pBUS1, including the E. coli origin ColE1, five copies of terminator rrnB T1, and tetracycline resistance marker tet(L) for S. aureus and E. coli. The minimum pAMα1 replicon from pBUS1 was improved through either complementation with the single-strand origin oriL from pUB110 (pBUS1-HC and pBUS1-Pcap-HC) or substitution with a pT181-family replicon (pTSSCm and pTSSCm-Pcap). The new constructs displayed increased plasmid yield and segregational stability in S. aureus. Furthermore, pBUS1-Pcap-HC and pTSSCm-Pcap offer the potential to generate C-terminal RGS-His6 translational fusions of cloned genes using simple molecular manipulation. BcgI-induced DNA excision followed by religation converts the TGA stop codon of the MCS into a TGC codon and links the rgs-his6 codons to the 3' end of the target gene. The generation of the rgs-his6 codon-fusion, gene expression, and protein purification were demonstrated in both S. aureus and E. coli using the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance gene erm(44) inserted downstream of Pcap. The new His tag expression system represents a helpful tool for the direct analysis of target gene function in staphylococcal cells.

  10. New Shuttle Vector-Based Expression System To Generate Polyhistidine-Tagged Fusion Proteins in Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Schwendener, Sybille

    2015-01-01

    Four Staphylococcus aureus-Escherichia coli shuttle vectors were constructed for gene expression and production of tagged fusion proteins. Vectors pBUS1-HC and pTSSCm have no promoter upstream of the multiple cloning site (MCS), and this allows study of genes under the control of their native promoters, and pBUS1-Pcap-HC and pTSSCm-Pcap contain the strong constitutive promoter of S. aureus type 1 capsule gene 1A (Pcap) upstream of a novel MCS harboring codons for the peptide tag Arg-Gly-Ser-hexa-His (rgs-his6). All plasmids contained the backbone derived from pBUS1, including the E. coli origin ColE1, five copies of terminator rrnB T1, and tetracycline resistance marker tet(L) for S. aureus and E. coli. The minimum pAMα1 replicon from pBUS1 was improved through either complementation with the single-strand origin oriL from pUB110 (pBUS1-HC and pBUS1-Pcap-HC) or substitution with a pT181-family replicon (pTSSCm and pTSSCm-Pcap). The new constructs displayed increased plasmid yield and segregational stability in S. aureus. Furthermore, pBUS1-Pcap-HC and pTSSCm-Pcap offer the potential to generate C-terminal RGS-His6 translational fusions of cloned genes using simple molecular manipulation. BcgI-induced DNA excision followed by religation converts the TGA stop codon of the MCS into a TGC codon and links the rgs-his6 codons to the 3′ end of the target gene. The generation of the rgs-his6 codon-fusion, gene expression, and protein purification were demonstrated in both S. aureus and E. coli using the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance gene erm(44) inserted downstream of Pcap. The new His tag expression system represents a helpful tool for the direct analysis of target gene function in staphylococcal cells. PMID:25747000

  11. Replication of Space-Shuttle Computers in FPGAs and ASICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the replication of the functionality of the onboard space-shuttle general-purpose computers (GPCs) in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The purpose of the replication effort is to enable utilization of proven space-shuttle flight software and software-development facilities to the extent possible during development of software for flight computers for a new generation of launch vehicles derived from the space shuttles. The replication involves specifying the instruction set of the central processing unit and the input/output processor (IOP) of the space-shuttle GPC in a hardware description language (HDL). The HDL is synthesized to form a "core" processor in an FPGA or, less preferably, in an ASIC. The core processor can be used to create a flight-control card to be inserted into a new avionics computer. The IOP of the GPC as implemented in the core processor could be designed to support data-bus protocols other than that of a multiplexer interface adapter (MIA) used in the space shuttle. Hence, a computer containing the core processor could be tailored to communicate via the space-shuttle GPC bus and/or one or more other buses.

  12. Shuttle Imaging Radar - Geologic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, H.; Bridges, L.; Waite, W.; Kaupp, V.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle, on its second flight (November 12, 1981), carried the first science and applications payload which provided an early demonstration of Shuttle's research capabilities. One of the experiments, the Shuttle Imaging Radar-A (SIR-A), had as a prime objective to evaluate the capability of spaceborne imaging radars as a tool for geologic exploration. The results of the experiment will help determine the value of using the combination of space radar and Landsat imagery for improved geologic analysis and mapping. Preliminary analysis of the Shuttle radar imagery with Seasat and Landsat imagery from similar areas provides evidence that spaceborne radars can significantly complement Landsat interpretation, and vastly improve geologic reconnaissance mapping in those areas of the world that are relatively unmapped because of perpetual cloud cover.

  13. Avionic Data Bus Integration Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    address the hardware-software interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion ...the SCP. In 1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error... MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. 226 N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a number, N, of redundant computer programs that

  14. Riding by the Rules: A Practical Approach to Bus Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neatrour, Paul E.

    1994-01-01

    The Johnstown (Pennsylvania) Middle School has adopted a simple, practical school bus discipline program that refers disruptive students to the bus-duty teacher to discuss the incident. The bus driver's written report activates the bus-rider training program, featuring temporary loss of riding privileges, a simulated bus ride, a safety video, a…

  15. Just Right Vehicle Network (Data Bus) Protocols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    this network to research; however, I shall concentrate on defining a precise method to define and assist in properly selecting the network (data bus...recommended – Simple Mathematical selection method used Vehicle Network Selection Conducted 2003-2005 – CAN Data Bus recommended for lower speed hard...real time control – IEEE 1394b Data Bus recommended for high speed hard real time control – Formal Trade Study Process w/ software assisted method used

  16. Shuttle operational expectations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abrahamson, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The results of orbital flight tests (OFT) of the Space Shuttle are reviewed, and modifications planned for upcoming operational flights are discussed. The performance of the solid rocket boosters, external tank, main engines, structural system, propulsion system, reaction control system, electric power system, heat rejection system, hydraulic system, avionics, and other systems is described and evaluated as generally highly satisfactory. Payload servicing and deployment were also successfully demonstrated by OFT. Additional facilities planned for the operational flights are briefly described, and improvements that will make the Challenger spacecraft lighter than Columbia, provide it with more thrust, and give it a larger payload are summarized. Some software modifications being introduced are also mentioned.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-77 mission included (seated left to right) Curtis L. Brown, pilot; and John H. Casper, commander. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Daniel W. Bursch, Mario Runco, Marc Garneau (CSA), and Andrew S. W. Thomas. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on May 19, 1996 at 6:30:00 am (EDT), the STS-77 mission carried three primary payloads; the SPACEHAB-4 pressurized research module, the Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) mounted on a Spartan 207 free-flyer, and a suite of four technology demonstration experiments known as Technology Experiments for Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS).

  18. Redundancy management of multiple KT-70 inertial measurement units applicable to the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, L. J.

    1975-01-01

    Results of an investigation of velocity failure detection and isolation for 3 inertial measuring units (IMU) and 2 inertial measuring units (IMU) configurations are presented. The failure detection and isolation algorithm performance was highly successful and most types of velocity errors were detected and isolated. The failure detection and isolation algorithm also included attitude FDI but was not evaluated because of the lack of time and low resolution in the gimbal angle synchro outputs. The shuttle KT-70 IMUs will have dual-speed resolvers and high resolution gimbal angle readouts. It was demonstrated by these tests that a single computer utilizing a serial data bus can successfully control a redundant 3-IMU system and perform FDI.

  19. STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

  20. Road safety issues for bus transport management.

    PubMed

    Cafiso, Salvatore; Di Graziano, Alessandro; Pappalardo, Giuseppina

    2013-11-01

    Because of the low percentage of crashes involving buses and the assumption that public transport improves road safety by reducing vehicular traffic, public interest in bus safety is not as great as that in the safety of other types of vehicles. It is possible that less attention is paid to the significance of crashes involving buses because the safety level of bus systems is considered to be adequate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of bus managers with respect to safety issues and the potential effectiveness of various technologies in achieving higher safety standards. Bus managers were asked to give their opinions on safety issues related to drivers (training, skills, performance evaluation and behaviour), vehicles (maintenance and advanced devices) and roads (road and traffic safety issues) in response to a research survey. Kendall's algorithm was used to evaluate the level of concordance. The results showed that the majority of the proposed items were considered to have great potential for improving bus safety. The data indicated that in the experience of the participants, passenger unloading and pedestrians crossing near bus stops are the most dangerous actions with respect to vulnerable users. The final results of the investigation showed that start inhibition, automatic door opening, and the materials and internal architecture of buses were considered the items most strongly related to bus passenger safety. Brake assistance and vehicle monitoring systems were also considered to be very effective. With the exception of driver assistance systems for passenger and pedestrian safety, the perceptions of the importance of other driver assistance systems for vehicle monitoring and bus safety were not unanimous among the bus company managers who participated in this survey. The study results showed that the introduction of new technologies is perceived as an important factor in improving bus safety, but a better understanding

  1. A new bus lane on urban expressway with no-bay bus stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhao; Jia, Limin

    2016-01-01

    The sharp increase in residents and vehicles causes heavy traffic pressure in many cities. To ease traffic congestion, it has been the common sense that we should develop public transit system. The priority of the bus appears particularly necessary with the rapid development of the public transport system. The bus lane is an important embodiment of the bus priority. Focusing on the problem of the unreasonable dedicated bus lane (DBL) under the lower ratio of buses, this paper proposed a new bus lane with limited physical length. And this bus lane can reduce the lane-changing conflict caused by the buses and cars running on roads without bus lanes. Based on the cellular automata (CA) traffic flow model and the lane-changing behavior of the vehicle including the optional lane-changing and the mandatory lane-changing, a three-lane traffic model with an isolated no-bay bus stop is proposed. The ordinary three-lane traffic without a bus lane and the cases of traffic with a DBL or the proposed bus lane are simulated, and the comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams are made among them. It is shown that the no-bay bus stop can act as a bottleneck on the traffic flow because of the mandatory lane-changing behavior. Under a certain ratio of the bus number to the total vehicles number, (1) the traffic with the proposed bus lane has less lane-changing conflict and can provide higher traffic capacity than the ordinary traffic without a bus lane, (2) compared with the DBL, the proposed bus lane is advantageous in easing congestion on the ordinary lanes when the traffic flow is high and can avoid unreasonable allocation of the road resources.

  2. STS-98 crew prepares to board bus at SLF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    STS-98 Mission Commander Kenneth Cockrell waves to his family at the Shuttle Landing Facility after the crew's arrival Sunday to complete preparations for launch. In the background, Mission Specialist Robert Curbeam (left) and Pilot Mark Polansky are also caught waving. The crew is preparing to board a bus for transport to the Operations and Checkout Building where the crew quarters at KSC is located. Crew members Thomas Jones and Marsha Ivins, both mission specialists, are not in plain view. STS-98 is the seventh construction flight to the International Space Station, carrying as payload the U.S. Lab Destiny, a key element in the construction of the ISS. Launch of STS-98 is scheduled for Feb. 7 at 6:11 p.m. EST.

  3. Priority Queuing On A Parallel Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    Queuing strategy for communications along shared data bus minimizes number of data lines while always assuring user of highest priority given access to bus. New system handles up to 32 user demands on 17 data lines that previously serviced only 17 demands.

  4. Controlling Multiple Registers on a Computer Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brokl, Stanley S.

    1987-01-01

    Number of addressable registers increased. Monitoring and controlling interface circuit expands capabilities of DR11-C (or equivalent) input/output port for computer that communicates with peripheral equipment via UNIBUS (or equivalent) data bus. Using only three address locations on bus, unit enables any number of external registers to be addressed, read, or written.

  5. California's Bus Driver's Training Course. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This instructor's manual was designed to help graduates of the California Bus Driver Instructor Course provide effective instruction to school bus driver trainees. It contains enough material for 20-30 hours of classroom training. The information is organized in 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: introduction to the course;…

  6. School Bus Maintenance. Bulletin, 1948, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Featherston, E. Glenn

    1948-01-01

    This bulletin is one in the series on pupil transportation issued by the Office of Education. Its purpose is to furnish information and guidance for local school administrators and others who are concerned with school bus maintenance. Programs of school bus maintenance vary among the 48 States. Presumably all contract vehicles are maintained by…

  7. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  8. Hidden Savings in your Bus Budget

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newby, Ruth

    2005-01-01

    School transportation industry statistics show the annual average costs for operating and maintaining a single school bus range from $34,000 to $38,000. Operating a school bus fleet at high efficiency has a real impact on the dollars saved for a school district and the reliability of transportation service to students. In this article, the author…

  9. Hiding Solar-Array Bus Bars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hufnagel, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    End terminals mounted under cells, maximizing usable illuminated area. Reconfigured solar panel bus bars placed under cells, reducing portion of module area not occupied by active silicon. Underside of last cell in string of cells serves as contact for positive bus. Negative tab of last cell in string is wrapped around from top of cell. Tabs are connected to output boards mounted under cells.

  10. School Bus Driver Instructional Program. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC. National Highway Safety Bureau.

    A standardized and comprehensive school bus driver instructional program has been developed under contract with the Federal Government. The course has been organized to provide in one package a program for developing the minimum skills and knowledge needed by the school bus driver instructor, as well as those supplemental skills and knowledge…

  11. Neurosimulation modeling of a scheduled bus route

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.G.; Khoo, L.P.

    1997-05-01

    In a densely built-up urban society, operators of public bus services are faced with the recurrent problem of providing timely and reliable service. Wile they have no control over dynamically changing extraneous factors (such as passenger loads or road conditions) that may suddenly degrade the quality of the service provided, it is nonetheless desirable for management to study the extent to which these factors affect their business, and what measures, if any, can be adopted to neutralize them. This paper discusses how a simulation model of a bus route, embellished by a neural network, was created to model the historical pattern of the inputs (namely, passenger loads and road conditions) that affect the overall scheduled terminus-to-terminus time. Thus, in a case study of a bus route running from a suburb to the city center, it was found that the neurosimulation model could predict the cumulative terminus-to-terminus times better than a conventional simulation model could. A software module, embedded into the neurosimulation model for the purposes of speed regulation, was able to minimize the deviation of the bus service from schedule. When intentional delays were further introduced into the bus route, it was discovered that the speed regulator was more effective the longer the delay, and the further the bus traveled into the bus route. There is potential in applying neural computing in a dynamic bus scheduling problem such as the one discussed here.

  12. Connecting Separate Computers to a Common Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawan, A. K.; Mullen, P. G.; Vadakan, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    Network bus adapter (NBA) handles protocols for computer-tocomputer communications. NBA does all protocol handling and communications with bus for its host computer, that processor of different speeds sends data to each other continuously at maximum speed. Any host can communicate with any other, or several or with all.

  13. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  14. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  15. Development of the bus joint for the ITER Central Solenoid

    SciTech Connect

    Martovetsky, Nicolai N; Irick, David Kim; Kenney, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    The terminations of the Central Solenoid (CS) modules are connected to the bus extensions by joints located outside the CS in the gap between the CS and Torodial Field (TF) assemblies. These joints have very strict space limitations. Low resistance is a common requirement for all ITER joints. In addition, the CS bus joints will experience and must be designed to withstand significant variation in the magnetic field of several tenths of a Tesla per second during initiation of plasma. The joint resistance is specified to be less than 4 nOhm. The joints also have to be soldered in the field and designed with the possibility to be installed and dismantled in order to allow cold testing in the cold test facility. We have developed coaxial joints that meet these requirements and have demonstrated the feasibility to fabricate and assemble them in the vertical configuration. We introduced a coupling cylinder with superconducting strands soldered to the surface of the cable that can be installed in the ITER assembly hall and at the Cold Test Facility. This cylinder serves as a transition area between the CS module and the bus extension. We made two racetrack samples and tested four bus joints in our Joint Test Apparatus. Resistance of the bus joints was measured by a decay method and by a microvoltmeter; the value of the current was measured by the Hall probes. This measurement method was verified in the previous tests. The resistance of the joints varied insignificantly from 1.5 to 2 nOhm. One of the challenges associated with a soldered joint is the inability to use corrosive chemicals that are difficult to clean. This paper describes our development work on cable preparation, chrome removal, compaction, soldering, and final assembly and presents the test results.

  16. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The following areas of Space Shuttle technology were discussed: variable altitude strategy, spacecraft servicing, propellant storage, orbiter plume impingement, space based design, mating (docking and berthing), shuttle fleet utilization, and mission/traffic model.

  17. Shuttle Showcase: Firsts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The space shuttle has defined an era and broken boundaries both in space and on Earth. Among the hundreds of people who have flown on the shuttle, many have been firsts -- for their race, their cou...

  18. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  19. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle Main Engine undergoes test-firing at the National Space Technology Laboratories (now the Sternis Space Center) in Mississippi. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility of Space Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Main Engines.

  20. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  1. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-05-31

    NASA Shuttle Launch Director Michael Leinbach, left, STS-124 Assistant Launch Director Ed Mango, center, and Flow Director for Space Shuttle Discovery Stephanie Stilson clap in the the Launch Control Center after the main engine cut off and successful launch of the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-124) Saturday, May 31, 2008, at the Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The Shuttle lifted off from launch pad 39A at 5:02 p.m. EDT. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-04-23

    It has been called the world's greatest piggyback ride: a space shuttle, atop a Boeing 747 jet aircraft. But this is no ordinary 747, this is the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft...the SCA. This specially modified jumbo jet was not only a taxi service for the shuttle, but also helped in the development of the shuttle itself. In 30 years of flying, the majestic image of a spacecraft joined to the SCA, became a symbol of American invention and ingenuity.

  3. The Space Shuttle in perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    Commercial aspects of the Space Shuttle are examined, with attention given to charges to users, schedule of launches and reimbursement, kinds of payload and their selection, NASA authority, space allocation, and risk, liability, and insurance. It is concluded that insurance to reduce the risk, incentives that NASA is willing to make available to U.S. industry, and the demonstrated willingness of industry and the financial community to invest their funds in space ventures indicate that the new Shuttle capabilities will exponentially increase commercial activities in space during the 1980s.

  4. Space Shuttle orbiter separation bolts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritchie, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    Evolution of the space shuttle from previous spacecraft systems dictated growth and innovative design of previously standard ordnance devices. Initially, one bolt design was programmed for both 747 and external tank application. However, during development and subsequent analyses, two distinct designs evolved. The unique requirements of both bolts include: high combined loading, redundant initiation, flush separation plane, self-righting and shank attenuation. Of particular interest are the test methods, problem areas, and use of subscale models which demonstrated feasibility at an early phase in the program. The techniques incorporated in the shuttle orbiter bolts are applicable to other mechanisms.

  5. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  6. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  7. Shuttle-based observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubin, M.

    1976-01-01

    Progress in science in relation to the space shuttle is reported. Several studies on the uses of the space shuttle and Spacelab are highlighted. A review of the activities of the Shuttle Spacelab Payloads Project Office are presented. The activities cover such fields as solar physics, astronomy with optical instruments, high energy astrophysics, atmospheric research and magnetospheric physics, and Earth observational studies.

  8. Space Shuttle development update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, V.

    1984-01-01

    The development efforts, since the STS-4 flight, in the Space Shuttle (SS) program are presented. The SS improvements introduced in the last two years include lower-weight loads, communication through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite, expanded extravehicular activity capability, a maneuvering backpack and the manipulator foot restraint, the improvements in thermal projection system, the 'optional terminal area management targeting' guidance software, a rendezvous system with radar and star tracker sensors, and improved on-orbit living conditions. The flight demonstrations include advanced launch techniques (e.g., night launch and direct insertion to orbit); the on-orbit demonstrations; and added entry and launching capabilities. The entry aerodynamic analysis and entry flight control fine tuning are described. Reusability, improved ascent performance, intact abort and landing flexibility, rollout control, and 'smart speedbrakes' are among the many improvements planned for the future.

  9. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  10. Space Shuttle payloads - An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgecombe, D. S.; Turner, D. N.

    1982-01-01

    A review is made of historical developments of NASA-launched payloads as a basis for projecting payload operations configured to fit the Shuttle's capabilities, and the impetus for new spacecraft and applications designs is discussed. Payloads have experienced a growth in size and weight, capacity and lifetime, and have increasingly featured more automation, microminiaturized circuitry, and data processing systems. Launches by the DoD and NASA have averaged about 20/yr. Spacecraft specifically configured for Shuttle launch have had to wait due to development schedule delays. Partial compensation has occurred by the use of the MMS, which fits into both the Delta nose cone and the Orbiter bay. The Landsat-4 and SMM are cited as examples. Successful demonstration of in-orbit servicing of satellites is required in order to attract spacecraft designers who will make full use of the Shuttle's capabilities. Finally, increased standardization of spacecraft shape, interfaces, and components is foreseeen.

  11. Space Shuttle Orbiter-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This illustration is an orbiter cutaway view with callouts. The orbiter is both the brains and heart of the Space Transportation System (STS). About the same size and weight as a DC-9 aircraft, the orbiter contains the pressurized crew compartment (which can normally carry up to seven crew members), the huge cargo bay, and the three main engines mounted on its aft end. There are three levels to the crew cabin. Uppermost is the flight deck where the commander and the pilot control the mission. The middeck is where the gallery, toilet, sleep stations, and storage and experiment lockers are found for the basic needs of weightless daily living. Also located in the middeck is the airlock hatch into the cargo bay and space beyond. It is through this hatch and airlock that astronauts go to don their spacesuits and marned maneuvering units in preparation for extravehicular activities, more popularly known as spacewalks. The Space Shuttle's cargo bay is adaptable to hundreds of tasks. Large enough to accommodate a tour bus (60 x 15 feet or 18.3 x 4.6 meters), the cargo bay carries satellites, spacecraft, and spacelab scientific laboratories to and from Earth orbit. It is also a work station for astronauts to repair satellites, a foundation from which to erect space structures, and a hold for retrieved satellites to be returned to Earth. Thermal tile insulation and blankets (also known as the thermal protection system or TPS) cover the underbelly, bottom of the wings, and other heat-bearing surfaces of the orbiter to protect it during its fiery reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. The Shuttle's 24,000 individual tiles are made primarily of pure-sand silicate fibers, mixed with a ceramic binder. The solid rocket boosters (SRB's) are designed as an in-house Marshall Space Flight Center project, with United Space Boosters as the assembly and refurbishment contractor. The solid rocket motor (SRM) is provided by the Morton Thiokol Corporation.

  12. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 5: Auxiliary shuttle risk analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    Volume 5 is Appendix C, Auxiliary Shuttle Risk Analyses, and contains the following reports: Probabilistic Risk Assessment of Space Shuttle Phase 1 - Space Shuttle Catastrophic Failure Frequency Final Report; Risk Analysis Applied to the Space Shuttle Main Engine - Demonstration Project for the Main Combustion Chamber Risk Assessment; An Investigation of the Risk Implications of Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Chamber Pressure Excursions; Safety of the Thermal Protection System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter - Quantitative Analysis and Organizational Factors; Space Shuttle Main Propulsion Pressurization System Probabilistic Risk Assessment, Final Report; and Space Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment Proof-of-Concept Study - Auxiliary Power Unit and Hydraulic Power Unit Analysis Report.

  13. Shuttle plate braiding machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huey, Jr., Cecil O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for moving yarn in a selected pattern to form a braided article. The apparatus includes a segmented grid of stationary support elements and a plurality of shuttles configured to carry yarn. The shuttles are supported for movement on the grid assembly and each shuttle includes a retractable plunger for engaging a reciprocating shuttle plate that moves below the grid assembly. Such engagement at selected times causes the shuttles to move about the grid assembly in a selected pattern to form a braided article of a particular geometry.

  14. Analog bus driver and multiplexer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Hancock, Bruce (Inventor); Cunningham, Thomas J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    For a source-follower signal chain, the ohmic drop in the selection switch causes unacceptable voltage offset, non-linearity, and reduced small signal gain. For an op amp signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise rises rapidly with increasing the array format due to a rapid increase in the effective capacitance caused by the Miller effect boosting up the contribution of the bus capacitance. A new switched source-follower signal chain circuit overcomes limitations of existing op-amp based or source follower based circuits used in column multiplexers and data readout. This will improve performance of CMOS imagers, and focal plane read-out integrated circuits for detectors of infrared or ultraviolet light.

  15. Characterizing the range of children's air pollutant exposure during school bus commutes.

    PubMed

    Sabin, Lisa D; Behrentz, Eduardo; Winer, Arthur M; Jeong, Seong; Fitz, Dennis R; Pankratz, David V; Colome, Steven D; Fruin, Scott A

    2005-09-01

    Real-time and integrated measurements of gaseous and particulate pollutants were conducted inside five conventional diesel school buses, a diesel bus with a particulate trap, and a bus powered by compressed natural gas (CNG) to determine the range of children's exposures during school bus commutes and conditions leading to high exposures. Measurements were made during 24 morning and afternoon commutes on two Los Angeles Unified School District bus routes from South to West Los Angeles, with seven additional runs on a rural/suburban route, and three runs to test the effect of window position. For these commutes, the mean concentrations of diesel vehicle-related pollutants ranged from 0.9 to 19 microg/m(3) for black carbon, 23 to 400 ng/m(3) for particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PB-PAH), and 64 to 220 microg/m(3) for NO(2). Concentrations of benzene and formaldehyde ranged from 0.1 to 11 microg/m(3) and 0.3 to 5 microg/m(3), respectively. The highest real-time concentrations of black carbon, PB-PAH and NO(2) inside the buses were 52 microg/m(3), 2000 ng/m(3), and 370 microg/m(3), respectively. These pollutants were significantly higher inside conventional diesel buses compared to the CNG bus, although formaldehyde concentrations were higher inside the CNG bus. Mean black carbon, PB-PAH, benzene and formaldehyde concentrations were higher when the windows were closed, compared with partially open, in part, due to intrusion of the bus's own exhaust into the bus cabin, as demonstrated through the use of a tracer gas added to each bus's exhaust. These same pollutants tended to be higher on urban routes compared to the rural/suburban route, and substantially higher inside the bus cabins compared to ambient measurements. Mean concentrations of pollutants with substantial secondary formation, such as PM(2.5), showed smaller differences between open and closed window conditions and between bus routes. Type of bus, traffic congestion levels, and encounters with

  16. Radiation-Tolerant Dual Data Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinstler, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    An architecture, and a method of utilizing the architecture, have been proposed to enable error-free operation of a data bus that includes, and is connected to, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) circuits and components that are inherently susceptible to singleevent upsets [SEUs (bit flips caused by impinging high-energy particles and photons)]. The architecture and method are applicable, more specifically, to data-bus circuitry based on the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1394b standard for a high-speed serial bus.

  17. Data collection plan for Phase 2 Alternative Fuels Bus Data Collection Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krenelka, T

    1993-07-01

    This document constitutes the plan for collecting and reporting data associated with a special set of transit bus demonstrations to be conducted under the Urban Bus Program of the Alternative Motor Fuels Act (AMFA) of 1988. This program, called the Phase 2 Bus Data Collection Program, serves as an adjunct to the Phase I Bus Data Collection Program, collecting detailed data on just a few buses to augment and enhance the Phase 1 data in fulfilling the urban bus requirements of AMFA. Demonstrations will be conducted at a few transit system locations throughout the US and will use alternative fuels and associated technologies to reduce undesirable transit bus exhaust emissions. Several organizations will be involved in the data collection; NREL will manage the program, analyze and store vehicle data, and make these data available through the Alternative Fuels Data Center. This information will enable transit agencies, equipment manufacturers, fuel suppliers, and government policy makers to make informed decisions about buying and using alternative fuels.

  18. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school bus... the administrator to private school bus operators required to be notified under § 605.16. (e) Private... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  20. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  1. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  2. 49 CFR 605.19 - Approval of school bus operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Approval of school bus operations. 605.19 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.19 Approval of school bus operations. (a) The Administrator will consider the comments filed by private school...

  3. MIL-STD-1553 programmable dual redundant remote terminal, bus controller, bus monitor, unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, S. N.

    The performance, physical and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid are described. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) or BUS Monitor (BM). It requires the BUS-63125 Dual Redundant Monolithic Hybrid Transceiver or two BUS-63102 Universal Transceivers for MIL-STD-1553B or McAir sinusoidal applications. A discussion of the custom Monolithic LSI components implemented in the Superhybrid is included. The special features and capabilities are highlighted, along with special programming options which facilitate a broad array of applications. The BUS-65600 Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access (DMA) Computer Interface plus necessary control lines which are also described in detail.

  4. Safety evaluation of a hydrogen fueled transit bus

    SciTech Connect

    Coutts, D.A.; Thomas, J.K.; Hovis, G.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1997-12-31

    Hydrogen fueled vehicle demonstration projects must satisfy management and regulator safety expectations. This is often accomplished using hazard and safety analyses. Such an analysis has been completed to evaluate the safety of the H2Fuel bus to be operated in Augusta, Georgia. The evaluation methods and criteria used reflect the Department of Energy`s graded approach for qualifying and documenting nuclear and chemical facility safety. The work focused on the storage and distribution of hydrogen as the bus motor fuel with emphases on the technical and operational aspects of using metal hydride beds to store hydrogen. The safety evaluation demonstrated that the operation of the H2Fuel bus represents a moderate risk. This is the same risk level determined for operation of conventionally powered transit buses in the United States. By the same criteria, private passenger automobile travel in the United States is considered a high risk. The evaluation also identified several design and operational modifications that resulted in improved safety, operability, and reliability. The hazard assessment methodology used in this project has widespread applicability to other innovative operations and systems, and the techniques can serve as a template for other similar projects.

  5. Astronauts Train for Final Shuttle Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The crew of STS-135, the final space shuttle mission, rehearsed their launch day process at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida during a Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test that took place Jun...

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-09-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-41G mission included (seated left to right) Jon A. McBride, pilot; mission specialists Sally K. Ride, Kathryn D. Sullivan, and David C. Leestma. Standing in the rear, left to right, are payload specialists Marc Garneau, and Paul D. Scully-Power. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger on October 5, 1984 at 7:03:00 am (EDT), the STS-41G mission marked the first flight to include two women. Sullivan was the first woman to walk in space. The crew deployed the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS), connected the components of the Orbital Refueling System (ORS) which demonstrated the possibility of refueling satellites in orbit, and carried 3 experiments of the Office of Space Terrestrial Applications-3 (OSTA-3).

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-12-11

    The dominant theme of the STS-36, designed by the five astronaut crewmembers, is, in their words ...the essential role that space plays in preserving the blessings of freedom and liberty for America. The crew used the eagle to symbolize our country's commitment to strength and vigilance; its domain is not bound by the limits of Earth but reaches out to the star. The Shuttle, they express majestically beginning its journey into orbit demonstrates how man and machine work together for the security of our nation. A crew spokesman went on to say the flag represents the patriotism and love for America possessed by each member of the five-man crew and signifies the honor accorded them through participation in national defense.

  8. Analysis and simulation of a city bus route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kar, Leow Soo

    2014-12-01

    Public transport in crowded cities, in particular bus services play an essential role in the mobility of its citizenry. However, an efficient, reliable and safe bus system is still a distant dream of many cities. This paper uses a simulation approach to provide some insight into the factors that contribute to the service quality of a bus system. SAS Simulation Studio is used to model a city bus route. The simulation model consists of a bus depot, bus stops, terminal station and a bus route. Parameters used in the simulation include the number of buses serving the route, maximum bus capacity, inter departure time of buses, travel time between stops, number of passengers boarding and alighting. The simulation is applied to a real bus route in Kuala Lumpur city center and a sensitivity analysis is performed to evaluate how the different variables affect the service quality of the bus system.

  9. Shuttle time and frequency transfer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, D. W.; Alley, C. O.; Decher, R.; Vessot, R. F. C.; Winkler, G. M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A proposed space shuttle experiment to demonstrate techniques for global high precision comparison of clocks and primary frequency standards is described. The experiment, using transmitted microwave and pulsed laser signals, compared a hydrogen maser clock onboard the space shuttle with a clock in a ground station in order to demonstrate time transfer with accuracies of 1 nsec or better and frequency comparison at the 10 to the -14th power accuracy level.

  10. MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit, BUS Controller and BUS Monitor Superhybrid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, Steven N.

    This paper describes the performance, physical, and electrical characteristics of the BUS-65600 Superhybrid. The Superhybrid is a programmable, fully compliant MIL-STD-1553 Dual Redundant Remote Terminal Unit (RTU), BUS Controller (BC) and BUS Monitor (BM). The BUS-65600 requires an external transceiver, clock, and transformers to provide a fully functional terminal interface. A discussion of the next generation CMOS Silicon-On-Sapphire (SOS) single monolithic chip RTU/BC/BM is included. The special features and capabilities, along with special package technologies are highlighted. The Superhybrid has a Direct Memory Access computer interface plus special control lines which are fully described.

  11. Does Bus Rapid Transit promote walking? An examination of New York City's Select Bus Service.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristen; Loh, Lawrence; Ruff, Ryan Richard; Rosenblum, Randi; Fischer, Sean; Lee, Karen K

    2014-11-01

    Cities across the U.S. and internationally are adopting Bus Rapid Transit to improve transit services for residents. Features of Bus Rapid Transit include fewer stops, dedicated bus lanes, and expedited systems for boarding busses, compared with regular bus service. This study examines whether Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) ridership is associated with increased rates of walking, because of the greater distance between BRT stops compared with regular bus service. Surveys were conducted with riders of local and BRT buses for New York City's M15 Select Bus Service line. Surveys examined bus ridership, health status and physical activity, walking rates, and demographic information. BRT riders reported walking approximately half a block more than did local bus riders. The average number of blocks walked decreased for BRT riders who previously used the subway before the implementation of the BRT. BRT may be a useful tool to support walking for some groups. Depending on where it is implemented, BRT may also be associated with reduced walking among users who switch to BRT from other active transportation modes. Future research should examine associations between walking and BRT ridership with a larger sample and more sites.

  12. An Interconnect Bus Power Optimization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    En, Yun-Fei; Zhu, Zhang-Ming; Hao, Yue

    2010-07-01

    A simple yet accurate interconnect parasitical capacitance model is presented. Based on this model a novel interconnect bus optimization methodology is proposed. Combining wire spacing with wire ordering, this methodology focuses on bus dynamic power optimization with consideration of bus performance requirements. The optimization methodology is verified under a 65 nm technology node and it shows that with 50% slack in the routing space, a 33.03% power saving can be provided by the proposed optimization methodology for an intermediate video bus compared to the 27.68% power saving provided by uniform spacing technology. The proposed methodology is especially suitable for computer-aided design of nanometer scale on-chip buses.

  13. The Impact on Traffic Safety in Bus Stop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kailun; Guang, Xiaoping; Qian, Yongsheng

    The article improves the attraction of public transportation system when the safety is taken into account during the selection of bus stops. In this paper, the characteristics of traffic conflict at bus stops is analyzed from various types of bus stops and the applicability of bus stations is proposed in comply with provisions of security. It has a certain reference value on selection of bus stops.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-04-24

    The official mission insignia for the 41-D Space Shuttle flight features the Discovery - NASA's third orbital vehicle - as it makes its maiden voyage. The ghost ship represents the orbiter's namesakes which have figured prominently in the history of exploration. The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for new horizons to extend that proud tradition. Surnames for the crewmembers of NASA's eleventh Space Shuttle mission encircle the red, white, and blue scene.

  15. Space Shuttle contamination overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Jacobs, S.; Ehlers, H. K. F.

    1978-01-01

    Consideration is given to particle and gaseous contamination associated with Shuttle payload orbital delivery. An approach to control contamination is discussed which consists of analytical environment assessment, vehicle design optimization, and flight environment measurement. The analytical assessment of orbital contamination source characteristics and their effects on the Shuttle orbital environment has resulted in vehicle design changes and a detailed understanding of system operational flexibility. Verification of resulting Shuttle contamination performance will be made by the Induced Environment Contamination Monitor.

  16. Space-Shuttle applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.; Davis, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the performance potential of the Space Shuttle and the high-energy transportation system to be derived from it. It is shown that, in addition to its cost effectiveness in earth-orbital missions, the Shuttle promises to be of major significance for future solar-system exploration. Eventually, the Shuttle will make possible the use of large interplanetary payloads launched at high velocities to the far reaches of the solar system.

  17. Chemical Interorbital Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    In 1970, NASA initiated Phase A contracts to study alternate Space Shuttle designs in addition to the two-stage fully-reusable Space Shuttle system already under development. A number of alternate systems were developed to ensure the development of the optimum earth-to-orbit system, including the Stage-and-a-half Chemical Interorbital Shuttle, shown here. The concept would utilize a reusable marned spacecraft with an onboard propulsion system attached to an expendable fuel tank to provide supplementary propellants.

  18. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  19. Systems evaluation of thermal bus concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stalmach, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal bus concepts, to provide a centralized thermal utility for large, multihundred kilowatt space platforms, were studied and the results are summarized. Concepts were generated, defined, and screened for inclusion in system level thermal bus trades. Parametric trade studies were conducted in order to define the operational envelope, performance, and physical characteristics of each. Two concepts were selected as offering the most promise for thermal bus development. All of four concepts involved two phase flow in order to meet the required isothermal nature of the thermal bus. Two of the concepts employ a mechanical means to circulate the working fluid, a liquid pump in one case and a vapor compressor in another. Another concept utilizes direct osmosis as the driving force of the thermal bus. The fourth concept was a high capacity monogroove heat pipe. After preliminary sizing and screening, three of these concepts were selected to carry into the trade studies. The monogroove heat pipe concept was deemed unsuitable for further consideration because of its heat transport limitations. One additional concept utilizing capillary forces to drive the working fluid was added. Parametric system level trade studies were performed. Sizing and weight calculations were performed for thermal bus sizes ranging from 5 to 350 kW and operating temperatures in the range of 4 to 120 C. System level considerations such as heat rejection and electrical power penalties and interface temperature losses were included in the weight calculations.

  20. A software bus for thread objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John R.; Li, Dehuai

    1995-01-01

    The authors have implemented a software bus for lightweight threads in an object-oriented programming environment that allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in discrete-event simulation experiments. While previous research in object-oriented, parallel programming environments has focused on direct communication between threads, our lightweight software bus, called the MiniBus, provides a means to isolate threads from their contexts of execution by restricting communications between threads to message-passing via their local ports only. The software bus maintains a topology of connections between these ports. It routes, queues, and delivers messages according to this topology. This approach allows for rapid reconfiguration and reuse of thread objects in other systems without making changes to the specifications or source code. A layered approach that provides the needed transparency to developers is presented. Examples of using the MiniBus are given, and the value of bus architectures in building and conducting simulations of discrete-event systems is discussed.

  1. Analysis, operation and maintenance of a fuel cell/battery series-hybrid bus for urban transit applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bubna, Piyush; Brunner, Doug; Gangloff, John J.; Advani, Suresh G.; Prasad, Ajay K.

    The fuel cell hybrid bus (FCHB) program was initiated at the University of Delaware in 2005 to demonstrate the viability of fuel cell vehicles for transit applications and to conduct research and development to facilitate the path towards their eventual commercialization. Unlike other fuel cell bus programs, the University of Delaware's FCHB design features a battery-heavy hybrid which offers multiple advantages in terms of cost, performance and durability. The current fuel cell hybrid bus is driven on a regular transit route at the University of Delaware. The paper describes the baseline specifications of the bus with a focus on the fuel cell and the balance of plant. The fuel cell/battery series-hybrid design is well suited for urban transit routes and provides key operational advantages such as hydrogen fuel economy, efficient use of the fuel cell for battery recharging, and regenerative braking. The bus is equipped with a variety of sensors including a custom-designed cell voltage monitoring system which provide a good understanding of bus performance under normal operation. Real-time data collection and analysis have yielded key insights for fuel cell bus design optimization. Results presented here illustrate the complex flow of energy within the various subsystems of the fuel cell hybrid bus. A description of maintenance events has been included to highlight the issues that arise during general operation. The paper also describes several modifications that will facilitate design improvements in future versions of the bus. Overall, the fuel cell hybrid bus demonstrates the viability of fuel cells for urban transit applications in real world conditions.

  2. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-13

    The space shuttle Endeavour is seen as it is maneuvered through the streets of Inglewood on its way to its new home at the California Science Center, Saturday, Oct. 13, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  3. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The space shuttle Endeavour moves out of the Los Angeles International Airport and onto the streets of Los Angeles to make its way to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  4. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-13

    A 3D camera films the space shuttle Endeavour as it makes its way through the streets of Inglewood on its way to its new home at the California Science Center, Saturday, Oct. 13, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  5. Potential Future Shuttle Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward

    2001-01-01

    NASA has just recently completed the 104th flight of the Space Shuttle. Each of the four Orbiters in the Shuttle fleet have a design life of 100 flights each. Thus the fleet is capable of almost 300 more flights, and at current flight rates could potentially operate well past 2020 if necessary. This paper addresses some of the potential Shuttle system improvements that could be considered if the decision is made to continue operations of this vehicle for such an extended period. The national space transportation policy envisions a decision around 2005-2006 concerning readiness to start development of a Shuttle replacement system. Leading up to that decision point NASA is investing in the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) to reduce the development risks associated with key technologies needed for the next generation reusable launch vehicle (RLV). The Shuttle replacement could be a new design RLV or could be based on a Shuttle derived design: i.e., a vehicle based on the current Shuttle but with major design changes. The technology investment strategy of SLI is supportive of either approach. However, if NASA and industry are not ready to develop a replacement vehicle in the 2006-2012 timeframe, then another option would be to continue to make important, but evolutionary changes, to the existing Shuttle fleet. The overall strategy for next generation RLV planning, including possible Shuttle evolution, is captured in Figure 1.

  6. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  7. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The space shuttle Endeavour is seen as it traverses through Inglewood, Calif. on Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  8. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The space shuttle Endeavour is seen as it traverses through Inglewood, California on Friday, Oct. 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-02-01

    This photograph shows an inside view of a liquid hydrogen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    The space shuttle Enterprise is lowered onto a transport vehicle after being demated from the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in Jamica, New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  11. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), with space shuttle Enterprise latched on its back, is towed from the hangar at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York late in the night on Saturday, May 12, 2012. Early Sunday morning, Enterprise was removed from the SCA. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  12. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    The space shuttle Enterprise hangs from a sling after being demated from the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in Jamica, New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  13. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    A yellow sling is lowered onto space shuttle Enterprise, which sits atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) prior to it being demated a few hours later at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Saturday, May 12, 2012. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  14. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-05-08

    The mission patch for STS-85 is designed to reflect the broad range of science and engineering payloads on the flight. The primary objectives of the mission were to measure chemical constituents in Earth’s atmosphere with a free-flying satellite and to flight-test a new Japanese robotic arm designed for use on the International Space Station (ISS). STS-85 was the second flight of the satellite known as Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 CRISTA-SPAS-02. CRISTA, depicted on the right side of the patch pointing its trio of infrared telescopes at Earth’s atmosphere, stands for Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere. The high inclination orbit is shown as a yellow band over Earth’s northern latitudes. In the Space Shuttle Discovery’s open payload bay an enlarged version of the Japanese National Space Development Agency’s (NASDA) Manipulator Flight Demonstration (MFD) robotic arm is shown. Also shown in the payload bay are two sets of multi-science experiments: the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-02) nearest the tail and the Technology Applications and Science (TAS-01) payload. Jupiter and three stars are shown to represent sources of ultraviolet energy in the universe. Comet Hale-Bopp, which was visible from Earth during the mission, is depicted at upper right. The left side of the patch symbolizes daytime operations over the Northern Hemisphere of Earth and the solar science objectives of several of the payloads.

  16. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project Evaluation Results: Second Report

    SciTech Connect

    Eudy, L.; Post, M.

    2014-09-01

    Second report evaluating a fuel cell electric bus (FCEB) demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. NREL published its first report on the demonstration in February 2014. This report is an update to the previous report; it covers 3 full years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2014 and focuses on the final experiences and lessons learned.

  17. 77 FR 6178 - FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities Programs (State of Good...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... facilities or electrical recharging facilities and related equipment for such buses; or (3) Projects relating to clean fuel, biodiesel, hybrid electric, or zero emissions technology buses that exhibit equivalent... Federal Transit Administration FY 2012 Discretionary Funding Opportunities: Bus and Bus Facilities...

  18. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes.

  19. Dynamic Bus Travel Time Prediction Models on Road with Multiple Bus Routes

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Cong; Peng, Zhong-Ren; Lu, Qing-Chang; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Accurate and real-time travel time information for buses can help passengers better plan their trips and minimize waiting times. A dynamic travel time prediction model for buses addressing the cases on road with multiple bus routes is proposed in this paper, based on support vector machines (SVMs) and Kalman filtering-based algorithm. In the proposed model, the well-trained SVM model predicts the baseline bus travel times from the historical bus trip data; the Kalman filtering-based dynamic algorithm can adjust bus travel times with the latest bus operation information and the estimated baseline travel times. The performance of the proposed dynamic model is validated with the real-world data on road with multiple bus routes in Shenzhen, China. The results show that the proposed dynamic model is feasible and applicable for bus travel time prediction and has the best prediction performance among all the five models proposed in the study in terms of prediction accuracy on road with multiple bus routes. PMID:26294903

  20. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  1. Sexual Harassment on the School Bus: Supporting and Preparing Bus Drivers to Respond Appropriately

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa; Young, Ellie L.; Ashbaker, Betty Y.; Heaton, Emily; Parkinson, Marisa

    2003-01-01

    Sexual harassment is commonplace in schools, particularly among adolescents. Although information on this topic is typically gathered from students and teachers, this study collected information from school bus drivers. Based on feedback from 58 school bus drivers, 39 (67%) reported observing students making sexual comments or jokes. Almost half…

  2. Bullying and Aggression on the School Bus: School Bus Drivers' Observations and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    deLara, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    Every school day bus drivers are responsible for transporting children safely over many miles, yet they are rarely polled for their opinions or contributions to school safety. School bus drivers are in a unique position to inform the discussion on aggressive behavior during the school day. This exploratory study collected information from school…

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-01

    In this photograph the SYNCOM IV-3, also known as LEASAT 3, satellite moves away from the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery. SYNCOM (Hughes Geosynchronous Communication Satellite) provides communication services from geosynchronous orbit, principally to the U.S. Government. The satellite was launched on April 12, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  4. Stennis tests shuttle valves

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-02-12

    Flames burst from the E-1 Test Stand as Stennis Space Center engineers perform one of dozens of shuttle flow valve tests in early February. Stennis engineers teamed with Innovative Partnership Program partners to perform the tests after NASA officials delayed the launch of the STS-119 mission because of concerns with the shuttle part.

  5. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-04-21

    This is an interior ground level view of the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise being lowered for mating to External Tank (ET) inside Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT). The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  6. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-10-04

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is being installed into liftoff configuration at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT). The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  7. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-04-21

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is lowered into the Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  8. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-10-04

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise inside of Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand for Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT). The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters were vertically mated.

  9. Stennis tests shuttle valves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Flames burst from the E-1 Test Stand as Stennis Space Center engineers perform one of dozens of shuttle flow valve tests in early February. Stennis engineers teamed with Innovative Partnership Program partners to perform the tests after NASA officials delayed the launch of the STS-119 mission because of concerns with the shuttle part.

  10. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-14

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  11. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-14

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  12. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-14

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is off-loaded at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters were vertically mated.

  13. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-13

    The Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise atop a 747 landing at Redstone Arsenal Airfield for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at Marshall Space Flight Center's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  14. Nuclear Shuttle Logistics Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-09-29

    On September 29, 1988, after a 32-month hiatus in the Space Shuttle program that followed the Challenger accident, orbiter Discovery roared upward on the strength of its Marshall-managed solid rocket boosters, external tank, and Space Shuttle main engines.

  16. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  17. Aerial view of the newest bus stop to view Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This aerial view looking northeast shows a new stop (bottom) on the KSC bus tour that allow visitors to view Pad LC-39B (top). The tour stop is next to the crawlerway that is used to transport the Space Shuttle vehicles to the pad. The length of the crawlerway from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad B is 6,828 meters (22,440 ft); its width overall is 40 meters (130 ft); each lane is 12 meters (40ft) with a 15-meter (50ft) median.

  18. Aerial view of the newest bus stop to view Launch Pad 39B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This aerial view looking northeast shows a new stop (bottom) on the KSC bus tour that allow visitors to view Pad LC-39B (top). The tour stop is next to the crawlerway that is used to transport the Space Shuttle vehicles to the pad. The length of the crawlerway from the Vehicle Assembly Building to Pad B is 6,828 meters (22,440 ft); its width overall is 40 meters (130 ft); each lane is 12 meters (40ft) with a 15-meter (50ft) median.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-79 astronauts arrive at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility in their T-38 aircraft from Johnson Space Center in Houston. From left are Mission Specialists John E. Blaha and Tom Akers; Commander William F. Readdy; PIlot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Jay Apt and Carl E. Walz. The astronauts are at KSC for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, a dress rehearsal for launch. They are scheduled to lift off around Sept. 12 on Mission STS-79, the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-08-25

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - The STS-79 astronauts arrive at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility in their T-38 aircraft from Johnson Space Center in Houston. From left are Mission Specialists John E. Blaha and Tom Akers; Commander William F. Readdy; PIlot Terrence W. Wilcutt; and Mission Specialists Jay Apt and Carl E. Walz. The astronauts are at KSC for the Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test, a dress rehearsal for launch. They are scheduled to lift off around Sept. 12 on Mission STS-79, the fourth docking between the U.S. Shuttle and Russian Space Station Mir.

  20. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future. PMID:27992590

  1. Statistical Analysis of Bus Networks in India.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Atanu; Manohar, Manju; Ramadurai, Gitakrishnan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we model the bus networks of six major Indian cities as graphs in L-space, and evaluate their various statistical properties. While airline and railway networks have been extensively studied, a comprehensive study on the structure and growth of bus networks is lacking. In India, where bus transport plays an important role in day-to-day commutation, it is of significant interest to analyze its topological structure and answer basic questions on its evolution, growth, robustness and resiliency. Although the common feature of small-world property is observed, our analysis reveals a wide spectrum of network topologies arising due to significant variation in the degree-distribution patterns in the networks. We also observe that these networks although, robust and resilient to random attacks are particularly degree-sensitive. Unlike real-world networks, such as Internet, WWW and airline, that are virtual, bus networks are physically constrained. Our findings therefore, throw light on the evolution of such geographically and constrained networks that will help us in designing more efficient bus networks in the future.

  2. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Options for the Future Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jue, Fred; Kuck, Fritz; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump improvements may range from minor component improvements to using 3rd-generation pumps built on the advanced concepts demonstrated by the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) program and the Space Launch Initiative (SLI) prototype engines.The main engines for the Future Shuttle will focus on improved safety and operability. Performance enhancements may also be required for vehicle safety purposes to achieve more desirable abort scenarios. This paper discusses the potential improvements that will be considered for implementation into the Future Shuttle. Integrated engine and vehicle health management systems will achieve additional system-level reliability improvements over those currently in development. Advanced instrumentation for detecting leaks, analyzing component wear and degradation, and providing sophisticated operational data will be used for reliable engine control and scheduling maintenance operations. A new nozzle and main combustion chamber (MCC) will reduce failure probability by 50% and allow for higher thrust capability without requiring the entire engine to be redesigned. Turbopump

  3. Shuttle Safety Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has been flying for over 20 years and based on the Orbiter design life of 100 missions it should be capable of flying at least 20 years more if we take care of it. The Space Shuttle Development Office established in 1997 has identified those upgrades needed to keep the Shuttle flying safely and efficiently until a new reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is available to meet the agency commitments and goals for human access to space. The upgrade requirements shown in figure 1 are to meet the program goals, support HEDS and next generation space transportation goals while protecting the country 's investment in the Space Shuttle. A major review of the shuttle hardware and processes was conducted in 1999 which identified key shuttle safety improvement priorities, as well as other system upgrades needed to reliably continue to support the shuttle miss ions well into the second decade of this century. The high priority safety upgrades selected for development and study will be addressed in this paper.

  4. Space Shuttle Vehicle Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  5. Space Shuttle-Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicles, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds, that provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1975-01-01

    The Space Shuttle represented an entirely new generation of space vehicle, the world's first reusable spacecraft. Unlike earlier expendable rockets, the Shuttle was designed to be launched over and over again and would serve as a system for ferrying payloads and persornel to and from Earth orbit. The Shuttle's major components are the orbiter spacecraft; the three main engines, with a combined thrust of more than 1.2 million pounds; the huge external tank (ET) that feeds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer to the three main engines; and the two solid rocket boosters (SRB's), with their combined thrust of some 5.8 million pounds. The SRB's provide most of the power for the first two minutes of flight. Crucially involved with the Space Shuttle program virtually from its inception, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) played a leading role in the design, development, testing, and fabrication of many major Shuttle propulsion components. The MSFC was assigned responsibility for developing the Shuttle orbiter's high-performance main engines, the most complex rocket engines ever built. The MSFC was also responsible for developing the Shuttle's massive ET and the solid rocket motors and boosters.

  8. SESAC statement on shuttle accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The Space and Earth Science Advisory Committee (SESAC) of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC) shares NASA's and the nation's grief in the loss of the Challenger crew—seven exceptional individuals whose lives were dedicated to some of our country's loftiest goals. Over the years, these dedicated individuals and their fellow astronauts have worked closely with the scientific community to ensure that the scientific aspects of the United States space program would be productive in the era of the space shuttle. Through their efforts, the value of manned space flight for accomplishing important research in several areas of space science has been unambiguously demonstrated. Further, as space science has become increasingly an international enterprise, the capabilities of the space shuttle have become central to much scientific planning worldwide.

  9. Factors affecting the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents.

    PubMed

    Goh, Kelvin; Currie, Graham; Sarvi, Majid; Logan, David

    2014-05-01

    Previous research has provided little insight into factors that influence the probability of bus drivers being at-fault in bus-involved accidents. In this study, an analysis was conducted on accident data compiled by a bus company that include an assessment on whether the bus driver was deemed by the company to hold primary responsibility for accident occurrence. Using a mixed logit modelling approach, roadway/environmental, vehicle and driver related variables that were identified to be influential were road type, speed limit, traffic/lighting conditions, bus priority, bus age/length and driver's age/gender/experience/historic at-fault accident record. Results were indicative of possible confined road-space issues that bus drivers face along routes with roadside traffic friction and point to the provision of exclusive right of way for buses as a possible way to address this. Results also suggest benefits in assigning routes comprising mainly divided roads as well as newer and shorter buses to less experienced drivers.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-09

    Astronaut and mission specialist, Linda Godwin, checks communications systems before submersion into a 25 ft deep pool at the Johnson Space Center’s (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Wearing a high fidelity training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, Godwin simulated STS-76 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) chores in the pool. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in March of 1996, STS-76 marked the third U.S. Shuttle-Mir docking during which Godwin, along with astronaut and mission specialist Michael R. ( Rich) Clifford, performed the first Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during Mir-Shuttle docked operations.

  11. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-12-01

    Backdropped against the Earth, the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)is shown sporting new and modified solar arrays stowed against its barrel. Orbiting Earth at an altitude of 325 nautical miles, an astronaut begins other repairs of the HST while perched atop a foot restraint on shuttle Endeavour's remote manipulator system arm. The 59th and final Shuttle flight of 1993 was one of most challenging and complex marned missions ever attempted. During record five back-to-back space walks totaling 35 hours and 28 minutes, two teams of astronauts completed the first servicing of the HST. The STS-061 mission was launched aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor on December 2, 1993.

  12. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  13. Space Shuttle Abort Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Edward M.; Nguyen, Tri X.

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents some of the evolutionary steps in developing a rigorous Space Shuttle launch abort capability. The paper addresses the abort strategy during the design and development and how it evolved during Shuttle flight operations. The Space Shuttle Program made numerous adjustments in both the flight hardware and software as the knowledge of the actual flight environment grew. When failures occurred, corrections and improvements were made to avoid a reoccurrence and to provide added capability for crew survival. Finally some lessons learned are summarized for future human launch vehicle designers to consider.

  14. Shuttle target measurements program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann, F. M.; Carpenter, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A Space Shuttle vehicle will provide the U.S. Army's Ballistic Missile Defense Advanced Technology Center with a cost effective platform with which to acquire comprehensive exoatmospheric optical sensor data. The data requiring minimum interface with the Shuttle, will be collected through experiments, recorded, and then analyzed upon return. The system will occupy a portion of a commercial pallet and is suitable for early flight consideration. Several block diagrams illustrate the selected hardware configuration designed to provide information on trajectories and vehicle dynamics, signature data from scaled targets, contamination data of the Space Shuttle environment, and other background data. The proposed sensor is a Mosaic Optical Sensor Technology Testbed.

  15. Space Shuttle redesign status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brand, Vance D.

    1986-01-01

    NASA has conducted an extensive redesign effort for the Space Shutle in the aftermath of the STS 51-L Challenger accident, encompassing not only Shuttle vehicle and booster design but also such system-wide factors as organizational structure, management procedures, flight safety, flight operations, sustainable flight rate, and maintenance safeguards. Attention is presently given to Solid Rocket Booster redesign features, the Shuttle Main Engine's redesigned high pressure fuel and oxidizer turbopumps, the Shuttle Orbiter's braking and rollout (landing gear) system, the entry control mode of the flight control system, a 'split-S' abort maneuver for the Orbiter, and crew escape capsule proposals.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-01

    This is the insignia for the STS-107 mission which is a multidiscipline microgravity and Earth science research mission involving 80-plus International experiments to be performed by a crew of seven during the 16-day mission. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth. Many of the experiments will be managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The first shuttle mission in 2003, the STS-107 mission launched January 16, 2003, for the 28th flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia and the 113th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  17. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1972-03-07

    This early chart conceptualizes the use of two parallel Solid Rocket Motor Boosters in conjunction with three main engines to launch the proposed Space Shuttle to orbit. At approximately twenty-five miles altitude, the boosters would detach from the Orbiter and parachute back to Earth where they would be recovered and refurbished for future use. The Shuttle was designed as NASA's first reusable space vehicle, launching vertically like a spacecraft and landing on runways like conventional aircraft. Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility for the Shuttle's propulsion elements, including the Solid Rocket Boosters.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-01

    A liquid hydrogen tank of the Shuttle's external tank (ET) is installed into the S-1C Test Stand for a structural test at the Marshall Space Flight Center. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  19. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    The space shuttle Enterprise, mounted on transport vehicle, is backed into a temporary hanger after being demated from the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in Jamica, New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012. Enterprise will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  20. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    A set of cranes and wind restraints constructed to remove space shuttle Enterprise from atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft are being put into place at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Saturday, May 12, 2012. Enterprise will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-09

    Astronaut and mission specialist, Linda Godwin, makes a final check of her respiration system before submersion into a 25 ft deep pool at the Johnson Space Center’s (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). Wearing a high fidelity training version of the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) space suit, Godwin simulated STS-76 Extravehicular Activity (EVA) chores in the pool. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis in March of 1996, STS-76 marked the third U.S. Shuttle-Mir docking during which Godwin, along with astronaut and mission specialist Michael R. (Rich) Clifford, performed the first Extravehicular Activity (EVA) during Mir-Shuttle docked operations.

  2. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) lands at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  3. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) taxis in front of the main terminal at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  4. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    Space shuttle Discovery, mounted atop a NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) lands at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012, in Sterling, Va. The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center is seen in the background. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Eric Long)

  5. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-12-05

    With Commander Kevin R. Kregel and Pilot Steven W. Lindsey at the controls, the orbiter Columbia (STS-87) touched down its main gear on Runway 33 at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility to complete a 15-day, 16-hour and 34-minute-long mission of 6.5 million miles. During the 88th Space Shuttle mission, the crew performed experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload-4 and pollinated plants as part of the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment. This was the 12th landing for Columbia at KSC and the 41st KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program.

  6. Risk factors affecting fatal bus accident severity: Their impact on different types of bus drivers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shumin; Li, Zhenning; Ci, Yusheng; Zhang, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    While the bus is generally considered to be a relatively safe means of transportation, the property losses and casualties caused by bus accidents, especially fatal ones, are far from negligible. The reasons for a driver to incur fatalities are different in each case, and it is essential to discover the underlying risk factors of bus fatality severity for different types of drivers in order to improve bus safety. The current study investigates the underlying risk factors of fatal bus accident severity to different types of drivers in the U.S. by estimating an ordered logistic model. Data for the analysis are retrieved from the Buses Involved in Fatal Accidents (BIFA) database from the USA for the years 2006-2010. Accidents are divided into three levels by counting their equivalent fatalities, and the drivers are classified into three clusters by the K-means cluster analysis. The analysis shows that some risk factors have the same impact on different types of drivers, they are: (a) season; (b) day of week; (c) time period; (d) number of vehicles involved; (e) land use; (f) manner of collision; (g) speed limit; (h) snow or ice surface condition; (i) school bus; (j) bus type and seating capacity; (k) driver's age; (l) driver's gender; (m) risky behaviors; and (n) restraint system. Results also show that some risk factors only have impact on the "young and elder drivers with history of traffic violations", they are: (a) section type; (b) number of lanes per direction; (c) roadway profile; (d) wet road surface; and (e) cyclist-bus accident. Notably, history of traffic violations has different impact on different types of bus drivers.

  7. Research in bus and rail transit operations

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, A.; Wegmann, F.J.; Ceder, A.; Levinson, H.S.; Hollander, A.

    1989-01-01

    The 10 papers in the report deal with the following areas: Private Sector Involvement in Sponsoring Sunday Bus Service; Optimal Design of Transit Short-Turn Trips; New York City's Unfranchised Buses: Case Study in Deregulation; Critical Factors in Planning Multimodal Passenger Terminals; Use of Travelers' Attitudes in Rail Service Design; Driven, Attended, and Fully Automated Transit; Qualitative Comparison; Impact on Transit Patronage of Cessation or Inauguration of Rail Service; Use of Productivity Factors in Estimating LRT Operating Costs; Simulation Study To Evaluate Spare Ratios in Bus Transit Systems; Statistical Evaluation of Spare Ratio in Transit Rolling Stock.

  8. Design of multi-mission spacecraft bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agrawal, Brij N.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary design of a multimission spacecraft bus for meteorological and communications payloads. The meteorological payload uses sun-synchronous circular orbit and the communications payload uses Molniya type orbit to provide communications for areas not covered by geosynchronous communications satellites. The launch vehicles are Pegasus for the meteorological payload and Taurus for the communications payload. The spacecraft bus uses three-axis stabilization consisting of a three reaction wheel system. The electric power system consists of single-axis tracking silicon solar array and Ni2 H2 batteries. The propulsion subsystem consists of six hydrazine thrusters and one propellant tank.

  9. Bus training for developmentally disabled adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, D; Griffith, J; McComish, K; Swasbrook, K

    1984-07-01

    The effectiveness of a program combining classroom and community training in the teaching of bus-riding skills to developmentally disabled adults. These skills were taught sequentially using questions about a slide presentation, role playing, and performance in the natural environment. The experimental design was based upon the work of Neef, Iwata, and Page (1978). Test trials were conducted after each phase of training. Results showed that all subjects learned the necessary bus-riding skills and maintained their performance throughout the follow-up period of at least 1 year. The combination training method proved to be efficient and cost effective.

  10. Lightweight power bus for a baseload nuclear reactor in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massie, Lowell D.; Hoffman, Dennis J.; Oberly, Charles E.

    Metallic superconductors requiring refrigeration in the range of 4 to 10 K are of no benefit to the baseload space power system bus because the refrigeration and insulation constraints are too severe. The ceramic superconductors that can operate in the range of 20 to 100 K alleviate a great deal of the refrigeration problem and can compete with conventional hot bus distribution systems on the basis of mass for a bus exceeding a few meters in length. The ultimate benefit of the superconducting bus to the space power system will not be the mass savings. The great benefit of the superconducting bus will be the enormous reduction in bus voltage requirements due to the zero voltage drop along the bus. Low bus voltage (less than 100 Vdc) will permit a conventional dielectric insulation technology to be utilized as baseload powers are forced above 10 kW on spacecraft.

  11. 214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    214. RUSTIC BUS SHELTER, GUARDRAILS AND LAMP POST BELLE HAVEN BUS STOP WIDENING, 1932. - George Washington Memorial Parkway, Along Potomac River from McLean to Mount Vernon, VA, Mount Vernon, Fairfax County, VA

  12. 24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL INTERIOR VIEW OF GENERATOR BUS POTENTIAL FOR UNIT NO 1 IN BUS CELL GALLERY ON LEVEL +77 OF POWERHOUSE #1. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  13. The crew activity planning system bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    The hardware and software designs used to implement a high speed parallel communications interface to the MITRE 307.2 kilobit/second serial bus communications system are described. The primary topic is the development of the bus interface unit.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction. In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross was working on the ACCESS experiment during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA).

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo astronaut Ross, located on the Manipulator Foot Restraint (MFR) over the cargo bay, erects ACCESS. The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Spring was working on the EASE during an Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The primary objective of this experiment was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-11-30

    The crew assigned to the STS-61B mission included Bryan D. O’Conner, pilot; Brewster H. Shaw, commander; Charles D. Walker, payload specialist; mission specialists Jerry L. Ross, Mary L. Cleave, and Sherwood C. Spring; and Rodolpho Neri Vela, payload specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis November 28, 1985 at 7:29:00 pm (EST), the STS-61B mission’s primary payload included three communications satellites: MORELOS-B (Mexico); AUSSAT-2 (Australia); and SATCOM KU-2 (RCA Americom). Two experiments were conducted to test assembling erectable structures in space: EASE (Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity), and ACCESS (Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structure). In a joint venture between NASA/Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia, and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), EASE and ACCESS were developed and demonstrated at MSFC's Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). In this STS-61B onboard photo, astronaut Ross works on ACCESS high above the orbiter. The primary objective of these experiments was to test the structural assembly concepts for suitability as the framework for larger space structures and to identify ways to improve the productivity of space construction.

  18. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The driver of the Over Land Transporter is seen as he maneuvers the space shuttle Endeavour on the streets of Los Angeles as it heads to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-12

    The driver of the Over Land Transporter (OLT) is seen as he maneuvers the space shuttle Endeavour on the streets of Los Angeles as it heads to its new home at the California Science Center, Friday, Oct. 12, 2012. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC's Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  20. Shuttle Showcase: STS-30

    NASA Image and Video Library

    May 4, 1989... the five-person crew of Atlantis prepares for the first deployment of a planetary spacecraft from the shuttle. A little over six hours after launch, Magellan and its mammoth Inertial...

  1. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-01-28

    Designed by the crewmembers assigned to the mission, the STS-35 crew patch symbolizes the Space Shuttle flying above Earth's atmosphere to better study the many celestial objects of the universe, represented by the constellation Orion.

  3. Shuttle car loading system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A system is described for loading newly mined material such as coal, into a shuttle car, at a location near the mine face where there is only a limited height available for a loading system. The system includes a storage bin having several telescoping bin sections and a shuttle car having a bottom wall that can move under the bin. With the bin in an extended position and filled with coal the bin sections can be telescoped to allow the coal to drop out of the bin sections and into the shuttle car, to quickly load the car. The bin sections can then be extended, so they can be slowly filled with more while waiting another shuttle car.

  4. Shuttle Astronauts Play Chess

    NASA Image and Video Library

    STS-134 astronauts Greg Johnson and Greg Chamitoff ponder their next move for the Earth vs. Space chess match. The shuttle crew members also discuss their activities aboard the International Space ...

  5. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-12-02

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-35) blasts off into a dark Florida sky. Columbia's payload included the ASTRO project which was designed to obtain ultraviolet (UV) data on astronomical objects using a UV telescope flying on Spacelab.

  6. Shuttle Inventory Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Inventory Management System (SIMS) consists of series of integrated support programs providing supply support for both Shuttle program and Kennedy Space Center base opeations SIMS controls all supply activities and requirements from single point. Programs written in COBOL.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-13

    Designed by the mission crew members, the STS-66 emblem depicts the Space Shuttle Atlantis launching into Earth orbit to study global environmental change. The payload for the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3) and complementary experiments were part of a continuing study of the atmosphere and the Sun's influence on it. The Space Shuttle is trailed by gold plumes representing the astronaut symbol and is superimposed over Earth, much of which is visible from the flight's high inclination orbit. Sensitive instruments aboard the ATLAS pallet in the Shuttle payload bay and on the free-flying Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmospheric-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CHRISTA-SPAS) that gazed down on Earth and toward the Sun, are illustrated by the stylized sunrise and visible spectrum.

  8. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-10-15

    On the 500th arniversary of Christopher Columbus' discovery of the New World, replicas of his three ships sailed past the launch pad at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) while the space shuttle Columbia sat poised for lift off.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-03-01

    This photograph shows the liquid hydrogen tank and liquid oxygen tank for the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) being assembled in the weld assembly area of the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF). The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first eight 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-05-01

    This photograph shows a liquid oxygen tank for the Shuttle External Tank (ET) during a hydroelastic modal survey test at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The ET provides liquid hydrogen and liquid oxygen to the Shuttle's three main engines during the first 8.5 minutes of flight. At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable. The ET is manufactured at the Michoud Assembly Facility near New Orleans, Louisiana, by the Martin Marietta Corporation under management of the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  11. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    NASA and United Space Alliance workers lower a yellow sling onto space shuttle Enterprise, which sits atop NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) prior to it being demated a few hours later at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Saturday, May 12, 2012. Once the sling was firmly attached early Sunday morning, Enterprise was lifted from the SCA. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to Intrepid in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  12. Space Shuttle Enterprise Demate

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-12

    Space shuttle Enterprise is held aloft by a yellow sling and a set of cranes after it was removed from the top of NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft early Sunday morning at John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York, Sunday, May 13, 2012 .The 747 was towed backwards so that Enterprise could be lowered. The shuttle will be placed on a barge that will move by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. The shuttle will be lifted by crane and placed on the flight deck of the Intrepid, where it will be on exhibit to the public starting this summer in a temporary climate-controlled pavilion. Photo Credit: (NASA/Kim Shiflet)

  13. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1979-01-01

    Design and configurations of the Space Shuttle are examined. Attention is given to such features as the Orbiter, the guidance systems, design avionics, system design, and the flight control system centered about a redundant set of general purpose computers.

  14. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-12-16

    A NASA scientist displays Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) turbine component which underwent air flow tests at Marshall's Structures and Dynamics Lab. Such studies could improve efficiency of aircraft engines, and lower operational costs.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1981-01-01

    The Space Shuttle main propulsion system includes three major elements. One of those elements is the External Tank (ET). The ET holds over one-half million gallons of liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen that fuel the main engines.

  16. Shuttle Showcase: STS-125

    NASA Image and Video Library

    After four previous trips to repair and upgrade the Hubble Space Telescope, it was time for the Shuttle to make one final service call to install new, advanced instruments, batteries, gyros and ins...

  17. Habitability study shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Habitability design concepts for the Shuttle Orbiter Program are provided for MSC. A variety of creative solutions for the stated tasks are presented. Sketches, mock-ups, mechanicals and models are included for establishing a foundation for future development.

  18. Analysis of a diesel-electric hybrid urban bus system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marr, W. W.; Sekar, R. R.; Ahlheim, M. C.

    A hybrid bus powered by a diesel engine and a battery pack was analyzed over an idealized bus-driving cycle in Chicago. Three hybrid configurations, two parallel and one series, were evaluated. The results indicate that the fuel economy of a hybrid bus, taking into account the regenerative braking, is comparable with that of a conventional diesel bus. Life-cycle costs are slightly higher because of the added weight and cost of the battery.

  19. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-03-18

    The Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-67) lands at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California after successfully completing NASA's longest plarned shuttle mission. The seven-member crew conducted round-the-clock observations with the ASTRO-2 observatory, a trio of telescopes designed to study the universe of ultraviolet astronomy. Because of Earth's protective ozone layer ultraviolet light from celestial objects does not reach gound-based telescopes, and such studies can only be conducted from space.

  20. US Space Shuttle evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, Charles

    1989-01-01

    The long term systematic series of upgrades and enhancements needed to insure that the Space Shuttle remains a viable, cost-effective transportation system are discussed. A candidate Space Shuttle evolution strategy is presented. It emphasizes enhanced reliability, crew safety, reduced operations costs and enhanced capabilities required to meet projected long-range requirements. The strategy includes definition of long-term goals and requirements, potential hardware and operation enhancements, and addresses the issues of fleet size and utilization.

  1. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    Onlookers wearing commemorative t-shirts watch as space shuttle Atlantis rolls to ts new home at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, early Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-09-01

    The STS-53 crew portrait included astronauts (front left to right): Guion S. Bluford, and James S. Voss, mission specialists. On the back row, left to right, are David M. Walker, commander; Robert D. Cabana, Pilot; and Michael R. (Rick) Clifford, mission specialist. The crew launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on December 2, 1992 at 8:24:00 am (EST). This mission marked the final classified shuttle flight for the Department of Defense (DOD).

  3. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-12-02

    Space Shuttle Atlantis takes flight on its STS-27 mission, December 2, 1988, utilizing 375,000 pounds of thrust produced by its three main engines. The engines start in 3.9 seconds of ignition and go to static pump speeds of approximately 35,000 revolutions per minute during that time. The Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibility of Space Shuttle propulsion elements, including the Main Engines.

  4. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Shuttle vectors.

    PubMed

    Gnügge, Robert; Rudolf, Fabian

    2017-01-10

    Yeast shuttle vectors are indispensable tools in yeast research. They enable cloning of defined DNA sequences in Escherichia coli and their direct transfer into Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. There are three types of commonly used yeast shuttle vectors: centromeric plasmids, episomal plasmids and integrating plasmids. In this review, we discuss the different plasmid systems and their characteristic features. We focus on their segregational stability and copy number and indicate how to modify these properties. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Space shuttle revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrone, P. D.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Shuttle air revitalization system is discussed. The sequential steps in loop closure are examined and a schematic outline of the regenerative air revitalization system is presented. Carbon dioxide reduction subsystem concepts are compared. Schemes are drawn for: static feedwater electrolysis cell, solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis cell, air revitalization system, nitrogen generation reactions, nitrogen subsystem staging, vapor compression distillation subsystem, thermoelectric integrated membrane evaporation subsystem, catalytic distillation water reclamation subsystem, and space shuttle solid waste management system.

  6. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-03-15

    In this view looking northwest over the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Shuttle Orbiter Enterprise is seen heading South on Rideout Road near the Redstone Arsenal Fire Station as it is being transported to MSFC's building 4755 for later Mated Vertical Ground Vibration tests (MVGVT) at MSFC's Dynamic Test Stand. The tests marked the first time ever that the entire shuttle complement (including Orbiter, external tank, and solid rocket boosters) were mated vertically.

  7. Space Shuttle Endeavour launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    A smooth countdown culminated in a picture-perfect launch as the Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) climbed skyward atop a ladder of billowing smoke. Primary payload for the plarned seven-day flight was Spacelab-J science laboratory. The second flight of Endeavour marks a number of historic firsts: the first space flight of an African-American woman, the first Japanese citizen to fly on a Space Shuttle, and the first married couple to fly in space.

  8. Shuttle derived atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findlay, John

    1987-01-01

    The shuttle descends along a rather shallow path, thus providing some information on the horizontal structure of the atmosphere. Small scale structures were suggested (shears, potholes). The best estimates of the shuttle drag coefficient and projected areas are used to go from accelerometer data to density through the use of BET's (Best Estimated Trajectories). Data are from the IMU's (Inertial Measurement Unit) and the HiRAP (High Resolution Accelerometer Package).

  9. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    Military personnel salute as Searra Weeks, from Kennedy Middle School, sings the National Anthem, at the signing ceremony for space shuttle Atlantis, background, Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-29

    This photo depicts the installation of an External Tank (ET) into the Marshall Space Flight Center Dynamic Test Stand, building 4550. It is being mated to the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) for a Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT). At 154-feet long and more than 27-feet in diameter, the ET is the largest component of the Space Shuttle, the structural backbone of the entire Shuttle system, and is the only part of the vehicle that is not reusable.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-05-30

    The crewmembers of Space Shuttle mission 51-F have chosen as their insignia this design by Houston artist Skip Bradley. The Space Shuttle Challenger is depicted ascending toward the heavens in search of new knowledge in the field of solar and steallar astronomy, with its Spacelab 2 payload. The constellations Leo and Orion are in the positions they will be in, relative to the sun during the flight. The nineteen stars signify that this will be the 19th STS flight.

  12. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-17

    A four-million-mile journey draws to a flawless ending as the orbiter Discovery (STS-56) lands at Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility. Aboard for the second shuttle mission of 1993 were a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical make-up, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  13. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    The Titusville High School band parades ahead of space shuttle Atlantis as it makes its way to its new home at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, early Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  14. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    Workers carry a banner full of signatures while following behind space shuttle Atlantis as it begins its trek to its new home at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, early Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  15. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    Onlookers watch as space shuttle Atlantis rolls to its new home at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, early Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Space Shuttle Atlantis Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-02

    An onlooker holds up a mobile device to record space shuttle Atlantis as it rolls to ts new home at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, early Friday, Nov. 2, 2012, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The spacecraft traveled 125,935,769 miles during 33 spaceflights, including 12 missions to the International Space Station. Its final flight, STS-135, closed out the Space Shuttle Program era with a landing on July 21, 2011. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  17. Design Report for Isolated RS-485 Bus Node

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    The Android-based smartphone or tablet is used in conjunction with a USB to serial bridge to operate as the bus master in the system. The Android device...operates in USB Host mode and communicates to the RS-485 bus as if a single peripheral on the USB bus .

  18. Developing a Computer Program for Bus Routing. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Rita M.; Thomas, Warren H.

    A computer-based method was developed that can translate available data about schools, students, and bus facilities into a set of bus routes and schedules prior to the start of the school year. Each route can be so designed via the computer model that student riding time and bus capacity constraints are satisfied at the same time that total bus…

  19. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  20. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  1. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  2. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  3. 49 CFR 374.317 - Identification-bus and driver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Identification-bus and driver. 374.317 Section 374.317 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER...—bus and driver. Each bus and driver providing service shall be identified in a manner visible...

  4. Ashford Conn. Gets Funds for New Cleaner School Bus

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Town of Ashford, Conn. will receive $20,000 from the USEPA to help pay for a new school bus that emits less pollution than its older bus. The new bus will help reduce pollution linked to health problems such as asthma and lung damage.

  5. Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the Operating Room? Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus KidsHealth > For Kids > Staying Safe in the Car and on the Bus A A A What's ... re probably getting there by riding in a car or a school bus. Most kids spend some ...

  6. Information management advanced development. Volume 3: Digital data bus breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, C. R.

    1972-01-01

    The design, development, and evaluation of the digital data bus breadboard for the modular space station are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) requirements summary, (2) parametric data for bus design, (3) redundancy concepts, and (4) data bus breadboard performance and interface requirements.

  7. Space shuttle requirements/configuration evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, E. P.

    1991-01-01

    Space Shuttle chronology; Space Shuttle comparison; Cost comparison; Performance; Program ground rules; Sizing criteria; Crew/passenger provisions; Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) characteristics; Space Shuttle program milestones; and Space Shuttle requirements are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs.

  8. Space Shuttle: The Renewed Promise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAleer, Neil

    This booklet describes the history of the space shuttle, especially after the Challenger accident. Topics include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "Return to Flight: The Recovery"; (3) "Space Shuttle Chronology"; (4) "Examples of Other Modifications on Shuttle's Major Systems"; (5) "Space Shuttle Recovery…

  9. Shuttle/GPSPAC experimentation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, J.; Flack, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    The utilization is discussed of the GPSPAC, which is presently being developed to be used on the low altitude host vehicle (LAHV), for possible use in the shuttle avionics system to evaluate shuttle/GPS navigation performance. Analysis and tradeoffs of the shuttle/GPS link, shuttle signal interface requirements, oscillator tradeoffs and GPSPAC mechanical modifications for shuttle are included. Only the on-orbit utilization of GPSPAC for the shuttle is discussed. Other phases are briefly touched upon. Recommendations are provided for using the present GPSPAC and the changes required to perform shuttle on-orbit navigation.

  10. Energy DataBus (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-07-01

    NREL has developed the Energy DataBus, an open-sourced software that collects massive amounts of energy-related data at second-to-second intervals; stores it in a massive, scalable database; and turns it into useful information.

  11. School Bus Accidents: Reducing Incidents and Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The number of children injured in nonfatal school bus accidents annually is more than double the number previously estimated. In Ohio alone, approximately 20,800 children younger than 18 were occupants of school buses that were involved in crashes in 2003 and 2004 (McGeehan 2007). Among those children, most had minor or no injuries. However, there…

  12. EPA Love the Bus in Texas

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    DALLAS - (Feb. 11, 2015) Texas' school bus drivers safely transport children to and from school every day and they should not have to worry about pollutants emitted from buses. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is awarding a total of $

  13. Repeater For A Digital-Communication Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres-Guzman, Esteban; Olson, Stephen; Heaps, Tim

    1993-01-01

    Digital repeater circuit designed to extend range of communication on MIL-STD-1553 bus beyond original maximum allowable length of 300 ft. Circuit provides two-way communication, one way at time, and conforms to specifications of MIL-STD-1553. Crosstalk and instability eliminated.

  14. Mission Services Evolution Center Message Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayorga, Arturo; Bristow, John O.; Butschky, Mike

    2011-01-01

    The Goddard Mission Services Evolution Center (GMSEC) Message Bus is a robust, lightweight, fault-tolerant middleware implementation that supports all messaging capabilities of the GMSEC API. This architecture is a distributed software system that routes messages based on message subject names and knowledge of the locations in the network of the interested software components.

  15. SDRAM bus schedule of HDTV video decoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; He, Yan L.; Yu, Lu

    2001-12-01

    In this paper, a time division multiplexed task scheduling (TDM) is designed for HDTV video decoder is proposed. There are three tasks: to fetch decoded data from SDRAM for displaying (DIS), read the reference data from SDRAM for motion compensating (REF) and write the motion compensated data back to SDRAM (WB) on the bus. The proposed schedule is based on the novel 4 banks interlaced SDRAM storage structure which results in less overhead on read/write time. Two SDRAM of 64M bits (4Bank×512K×32bit) are used. Compared with two banks, the four banks storage strategy read/write data with 45% less time. Therefore the process data rates for those three tasks are reduced. TDM is developed by round robin scheduling and fixed slot allocating. There are both MB slot and task slot. As a result the conflicts on bus are avoided, and the buffer size is reduced 48% compared with the priority bus scheduling. Moreover, there is a compacted bus schedule for the worst case of stuffing owning to the reduced executing time on tasks. The size of buffer is reduced and the control logic is simplified.

  16. Bus 54 -- Where are you? A school bus intelligent information system

    SciTech Connect

    Truett, L.F.; Moore, S.; Tonn, B.; Conley, T.

    1998-07-01

    Although major accidents involving school buses are rare (only about 0.3% of all fatal crashes since 1986 are classified as school-bus-related), even minor accidents and breakdowns cause a great deal of parental anxiety. The objective of this research is to design an efficient, cost-effective, accurate, and secure system that will track individual school buses and communicate appropriate information to the school system`s central administration unit, to the school transportation administrator, and to parents of children on the bus. The greatest benefit of the proposed information system is that parents and officials can always know the location and condition (these conditions would vary depending on the needs of a particular school system) of the school buses. In case of an accident or mechanical problem, when emergency crews are needed, they can be dispatched almost immediately with a good understanding of the problem and the exact location of the bus. In addition to being able to track the bus while the child is on board, parents will be able to determine the location of their child`s bus prior to its arrival in the morning in order to prevent the child from needing to wait outside in inclement weather. The information available to parents can also be expanded to include maps of limited routes (e.g., snow routes). Basically, the Bus 54 concept consists of a bus component and a central data processing unit. Each bus will be outfitted with a global positioning satellite (GPS) device, a wireless communication device, and wireless data communication service. The central data processing unit will receive and process information from the buses and provide information access to parents and officials via an Internet link.

  17. Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) Operational Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benefield, Philip; Bradley, Doug

    2010-01-01

    Through the years of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) program the engine has evolved and operational capabilities have been demonstrated beyond the original Shuttle requirements. In an effort to enhance flight safety and demonstrate safety features and margins, engines have been analyzed and tested at many different operating points. Various studies through the years evaluating the SSME for different applications both as a boost stage and upper stage have also added insight into the overall operational characteristics of the engine and have further defined safety margins for the Shuttle application. This paper will summarize the operational characteristics of the SSME from the original design requirements to the expanded capabilities demonstrated through analysis, lab testing and especially "off-nominal" engine testing leading to an increased understanding of the engine operational characteristics and safety margins. Basic engine characteristics such as thrust, mixture ratio, propellant inlet conditions, system redundancy, etc. will be examined.

  18. Numerical study of urban traffic flow with dedicated bus lane and intermittent bus lane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, H. B.

    2010-08-01

    Based on the cellular automaton traffic flow model and the concept of public transport priority, a two-lane traffic model with an intermittent bus lane is proposed and the properties of urban traffic flow are studied. The cases of traffic with a dedicated bus lane (DBL), an intermittent bus lane (IBL) and an ordinary two-lane traffic are simulated, and comparisons in the form of the fundamental diagrams and the velocity-density profiles are made between them. It is shown that the DBL has the advantage of freeing buses from traffic interference and also has the disadvantage of disrupting traffic, the IBL is more efficient in improving the bus flow than ordinary two-lane traffic and maintaining the car flow at a higher level at the same time than the DBL, while the ordinary two-lane traffic suppresses public transportation and is not advantageous in easing urban traffic congestion. Also it is indicated that the DBL is only appropriate for low traffic flow in a two-lane traffic system, and this limitation can be partly overcome by opening the bus lane to general traffic intermittently when the bus lane is not in use by buses.

  19. Command decoder unit. [performance tests of data processing terminals and data converters for space shuttle orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The design and testing of laboratory hardware (a command decoder unit) used in evaluating space shuttle instrumentation, data processing, and ground check-out operations is described. The hardware was a modification of another similar instrumentation system. A data bus coupler was designed and tested to interface the equipment to a central bus controller (computer). A serial digital data transfer mechanism was also designed. Redundant power supplies and overhead modules were provided to minimize the probability of a single component failure causing a catastrophic failure. The command decoder unit is packaged in a modular configuration to allow maximum user flexibility in configuring a system. Test procedures and special test equipment for use in testing the hardware are described. Results indicate that the unit will allow NASA to evaluate future software systems for use in space shuttles. The units were delivered to NASA and appear to be adequately performing their intended function. Engineering sketches and photographs of the command decoder unit are included.

  20. Bus Seats Made with Fire-Retardant Materials Let You Buy Time in an Emergency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Paul T.

    1987-01-01

    School boards can substantially minimize school bus fires with recently improved fire-resistant materials. Tests comparing fires in buses without resistant materials with fires controllable by protective materials demonstrate that manufacturers should be urged to improve materials. Materials would not prevent fires, but they would buy time to…

  1. Bus Seats Made with Fire-Retardant Materials Let You Buy Time in an Emergency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Paul T.

    1987-01-01

    School boards can substantially minimize school bus fires with recently improved fire-resistant materials. Tests comparing fires in buses without resistant materials with fires controllable by protective materials demonstrate that manufacturers should be urged to improve materials. Materials would not prevent fires, but they would buy time to…

  2. Shuttle - Mir Program Insignia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-20

    The rising sun signifies the dawn of a new era of human Spaceflight, the first phase of the United States/Russian space partnership, Shuttle-Mir. Mir is shown in its proposed final on orbit configuration. The Shuttle is shown in a generic tunnel/Spacehab configuration. The Shuttle/Mir combination, docked to acknowledge the union of the two space programs, orbits over an Earth devoid of any definable features or political borders to emphasize Earth as the home planet for all humanity. The individual stars near the Space Shuttle and the Russian Mir Space Station represent the previous individual accomplishments of Russia's space program and that of the United States. The binary star is a tribute to the previous United States-Russian joint human Spaceflight program, the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP). The flags of the two nations are symbolized by flowing ribbons of the national colors interwoven in space to represent the two nations joint exploration of space. NASA SHUTTLE and PKA MNP are shown in the stylized logo fonts of the two agencies that are conducting this program.

  3. Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-09-12

    Ronnie Rigney (r), chief of the Propulsion Test Office in the Project Directorate at Stennis Space Center, stands with agency colleagues to receive the prestigious American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics George M. Low Space Transportation Award on Sept. 12. Rigney accepted the award on behalf of the NASA and contractor team at Stennis for their support of the Space Shuttle Program that ended last summer. From 1975 to 2009, Stennis Space Center tested every main engine used to power 135 space shuttle missions. Stennis continued to provide flight support services through the end of the Space Shuttle Program in July 2011. The center also supported transition and retirement of shuttle hardware and assets through September 2012. The 2012 award was presented to the space shuttle team 'for excellence in the conception, development, test, operation and retirement of the world's first and only reusable space transportation system.' Joining Rigney for the award ceremony at the 2012 AIAA Conference in Pasadena, Calif., were: (l to r) Allison Zuniga, NASA Headquarters; Michael Griffin, former NASA administrator; Don Noah, Johnson Space Center in Houston; Steve Cash, Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.; and Pete Nickolenko, Kennedy Space Center in Florida.

  4. 58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    58. VIEW OF SIGNAL BUS SECTION NUMBER 2 LOCATED OVER THE CONTROL ROOM MEZZANINE IN THE SIGNAL POWER CONDITIONING ROOM. BUS IS A HEAVY COPPER BAR APPROXIMATELY 1/2" BY 4" WHICH CONDUCTS POWER THROUGHOUT THE POWER PLANT. BUS ARE PROTECTED BY A BRICK AND SOAPSTONE HOUSING. OPENINGS FOR INSPECTION AND ACCESS WOULD NORMALLY BE PROTECTED BY GLASS DOORS. THE BUS WOULD BE SUPPORTED ON INSULATORS WITHIN THE BRICK CHAMBER. BUS WAS REMOVED AND SALVAGED WHEN THE STATION WAS ABANDONED. THE OBJECT IN THE TOP CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER USED TO REDUCE BUS POTENTIAL OF 2200 VOLTS TO LOW VOLTAGES SAFE FOR USE IN CONTROL ROOM CIRCUITRY. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMERS ARE PRECISION DEVICES WHICH PRODUCE AN ACCURATE LOW VOLTAGE ANALOG OF THE HIGH VOLTAGE ON THE BUS. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  5. Integer programming model for optimizing bus timetable using genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wihartiko, F. D.; Buono, A.; Silalahi, B. P.

    2017-01-01

    Bus timetable gave an information for passengers to ensure the availability of bus services. Timetable optimal condition happened when bus trips frequency could adapt and suit with passenger demand. In the peak time, the number of bus trips would be larger than the off-peak time. If the number of bus trips were more frequent than the optimal condition, it would make a high operating cost for bus operator. Conversely, if the number of trip was less than optimal condition, it would make a bad quality service for passengers. In this paper, the bus timetabling problem would be solved by integer programming model with modified genetic algorithm. Modification was placed in the chromosomes design, initial population recovery technique, chromosomes reconstruction and chromosomes extermination on specific generation. The result of this model gave the optimal solution with accuracy 99.1%.

  6. Priorities for an age-friendly bus system.

    PubMed

    Broome, Kieran; Worrall, Linda; McKenna, Kryss; Boldy, Duncan

    2010-09-01

    This article presents the results of a study on the barriers and facilitators to bus use for people aged 60 or older. Two complementary methodologies, nominal group technique and focussed ethnography, were used to identify barriers and facilitators and rank their importance. Two sample sites from Queensland, Australia, were selected, with 227 people participating in the nominal group technique and 40 people participating in the focussed ethnography component. Seven priorities for age-friendly bus systems emerged from the data: vehicle entrance/exit; bus driver friendliness and helpfulness; timetables and scheduling of buses; bus stop locations; pedestrian infrastructure; information and training for older people; and bus routes and destinations. These findings will assist researchers, policy makers, and transport providers to set evidence-based strategic directions for creating age-friendly bus systems. Both methods provide complementary perspectives on bus usability, which could not be gained from either method alone.

  7. Shuttle: forever young?

    PubMed

    Sietzen, Frank

    2002-01-01

    NASA has started a 4-phase program of upgrades designed to increase safety and extend use of the space shuttles through the year 2020. Phase I is aimed at improving vehicle safety and supporting the space station. Phase II is aimed at combating obsolescence and includes a checkout launch and control system and protection from micrometeoroids and orbital debris. Phase III is designed to expand or enhance the capabilities of the shuttle and includes development of an auxiliary power unit, avionics, a channel-wall nozzle, extended nose landing gear, long-life fuel cells, a nontoxic orbital maneuvering system/reaction control system, and a water membrane evaporator. Phase IV is aimed at design of system changes that would alter the shuttle mold line and configuration; projects include a five-segment solid rocket booster, liquid flyback boosters, and a crew escape module.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-04-01

    The TELESAT-1, also known as ANIK C-1, satellite is being released from the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery during STS-51D, the 16th Shuttle mission. TELESAT-1 is a communication satellite built for Telesat Canada to provide voice and TV coverage of the Earth stations to trans-Canada network. Also shows in this photograph is an anterna for SYNCOM IV-3, also known as LEASAT-3, folded in a stowage. The SYNCOM is the Hughes Geosynchronous Communication Satellite and provides communication services from geosynchronous orbits principally to the U.S. Government. Both satellites were launched on April 12, 1985, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-01

    Workmen in the Dynamic Test Stand lowered the nose cone into place to complete stacking of the left side of the solid rocket booster (SRB) in the Dynamic Test Stand at the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SRB would be attached to the external tank (ET) and then the orbiter later for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT), that resumed in October 1978. The stacking of a complete Shuttle in the Dynamic Test Stand allowed test engineers to perform ground vibration testing on the Shuttle in its liftoff configuration. The purpose of the MVGVT was to verify that the Space Shuttle would perform as predicted during launch. The platforms inside the Dynamic Test Stand were modified to accommodate two SRB'S to which the ET was attached.

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-01

    This photograph shows stacking of the left side of the solid rocket booster (SRB) segments in the Dynamic Test Stand at the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Staging shown here are the aft skirt, aft segment, and aft center segment. The SRB was attached to the external tank (ET) and then the orbiter later for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT), that resumed in October 1978. The stacking of a complete Shuttle in the Dynamic Test Stand allowed test engineers to perform ground vibration testing on the Shuttle in its liftoff configuration. The purpose of the MVGVT is to verify that the Space Shuttle would perform as predicted during launch. The platforms inside the Dynamic Test Stand were modified to accommodate two SRB's to which the ET was attached.

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-09-01

    This photograph shows the left side of the solid rocket booster (SRB) segment as it awaits being mated to the nose cone and forward skirt in the Dynamic Test Stand at the east test area of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The SRB would be attached to the external tank (ET) and then the orbiter later for the Mated Vertical Ground Vibration Test (MVGVT), that resumed in October 1978. The stacking of a complete Shuttle in the Dynamic Test Stand allowed test engineers to perform ground vibration testing on the Shuttle in its liftoff configuration. The purpose of the MVGVT was to verify that the Space Shuttle would perform as predicted during launch. The platforms inside the Dynamic Test Stand were modified to accommodate two SRB's to which the ET was attached.

  12. British super-shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-10-01

    British Aerospace, the nationalized aerospace manufacturer, confirmed that a space shuttle of new design is indeed being studied, and that a model of the craft will be displayed. The British television network ITN had announced that secret plans were being prepared for the construction of a reusable horizontal takeoff super-shuttle, which could breathe atmospheric oxygen to supply its propulsion system. Retracting a first denial according to which the project existed merely as scribbles on the back of an envelope, a British Aerospace spokesperson declared that it was in fact a very serious study. The super-shuttle, called HOTOL (horizontal takeoff and landing), would be placed in orbit as a platform for satellite launching. The spokesperson further indicated that with a certain resemblance to the Concorde, it would be pilotless, remote controlled, and would allow frequent operations at short time intervals.

  13. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-13

    From left to right are seen Apollo 7 astronaut Walter Cunningham (second from right), NASA astronaut Kay Hire, Hildreth Walker, Founder of A-MAN Inc. STEM International Science Center; NASA astronauts Michael Fincke and Gregory Johnson at the Endeavour Kick-Off Ceremony, Saturday, Oct. 13, 2012 in Inglewood. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-06-07

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2001-10-01

    This is a traditional crew portrait of the seven STS-107 crew members. Seated in front, from left, are: Astronauts Rick D. Husband, mission commander; Kalpana Chawla, mission specialist; and William C. McCool, pilot. Standing, from left, are: David M. Brown, Laurel B. Clark, and Michael P. Anderson, all mission specialists; and Ilan Ramon, payload specialist, representing the Israeli Space Agency. Launched January 16, 2003, the STS-107 mission is strictly a multidiscipline microgravity and Earth science research mission involving 80-plus International experiments to be performed during 16-days, many of which will be managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. The first shuttle mission in 2003, the STS-107 mission marks the 113th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program and the 28th flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia.

  16. Space Shuttle Endeavour Move

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-13

    Jeffrey Rudolph, President and CEO, California Science Center speaks at the Endeavour Kick-Off Ceremony at The Forum in Inglewood, Saturday, Oct. 13, 2012. Behind him are seen Hildreth Walker, Founder of A-Man Inc. STEM International Science Center, far left; James T. Butts, Jr., Mayor of Inglewood; NASA astronauts Michael Fincke and Gregory Johnson, far right. Endeavour, built as a replacement for space shuttle Challenger, completed 25 missions, spent 299 days in orbit, and orbited Earth 4,671 times while traveling 122,883,151 miles. Beginning Oct. 30, the shuttle will be on display in the CSC’s Samuel Oschin Space Shuttle Endeavour Display Pavilion, embarking on its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Carla Cioffi)

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-04-05

    Aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis, the STS-37 mission launched April 5, 1991 from launch pad 39B at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida, and landed back on Earth April 11, 1991. The 39th shuttle mission included crew members: Steven R. Nagel, commander; Kenneth D. Cameron, pilot; Jerry L,. Ross, mission specialist 1; Jay Apt, mission specialist 2; and Linda M. Godwin, mission specialist 3. The primary payload for the mission was the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). The GRO included the Burst and Transient Experiment (BATSE); the Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL); the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET); and the Oriented Scintillation Spectrometer Experiment (OSSEE). Secondary payloads included Crew and Equipment Translation Aids (CETA); the Ascent Particle Monitor (APM); the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II (SAREXII), the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG); the Bioserve Instrumentation Technology Associates Materials Dispersion Apparatus (BIMDA); Radiation Monitoring Equipment III (RMEIII); and Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS).

  18. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-07-09

    As the orbiter Columbia (STS-50) rolled down Runway 33 of Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Shuttle Landing Facility, its distinctively colored drag chute deployed to slow down the spaceship. This landing marked OV-102's first end-of-mission landing at KSC and the tenth in the program, and the second shuttle landing with the drag chute. Edwards Air Force Base, CA, was the designated prime for the landing of Mission STS-50, but poor weather necessitated the switch to KSC after a one-day extension of the historic flight. STS-50 was the longest in Shuttle program historyo date, lasting 13 days, 19 hours, 30 minutes and 4 seconds. A crew of seven and the USML-1 were aboard.

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-02-11

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour blasts form the launch pad on February 11, 2000 carrying its crew of six for the STS-99 mission, a Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Orbiting at 233 kilometers (145 miles) above Earth, two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. This illustration shows the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth. With C-band and X-band outboard anternae at work, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, the SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, obtaining 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  1. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    The space shuttle Atlantis is seen in the Orbiter Processing Facility at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  2. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Pilot of the first space shuttle mission, STS-1, Bob Crippen speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  3. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Pilot of the first space shuttle mission, STS-1, Bob Crippen speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  4. Space Shuttle Discovery Landing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-04-17

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver, at podium, speaks to those in attendance at Apron W after the 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) with space shuttle Discovery mounted on top rolled to a halt at Washington Dulles International Airport, Tuesday, April 17, 2012 in Sterling, Va. Discovery, the first orbiter retired from NASA’s shuttle fleet, completed 39 missions, spent 365 days in space, orbited the Earth 5,830 times, and traveled 148,221,675 miles. NASA will transfer Discovery to the National Air and Space Museum to begin its new mission to commemorate past achievements in space and to educate and inspire future generations of explorers. Photo Credit: (NASA/Smithsonian Institution/Dane Penland)

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-06-25

    The STS-39 crew portrait includes 7 astronauts. Pictured are Charles L. Veach, mission specialist 5; Michael L. Coats, commander; Gregory J. Harbaugh, mission specialist 2; Donald R. McMonagle, mission specialist 4; L. Blaine Hammond, pilot; Richard J. Hieb, mission specialist 3; and Guion S. Buford, Jr., mission specialist 1. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 28, 1991 at 7:33:14 am (EDT), STS-39 was a Department of Defense (DOD) mission. The primary unclassified payload included the Air Force Program 675 (AFP-675), the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), and the Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (SPAS II).

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-01-16

    A clear blue sky hosts the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia STS-107 mission as it hurtles toward space from launch pad 39A at Kennedy Space Center on January 16, 2003. The 28th Columbia flight and 113th overall flight in NASA's Space Shuttle program, STS-107 is a multidiscipline microgravity and Earth science research mission involving 80-plus International experiments to be performed by a crew of seven during the 16-day mission. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth, many of which will be managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

  7. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    A Great Blue Heron seems oblivious to the tremendous spectacle of light and sound generated by a Shuttle liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) soars skyward from Launch Pad 39B. Columbia's seven member crew's mission included continuing experimentation in the Marshall managed payloads including the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2) and the keel-mounted accelerometer that characterizes the very low frequency acceleration environment of the orbiter payload bay during space flight, known as the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE).

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-07-08

    The principal theme of the STS-37 patch, designed by astronaut crewmembers, is the primary payload -- Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) -- and its relationship to the Space Shuttle. The Shuttle and the GRO are both depicted on the patch and are connected by a large gamma. The gamma symbolizes both the quest for gamma rays by GRO as well as the importance of the relationship between the manned and unmanned elements of the United States space program. The Earth background shows the southern portion of the United States under a partial cloud cover while the two fields of three and seven stars, respectively, refer to the STS-37 mission designation.

  9. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-06-25

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-50) launched into history carrying crew of seven and its payload was comprised of the US Microgravity Laboratory 1 (USML-1).The USML-1 was one of NASA's missions dedicated to scientific investigations in a microgravity environment inside the Spacelab module. Investigations aboard the USML-1 included: materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. Managed by Marshall Space Flight Center, the STS-50 mission was plarned for a 13-day duration, the mission ended with 14 days in space, the longest Shuttle mission to date.

  10. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-06-20

    Midmorning proved the perfect time for a Space Shuttle launch as the thunderstorms that characteristically develop later in the day during hot Florida summers held off long enough to allow a flawless liftoff for the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) and her crew of seven and the Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS), managed by Marshall Space Flight Center. During the 17 day spaceflight, the crew conducted a diverse slate of experiments divided into a mix of life science and microgravity investigations; and, in a marner very similar to future international space station operations, LMS researchers from the United States and their European counterparts shared resources such as crew time and equipment.

  11. Nanoparticle shuttle memory

    DOEpatents

    Zettl, Alex Karlwalter [Kensington, CA

    2012-03-06

    A device for storing data using nanoparticle shuttle memory having a nanotube. The nanotube has a first end and a second end. A first electrode is electrically connected to the first end of the nanotube. A second electrode is electrically connected to the second end of the nanotube. The nanotube has an enclosed nanoparticle shuttle. A switched voltage source is electrically connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby a voltage may be controllably applied across the nanotube. A resistance meter is also connected to the first electrode and the second electrode, whereby the electrical resistance across the nanotube can be determined.

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-11-07

    The STS-28 insignia was designed by the astronaut crew, who said it portrays the pride the American people have in their manned spaceflight program. It depicts America (the eagle) guiding the space program (the Space Shuttle) safely home from an orbital mission. The view looks south on Baja California and the west coast of the United States as the space travelers re-enter the atmosphere. The hypersonic contrails created by the eagle and Shuttle represent the American flag. The crew called the simple boldness of the design symbolic of America's unfaltering commitment to leadership in the exploration and development of space.

  13. Shuttle Enterprise Lands JFK

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-27

    NASA Deputy Administrator Lori Garver speaks Friday, April 27, 2012, during the transfer ceremony for space shuttle Enterprise at John F. Kennedy Airport in New York. Enterprise was the first shuttle orbiter built for NASA performing test flights in the atmosphere and was incapable of spaceflight. Originally housed at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, Enterprise will be demated from the SCA and placed on a barge that will eventually be moved by tugboat up the Hudson River to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in June. Photo Credit: (NASA/Paul E. Alers)

  14. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-01-22

    Onboard Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-42) the seven crewmembers pose for a traditional in-space portrait in the shirt-sleeve environment of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) science module in the Shuttle's cargo bay. Pictured are (clockwise from top),Commander Ronald J. Grabe, payload commander Norman E. Thagard, payload specialist Roberta L. Bondar; mission specialists William F. Readdy and David C. Hilmers; pilot Stephen S. Oswald and payload specialist Ulf Merbold. The rotating chair, used often in biomedical tests on the eight-day flight, is in center frame.

  15. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-11-03

    The 66th Space Shuttle flight began with a nearly on-time liftoff of the Orbiter Atlantis (STS-66) into the clear Florida skies. Atlantis returned to space after a nearly two year absence. The plarned 11-day flight will continue NASA's Mission to Planet Earth, a comprehensive international collaboration to study how Earth's environment is changing and how human beings affect that change. Primary payloads on this flight included the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-3), making its third flight, and the German-built Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS), which was deployed and retrieved during the mission.

  16. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  17. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1993-04-08

    The second try works like a charm as the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-56) lifts off from Launch Pad 39B. The first attempt to launch was halted at T-11 seconds on April 6th. Aboard for the second shuttle mission of 1993 were a crew of five and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science 2 (ATLAS 2), the second in a series of missions to study the sun's energy output and Earth's middle atmosphere chemical make-up, and how these factors affect levels of ozone.

  18. Bus application of oxygen-enrichment technology and diesel-electric hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sekar, R.R.; Marr, W.W.

    1993-10-01

    The amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) mandate very strict limits on particulate, smoke, and other emissions from city buses. The use of alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas (CNG) or methanol, can help transit operators, such as the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA), meet the mandated limits. However, the capital investment needed to convert the fueling infrastructure and buses is large, as is the expense of training personnel. If a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus can be implemented with the help of oxygen-enrichment technology or a diesel-electric hybrid system, this large investment could be postponed for many years. The Regional Transportation Authority (RTA) initiated this project to evaluate the possibility of applying these technologies to CTA buses. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a limited number of engine tests and computer analyses and concluded that both concepts are practical and will help in a {open_quotes}clean diesel{close_quotes} bus that can meet the mandated limits of the CAA amendments. The oxygen enrichment of combustion air depends on the availability of a compact and economical membrane separator. Because the technology for this critical component is still under development, it is recommended that an actual bus demonstration be delayed until prototype membranes are available. The hybrid propulsion system is ready for the demonstration phase, and it is recommended that the CTA and RTA commence planning for a bus demonstration.

  19. Orbital construction demonstration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design and program plan for an Orbital Construction Demonstration Article (OCDA) was developed that can be used for evaluating and establishing practical large structural assembly operations. A flight plan for initial placement and continued utility is presented as a basic for an entirely new shuttle payload line-item having great future potential benefit for space applications. The OCDA is a three-axis stabilized platform in low-earth orbit with many structural nodals for mounting large construction and fabrication equipments. This equipment would be used to explore methods for constructing the large structures for future missions. The OCDA would be supported at regular intervals by the shuttle. Construction experiments and consumables resupply are performed during shuttle visit periods. A 250 kw solar array provides sufficient power to support the shuttle while attached to the OCDA and to run construction experiments at the same time. Wide band communications with a Telemetry and Data Relay Satellite compatible high gain antenna can be used between shuttle revisits to perform remote controlled, TV assisted construction experiments.

  20. Replacing NASA's Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Donald F.

    1990-02-01

    The latest NASA Shuttle II proposal for an Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) is reviewed. It could achieve total reusability, with a glide-back booster stage and no solid rockets. The propellant load would be divided between the booster and orbiter stages. The AMLS payload of just over nine tons will be limited to crew and 'high-value' cargo, carried in the dorsal pod. Bulky freight and satellites will rely on expendable launchers. AMLS will be a Space Station ferry only and would not be used for on-orbit experiments. The operational history of the Space Shuttle program is shown, as well as its programmed future undertakings. Beyond the proposed Shuttle II, some insight is offered on the conceptual vehicle named Shuttle Z that could be the mainstay of Lunar-Base or Mars expeditions. Needed technologies and key features of a proposed AMLS orbiter are also mentioned. In addition, NASA proposals for a rescue vehicle for Space Station Freedom that will serve to return stranded or injured astronauts to earth is presented. One such proposed crew rescue vehicle would carry four people plus 450 kg of supplies, for a gross mass of 7146 kg.

  1. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-01-22

    This Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-42) onboard photo shows Canadian Payload Specialist Roberta Bondar getting into the Microgravity Vestibular Investigation (MVI) chair to begin an experiment in the International Microgravity Lab-1 (IML-1) Science Module. The (MVI) chair was designed to test the crew member's visual and vestibular responses to head and body movements.

  2. Shuttle Blast-Off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Marilyn Kay; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two articles describe ideas for school library media centers interested in promoting space education. The first article explains how to construct an inexpensive simulation of a space shuttle and suggests associated activities. The second presents steps for identifying resources and organizing them into a resources file; relevant information…

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-06-01

    The STS-99 crew members designed the flight insignia for the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. Two radar anternas, one located in the Shuttle bay and the other located on the end of a 60-meter deployable mast, was used during the mission to map Earth's features. The goal was to provide a 3-dimensional topographic map of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. In the patch, the clear portion of Earth illustrates the radar beams penetrating its cloudy atmosphere and the unique understanding of the home planet that is provided by space travel. The grid on Earth reflects the mapping character of the SRTM mission. The patch depicts the Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting Earth in a star spangled universe. The rainbow along Earth's horizon resembles an orbital sunrise. The crew deems the bright colors of the rainbow as symbolic of the bright future ahead because of human beings' venturing into space. The crew of six launched aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor on February 11, 2000 and completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs.

  4. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-21

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  5. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-02-28

    The STS-36 mission launch aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on February 28, 1990 at 2:50:22am (EST). The crew featured five astronauts who served in the 6th Department of Defense (DOD) mission: John H. Creighton, commander; John H. Caster, pilot; and mission specialists Pierre J. Thuot, Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, and David. C. Hilmers.

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-11-22

    On November 22, 1989, at 7:23:30pm (EST), five astronauts were launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for the 5th Department of Defense (DOD) mission, STS-33. Crew members included Frederick D. Gregory, commander; John E. Blaha, pilot; and mission specialists Kathryn C. Thornton, Manley L. (Sonny) Carter, and F. Story Musgrave.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-11-05

    The seventh mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD), the STS-38 mission, launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on November 15, 1990 at 6:48:15 pm (EST). The STS-38 crew included the following five astronauts: Richard O. Covey, commander; Frank L. Culbertson, pilot; and mission specialists Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, Robert C. Springer, and Carl J. Meade.

  8. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-03-24

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-45) roars into space in this photo showing a close-up of the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) and the external tank. Atlantis' mission included experiments on the Atmospheric Lab for Applications and Sciences (ATLAS). ATLAS-1 measures long-term variability in the total energy radiated by the sun and determines the variability in the solar spectrum.

  9. Aboard the Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Florence S.

    This 32-page pamphlet contains color photographs and detailed diagrams which illustrate general descriptive comments about living conditions aboard the space shuttle. Described are details of the launch, the cabin, the condition of weightlessness, food, sleep, exercise, atmosphere, personal hygiene, medicine, going EVA (extra-vehicular activity),…

  10. The Shuttle Environment Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehmann, J.; Tanner, S. G. (Editor); Wilkerson, T. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Results of shuttle environmental measurement programs were presented. The implications for plasma, infrared and ultraviolet experiments were discussed. The prelaunch environmental conditions, results of key environmental measurements made during the flights of STS 1, 2, 3, 4, and postlanding environmental conditions were covered.

  11. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-10-20

    A unique view of the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-73) moments after bursting into Earth's atmosphere on its way toward space. Onboard the orbiter is the United States Microgravity Laboratory 2 (USML-2), a Marshall managed payload, where Columbia's seven member crew will perform experiments while in orbit.

  12. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  13. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-08-01

    A workman reams holes to the proper size and aligment in the Space Shuttle Main Engine's main injector body, through which propellants will pass through on their way into the engine's combustion chamber. Rockwell International's Rocketdyne Division plant produced the engines under contract to the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Erin Whittle, 14, (seated) and Brianna Johnson, 14, look on as Louis Stork, 13, attempts a simulated landing of a space shuttle at StenniSphere. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  15. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-03-01

    This STS-29 mission onboard photo depicts the External Tank (ET) falling toward the ocean after separation from the Shuttle orbiter Discovery. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27,5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. In separate, internal pressurized tank sections, the ET holds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts which branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. Some 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel are consumed by the main engines each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's ET is the only part of the launch vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 526,000 gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-07-01

    This photograph was taken during the final assembly phase of the Space Shuttle light weight external tanks (LWT) 5, 6, and 7 at the Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the external tank (ET) acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. In separate, internal pressurized tank sections, the ET holds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts which branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. Some 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel are consumed by the main engines each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's ET is the only part of the launch vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 526,000 gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1976-01-01

    This is a cutaway illustration of the Space Shuttle external tank (ET) with callouts. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. Separate pressurized tank sections within the external tank hold the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2-centimeter) ducts that branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. The main engines consume 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's external tank is currently the only part of the launch vehicle that is not reused. After its 526,000-gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5-minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-04-25

    An STS-41D onboard photo shows the Solar Array Experiment (SAE) panel deployment for the Office of Aeronautics and space Technology-1 (OAST-1). OAST-1 is several advanced space technology experiments utilizing a common data system and is mounted on a platform in the Shuttle cargo bay.

  19. Shuttle Blast-Off!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Marilyn Kay; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two articles describe ideas for school library media centers interested in promoting space education. The first article explains how to construct an inexpensive simulation of a space shuttle and suggests associated activities. The second presents steps for identifying resources and organizing them into a resources file; relevant information…

  20. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-11-03

    This is an onboard photo of space shuttle Atlantis (STS-66) crew member, French scientist Jean-Francois Clervoy working on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applied Sciences (ATLAS-3) project. The ATLAS-3 measures the variances of the sun's solar radiation and the variability in the solar spectrum.

  1. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-18

    Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62) comes to a graceful halt with the help of a parachute after a 14-day mission. The five member crew performed materials processing experiments on the United States Microgravity Payload 2 (USMP-2), and also conducted experiments designed to enable or extend space flight technology aboard the Office of Aeornautics and Space Technology 2 payload (OAST-2).

  2. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    The orbiter Atlantis (STS-45) touched down on Runway 33 of Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility, bringing to a conclusion Mission STS-45. On board were seven crew members and the Atmospheric Lab for Applications and Sciences 1 (ATLAS-1).

  3. Analyzing Shuttle Orbiter Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lear, W. M.

    1986-01-01

    LRBET4 program best-estimated-of-trajectory (BET) calculation for post-flight trajectory analysis of Shuttle orbiter. Produces estimated measurements for comparing predicted and actual trajectory of Earth-orbiting spacecraft. Kalman filter and smoothing filter applied to input data to estimate state vector, reduce noise, and produce BET. LRBET4 written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution.

  4. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faget, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle is traced. Aerodynamic loads and dynamic characteristics, structural design, ascent and entry heating profiles, and propulsion systems are discussed. Problems in the area of systems management and flight control during entry and in the design of an effective thermal control system are discussed in detail.

  5. SIMULATION (LANDING) - SHUTTLE - CA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1982-06-14

    S82-32204 (October 1982) --- NASA 947 and NASA 904, two aircraft stationed at Ellington Air Base for the Johnson Space Center (JSC), are captured during a training and familiarization flight over White Sands, New Mexico. The Gulfstream aircraft (bottom) is NASA?s Space Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) and the T-38 jet serves as a chase plane. Photo credit: NASA

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Challenger, making its fourth space flight, highlights the 41B insignia. The reusable vehicle is flanked in the oval by an illustration of a Payload Assist Module-D solid rocket motor (PAM-D) for assisted satellite deployment; an astronaut making the first non-tethered extravehicular activity (EVA); and eleven stars.

  7. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-08-24

    A crewmember aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis (STS-46) used a 70mm handheld camera to capture this medium closeup view of early operations with the Tethered Satellite System (TSS). TSS-1 is being deployed from its boom as it is perched above the cargo bay of the Earth-orbiting Shuttle circling the Earth at an altitude of 296 kilometers (184 miles), the TSS-1 will be well within the tenuous, electrically charged layer of the atmosphere known as the ionosphere. There, a satellite attached to the orbiter by a thin conducting cord, or tether, will be reeled from the Shuttle payload bay. On this mission the satellite was plarned to be deployed 20 kilometers (12.5 miles) above the Shuttle. The conducting tether will generate high voltage and electrical currents as it moves through the atmosphere allowing scientists to examine the electrodynamics of a conducting tether system. These studies will not only increase our understanding of physical processes in the near-Earth space environment, but will also help provide an explanation for events witnessed elsewhere in the solar system. The crew of the STS-46 mission were unable to reel the satellite as planned. After several unsuccessful attempts, they were only able to extend the satellite 9.8 kilometers (6.1 miles). The TSS was a cooperative development effort by the Italian Space Agency (ASI), and NASA.

  8. Space Shuttle Project

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-03-04

    Astronaut Pierre J. Thuot, mission specialist, works with the Mid-deck 0-gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) aboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62). MODE studies the dynamics of liquids and skewed space structures in the microgravity environment.

  9. Research of intelligent bus coin box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Shihao

    2017-03-01

    In the energy-saving emission reduction of the social context, in response to low-carbon travel, buses become the majority of people choose. We have designed this sorting machine for the present situation that the bus company has received a large amount of mixed zero coins and employed a large amount of manpower to sort out and lower the efficiency. Its function is to separate the coins and notes mixed, and the coins sort storage, the display shows the value of the received coins, so that the whole mechanized inventory classification, reduce the cost of clearing up and improve the efficiency of zero cash recycling, use Simple mechanical principles for classification, to be efficient, accurate and practical. Really meet the current city bus companies, commerce and banking and other industries in order to zero notes, zero coins in the actual demand. The size and specification of this machine are designed according to the size of the bus coin box. It is suitable for almost all buses. It can be installed in the coin box directly, real-time sorting and real-time counting. The difficulty of clearing change.

  10. Spacecraft design project multipurpose satellite bus MPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellman, Lyle; Riley, John; Szostak, Michael; Watkins, Joseph; Willhelm, Joseph; Yale, Gary

    1990-01-01

    The thrust of this project was to design not a single spacecraft, but to design a multimission bus capable of supporting several current payloads and unnamed, unspecified future payloads. Spiraling costs of spacecraft and shrinking defense budgets necessitated a fresh look at the feasibility of a multimission spacecraft bus. The design team chose two very diverse and different payloads, and along with them two vastly different orbits, to show that multimission spacecraft buses are an area where indeed more research and effort needs to be made. Tradeoffs, of course, were made throughout the design, but optimization of subsystem components limited weight and volume penalties, performance degradation, and reliability concerns. Simplicity was chosen over more complex, sophisticated and usually more efficient designs. Cost of individual subsystem components was not a primary concern in the design phase, but every effort was made to chose flight tested and flight proven hardware. Significant cost savings could be realized if a standard spacecraft bus was indeed designed and purchased in finite quantities.

  11. Space Shuttle Era: Main Engines

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Producing 500,000 pounds of thrust from a package weighing only 7,500 pounds, the Space Shuttle Main Engines are one of the shining accomplishments of the shuttle program. The success did not come ...

  12. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  13. Shuttle Atlantis: From the Inside

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An unprecedented up close, inside look at space shuttle Atlantis as it was readied for "towback"" from Kennedy's Shuttle Landing Facility runway to Orbiter Processing Facility-1 following its May 2...

  14. Space Shuttle Flyout: Landing Convoy

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A team of trained technicians and specialized trucks and equipment is vital for getting a space shuttle safed after landing, helping the astronauts off the spacecraft and returning the shuttle to i...

  15. Intrepid Space Shuttle Pavilion Opening

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-07-19

    The space shuttle Enterprise is seen shortly after the grand opening of the Space Shuttle Pavilion at the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum on Thursday, July 19, 2012 in New York. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  16. Space Shuttle Endeavour Heads West

    NASA Image and Video Library

    NASA's Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, a modified 747, flew retired shuttle Endeavour from Kennedy Space Center in Florida to Houston on Sept. 19, 2012, to complete the first leg of Endeavour's trip to L...

  17. Spacecraft servicing demonstration plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Bulboaca, M. A.; Derocher, W. L., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary spacecraft servicing demonstration plan is prepared which leads to a fully verified operational on-orbit servicing system based on the module exchange, refueling, and resupply technologies. The resulting system can be applied at the space station, in low Earth orbit with an orbital maneuvering vehicle (OMV), or be carried with an OMV to geosynchronous orbit by an orbital transfer vehicle. The three phase plan includes ground demonstrations, cargo bay demonstrations, and free flight verifications. The plan emphasizes the exchange of multimission modular spacecraft (MMS) modules which involves space repairable satellites. Three servicer mechanism configurations are the engineering test unit, a protoflight quality unit, and two fully operational units that have been qualified and documented for use in free flight verification activity. The plan balances costs and risks by overlapping study phases, utilizing existing equipment for ground demonstrations, maximizing use of existing MMS equipment, and rental of a spacecraft bus.

  18. Shuttle Operational Test and Scientific Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stonesifer, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    The Detailed Test Objectives (DTOs) originated as a test or measurement made to verify the function of a vehicle system for certification of a vehicle system. The Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSOs) are a demonstration or test which has a lower priority than a DTO. The criteria for inclusion on space shuttle mission is discussed.

  19. Turbulence indicators for Space Shuttle launches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, Michael

    1992-01-01

    A report on the research and analysis for identifying turbulent regions from the surface to 16 km for Space Shuttle launches is presented. The research demonstrates that the results from the FPS-16 radar/jimsphere balloon system in measuring winds can indicate the presence of or conditions ripe for turbulence in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. It is shown that atmospheric data obtained during the Shuttle launches by the rawinsonde in conjunction with the jimsphere provide the necessary meteorological data to compute aerodynamic parameters to identify turbulence.

  20. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an applicant's...

  1. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  2. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  3. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  4. 49 CFR 605.18 - Comments by private school bus operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Comments by private school bus operators. 605.18... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SCHOOL BUS OPERATIONS School Bus Agreements § 605.18 Comments by private school bus operators. Private school bus operators may file written comments on an...

  5. Ranger telerobotic shuttle experiment: a status report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gefke, Gardell; Carignan, Craig R.; Roberts, Brian E.; Lane, J. Corde

    2002-02-01

    This paper presents an update on the Ranger Telerobotic Shuttle Experiment (RTSX) and associated key robotics technologies within the Ranger program. Ranger TSX will operate from a Spacelab logistics pallet inside the cargo bay of the shuttle and will demonstrate space station and on-orbit servicing operations including extravehicular (EVA) worksite setup, an orbital replacement unit (ORU) exchange, and various task board experiments. The flight system will be teleoperated from the middeck inside the shuttle as well as from a ground control station at NASA Johnson Space Center. This paper addresses the technical and programmatic status of the flight experiment and describes progress on the engineering test unit, Ranger Neutral Buoyancy Vehicle II (RNBVII), currently in fabrication. Also described are associated technologies, which support this effort. These include a flight robot mockup built to practice EVA stowage and Ranger NBV I, a free-flight prototype vehicle.

  6. TMS communications hardware. Volume 2: Bus interface unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. S.; Hopkins, G. T.

    1979-01-01

    A prototype coaxial cable bus communication system used in the Trend Monitoring System to interconnect intelligent graphics terminals to a host minicomputer is described. The terminals and host are connected to the bus through a microprocessor-based RF modem termed a Bus Interface Unit (BIU). The BIU hardware and the Carrier Sense Multiple Access Listen-While-Talk protocol used on the network are described.

  7. Emission inventory estimation of an intercity bus terminal.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Zhaowen; Li, Xiaoxia; Hao, Yanzhao; Deng, Shunxi; Gao, H Oliver

    2016-06-01

    Intercity bus terminals are hotspots of air pollution due to concentrated activities of diesel buses. In order to evaluate the bus terminals' impact on air quality, it is necessary to estimate the associated mobile emission inventories. Since the vehicles' operating condition at the bus terminal varies significantly, conventional calculation of the emissions based on average emission factors suffers the loss of accuracy. In this study, we examined a typical intercity bus terminal-the Southern City Bus Station of Xi'an, China-using a multi-scale emission model-(US EPA's MOVES model)-to quantity the vehicle emission inventory. A representative operating cycle for buses within the station is constructed. The emission inventory was then estimated using detailed inputs including vehicle ages, operating speeds, operating schedules, and operating mode distribution, as well as meteorological data (temperature and humidity). Five functional areas (bus yard, platforms, disembarking area, bus travel routes within the station, and bus entrance/exit routes) at the terminal were identified, and the bus operation cycle was established using the micro-trip cycle construction method. Results of our case study showed that switching to compressed natural gas (CNG) from diesel fuel could reduce PM2.5 and CO emissions by 85.64 and 6.21 %, respectively, in the microenvironment of the bus terminal. When CNG is used, tail pipe exhaust PM2.5 emission is significantly reduced, even less than brake wear PM2.5. The estimated bus operating cycles can also offer researchers and policy makers important information for emission evaluation in the planning and design of any typical intercity bus terminals of a similar scale.

  8. Pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, S. Q.; Li, Yueming

    1997-12-01

    We propose a pipelined asynchronous time-division multiplexing optical bus. Such a bus can use one of two hardwared priority schemes: the linear priority scheme and the round-robin priority scheme. Our simulation results show that the performance of the proposed bus is significantly better than the performances of known pipelined synchronous time-division multiplexing optical buses. The possibilities of using our buses to construct multichannel switches and multidimensional processor arrays are also discussed.

  9. Shuttle propellant loading instrumenation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlet, J.

    1975-01-01

    A continuous capacitance sensor was developed and an analog signal conditioner was evaluated to demonstrate the acceptability of these items for use in the space shuttle propellant loading system. An existing basic sensor concept was redesigned to provide capability for cryogenic operation, to improve performance, and to minimize production costs. Sensor development verification consisted of evaluation of sensor linearity, cryogenic performance, and stability during vibration. The signal conditioner evaluation consisted mainly of establishing the effects of the variations in temperature and cable parameters and evaluating the stability. A sensor linearity of 0.04 in. was achieved over most of the sensor length. The sensor instability caused by vibration was 0.04 percent. The cryogenic performance data show a maximum instability of 0.19 percent at liquid hydrogen temperature; a theoretical calibration can be computed a within 1 percent. The signal conditioner evaluation showed that, with temperature compensation, all error sources typically contribute much less than 1 percent. An estimate of the accuracy achievable with the sensor and signal conditioner shows an rss estimate of 0.75 in. for liquid oxygen and 1.02 in. for liquid hydrogen. These are approximately four times better than the shuttle requirements. Comparison of continuous sensor and discrete sensor performance show the continuous sensor to be significantly better when there is surface activity due to sloshing, boiling, or other disturbances.

  10. ITOS/space shuttle study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The results are reported of a study to explore the potential cost reductions in the operational ITOS weather satellite program as a consequence of shuttle/bug availability for satellite placement and retrieval, and satellite servicing and maintenance. The study program was divided into shuttle impact on equipment and testing costs, and shuttle impact on overall future ITOS operational program costs, and shuttle impact on configuration. It is concluded that savings in recurring spacecraft costs can be realized in the 1978 ITOS program, if a space shuttle is utilized.

  11. The SMART MIL-STD-1553 bus adapter hardware manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ton, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The SMART Multiplexer Interface Adapter, (SMIA) a complete system interface for message structure of the MIL-STD-1553, is described. It provides buffering and storage for transmitted and received data and handles all the necessary handshaking to interface between parallel 8-bit data bus and a MIL-STD serial bit stream. The bus adapter is configured as either a bus controller of a remote terminal interface. It is coupled directly to the multiplex bus, or stub coupled through an additional isolation transformer located at the connection point. Fault isolation resistors provide short circuit protection.

  12. Research on service bus of network-centric simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Rui; Mao, Shao-Jie; Zhang, Hong-Jun; Zhang, You-Liang; Zhu, Yu

    2013-03-01

    When high level architecture is used to build complex systems in support of modeling and simulation, the problems are low level of interoperability and poor reusage. Based on the concept of service-oriented and distributed technologies, a service bus of network-centric simulation is proposed. Definite the concept of community of service and service bus, establish the architecture of simulation service bus and its implementation framework, analyze three key technologies of its implementation process. The primary research and practice show that: the proposed simulation service bus can support to run community simulation tasks based on Internet and provide a reference for building a service-oriented environment of network centric simulation.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-30

    Nearby waters reflect the flames of the Space Shuttle Endeavor as she lifts off November 30, 2000, carrying the STS-97 crew of five. The STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure, consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-30

    Nearby waters reflect the flames of the Space Shuttle Endeavor as she lifts off November 30, 2000 carrying the STS-97 crew of five. The STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure, consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electrical system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  15. Shuttle freezer conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, B. W.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    A conceptual design for a kit freezer for operation onboard shuttle was developed. The freezer features a self-contained unit which can be mounted in the orbiter crew compartment and is capable of storing food at launch and returning with medical samples. Packaging schemes were investigated to provide the optimum storage capacity with a minimum weight and volume penalty. Several types of refrigeration systems were evaluated to select one which would offer the most efficient performance and lowest hazard of safety to the crew. Detailed performance data on the selected, Stirling cycle principled refrigeration unit were developed to validate the feasibility of its application to this freezer. Thermal analyses were performed to determine the adequacy of the thermal insulation to maintain the desired storage temperature with the design cooling capacity. Stress analyses were made to insure the design structure integrity could be maintained over the shuttle flight regime. A proposed prototype freezer development plan is presented.

  16. Aboard the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinberg, F. S.

    1980-01-01

    Livability aboard the space shuttle orbiter makes it possible for men and women scientists and technicians in reasonably good health to join superbly healthy astronauts as space travelers and workers. Features of the flight deck, the mid-deck living quarters, and the subfloor life support and house-keeping equipment are illustrated as well as the provisions for food preparation, eating, sleeping, exercising, and medical care. Operation of the personal hygiene equipment and of the air revitalization system for maintaining sea level atmosphere in space is described. Capabilities of Spacelab, the purpose and use of the remote manipulator arm, and the design of a permanent space operations center assembled on-orbit by shuttle personnel are also depicted.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-11-01

    This STS-80 onboard photograph shows the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (ORFEUS-SPAS II), photographed during approach by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for retrieval. Built by the German Space Agency, DARA, the ORFEUS-SPAS II, a free-flying satellite, was dedicated to astronomical observations at very short wavelengths to: investigate the nature of hot stellar atmospheres, investigate the cooling mechanisms of white dwarf stars, determine the nature of accretion disks around collapsed stars, investigate supernova remnants, and investigate the interstellar medium and potential star-forming regions. Some 422 observations of almost 150 astronomical objects were completed, including the Moon, nearby stars, distant Milky Way stars, stars in other galaxies, active galaxies, and quasar 3C273. The STS-80 mission was launched November 19, 1996.

  18. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1978-11-01

    The structural test article to be used in the solid rocket booster (SRB) structural and load verification tests is being assembled in a high bay building of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment.

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1977-12-01

    The solid rocket booster (SRB) structural test article is being installed in the Solid Rocket Booster Test Facility for the structural and load verification test at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The Shuttle's two SRB's are the largest solids ever built and the first designed for refurbishment and reuse. Standing nearly 150-feet high, the twin boosters provide the majority of thrust for the first two minutes of flight, about 5.8 million pounds, augmenting the Shuttle's main propulsion system during liftoff. The major design drivers for the solid rocket motors (SRM's) were high thrust and reuse. The desired thrust was achieved by using state-of-the-art solid propellant and by using a long cylindrical motor with a specific core design that allows the propellant to burn in a carefully controlled marner. At burnout, the boosters separate from the external tank and drop by parachute to the ocean for recovery and subsequent refurbishment.

  20. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-11-30

    Back dropped by a cloudless blue sky, Space Shuttle Endeavor stands ready for launch after the rollback of the Rotating Service Structure, at left. The orbiter launched that night carrying the STS-97 crew of five. The STS-97 mission's primary objective was the delivery, assembly, and activation of the U.S. electrical power system onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The electrical power system, which is built into a 73-meter (240-foot) long solar array structure, consists of solar arrays, radiators, batteries, and electronics. The entire 15.4-metric ton (17-ton) package is called the P6 Integrated Truss Segment, and is the heaviest and largest element yet delivered to the station aboard a space shuttle. The electric system will eventually provide the power necessary for the first ISS crews to live and work in the U.S. segment.

  2. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-07-08

    The STS-41 crew patch, designed by the five astronaut crewmembers, depicts the Space Shuttle orbiting Earth after deployment of its primary payload -- the Ulysses satellite. The orbiter is shown passing over the southeastern United States, representative of its 28-degree inclination orbit. Ulysses, the Solar Exploration Satellite, as the fastest man-made object in the universe, traveling at 30 miles per second (over 100,000 mph) is represented by the streaking silver teardrop passing over the sun. Ulysses' path is depicted by the bright red spiral originating from the Shuttle cargo bay. The three-legged trajectory, extending out the payload bay, is symbolic of the astronaut logo and is in honor of those who have given their lives in the conquest of space. The five stars, four gold and one silver, represent STS-41 and each of its crewmembers.

  3. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-01-14

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  4. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-05-13

    STS-49, the first flight of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, lifted off from launch pad 39B on May 7, 1992 at 6:40 pm CDT. The STS-49 mission was the first U.S. orbital flight to feature 4 extravehicular activities (EVAs), and the first flight to involve 3 crew members working simultaneously outside of the spacecraft. The primary objective was the capture and redeployment of the INTELSAT VI (F-3), a communication satellite for the International Telecommunication Satellite organization, which was stranded in an unusable orbit since its launch aboard the Titan rocket in March 1990. The 4.5 ton INTELSAT VI was successfully snared by three astronauts on a third EVA. In this photo, the satellite, with its newly deployed perigee stage, begins its separation from the Shuttle.

  5. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announces where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program during an event held at one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    NASA Kennedy Space Center Director and former astronaut Bob Cabana introduces NASA Administrator Charles Bolden where Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program during an event held at one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  7. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    NASA Johnson Space Center Director of Flight Crew Operations, and Astronaut, Janet Kavandi speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-12-12

    The STS-29 patch was designed to capture and represent the energy and dynamic nature of this nation's space program as America continues to look to the future. The folded ribbon border, the first of its kind in the Shuttle patch series, gives a sense of three dimensional depth to the emblem. The stylistic orbital maneuvering system (ONS) burn symbolizes the powerful forward momentum of the Shuttle and a continuing determination to explore the frontiers of space. The colors of the U.S. flag are represented in the patch's basic red, white, and blue background. In the border, the seven stars between the STS-29 crew names are a tribute to the crew of Challenger.

  9. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  10. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-08-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  11. Space Shuttle navigation validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragsdale, A.

    1985-01-01

    The validation of the guidance, navigation, and control system of the Space Shuttle is explained. The functions of the ascent, on-board, and entry mission phases software of the navigation system are described. The common facility testing, which evaluates the simulations to be used in the navigation validation, is examined. The standard preflight analysis of the operational modes of the navigation software and the post-flight navigation analysis are explained. The conversion of the data into a useful reference frame and the use of orbit parameters in the analysis of the data are discussed. Upon entry the data received are converted to flags, ratios, and residuals in order to evaluate performance and detect errors. Various programs developed to support navigation validation are explained. A number of events that occurred with the Space Shuttle's navigation system are described.

  12. Shuttle entry guidance revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mease, Kenneth D.; Kremer, Jean-Paul

    1992-01-01

    The Shuttle entry guidance concept is reviewed which is aimed at tracking a reference drag trajectory that leads to the specified range and velocity for the initiation of the terminal energy management phase. An approximate method of constructing the domain of attraction is proposed, and its validity is ascertained by simulation. An alternative guidance law yielding global exponential tracking in the absence of control saturation is derived using a feedback linearization method. It is noted that the alternative guidance law does not improve on the stability and performance of the current guidance law, for the operating domain and control capability of the Shuttle. It is suggested that the new guidance law with a larger operating domain and increased lift-to-drag capability would be superior.

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-05-08

    Five NASA astronauts and a Canadian payload specialist pause from their training schedule to pose for the traditional crew portrait for their mission, STS-85. In front are astronauts Curtis L. Brown, Jr. (right), mission commander, and Kent V. Rominger, pilot. On the back row, from the left, are astronauts Robert L. Curbeam, Jr., Stephen K. Robinson, and N. Jan Davis, all mission specialists, along with the Canadian Space Agency’s (CSA) payload specialist, Bjarni Tryggvason. The five launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on August 7, 1997 at 10:41:00 a.m. (EDT). Major payloads included the satellite known as Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 CRISTA-SPAS-02. CRISTA; a Japanese Manipulator Flight Development (MFD); the Technology Applications and Science (TAS-01); and the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-02).

  14. The Shuttle inertial system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swingle, W. L.; Kang, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The Space Shuttle inertial system is built around a sensor assembly called the inertial measurement unit (IMU). The system includes a redundant set of three structurally integrated IMU's that operate in conjunction with parallel strung data system computers to provide precise attitude and velocity information to user system functions. The inertial system is actually a separate subsystem function integrated into the overall avionics system. Software resident in the system computers is the final link in the inertial system. The inertial software is comprised of two major sets, including a subsystem operating program (SOP) called the IMU SOP and redundancy management. Attention is given to system applications, systems performance, attitude sensitivities, the IMU platform, IMU thermal management, aspects of IMU calibration, and Shuttle program experience.

  15. Shuttle Net, Tuna Net

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Rockwell International, NASA's prime contractor for the Space Shuttle, asked West Coast Netting (WCN) to develop a safety net for personnel working on the Shuttle Orbiter. This could not be an ordinary net, it had to be relatively small, yet have extraordinary tensile strength. It also had to be fire resistant and resistant to ultraviolet (UV) light. After six months, WCN found the requisite fiber, a polyester-like material called NOMEX. The company was forced to invent a more sophisticated twisting process since conventional methods did not approach specified breaking strength. The resulting product, the Hyperester net, sinks faster and fishes deeper, making it attractive to fishing fleets. A patented treatment for UV protection and greater abrasion resistance make Hyperester nets last longer, and the no-shrink feature is an economic bonus.

  16. Electron shuttles in biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuya; Manefield, Mike; Lee, Matthew; Kouzuma, Atsushi

    2009-12-01

    Electron-shuttling compounds (electron shuttles [ESs], or redox mediators) are essential components in intracellular electron transfer, while microbes also utilize self-produced and naturally present ESs for extracellular electron transfer. These compounds assist in microbial energy metabolism by facilitating electron transfer between microbes, from electron-donating substances to microbes, and/or from microbes to electron-accepting substances. Artificially supplemented ESs can create new routes of electron flow in the microbial energy metabolism, thereby opening up new possibilities for the application of microbes to biotechnology processes. Typical examples of such processes include halogenated-organics bioremediation, azo-dye decolorization, and microbial fuel cells. Herein we suggest that ESs can be applied widely to create new microbial biotechnology processes.

  17. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Workers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center listen as NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announces where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program during an event held at one of the Orbiter Processing Facilities, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  18. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    Endeavour Vehicle Manager for United Space Alliance Mike Parrish speaks at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed at the conclusion of the Space Shuttle Program, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. Space Shuttle Placement Announcement

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-04-12

    A video highlighting the 30 years of space flight and more than 130 missions of the space shuttle transportation system is shown at an event where NASA Administrator Charles Bolden announced where the four space shuttle orbiters will be permanently displayed, Tuesday, April 12, 2011, at Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Fla. The four orbiters, Enterprise, which currently is on display at the Smithsonian's Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center near Washington Dulles International Airport, will move to the Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum in New York, Discovery will move to Udvar-Hazy, Endeavour will be displayed at the California Science Center in Los Angeles and Atlantis, in background, will be displayed at the Kennedy Space Center Visitor’s Complex. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1994-09-16

    Astronaut Mark Lee floats freely as he tests the new backpack called the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) system. SAFER is designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  1. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-07-15

    The patch depicts the Space Shuttle lifting off against the multi-colored backdrop of a rainbow, symbolizing the triumphal return to flight of our nation's manned space program. The design also commemorates the memory of the crew of Challenger mission STS-51-L, represented by the seven stars. The names of the flight crewmembers of STS-27 are located along the border of the patch.

  2. Mobile Christian - shuttle flight

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-04-21

    Louis Stork, 13, and Erin Whittle, 14, look on as Brianna Johnson, 14, conducts a 'test' of a space shuttle main engine in the Test Control Center exhibit in StenniSphere, the visitor center at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center near Bay St. Louis, Miss. The young people were part of a group from Mobile Christian School in Mobile, Ala., that visited StenniSphere on April 21.

  3. INCO shuttle communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dikshit, Piyush; Guimaraes, Katia; Ramamurthy, Maya; Agrawala, Ashok K.; Larsen, Ronald L.

    1989-01-01

    In a previous work we have defined a general architectural model for autonomous systems, which can be mapped easily to describe the functions of any automated system (SDAG-86-01). In this note, we use the model to describe the Shuttle communication system. First we briefly review the architecture, then we present the environment of our application, and finally we detail the specific function for each functional block of the architecture for that environment.

  4. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and other NASA management watch the launch of space shuttle Discovery (STS-133) from the firing room at Kennedy Space Center, Thursday, Feb. 24, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Discovery, on its 39th and final flight, is carrying the Italian-built Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM), Express Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4) and Robonaut 2, the first humanoid robot in space to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  5. Space Shuttle Discovery Launch

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-24

    NASA management watch the launch of space shuttle Discovery (STS-133) from the firing room at Kennedy Space Center, Thursday, Feb. 24, 2011, in Cape Canaveral, Fla. Discovery, on its 39th and final flight, is carrying the Italian-built Permanent Multipurpose Module (PMM), Express Logistics Carrier 4 (ELC4) and Robonaut 2, the first humanoid robot in space to the International Space Station. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  6. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-06-01

    The crew assigned to the STS-51F mission included (kneeling left to right) Gordon Fullerton, commander; and Roy D. Bridges, pilot. Standing, left to right, are mission specialists Anthony W. England, Karl J. Henize, and F. Story Musgrave; and payload specialists Loren W. Acton, and John-David F. Bartoe. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Challenger on July 29, 1985 at 5:00:00 pm (EDT), the STS-51F mission’s primary payload was the Spacelab-2.

  7. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-10-25

    On November 22, 1989, at 7:23:30pm (EST), 5 astronauts were launched into space aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for the 5th Department of Defense mission, STS-33. Photographed from left to right are Kathryn C. Thornton, mission specialist 3; Manley L. (Sonny) Carter, mission specialist 2; Frederick D. Gregory, commander; John E. Blaha, pilot; and F. Story Musgrave, mission specialist 1.

  8. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-01-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-51C mission included (kneeling in front left to right) Loren J. Schriver, pilot; and Thomas K. Mattingly, II, commander. Standing, left to right, are Gary E. Payton, payload specialist; and mission specialists James F. Buchli, and Ellison L. Onzuka. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on January 24, 1985 at 2:50:00 pm (EST), the STS-51C was the first mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD).

  9. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1985-09-08

    The crew assigned to the STS-51J mission included (seated left to right) Robert L. Stewart, mission specialist; Karol J. Bobko, commander; and Ronald J. Grabe, pilot. On the back row, left to right, are mission specialists David C. Hilmers, and Major Willliam A, Pailles (USAF). Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on October 3, 1985 at 11:15:30 am (EDT), the STS-51J mission was the second mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD).

  10. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-02-14

    The STS-36 crew portrait features 5 astronauts who served in the 6th Department of Defense (DOD) mission. Posed near the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery are (left to right) Pierre J. Thuot, mission specialist 3; John H. Caster, pilot; John H. Creighton, commander; Richard M. (Mike) Mullane, mission specialist 1; and David. C. Hilmers, mission specialist 2. The crew launched aboard Atlantis on February 28, 1990 at 2:50:22am (EST).

  11. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1988-10-26

    The STS-27 crew portrait features 5 astronauts. Seated, left to right, are Jerry L. Ross, mission specialist; Guy S. Gardner, pilot; and Robert L. Gibson, commander. On the back row, left to right, are mission specialists Richard M. Mullane, and William M. Shepherd. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on December 2, 1988 at 9:30:34 am (EST), the STS-27 mission was the third mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD).

  12. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-07-08

    The official STS-38 crew portrait includes the following 5 astronauts (front left to right): Frank L. Culbertson, pilot; and Richard O. Covey, commander. Standing (left to right) are mission specialists (MS) Charles D. (Sam) Gemar, (MS-3), Robert C. Springer, (MS-1), and Carl J. Meade, (MS-2). The seventh mission dedicated to the Department of Defense (DOD), the STS-38 crew launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on November 15, 1990 at 6:48:15 pm (EST).

  13. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1989-01-11

    Five astronauts composed the STS-29 crew. Standing (left ot right) are James P. Bagian, mission specialist 1; Robert C. Springer, mission specialist 3; and James F. (Jim) Buchli, mission specialist 2. Seated (left to right) are John E. Blaha, pilot, and Michael L. Coats, commander. STS-29 launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on March 13, 1989 at 9:57 am (EST). The primary payload was the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite- 4 (TDRS-4).

  14. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-07-09

    Signifying the continuing assembly of the International Space Station (ISS), the STS-116 crew patch depicts the space shuttle rising above the Earth and the ISS. The United States and Swedish flags trail the orbiter, depicting the international composition of the STS-116 crew. The seven stars of the constellation Ursa Major are used to provide direction to the North Star, which is superimposed over the installation location of the P5 truss on ISS.

  15. The Shuttle Enterprise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The Shuttle Enterprise rolls out of the Palmdale manufacturing facilities with Star Trek television cast members. From left to right they are: Dr. James D. Fletcher, NASA Administrator, DeForest Kelley (Dr. 'Bones' McCoy), George Takei (Mr. Sulu), Nichelle Nichols (Lt. Uhura), Leonard Nimoy (the indefatigable Mr. Spock), Gene Rodenberry (The Great Bird of the Galaxy), and Walter Koenig (Ensign Pavel Checkov).

  16. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-07-08

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  17. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1990-02-01

    The STS-31 crew of five included (left to right) Charles F. Bolden, pilot; Steven A. Hawley, mission specialist; Loren J. Shriver, commander; Bruce McCandless, mission specialist; and Kathryn D. Sullivan, mission specialist. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on April 24, 1990 at 8:33:51am (EDT), the primary payload was the Hubble Space Telescope. This was the first flight to use carbon brakes at landing.

  18. Space Shuttle Familiarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellett, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    This slide presentation visualizes the NASA space center and research facility sites, as well as the geography, launching sites, launching pads, rocket launching, pre-flight activities, and space shuttle ground operations located at NASA Kennedy Space Center. Additionally, highlights the international involvement behind the International Space Station and the space station mobile servicing system. Extraterrestrial landings, surface habitats and habitation systems, outposts, extravehicular activity, and spacecraft rendezvous with the Earth return vehicle are also covered.

  19. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-01-08

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  20. Space Shuttle Projects

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-03-24

    The STS-45 mission launched aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis on March 24, 1992 at 8:13:40am (EST) carrying the Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS-1) as its primary payload. Crew members included: Charles F. Bolden, Jr., commander; Brian Duffy, pilot; Kathryn D. Sullivan, payload commander; Byron K. Lichtenberg, payload specialist 1; Dirk K. Frimout, payload specialist 2; David C. Leestma, mission specialist 2; and C. Michael Foale, mission specialist 3.