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Sample records for si crystal growth

  1. Crystal growth velocity in deeply undercooled Ni-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Y. J.

    2012-02-01

    The crystal growth velocity of Ni95Si5 and Ni90Si10 alloys as a function of undercooling is investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. The modified imbedded atom method potential yields the equilibrium liquidus temperatures T L ≈ 1505 and 1387 K for Ni95Si5 and Ni90Si10 alloys, respectively. From the liquidus temperatures down to the deeply undercooled region, the crystal growth velocities of both the alloys rise to the maximum with increasing undercooling and then drop slowly, whereas the athermal growth process presented in elemental Ni is not observed in Ni-Si alloys. Instead, the undercooling dependence of the growth velocity can be well-described by the diffusion-limited model, furthermore, the activation energy associated with the diffusion from melt to interface increases as the concentration increases from 5 to 10 at.% Si, resulting in the remarkable decrease of growth velocity.

  2. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2010-01-01

    Majority of very large potential benefits of wide band gap semiconductor power electronics have NOT been realized due in large part to high cost and high defect density of commercial wafers. Despite 20 years of development, present SiC wafer growth approach is yet to deliver majority of SiC's inherent performance and cost benefits to power systems. Commercial SiC power devices are significantly de-rated in order to function reliably due to the adverse effects of SiC crystal dislocation defects (thousands per sq cm) in the SiC wafer.

  3. SiC Seeded Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, R. C.; Henshall, D.; Tsvetkov, V. F.; Carter, C. H., Jr.

    1997-07-01

    The availability of relatively large (30 mm) SiC wafers has been a primary reason for the renewed high level of interest in SiC semiconductor technology. Projections that 75 mm SiC wafers will be available in 2 to 3 years have further peaked this interest. Now both 4H and 6H polytypes are available, however, the micropipe defects that occur to a varying extent in all wafers produced to date are seen by many as preventing the commercialization of many types of SiC devices, especially high current power devices. Most views on micropipe formation are based around Frank's theory of a micropipe being the hollow core of a screw dislocation with a huge Burgers vector (several times the unit cell) and with the diameter of the core having a direct relationship with the magnitude of the Burgers vector. Our results show that there are several mechanisms or combinations of these mechanisms which cause micropipes in SiC boules grown by the seeded sublimation method. Additional considerations such as polytype variations, dislocations and both impurity and diameter control add to the complexity of producing high quality wafers. Recent results at Cree Research, Inc., including wafers with micropipe densities of less than 1 cm - 2 (with 1 cm2 areas void of micropipes), indicate that micropipes will be reduced to a level that makes high current devices viable and that they may be totally eliminated in the next few years. Additionally, efforts towards larger diameter high quality substrates have led to production of 50 mm diameter 4H and 6H wafers for fabrication of LEDs and the demonstration of 75 mm wafers. Low resistivity and semi-insulating electrical properties have also been attained through improved process and impurity control. Although challenges remain, the industry continues to make significant progress towards large volume SiC-based semiconductor fabrication.

  4. Development of SiC Large Tapered Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Phil

    2011-01-01

    Research Focus Area: Power Electronics, Temperature Tolerant Devices. Demonstrate initial feasibility of totally new "Large Tapered Crystal" (LTC) process for growing vastly improved large-diameter wide-band gap wafers. Addresses Targets: The goal of this research is to experimentally investigate and demonstrate feasibility of the key unproven LTC growth processes in SiC. Laser-assisted growth of long SiC fiber seeds. Radial epitaxial growth enlargement of seeds into large SiC boules. Uniqueness and Impacts open a new technology path to large-diameter SiC and GaN wafers with 1000-fold defect density improvement at 2-4 fold lower cost. Leapfrog improvement in wide band gap power device capability and cost.

  5. Crystal growth kinetics in undercooled melts of pure Ge, Si and Ge-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Herlach, Dieter M; Simons, Daniel; Pichon, Pierre-Yves

    2018-02-28

    We report on measurements of crystal growth dynamics in semiconducting pure Ge and pure Si melts and in Ge 100- x Si x ( x  = 25, 50, 75) alloy melts as a function of undercooling. Electromagnetic levitation techniques are applied to undercool the samples in a containerless way. The growth velocity is measured by the utilization of a high-speed camera technique over an extended range of undercooling. Solidified samples are examined with respect to their microstructure by scanning electron microscopic investigations. We analyse the experimental results of crystal growth kinetics as a function of undercooling within the sharp interface theory developed by Peter Galenko. Transitions of the atomic attachment kinetics are found at large undercoolings, from faceted growth to dendrite growth.This article is part of the theme issue 'From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  6. Crystal growth kinetics in undercooled melts of pure Ge, Si and Ge-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlach, Dieter M.; Simons, Daniel; Pichon, Pierre-Yves

    2018-01-01

    We report on measurements of crystal growth dynamics in semiconducting pure Ge and pure Si melts and in Ge100-xSix (x = 25, 50, 75) alloy melts as a function of undercooling. Electromagnetic levitation techniques are applied to undercool the samples in a containerless way. The growth velocity is measured by the utilization of a high-speed camera technique over an extended range of undercooling. Solidified samples are examined with respect to their microstructure by scanning electron microscopic investigations. We analyse the experimental results of crystal growth kinetics as a function of undercooling within the sharp interface theory developed by Peter Galenko. Transitions of the atomic attachment kinetics are found at large undercoolings, from faceted growth to dendrite growth. This article is part of the theme issue `From atomistic interfaces to dendritic patterns'.

  7. Growth and characterization of cubic SiC single-crystal films on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Matus, L. G.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1987-01-01

    Morphological and electrical characterization results are presented for cubic SiC films grown by chemical vapor deposition on single-crystal Si substrates. The films, up to 40 microns thick, were characterized by optical microscopy, (SEM), (TEM), electron channeling, surface profilometry, and Hall measurements. A variety of morphological features observed on the SiC films are described. Electrical measurements showed a decrease in the electron mobility with increasing electron carrier concentration, similar to that observed in Si. Room-temperature electron mobilities up to 520 sq cm/V-s (at an electron carrier concentration of 5 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm) were measured. Finally, a number of parameters believed to be important in the growth process were investigated, and some discussion is given of their possible effects on the film characteristics.

  8. Growth and characterization of cubic SiC single-crystal films on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Anthony; Matus, L. G.; Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1987-06-01

    Morphological and electrical characterization results are presented for cubic SiC films grown by chemical vapor deposition on single-crystal Si substrates. The films, up to 40 microns thick, were characterized by optical microscopy, (SEM), (TEM), electron channeling, surface profilometry, and Hall measurements. A variety of morphological features observed on the SiC films are described. Electrical measurements showed a decrease in the electron mobility with increasing electron carrier concentration, similar to that observed in Si. Room-temperature electron mobilities up to 520 sq cm/V-s (at an electron carrier concentration of 5 x 10 to the 16th/cu cm) were measured. Finally, a number of parameters believed to be important in the growth process were investigated, and some discussion is given of their possible effects on the film characteristics.

  9. Growth and characterization of high-purity SiC single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, G.; Balakrishna, V.; Brandt, C. D.

    2000-04-01

    High-purity SiC single crystals with diameter up to 50 mm have been grown by the physical vapor transport method. Finite element analysis was used for thermal modeling of the crystal growth cavity in order to reduce stress in the grown crystal. Crystals are grown in high-purity growth ambient using purified graphite furniture and high-purity SiC sublimation sources. Undoped crystals up to 50 mm in diameter with micropipe density less than 100 cm -2 have been grown using this method. These undoped crystals exhibit resistivities in the 10 3 Ω cm range and are p-type due to the presence of residual acceptor impurities, mainly boron. Semi-insulating SiC material is obtained by doping the crystal with vanadium. Vanadium has a deep donor level located near the middle of the band gap, which compensates the residual acceptor resulting in semi-insulating behavior.

  10. Single Crystal Growth of URu 2Si 2 by the Modified Bridgman Technique

    DOE PAGES

    Gallagher, Andrew; Nelson, William L.; Chen, Kuan Wen; ...

    2016-10-02

    We describe a modified Bridgman growth technique to produce single crystals of the strongly correlated electron material URu 2Si 2 and its nonmagnetic analogue ThRu 2Si 2. Bulk thermodynamic and electrical transport measurements show that the properties of crystals produced in this way are comparable to those previously synthesized using the Czochralski or conventional molten metal flux growth techniques. For the specimens reported here, we find residual resistivity ratios RRR = ρ 300K / ρ 0 as large as 116 and 187 for URu 2Si 2 and ThRu 2Si 2, respectively.

  11. Molecular insights into the heterogeneous crystal growth of si methane hydrate.

    PubMed

    Vatamanu, Jenel; Kusalik, Peter G

    2006-08-17

    In this paper we report a successful molecular simulation study exploring the heterogeneous crystal growth of sI methane hydrate along its [001] crystallographic face. The molecular modeling of the crystal growth of methane hydrate has proven in the past to be very challenging, and a reasonable framework to overcome the difficulties related to the simulation of such systems is presented. Both the microscopic mechanisms of heterogeneous crystal growth as well as interfacial properties of methane hydrate are probed. In the presence of the appropriate crystal template, a strong tendency for water molecules to organize into cages around methane at the growing interface is observed; the interface also demonstrates a strong affinity for methane molecules. The maximum growth rate measured for a hydrate crystal is about 4 times higher than the value previously determined for ice I in a similar framework (Gulam Razul, M. S.; Hendry, J. G.; Kusalik, P. G. J. Chem. Phys. 2005, 123, 204722).

  12. A niching genetic algorithm applied to optimize a SiC-bulk crystal growth system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Juan; Chen, Xuejiang; Li, Yuan; Pons, Michel; Blanquet, Elisabeth

    2017-06-01

    A niching genetic algorithm (NGA) was presented to optimize a SiC-bulk crystal growth system by PVT. The NGA based on clearing mechanism and its combination method with heat transfer model for SiC crystal growth were described in details. Then three inverse problems for optimization of growth system were carried out by NGA. Firstly, the radius of blind hole was optimized to decrease the radial temperature gradient along the substrate while the center temperature on the surface of substrate is fixed at 2500 K. Secondly, insulation materials with anisotropic thermal conductivities were selected to obtain much higher growth rate as 600, 800 and 1000 μm/h. Finally, the density of coils was also rearranged to minimize the temperature variation in the SiC powder. All the results were analyzed and discussed.

  13. Single crystal growth of the Er2PdSi3 intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazilu, I.; Frontzek, M.; Löser, W.; Behr, G.; Teresiak, A.; Schultz, L.

    2005-02-01

    Single crystals of the Er2PdSi3 intermetallic compound melting congruently at 1648 ∘C, were grown by a floating zone method with radiation heating. The control of oxygen content was the key factor to avoid oxide precipitates, which can affect effective grain selection in the crystal growth process. Crystals grown at velocities of 5 mm/h with a preferred direction close to (1 0 0) with inclination angles of about 12 ∘ against the rod axis show very distinct facets at the rod surface. The crystals are Pd-depleted and Si-rich with respect to the nominal Er2PdSi3 stoichiometry, but exhibit inferior element segregation. Measurements on oriented single crystalline samples revealed antiferromagnetic ordering below 7 K, a magnetic easy axis parallel to the (0 0 1) axis of the AlB2-type hexagonal unit cell, and anisotropic electric properties.

  14. Methods for growth of relatively large step-free SiC crystal surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A method for growing arrays of large-area device-size films of step-free (i.e., atomically flat) SiC surfaces for semiconductor electronic device applications is disclosed. This method utilizes a lateral growth process that better overcomes the effect of extended defects in the seed crystal substrate that limited the obtainable step-free area achievable by prior art processes. The step-free SiC surface is particularly suited for the heteroepitaxial growth of 3C (cubic) SiC, AlN, and GaN films used for the fabrication of both surface-sensitive devices (i.e., surface channel field effect transistors such as HEMT's and MOSFET's) as well as high-electric field devices (pn diodes and other solid-state power switching devices) that are sensitive to extended crystal defects.

  15. Fast growth of n-type 4H-SiC bulk crystal by gas-source method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Norihiro; Kamata, Isaho; Tokuda, Yuichiro; Makino, Emi; Kanda, Takahiro; Sugiyama, Naohiro; Kuno, Hironari; Kojima, Jun; Tsuchida, Hidekazu

    2017-11-01

    Fast growth of n-type 4H-SiC crystals was attempted using a high-temperature gas-source method. High growth rates exceeding 9 mm/h were archived at a seed temperature of 2550 °C, although the formation of macro-step bunching caused doping fluctuation and voids in the grown crystal. We investigated a trade-off between growth-rate enhancement and macro-step formation and how to improve the trade-off. By controlling the growth conditions, the growth of highly nitrogen-doped 4H-SiC crystals without the doping fluctuation and void formation were accomplished under a high growth rate exceeding 3 mm/h, maintaining the density of threading screw dislocations in the same level with the seed crystal. The influence of growth parameters on nitrogen incorporations into grown crystals was also surveyed.

  16. Growth of Si spherical crystals and the surface oxidation (M-9)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishinaga, Tatau

    1993-01-01

    Nearly 90 percent of semiconductor devices are produced with Si single crystals as the starting materials. For instance, the integrated circuits (IC), which are used in almost all electronic equipments such as TV, tape recorders, audio amplifiers, etc., are made after various processings of Si single crystal wafers. In these wafers, the same controlled amounts of impurities are added and the uniformities in their distributions are extremely important. Growth under microgravity makes it possible to eliminate the buoyancy-driven convection in the melt, which is one of the main origins of convections which results in non-uniformity of the impurity. Another source of convection is known as Marangoni convection which is driven on the free surface when a temperature gradient occurs. One of the merits of microgravity experimentation is that the detailed study of this convection becomes possible. Another important advantage of microgravity is that growth of crystals without a crucible is possible. This makes it possible to study melt growth without the strain which is usually introduced on the ground. Nevertheless, we should repeat and analyze many growth experiments in space to get reliable results. However, since in the FMPT, the time for the experiment is limited, we plan to carry out two kinds of very simple and basic experiments as the first step for the semiconductor growth experiment. In the first experiment, we use single crystal Si sphere as the starting material and as shown, this sphere is heated in the furnace at a slightly higher temperature than the melting point. After the melting front moves nearly half way to its center, the temperature is decreased to stop the melting and to start the growth from the seed for which we use the unmelted solid party of the sphere. The sphere is centered by quartz protuberances inside of the quartz crucible. There exists the possibility of temperature fluctuations being introduced when the molten sphere occasionally touches

  17. Melt Flow before Crystal Seeding in Cz Si Growth with Transversal MF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Masaya; Mukaiyama, Yuji; Demina, S. E.; Kalaev, V. V.

    2017-06-01

    Industrial Cz growth of Si crystal of 300 mm and higher diameter usually requires DC magnetic fields (MFs) to suppress turbulence in the melt. We present 3D unsteady analysis of melt turbulent convection in an industrial Cz system coupled with the effect of the transversal MF for different argon gas flow rates for the stage before crystal seeding. We have performed detailed 2D axisymmetric modeling of global heat transfer in the whole Cz furnace. Radiative heat fluxes obtained in 2D modeling have been used in detailed 3D steady and unsteady modeling of crystallization zone. LES method is applied as a predictive approach for modeling of turbulent flow of silicon melt. We have obtained flow structure and temperature distribution in the melt, which were different from previously reported data. We have observed a well-fixed dark spike which includes low temperature melt area on the melt free surface in MF cases. These results indicates that MF and argon flow rate conditions are important to achieve stable positioning of the dark spike on the melt free surface for optimized crystal seeding without uncontrollable meltdown and single crystal structure loss.

  18. Crystallization and growth of Ni-Si alloy thin films on inert and on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimberg, I.; Weiss, B. Z.

    1995-04-01

    The crystallization kinetics and thermal stability of NiSi2±0.2 alloy thin films coevaporated on two different substrates were studied. The substrates were: silicon single crystal [Si(100)] and thermally oxidized silicon single crystal. In situ resistance measurements, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy were used. The postdeposition microstructure consisted of a mixture of amorphous and crystalline phases. The amorphous phase, independent of the composition, crystallizes homogeneously to NiSi2 at temperatures lower than 200 °C. The activation energy, determined in the range of 1.4-2.54 eV, depends on the type of the substrate and on the composition of the alloyed films. The activation energy for the alloys deposited on the inert substrate was found to be lower than for the alloys deposited on silicon single crystal. The lowest activation energy was obtained for nonstoichiometric NiSi2.2, the highest for NiSi2—on both substrates. The crystallization mode depends on the structure of the as-deposited films, especially the density of the existing crystalline nuclei. Substantial differences were observed in the thermal stability of the NiSi2 compound on both substrates. With the alloy films deposited on the Si substrate, only the NiSi2 phase was identified after annealing to temperatures up to 800 °C. In the films deposited on the inert substrate, NiSi and NiSi2 phases were identified when the Ni content in the alloy exceeded 33 at. %. The effects of composition and the type of substrate on the crystallization kinetics and thermal stability are discussed.

  19. System for the growth of bulk SiC crystals by modified CVD techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this program was the development of a SiC CVD growth of films thick enough to be useful as pseudo-substrates. The cold-walled CVD system was designed, assembled, and tested. Extrapolating from preliminary evaluation of SiC films grown in the system at relatively low temperatures indicates that the growth rate at the final temperatures will be high enough to make our approach practical. Modifications of the system to allow high temperature growth and cleaner growth conditions are in progress. This program was jointly funded by Wright Laboratory, Materials Directorate and NASA LeRC and monitored by NASA.

  20. Reduced-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Growth of Isolated Ge Crystals and Suspended Layers on Micrometric Si Pillars.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Capellini, Giovanni; Yamamoto, Yuji; Zaumseil, Peter; Schubert, Markus Andreas; Schroeder, Thomas; Ballabio, Andrea; Bergamaschini, Roberto; Salvalaglio, Marco; Miglio, Leo; Montalenti, Francesco

    2016-10-05

    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of Ge crystals and suspended continuous layers on Si(001) substrates deeply patterned in high aspect-ratio pillars. The material deposition was carried out in a commercial reduced-pressure chemical vapor deposition reactor, thus extending the "vertical-heteroepitaxy" technique developed by using the peculiar low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition reactor, to widely available epitaxial tools. The growth process was thoroughly analyzed, from the formation of small initial seeds to the final coalescence into a continuous suspended layer, by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The preoxidation of the Si pillar sidewalls and the addition of hydrochloric gas in the reactants proved to be key to achieve highly selective Ge growth on the pillars top only, which, in turn, is needed to promote the formation of a continuous Ge layer. Thanks to continuum growth models, we were able to single out the different roles played by thermodynamics and kinetics in the deposition dynamics. We believe that our findings will open the way to the low-cost realization of tens of micrometers thick heteroepitaxial layer (e.g., Ge, SiC, and GaAs) on Si having high crystal quality.

  1. Crystal growth and dislocation etch pits observation of chalcopyrite CdSiP2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Zhiyu; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Shifu; Chen, Baojun; Huang, Wei; Lin, Li; Feng, Bo

    2018-01-01

    CdSiP2 is the only crystal that can offer Non-critical Phase Matching (NCPM) for a 1064 nm pumped optical parametric oscillation (OPO) with idler output in the 6 μm range. In this paper, a large, crack-free CdSiP2 single crystal measuring 18 mm in diameter and 65 mm in length was successfully grown by the Vertical Bridgman method (MVB) with an explosion-proof quartz ampoule. The results of lattice parameters, element composition and IR transmittance of the as-grown crystal characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and Fourier transformation infrared spectrometer (FTIR) showed the as grown crystal crystallized well and the absorption coefficients at 4878 cm-1 and 2500 cm-1 were 0.14 cm-1 and 0.06 cm-1. Moreover, a new etchant composed of Br2, HCl, HNO3, CH3OH and H2O (1:800:800:400:400 in volume ratio) was prepared and the dislocation etch pits on oriented faces of as-grown CdSiP2 crystal were observed for the first time. It is found the etch pits are in rectangular structure on the (1 0 1) face, but in trigonal pyramid structure on (3 1 2) face. According to the quantities of the etch pits, the average densities of dislocation were evaluated to be 2.28 × 105/cm2 and 1.4 × 105/cm2, respectively.

  2. Crystal Growth Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheel, Hans J.; Fukuda, Tsuguo

    2004-06-01

    This volume deals with the technologies of crystal fabrication, of crystal machining, and of epilayer production and is the first book on industrial and scientific aspects of crystal and layer production. The major industrial crystals are treated: Si, GaAs, GaP, InP, CdTe, sapphire, oxide and halide scintillator crystals, crystals for optical, piezoelectric and microwave applications and more. Contains 29 contributions from leading crystal technologists covering the following topics:

      General aspects of crystal growth technology Silicon Compound semiconductors Oxides and halides Crystal machining Epitaxy and layer deposition Scientific and technological problems of production and machining of industrial crystals are discussed by top experts, most of them from the major growth industries and crystal growth centers. In addition, it will be useful for the users of crystals, for teachers and graduate students in materials sciences, in electronic and other functional materials, chemical and metallurgical engineering, micro-and optoelectronics including nanotechnology, mechanical engineering and precision-machining, microtechnology, and in solid-state sciences.

    • Factors influencing epitaxial growth of three-dimensional Ge quantum dot crystals on pit-patterned Si substrate.

      PubMed

      Ma, Y J; Zhong, Z; Yang, X J; Fan, Y L; Jiang, Z M

      2013-01-11

      We investigated the molecular beam epitaxy growth of three-dimensional (3D) Ge quantum dot crystals (QDCs) on periodically pit-patterned Si substrates. A series of factors influencing the growth of QDCs were investigated in detail and the optimized growth conditions were found. The growth of the Si buffer layer and the first quantum dot (QD) layer play a key role in the growth of QDCs. The pit facet inclination angle decreased with increasing buffer layer thickness, and its optimized value was found to be around 21°, ensuring that all the QDs in the first layer nucleate within the pits. A large Ge deposition amount in the first QD layer favors strain build-up by QDs, size uniformity of QDs and hence periodicity of the strain distribution; a thin Si spacer layer favors strain correlation along the growth direction; both effects contribute to the vertical ordering of the QDCs. Results obtained by atomic force microscopy and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy showed that 3D ordering was achieved in the Ge QDCs with the highest ever areal dot density of 1.2 × 10(10) cm(-2), and that the lateral and the vertical interdot spacing were ~10 and ~2.5 nm, respectively.

    • Crystal growth of Dirac semimetal ZrSiS with high magnetoresistance and mobility.

      PubMed

      Sankar, Raman; Peramaiyan, G; Muthuselvam, I Panneer; Butler, Christopher J; Dimitri, Klauss; Neupane, Madhab; Rao, G Narsinga; Lin, M-T; Chou, F C

      2017-01-18

      High quality single crystal ZrSiS as a theoretically predicted Dirac semimetal has been grown successfully using a vapor phase transport method. The single crystals of tetragonal structure are easy to cleave into perfect square-shaped pieces due to the van der Waals bonding between the sulfur atoms of the quintuple layers. Physical property measurement results including resistivity, Hall coefficient (R H ), and specific heat are reported. The transport and thermodynamic properties suggest a Fermi liquid behavior with two Fermi pockets at low temperatures. At T = 3 K and magnetic field of Hǁc up to 9 Tesla, large magneto-resistance up to 8500% and 7200% for Iǁ (100) and Iǁ (110) were found. Shubnikov de Haas (SdH) oscillations were identified from the resistivity data, revealing the existence of two Fermi pockets at the Fermi level via the fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis. The Hall coefficient (R H ) showed hole-dominated carriers with a high mobility of 3.05 × 10 4  cm 2 V -1 s -1 at 3 K. ZrSiS has been confirmed to be a Dirac semimetal by the Dirac cone mapping near the X-point via angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) with a Dirac nodal line near the Fermi level identified using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS).

    • Czochralski growth of 2 in. Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 single crystals for piezoelectric applications

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Yoshikawa, Akira; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Yuji; Yokota, Yuui; Chani, Valery I.; Kitahara, Masanori; Kudo, Tetsuo; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Medvedev, Andrey; Kochurikhin, Vladimir

      2016-10-01

      Growth of 2-in. diameter Al-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 crystals by Czochralski method is reported. The crystals were grown from the melt of Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition and had langasite structure. No inclusions of secondary phases were detected in these crystals. The Ca3Ta(Ga,Al)3Si2O14 mixed crystals produced using non-substituted Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 seeds were defective. They had cracks and/or poly-crystalline structure. However, those grown on the seed of approximately Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 composition were defect-free. Phase diagram of the Ca3TaGa3Si2O14-Ca3TaAl3Si2O14 pseudo-binary system and segregation phenomenon are discussed in some details. Homogeneity of the crystals was evaluated by measuring 2D-mapping of leaky surface acoustic wave (LSAW) velocities for Y-cut Ca3TaGa1.5Al1.5Si2O14 substrate. Although some inhomogeneities were observed due to slight variations in chemical composition, the crystal had acceptable homogeneity for applications in acoustic wave devices exhibiting the LSAW velocity variation within ±0.048%.

    • A first-principle model of 300 mm Czochralski single-crystal Si production process for predicting crystal radius and crystal growth rate

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Zheng, Zhongchao; Seto, Tatsuru; Kim, Sanghong; Kano, Manabu; Fujiwara, Toshiyuki; Mizuta, Masahiko; Hasebe, Shinji

      2018-06-01

      The Czochralski (CZ) process is the dominant method for manufacturing large cylindrical single-crystal ingots for the electronics industry. Although many models and control methods for the CZ process have been proposed, they were only tested with small equipment and only a few industrial application were reported. In this research, we constructed a first-principle model for controlling industrial CZ processes that produce 300 mm single-crystal silicon ingots. The developed model, which consists of energy, mass balance, hydrodynamic, and geometrical equations, calculates the crystal radius and the crystal growth rate as output variables by using the heater input, the crystal pulling rate, and the crucible rise rate as input variables. To improve accuracy, we modeled the CZ process by considering factors such as changes in the positions of the crucible and the melt level. The model was validated with the operation data from an industrial 300 mm CZ process. We compared the calculated and actual values of the crystal radius and the crystal growth rate, and the results demonstrated that the developed model simulated the industrial process with high accuracy.

    • Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO2

      PubMed Central

      Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Galtier, E.; Milathianaki, D.; Hawreliak, J.; Kraus, R. G.; Eggert, J. H.; Fratanduono, D. E.; Collins, G. W.; Sandberg, R.; Yang, W.; Mao, W. L.

      2015-01-01

      Pressure- and temperature-induced phase transitions have been studied for more than a century but very little is known about the non-equilibrium processes by which the atoms rearrange. Shock compression generates a nearly instantaneous propagating high-pressure/temperature condition while in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) probes the time-dependent atomic arrangement. Here we present in situ pump–probe XRD measurements on shock-compressed fused silica, revealing an amorphous to crystalline high-pressure stishovite phase transition. Using the size broadening of the diffraction peaks, the growth of nanocrystalline stishovite grains is resolved on the nanosecond timescale just after shock compression. At applied pressures above 18 GPa the nuclueation of stishovite appears to be kinetically limited to 1.4±0.4 ns. The functional form of this grain growth suggests homogeneous nucleation and attachment as the growth mechanism. These are the first observations of crystalline grain growth in the shock front between low- and high-pressure states via XRD. PMID:26337754

    • Ultrafast visualization of crystallization and grain growth in shock-compressed SiO 2

      DOE PAGES

      Gleason, A. E.; Bolme, C. A.; Lee, H. J.; ...

      2015-09-04

      Pressure- and temperature-induced phase transitions have been studied for more than a century but very little is known about the non-equilibrium processes by which the atoms rearrange. Shock compression generates a nearly instantaneous propagating high-pressure/temperature condition while in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) probes the time-dependent atomic arrangement. Here we present in situ pump–probe XRD measurements on shock-compressed fused silica, revealing an amorphous to crystalline high-pressure stishovite phase transition. Using the size broadening of the diffraction peaks, the growth of nanocrystalline stishovite grains is resolved on the nanosecond timescale just after shock compression. At applied pressures above 18 GPa the nuclueationmore » of stishovite appears to be kinetically limited to 1.4 ± 0.4 ns. The functional form of this grain growth suggests homogeneous nucleation and attachment as the growth mechanism. As a result, these are the first observations of crystalline grain growth in the shock front between low- and high-pressure states via XRD.« less

    • Identification and Control of Gravity Related Defect Formation During Melt Growth of Electro-Optic Single Crystals Bismuth Silicate(Bi12SiO20)

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Becia, Piotr; Wiegel, Michaela E. K.

      2004-01-01

      A research carried out under Award Number NAG8-1487 was aimed at to the design, conduct and analysis of experiments directed at the identification and control of gravitational effects on crystal growth, segregation and defect formation in the Sillenite system: bismuth silicate (Bi(12)SiO(20)). Correlation analyses was conducted in order to establish the influence of gravity related defects introduced during crystal growth on critical, application specific properties. Achievement of the states objective was conducted during the period from Feb. 01, 1998 to Dec. 31, 2003 with the following anticipated milestones: 1. Establishment of capabilities for (a) reproducible Czochralski and Bridgman-type growth of BSO single crystals and (b) for comprehensive analysis of crystalline and chemical defects as well as for selective property characterization of grown crystals (year 1). 2. Design and execution of critical space growth experiment(s) based on analyses of prefatory space results (experiments aimed at establishing the viability of planned approaches and procedures) and on unresolved issues related to growth, segregation and defect formation associated with conventional growth in Bridgman geometries. Comparative analysis of growth under conventional and under mu-g conditions; identification of gravity related defect formation during conventional Bridgman growth and formulation of approaches for their control (years 2 and 3). Development of charge confinement system which permits growth interface demarcation (in a mu-g environment) as well as minimization of confinement related stress and contamination during growth; design of complementary mu-g growth experiments aimed at quantitative mu-g growth and segregation analyses (year 4). 3. Conduct of quantitative mu-g growth experiments directed at: (a) identification and control of gravity related crystalline and chemical defect formation during single crystal growth of Bi(12)SiO(20) and at (b) defect engineering -the

    • Silicon carbide - Progress in crystal growth

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Powell, J. Anthony

      1987-01-01

      Recent progress in the development of two processes for producing large-area high-quality single crystals of SiC is described: (1) a modified Lely process for the growth of the alpha polytypes (e.g., 6H SiC) initially developed by Tairov and Tsvetkov (1978, 1981) and Ziegler et al. (1983), and (2) a process for the epitaxial growth of the beta polytype on single-crystal silicon or other substrates. Growth of large-area cubic SiC on Si is described together with growth of defect-free beta-SiC films on alpha-6H SiC crystals and TiC lattice. Semiconducting qualities of silicon carbide crystals grown by various techniques are discussed.

    • Liquid encapsulated crystal growth

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Morrison, Andrew D. (Inventor)

      1989-01-01

      Low-defect crystals are grown in a closed ampoule under a layer of encapsulant. After crystal growth, the crystal is separated from the melt and moved into the layer of encapsulant and cooled to a first temperature at which crystal growth stops. The crystal is then moved into the inert gas ambient in the ampoule and further cooled. The crystal can be separated from the melt by decanting the melt into an adjacent reservoir or by rotating the ampoule to rotate the crystal into the encapsulant layer.

    • Liquid encapsulated crystal growth

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Morrison, Andrew D. (Inventor)

      1987-01-01

      Low-defect crystals are grown in a closed ampoule under a layer of encapsulant. After crystal growth, the crystal is separated from the melt and moved into the layer of encapsulant and cooled to a first temperature at which crystal growth stops. The crystal is then moved into the inert gas ambient in the ampoule and further cooled. The crystal can be separated from the melt by decanting the melt into and adjacent reservoir or by rotating the ampoule to rotate the crystal into the encapsulant layer.

    • Crystal growth and piezoelectric properties of Ca3Ta(Ga0.9Sc0.1)3Si2O14 bulk single crystal

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Igarashi, Yu; Yokota, Yuui; Ohashi, Yuji; Inoue, Kenji; Yamaji, Akihiro; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Yoshikawa, Akira

      2018-03-01

      Ca3Ta(Ga0.9Sc0.1)3Si2O14 langasite-type single crystal with a diameter of 1 in. was grown by Czochralski (Cz) method. Obtained crystal had good crystallinity and its lattice constants exceeded those of Ca3TaGa3Si2O14 (CTGS) according to the X-ray analysis. A crack-free specimen cut from the grown crystal was used for the measurements of dielectric constant ε11T/ε0, electromechanical coupling factor k12, and piezoelectric constant d11. The accuracies of these measurements were better than those for the crystal grown by micro-pulling-down (μ-PD) method. Substitution of Ga with Sc resulted modification of these constants in the directions opposite to those observed after partial substitution of Ga (of CTGS) with Al. This suggests that increase of |d14| was most probably associated with enlargement of average size of the Ga sites. The crystal reported here had greater dimensions as compared to analogous crystals grown by the μ-PD method. As a result, accuracy of determination of acoustic constants of this material may be improved.

    • Solid-phase crystallization of amorphous Si films on glass and Si wafer

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Lee, Dong Nyung

      2011-11-01

      When amorphous silicon films deposited on glass by physical or chemical vapor deposition are annealed, they undergo crystallization by nucleation and growth. The growth rate of Si crystallites is the highest in their <111> directions along or nearly along the film surface. The directed crystallization is likely to develop the <110>//ND or <111>//ND oriented Si crystallites. As the annealing temperature increases, the equiaxed crystallization increases, which in turn increases the random orientation. When amorphous Si is under a stress of the order of 0.1 GPa at about 540 °C, the tensile stress increases the growth rate of Si grains, whereas the compressive stress decreases the growth rate. However, the crystal growth rate increases with the increasing hydrostatic pressure, when the pressure is of the order of GPa at 530-540 °C. These phenomena have been discussed based on the directed crystallization model advanced before, which has been further elaborated.

    • Growth and piezoelectric properties of Ca3Nb(Al0.5Ga0.5)3Si2O14 crystals with langasite structure

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Xiong, Kainan; Zheng, Yanqing; Tu, Xiaoniu; Jiang, Bohan; Cao, Shuoliang; Shi, Erwei

      2017-06-01

      Piezoelectric crystals Ca3Nb(Al0.5Ga0.5)3Si2O14 (CNAGS) with langasite structure have been successfully grown by Czochralski method. In this work, the crystal structure, quality, chemical composition, piezoelectric properties, electric resistivity and optical properties of the as-grown crystals were characterized. The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the rocking curve of CNAGS was found to be 23″. The chemical compositions of CNAGS crystals are very close to that of initial compositions. At room temperature, the piezoelectric coefficients d11 and d14 of CNAGS crystals are 4.12 pC/N and -5.03 pC/N, and the electromechanical coupling coefficients k12 and k26 are also determined as 11.6% and 18.3%, respectively. The electric resistivity of as-growth crystal was found to be on the order of 2×108 Ω cm at 500 °C and 1×106 Ω cm at 800 °C. And the transmittances of CNAGS crystals were found to be over 80% in the wavelength range of 700-2700 nm.

    • In situ observation of melting and crystallization of Si on porous Si3N4 substrate that repels Si melt

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Itoh, Hironori; Okamura, Hideyuki; Asanoma, Susumu; Ikemura, Kouhei; Nakayama, Masaharu; Komatsu, Ryuichi

      2014-09-01

      High temperature in situ observation of melting and crystallization of spherical Si droplets on a substrate with a porous surface was carried out for the first time using an original in situ observation apparatus. The contact angle between the Si melt and the substrate was measured to be 160°, with the Si melt forming spherical droplets on the substrate. During crystallization, a ring-like pattern was observed on the surface of the spherical Si melt droplets due to crystal growth at low levels of supercooling. The solidified spherical Si crystals consisted of single or twin grains. This demonstrates that high-quality spherical Si crystals can be prepared easily and stably by using a Si melt-repelling substrate.

    • Protein crystal growth

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Bugg, Charles E.

      1993-01-01

      Proteins account for 50% or more of the dry weight of most living systems and play a crucial role in virtually all biological processes. Since the specific functions of essentially all biological molecules are determined by their three-dimensional structures, it is obvious that a detailed understanding of the structural makeup of a protein is essential to any systematic research pertaining to it. At the present time, protein crystallography has no substitute, it is the only technique available for elucidating the atomic arrangements within complicated biological molecules. Most macromolecules are extremely difficult to crystallize, and many otherwise exciting and promising projects have terminated at the crystal growth stage. There is a pressing need to better understand protein crystal growth, and to develop new techniques that can be used to enhance the size and quality of protein crystals. There are several aspects of microgravity that might be exploited to enhance protein crystal growth. The major factor that might be expected to alter crystal growth processes in space is the elimination of density-driven convective flow. Another factor that can be readily controlled in the absence of gravity is the sedimentation of growing crystal in a gravitational field. Another potential advantage of microgravity for protein crystal growth is the option of doing containerless crystal growth. One can readily understand why the microgravity environment established by Earth-orbiting vehicles is perceived to offer unique opportunities for the protein crystallographer. The near term objectives of the Protein Crystal Growth in a Microgravity Environment (PCG/ME) project is to continue to improve the techniques, procedures, and hardware systems used to grow protein crystals in Earth orbit.

    • Single crystal growth and physical properties of the new ternary compound Eu2Mg4Si3

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Numakura, Ryosuke; Iizuka, Ryosuke; Michimura, Shinji; Katano, Susumu; Kosaka, Masashi

      2018-05-01

      We have studied the magnetic and electrical properties of new ternary europium magnesium silicide Eu2Mg4Si3. The single crystalline Eu2Mg4Si3 has been prepared by the Mg self-flux method. The compound crystalizes in the hexagonal Hf2Co4P3-type structure with space group P 6 bar 2 m with unit cell parameters a = 14.78 (3) Å and c = 4.434 (6) Å . Magnetic, electrical, and thermal properties indicate that the system undergoes two successive phase transitions, occurring at TN1 = 9.6 K and TN2 = 8.4 K . The estimated effective magnetic moment is close to the moment of free Eu2+ ion. The electrical resistivity data ρ (T) for Eu2Mg4Si3 show a metallic-like behavior from room temperature down to about 100 K. However, the ρ (T) data exhibit a notable upturn below 80 K and a maximum around TN1 and then suddenly decrease with decreasing temperature. These features are strongly suppressed by applying magnetic fields and a metallic temperature dependence eventually exhibits over the whole temperature range in a magnetic field of 30 kOe. Such behavior is observed in some magnetoresistive compounds.

    • Growth of a New Ternary BON Crystal on Si(100) by Plasma-Assisted MOCVD and Study on the Effects of Fed Gas and Growth Temperature

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Chen, G. C.; Lee, S.-B.; Boo, J.-H.

      A new ternary BOxNy crystal was grown on Si(100) substrate at 500°C by low-frequency (100 kHz) radio-frequency (rf) derived plasma-assisted MOCVD with an organoborate precursor. The as-grown deposits were characterized by SEM, TED, XPS, XRD, AFM and FT-IR. The experimental results showed that BOxNy crystal was apt to be formed at N-rich atmosphere and high temperature. The decrease of hydrogen flux in fed gases was of benefit to form BON crystal structure. The crystal structure of BOxNy was as similar to that of H3BO3 in this study.

    • Crystal growth and crystallography

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Chernov, A. A.

      1998-01-01

      Selected topics that may be of interest for both crystal-structure and crystal-growth communities are overviewed. The growth of protein crystals, along with that of some other compounds, is one of the topics, and recent insights into related phenomena are considered as examples of applications of general principles. The relationship between crystal growth shape and structure is reviewed and an attempt to introduce semiquantitative characterization of binding for proteins is made. The concept of kinks for complex structures is briefly discussed. Even at sufficiently low supersaturations, the fluctuation of steps may not be sufficient to implement the Gibbs-Thomson law if the kink density is low enough. Subsurface ordering of liquids and growth of rough interfaces from melts is discussed. Crystals growing in microgravity from solution should be more perfect if they preferentially trap stress-inducing impurities, thus creating an impurity-depleted zone around themselves. Evidently, such a zone is developed only around the crystals growing in the absence of convection. Under terrestrial conditions, the self-purified depleted zone is destroyed by convection, the crystal traps more impurity and grows stressed. The stress relief causes mosaicity. In systems containing stress-inducing but poorly trapped impurities, the crystals grown in the absence of convection should be worse than those of their terrestrial counterparts.

  1. Protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy uses laser technology to reveal a defect, a double-screw dislocation, on the surface of this crystal of canavalin, a major source of dietary protein for humans and domestic animals. When a crystal grows, attachment kinetics and transport kinetics are competing for control of the molecules. As a molecule gets close to the crystal surface, it has to attach properly for the crystal to be usable. NASA has funded investigators to look at those attachment kinetics from a theoretical standpoint and an experimental standpoint. Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine, is one of those investigators. He uses X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy in his laboratory to answer some of the many questions about how protein crystals grow. Atomic force microscopy provides a means of looking at how individual molecules are added to the surface of growing protein crystals. This helps McPherson understand the kinetics of protein crystal growth. McPherson asks, How fast do crystals grow? What are the forces involved? Investigators funded by NASA have clearly shown that such factors as the level of supersaturation and the rate of growth all affect the habit [characteristic arrangement of facets] of the crystal and the defects that occur in the crystal.

  2. Microgravity crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Advanced finite element models are used to study three-dimensional, time-dependent flow and segregation in crystal growth systems. In this image of a prototypical model for melt and crystal growth, pathlines at one instant in time are shown for the flow of heated liquid silicon in a cylindrical container. The container is subjected to g-jitter disturbances along the vertical axis. A transverse magnetic field is applied to control them. Such computations are extremely powerful for understanding melt growth in microgravity where g-jitter drives buoyant flows. The simulation is part of the Theoretical Analysis of 3D, Transient Convection and Segregation in Microgravity Bridgman Crystal Growth investigation by Dr. Jeffrey J. Derby of the University of Mirnesota, Minneapolis.

  3. Crystal Growth Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, Walter M. B.; Batur, Celal; Bennett, Robert J.

    1997-01-01

    We present an innovative design of a vertical transparent multizone furnace which can operate in the temperature range of 25 C to 750 C and deliver thermal gradients of 2 C/cm to 45 C/cm for the commercial applications to crystal growth. The operation of the eight zone furnace is based on a self-tuning temperature control system with a DC power supply for optimal thermal stability. We show that the desired thermal profile over the entire length of the furnace consists of a functional combination of the fundamental thermal profiles for each individual zone obtained by setting the set-point temperature for that zone. The self-tuning system accounts for the zone to zone thermal interactions. The control system operates such that the thermal profile is maintained under thermal load, thus boundary conditions on crystal growth ampoules can be predetermined prior to crystal growth. Temperature profiles for the growth of crystals via directional solidification, vapor transport techniques, and multiple gradient applications are shown to be easily implemented. The unique feature of its transparency and ease of programming thermal profiles make the furnace useful for scientific and commercial applications for the determination of process parameters to optimize crystal growth conditions.

  4. Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Frederick

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this theoretical research effort was to improve the understanding of the growth of Pb(x)Sn(1-x)Te and especially how crystal quality could be improved utilizing the microgravity environment of space. All theoretical growths are done using the vertical Bridgman method. It is believed that improved single crystal yields can be achieved by systematically identifying and studying system parameters both theoretically and experimentally. A computational model was developed to study and eventually optimize the growth process. The model is primarily concerned with the prediction of the thermal field, although mass transfer in the melt and the state of stress in the crystal were of considerable interest. The evolution is presented of the computer simulation and some of the important results obtained. Diffusion controlled growth was first studied since it represented a relatively simple, but nontheless realistic situation. In fact, results from this analysis prompted a study of the triple junction region where the melt, crystal, and ampoule wall meet. Since microgravity applications were sought because of the low level of fluid movement, the effect of gravitational field strength on the thermal and concentration field was also of interest. A study of the strength of coriolis acceleration on the growth process during space flight was deemed necessary since it would surely produce asymmetries in the flow field if strong enough. Finally, thermosolutal convection in a steady microgravity field for thermally stable conditions and both stable and unstable solutal conditions was simulated.

  5. Quartz crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Baughman, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    A process for growing single crystals from an amorphous substance that can undergo phase transformation to the crystalline state in an appropriate solvent. The process is carried out in an autoclave having a lower dissolution zone and an upper crystallization zone between which a temperature differential (.DELTA.T) is maintained at all times. The apparatus loaded with the substance, solvent, and seed crystals is heated slowly maintaining a very low .DELTA.T between the warmer lower zone and cooler upper zone until the amorphous substance is transformed to the crystalline state in the lower zone. The heating rate is then increased to maintain a large .DELTA.T sufficient to increase material transport between the zones and rapid crystallization. .alpha.-Quartz single crystal can thus be made from fused quartz in caustic solvent by heating to 350.degree. C. stepwise with a .DELTA.T of 0.25.degree.-3.degree. C., increasing the .DELTA.T to about 50.degree. C. after the fused quartz has crystallized, and maintaining these conditions until crystal growth in the upper zone is completed.

  6. Protein crystal growth tray assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Miller, Teresa Y. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A protein crystal growth tray assembly includes a tray that has a plurality of individual crystal growth chambers. Each chamber has a movable pedestal which carries a protein crystal growth compartment at an upper end. The several pedestals for each tray assembly are ganged together for concurrent movement so that the solutions in the various pedestal growth compartments can be separated from the solutions in the tray's growth chambers until the experiment is to be activated.

  7. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, William M.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Wilson, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Major advances have been made in several of the experimental aspects of protein crystallography, leaving protein crystallization as one of the few remaining bottlenecks. As a result, it has become important that the science of protein crystal growth is better understood and that improved methods for protein crystallization are developed. Preliminary experiments with both small molecules and proteins indicate that microgravity may beneficially affect crystal growth. For this reason, a series of protein crystal growth experiments using the Space Shuttle was initiated. The preliminary space experiments were used to evolve prototype hardware that will form the basis for a more advanced system that can be used to evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. Various optical techniques are being utilized to monitor the crystal growth process from the incipient or nucleation stage and throughout the growth phase. The eventual goal of these studies is to develop a system which utilizes optical monitoring for dynamic control of the crystallization process.

  8. Crystal growth of artificial snow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimura, S.; Oka, A.; Taki, M.; Kuwano, R.; Ono, H.; Nagura, R.; Narimatsu, Y.; Tanii, J.; Kamimiytat, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Snow crystals were grown onboard the space shuttle during STS-7 and STS-8 to facilitate the investigation of crystal growth under conditions of weightlessness. The experimental design and hardware are described. Space-grown snow crystals were polyhedrons looking like spheres, which were unlike snow crystals produced in experiments on Earth.

  9. Protein crystals and their growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alexander A.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results on the associations between protein molecules in crystal lattices, crystal-solution surface energy, elastic properties, strength, and spontaneous crystal cracking are reviewed and discussed. In addition, some basic approaches to understanding the solubility of proteins are followed by an overview of crystal nucleation and growth. It is argued that variability of mixing in batch crystallization may be a source of the variation in the number of crystals ultimately appearing in the sample. The frequency at which new molecules join a crystal lattice is measured by the kinetic coefficient and is related to the observed crystal growth rate. Numerical criteria used to discriminate diffusion- and kinetic-limited growth are discussed on this basis. Finally, the creation of defects is discussed with an emphasis on the role of impurities and convection on macromolecular crystal perfection.

  10. Protein Crystals and their Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, A. A.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results on binding between protein molecules in crystal lattice, crystal-solution surface energy, elastic properties and strength and spontaneous crystal cracking are reviewed and discussed in the first half of this paper (Sea 2-4). In the second par&, some basic approaches to solubility of proteins are followed by overview on crystal nucleation and growth (Sec 5). It is argued that variability of mixing in batch crystallization may be a source for scattering of crystal number ultimately appearing in the batch. Frequency at which new molecules join crystal lattice is measured by kinetic coefficient and related to the observable crystal growth rate. Numerical criteria to discriminate diffusion and kinetic limited growth are discussed on this basis in Sec 7. In Sec 8, creation of defects is discussed with the emphasis on the role of impurities and convection on macromolecular crystal I;erfection.

  11. Hopper Growth of Salt Crystals.

    PubMed

    Desarnaud, Julie; Derluyn, Hannelore; Carmeliet, Jan; Bonn, Daniel; Shahidzadeh, Noushine

    2018-06-07

    The growth of hopper crystals is observed for many substances, but the mechanism of their formation remains ill understood. Here we investigate their growth by performing evaporation experiments on small volumes of salt solutions. We show that sodium chloride crystals that grow very fast from a highly supersaturated solution form a peculiar form of hopper crystal consisting of a series of connected miniature versions of the original cubic crystal. The transition between cubic and such hopper growth happens at a well-defined supersaturation where the growth rate of the cubic crystal reaches a maximum (∼6.5 ± 1.8 μm/s). Above this threshold, the growth rate varies as the third power of supersaturation, showing that a new mechanism, controlled by the maximum speed of surface integration of new molecules, induces the hopper growth of cubic crystals in cascade.

  12. Protein crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, C. E.; Clifford, D. W.

    1987-01-01

    The advantages of protein crystallization in space, and the applications of protein crystallography to drug design, protein engineering, and the design of synthetic vaccines are examined. The steps involved in using protein crystallography to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein are discussed. The growth chamber design and the hand-held apparatus developed for protein crystal growth by vapor diffusion techniques (hanging-drop method) are described; the experimental data from the four Shuttle missions are utilized to develop hardware for protein crystal growth in space and to evaluate the effects of gravity on protein crystal growth.

  13. Universal description of III-V/Si epitaxial growth processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucci, I.; Charbonnier, S.; Pedesseau, L.; Vallet, M.; Cerutti, L.; Rodriguez, J.-B.; Tournié, E.; Bernard, R.; Létoublon, A.; Bertru, N.; Le Corre, A.; Rennesson, S.; Semond, F.; Patriarche, G.; Largeau, L.; Turban, P.; Ponchet, A.; Cornet, C.

    2018-06-01

    Here, we experimentally and theoretically clarify III-V/Si crystal growth processes. Atomically resolved microscopy shows that monodomain three-dimensional islands are observed at the early stages of AlSb, AlN, and GaP epitaxy on Si, independently of misfit. It is also shown that complete III-V/Si wetting cannot be achieved in most III-V/Si systems. Surface/interface contributions to the free-energy variations are found to be prominent over strain relief processes. We finally propose a general and unified description of III-V/Si growth processes, including a description of the formation of antiphase boundaries.

  14. Direct flow crystal growth system

    DOEpatents

    Montgomery, Kenneth E.; Milanovich, Fred P.

    1992-01-01

    A crystal is grown in a constantly filtered solution which is flowed directly into the growing face of a crystal. In a continuous flow system, solution at its saturation temperature is removed from a crystal growth tank, heated above its saturation temperature, filtered, cooled back to its saturation temperature, and returned to the tank.

  15. High density protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouleau, Robyn (Inventor); Hedden, Douglas Keith (Inventor); Delucas, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A protein crystal growth assembly including a crystal growth cell and further including a cell body having a top side and a bottom side and a first aperture defined therethrough, the cell body having opposing first and second sides and a second aperture defined therethrough. A cell barrel is disposed within the cell body, the cell barrel defining a cavity alignable with the first aperture of the cell body, the cell barrel being rotatable within the second aperture. A reservoir is coupled to the bottom side of the cell body and a cap having a top side is disposed on the top side of the cell body. The protein crystal growth assembly may be employed in methods including vapor diffusion crystallization, liquid to liquid crystallization, batch crystallization, and temperature induction batch mode crystallization.

  16. Growth of amorphous and epitaxial ZnSiP 2–Si alloys on Si

    DOE PAGES

    Martinez, Aaron D.; Miller, Elisa M.; Norman, Andrew G.; ...

    2018-01-30

    ZnSiP 2is a wide band gap material lattice matched with Si, with potential for Si-based optoelectronics. Here, amorphous ZnSiP 2–Si alloys are grown with tunable composition. Films with Si-rich compositions can be crystallized into epitaxial films.

  17. Lateral Growth Expansion of 4H/6H-SiC m-plane Pseudo Fiber Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Powell, J. A.; Spry, David J.; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Lateral expansion of small mixed polytype 4H/6H-SiC slivers were realized by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD). Small slivers cut from m-oriented ..11..00.. SiC boule slices containing regions of 4H and 6H SiC were exposed to HWCVD conditions using standard silane/propane chemistry for a period of up to eight hours. The slivers exhibited approximately 1500 microns (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Initial analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms, that the lateral growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed sliver.

  18. Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    In order to rapidly and efficiently grow crystals, tools were needed to automatically identify and analyze the growing process of protein crystals. To meet this need, Diversified Scientific, Inc. (DSI), with the support of a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, developed CrystalScore(trademark), the first automated image acquisition, analysis, and archiving system designed specifically for the macromolecular crystal growing community. It offers automated hardware control, image and data archiving, image processing, a searchable database, and surface plotting of experimental data. CrystalScore is currently being used by numerous pharmaceutical companies and academic and nonprofit research centers. DSI, located in Birmingham, Alabama, was awarded the patent Method for acquiring, storing, and analyzing crystal images on March 4, 2003. Another DSI product made possible by Marshall SBIR funding is VaporPro(trademark), a unique, comprehensive system that allows for the automated control of vapor diffusion for crystallization experiments.

  19. GROWTH AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SINGLE CRYSTALS OF RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    SINGLE CRYSTALS, CRYSTAL GROWTH), (*CRYSTAL GROWTH, SINGLE CRYSTALS), (*RARE EARTH COMPOUNDS, SINGLE CRYSTALS), EPITAXIAL GROWTH, SODIUM COMPOUNDS, CHLORIDES, VAPOR PLATING, ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS, ENERGY, ATOMIC PROPERTIES , BONDING

  20. Automated protein crystal growth facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donald, Stacey

    A customer for the protein crystal growth facility fills the specially designed chamber with the correct solutions, fills the syringes with their quenching solutions, and submits the data needed for the proper growth of their crystal. To make sure that the chambers and syringes are filled correctly, a NASA representative may assist the customer. The data needed is the approximate growth time, the growth temperature, and the desired crystal size, but this data can be changed anytime from the ground, if needed. The chambers are gathered and placed into numbered slots in special drawers. Then, data is entered into a computer for each of the chambers. Technicians map out when each chamber's growth should be activated so that all of the chambers have enough time to grow. All of this data is up-linked to the space station when the previous growth session is over. Anti-vibrational containers need to be constructed for the high forces encountered during the lift off and the landing of the space shuttle, and though our team has not designed these containers, we do not feel that there is any reason why a suitable one could not be made. When the shuttle reaches the space station, an astronaut removes a drawer of quenched chambers from the growth facility and inserts a drawer of new chambers. All twelve of the drawers can be replaced in this fashion. The optical disks can also be removed this way. The old drawers are stored for the trip back to earth. Once inside the growth facility, a chamber is removed by the robot and placed in one of 144 active sites at a time previously picked by a technician. Growth begins when the chamber is inserted into an active site. Then, the sensing system starts to determine the size of the protein crystal. All during the crystal's growth, the customer can view the crystal and read all of the crystal's data, such as growth rate and crystal size. When the sensing system determines that the crystal has reached the predetermined size, the robot is

  1. Automated protein crystal growth facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donald, Stacey

    1994-01-01

    A customer for the protein crystal growth facility fills the specially designed chamber with the correct solutions, fills the syringes with their quenching solutions, and submits the data needed for the proper growth of their crystal. To make sure that the chambers and syringes are filled correctly, a NASA representative may assist the customer. The data needed is the approximate growth time, the growth temperature, and the desired crystal size, but this data can be changed anytime from the ground, if needed. The chambers are gathered and placed into numbered slots in special drawers. Then, data is entered into a computer for each of the chambers. Technicians map out when each chamber's growth should be activated so that all of the chambers have enough time to grow. All of this data is up-linked to the space station when the previous growth session is over. Anti-vibrational containers need to be constructed for the high forces encountered during the lift off and the landing of the space shuttle, and though our team has not designed these containers, we do not feel that there is any reason why a suitable one could not be made. When the shuttle reaches the space station, an astronaut removes a drawer of quenched chambers from the growth facility and inserts a drawer of new chambers. All twelve of the drawers can be replaced in this fashion. The optical disks can also be removed this way. The old drawers are stored for the trip back to earth. Once inside the growth facility, a chamber is removed by the robot and placed in one of 144 active sites at a time previously picked by a technician. Growth begins when the chamber is inserted into an active site. Then, the sensing system starts to determine the size of the protein crystal. All during the crystal's growth, the customer can view the crystal and read all of the crystal's data, such as growth rate and crystal size. When the sensing system determines that the crystal has reached the predetermined size, the robot is

  2. Surrogate Seeds For Growth Of Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Larger crystals of higher quality grown. Alternative method for starting growth of crystal involves use of seed crystal of different material instead of same material as solution. Intended for growing single-crystal proteins for experiments but applicable in general to growth of crystals from solutions and to growth of semiconductor or other crystals from melts.

  3. Dynamically controlled crystal growth system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bray, Terry L. (Inventor); Kim, Larry J. (Inventor); Harrington, Michael (Inventor); DeLucas, Lawrence J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Crystal growth can be initiated and controlled by dynamically controlled vapor diffusion or temperature change. In one aspect, the present invention uses a precisely controlled vapor diffusion approach to monitor and control protein crystal growth. The system utilizes a humidity sensor and various interfaces under computer control to effect virtually any evaporation rate from a number of different growth solutions simultaneously by means of an evaporative gas flow. A static laser light scattering sensor can be used to detect aggregation events and trigger a change in the evaporation rate for a growth solution. A control/follower configuration can be used to actively monitor one chamber and accurately control replicate chambers relative to the control chamber. In a second aspect, the invention exploits the varying solubility of proteins versus temperature to control the growth of protein crystals. This system contains miniature thermoelectric devices under microcomputer control that change temperature as needed to grow crystals of a given protein. Complex temperature ramps are possible using this approach. A static laser light scattering probe also can be used in this system as a non-invasive probe for detection of aggregation events. The automated dynamic control system provides systematic and predictable responses with regard to crystal size. These systems can be used for microgravity crystallization projects, for example in a space shuttle, and for crystallization work under terrestial conditions. The present invention is particularly useful for macromolecular crystallization, e.g. for proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids, viruses and virus particles.

  4. Crystal Growth Using MEPHISTO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Henry C., III

    1999-01-01

    The shuttle flight experiment "In Situ Monitoring of Crystal Growth Using MEPHISTO" was accomplished during STS-87 as part of the fourth flight of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-4), which was flown from November 19 to December 5, 1997. The data returned from that flight are just now beginning to yield quantitative results. This project is an international collaboration: the furnace system known as MEPHISTO was built in France by CNES (French National Space Agency) and CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission); the principal investigator, Prof. Reza Abbaschian, is from the University of Florida at Gainesville; and numerical and analytical modeling support includes collaborators from the University of New South Wales, Australia, the University of Wisconsin at Milwaukee, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and the NASA Lewis Research Center. MEPHISTO is a French acronym that translates into English as Materials for the Study of Interesting Phenomena of Solidification on Earth and in Orbit. Since this was the fourth flight of the MEPHISTO furnace, the experiment is referred to as MEPHISTO-4. MEPHISTO-4 was a directional solidification experiment that studied the liquid-to-solid transformation of bismuth alloyed with tin. Directional solidification is a freezing technique common to the processing of the electronic materials used in integrated circuits and detectors, such as silicon and germanium. When liquids are frozen on Earth, they must be cooled. The cooling causes stirring because of density variations in the liquid. This stirring, known as natural convection, influences the quality of the resulting solid. During freezing, regions of high and low concentrations of tin are created. This introduces another important phenomenon: diffusion, or the movement by molecular action of matter from regions of high concentration to regions of lower concentration. In MEPHISTO-4, it is tin that diffuses from the high-concentration region in front of the

  5. The growth and investigations of electromechanical properties of Fresnoite Ba2Si2TiO8 crystal as a function of orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chuanying; Wang, Duanliang; Zhang, Jinyue; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Jiyang; Boughton, Robert I.

    2018-04-01

    Large sized Fresnoite Ba2TiSi2O8 single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method. Using coordinate transformation methods, the relative dielectric, piezoelectric and elastic constants of Fresnoite Ba2TiSi2O8 as a function of orientation were investigated, and their two- and three-dimensional spatial distributions are presented. From them, the maximum values of the piezoelectric coefficients and the corresponding rotation angle can be obtained. The maximum values of coefficients d22∗, d23∗, d24∗, d32∗, d33∗ and d34∗ were achieved for rotation angles of 40°, 32°, 0°, 58°, 50° and 90°, respectively, and are on the order of 8.7, -4.7, 17.5, 4.7, 8.7 and 17.5 pC/N, respectively. Furthermore, the validity of the electromechanical properties investigation as a function of orientation was verified. The relative dielectric permittivity, elastic constant and piezoelectric coefficient of a ZXl50o cut rod were calculated and found to be 14.1, 8.7 pC/N and 11.2 pm2/N, respectively, in good agreement with the experimental values of 12.7, 9.1 pC/N and 11.7 pm2/N. This investigation is important in providing direction for theoretical research and device design of piezoelectric Ba2TiSi2O8 crystals.

  6. Czochralski crystal growth: Modeling study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dudukovic, M. P.; Ramachandran, P. A.; Srivastava, R. K.; Dorsey, D.

    1986-01-01

    The modeling study of Czochralski (Cz) crystal growth is reported. The approach was to relate in a quantitative manner, using models based on first priniciples, crystal quality to operating conditions and geometric variables. The finite element method is used for all calculations.

  7. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The overall scientific goals and rationale for growing protein crystals in microgravity are discussed. Data on the growth of human serum albumin crystals which were produced during the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) are presented. Potential scientific advantages of the utilization of Space Station Freedom are discussed.

  8. Crystal structures of CaSiO3 polymorphs control growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on bioceramic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nianli; Molenda, James A; Mankoci, Steven; Zhou, Xianfeng; Murphy, William L; Sahai, Nita

    2013-10-01

    The repair and replacement of damaged or diseased human bone tissue requires a stable interface between the orthopedic implant and living tissue. The ideal material should be both osteoconductive (promote bonding to bone) and osteoinductive (induce osteogenic differentiation of cells and generate new bone). Partially resorbable bioceramic materials with both properties are developed by expensive trial-and-error methods. Structure-reactivity relationships for predicting the osteoinductive properties of ceramics would significantly increase the efficiency of developing materials for bone tissue engineering. Here we propose the novel hypothesis that the crystal structure of a bioceramic controls the release rates, subsequent surface modifications due to precipitation of new phases, and thus, the concentrations of soluble factors, and ultimately, the attachment, viability and osteogenic differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs). To illustrate our hypothesis, we used two CaSiO 3 polymorphs, pseudo-wollastonite (psw, β-CaSiO 3 ) and wollastonite (wol, α-CaSiO 3 ) as scaffolds for hMSC culture. Polymorphs are materials which have identical chemical composition and stoichiometry, but different crystal structures. We combined the results of detailed surface characterizations, including environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) back-scattered imaging, and spot-analysis and 2D elemental mapping by SEM-Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and surface roughness analysis; culture medium solution analyses; and molecular/genetic assays from cell culture. Our results confirmed the hypothesis that the psw polymorph, which has a strained silicate ring structure, is more osteoinductive than the wol polymorph, which has a more stable, open silicate chain structure. The observations could be attributed to easier dissolution (resorption) of psw compared to wol, which resulted in concentration profiles that were

  9. Surface Crystallization of a MgO/Y2O3/SiO2/Al2O3/ZrO2 Glass: Growth of an Oriented β-Y2Si2O7 Layer and Epitaxial ZrO2

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Seidel, Sabrina; Patzig, Christian; Rüssel, Christian

    2017-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of a glass with the composition 54.7 SiO2·10.9 Al2O3·15.0 MgO·3.4 ZrO2·16.0 Y2O3 is studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) including electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and (scanning) transmission electron microscopy [(S)TEM] including energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS). This glass shows the sole surface crystallization of four different yttrium silicates of the composition Y2Si2O7 (YS). The almost simultaneous but independent nucleation of α-, β-, δ-, and ε-YS at the surface is followed by growth into the bulk, where ε-YS quickly dominates a first crystallized layer. An accumulation of Mg at the growth front probably triggers a secondary nucleation of β-YS, which forms a thin compact layer before fragmenting into a highly oriented layer of fine grained crystals occupying the remaining bulk. The residual glass between the YS growth structures allows the crystallization of indialite, yttrium stabilized ZrO2 (Y-ZrO2) and very probably μ-cordierite during cooling. Hence, this glass basically shows the inverted order of crystallization observed in other magnesium yttrium alumosilicate glasses containing less Y2O3. An epitaxial relationship between Y-ZrO2 and ε-YS is proven and multiple twinning relationships occur in the YS phases. PMID:28281661

  10. Containerless protein crystal growth method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu; Chung, Sang K.

    1991-01-01

    A method of growing protein crystals from levitated drops is introduced and unique features of containerless approach in 1-g and micro-G laboratories are discussed. Electrostatic multidrop levitation system which is capable of simultaneous four drop levitation is described. A method of controlling protein saturation level in a programmed way is introduced and discussed. Finally, some of the unique features of containerless approach of protein crystal growth in space are discussed and summarized.

  11. Hydrothermal Growth of Polyscale Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrappa, Kullaiah

    In this chapter, the importance of the hydrothermal technique for growth of polyscale crystals is discussed with reference to its efficiency in synthesizing high-quality crystals of various sizes for modern technological applications. The historical development of the hydrothermal technique is briefly discussed, to show its evolution over time. Also some of the important types of apparatus used in routine hydrothermal research, including the continuous production of nanosize crystals, are discussed. The latest trends in the hydrothermal growth of crystals, such as thermodynamic modeling and understanding of the solution chemistry, are elucidated with appropriate examples. The growth of some selected bulk, fine, and nanosized crystals of current technological significance, such as quartz, aluminum and gallium berlinites, calcite, gemstones, rare-earth vanadates, electroceramic titanates, and carbon polymorphs, is discussed in detail. Future trends in the hydrothermal technique, required to meet the challenges of fast-growing demand for materials in various technological fields, are described. At the end of this chapter, an Appendix 18.A containing a more or less complete list of the characteristic families of crystals synthesized by the hydrothermal technique is given with the solvent and pressure-temperature (PT) conditions used in their synthesis.

  12. Bioengineering single crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Hsuan; Park, Alexander; Joester, Derk

    2011-02-16

    Biomineralization is a "bottom-up" synthesis process that results in the formation of inorganic/organic nanocomposites with unrivaled control over structure, superior mechanical properties, adaptive response, and the capability of self-repair. While de novo design of such highly optimized materials may still be out of reach, engineering of the biosynthetic machinery may offer an alternative route to design advanced materials. Herein, we present an approach using micro-contact-printed lectins for patterning sea urchin embryo primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) in vitro. We demonstrate not only that PMCs cultured on these substrates show attachment to wheat germ agglutinin and concanavalin A patterns but, more importantly, that the deposition and elongation of calcite spicules occurs cooperatively by multiple cells and in alignment with the printed pattern. This allows us to control the placement and orientation of smooth, cylindrical calcite single crystals where the crystallographic c-direction is parallel to the cylinder axis and the underlying line pattern.

  13. Growth of Solid Solution Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.; Holland, L. R.

    1985-01-01

    The major objective of this program is to determine the conditions under which single crystals of solid solutions can be grown from the melt in a Bridgman configuration with a high degree of chemical homogeneity. The central aim is to assess the role of gravity in the growth process and to explore the possible advantages for growth in the absence of gravity. The alloy system being investigated is the solid solution semiconductor with x-values appropriate for infrared detector applications in Hg sub (1-x) Cd sub x Te the 8 to 14 micro m wavelength region. Both melt and Te-solvent growth are being considered. The study consists of an extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research effort followed by flight experimentation where appropriate. Experimental facilities have been established for the purification, casting, and crystal growth of the alloy system. Facilities have been also established for the metallurgical, compositional, electric and optical characterization of the alloys. Crystals are being grown by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method and are analyzed by various experimental techniques to evaluate the effects of growth conditions on the longitudinal and radial compositional variations and defect densities in the crystals.

  14. Electrooptic crystal growth and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-02-01

    A new member in the tungsten-bronze family of ferroelectric lead potassium niobate (PKN), with general formula Pb(1-x)K(2x)Nb2O6, has been grown as bulk single crystal. Growth of PKN with charge composition x = 0.23 has been achieved using the Czochralski technique of crystal pulling. Large diameter boules were grown in platinum crucibles at temperatures between 1280 and 1300 C. Crystallographic studies were conducted using x ray diffraction techniques. The samples were characterized for ferroelectric properties between 25 and 600 C and for optical absorption. This paper presents the crystal synthesis and the results of ferroelectric and optical characterization. Bulk single crystals of potassium tantalate niobate, KTa(1-x)Nb(x)O3, ferroelectric with different values of Ta/Nb ratios have been grown by temperature gradient transport technique (TGTT). A second attached paper presents the results of the crystal growth experiments, ferroelectric characterization techniques, and properties of potassium tantalate niobate crystals.

  15. Method For Growth of Crystal Surfaces and Growth of Heteroepitaxial Single Crystal Films Thereon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Matus, Lawrence G. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method of growing atomically-flat surfaces and high quality low-defect crystal films of semiconductor materials and fabricating improved devices thereon is discussed. The method is also suitable for growing films heteroepitaxially on substrates that are different than the film. The method is particularly suited for growth of elemental semiconductors (such as Si), compounds of Groups III and V elements of the Periodic Table (such as GaN), and compounds and alloys of Group IV elements of the Periodic Table (such as SiC).

  16. Modeling elasticity in crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Elder, K R; Katakowski, Mark; Haataja, Mikko; Grant, Martin

    2002-06-17

    A new model of crystal growth is presented that describes the phenomena on atomic length and diffusive time scales. The former incorporates elastic and plastic deformation in a natural manner, and the latter enables access to time scales much larger than conventional atomic methods. The model is shown to be consistent with the predictions of Read and Shockley for grain boundary energy, and Matthews and Blakeslee for misfit dislocations in epitaxial growth.

  17. Growth Defects in Biomacromolecular Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA's ground based program confirmed close similarity between protein and small molecules crystal growth, but also revealed essential differences. No understanding exists as to why and when crystals grown in space are, in approx. 20 percent of cases, of higher quality. More rationale is needed in flight experiments. Ferritin crystals grown in space are 2.5 times cleaner than their terrestrial counterparts. This may occur because of the existence of a zone depleted with respect to impurities around a crystal growing in stagnant solution. This zone should appear since the distribution coefficient for homologous impurities exceeds unity. This impurity depletion zone hypothesis requires verification and development. Thorough purification from homologous impurities brought about resolution improvement from 2.6 to 1.8 angstroms for ferritin and from 2.6 to 2.0 angstroms for canavalin.

  18. Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This diagram shows a cross sectrion of the fluid volume of an individual cell in the Observable Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus (OPCGA) to be operated aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The principal investigator is Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine. Each individual cell comprises two sample chambers with a rotating center section that isolates the two from each other until the start of the experiment and after it is completed. The cells are made from optical-quality quartz glass to allow photography and interferometric observations. Each cell has a small light-emitting diode and lens to back-light the solution. In protein crystal growth experiments, a precipitating agent such as a salt solution is used to absorb and hold water but repel the protein molecules. This increases the concentration of protein until the molecules nucleate to form crystals. This cell is one of 96 that make up the experiment module portion of the OPCGA.

  19. Optical analysis of crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Passeur, Andrea; Harper, Sabrina

    1994-01-01

    Processing and data reduction of holographic images from Spacelab presents some interesting challenges in determining the effects of microgravity on crystal growth processes. Evaluation of several processing techniques, including the Computerized Holographic Image Processing System and the image processing software ITEX150, will provide fundamental information for holographic analysis of the space flight data.

  20. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Canavalin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Canavalin. The major storage protein of leguminous plants and a major source of dietary protein for humans and domestic animals. It is studied in efforts to enhance nutritional value of proteins through protein engineerings. It is isolated from Jack Bean because of it's potential as a nutritional substance. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Alex McPherson.

  1. Crystal growth in fused solvent systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Noone, M. J.; Spear, K. E.; White, W. B.; Henry, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    Research is reported on the growth of electronic ceramic single crystals from solution for the future growth of crystals in a microgravity environment. Work included growth from fused or glass solvents and aqueous solutions. Topics discussed include: crystal identification and selection; aqueous solution growth of triglycine sulphate (TGS); and characterization of TGS.

  2. Bulk crystal growth of Ga2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramata, Akito; Koshi, Kimiyoshi; Watanabe, Shinya; Yamaoka, Yu; Masui, Takekazu; Yamakoshi, Shigenobu

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the bulk crystal growth of β-Ga2O3 using edge-defined film-fed growth (EFG) process. We first describe the method of the crystal growth and show that large-size crystal with width of up to 6 inch can be grown. Then, we discuss the way to control electrical properties. In the discussion, we give some experimental results of residual impurity measurement, intentional doping using Si and Sn for n-type doping and Fe for insulating doping.

  3. Silicon crystal growth in vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattak, C. P.; Schmid, F.

    1982-01-01

    The most developed process for silicon crystal growth is the Czochralski (CZ) method which was in production for over two decades. In an effort to reduce cost of single crystal silicon for photovoltaic applications, a directional solidification technique, Heat Exchanger Method (HEM), was adapted. Materials used in HEM and CZ furnaces are quite similar (heaters, crucibles, insulation, etc.). To eliminate the cost of high purity argon, it was intended to use vacuum operation in HEM. Two of the major problems encountered in vacuum processing of silicon are crucible decomposition and silicon carbide formation in the melt.

  4. Condition of Si crystal formation by vaporizing Na from NaSi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morito, Haruhiko; Karahashi, Taiki; Yamane, Hisanori

    2012-09-01

    NaSi was heated at various Na vapor pressures (pNa 0.1-1.2 atm) and temperatures (973-1173 K) to investigate the condition of Si crystal formation from NaSi by Na evaporation. Silicon single crystals 1-3 mm in diameter were grown by evaporation of Na from Na-Si melt at 1173 K and pNa=0.74 atm.

  5. Zeolite crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Thompson, Robert W.; Dixon, Anthony G.

    1991-01-01

    The growth of large, uniform zeolite crystals in high yield in space can have a major impact on the chemical process industry. Large zeolite crystals will be used to improve basic understanding of adsorption and catalytic mechanisms, and to make zeolite membranes. To grow large zeolites in microgravity, it is necessary to control the nucleation event and fluid motion, and to enhance nutrient transfer. Data is presented that suggests nucleation can be controlled using chemical compounds (e.g., Triethanolamine, for zeolite A), while not adversely effecting growth rate. A three-zone furnace has been designed to perform multiple syntheses concurrently. The operating range of the furnace is 295 K to 473 K. Teflon-lined autoclaves (10 ml liquid volume) have been designed to minimize contamination, reduce wall nucleation, and control mixing of pre-gel solutions on orbit. Zeolite synthesis experiments will be performed on USML-1 in 1992.

  6. Phase diagrams and crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkrbec, Jan

    1980-04-01

    Phase diagrams are briefly treated as generalized property-composition relationships, with respect to crystal technology optimization. The treatment is based on mutual interaction of three systems related to semiconductors: (a) the semiconducting material systems, (b0 the data bank, (c) the system of crystallization methods. A model is proposed enabling optimatization on the path from application requirements to the desired material. Further, several examples of the selection as to the composition of LED and laser diode material are given. Some of molten-solution-zone methods are being successfully introduced for this purpose. Common features of these methods, the application of phase diagrams, and their pecularities compared with other crystallization methods are illustrated by schematic diagrams and by examples. LPE methods, particularly the steady-state LPE methods such as Woodall's ISM and Nishizawa's TDM-CVP, and the CAM-S (Crystallization Method Providing Composition Autocontrol in Situ) have been chosen as examples. Another approach of exploiting phase diagrams for optimal material selection and for determination of growth condition before experimentation through a simple calculation is presented on InP-GaP solid solutions. Ternary phase diagrams are visualized in space through calculation and constructions based on the corresponding thermodynamic models and anaglyphs. These make it easy to observe and qualitatively analyze the crystallization of every composition. Phase diagrams can be also used as a powerful tool for the deduction of new crystallization methods. Eutectic crystallization is an example of such an approach where a modified molten-solution-zone method can give a sandwich structure with an abrupt concentration change. The concentration of a component can range from 0 to 100% in the different solid phases.

  7. Crystal growth and annealing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Sparrow, Robert

    2001-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing. An embodiment of the present invention comprises a secondary heater incorporated into a conventional crystal growth and annealing apparatus. The secondary heater supplies heat to minimize the temperature gradients in the crystal during the annealing process. The secondary heater can mount near the bottom of the crucible to effectively maintain appropriate temperature gradients.

  8. Protein crystal growth in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, Charles E.

    1988-01-01

    Protein crystal growth is a major experimental problem and is the bottleneck in widespread applications of protein crystallography. Research efforts now being pursued and sponsored by NASA are making fundamental contributions to the understanding of the science of protein crystal growth. Microgravity environments offer the possibility of performing new types of experiments that may produce a better understanding of protein crystal growth processes and may permit growth environments that are more favorable for obtaining high quality protein crystals. A series of protein crystal growth experiments using the space shuttle was initiated. The first phase of these experiments was focused on the development of micro-methods for protein crystal growth by vapor diffusion techniques, using a space version of the hanging drop method. The preliminary space experiments were used to evolve prototype hardware that will form the basis for a more advanced system that can be used to evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth.

  9. Crystal growth in zinc borosilicate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kullberg, Ana T. G.; Lopes, Andreia A. S.; Veiga, João P. B.; Monteiro, Regina C. C.

    2017-01-01

    Glass samples with a molar composition (64+x)ZnO-(16-x)B2O3-20SiO2, where x=0 or 1, were successfully synthesized using a melt-quenching technique. Based on differential thermal analysis data, the produced glass samples were submitted to controlled heat-treatments at selected temperatures (610, 615 and 620 °C) during various times ranging from 8 to 30 h. The crystallization of willemite (Zn2SiO4) within the glass matrix was confirmed by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Under specific heat-treatment conditions, transparent nanocomposite glass-ceramics were obtained, as confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy. The influence of temperature, holding time and glass composition on crystal growth was investigated. The mean crystallite size was determined by image analysis on SEM micrographs. The results indicated an increase on the crystallite size and density with time and temperature. The change of crystallite size with time for the heat-treatments at 615 and 620 °C depended on the glass composition. Under fixed heat-treatment conditions, the crystallite density was comparatively higher for the glass composition with higher ZnO content.

  10. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this research is to study the effect of low gravity on the growth of protein crystals and those parameters which will affect growth and crystal quality. The application of graphoepitaxy (artificial epitaxy) to proteins is detailed. The development of a method for the control of nucleation is discussed. The factor affecting the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals is presented.

  11. Fabrication of nanometer single crystal metallic CoSi2 structures on Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieh, Kai-Wei (Inventor); Lin, True-Lon (Inventor); Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Amorphous Co:Si (1:2 ratio) films are electron gun-evaporated on clean Si(111), such as in a molecular beam epitaxy system. These layers are then crystallized selectively with a focused electron beam to form very small crystalline Co/Si2 regions in an amorphous matrix. Finally, the amorphous regions are etched away selectively using plasma or chemical techniques.

  12. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, Robert J. (Inventor); Witherow, William K. (Inventor); Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Bugg, Charles E. (Inventor); Suddath, Fred L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    This invention relates generally to control systems for controlling crystal growth, and more particularly to such a system which uses a beam of light refracted by the fluid in which crystals are growing to detect concentration of solutes in the liquid. In a hanging drop apparatus, a laser beam is directed onto drop which refracts the laser light into primary and secondary bows, respectively, which in turn fall upon linear diode detector arrays. As concentration of solutes in drop increases due to solvent removal, these bows move farther apart on the arrays, with the relative separation being detected by arrays and used by a computer to adjust solvent vapor transport from the drop. A forward scattering detector is used to detect crystal nucleation in drop, and a humidity detector is used, in one embodiment, to detect relative humidity in the enclosure wherein drop is suspended. The novelty of this invention lies in utilizing angular variance of light refracted from drop to infer, by a computer algorithm, concentration of solutes therein. Additional novelty is believed to lie in using a forward scattering detector to detect nucleating crystallites in drop.

  13. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  14. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOEpatents

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D.

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  15. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of low gravity on the growth of protein crystals and those parameters which will affect growth and crystal quality was studied. The proper design of the flight hardware and experimental protocols are highly dependent on understanding the factors which influence the nucleation and growth of crystals of biological macromolecules. Thus, those factors are investigated and the body of knowledge which has been built up for small molecule crystallization. These data also provide a basis of comparison for the results obtained from low-g experiments. The flows around growing crystals are detailed. The preliminary study of the growth of isocitrate lyase, the crystal morphologies found and the preliminary x ray results are discussed. The design of two apparatus for protein crystal growth by temperature control are presented along with preliminary results.

  16. Epitaxial growth and characterization of Si/NiSi 2/Si(111) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Angela; Förster, A.; Lüth, H.; Slijkerman, W.

    1989-04-01

    Si/NiSi 2/Si(111) heterostructures are grown under UHV conditions. The well known "template" method is used to produce the epitaxial NiSi 2 interlayer. On top of the suicide, the silicon epitaxial growth is obtained by means of gas phase reaction of SiH 4 at a surface temperature of 500° C. The Si growth rate is strongly enhanced by predissociation of SiH 4 using a hot tungsten filament in the vicinity of the surface. The single steps of the growth are followed in-situ by means of AES, HREELS and LEED analysis. Ex-situ high resolution RBS analysis is also applied for characterization.

  17. Crystallization of a Li2O2SiO2 Glass under High Hydrostatic Pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Day, D. E.; Lesher, C. E.; Ray, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of a Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) glass subjected to a uniform hydrostatic pressure of 4.5 or 6 GPa was investigated between 550 and 800 C using XRD, IR, Raman, TEM, NMR, and DTA. The density of the glass subjected to 6 GPa was between 2.52 plus or minus 0.01 and 2.57 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeters, depending upon the processing temperatures, and was higher than that of the stoichiometric LS2 crystals, 2.46 plus or minus 0.01 grams per cubic centimeter. Thus, crystallization in 6 GPa glass occurred in a condition of negative volume dilatation, deltaV = V(sub glass) - V(sub crystal), while that for the 4.5 GPa glass occurred in the condition deltaV greater than 0. For deltaV greater than 0, which also includes the control glass at ambient (one atmosphere) pressure, the glasses always crystallize Li2Si2O5 (orthorhombic, Ccc2) crystals, but for deltaV less than 0 (6 GPa), the glasses crystallize Li2SiO3 crystals with a slightly deformed structure. The crystal growth rate vs. temperature curve moved to higher temperature with increasing pressure, and was independent of the sign of deltaV. These results for the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the crystallization of LS2 glass were discussed from thermodynamic considerations.

  18. Measurable characteristics of lysozyme crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2005-01-01

    The behavior of protein crystal growth is estimated from measurements performed at both the microscopic and molecular levels. In the absence of solutal flow, it was determined that a model that balances the macromolecular flux toward the crystal surface with the flux of the crystal surface well characterizes crystal growth observed using microscopic methods. Namely, it was determined that the model provides accurate estimates for the crystal-growth velocities upon evaluation of crystal-growth measurements obtained in time. Growth velocities thus determined as a function of solution supersaturation were further interpreted using established deterministic models. From analyses of crystal-growth velocities, it was found that the mode of crystal growth varies with respect to increasing solution supersaturation, possibly owing to kinetic roughening. To verify further the hypothesis of kinetic roughening, crystal growth at the molecular level was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). From the AFM measurements, it was found that the magnitude of surface-height fluctuations, h(x), increases with increasing solution supersaturation. In contrast, the estimated characteristic length, xi, decreases rapidly upon increasing solution supersaturation. It was conjectured that the magnitude of both h(x) and xi could possibly determine the mode of crystal growth. Although the data precede any exact theory, the non-critical divergence of h(x) and xi with respect to increasing solution supersaturation was nevertheless preliminarily established. Moreover, approximate models to account for behavior of both h(x) and xi are also presented.

  19. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  20. Twin-mediated crystal growth: an enigma resolved

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Ashwin J.; Gulsoy, E. Begum; Poulsen, Stefan O.; Xiao, Xianghui; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2016-01-01

    During crystal growth, faceted interfaces may be perturbed by defects, leading to a rich variety of polycrystalline growth forms. One such defect is the coherent Σ3 {111} twin boundary, which is widely known to catalyze crystal growth. These defects have a profound effect on the properties of many materials: for example, electron-hole recombination rates strongly depend on the character of the twin boundaries in polycrystalline Si photovoltaic cells. However, the morphology of the twinned interface during growth has long been a mystery due to the lack of four-dimensional (i.e., space and time resolved) experiments. Many controversial mechanisms have been proposed for this process, most of which lack experimental verification. Here, we probe the real-time interfacial dynamics of polycrystalline Si particles growing from an Al-Si-Cu liquid via synchrotron-based X-ray tomography. Our novel analysis of the time evolution of the interfacial normals allows us to quantify unambiguously the habit plane and grain boundary orientations during growth. This, when combined with direct measurements of the interfacial morphology provide the first confirmation of twin-mediated growth, proposed over 50 years ago. Using the insights provided by these experiments, we have developed a unified picture of the phenomena responsible for the dynamics of faceted Si growth. PMID:27346073

  1. Twin-mediated crystal growth: an enigma resolved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahani, Ashwin J.; Gulsoy, E. Begum; Poulsen, Stefan O.; Xiao, Xianghui; Voorhees, Peter W.

    2016-06-01

    During crystal growth, faceted interfaces may be perturbed by defects, leading to a rich variety of polycrystalline growth forms. One such defect is the coherent Σ3 {111} twin boundary, which is widely known to catalyze crystal growth. These defects have a profound effect on the properties of many materials: for example, electron-hole recombination rates strongly depend on the character of the twin boundaries in polycrystalline Si photovoltaic cells. However, the morphology of the twinned interface during growth has long been a mystery due to the lack of four-dimensional (i.e., space and time resolved) experiments. Many controversial mechanisms have been proposed for this process, most of which lack experimental verification. Here, we probe the real-time interfacial dynamics of polycrystalline Si particles growing from an Al-Si-Cu liquid via synchrotron-based X-ray tomography. Our novel analysis of the time evolution of the interfacial normals allows us to quantify unambiguously the habit plane and grain boundary orientations during growth. This, when combined with direct measurements of the interfacial morphology provide the first confirmation of twin-mediated growth, proposed over 50 years ago. Using the insights provided by these experiments, we have developed a unified picture of the phenomena responsible for the dynamics of faceted Si growth.

  2. Analytics of crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, W. R.; Chang, C. E.; Shlichta, P. J.; Chen, P. S.; Kim, C. K.

    1974-01-01

    Two crystal growth processes considered for spacelab experiments were studied to anticipate and understand phenomena not ordinarily encountered on earth. Computer calculations were performed on transport processes in floating zone melting and on growth of a crystal from solution in a spacecraft environment. Experiments intended to simulate solution growth at micro accelerations were performed.

  3. Modelling the growth of feather crystals

    SciT

    Wood, H.J.; Hunt, J.D.; Evans, P.V.

    1997-02-01

    An existing numerical model of dendritic growth has been adapted to model the growth of twinned columnar dendrites (feather crystals) in a binary aluminium alloy, Examination of the effect of dendrite tip angle on growth has led to an hypothesis regarding the stability of a pointed tip morphology in these crystals.

  4. Growth of crystals for synchrotron radiation Mössbauer investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotrbova, M.; Hejduk, J.; Malnev, V. V.; Seleznev, V. N.; Yagupov, S. V.; Andronova, N. V.; Chechin, A. I.; Mikhailov, A. Yu.

    1991-10-01

    Iron borate crystals (FeBO 3) were flux grown at the Physical Institute (Prague) and at Simferopol State University. During the crystal growth procedure the temperature regime was held constant to 0.1°C accuracy. Crystals were investigated with the help of a double crystal X-ray diffractometer DRON-2 (SiO 2(30 overline33)FeBO 3(444), MoK α 1 radiation). The rocking curve measurements were carried out in a constant magnetic field of 1kG. Most of the crystal surface has a rocking curve 10″-15″ wide. Some parts of some crystals with the area 1 × 1 mm 2 have rocking curves of 3″-4″ width and can be considered ideal.

  5. Growth and characterizaton of 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films on 6H-SiC wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.; Petit, J. B.; Matus, L. G.; Lempner, S. E.

    1992-01-01

    Single crystal SiC films were grown by CVD on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers cut from boules produced by the modified sublimation method. Wafers with tilt angles less than 0.5 deg yielded 3C-SiC; tilt angles of 3 to 4 deg resulted in 6H-SiC films. The surface morphology of these films, up to 24 microns thick, were investigated as a function of growth parameters such as the Si/C ratio in the input gases and the presence of dopant materials such as nitrogen and trimethylaluminum.

  6. Measurements of Protein Crystal Face Growth Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, S.

    2014-01-01

    Protein crystal growth rates will be determined for several hyperthermophile proteins.; The growth rates will be assessed using available theoretical models, including kinetic roughening.; If/when kinetic roughening supersaturations are established, determinations of protein crystal quality over a range of supersaturations will also be assessed.; The results of our ground based effort may well address the existence of a correlation between fundamental growth mechanisms and protein crystal quality.

  7. Advanced protein crystal growth programmatic sensitivity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the costs of various APCG (Advanced Protein Crystal Growth) program options and to determine the parameters which, if changed, impact the costs and goals of the programs and to what extent. This was accomplished by developing and evaluating several alternate programmatic scenarios for the microgravity Advanced Protein Crystal Growth program transitioning from the present shuttle activity to the man tended Space Station to the permanently manned Space Station. These scenarios include selected variations in such sensitivity parameters as development and operational costs, schedules, technology issues, and crystal growth methods. This final report provides information that will aid in planning the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth Program.

  8. Optical Diagnostics of Solution Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Yongkee; Reddy, B. R.; George, T. G.; Lal, R. B.

    1996-01-01

    Non-contact optical techniques such as, optical heterodyne, ellipsometry and interferometry, for real time in-situ monitoring of solution crystal growth are demonstrated. Optical heterodyne technique has the capability of measuring the growth rate as small as 1A/sec. In a typical Michelson interferometer set up, the crystal is illuminated by a Zeeman laser with frequency omega(sub 1) and the reference beam with frequency omega(sub 2). As the crystal grows, the phase of the rf signal changes with respect to the reference beam and this phase change is related to the crystal growth rate. This technique is demonstrated with two examples: (1) by measuring the copper tip expansion/shrinkage rate and (2) by measuring the crystal growth rate of L-Arginine Phosphate (LAP). The first test shows that the expansion/shrinkage rate of copper tip was fast in the beginning, and gets slower as the expansion begins to stabilize with time. In crystal growth, the phase change due the crystal growth is measured using a phase meter and a strip chart recorder. Our experimental results indicate a varied growth rate from 69.4 to 92.6A per sec. The ellipsometer is used to study the crystal growth interface. From these measurements and a theoretical modeling of the interface, the various optical parameters can be deduced. Interferometry can also be used to measure the growth rate and concentration gradient in the vicinity of the crystal.

  9. Bulk Crystallization in a SiO2/Al2O3/Y2O3/AlF3/B2O3/Na2O Glass: Fivefold Pseudo Symmetry due to Monoclinic Growth in a Glassy Matrix Containing Growth Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Wisniewski, Wolfgang; Seyring, Martin; Patzig, Christian; Höche, Thomas; Keshavarzi, Ashkan; Rüssel, Christian

    2016-01-01

    A glass with the mol% composition 17 Y2O3·33 Al2O3·40 SiO2·2 AlF3·3 Na2O·2 CeF3·3 B2O3 is heat treated at 1000 °C for 6–24 h. This results in the surface nucleation and growth of YAG. Nucleation and growth of star-shaped alumina and later of monoclinic β-Y2Si2O7 and orthorhombic δ-Y2Si2O7 are additionally observed in the bulk. Phase identification and localization are performed by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) as well as TEM analysis. The monoclinic β-Y2Si2O7 observed in the bulk occurs in the form of large, crystal agglomerates which range from 50 to 120 μm in size. The individual crystals are aligned along the c-axis which is the fastest growing axis. Ten probability maxima are observed in the pole-figures illustrating the rotation of orientations around the c-axes indicating a fivefold symmetry. This symmetry is caused by multiple twinning which results in a high probability of specific orientation relationships with rotation angles of ~36°, ~108° (also referred to as the pentagon angle) and ~144° around the c-axis. All these rotation angles are close to the multiples of 36° which are required for an ideal fivefold symmetry. This is the first report of a fivefold symmetry triggered by the presence of barriers hindering crystal growth. PMID:26813152

  10. GaN growth via HVPE on SiC/Si substrates: growth mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharofidinov, Sh Sh; Redkov, A. V.; Osipov, A. V.; Kukushkin, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article focuses on the study of GaN thin film growth via chloride epitaxy on SiC/Si hybrid substrate. SiC buffer layer was grown by a method of substitution of atoms, which allows one to reduce impact of mechanical stress therein on subsequent growth of III-nitride films. It is shown, that change in GaN growth conditions leads to change in its growth mechanism. Three mechanisms: epitaxial, spiral and stepwise growth are considered and mechanical stresses are estimated via Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Economic analysis of crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Chung, A. M.; Yan, C. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Many advanced electronic technologies and devices for the 1980's are based on sophisticated compound single crystals, i.e. ceramic oxides and compound semiconductors. Space processing of these electronic crystals with maximum perfection, purity, and size is suggested. No ecomonic or technical justification was found for the growth of silicon single crystals for solid state electronic devices in space.

  12. Crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates: Floating zone process and ultra rapid crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokofiev, A.; Yan, X.; Ikeda, M.; Löffler, S.; Paschen, S.

    2014-09-01

    We studied the crystal growth process of type-I transition metal clathrates in two different regimes: a regime of moderate cooling rate, realized with the floating zone technique, and a regime of ultra rapid cooling, realized by the melt spinning technique. In the former regime, bulk Ba8AuxSi46-x and Ba8Cu4.8GaxGe41.2-x single crystals were grown. We investigated segregation effects of the constituting elements by measurements of the composition profiles along the growth direction. The compositional non-uniformity results in a spatial variation of the electrical resistivity which is discussed as well. Structural features of clathrates and their extremely low thermal conductivities imply specifics in growth behavior which manifest themselves most pronouncedly in a rapid crystallization process. Our melt spinning experiments on Ba8Au5Si41 and Ba8Ni3.5Si42.5 (and earlier on some other clathrates) have revealed surprisingly large grains of at least 1 μm. Because of the anomalously high growth rate of the clathrate phase the formation of impurity phases is considerably kinetically suppressed. We present our scanning and transmission electron microscopy investigations of melt spun samples and discuss structural, thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of the unusual clathrate nucleation and crystallization.

  13. Advanced Si solid phase crystallization for vertical channel in vertical NANDs

    SciT

    Lee, Sangsoo; Son, Yong-Hoon; Semiconductor R and D Center, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., Hwasung 445-701

    The advanced solid phase crystallization (SPC) method using the SiGe/Si bi-layer structure is proposed to obtain high-mobility poly-Si thin-film transistors in next generation vertical NAND (VNAND) devices. During the SPC process, the top SiGe thin film acts as a selective nucleation layer to induce surface nucleation and equiaxial microstructure. Subsequently, this SiGe thin film microstructure is propagated to the underlying Si thin film by epitaxy-like growth. The initial nucleation at the SiGe surface was clearly observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) when heating up to 600 °C. The equiaxial microstructures of both SiGe nucleation and Si channel layers weremore » shown in the crystallized bi-layer plan-view TEM measurements. Based on these experimental results, the large-grained and less-defective Si microstructure is expected to form near the channel region of each VNAND cell transistor, which may improve the electrical characteristics.« less

  14. Single Crystal Epitaxy and Characterization of Beta-SiC.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    and CH4 (35, 40), SiC] 4 and C3H8 (40-43), SiCl4 and C6H6 (37), SiCl4 and C7H8 (37, 44), and SiC]4 and CCI 4 (45-47). In all cases, the carrier gas...crystal layer on top of the as-formed 8-SiC substrate. Their problem may arise from the use of the gas combination of SiCl4 and CCI 4, because still...falling between those for the CH4- and the C2H4-c-ritaining systems. (4) The SiCl4 /CCI4/H2 System The species considered to be in the gaseous phase of

  15. DKDP crystal growth controlled by cooling rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoyi; Qi, Hongji; Shao, Jianda

    2017-08-01

    The performance of deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal directly affects beam quality, energy and conversion efficiency in the Inertial Confinement Fusion(ICF)facility, which is related with the initial saturation temperature of solution and the real-time supersaturation during the crystal growth. However, traditional method to measure the saturation temperature is neither efficient nor accurate enough. Besides, the supersaturation is often controlled by experience, which yields the higher error and leads to the instability during the crystal growth. In this paper, DKDP solution with 78% deuteration concentration is crystallized in different temperatures. We study the relation between solubility and temperature of DKDP and fit a theoretical curve with a parabola model. With the model, the measurement of saturation temperature is simplified and the control precision of the cooling rate is improved during the crystal growth, which is beneficial for optimizing the crystal growth process.

  16. Optical diagnostics of mercuric iodide crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, A.; Morgan, S. H.; Silberman, E.; Nason, D.

    Two optical methods were recently developed for in situ monitoring of the growth process of mercuric iodide crystals. The first method uses resonance fluorescence spectroscopy (RFS) for the determination of iodine vapor present in the growth ampule, which is an important parameter in determining the stoichiometry, and therefore the quality of the crystals. The second method, Reflectance Spectroscopy Thermometry (RST) measures the crystal face temperature with a percent accuracy of plus or minus 1.5 C.

  17. Optical diagnostics of mercuric iodide crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Arnold; Morgan, Steven H.; Silberman, Enrique; Nason, Donald

    1991-12-01

    Two optical methods were recently developed for in situ monitoring of the growth process of mercuric iodide crystals. The first method uses resonance fluorescence spectroscopy (RFS) for the determination of iodine vapor present in the growth ampule, which is an important parameter in determining the stoichiometry, and therefore the quality of the crystals. The second method, reflectance spectroscopy thermometry (RST) measures the crystal face temperature with a present accuracy of +/- 1.5 degree(s)C.

  18. Evolution of the Shape of Detached GeSi Crystals in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2013-01-01

    A series of GeSi crystal growth experiments are planned to be conducted in the Low Gradient Furnace (LGF) onboard the International Space Station. An objective of these experiments is to understand the mechanisms of detached Bridgman growth, a process in which a gap exists between the growing semiconductor crystal and the crucible wall. Crystals grown without wall contact have superior quality to otherwise similar crystals grown in direct contact with a container, especially with respect to impurity incorporation, formation of dislocations, and residual stress in crystals. Numerical calculations are used to determine the conditions in which a gap can exist. According to crystal shape stability theory, only some of these gap widths will be dynamically stable. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, the transient crystal growth process is analyzed. In microgravity, dynamic stability depends only on capillary effects and is decoupled from heat transfer. Depending on the initial conditions and growth parameters, the crystal shape will evolve towards the crucible wall, towards a stable gap width, or towards the center of the crucible, collapsing the meniscus.

  19. Diffusion, Viscosity and Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The diffusivity of TriGlycine Sulfate (TGS), Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP), Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate (ADF) and other compounds of interest to microgravity crystal growth, in supersaturated solutions as a function of solution concentration, 'age' and 'history was studied experimentally. The factors that affect the growth of crystals from water solutions in microgravity have been examined. Three non-linear optical materials have been studied, potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and triglycine sulfate (TGC). The diffusion coefficient and viscosity of supersaturated water solutions were measured. Also theoretical model of diffusivity and viscosity in a metastable state, model of crystal growth from solution including non-linear time dependent diffusivity and viscosity effect and computer simulation of the crystal growth process which allows simulation of the microgravity crystal growth were developed.

  20. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1985-01-01

    The present program has been aimed at solving the fundamental and technological problems associated with Crystal Growth of Device Quality in Space. The initial stage of the program was devoted strictly to ground-based research. The unsolved problems associated with the growth of bulk GaAs in the presence of gravitational forces were explored. Reliable chemical, structural and electronic characterization methods were developed which would permit the direct relation of the salient materials parameters (particularly those affected by zero gravity conditions) to the electronic characteristics of single crystal GaAs, in turn to device performance. These relationships are essential for the development of optimum approaches and techniques. It was concluded that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail.

  1. Phase-field crystal simulation facet and branch crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi; Wang, Zhaoyang; Gu, Xinrui; Chen, Yufei; Hao, Limei; de Wit, Jos; Jin, Kexin

    2018-05-01

    Phase-field crystal model with one mode is introduced to describe morphological transition. The relationship between growth morphology and smooth density distribution was investigated. The results indicate that the pattern selection of dendrite growth is caused by the competition between interface energy anisotropy and interface kinetic anisotropy based on the 2D phase diagram. When the calculation time increases, the crystal grows to secondary dendrite at the dimensionless undercooling equal to - 0.4. Moreover, when noise is introduced in the growth progress, the symmetry is broken in the growth mode, and there becomes irregular fractal-like growth morphology. Furthermore, the single crystal shape develops into polycrystalline when the noise amplitude is large enough. When the dimensionless undercooling is less than - 0.3, the noise has a significant effect on the growth shape. In addition, the growth velocity of crystal near to liquid phase line is slow, while the shape far away from the liquid adapts to fast growth. Based on the simulation results, the method was proved to be effective, and it can easily obtain different crystal shapes by choosing the different points in 2D phase diagram.

  2. Protein-crystal growth experiment (planned)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, S.; Asano, K.; Hashitani, T.; Kitakohji, T.; Nemoto, H.; Kitamura, S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a microgravity environment on protein crystal growth, a system was developed using 5 cubic feet Get Away Special payload canister. In the experiment, protein (myoglobin) will be simultaneously crystallized from an aqueous solution in 16 crystallization units using three types of crystallization methods, i.e., batch, vapor diffusion, and free interface diffusion. Each unit has two compartments: one for the protein solution and the other for the ammonium sulfate solution. Compartments are separated by thick acrylic or thin stainless steel plates. Crystallization will be started by sliding out the plates, then will be periodically recorded up to 120 hours by a still camera. The temperature will be passively controlled by a phase transition thermal storage component and recorded in IC memory throughout the experiment. Microgravity environment can then be evaluated for protein crystal growth by comparing crystallization in space with that on Earth.

  3. Materials discovery through crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zur Loye, Hans-Conrad

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of new materials and associated desirable properties has been a driving force behind chemical innovation for centuries. When we look at some of the many recent technological advances, and how widespread and significant their impact has been, we appreciate how much they have relied on new materials. The increase in hard drive storage capacity due to new giant magneto-resistive materials, the ever-shrinking cell phone due to improved microwave dielectric materials, the enhancement in lithium battery storage capacity due to new intercalation materials, or the improved capacitor due to new ferroelectric materials are all excellent examples. How were these materials discovered? While there is no single answer, in all cases there was a First-Material, the archetype in which the phenomenon was first observed, the one that led to further investigations and the subsequent preparation of improved 2nd or 3rd generation materials. It is this First-Material, the archetype, that was discovered - often via crystal growth.

  4. Effects of impurities on crystal growth in fructose crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Y. D.; Shiau, L. D.; Berglund, K. A.

    1989-10-01

    The influence of impurities on the crystallization of anhydrous fructose from aqueous solution was studied. The growth kinetics of fructose crystals in the fructose-water-glucose and fructose-water-difructose dianhydrides systems were investigated using photomicroscopic contact nucleation techniques. Glucose is the major impurity likely to be present in fructose syrup formed during corn wet milling, while several difructose dianhydrides are formed in situ under crystallization conditions and have been proposed as a cause in the decrease of overall yields. Both sets of impurities were found to cause inhibition of crystal growth, but the mechanisms responsible in each case are different. It was found that the presence of glucose increases the solubility of fructose in water and thus lowers the supersaturation of the solution. This is probably the main effect responsible for the decrease of crystal growth. Since the molecular structures of difructose dianhydrides are similar to that of fructose, they are probably "tailor-made" impurities. The decrease of crystal growth is probably caused by the incorporation of these impurities into or adsorption to the crystal surface which would accept fructose molecules in the orientation that existed in the difructose dianhydride.

  5. Growth of single crystals of BaFe12O19 by solid state crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, John G.; Sun, Hengyang; Kook, Young-Geun; Kim, Joon-Seong; Le, Phan Gia

    2016-10-01

    Single crystals of BaFe12O19 are grown for the first time by solid state crystal growth. Seed crystals of BaFe12O19 are buried in BaFe12O19+1 wt% BaCO3 powder, which are then pressed into pellets containing the seed crystals. During sintering, single crystals of BaFe12O19 up to ∼130 μm thick in the c-axis direction grow on the seed crystals by consuming grains from the surrounding polycrystalline matrix. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis shows that the single crystal and the surrounding polycrystalline matrix have the same chemical composition. Micro-Raman scattering shows the single crystal to have the BaFe12O19 structure. The optimum growth temperature is found to be 1200 °C. The single crystal growth behavior is explained using the mixed control theory of grain growth.

  6. The Nucleation and Growth of Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining crystals of suitable size and high quality continues to be a major bottleneck in macromolecular crystallography. Currently, structural genomics efforts are achieving on average about a 10% success rate in going from purified protein to a deposited crystal structure. Growth of crystals in microgravity was proposed as a means of overcoming size and quality problems, which subsequently led to a major NASA effort in microgravity crystal growth, with the agency also funding research into understanding the process. Studies of the macromolecule crystal nucleation and growth process were carried out in a number of labs in an effort to understand what affected the resultant crystal quality on Earth, and how microgravity improved the process. Based upon experimental evidence, as well as simple starting assumptions, we have proposed that crystal nucleation occurs by a series of discrete self assembly steps, which 'set' the underlying crystal symmetry. This talk will review the model developed, and its origins, in our laboratory for how crystals nucleate and grow, and will then present, along with preliminary data, how we propose to use this model to improve the success rate for obtaining crystals from a given protein.

  7. Segregation control in vertical Bridgman crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Y.; Kou, S.

    1996-11-01

    To help the crystal grow at a constant dopant concentration in vertical Bridgman crystal growth, the dopant concentration of the growth melt, i.e. the melt from which the crystal grows, was kept constant. To achieve this, three different methods were used to replenish the growth melt at a controlled rate and suppress dopant diffusion between the growth melt and the replenishing melt. In method one, a replenishing crucible having a long melt passageway was immersed in the growth melt. In method two, a replenishing crucible having an independent feed-rate control mechanism was held above the growth melt. In method three, a submerged diffusion baffle was used to form a long melt passageway between the growth melt and the replenishing melt. NaNO 3 was used as a model material for crystal growth. Single crystals were grown by these three methods with effective segregation control. Method two was applied to InSb and single crystals were also grown with effective segregation control.

  8. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1986-01-01

    It was established that the findings on elemental semiconductors Ge and Si regarding crystal growth, segregation, chemical composition, defect interactions, and materials properties-electronic properties relationships are not necessarily applicable to GaAs (and to other semiconductor compounds). In many instances totally unexpected relationships were found to prevail. It was further established that in compound semiconductors with a volatile constituent, control of stoichiometry is far more critical than any other crystal growth parameter. It was also shown that, due to suppression of nonstoichiometric fluctuations, the advantages of space for growth of semiconductor compounds extend far beyond those observed in elemental semiconductors. A novel configuration was discovered for partial confinement of GaAs melt in space which overcomes the two major problems associated with growth of semiconductors in total confinement. They are volume expansion during solidification and control of pressure of the volatile constituent. These problems are discussed in detail.

  9. Effects of SiO 2 overlayer at initial growth stage of epitaxial Y 2O 3 film growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.-H.; Ko, D.-H.; Choi, Y. G.; Lyo, I. W.; Jeong, K.; Whang, C. N.

    2000-12-01

    We investigated the dependence of the Y 2O 3 film growth on Si surface at initial growth stage. The reflection high-energy electron diffraction, X-ray scattering, and atomic force microscopy showed that the film crystallinity and morphology strongly depended on whether Si surface contained O or not. In particular, the films grown on oxidized surfaces revealed significant improvement in crystallinity and surface smoothness. A well-ordered atomic structure of Y 2O 3 film was formed on 1.5 nm thick SiO 2 layer with the surface and interfacial roughness markedly enhanced, compared with the film grown on the clean Si surfaces. The epitaxial film on the oxidized Si surface exhibited extremely small mosaic structures at interface, while the film on the clean Si surface displayed an island-like growth with large mosaic structures. The nucleation sites for Y 2O 3 were provided by the reaction between SiO 2 and Y at the initial growth stage. The SiO 2 layer known to hinder crystal growth is found to enhance the nucleation of Y 2O 3, and provides a stable buffer layer against the silicide formation. Thus, the formation of the initial SiO 2 layer is the key to the high-quality epitaxial growth of Y 2O 3 on Si.

  10. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    This invention is a method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor device quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  11. Process for the controlled growth of single-crystal films of silicon carbide polytypes on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, David J. (Inventor); Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the controlled growth of single-crystal semiconductor-device-quality films of SiC polytypes on vicinal (0001) SiC wafers with low tilt angles is presented. Both homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial SiC films can be produced on the same wafer. In particular, 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films can be produced within selected areas of the same 6H-SiC wafer.

  12. Protein crystal growth (5-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugg, Charles E.

    1992-01-01

    Proteins (enzymes, hormones, immunoglobulins) account for 50 pct. or more of the dry weight of most living systems. A detailed understanding of the structural makeup of a protein is essential to any systematic research pertaining to it. Most macromolecules are extremely difficult to crystallize, and many otherwise exciting projects have terminated at the crystal growth stage. In principle, there are several aspects of microgravity that might be exploited to enhance protein crystal growth. The major factor is the elimination of density driven convective flow. Other factors that can be controlled in the absence of gravity is the sedimentation of growing crystals in a gravitational field, and the potential advantage of doing containerless crystal growth. As a result of these theories and facts, one can readily understand why the microgravity environment of an Earth orbiting vehicle seems to offer unique opportunities for the protein crystallographer. This perception has led to the establishment of the Protein Crystal Growth in a Microgravity Environment (PCG/ME) project. The results of experiments already performed during STS missions have in many cases resulted in large protein crystals which are structurally correct. Thus, the near term objective of the PCG/ME project is to continue to improve the techniques, procedures, and hardware systems used to grow protein crystals in Earth orbit.

  13. Growth Of Oriented Crystals At Polymerized Membranes

    DOEpatents

    Charych, Deborah H. , Berman, Amir

    2000-01-25

    The present invention relates to methods and compositions for the growth and alignment of crystals at biopolymeric films. The methods and compositions of the present invention provide means to generate a variety of dense crystalline ceramic films, with totally aligned crystals, at low temperatures and pressures, suitable for use with polymer and plastic substrates.

  14. Illusory spirals and loops in crystal growth

    PubMed Central

    Shtukenberg, Alexander G.; Zhu, Zina; Bhandari, Misha; Song, Pengcheng; Kahr, Bart; Ward, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of dislocation-controlled crystal growth identifies a continuous spiral step with an emergent lattice displacement on a crystal surface; a mechanistic corollary is that closely spaced, oppositely winding spirals merge to form concentric loops. In situ atomic force microscopy of step propagation on pathological l-cystine crystals did indeed show spirals and islands with step heights of one lattice displacement. We show by analysis of the rates of growth of smaller steps only one molecule high that the major morphological spirals and loops are actually consequences of the bunching of the smaller steps. The morphology of the bunched steps actually inverts the predictions of the theory: Spirals arise from pairs of dislocations, loops from single dislocations. Only through numerical simulation of the growth is it revealed how normal growth of anisotropic layers of molecules within the highly symmetrical crystals can conspire to create features in apparent violation of the classic theory. PMID:24101507

  15. Convection effects in protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Glyn O.

    1988-01-01

    Protein crystals for X-ray diffraction study are usually grown resting on the bottom of a hanging drop of a saturated protein solution, with slow evaporation to the air in a small enclosed cell. The evaporation rate is controlled by hanging the drop above a reservoir of water, with its saturation vapor pressure decreased by a low concentration of a passive solute. The drop has a lower solute concentration, and its volume shrinks by evaporation until the molecular concentrations match. Protein crystals can also be grown from a seed crystal suspended or supported in the interior of a supersaturated solution. The main analysis of this report concerns this case because it is less complicated than hanging-drop growth. Convection effects have been suggested as the reason for the apparent cessation of growth at a certain rather small crystal size. It seeems that as the crystal grows, the number of dislocations increases to a point where further growth is hindered. Growth in the microgravity environment of an orbiting space vehicle has been proposed as a method for obtaining larger crystals. Experimental observations of convection effects during the growth of protein crystals have been reported.

  16. Crystal nucleation in amorphous (Au/100-y/Cu/y/)77Si9Ge14 alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, C. V.; Greer, A. L.; Spaepen, F.

    1983-01-01

    Because, unlike most metallic glasses, melt-spun alloys of the series (Au/100-y/Cu/y/)77Si9Ge14 exhibit well separated glass transition and kinetic crystallization temperatures, crystallization can be studied in the fully relaxed amorphous phase. An isothermal calorimetric analysis of the devitrification kinetics of the amorphous alloy indicates sporadic nucleation and a constant growth rate. It is found for the cases of alloys with y values lower than 25 that the classical theory of homogeneous nucleation is consistent with observations, including transient effects. An analysis of the crystallization kinetics shows that slow crystal growth rates play an important role in glass formation in these alloys. Although the reduced glass transition temperature increases with Cu content, glass formation is more difficult at high Cu contents, perhaps because of a difference in nucleus composition.

  17. GaAs/Ge crystals grown on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale

    SciT

    Taboada, A. G., E-mail: gonzalez@phys.ethz.ch; Kreiliger, T.; Falub, C. V.

    Monolithic integration of III-V compounds into high density Si integrated circuits is a key technological challenge for the next generation of optoelectronic devices. In this work, we report on the metal organic vapor phase epitaxy growth of strain-free GaAs crystals on Si substrates patterned down to the micron scale. The differences in thermal expansion coefficient and lattice parameter are adapted by a 2-μm-thick intermediate Ge layer grown by low-energy plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The GaAs crystals evolve during growth towards a pyramidal shape, with lateral facets composed of (111) planes and an apex formed by (137) and (001) surfaces.more » The influence of the anisotropic GaAs growth kinetics on the final morphology is highlighted by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy measurements. The effect of the Si pattern geometry, substrate orientation, and crystal aspect ratio on the GaAs structural properties was investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. The thermal strain relaxation process of GaAs crystals with different aspect ratio is discussed within the framework of linear elasticity theory by Finite Element Method simulations based on realistic geometries extracted from cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy images.« less

  18. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    This Final Technical Report for NASA Grant NAG8-774 covers the period from April 27, 1989 through December 31, 1992. It covers five main topics: fluid flow studies, the influence of growth conditions on the morphology of isocitrate lyase crystals, control of nucleation, the growth of lysozyme by the temperature gradient method and graphoepitaxy of protein crystals. The section on fluid flow discusses the limits of detectability in the Schlieren imaging of fluid flows around protein crystals. The isocitrate lyase study compares crystals grown terrestrially under a variety of conditions with those grown in space. The controlling factor governing the morphology of the crystals is the supersaturation. The lack of flow in the interface between the drop and the atmosphere in microgravity causes protein precipitation in the boundary layer and a lowering of the supersaturation in the drop. This lowered supersaturation leads to improved crystal morphology. Preliminary experiments with lysozyme indicated that localized temperature gradients could be used to nucleate crystals in a controlled manner. An apparatus (thermonucleator) was designed to study the controlled nucleation of protein crystals. This apparatus has been used to nucleate crystals of materials with both normal (ice-water, Rochelle salt and lysozyme) and retrograde (horse serum albumin and alpha chymotrypsinogen A) solubility. These studies have lead to the design of an new apparatus that small and more compatible with use in microgravity. Lysozyme crystals were grown by transporting nutrient from a source (lysozyme powder) to the crystal in a temperature gradient. The influence of path length and cross section on the growth rate was demonstrated. This technique can be combined with the thermonucleator to control both nucleation and growth. Graphoepitaxy utilizes a patterned substrate to orient growing crystals. In this study, silicon substrates with 10 micron grooves were used to grow crystals of catalase

  19. Bridgman growth of lead potassium niobate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shiji; Sun, Renying; Lin, Yafang; Wu, Jindi

    1999-03-01

    Lead potassium niobate Pb 2KNb 5O 15 (PKN) crystals with tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure have been grown by the modified Bridgman (BR) method. Nearly sealed Pt crucibles and small temperature gradients in the Bridgman furnace can limit volatilization of PbO and cracking of as-grown PKN crystals. Transparent PKN crystals of 1 inch diameter by ˜2 inch length with brownish color have been grown successfully at a crucible lowering rate <0.5 mm/h and a temperature gradient of 10-15°C/cm across the solid-liquid interface. Coupling between twins and growth directions of the crystal is also discussed.

  20. Tin induced a-Si crystallization in thin films of Si-Sn alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neimash, V.; Poroshin, V.; Shepeliavyi, P.; Yukhymchuk, V.; Melnyk, V.; Kuzmich, A.; Makara, V.; Goushcha, A. O.

    2013-12-01

    Effects of tin doping on crystallization of amorphous silicon were studied using Raman scattering, Auger spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray fluorescence techniques. Formation of silicon nanocrystals (2-4 nm in size) in the amorphous matrix of Si1-xSnx, obtained by physical vapor deposition of the components in vacuum, was observed at temperatures around 300 °C. The aggregate volume of nanocrystals in the deposited film of Si1-xSnx exceeded 60% of the total film volume and correlated well with the tin content. Formation of structures with ˜80% partial volume of the nanocrystalline phase was also demonstrated. Tin-induced crystallization of amorphous silicon occurred only around the clusters of metallic tin, which suggested the crystallization mechanism involving an interfacial molten Si:Sn layer.

  1. Gordon Research Conference on Crystal Growth (1990)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    Labs, MH) 14. Cox Vapor Levitation Epitaxy of Quantum Wires and Wire-like Structures Using Laterally Propagating Surface Steps. (Bellcore, Red Bank) 15...introduced many new aspects of crystal growth, including strained layer superlattices, quantum cluster growth, and vertical zone melting of GaAs...Films 2. E. Bauser Semiconductor Liquid Phase Epitaxy: Growth and Properties of Layers and Heterostructures 3. M. L. Steigerwald Growth of Quantum

  2. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1987-01-01

    The solubility and growth mechanism of canavalin were studied, and the applicability of the Schlieren technique to protein crystal growth was investigated. Canavalin which may be crystallized from a basic solution by the addition of hydrogen (H+) ions was shown to have normal solubility characteristics over the range of temperatures (5 to 25 C) and pH (5 to 7.5) studied. The solubility data combined with growth rate data gathered from the seeded growth of canavalin crystals indicated that the growth mechanism at high supersaturation ratios (>1.28) is screw dislocation like. A Schlieren apparatus was constructed and flow patterns were observed in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate), lysozyme, and canavalin. The critical parameters were identified as the change in density with concentration (dp/dc) and the change in index of refraction with concentration (dn/dc). Some of these values were measured for the materials listed.

  3. CFD Growth of 3C-SiC on 4H/6H Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Huang, XianRong; Dudley, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article describes growth and characterization of the highest quality reproducible 3C-SiC heteroepitaxial films ever reported. By properly nucleating 3C-SiC growth on top of perfectly on-axis (0001) 4H-SiC mesa surfaces completely free of atomic scale steps and extended defects, growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms completely free of extended crystal defects can be achieved. In contrast, nucleation and growth of 3C-SiC mesa heterofilms on top of 4H-SiC mesas with atomic-scale steps always results in numerous observable dislocations threading through the 3C-SiC epilayer. High-resolution X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate non-trivial in-plane lattice mismatch between the 3C and 4H layers. This mismatch is somewhat relieved in the step-free mesa case via misfit dislocations confined to the 3C/4H interfacial region without dislocations threading into the overlying 3C-SiC layer. These results indicate that the presence or absence of steps at the 3C/4H heteroepitaxial interface critically impacts the quality, defect structure, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial 3C-SiC films.

  4. Controlled growth of 3C-SiC and 6H-SiC films on low-tilt-angle vicinal (0001) 6H-SiC wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. A.; Petit, J. B.; Edgar, J. H.; Jenkins, I. G.; Matus, L. G.

    1991-01-01

    It has been found that, with proper pregrowth surface treatment, 6H-SiC single-crystal films can be grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at 1450 C on vicinal (0001) 6H-SiC with tilt angles as small as 0.1 deg. Previously, tilt angles of greater than 1.5 deg were required to achieve 6H on 6H at this growth temperature. In addition, 3C-SiC could be induced to grow within selected regions on the 6H substrate. the 3C regions contained few (or zero) double-positioning boundaries and a low density of stacking faults. A new growth model is proposed to explain the control of SiC polytype in this epitaxial film growth process.

  5. EBSD characterization of the growth mechanism of SiC synthesized via direct microwave heating

    SciT

    Wang, Jigang, E-mail: wangjigang@seu.edu.cn; Xizang Key Laboratory of Optical Information Processing and Visualization Technology, School of Information Engineering, Xizang Minzu University, Xianyang 712082; Huang, Shan

    2016-04-15

    Well-crystallized 3C-silicon carbide (SiC) grains/nanowires have been synthesized rapidly and conveniently via direct microwave heating, simply using silicon dioxide powders and artificial graphite as raw materials. The comprehensive characterizations have been employed to investigate the micro-structure of the obtained 3C-SiC products. Results indicated that, different from the classic screw dislocation growth mechanism, the 3C-SiC grains/nanowires synthesized via high-energy vacuum microwave irradiation were achieved through the two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth mechanism. Especially, the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) was employed to characterize the crystal planes of the as-grown SiC products. The calculated Euler angles suggested that the fastest-growing crystal planes (211)more » were overlapped gradually. Through the formation of the (421) transformation plane, (211) finally evolved to (220) which existed as the side face of SiC grains. The most stable crystal planes (111) became the regular hexagonal planes in the end, which could be explained by the Bravais rule. The characterization results of EBSD provided important experimental information for the evolution of crystal planes. - Graphical abstract: The formation of 3C-SiC prepared via direct microwave heating follows the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. - Highlights: • 3C−SiC grains/nanowires were obtained via direct microwave heating. • 3C−SiC followed the mechanism of two-dimension nucleation and laminar growth. • In-situ EBSD analysis provided the experimental evidences of the growth.« less

  6. The investigation of stress in freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moonsang; Mikulik, Dmitry; Yang, Mino; Park, Sungsoo

    2017-08-17

    We investigate the stress evolution of 400 µm-thick freestanding GaN crystals grown from Si substrates by hydride vapour phase epitaxy (HVPE) and the in situ removal of Si substrates. The stress generated in growing GaN can be tuned by varying the thickness of the MOCVD AlGaN/AlN buffer layers. Micro Raman analysis shows the presence of slight tensile stress in the freestanding GaN crystals and no stress accumulation in HVPE GaN layers during the growth. Additionally, it is demonstrated that the residual tensile stress in HVPE GaN is caused only by elastic stress arising from the crystal quality difference between Ga- and N-face GaN. TEM analysis revealed that the dislocations in freestanding GaN crystals have high inclination angles that are attributed to the stress relaxation of the crystals. We believe that the understanding and characterization on the structural properties of the freestanding GaN crystals will help us to use these crystals for high-performance opto-electronic devices.

  7. Macromolecular Crystal Growth by Means of Microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark; Ferree, Darren; Spearing, Scott; Monaco, Lisa; Molho, Josh; Spaid, Michael; Brasseur, Mike; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We have performed a feasibility study in which we show that chip-based, microfluidic (LabChip(TM)) technology is suitable for protein crystal growth. This technology allows for accurate and reliable dispensing and mixing of very small volumes while minimizing bubble formation in the crystallization mixture. The amount of (protein) solution remaining after completion of an experiment is minimal, which makes this technique efficient and attractive for use with proteins, which are difficult or expensive to obtain. The nature of LabChip(TM) technology renders it highly amenable to automation. Protein crystals obtained in our initial feasibility studies were of excellent quality as determined by X-ray diffraction. Subsequent to the feasibility study, we designed and produced the first LabChip(TM) device specifically for protein crystallization in batch mode. It can reliably dispense and mix from a range of solution constituents into two independent growth wells. We are currently testing this design to prove its efficacy for protein crystallization optimization experiments. In the near future we will expand our design to incorporate up to 10 growth wells per LabChip(TM) device. Upon completion, additional crystallization techniques such as vapor diffusion and liquid-liquid diffusion will be accommodated. Macromolecular crystallization using microfluidic technology is envisioned as a fully automated system, which will use the 'tele-science' concept of remote operation and will be developed into a research facility for the International Space Station as well as on the ground.

  8. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    During the fifth semi-annual period under this grant we have pursued the following activities: (1) Characterization of the purity and further purification of lysozyme solutions, these efforts are summarized in Section 2; (2) Crystal growth morphology and kinetics studies with tetragonal lysozyme, our observation on the dependence of lysozyme growth kinetics on step sources and impurities has been summarized in a manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; (3) Numerical modelling of the interaction between bulk transport and interface kinetics, for a detailed summary of this work see the manuscript which was accepted for publication in the Journal of Crystal Growth; and (4) Light scattering studies, this work has been summarized in a manuscript that has been submitted for publication to the Journal of Chemical Physics.

  9. Steady distribution structure of point defects near crystal-melt interface under pulling stop of CZ Si crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Takahashi, T.; Shirai, K.

    2017-02-01

    In order to reveal a steady distribution structure of point defects of no growing Si on the solid-liquid interface, the crystals were grown at a high pulling rate, which Vs becomes predominant, and the pulling was suddenly stopped. After restoring the variations of the crystal by the pulling-stop, the crystals were then left in prolonged contact with the melt. Finally, the crystals were detached and rapidly cooled to freeze point defects and then a distribution of the point defects of the as-grown crystals was observed. As a result, a dislocation loop (DL) region, which is formed by the aggregation of interstitials (Is), was formed over the solid-liquid interface and was surrounded with a Vs-and-Is-free recombination region (Rc-region), although the entire crystals had been Vs rich in the beginning. It was also revealed that the crystal on the solid-liquid interface after the prolonged contact with the melt can partially have a Rc-region to be directly in contact with the melt, unlike a defect distribution of a solid-liquid interface that has been growing. This experimental result contradicts a hypothesis of Voronkov's diffusion model, which always assumes the equilibrium concentrations of Vs and Is as the boundary condition for distribution of point defects on the growth interface. The results were disscussed from a qualitative point of view of temperature distribution and thermal stress by the pulling-stop.

  10. Covalently Bound Monomolecular Layers on Si Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidsey, Christopher E. D.

    1996-03-01

    Methods and reagents borrowed from the molecular synthetic chemistry of silicon compounds have been used to form covalently bound monomolecular layers on silicon single crystals. Organic monolayers bound covalently to silicon could form the basis for silicon/organic interfaces useful in sensor structures. In a representative reaction, alkyl monolayers with densities approaching that of crystalline polyethylene have been prepared by the radical-initiated insertion of 1-alkenes into the Si-H bonds of hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces footnote M. R. Linford, P. Fenter, P. M. Eisenberger and C. E. D Chidsey, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 3145-3155 (1995). It has recently been found that this insertion reaction can also be initiated by illumination with UV light having sufficient energy to break the Si-H bond. Synchrotron-based high-resolution photoelectron spectroscopy and diffraction have demonstrated the expected Si-C bond in such monolayers footnote J. H. Terry, R. Cao, P. A. Pianetta, M. R. Linford and C. E. D. Chidsey, unpublished results. An alternate approach to similar monolayers has been found to be the chlorination of hydrogen-terminated Si(111) with Cl_2, followed by the nucleophilic displacement of chlorine with alkyl lithium reagents. The well-behaved chemical transformations of the hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces appear to result from the essentially bulk termination of the silicon lattice with closed-shell silicon hydride "functional groups" on the surface. In addition to the formation of novel organic layers, a full understanding of the reactivity of the hydrogen-terminated silicon surfaces should lead to better control of key technological silicon interfaces such as Si/SiO_2, Si/epi-Si, and Si/metal.

  11. Protein Crystal Growth Dynamics and Impurity Incorporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chernov, Alex A.; Thomas, Bill

    2000-01-01

    The general concepts and theories of crystal growth are proven to work for biomolecular crystallization. This allowed us to extract basic parameters controlling growth kinetics - free surface energy, alpha, and kinetic coefficient, beta, for steps. Surface energy per molecular site in thermal units, alpha(omega)(sup 2/3)/kT approx. = 1, is close to the one for inorganic crystals in solution (omega is the specific molecular volume, T is the temperature). Entropic restrictions on incorporation of biomolecules into the lattice reduce the incorporation rate, beta, by a factor of 10(exp 2) - 10(exp 3) relative to inorganic crystals. A dehydration barrier of approx. 18kcal/mol may explain approx. 10(exp -6) times difference between frequencies of adding a molecule to the lattice and Brownian attempts to do so. The latter was obtained from AFM measurements of step and kink growth rates on orthorhombic lysozyme. Protein and many inorganic crystals typically do not belong to the Kossel type, thus requiring a theory to account for inequivalent molecular positions within its unit cell. Orthorhombic lysozyme will serve as an example of how to develop such a theory. Factors deteriorating crystal quality - stress and strain, mosaicity, molecular disorder - will be reviewed with emphasis on impurities. Dimers in ferritin and lysozyme and acetylated lysozyme, are microheterogeneous i.e. nearly isomorphic impurities that are shown to be preferentially trapped by tetragonal lysozyme and ferritin crystals, respectively. The distribution coefficient, K defined as a ratio of the (impurity/protein) ratios in crystal and in solution is a measure of trapping. For acetylated lysoyzme, K = 2.15 or, 3.42 for differently acetylated forms, is independent of both the impurity and the crystallizing protein concentration. The reason is that impurity flux to the surface is constant while the growth rate rises with supersaturation. About 3 times lower dimer concentration in space grown ferritin and

  12. Research support for cadmium telluride crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1995-01-01

    The growth of single crystals of zinc selenide was carried out by both closed ampoule physical vapor transport and effusive ampoule physical vapor transport (EAPVT). The latter technique was shown to be a much more efficient method for the seeded growth of zinc selenide, resulting in higher transport rates. Furthermore, EAPVT work on CdTe has shown that growth onto (n 11) seeds is advantageous for obtaining reduced twinning and defect densities in II-VI sphalerite materials.

  13. Method for solid state crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Nolas, George S.; Beekman, Matthew K.

    2013-04-09

    A novel method for high quality crystal growth of intermetallic clathrates is presented. The synthesis of high quality pure phase crystals has been complicated by the simultaneous formation of both clathrate type-I and clathrate type-II structures. It was found that selective, phase pure, single-crystal growth of type-I and type-II clathrates can be achieved by maintaining sufficient partial pressure of a chemical constituent during slow, controlled deprivation of the chemical constituent from the primary reactant. The chemical constituent is slowly removed from the primary reactant by the reaction of the chemical constituent vapor with a secondary reactant, spatially separated from the primary reactant, in a closed volume under uniaxial pressure and heat to form the single phase pure crystals.

  14. Devitrification and delayed crazing of SiO2 on single-crystal silicon and chemically vapor-deposited silicon nitride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Doo Jin; Scott, William D.

    1987-01-01

    The linear growth rate of cristobalite was measured in thin SiO2 films on silicon and chemically vapor-deposited silicon nitride. The presence of trace impurities from alumina furnace tubes greatly increased the crystal growth rate. Under clean conditions, the growth rate was still 1 order-of-magnitude greater than that for internally nucleated crystals in bulk silica. Crystallized films cracked and lifted from the surface after exposure to atmospheric water vapor. The crystallization and subsequent crazing and lifting of protective SiO2 films on silicon nitride should be considered in long-term applications.

  15. Modeling Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth Rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2003-01-01

    Tetragonal lysozyme 110 face crystal growth rates, measured over 5 orders of magnitude in range, can be described using a model where growth occurs by 2D nucleation on the crystal surface for solution supersaturations of c/c(sub eq) less than or equal to 7 +/- 2. Based upon the model, the step energy per unit length, beta was estimated to be approx. 5.3 +/- 0.4 x 10(exp -7) erg/mol-cm, which for a step height of 56 A corresponds to barrier of approx. 7 +/- 1 k(sub B)T at 300 K. For supersaturations of c/c(sub eq) > 8, the model emphasizing crystal growth by 2D nucleation not only could not predict, but also consistently overestimated, the highest observable crystal growth rates. Kinetic roughening is hypothesized to occur at a cross-over supersaturation of c/c(sub eq) > 8, where crystal growth is postulated to occur by a different process such as adsorption. Under this assumption, all growth rate data indicated that a kinetic roughening transition and subsequent crystal growth by adsorption for all solution conditions, varying in buffer pH, temperature and precipitant concentration, occurs for c/c(sub eq)(T, pH, NaCl) in the range between 5 and 10, with an energy barrier for adsorption estimated to be approx. 20 k(sub B)T at 300 K. Based upon these and other estimates, we determined the size of the critical surface nucleate, at the crossover supersaturation and higher concentrations, to range from 4 to 10 molecules.

  16. Crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verburg, P. C.; Smillie, L. A.; Römer, G. R. B. E.; Haberl, B.; Bradby, J. E.; Williams, J. S.; Huis in't Veld, A. J.

    2015-08-01

    Laser-induced subsurface modification of dielectric materials is a well-known technology. Applications include the production of optical components and selective etching. In addition to dielectric materials, the subsurface modification technology can be applied to silicon, by employing near to mid-infrared radiation. An application of subsurface modifications in silicon is laser-induced subsurface separation, which is a method to separate wafers into individual dies. Other applications for which proofs of concept exist are the formation of waveguides and resistivity tuning. However, limited knowledge is available about the crystal structure of subsurface modifications in silicon. In this work, we investigate the geometry and crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in monocrystalline silicon wafers. In addition to the generation of lattice defects, we found that transformations to amorphous silicon and Si -iii/Si -xii occur as a result of the laser irradiation.

  17. Low Temperature Rhombohedral Single Crystal SiGe Epitaxy on c-plane Sapphire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2016-01-01

    Current best practice in epitaxial growth of rhombohedral SiGe onto (0001) sapphire (Al2O3) substrate surfaces requires extreme conditions to grow a single crystal SiGe film. Previous models described the sapphire surface reconstruction as the overriding factor in rhombohedral epitaxy, requiring a high temperature Al-terminated surface for high quality films. Temperatures in the 850-1100 C range were thought to be necessary to get SiGe to form coherent atomic matching between the (111) SiGe plane and the (0001) sapphire surface. Such fabrication conditions are difficult and uneconomical, hindering widespread application. This work proposes an alternative model that considers the bulk sapphire structure and determines how the SiGe film nucleates and grows. Accounting for thermal expansion effects, calculations using this new model show that both pure Ge and SiGe can form single crystal films in the 450-550 C temperature range. Experimental results confirm these predictions, where x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy show the films fabricated at low temperature rival the high temperature films in crystallographic and surface quality. Finally, an explanation is provided for why films of comparable high quality can be produced in either temperature range.

  18. Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A crystal growth apparatus is presented. It utilizes a vapor diffusion method for growing protein crystals, and particularly such an apparatus wherein a ball mixer is used to mix the fluids that form a drop within which crystals are grown. Particular novelty of this invention lies in utilizing a ball mixer to completely mix the precipitate and protein solutions prior to forming the drop. Additional novelty lies in details of construction of the vials, the fluid deployment system, and the fluid storage system of the preferred embodiment.

  19. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1994-01-01

    The long-term stability of the interferometric setup for the monitoring of protein morphologies has been improved. Growth or dissolution of a crystal on a 100 A scale can now be clearly distinguished from dimensional changes occurring within the optical path of the interferometer. This capability of simultaneously monitoring the local interfacial displacement at several widely-spaced positions on the crystal surface with high local depth resolution, has already yielded novel results. We found with lysozyme that (1) the normal growth rate is oscillatory, and (2) the mean growth step density is greater at the periphery of a facet than in its center. The repartitioning of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions between lysozyme solutions and crystals was studied for a wide range of crystallization conditions. A nucleation-growth-repartitioning model was developed to interpret the large body of data in a unified way. The results strongly suggests that (1) the ion to lysozyme ratio in the crystal depends mostly on kinetic rather than crystallographic parameters, and (2) lysozyme crystals possess a salt-rich core with a diameter on the order of 10 microns. The computational model for diffusive-convective transport in protein crystallization (see the First Report) has been applied to a realistic growth cell geometry, taking into account the findings of the above repartitioning studies. These results show that some elements of a moving boundary problem must be incorporated into the model in order to obtain a more realistic description. Our experimental setup for light scattering investigations of aggregation and nucleation in protein solutions has been extensively tested. Scattering intensity measurements with a true Rayleigh scatterer produced systematically increased forward scattering, indicating problems with glare. These have been resolved. Preliminary measurements with supersaturated lysozyme solutions revealed that the scatterers grow with time. Work has begun on a computer program

  20. Laboratory studies of crystal growth in magma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, J. E.; Welsch, B. T.; First, E.; Shea, T.

    2012-12-01

    The proportions, compositions, and interrelationships among crystalline phases and glasses in volcanic rocks cryptically record pre-eruptive intensive conditions, the timing of changes in crystallization environment, and the devolatilization history of eruptive ascent. These parameters are recognized as important monitoring tools at active volcanoes and interpreting geologic events at prehistoric and remote eruptions, thus motivating our attempts to understand the information preserved in crystals through an experimental appoach. We are performing laboratory experiments in mafic, felsic, and intermediate composition magmas to study the mechanisms of crystal growth in thermochemical environments relevant to volcanic environments. We target features common to natural crystals in igneous rocks for our experimental studies of rapid crystal growth phenomena: (1) Surface curvature. Do curved interfaces and spongy cores represent evidence of dissolution (i.e., are they corrosion features), or do they record the transition from dendritic to polyhedral morphology? (2) Trapped melt inclusions. Do trapped liquids represent bulk (i.e., far-field) liquids, boundary layer liquids, or something intermediate, depending on individual species diffusivity? What sequence of crystal growth rates leads to preservation of sealed melt inclusions? (3) Subgrain boundaries. Natural phenocrysts commonly exhibit tabular subgrain regions distinguished by small angle lattice misorientations or "dislocation lamellae" and undulatory extinction. Might these crystal defects be produced as dendrites undergo ripening? (4) Clusters. Contacting clusters of polymineralic crystals are the building blocks of cumulates, and are ubiquitous features of mafic volcanic rocks. Are plagioclase and clinopyroxene aligned crystallographically, suggesting an epitaxial (surface energy) relationship? (5) Log-normal size distribution. What synthetic cooling histories produce "natural" distributions of crystal sizes, and

  1. Protein Crystal Growth Apparatus for Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Dowling, Timothy E. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    Apparatus for growing protein crystals under microgravity environment includes a plurality of protein growth assemblies stacked one above the other within a canister. Each of the protein growth assemblies includes a tray having a number of spaced apart growth chambers recessed below an upper surface. the growth chambers each having an upstanding pedestal and an annular reservoir about the pedestal for receiving a wick and precipitating agents. A well is recessed below the top of each pedestal to define a protein crystal growth receptacle. A flexible membrane is positioned on the upper surface of each tray and a sealing plate is positioned above each membrane, each sealing plate having a number of bumpers corresponding in number and alignment to the pedestals for forcing the membrane selectively against the upper end of the respective pedestal to seal the reservoir and the receptacle when the sealing plate is forced down.

  2. Crystal growth kinetics of triblock Janus colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhart, Wesley F.; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2018-03-01

    We measure the kinetics of crystal growth from a melt of triblock Janus colloids using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. We assess the impact of interaction anisotropy by systematically varying the size of the attractive patches from 40% to 100% coverage, finding substantially different growth behaviors in the two limits. With isotropic particles, the interface velocity is directly proportional to the subcooling, in agreement with previous studies. With highly anisotropic particles, the growth curves are well approximated by using a power law with exponent and prefactor that depend strongly on the particular surface geometry and patch fraction. This nonlinear growth appears correlated to the roughness of the solid-liquid interface, with the strongest growth inhibition occurring for the smoothest crystal faces. We conclude that crystal growth for patchy particles does not conform to the typical collision-limited mechanism, but is instead an activated process in which the rate-limiting step is the collective rotation of particles into the proper orientation. Finally, we show how differences in the growth kinetics could be leveraged to achieve kinetic control over polymorph growth, either enhancing or suppressing metastable phases near solid-solid coexistence lines.

  3. Crystal growth in a low gravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Crystal growth in microgravity possesses several distinct technological advantages over earth-bound processes; containerless handling and reduction of density gradient driven as well as sedimentation flows. Experiments performed in space to date have been basically reproductions of processes currently used on earth and the results have clarified our understanding of crystal growth dynamics. In addition, both unresolved problems and areas requiring further study on earth have been identified. Future work in space processing of materials must address these areas of study as soon as possible if the full potential of a space environment to develop new techniques and materials is to be realized.

  4. Positron annihilation on the surfaces of SiO 2 films thermally grown on single crystal of Cz-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Wen; Yue, Li; Zhang, Wei; Cheng, Xu-xin; Zhu, Yan-yan; Huang, Yu-yang

    2009-09-01

    Two-detector coincidence system and mono-energetic slow positron beam has been applied to measure the Doppler broadening spectra for single crystals of SiO2, SiO2 films with different thickness thermally grown on single crystal of Cz-Si, and single crystal of Si without oxide film. Oxygen is recognized as a peak at about 11.85 × 10-3m0c on the ratio curves. The S parameters decrease with the increase of positron implantation energy for the single crystal of SiO2 and Si without oxide film. However, for the thermally grown SiO2-Si sample, the S parameters in near surface of the sample increase with positron implantation energy. It is due to the formation of silicon oxide at the surface, which lead to lower S value. S and W parameters vary with positron implantation depth indicate that the SiO2-Si system consist of a surface layer, a SiO2 layer, a SiO2-Si interface layer and a semi-infinite Si substrate.

  5. Si substrates texturing and vapor-solid-solid Si nanowhiskers growth using pure hydrogen as source gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordmark, H.; Nagayoshi, H.; Matsumoto, N.; Nishimura, S.; Terashima, K.; Marioara, C. D.; Walmsley, J. C.; Holmestad, R.; Ulyashin, A.

    2009-02-01

    Scanning and transmission electron microscopies have been used to study silicon substrate texturing and whisker growth on Si substrates using pure hydrogen source gas in a tungsten hot filament reactor. Substrate texturing, in the nanometer to micrometer range of mono- and as-cut multicrystalline silicon, was observed after deposition of WSi2 particles that acted as a mask for subsequent hydrogen radical etching. Simultaneous Si whisker growth was observed for long residence time of the source gas and low H2 flow rate with high pressure. The whiskers formed via vapor-solid-solid growth, in which the deposited WSi2 particles acted as catalysts for a subsequent metal-induced layer exchange process well below the eutectic temperature. In this process, SiHx species, formed by substrate etching by the H radicals, diffuse through the metal particles. This leads to growth of crystalline Si whiskers via metal-induced solid-phase crystallization. Transmission electron microscopy, electron diffraction, and x-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study the WSi2 particles and the structure of the Si substrates in detail. It has been established that the whiskers are partly crystalline and partly amorphous, consisting of pure Si with WSi2 particles on their tips as well as sometimes being incorporated into their structure.

  6. An Apparatus for Growth of Small Crystals From Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrovic, Mico M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes an apparatus for crystal growth that was designed to study growth kinetics of small crystals from solutions and to obtain crystals of various substances. Describes the use of the apparatus in laboratory practical experiments in the field of crystal growth physics within the course "Solid State Physics". (JRH)

  7. Method for the growth of large low-defect single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor); Neudeck, Philip G. (Inventor); Trunek, Andrew J. (Inventor); Spry, David J. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A method and the benefits resulting from the product thereof are disclosed for the growth of large, low-defect single-crystals of tetrahedrally-bonded crystal materials. The process utilizes a uniquely designed crystal shape whereby the direction of rapid growth is parallel to a preferred crystal direction. By establishing several regions of growth, a large single crystal that is largely defect-free can be grown at high growth rates. This process is particularly suitable for producing products for wide-bandgap semiconductors, such as SiC, GaN, AlN, and diamond. Large low-defect single crystals of these semiconductors enable greatly enhanced performance and reliability for applications involving high power, high voltage, and/or high temperature operating conditions.

  8. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1994-01-01

    A high-resolution microscopic interferometric setup for the monitoring of protein morphologies has been developed. Growth or dissolution of a crystal can be resolved with a long-term depth resolution of 200 A and a lateral resolution of 2 microns. This capability of simultaneously monitoring the interfacial displacement with high local depth resolution has yielded several novel results. We have found with lysozyme that (1) the normal growth rate is oscillatory, and (2) depending on the impurity content of the solution, the growth step density is either greater or lower at the periphery of a facet than in its center. The repartitioning of Na plus and Cl minus ions between lysozyme solutions and crystals was studied for a wide range of crystallization conditions. A nucleation-growth-repartitioning model was developed, to interpret the large body of data in unified way. The results strongly suggest that (1) the ion to lysozyne ratio in the crystal depends mostly on kinetic rather than crystallographic parameters, and (2) lysozyme crystals possess a salt-rich core with a diameter electron microscopy results appear to confirm this finding, which could have far-reaching consequences for x-ray diffraction studies. A computational model for diffusive-convective transport in protein crystallization has been applied to a realistic growth cell geometry, taking into account the findings of the above repartitioning studies and our kinetics data for the growth of lysozyme. The results show that even in the small cell employed, protein concentration nonuniformities and gravity-driven solutal convection can be significant. The calculated convection velocities are of the same order to magnitude as those found in earlier experiments. As expected, convective transport, i.e., at Og, lysozyme crystal growth remains kinetically limited. The salt distribution in the crystal is predicted to be non-uniform at both 1g and 0g, as a consequence of protein depletion in the solution. Static and

  9. Method for crystal growth control

    DOEpatents

    Yates, Douglas A.; Hatch, Arthur E.; Goldsmith, Jeff M.

    1981-01-01

    The growth of a crystalline body of a selected material is controlled so that the body has a selected cross-sectional shape. The apparatus is of the type which includes the structure normally employed in known capillary die devices as well as means for observing at least the portion of the surfaces of the growing crystalline body and the meniscus (of melt material from which the body is being pulled) including the solid/liquid/vapor junction in a direction substantially perpendicular to the meniscus surface formed at the junction when the growth of the crystalline body is under steady state conditions. The cross-sectional size of the growing crystalline body can be controlled by determining which points exhibit a sharp change in the amount of reflected radiation of a preselected wavelength and controlling the speed at which the body is being pulled or the temperature of the growth pool of melt so as to maintain those points exhibiting a sharp change at a preselected spatial position relative to a predetermined reference position. The improvement comprises reference object means positioned near the solid/liquid/vapor junction and capable of being observed by the means for observing so as to define said reference position so that the problems associated with convection current jitter are overcome.

  10. Structure and crystallization of SiO2 and B2O3 doped lithium disilicate glasses from theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Erlebach, Andreas; Thieme, Katrin; Sierka, Marek; Rüssel, Christian

    2017-09-27

    Solid solutions of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 in Li 2 O·2SiO 2 are synthesized and characterized for the first time. Their structure and crystallization mechanisms are investigated employing a combination of simulations at the density functional theory level and experiments on the crystallization of SiO 2 and B 2 O 3 doped lithium disilicate glasses. The remarkable agreement of calculated and experimentally determined cell parameters reveals the preferential, kinetically controlled incorporation of [SiO 4 ] and [BO 4 ] at the Li + lattice sites of the Li 2 O·2SiO 2 crystal structure. While the addition of SiO 2 increases the glass viscosity resulting in lower crystal growth velocities, glasses containing B 2 O 3 show a reduction of both viscosities and crystal growth velocities. These observations could be rationalized by a change of the chemical composition of the glass matrix surrounding the precipitated crystal phase during the course of crystallization, which leads to a deceleration of the attachment of building units required for further crystal growth at the liquid-crystal interface.

  11. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    The solubility and growth of the protein canavalin, and the application of the schlieren technique to study fluid flow in protein crystal growth systems were investigated. These studies have resulted in the proposal of a model to describe protein crystal growth and the preliminary plans for a long-term space flight experiment. Canavalin, which may be crystallized from a basic solution by the addition of hydrogen (H+) ions, was shown to have normal solubility characteristics over the range of temperatures (5 to 25 C) and pH (5 to 7.5) studies. The solubility data combined with growth rate data gathered from the seeded growth of canavalin crystals indicated that the growth rate limiting step is a screw dislocation mechanism. A schlieren apparatus was constructed and flow patterns were observed in Rochelle salt (sodium potassium tartrate), lysozyme, and canavalin. The critical parameters were identified as the change in density with concentration (dp/dc) and the change in index of refraction with concentration (dn/dc). Some of these values were measured for the materials listed. The data for lyrozyme showed non-linearities in plots of optical properties and density vs. concentration. In conjunction with with W. A. Tiller, a model based on colloid stability theory was proposed to describe protein crystallization. The model was used to explain observations made by ourselves and others. The results of this research has lead to the development for a preliminary design for a long-term, low-g experiment. The proposed apparatus is univeral and capable of operation under microprocessor control.

  12. Optical monitoring of protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudry, A.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of using various optical techniques for detecting the onset of nucleation in protein crystal growth was investigated. Direct microscopy, general metrologic techniques, light scattering, ultraviolet absorption, and interferometry are addressed along with techniques for determining pH value. The necessity for collecting basic data on the optical properties of the growth solution as a prerequisite to the evaluation of monitoring techniques is pointed out.

  13. Crystal growth in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kroes, Roger L. (Inventor); Reiss, Donald A. (Inventor); Lehoczky, Sandor L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    Gravitational phenomena, including convection, sedimentation, and interactions of materials with their containers all affect the crystal growth process. If they are not taken into consideration they can have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of crystals produced. As a practical matter, convection, and sedimentation can be completely eliminated only under conditions of low gravity attained during orbital flight. There is, then, an advantage to effecting crystallization in space. In the absence of convection in a microgravity environment cooling proceeds by thermal diffusion from the walls to the center of the solution chamber. This renders control of nucleation difficult. Accordingly, there is a need for a new improved nucleation process in space. Crystals are nucleated by creating a small localized region of high relative supersaturation in a host solution at a lower degree of supersaturation.

  14. A fresnoite-structure-related mixed valent titanium(III/IV) chlorosilicate, Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 14}Cl: A flux crystal growth route to Ti(III) containing oxides

    SciT

    Abeysinghe, Dileka; Smith, Mark D.; Loye, Hans-Conrad zur, E-mail: zurloye@mailbox.sc.edu

    Single crystals of mixed valent barium titanium(III/IV) chlorosilicate, Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 14}Cl{sub 0.91}O{sub 0.09}, were grown in a high temperature molten chloride flux involving an in situ reduction step. The fresnoite structure related Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 14}Cl{sub 0.91}O{sub 0.09} crystallizes in the tetragonal space group P4/mbm with lattice parameters of a=8.6717(2) Å, c=18.6492(5) Å. The title compound exhibits a 3D structure consisting of 2D layers of fused Ti{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Si{sub 4}O{sub 12} groups and 2D layers of fused Ti{sub 2}O{sub 9}Cl{sub 2} and Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} groups that are linked via barium atoms. The in situmore » reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III) is achieved via the addition of metallic Mg to the flux to function as the reducing agent. The temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility shows simple paramagnetism above 100 K. There is a discontinuity in the susceptibility data below 100 K, which might be due to a structural change that takes place resulting in charge ordering. - Graphical abstract: The fresnoite structure related novel reduced barium titanium chlorosilicate, Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 14}Cl{sub 0.91}O{sub 0.09}, were synthesized via flux method. An in situ reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III) achieved using Mg metal. The 3D structure consists 2D layers of fused Ti{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Si{sub 4}O{sub 12} and 2D layers of fused Ti{sub 2}O{sub 9}Cl{sub 2} and Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} connected via barium atoms. Compound shows simple paramagnetism above 100 K. - Highlights: • The fresnoite related Ba{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}Si{sub 4}O{sub 14}Cl{sub 0.91}O{sub 0.09} were grown via molten flux method. • The in situ reduction of Ti(IV) to Ti(III) is achieved using metallic Mg. • 2D layers of Ti{sub 2}O{sub 9} and Si{sub 4}O{sub 12} and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 9}Cl{sub 2} and Si{sub 2}O{sub 7} connect via Ba atoms. • The magnetic susceptibility shows simple paramagnetism above 100 K.« less

  15. Meniscus Imaging for Crystal-Growth Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachs, E. M.

    1983-01-01

    Silicon crystal growth monitored by new video system reduces operator stress and improves conditions for observation and control of growing process. System optics produce greater magnification vertically than horizontally, so entire meniscus and melt is viewed with high resolution in both width and height dimensions.

  16. Spacelab 3 vapor crystal growth experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnepple, W.; Vandenberg, L.; Skinner, N.; Ortale, C.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Challenger, with Spacelab 3 as its payload, was launched into orbit April 29, 1985. The mission, number 51-B, emphasized materials processing in space, although a wide variety of experiments in other disciplines were also carried onboard. One of the materials processing experiments on this flight is described, specifically the growth of single crystals of mercuric iodide by physical vapor transport.

  17. Ammonothermal Growth of Chalcogenide Single Crystal Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-11-05

    chalcogenide with an acidic mineraiizer 15 in presence of liquid ammonia solvent at high pressures and at temperatures in the range of about 300 to 550°C...demonstrates growth of binary CaS single crystals in a medium consisting of CaS powder and NH4I acid mineraiizer in ammonia solvent in a fused quartz

  18. Crystal growth furnace safety system validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackowski, D. W.; Hartfield, R.; Bhavnani, S. H.; Belcher, V. M.

    1994-01-01

    The findings are reported regarding the safe operation of the NASA crystal growth furnace (CGF) and potential methods for detecting containment failures of the furnace. The main conclusions are summarized by ampoule leak detection, cartridge leak detection, and detection of hazardous species in the experiment apparatus container (EAC).

  19. One-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge epitaxy on Si by magnetron sputtering

    SciT

    Liu, Ziheng, E-mail: ziheng.liu@unsw.edu.au; Hao, Xiaojing; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    In this work, one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization of Ge on Si is achieved via magnetron sputtering by applying an in-situ low temperature (50 °C to 150 °C) heat treatment in between Al and Ge depositions. The effect of heat treatment on film properties and the growth mechanism of Ge epitaxy on Si are studied via X-ray diffraction, Raman and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Compared with the conventional two-step process, the one-step aluminium-assisted crystallization requires much lower thermal budget and results in pure Ge epitaxial layer, which may be suitable for use as a virtual substrate for the fabrication of III-V solar cells.

  20. Electrochemical liquid-liquid-solid (ec-LLS) crystal growth: a low-temperature strategy for covalent semiconductor crystal growth.

    PubMed

    Fahrenkrug, Eli; Maldonado, Stephen

    2015-07-21

    details chosen for ec-LLS. Third, the rate of introduction of zero-valent materials into the liquid metal is precisely gated with a high degree of resolution by the applied potential/current. The intent of this Account is to summarize the key elements of ec-LLS identified to date, first contextualizing this method with respect to other semiconductor crystal growth methods and then highlighting some unique capabilities of ec-LLS. Specifically, we detail ec-LLS as a platform to prepare Ge and Si crystals from bulk- (∼1 cm(3)), micro- (∼10(-10) cm(3)), and nano-sized (∼10(-16) cm(3)) liquid metal electrodes in common solvents at low temperature. In addition, we describe our successes in the preparation of more compositionally complex binary covalent III-V semiconductors.

  1. Apparatus for monitoring crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1981-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  2. Method of monitoring crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.

    1982-01-01

    A system and method are disclosed for monitoring the growth of a crystalline body from a liquid meniscus in a furnace. The system provides an improved human/machine interface so as to reduce operator stress, strain and fatigue while improving the conditions for observation and control of the growing process. The system comprises suitable optics for forming an image of the meniscus and body wherein the image is anamorphic so that the entire meniscus can be viewed with good resolution in both the width and height dimensions. The system also comprises a video display for displaying the anamorphic image. The video display includes means for enhancing the contrast between any two contrasting points in the image. The video display also comprises a signal averager for averaging the intensity of at least one preselected portions of the image. The value of the average intensity, can in turn be utilized to control the growth of the body. The system and method are also capable of observing and monitoring multiple processes.

  3. Fluorapatite crystal growth from modified seawater solutions

    SciT

    Van Cappellen, P.; Berner, R.A.

    Seeded precipitation experiments were conducted in a pH/fluoride-stat system to study the crystal growth of fluorapatite (FAP) in carbonate-free NaCl-CaCl{sub 2}-NaF-Na{sub 2}HPO{sub 4} solutions, at seawater calcium concentration, chlorinity, and pH. With increasing supersaturation, the dependence of the growth rate on the relative supersaturation changes from parabolic to exponential. This is interpreted as reflecting a transition in the crystal growth mechanism from growth at dislocation-induced surface steps to surface nucleation-controlled growth. The analysis of the kinetic data leads to a mineral-aqueous solution interfacial tension for FAP of 289 mJ/M{sup 2}. The Arrhenius activation energy of the growth reaction in themore » temperature range 12 to 35C is 47 kJ/mol. The effect of pH on FAP growth was tested for pH values from 7 to 8.5. In this range, growth of FAP is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. The apparent growth rate constant is proportional to (a{sub H{sup +}}){sup m} where m, the rate order with respect to H{sup +}, is a non-integral number which depends on pH. At identical degrees of supersaturation, the growth rate of FAP at pH = 7 is nearly twice that at pH = 8. When corrected for bottom water temperatures, pore water pH, and the retardation of Mg{sup 2+}, the experimental growth rates predict that during burial in modern phosphatic sediments, apatite particles grow to sizes on the order of 0.1-10{mu}m. The relatively slow growth kinetics of FAP are consistent with the observed small particle sizes of marine sedimentary apatite.« less

  4. Drop deployment system for crystal growth apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhodes, Percy H. (Inventor); Snyder, Robert S. (Inventor); Pusey, Marc L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a crystal growth apparatus (10) generally used for growing protein crystals wherein a vapor diffusion method is used for growing the crystals. In this apparatus, a precipitating solution and a solution containing dissolved crystalline material are stored in separate vials (12, 14), each having a resilient diaphragm (28) across one end and an opening (24) with a puncturable septum (26) thereacross at an opposite end. The vials are placed in receptacles (30) having a manifold (41) with a manifold diaphragm (42) in contact with the vial diaphragm at one end of the receptacle and a hollow needle (36) for puncturing the septum at the other end of the manifold. The needles of each vial communicate with a ball mixer (40) that mixes the precipitate and protein solutions and directs the mixed solution to a drop support (64) disposed in a crystal growth chamber (16), the drop support being a tube with an inner bevelled surface (66) that provides more support for the drop (68) than the tubes of the prior art. A sealable storage region (70) intermediate the drop support and mixer provides storage of the drop (68) and the grown crystals.

  5. Nucleation and growth control in protein crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Nyce, Thomas A.; Meehan, Edward J.; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    The five topics summarized in this final report are as follows: (1) a technique for the expedient, semi-automated determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature and application of this technique to proteins other than lysozyme; (2) a small solution cell with adjustable temperature gradients for the growth of proteins at a predetermined location through temperature programming; (3) a microscopy system with image storage and processing capability for high resolution optical studies of temperature controlled protein growth and etching kinetics; (4) growth experiments with lysozyme in thermosyphon flow ; and (5) a mathematical model for the evolution of evaporation/diffusion induced concentration gradients in the hanging drop protein crystallization technique.

  6. Fluorapatite crystal growth from modified seawater solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Cappellen, Philippe; Berner, Robert A.

    Seeded precipitation experiments were conducted in a pH/fluoride-stat system to study the crystal growth of fluorapatite ( FAP ) in carbonate-free NaCl-CaCl 2-NaF-Na 2HPO 4 solutions, at seawater calcium concentration, chlorinity, and pH. With increasing supersaturation, the dependence of the growth rate on the relative supersaturation changes from parabolic to exponential. This is interpreted as reflecting a transition in the crystal growth mechanism from growth at dislocation-induced surface steps to surface nucleation-controlled growth. The analysis of the kinetic data leads to a mineral-aqueous solution interfacial tension for FAP of 289 mJ/m 2. The Arrhenius activation energy of the growth reaction in the temperature range 12 to 35°C is 47 kJ/mol. The inhibition of FAP growth by Mg 2+ ions was investigated over a range of total dissolved Mg of 0 to 60 mM. At dissolved magnesium concentrations typical of marine pore waters (40-60 mM), the rate of FAP growth is 15 to 20 times slower than in the absence of Mg 2+, for the same degree of supersaturation, at 25 °C and pH = 8. The inhibitory effect can be explained by the blocking of growth sites at the surface of FAP crystals by adsorbed Mg 2+ ions. A simple Langmuir adsorption model for the retardation effect of Mg 2+ is supported by the results. The effect of pH on FAP growth was tested for pH values from 7 to 8.5. In this range, growth of FAP is catalyzed by hydrogen ions. The apparent growth rate constant is proportional to ( aH+) m where m, the rate order with respect to H +, is a non-integral number which depends on pH. At identical degrees of supersaturation, the growth rate of FAP at pH = 7 is nearly twice that at pH = 8. When corrected for bottom water temperatures, pore water pH, and the retardation of Mg 2+, the experimental growth rates predict that during burial in modern phosphatic sediments, apatite particles grow to sizes on the order of 0.1-10 μrn. The relatively slow growth kinetics of FAP are

  7. Crystal growth and furnace analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dakhoul, Youssef M.

    1986-01-01

    A thermal analysis of Hg/Cd/Te solidification in a Bridgman cell is made using Continuum's VAST code. The energy equation is solved in an axisymmetric, quasi-steady domain for both the molten and solid alloy regions. Alloy composition is calculated by a simplified one-dimensional model to estimate its effect on melt thermal conductivity and, consequently, on the temperature field within the cell. Solidification is assumed to occur at a fixed temperature of 979 K. Simplified boundary conditions are included to model both the radiant and conductive heat exchange between the furnace walls and the alloy. Calculations are performed to show how the steady-state isotherms are affected by: the hot and cold furnace temperatures, boundary condition parameters, and the growth rate which affects the calculated alloy's composition. The Advanced Automatic Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), developed by NASA, is also thermally analyzed using the CINDA code. The objective is to determine the performance and the overall power requirements for different furnace designs.

  8. Possibilities and Limitations of Multioxides Crystals Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    between 1 26 neodymium and lanthanum along growth direction of c,=33 mol % NdGaO3 Laj-,Nd.GaO3 single crystals 7. Concentration of 2 24- k= 0.77 (A-0.008...50, 60 and 66.6 mol.% of lanthanum aluminate concentration. The crystals adopt cubic structure at x up to 0.50 with the half of lattice constant...from the melt containing 22 mol.% and 30 Proc. SPIE Vol. 4412 more lanthanum aluminate were light yellow if the 3.90 processes were carried out in pure

  9. FNAS/advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1992-01-01

    A scintillation method is presented for determination of the temperature dependence of the solubility, S(T), of proteins in 50-100 micro-l volumes of solution. S(T) data for lysozyme and horse serum albumin were obtained for various combinations of pH and precipitant concentrations. The resulting kinetics and equilibrium information was used for dynamic control, that is the separation of nucleation and growth stages in protein crystallization. Individual lysozyme and horse serum albumin crystals were grown in 15-20 micro-l solution volumes contained in x-ray capillaries.

  10. Crystal growth and annealing for minimized residual stress

    DOEpatents

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing crystals that minimizes birefringence even at large crystal sizes, and is suitable for production of CaF.sub.2 crystals. The method of the present invention comprises annealing a crystal by maintaining a minimal temperature gradient in the crystal while slowly reducing the bulk temperature of the crystal. An apparatus according to the present invention includes a thermal control system added to a crystal growth and annealing apparatus, wherein the thermal control system allows a temperature gradient during crystal growth but minimizes the temperature gradient during crystal annealing.

  11. Crystal structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in Si

    SciT

    Verburg, P. C.; Smillie, L. A.; Römer, G. R. B. E.

    2015-06-04

    Laser-induced subsurface modification of dielectric materials is a well-known technology. Applications include the production of optical components and selective etching. In addition to dielectric materials, the subsurface modification technology can be applied to silicon, by employing near to mid-infrared radiation. An application of subsurface modifications in silicon is laser-induced subsurface separation, which is a method to separate wafers into individual dies. Other applications for which proofs of concept exist are the formation of waveguides and resistivity tuning. However, limited knowledge is available about the crystal structure of subsurface modifications in silicon. In this paper, we investigate the geometry and crystalmore » structure of laser-induced subsurface modifications in monocrystalline silicon wafers. Finally, in addition to the generation of lattice defects, we found that transformations to amorphous silicon and Si-iii/Si-xii occur as a result of the laser irradiation.« less

  12. Vertical epitaxial wire-on-wire growth of Ge/Si on Si(100) substrate.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Tomohiro; Zhang, Zhang; Shingubara, Shoso; Senz, Stephan; Gösele, Ulrich

    2009-04-01

    Vertically aligned epitaxial Ge/Si heterostructure nanowire arrays on Si(100) substrates were prepared by a two-step chemical vapor deposition method in anodic aluminum oxide templates. n-Butylgermane vapor was employed as new safer precursor for Ge nanowire growth instead of germane. First a Si nanowire was grown by the vapor liquid solid growth mechanism using Au as catalyst and silane. The second step was the growth of Ge nanowires on top of the Si nanowires. The method presented will allow preparing epitaxially grown vertical heterostructure nanowires consisting of multiple materials on an arbitrary substrate avoiding undesired lateral growth.

  13. Nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires from Ni silicate coated SiC nanoparticles on Si solar cell.

    PubMed

    Parida, Bhaskar; Choi, Jaeho; Ji, Hyung Yong; Park, Seungil; Lim, Gyoungho; Kim, Keunjoo

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the nanocatalytic growth of Si nanowires on the microtextured surface of crystalline Si solar cell. 3C-SiC nanoparticles have been used as the base for formation of Ni silicate layer in a catalytic reaction with the Si melt under H2 atmosphere at an annealing temperature of 1100 degrees C. The 10-nm thick Ni film was deposited after the SiC nanoparticles were coated on the microtextured surface of the Si solar cell by electron-beam evaporation. SiC nanoparticles form a eutectic alloy surface of Ni silicate and provide the base for Si supersaturation as well as the Ni-Si alloy layer on Si substrate surface. This bottom reaction mode for the solid-liquid-solid growth mechanism using a SiC nanoparticle base provides more stable growth of nanowires than the top reaction mode growth mechanism in the absence of SiC nanoparticles. Thermally excited Ni nanoparticle forms the eutectic alloy and provides collectively excited electrons at the alloy surface, which reduces the activation energy of the nanocatalytic reaction for formation of nanowires.

  14. Diamond turning of Si and Ge single crystals

    SciT

    Blake, P.; Scattergood, R.O.

    Single-point diamond turning studies have been completed on Si and Ge crystals. A new process model was developed for diamond turning which is based on a critical depth of cut for plastic flow-to-brittle fracture transitions. This concept, when combined with the actual machining geometry for single-point turning, predicts that {open_quotes}ductile{close_quotes} machining is a combined action of plasticity and fracture. Interrupted cutting experiments also provide a meant to directly measure the critical depth parameter for given machining conditions.

  15. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1994-01-01

    This research involved (1) using the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in a study on the growth of lysozyme crystals and (2) refinement of the design of the Thermonucleator which controls the supersaturation required for the nucleation and growth of protein crystals separately. AFM studies of the (110) tetragonal face confirmed that lysozyme crystals grow by step propagation. There appears to be very little step pile up in the growth regimes which we studied. The step height was measured at = 54A which was equal to the (110) interpane spacing. The AFM images showed areas of step retardation and the formation of pits. These defects ranged in size from 0.1 to 0.4 mu. The source of these defects was not determined. The redesign of the Thermonucleator produced an instrument based on thermoelectric technology which is both easier to use and more amenable to use in a mu g environment. The use of thermoelectric technology resulted in a considerable size reduction which will allow for the design of a multi-unit growth apparatus. The performance of the new apparatus was demonstrated to be the same as the original design.

  16. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1993-01-01

    The experimental setup for the in-situ high resolution optical monitoring of protein crystal growth/dissolution morphologies was substantially improved. By augmenting the observation system with a temperature-controlled enclosure, laser illumination for the interferometric microscope, and software for pixel by pixel light intensity recording, a height resolution of about two unit cells for lysozyme can now be obtained. The repartitioning of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions between lysozyme solutions and crystals was studied. Quite unexpectedly, it was found that the longer crystals were in contact with their solution, the lower was their ion content. The development of a model for diffusive-convective transport and resulting distribution of the growth rate on facets was completed. Results obtained for a realistic growth cell geometry show interesting differences between 'growth runs' at 1g and 0g. The kinematic viscosity of lysozyme solutions of various supersaturations and salt concentrations was monitored over time. In contrast to the preliminary finding of other authors, no changes in viscosity were found over four days. The experimental setup for light scattering investigations of aggregation and nucleation in protein solutions was completed, and a computer program for the evaluation of multi-angle light scattering data was acquired.

  17. Precursor Routes to Complex Ternary Intermetallics: Single-Crystal and Microcrystalline Preparation of Clathrate-I Na8Al8Si38 from NaSi + NaAlSi.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yongkwan; Chai, Ping; Beekman, Matt; Zeng, Xiaoyu; Tritt, Terry M; Nolas, George S

    2015-06-01

    Single crystals of the ternary clathrate-I Na8Al8Si38 were synthesized by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD), and microcrystalline Na8Al8Si38 was synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using a NaSi + NaAlSi mixture as the precursor. Na8AlxSi46-x compositions with x ≤ 8 were also synthesized by SPS from precursor mixtures of different ratios. The crystal structure of Na8Al8Si38 was investigated using both Rietveld and single-crystal refinements. Temperature-dependent transport and UV/vis measurements were employed in the characterization of Na8Al8Si38, with diffuse-reflectance measurement indicating an indirect optical gap of 0.64 eV. Our results indicate that, when more than one precursor is used, both SPS and KCTD are effective methods for the synthesis of multinary inorganic phases that are not easily accessible by traditional solid-state synthesis or crystal growth techniques.

  18. The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Protein Crystal Growth Archive

    PubMed Central

    Gilliland, Gary L.; Tung, Michael; Ladner, Jane

    1996-01-01

    The NIST/NASA/CARB Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (BMCD), NIST Standard Reference Database 21, contains crystal data and crystallization conditions for biological macromolecules. The database entries include data abstracted from published crystallographic reports. Each entry consists of information describing the biological macromolecule crystallized and crystal data and the crystallization conditions for each crystal form. The BMCD serves as the NASA Protein Crystal Growth Archive in that it contains protocols and results of crystallization experiments undertaken in microgravity (space). These database entries report the results, whether successful or not, from NASA-sponsored protein crystal growth experiments in microgravity and from microgravity crystallization studies sponsored by other international organizations. The BMCD was designed as a tool to assist x-ray crystallographers in the development of protocols to crystallize biological macromolecules, those that have previously been crystallized, and those that have not been crystallized. PMID:11542472

  19. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Gamma-Interferon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Gamma-Interferon. Stimulates the body's immune system and is used clinically in the treatment of cancer. Potential as an anti-tumor agent against solid tumors as well as leukemia's and lymphomas. It has additional utility as an anti-ineffective agent, including antiviral, anti-bacterial, and anti-parasitic activities. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Charles Bugg.

  20. Growth and relaxation processes in Ge nanocrystals on free-standing Si(001) nanopillars.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, G; Zaumseil, P; Schubert, M A; Yamamoto, Y; Bauer, J; Schülli, T U; Tillack, B; Schroeder, T

    2012-03-23

    We study the growth and relaxation processes of Ge crystals selectively grown by chemical vapour deposition on free-standing 90 nm wide Si(001) nanopillars. Epi-Ge with thickness ranging from 4 to 80 nm was characterized by synchrotron based x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. We found that the strain in Ge nanostructures is plastically released by nucleation of misfit dislocations, leading to degrees of relaxation ranging from 50 to 100%. The growth of Ge nanocrystals follows the equilibrium crystal shape terminated by low surface energy (001) and {113} facets. Although the volumes of Ge nanocrystals are homogeneous, their shape is not uniform and the crystal quality is limited by volume defects on {111} planes. This is not the case for the Ge/Si nanostructures subjected to thermal treatment. Here, improved structure quality together with high levels of uniformity of the size and shape is observed.

  1. Optical Investigation of Nanoconfined Crystal Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, F.; Dysthe, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Crystals growing in a confined space exert forces on their surroundings. This crystallization force causes deformation of solids and is therefore particularly relevant for the comprehension of geological processes such as replacement and weathering [1]. In addition, these forces are relevant for the understanding of damages in porous building materials caused by crystallization, which is of great economical importance and fundamental for methods that can help to preserve our cultural heritage [2,3]. However, the exact behavior of the growth and the dissolution process in close contact to an interface are still not known in detail. The crystallization, the dissolution and the transport of material is mediated by a nanoconfined water film. We observe brittle NaClO3 crystals growing against a glass surface by optical methods such as reflective interference contrast microscopy (RICM) [4]. In order to carefully control the supersaturation of the fluid close to the crystal interface, a temperature regulated microfluidic system is used (fig. A). The interference based precision of RICM enables to resolve distance variations down to the sub nanometer range without any unwanted disturbances by the measuring method. The combination of RICM with a sensitive camera allows us to observe phenomena such as periodic, wavelike growth of atomic layers. These waves are particularly obvious when observing the difference between two consecutive images (fig. B). In contradiction to some theoretical results, which predict a smooth interface, some recent experiments have shown that the nanoconfined growth surfaces are rough. In combination with theoretical studies and Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations we aim at providing more realistic descriptions of surface energies and energy barriers which are able to explain the discrepancies between experiments and current theory. References:[1] Maliva, Diagenetic replacement controlled by force of crystallization, Geology, August (1988), v. 16 [2] G

  2. In-Situ Crystallization of a Lithium Disilicate Glass--Effect of Pressure on Crystal Growth Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuss, T.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    Crystallization of a Li2O.2SiO2 (LS2) glass subjected to a uniform hydrostatic pressure of 4.5 GPa and 6 GPa was investigated up to a temperature of 750 C. The density of the compressed glass is about 2% greater at 4.5 GPa than at 1 atm and, depending upon the processing temperature, up to 10% greater at 6 GPa. Crystal growth rates investigated as a function of temperature and pressure show that lithium disilicate crystal growth is an order of magnitude slower at 4.5 GPa than 1 atm resulting in a shift of +45 C (plus or minus 10 C) in the growth rate curve at high pressure compared to 1 atm condition. At 6 GPa lithium disilicate crystallization is suppressed entirely, while a new high pressure lithium metasilicate crystallizes at temperatures 95 C (plus or minus 10 C) higher than those reported for lithium disilicate crystallization at 1 atm. The decrease in crystal growth rate with increasing pressure for lithium disilicate glass up to 750 C is related to an increase in viscosity with pressure associated with fundamental changes in glass structure accommodating densification.

  3. van der Waals epitaxy of SnS film on single crystal graphene buffer layer on amorphous SiO2/Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Yu; Yang, Yunbo; Guo, Fawen; Sun, Xin; Lu, Zonghuan; Mohanty, Dibyajyoti; Bhat, Ishwara; Washington, Morris; Lu, Toh-Ming; Wang, Gwo-Ching

    2018-03-01

    Conventional hetero-epitaxial films are typically grown on lattice and symmetry matched single crystal substrates. We demonstrated the epitaxial growth of orthorhombic SnS film (∼500 nm thick) on single crystal, monolayer graphene that was transferred on the amorphous SiO2/Si substrate. Using X-ray pole figure analysis we examined the structure, quality and epitaxy relationship of the SnS film grown on the single crystal graphene and compared it with the SnS film grown on commercial polycrystalline graphene. We showed that the SnS films grown on both single crystal and polycrystalline graphene have two sets of orientation domains. However, the crystallinity and grain size of the SnS film improve when grown on the single crystal graphene. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction measurements show that the near surface texture has more phases as compared with that of the entire film. The surface texture of a film will influence the growth and quality of film grown on top of it as well as the interface formed. Our result offers an alternative approach to grow a hetero-epitaxial film on an amorphous substrate through a single crystal graphene buffer layer. This strategy of growing high quality epitaxial thin film has potential applications in optoelectronics.

  4. Application of enthalpy model for floating zone silicon crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauze, A.; Bergfelds, K.; Virbulis, J.

    2017-09-01

    A 2D simplified crystal growth model based on the enthalpy method and coupled with a low-frequency harmonic electromagnetic model is developed to simulate the silicon crystal growth near the external triple point (ETP) and crystal melting on the open melting front of a polycrystalline feed rod in FZ crystal growth systems. Simulations of the crystal growth near the ETP show significant influence of the inhomogeneities of the EM power distribution on the crystal growth rate for a 4 in floating zone (FZ) system. The generated growth rate fluctuations are shown to be larger in the system with higher crystal pull rate. Simulations of crystal melting on the open melting front of the polycrystalline rod show the development of melt-filled grooves at the open melting front surface. The distance between the grooves is shown to grow with the increase of the skin-layer depth in the solid material.

  5. Controllable growth of GeSi nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yingjie; Zhou, Tong; Zhong, Zhenyang; Jiang, Zuimin

    2018-06-01

    We present an overview on the recent progress achieved on the controllable growth of diverse GeSi alloy nanostructures by molecular beam epitaxy. Prevailing theories for controlled growth of Ge nanostructures on patterned as well as inclined Si surfaces are outlined firstly, followed by reviews on the preferential growth of Ge nanoislands on patterned Si substrates, Ge nanowires and high density nanoislands grown on inclined Si surfaces, and the readily tunable Ge nanostructures on Si nanopillars. Ge nanostructures with controlled geometries, spatial distributions and densities, including two-dimensional ordered nanoislands, three-dimensional ordered quantum dot crystals, ordered nanorings, coupled quantum dot molecules, ordered nanowires and nanopillar alloys, are discussed in detail. A single Ge quantum dot-photonic crystal microcavity coupled optical emission device demonstration fabricated by using the preferentially grown Ge nanoisland technique is also introduced. Finally, we summarize the current technology status with a look at the future development trends and application challenges for controllable growth of Ge nanostructures. Project supports by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61605232, 61674039) and the Open Research Project of State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics from Fudan University (Nos. KF2016_15s, KF2017_05).

  6. Precursor routes to quaternary intermetallics: Synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of clathrate-II Cs8Na16Al24Si112

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Kaya; Dong, Yongkwan; Nolas, George S.

    2016-05-01

    A new quaternary clathrate-II composition, Cs8Na16Al24Si112, was synthesized by kinetically controlled thermal decomposition (KCTD) employing both NaSi and NaAlSi as the precursors and CsCl as a reactive flux. The crystal structure and composition of Cs8Na16Al24Si112 were investigated using both Rietveld refinement and elemental analysis, and the temperature dependent transport properties were investigated. Our results indicate that KCTD with multiple precursors is an effective method for the synthesis of multinary inorganic phases that are not easily accessible by traditional solid-state synthesis or crystal growth techniques.

  7. Flash crystallization kinetics of methane (sI) hydrate in a thermoelectrically-cooled microreactor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiqi; Pinho, Bruno; Hartman, Ryan L

    2017-09-12

    The crystallization kinetics of methane (sI) hydrate were investigated in a thermoelectrically-cooled microreactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy. Step-wise and precise control of the temperature allowed acquisition of reproducible data within minutes, while the nucleation of methane hydrates can take up to 24 h in traditional batch reactors. The propagation rates of methane hydrate (from 3.1-196.3 μm s -1 ) at the gas-liquid interface were measured for different Reynolds' numbers (0.7-68.9), pressures (30.0-80.9 bar), and sub-cooling temperatures (1.0-4.0 K). The precise measurement of the propagation rates and their subsequent analyses revealed a transition from mixed heat-transfer-crystallization-rate-limited to mixed heat-transfer-mass-transfer-crystallization-rate-limited kinetics. A theoretical model, based on heat transfer, mass transfer, and intrinsic crystallization kinetics, was derived for the first time to understand the non-linear relationship between the propagation rate and sub-cooling temperature. The molecular diffusivity of methane within a stagnant film (ahead of the propagation front) was discovered to follow Stokes-Einstein, while calculated Hatta (0.50-0.68), Lewis (128-207), and beta (0.79-116) numbers also confirmed that the diffusive flux influences crystal growth. Understanding methane hydrate crystal growth is important to the atmospheric, oceanic, and planetary sciences and to energy production, storage, and transportation. Our discoveries could someday advance the science of other multiphase, high-pressure, and sub-cooled crystallizations.

  8. Convective flow effects on protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1995-01-01

    During the fourth semi-annual period under this grant we have pursued the following activities: (1) crystal growth morphology and kinetics studies with tetragonal lysozyme. These clearly revealed the influence of higher molecular weight protein impurities on interface shape; (2) characterization of the purity and further purification of lysozyme solutions. These efforts have, for the first time, resulted in lysozyme free of higher molecular weight components; (3) continuation of the salt repartitioning studies with Seikagaku lysozyme, which has a lower protein impurity content that Sigma stock. These efforts confirmed our earlier findings of higher salt contents in smaller crystals. However, less salt is in corporated into the crystals grown from Seikagaku stock. This strongly suggests a dependence of salt repartitioning on the concentration of protein impurities in lysozyme. To test this hypothesis, repartitioning studies with the high purity lysozyme prepared in-house will be begun shortly; (4) numerical modelling of the interaction between bulk transport and interface kinetics. These simulations have produced interface shapes which are in good agreement with out experimental observations; and (5) light scattering studies on under- and supersaturated lysozyme solutions. A consistent interpretation of the static and dynamic data leaves little doubt that pre-nucleation clusters, claimed to exist even in undersaturated solutions, are not present. The article: 'Growth morphology response to nutrient and impurity nonuniformities' is attached.

  9. Models of Mass Transport During Microgravity Crystal Growth of Alloyed Semiconductors in a Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Alloyed semiconductor crystals, such as germanium-silicon (GeSi) and various II-VI alloyed crystals, are extremely important for optoelectronic devices. Currently, high-quality crystals of GeSi and of II-VI alloys can be grown by epitaxial processes, but the time required to grow a certain amount of single crystal is roughly 1,000 times longer than the time required for Bridgman growth from a melt. Recent rapid advances in optoelectronics have led to a great demand for more and larger crystals with fewer dislocations and other microdefects and with more uniform and controllable compositions. Currently, alloyed crystals grown by bulk methods have unacceptable levels of segregation in the composition of the crystal. Alloyed crystals are being grown by the Bridgman process in space in order to develop successful bulk-growth methods, with the hope that the technology will be equally successful on earth. Unfortunately some crystals grown in space still have unacceptable segregation, for example, due to residual accelerations. The application of a weak magnetic field during crystal growth in space may eliminate the undesirable segregation. Understanding and improving the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductors in microgravity is critically important. The purpose of this grant to to develop models of the unsteady species transport during the bulk growth of alloyed semiconductor crystals in the presence of a magnetic field in microgravity. The research supports experiments being conducted in the High Magnetic Field Solidification Facility at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and future experiments on the International Space Station.

  10. Efg Crystal Growth Apparatus And Method

    DOEpatents

    Mackintosh, Brian H.; Ouellette, Marc

    2003-05-13

    An improved mechanical arrangement controls the introduction of silicon particles into an EFG (Edge-defined Film-fed Growth) crucible/die unit for melt replenishment during a crystal growth run. A feeder unit injects silicon particles upwardly through a center hub of the crucible/die unit and the mechanical arrangement intercepts the injected particles and directs them so that they drop into the melt in a selected region of the crucible and at velocity which reduces splashing, whereby to reduce the likelihood of interruption of the growth process due to formation of a solid mass of silicon on the center hub and adjoining components. The invention also comprises use of a Faraday ring to alter the ratio of the electrical currents flowing through primary and secondary induction heating coils that heat the crucible die unit and the mechanical arrangement.

  11. Historical review of quartz crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Fumiko; Iwasaki, Hideo

    2002-04-01

    The history of quartz crystal growth is reviewed from the origin to the industrialization. The developing process of growth techniques is divided into the following three stages: (1) The fundamental work based on the mineralogical genetic view point, which was performed in Italy during the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 20th centuries. (2) The works to attempt the industrial application made in Germany and in England during World War II. (3) The industrialization of quartz growth after World War II. These were initiated in England, in USA and independently in Russia. The highest mass production process was developed in Japan. The historical flow is traced by the interview of several persons based on the original references.

  12. Convective diffusion in protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, J. K.; Meehan, E. J., Jr.; Xidis, A. L.; Howard, S. B.

    1986-01-01

    A protein crystal modeled as a flat plate suspended in the parent solution, with the normal to the largest face perpendicular to gravity and the protein concentration in the solution adjacent to the plate taken to be the equilibrium solubility, is studied. The Navier-Stokes equation and the equation for convective diffusion in the boundary layer next to the plate are solved to calculate the flow velocity and the protein mass flux. The local rate of growth of the plate is shown to vary significantly with depth due to the convection. For an aqueous solution of lysozyme at a concentration of 40 mg/ml, the boundary layer at the top of a 1-mm-high crystal has a thickness of 80 microns at 1 g, and 2570 microns at 10 to the -6th g.

  13. Low Temperature Flux Growth of 2H-SiC and Beta-Gallium Oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Choa, Fow-Sen; Su, Ching-Hua; Arnold, Bradley; Kelly, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    We present brief overview of our study on the low temperature flux growth of two very important novel wide bandgap materials 2H-SiC and Beta-gallium oxide (Beta-Ga2O3). We have synthesized and grown 5 millimeter to 1 centimeter size single crystals of Beta-gallium oxide (Beta-Ga2O3). We used a flux and semi wet method to grow transparent good quality crystals. In the semi-wet method Ga2O3 was synthesized with starting gallium nitrate solution and urea as a nucleation agent. In the flux method we used tin and other metallic flux. This crystal was placed in an alumina crucible and temperature was raised above 1050 degrees Centigrade. After a time period of thirty hours, we observed prismatic and needle shaped crystals of gallium oxide. Scanning electron microscopic studies showed step growth morphology. Crystal was polished to measure the properties. Bandgap was measured 4.7electronvolts using the optical absorption curve. Another wide bandgap hexagonal 2H-SiC was grown by using Si-Al eutectic flux in the graphite crucible. We used slight AlN also as the impurity in the flux. The temperature was raised up to 1050 degrees Centigrade and slowly cooled to 850 degrees Centigrade. Preliminary characterization results of this material are also reported.

  14. Crystal growth formation in melt extrudates.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Caroline; Fegely, Kurt A; Rajabi-Siahboomi, Ali R; McGinity, James W

    2007-08-16

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the physical state of hot-melt extruded guaifenesin tablets containing either Acryl-EZE or Eudragit L100-55 and to study the physicochemical factors influencing crystal growth of guaifenesin on the surface of the extrudates. The powder mixtures containing Acryl-EZE were extruded on a single-screw Randcastle Microtruder at 20rpm and at temperatures of 90, 95, 110 degrees C (zones 1, 2, 3, respectively) and 115 degrees C (die), before being manually cut into tablets (250+/-5mg). Extrudates containing Eudragit L100-55, TEC and guaifenesin were extruded at temperatures ranging from 60 to 115 degrees C. Modulated differential calorimetry (DSC) was used to demonstrate the plasticizing effect of guaifenesin on Eudragit L100-55. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) showed that while the drug powder is crystalline, extrudates containing up to 25% drug exhibited an amorphous diffraction profile. Extrudates containing higher drug concentrations showed an amorphous profile with some crystalline peaks corresponding to guaifenesin, indicating that the limit of solubility of drug in the matrix had been exceeded. Scanning electron microscopy was used to demonstrate that drug crystallization was a surface phenomenon and dependent on the drug concentration. In vitro dissolution testing showed no effect of surface crystallization of guaifenesin on drug release rates of extruded matrix tablets. The influence of hydrophilic polymeric additives including PVP K25, polycarbophil, PEG 3,350, poloxamer 188 or poly(ethylene oxide) as crystal growth inhibitors was investigated at a level of 10% based on the drug content. The extent of crystal growth was reduced for all additives. Complete drug release in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer was prolonged from 4h in extrudates containing Acryl-EZE and guaifenesin to 8h in extrudates containing Eudragit L100-55, TEC and guaifenesin. Drug release in extrudates containing Eudragit L100-55 and guaifenesin was not affected

  15. Fluid Physics and Macromolecular Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M.; Snell, E.; Judge, R.; Chayen, N.; Boggon, T.

    2000-01-01

    The molecular structure of biological macromolecules is important in understanding how these molecules work and has direct application to rational drug design for new medicines and for the improvement and development of industrial enzymes. In order to obtain the molecular structure, large, well formed, single macromolecule crystals are required. The growth of macromolecule crystals is a difficult task and is often hampered on the ground by fluid flows that result from the interaction of gravity with the crystal growth process. One such effect is the bulk movement of the crystal through the fluid due to sedimentation. A second is buoyancy driven convection close to the crystal surface. On the ground the crystallization process itself induces both of these flows. Buoyancy driven convection results from density differences between the bulk solution and fluid close to the crystal surface which has been depleted of macromolecules due to crystal growth. Schlieren photograph of a growing lysozyme crystal illustrating a 'growth plume' resulting from buoyancy driven convection. Both sedimentation and buoyancy driven convection have a negative effect on crystal growth and microgravity is seen as a way to both greatly reduce sedimentation and provide greater stability for 'depletion zones' around growing crystals. Some current crystal growth hardware however such as those based on a vapor diffusion techniques, may also be introducing unwanted Marangoni convection which becomes more pronounced in microgravity. Negative effects of g-jitter on crystal growth have also been observed. To study the magnitude of fluid flows around growing crystals we have attached a number of different fluorescent probes to lysozyme molecules. At low concentrations, less than 40% of the total protein, the probes do not appear to effect the crystal growth process. By using these probes we expect to determine not only the effect of induced flows due to crystal growth hardware design but also hope to

  16. Iron inhibits hydroxyapatite crystal growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Guggenbuhl, Pascal; Filmon, Robert; Mabilleau, Guillaume; Baslé, Michel F; Chappard, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    Hemochromatosis is a known cause of osteoporosis in which the pathophysiology of bone loss is largely unknown and the role of iron remains questionable. We have investigated the effects of iron on the growth of hydroxyapatite crystals in vitro on carboxymethylated poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) pellets. This noncellular and enzyme-independent model mimics the calcification of woven bone (composed of calcospherites made of hydroxyapatite crystals). Polymer pellets were incubated with body fluid containing iron at increasing concentrations (20, 40, 60 micromol/L). Hydroxyapatite growth was studied by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman microscopy. When incubated in body fluid containing iron, significant differences were observed with control pellets. Iron was detected at a concentration of 5.41- to 7.16-fold that of controls. In pellets incubated with iron, there was a approximately 3- to 4-fold decrease of Ca and P and a approximately 1.3- to 1.4-fold increase in the Ca/P ratio. There was no significant difference among the iron groups of pellets, but a trend to a decrease of Ca with the increase of iron concentration was noted. Calcospherite diameters were significantly lower on pellets incubated with iron. Raman microspectroscopy showed a decrease in crystallinity (measured by the full width of the half height of the 960 Deltacm(-1) band) with a significant increase in carbonate substitution (measured by the intensity ratio of 1071 to 960 Deltacm(-1) band). Energy dispersive x-ray analysis identified iron in the calcospherites. In vitro, iron is capable to inhibit bone crystal growth with significant changes in crystallinity and carbonate substitution.

  17. Dopant activation mechanism of Bi wire-δ-doping into Si crystal, investigated with wavelength dispersive fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Murata, Koichi; Kirkham, Christopher; Shimomura, Masaru; Nitta, Kiyofumi; Uruga, Tomoya; Terada, Yasuko; Nittoh, Koh-Ichi; Bowler, David R; Miki, Kazushi

    2017-04-20

    We successfully characterized the local structures of Bi atoms in a wire-δ-doped layer (1/8 ML) in a Si crystal, using wavelength dispersive fluorescence x-ray absorption fine structure at the beamline BL37XU, in SPring-8, with the help of density functional theory calculations. It was found that the burial of Bi nanolines on the Si(0 0 1) surface, via growth of Si capping layer at 400 °C by molecular beam epitaxy, reduced the Bi-Si bond length from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] Å. We infer that following epitaxial growth the Bi-Bi dimers of the nanoline are broken, and the Bi atoms are located at substitutional sites within the Si crystal, leading to the shorter Bi-Si bond lengths.

  18. A study of crystal growth by solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth by solution technique was studied. A low temperature solution crystal growth setup was developed. Crystals of triglycine sulfate (TGS) were grown using this arrangement. Some additional tasks were performed toward fabrication of experiments for future space flight.

  19. A study of crystal growth by solution technique. [triglycine sulfate single crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages and mechanisms of crystal growth from solution are discussed as well as the effects of impurity adsorption on the kinetics of crystal growth. Uncertainities regarding crystal growth in a low gravity environment are examined. Single crystals of triglycine sulfate were grown using a low temperature solution technique. Small components were assembled and fabricated for future space flights. A space processing experiment proposal accepted by NASA for the Spacelab-3 mission is included.

  20. Crystal structure and anisotropic magnetic properties of new ferromagnetic Kondo lattice compound Ce(Cu,Al,Si)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, A.; Thamizhavel, A.; Dhar, S. K.; Provino, A.; Pani, M.; Costa, G. A.

    2017-03-01

    Single crystals of the new compound CeCu0.18Al0.24Si1.58 have been grown by high-temperature solution growth method using a eutectic Al-Si mixture as flux. This compound is derived from the binary CeSi2 (tetragonal α-ThSi2-type, Pearson symbol tI12, space group I41/amd) obtained by partial substitution of Si by Cu and Al atoms but showing full occupation of the Si crystal site (8e). While CeSi2 is a well-known valence-fluctuating paramagnetic compound, the CeCu0.18Al0.24Si1.58 phase orders ferromagnetically at TC=9.3 K. At low temperatures the easy-axis of magnetization is along the a-axis, which re-orients itself along the c-axis above 30 K. The presence of hysteresis in the magnetization curve, negative temperature coefficient of resistivity at high temperatures, reduced jump in the heat capacity and a relatively lower entropy released up to the ordering temperature, and enhanced Sommerfeld coefficient (≈100 mJ/mol K2) show that CeCu0.18Al0.24Si1.58 is a Kondo lattice ferromagnetic, moderate heavy fermion compound. Analysis of the high temperature heat capacity data in the paramagnetic region lets us infer that the crystal electric field split doublet levels are located at 178 and 357 K, respectively, and Kondo temperature (8.4 K) is of the order of TC in CeCu0.18Al0.24Si1.58.

  1. Influence of in-situ deposited SiNx interlayer on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Teng; Jia, Wei; Tong, Guangyun; Zhai, Guangmei; Li, Tianbao; Dong, Hailiang; Xu, Bingshe

    2018-05-01

    GaN epitaxial films with SiNx interlayers were prepared by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on c-plane sapphire substrates. The influences of deposition times and locations of SiNx interlayers on crystal quality of GaN epitaxial films were studied. Under the optimal growth time of 120 s for the SiNx interlayer, the dislocation density of GaN film is reduced to 4.05 × 108 cm-2 proved by high resolution X-ray diffraction results. It is found that when the SiNx interlayer deposits on the GaN nucleation islands, the subsequent GaN film has the lowest dislocation density of only 2.89 × 108 cm-2. Moreover, a model is proposed to illustrate the morphological evolution and associated propagation processes of TDs in GaN epi-layers with SiNx interlayers for different deposition times and locations.

  2. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si. PMID:26328541

  3. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-09-02

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si.

  4. The roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiehua; Hage, Fredrik; Wiessner, Manfred; Romaner, Lorenz; Scheiber, Daniel; Sartory, Bernhard; Ramasse, Quentin; Schumacher, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Controlling the growth of eutectic Si and thereby modifying the eutectic Si from flake-like to fibrous is a key factor in improving the properties of Al-Si alloys. To date, it is generally accepted that the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism and the twin plane re-entrant edge (TPRE) mechanism as well as poisoning of the TPRE mechanism are valid under certain conditions. However, IIT, TPRE or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism cannot be used to interpret all observations. Here, we report an atomic-scale experimental and theoretical investigation on the roles of Eu during the growth of eutectic Si in Al-Si alloys. Both experimental and theoretical investigations reveal three different roles: (i) the adsorption at the intersection of Si facets, inducing IIT mechanism, (ii) the adsorption at the twin plane re-entrant edge, inducing TPRE mechanism or poisoning of the TPRE mechanism, and (iii) the segregation ahead of the growing Si twins, inducing a solute entrainment within eutectic Si. This investigation not only demonstrates a direct experimental support to the well-accepted poisoning of the TPRE and IIT mechanisms, but also provides a full picture about the roles of Eu atoms during the growth of eutectic Si, including the solute entrainment within eutectic Si.

  5. Optimization of the Bridgman crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulies, M.; Witomski, P.; Duffar, T.

    2004-05-01

    A numerical optimization method of the vertical Bridgman growth configuration is presented and developed. It permits to optimize the furnace temperature field and the pulling rate versus time in order to decrease the radial thermal gradients in the sample. Some constraints are also included in order to insure physically realistic results. The model includes the two classical non-linearities associated to crystal growth processes, the radiative thermal exchange and the release of latent heat at the solid-liquid interface. The mathematical analysis and development of the problem is shortly described. On some examples, it is shown that the method works in a satisfactory way; however the results are dependent on the numerical parameters. Improvements of the optimization model, on the physical and numerical point of view, are suggested.

  6. Formation of nanocrystalline SiGe in Polycrystalline-Ge/Si thin film without any metal induced crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tah, Twisha; Singh, Ch. Kishan; Madapu, K. K.; Polaki, S. R.; Ilango, S.; David, C.; Dash, S.; Panigrahi, B. K.

    2017-05-01

    The formation of nanocrystalline SiGe without the aid of metal induced crystallization is reported. Re-crystallization of the as-deposited poly-Ge film (deposited at 450 °C) leads to development of regions with depleted Ge concentration upon annealing at 500 °C. Clusters with crystalline facet containing both nanocrystalline SiGe and crystalline Ge phase starts appearing at 600 °C. The structural phase characteristics were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the SiGe phase was estimated from the positions of the Raman spectral peaks.

  7. Residual Gases in Crystal Growth Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Residual gases present in closed ampoules may affect different crystal growth processes. That seems to be particularly true under microgravity conditions where, due to weightlessness of the melt, the gases may lead to detached solidification and/or formation of voids and bubbles, as observed in the past. For that reason a good understanding and control of formation of residual gases is important for an optimum design and meaningful interpretation of crystal growth experiments. Our extensive experimental and theoretical studies of the subject, summarized in this paper, include degassing of silica glass and generation of gases from different source materials. Different materials processing conditions, like outgassing under vacuum, annealing in hydrogen, resublimation, different material preparation procedures, multiple annealings, different processing times, and others were applied and their effect on the amount and composition of gas were analyzed. The experimental results were interpreted based on theoretical calculations on diffusion in silica glass and source materials and thermochemistry of the system. Procedures for a reduction of the amount of gas are also discussed.

  8. Metal Induced Growth of Si Thin Films and NiSi Nanowires

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-25

    Zinc Oxide Over MIG Silicon- We have been studying the formation of ZnO films by RF sputtering. Part of this study deals with...about 50 nm. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Thin film silicon, solar cells, thin film transistors , nanowires, metal induced growth 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION...to achieve, µc-Si is more desirable than a-Si due to its increased mobility. Thin film µc-Si is also a popular material for thin film transistors

  9. Structural and optical characterization of GaAs nano-crystals selectively grown on Si nano-tips by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Skibitzki, Oliver; Prieto, Ivan; Kozak, Roksolana; Capellini, Giovanni; Zaumseil, Peter; Arroyo Rojas Dasilva, Yadira; Rossell, Marta D; Erni, Rolf; von Känel, Hans; Schroeder, Thomas

    2017-03-01

    We present the nanoheteroepitaxial growth of gallium arsenide (GaAs) on nano-patterned silicon (Si) (001) substrates fabricated using a CMOS technology compatible process. The selective growth of GaAs nano-crystals (NCs) was achieved at 570 °C by MOVPE. A detailed structure and defect characterization study of the grown nano-heterostructures was performed using scanning transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, micro-Raman, and micro-photoluminescence (μ-PL) spectroscopy. The results show single-crystalline, nearly relaxed GaAs NCs on top of slightly, by the SiO 2 -mask compressively strained Si nano-tips (NTs). Given the limited contact area, GaAs/Si nanostructures benefit from limited intermixing in contrast to planar GaAs films on Si. Even though a few growth defects (e.g. stacking faults, micro/nano-twins, etc) especially located at the GaAs/Si interface region were detected, the nanoheterostructures show intensive light emission, as investigated by μ-PL spectroscopy. Achieving well-ordered high quality GaAs NCs on Si NTs may provide opportunities for superior electronic, photonic, or photovoltaic device performances integrated on the silicon technology platform.

  10. Growth of single crystal silicon carbide by halide chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanton, Mark A.

    The goal of this thesis is to understand relationships between the major process variables and the growth rate, doping, and defect density of SiC grown by halide chemical vapor deposition (HCVD). Specifically this work addresses the maximum C/Si ratios that can be utilized for single crystal SiC growth by providing a thermodynamic model for determining the boundary between single crystal growth and SiC+C mixed phase growth in the Si-C-Cl-H system. SiC epitaxial layers ranging from 50--200microm thick were grown at temperatures near 2000°C on 6H and 4H-SiC substrates at rates up to 250microm/hr. Experimental trends in the growth rate as a function of precursor flow rates and temperature closely match those expected from thermodynamic equilibrium in a closed system. The equilibrium model can be used to predict the trends in growth rate with the changes in precursor flow rates as well as the boundary between deposition of pure SiC and deposition of a mixture of SiC and C. Calculation of the boundary position in terms of the SiCl 4 and CH4 concentrations provides an upper limit on the C/Si ratio that can be achieved for any given set of crystal growth conditions. The model can be adjusted for changes in temperature, pressure, and chlorine concentration as well. The boundary between phase pure and mixed phase growth was experimentally shown to be very abrupt, thereby providing a well defined window for Si-rich and C-rich growth conditions. Growth of SiC epitaxial layers by HCVD under both Si-rich and C-rich conditions generally yielded the same trends in dopant incorporation as those observed in conventional silane-based CVD processes. Nitrogen incorporation was highest on the C-face of 4H-SiC substrates but could be reduced to concentrations as low as 1x1015 atoms/cm3 at C/Si ratios greater than 1. Residual B concentrations were slightly higher for epitaxial layers grown on the Si-face of substrates. However, changes in the C/Si ratio had no effect on B incorporation

  11. Mass Spectrometric Investigation of Silicon Extremely Enriched in (28)Si: From (28)SiF4 (Gas Phase IRMS) to (28)Si Crystals (MC-ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Pramann, Axel; Rienitz, Olaf

    2016-06-07

    A new generation of silicon crystals even further enriched in (28)Si (x((28)Si) > 0.999 98 mol/mol), recently produced by companies and institutes in Russia within the framework of a project initiated by PTB, were investigated with respect to their isotopic composition and molar mass M(Si). A modified isotope dilution mass spectrometric (IDMS) method treating the silicon as the matrix containing a so-called virtual element (VE) existing of the isotopes (29)Si and (30)Si solely and high resolution multicollector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) were applied in combination. This method succeeds also when examining the new materials holding merely trace amounts of (29)Si (x((29)Si) ≈ 5 × 10(-6) mol/mol) and (30)Si (x((30)Si) ≈ 7 × 10(-7) mol/mol) extremely difficult to detect with lowest uncertainty. However, there is a need for validating the enrichment in (28)Si already in the precursor material of the final crystals, silicon tetrafluoride (SiF4) gas prior to crystal production. For that purpose, the isotopic composition of selected SiF4 samples was determined using a multicollector magnetic sector field gas-phase isotope ratio mass spectrometer. Contaminations of SiF4 by natural silicon due to storing and during the isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) measurements were observed and quantified. The respective MC-ICP-MS measurements of the corresponding crystal samples show-in contrast-several advantages compared to gas phase IRMS. M(Si) of the new crystals were determined to some extent with uncertainties urel(M) < 1 × 10(-9). This study presents a clear dependence of the uncertainty urel(M(Si)) on the degree of enrichment in (28)Si. This leads to a reduction of urel(M(Si)) during the past decade by almost 3 orders of magnitude and thus further reduces the uncertainty of the Avogadro constant NA which is one of the preconditions for the redefinition of the SI unit kilogram.

  12. Growth of urea crystals by physical vapor transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, R. S.; Route, R. K.; Kao, T.-M.

    1985-01-01

    This work demonstrates that high optical quality crystals of urea can be grown by the physical vapor transport method. The unique features of this method are compared with growth from methanol/water solutions. High growth rates, exceeding 2.5 mm/day, were achieved, and cm-size optical quality single crystals were obtained. Details of the growth technique and the physical properties of the crystals are presented.

  13. Grain growth of nanocrystalline 3C-SiC under Au ion irradiation at elevated temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Limin; Jiang, Weilin; Dissanayake, Amila; Varga, Tamas; Zhang, Jiandong; Zhu, Zihua; Hu, Dehong; Wang, Haiyan; Henager, Charles H., Jr.; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline silicon carbide (SiC) represents an excellent model system for a fundamental study of interfacial (grain boundary) processes under nuclear radiation, which are critical to the understanding of the response of nanostructured materials to high-dose irradiation. This study reports on a comparison of irradiation effects in cubic phase SiC (3C-SiC) grains of a few nanometres in size and single-crystal 3C-SiC films under identical Au ion irradiation to a range of doses at 700 K. In contrast to the latter, in which the lattice disorder is accumulated to a saturation level without full amorphization, the average grain size of the former increases with dose following a power-law trend. In addition to coalescence, the grain grows through atomic jumps and mass transport, where irradiation-induced vacancies at grain boundaries assist the processes. It is found that a higher irradiation temperature leads to slower grain growth and a faster approach to a saturation size of SiC nanograins. This unusual behaviour could be associated with irradiation-induced grain nucleation and growth in amorphous SiC matrix in which the 3C-SiC grains are embedded. The results could potentially have a positive impact on structural components of advanced nuclear energy systems.

  14. Highly oriented diamond films on Si: growth, characterization, and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoner, Brian R.; Malta, D. M.; Tessmer, A. J.; Holmes, J.; Dreifus, David L.; Glass, R. C.; Sowers, A.; Nemanich, Robert J.

    1994-04-01

    Highly oriented, (100) textured diamond films have been grown on single-crystal Si substrates via microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A multistep deposition process including bias-enhanced nucleation and textured growth was used to obtain smooth films consisting of epitaxial grains with only low-angle grain boundaries. Boron-doped layers were selectively deposited onto the surface of these oriented films and temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements indicated a 3 to 5 times improvement in hole mobility over polycrystalline films grown under similar conditions. Room temperature hole mobilities between 135 and 278 cm2/V-s were measured for the highly oriented samples as compared to 2 to 50 cm2/V-s for typical polycrystalline films. Grain size effects and a comparison between the transport properties of polycrystalline, highly oriented and homoepitaxial films will be discussed. Metal-oxide- semiconductor field-effect transistors were then fabricated on the highly oriented films and exhibited saturation and pinch-off of the channel current.

  15. Volume Diffusion Growth Kinetics and Step Geometry in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, Konstantin; Ramachandran, Narayanan

    1998-01-01

    The role of step geometry in two-dimensional stationary volume diff4sion process used in crystal growth kinetics models is investigated. Three different interface shapes: a) a planar interface, b) an equidistant hemispherical bumps train tAx interface, and c) a train of right angled steps, are used in this comparative study. The ratio of the super-saturation to the diffusive flux at the step position is used as a control parameter. The value of this parameter can vary as much as 50% for different geometries. An approximate analytical formula is derived for the right angled steps geometry. In addition to the kinetic models, this formula can be utilized in macrostep growth models. Finally, numerical modeling of the diffusive and convective transport for equidistant steps is conducted. In particular, the role of fluid flow resulting from the advancement of steps and its contribution to the transport of species to the steps is investigated.

  16. Recent Results from Epitaxial Growth on Step Free 4H-SiC Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Spry, David J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Du, Hui; Skowronski, Marek; Bassim, Nabil D.; Mastro, Michael A.; Twigg, Mark E.; Holm, Ronald T.; hide

    2006-01-01

    This paper updates recent progress made in growth, characterization, and understanding of high quality homoepitaxial and heteroepitaxial films grown on step-free 4H-SiC mesas. First, we report initial achievement of step-free 4H-SiC surfaces with carbon-face surface polarity. Next, we will describe further observations of how step-free 4H-SiC thin lateral cantilever evolution is significantly impacted by crystal faceting behavior that imposes non-uniform film thickness on cantilever undersides. Finally, recent investigations of in-plane lattice constant mismatch strain relief mechanisms observed for heteroepitaxial growth of 3C-SiC as well as 2H-AlN/GaN heterofilms on step-free 4H-SiC mesas will be reviewed. In both cases, the complete elimination of atomic heterointerface steps on the mesa structure enables uniquely well-ordered misfit dislocation arrays to form near the heterointerfaces with remarkable lack of dislocations threading vertically into the heteroepilayers. In the case of 3C-SiC heterofilms, it has been proposed that dislocation half-loops nucleate at mesa edges and glide laterally along the step-free 3C/4H interfaces. In contrast, 3C-SiC and 2H-AlN/GaN heterofilms grown on 4H-SiC mesas with steps exhibit highly disordered interface misfit dislocation structure coupled with 100X greater density of dislocations threading through the thickness of the heteroepilayers. These results indicate that the presence of steps at the heteroepitaxial interface (i.e., on the initial heteroepitaxial nucleation surface) plays a highly important role in the defect structure, quality, and relaxation mechanisms of single-crystal heteroepitaxial films.

  17. Crystal Growth Rate Dispersion: A Predictor of Crystal Quality in Microgravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kephart, Richard D.; Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; vanderWoerd, Mark J.

    2003-01-01

    In theory macromolecular crystals grow through a process involving at least two transport phenomena of solute to the crystal surface: diffusion and convection. In absence of standard gravitational forces, the ratio of these two phenomena can change and explain why crystal growth in microgravity is different from that on Earth. Experimental evidence clearly shows, however, that crystal growth of various systems is not equally sensitive to reduction in gravitational forces, leading to quality improvement in microgravity for some crystals but not for others. We hypothesize that the differences in final crystal quality are related to crystal growth rate dispersion. If growth rate dispersion exists on Earth, decreases in microgravity, and coincides with crystal quality improvements then this dispersion is a predictor for crystal quality improvement. In order to test this hypothesis, we will measure growth rate dispersion both in microgravity and on Earth and will correlate the data with previously established data on crystal quality differences for the two environments. We present here the first crystal growth rate measurement data for three proteins (lysozyme, xylose isomerase and human recombinant insulin), collected on Earth, using hardware identical to the hardware to be used in microgravity and show how these data correlate with crystal quality improvements established in microgravity.

  18. Crystallization and Martensitic Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni-Si Alloy Ribbons Prepared via Melt Spinning.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju-Wan; Kim, Yeon-Wook; Nam, Tae-Hyun

    2018-09-01

    Ti-(50-x)Ni-xSi (at%) (x = 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0) alloy ribbons were prepared via melt spinning and their crystallization procedure and transformation behavior were investigated using differential scanning calorimtry, X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. Ti-Ni-Si alloy ribbons with Si content less than 1.0 at% were crystalline, whereas those with Si content more than 3.0 at% were amorphous. Crystallization occurred in the sequence of amorphous →B2 → B2 → Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → B2 + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-47.0Ni-3.0Si alloy and amorphous →R → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 → R + Ti5Si4 + TiNi3 + TiSi in the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy. The activation energy for crystallization was 189 ±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-47Ni-3Si alloy and 212±8.6 kJ/mol for the Ti-45Ni-5Si alloy. One-stage B2-R transformation behavior was observed in Ti-49.5Ni-0.5Si, Ti-49.0Ni-1.0Si, and Ti-47.0Ni- 3.0Si alloy ribbons after heating to various temperatures in the range of 873 K to 1073 K. In the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Si alloy, one-stage B2-R transformation occurred after heating to 893 K, two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred after heating to 973 K, and two-stage B2-R-B19' occurred on cooling and one-stage B19'-B2 occurred on heating, after heating to 1073 K.

  19. Morphological stability and kinetics in crystal growth from vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1990-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) microscopy image storage and processing system; (2) growth kinetics and morphology study with carbon tetrabromide; (3) photothermal deflection vapor growth setup; (4) bridgman growth of iodine single crystals; (5) vapor concentration distribution measurement during growth; and (6) Monte Carlo modeling of anisotropic growth kinetics and morphology. A collection of presentations and publications of these results are presented.

  20. Semiconductor Crystal Growth in Static and Rotating Magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic fields have been applied during the growth of bulk semiconductor crystals to control the convective flow behavior of the melt. A static magnetic field established Lorentz forces which tend to reduce the convective intensity in the melt. At sufficiently high magnetic field strengths, a boundary layer is established ahead of the solid-liquid interface where mass transport is dominated by diffusion. This can have a significant effect on segregation behavior and can eliminate striations in grown crystals resulting from convective instabilities. Experiments on dilute (Ge:Ga) and solid solution (Ge-Si) semiconductor systems show a transition from a completely mixed convective state to a diffusion-controlled state between 0 and 5 Tesla. In HgCdTe, radial segregation approached the diffusion limited regime and the curvature of the solid-liquid interface was reduced by a factor of 3 during growth in magnetic fields in excess of 0.5 Tesla. Convection can also be controlled during growth at reduced gravitational levels. However, the direction of the residual steady-state acceleration vector can compromise this effect if it cannot be controlled. A magnetic field in reduced gravity can suppress disturbances caused by residual transverse accelerations and by random non-steady accelerations. Indeed, a joint program between NASA and the NHMFL resulted in the construction of a prototype spaceflight magnet for crystal growth applications. An alternative to the suppression of convection by static magnetic fields and reduced gravity is the imposition of controlled steady flow generated by rotating magnetic fields (RMF)'s. The potential benefits of an RMF include homogenization of the melt temperature and concentration distribution, and control of the solid-liquid interface shape. Adjusting the strength and frequency of the applied magnetic field allows tailoring of the resultant flow field. A limitation of RMF's is that they introduce deleterious instabilities above a

  1. Protein Crystal Growth With the Aid of Microfluidics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vanderWoerd, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Protein crystallography is one of three well-known methods to obtain the structure of proteins. A major rate limiting step in protein crystallography is protein crystal nucleation and growth, which is still largely a process conducted by trial-and-error methods. Many attempts have been made to improve protein crystal growth by performing growth in microgravity. Although the use of microgravity appears to improve crystal quality in some attempts, this method has been inefficient because several reasons: we lack a fundamental understanding of macromolecular crystal growth in general and of the influence of microgravity in particular, we have to start with crystal growth conditions in microgravity based on conditions on the ground and finally the hardware does not allow for experimental iteration without reloading samples on the ground. To partially accommodate the disadvantages of the current hardware, we have used microfluidic technology (Lab-on-a-Chip devices) to design the concept of a more efficient crystallization device, suitable for use on the International Space Station and in high-throughput applications on the ground. The concept and properties of microfluidics, the application design process, and the advances in protein crystal growth hardware will be discussed in this presentation. Some examples of proteins crystallized in the new hardware will be discussed, including the differences between conventional crystallization versus crystallization in microfluidics.

  2. On the interplay between Si(110) epilayer atomic roughness and subsequent 3C-SiC growth direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazaka, Rami; Michaud, Jean-François; Vennéguès, Philippe; Nguyen, Luan; Alquier, Daniel; Portail, Marc

    2016-11-01

    In this contribution, we performed the growth of a 3C-SiC/Si/3C-SiC layer stack on a Si(001) substrate by means of chemical vapor deposition. We show that, by tuning the growth conditions, the 3C-SiC epilayer can be grown along either the [111] direction or the [110] direction. The key parameter for the growth of the desired 3C-SiC orientation on the Si(110)/3C-SiC(001)/Si(001) heterostructure is highlighted and is linked to the Si epilayer surface morphology. The epitaxial relation between the layers has been identified using X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We showed that, regardless of the top 3C-SiC epilayer orientation, domains rotated by 90° around the growth direction are present in the epilayer. Furthermore, the difference between the two 3C-SiC orientations was investigated by means of high magnification TEM. The results indicate that the faceted Si(110) epilayer surface morphology results in a (110)-oriented 3C-SiC epilayer, whereas a flat hetero-interface has been observed between 3C-SiC(111) and Si(110). The control of the top 3C-SiC growth direction can be advantageous for the development of new micro-electro-mechanical systems.

  3. Preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, L. J.; Suddath, F. L.; Snyder, R.; Naumann, R.; Broom, M. B.; Pusey, M.; Yost, V.; Herren, B .; Carter, D.

    1986-01-01

    Four preliminary Shuttle experiments are described which have been used to develop prototype hardware for a more advanced system that will evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. The first phase of these experiments has centered on the development of micromethods for protein crystal growth by vapor-diffusion techniques (using a space version of the hanging-drop method) and on dialysis using microdialysis cells. Results suggest that the elimination of density-driven sedimentation can effect crystal morphology. In the dialysis experiment, space-grown crystals of concanavalin B were three times longer and 1/3 the thickness of earth-grown crystals.

  4. Mushroom-free selective epitaxial growth of Si, SiGe and SiGe:B raised sources and drains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J. M.; Benevent, V.; Barnes, J. P.; Veillerot, M.; Lafond, D.; Damlencourt, J. F.; Morvan, S.; Prévitali, B.; Andrieu, F.; Loubet, N.; Dutartre, D.

    2013-05-01

    We have evaluated various Cyclic Selective Epitaxial Growth/Etch (CSEGE) processes in order to grow "mushroom-free" Si and SiGe:B Raised Sources and Drains (RSDs) on each side of ultra-short gate length Extra-Thin Silicon-On-Insulator (ET-SOI) transistors. The 750 °C, 20 Torr Si CSEGE process we have developed (5 chlorinated growth steps with four HCl etch steps in-between) yielded excellent crystalline quality, typically 18 nm thick Si RSDs. Growth was conformal along the Si3N4 sidewall spacers, without any poly-Si mushrooms on top of unprotected gates. We have then evaluated on blanket 300 mm Si(001) wafers the feasibility of a 650 °C, 20 Torr SiGe:B CSEGE process (5 chlorinated growth steps with four HCl etch steps in-between, as for Si). As expected, the deposited thickness decreased as the total HCl etch time increased. This came hands in hands with unforeseen (i) decrease of the mean Ge concentration (from 30% down to 26%) and (ii) increase of the substitutional B concentration (from 2 × 1020 cm-3 up to 3 × 1020 cm-3). They were due to fluctuations of the Ge concentration and of the atomic B concentration [B] in such layers (drop of the Ge% and increase of [B] at etch step locations). Such blanket layers were a bit rougher than layers grown using a single epitaxy step, but nevertheless of excellent crystalline quality. Transposition of our CSEGE process on patterned ET-SOI wafers did not yield the expected results. HCl etch steps indeed helped in partly or totally removing the poly-SiGe:B mushrooms on top of the gates. This was however at the expense of the crystalline quality and 2D nature of the ˜45 nm thick Si0.7Ge0.3:B recessed sources and drains selectively grown on each side of the imperfectly protected poly-Si gates. The only solution we have so far identified that yields a lesser amount of mushrooms while preserving the quality of the S/D is to increase the HCl flow during growth steps.

  5. Unstable vicinal crystal growth from cellular automata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasteva, A.; Popova, H.; KrzyŻewski, F.; Załuska-Kotur, M.; Tonchev, V.

    2016-03-01

    In order to study the unstable step motion on vicinal crystal surfaces we devise vicinal Cellular Automata. Each cell from the colony has value equal to its height in the vicinal, initially the steps are regularly distributed. Another array keeps the adatoms, initially distributed randomly over the surface. The growth rule defines that each adatom at right nearest neighbor position to a (multi-) step attaches to it. The update of whole colony is performed at once and then time increases. This execution of the growth rule is followed by compensation of the consumed particles and by diffusional update(s) of the adatom population. Two principal sources of instability are employed - biased diffusion and infinite inverse Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier (iiSE). Since these factors are not opposed by step-step repulsion the formation of multi-steps is observed but in general the step bunches preserve a finite width. We monitor the developing surface patterns and quantify the observations by scaling laws with focus on the eventual transition from diffusion-limited to kinetics-limited phenomenon. The time-scaling exponent of the bunch size N is 1/2 for the case of biased diffusion and 1/3 for the case of iiSE. Additional distinction is possible based on the time-scaling exponents of the sizes of multi-step Nmulti, these are 0.36÷0.4 (for biased diffusion) and 1/4 (iiSE).

  6. Fabrication of Si(111) crystalline thin film on graphene by aluminum-induced crystallization

    SciT

    Høiaas, I. M.; Kim, D. C., E-mail: dc.kim@crayonano.com, E-mail: helge.weman@ntnu.no; Weman, H., E-mail: dc.kim@crayonano.com, E-mail: helge.weman@ntnu.no

    2016-04-18

    We report the fabrication of a Si(111) crystalline thin film on graphene by the aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) process. The AIC process of Si(111) on graphene is shown to be enhanced compared to that on an amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrate, resulting in a more homogeneous Si(111) thin film structure as revealed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy measurements. Raman measurements confirm that the graphene is intact throughout the process, retaining its characteristic phonon spectrum without any appearance of the D peak. A red-shift of Raman peaks, which is more pronounced for the 2D peak, is observed in graphene after themore » crystallization process. It is found to correlate with the red-shift of the Si Raman peak, suggesting an epitaxial relationship between graphene and the adsorbed AIC Si(111) film with both the graphene and Si under tensile strain.« less

  7. Investigation of selected structural parameters in Fe 95Si 5 amorphous alloy during crystallization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fronczyk, Adam

    2007-04-01

    In this study, we report on a crystallization behavior of the Fe 95Si 5 metallic glasses using a differential scanning cabrimetry (DSC), and X-ray diffraction. The paper presents the results of experimental investigation of Fe 95Si 5 amorphous alloy, subjected to the crystallizing process by the isothermal annealing. The objective of the experiment was to determine changes in the structural parameters during crystallization process of the examined alloy. Crystalline diameter and the lattice constant of the crystallizing phase were used as parameters to evaluate structural changes in material.

  8. Space manufacturing in an automated crystal growth facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, Alberta W.; Herrmann, Melody C.; Nelson, Pamela J.

    1989-01-01

    An account is given of a Space Station Freedom-based robotic laboratory system for crystal growth experiments; the robot must interface with both the experimental apparatus and such human input as may be required for control and display. The goal of the system is the simultaneous growth of several hundred protein crystals in microgravity. The robot possesses six degrees-of-freedom, allowing it to efficiently manipulate the cultured crystals as well as their respective growth cells; the crystals produced are expected to be of sufficiently high quality for complete structural determination on the basis of XRD.

  9. Glass formation and crystallization in high-temperature glass-ceramics and Si3N4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III

    1991-01-01

    The softening of glassy grain boundaries in ceramic matrix composites and Si3N4 at high temperatures reduces mechanical strength and the upper-use temperature. By crystallizing this glass to a more refractory crystalline phase, a material which performs at higher temperatures may result. Three systems were examined: a cordierite composition with ZrO2 as a nucleating agent; celsian compositions; and yttrium silicate glasses both in bulk and intergranular in Si3N4. For the cordierite compositions, a series of metastable phases was obtained. The crystallization of these compositions was summarized in terms of metastable ternary isothermal sections. Zircon formed at the expense of ZrO2 and spinel. In SiC composites, the transformations were slower. In celsian, two polymorphs were crystallized. One phase, hexacelsian, which always crystallized, even when metastable, had an undesirable volume change. The other phase, celsian, was very difficult to crystallize. In yttrium silicate bulk glasses, similar in composition to the intergranular glass in Si3N4, a number of polymorphs of Y2Si2O7 were crystallized. The conditions under which these polymorphs formed are compared with crystallization in Si3N4.

  10. Magnetic field controlled floating-zone single crystal growth of intermetallic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, R.; Gerbeth, G.; Priede, J.

    2013-03-01

    Radio-frequency (RF) floating zone single crystal growth is an important technique for the preparation of single bulk crystals. The advantage of the floating-zone method is the crucible-free growth of single crystals of reactive materials with high melting points. The strong heat diffusion on the surface, as well as the melt convection in the molten zone due to induction heating, often leads to an undesired solid-liquid interface geometry with a concave (towards the solid phase) outer rim. These concave parts aggravate the single crystal growth over the full cross-section. A two-phase stirrer was developed at IFW Dresden in order to avoid the problems connected with these concave parts. It acts as a magnetic field pump and changes the typical double vortex structure to a single roll structure, thus pushing hot melt into the regions where the concave parts may arise. The current in the secondary coil is induced by the primary coil, and the capacitor and the resistance of the secondary circuit are adjusted to get a stable 90 degree phase-shift between the coil currents. Single crystal growth of industrial relevant RuAl and TiAl intermetallic compounds was performed based on the material parameters and using the adjusted two-phase stirrer. Very recently, the magnetic system was applied to the crystal growth of biocompatible TiNb alloys and antiferromagnetic Heusler MnSi compounds.

  11. One-step Ge/Si epitaxial growth.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hung-Chi; Lin, Bi-Hsuan; Chen, Huang-Chin; Chen, Po-Chin; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lin, I-Nan; Chiu, Hsin-Tien; Lee, Chi-Young

    2011-07-01

    Fabricating a low-cost virtual germanium (Ge) template by epitaxial growth of Ge films on silicon wafer with a Ge(x)Si(1-x) (0 < x < 1) graded buffer layer was demonstrated through a facile chemical vapor deposition method in one step by decomposing a hazardousless GeO(2) powder under hydrogen atmosphere without ultra-high vacuum condition and then depositing in a low-temperature region. X-ray diffraction analysis shows that the Ge film with an epitaxial relationship is along the in-plane direction of Si. The successful growth of epitaxial Ge films on Si substrate demonstrates the feasibility of integrating various functional devices on the Ge/Si substrates.

  12. Development and melt growth of novel scintillating halide crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kral, Robert; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Ohashi, Yuji; Arakawa, Mototaka; Chani, Valery I.; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yamaji, Akihiro; Andrey, Medvedev; Nikl, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Melt growth of scintillating halide crystals is reviewed. The vertical Bridgman growth technique is still considered as very popular method that enables production of relatively large and commercially attractive crystals. On the other hand, the micro-pulling-down method is preferable when fabrication of small samples, sufficient for preliminary characterization of their optical and/or scintillation performance, is required. Moreover, bulk crystal growth is also available using the micro-pulling-down furnace. The examples of growths of various halide crystals by industrially friendly melt growth techniques including Czochralski and edge-defined film-fed growth methods are also discussed. Finally, traveling molten zone growth that in some degree corresponds to horizontal zone melting is briefly overviewed.

  13. Shallow melt apparatus for semicontinuous czochralski crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  14. Kinetic Roughening Transition and Energetics of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    2004-01-01

    Interpretation of lysozyme crystal growth rates using well-established physical theories enabled the discovery of a phenomenon possibly indicative of kinetic roughening. For example, lysozyme crystals grown above a critical supersaturation sigma, (where supersaturation sigma = ln c/c(sub eq), c = the protein concentration and c(sub eq) = the solubility concentration) exhibit microscopically rough surfaces due to the continuous addition of growth units anywhere on the surface of a crystal. The rate of crystal growth, V(sub c), for the continuous growth process is determined by the continuous flux of macromolecules onto a unit area of the crystal surface, a, from a distance, xi, per unit time due to diffusion, and a probability of attachment onto the crystal surface, expressed. Based upon models applied, the energetics of lysozyme crystal growth was determined. The magnitudes of the energy barriers of crystal growth for both the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme crystals are compared. Finally, evidence supportive of the kinetic roughening hypothesis is presented.

  15. Connection between the growth rate distribution and the size dependent crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrović, M. M.; Žekić, A. A.; IIić, Z. Z.

    2002-07-01

    The results of investigations of the connection between the growth rate dispersions and the size dependent crystal growth of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), Rochelle salt (RS) and sodium chlorate (SC) are presented. A possible way out of the existing confusion in the size dependent crystal growth investigations is suggested. It is shown that the size independent growth exists if the crystals belonging to one growth rate distribution maximum are considered separately. The investigations suggest possible reason for the observed distribution maxima widths, and the high data scattering on the growth rate versus the crystal size dependence.

  16. Rates and processes of crystal growth in the system anorthite-albite. [magmatic liquids in igneous rock formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirkpatrick, R. J.; Klein, L.; Uhlmann, D. R.; Hays, J. F.

    1979-01-01

    The growth rates and interface morphologies of crystals of synthetic compositions in the anorthite (CaAl2Si2O8)-albite (NaAlSi3O8) plagioclase feldspar system are measured in an investigation of the crystallization of igneous rocks. Mixed plagioclase glasses with compositions of 75% and 50% anorthite were observed using the microscope heating technique as they crystallized at temperatures near the liquidus, and 75%, 50% and 20% anorthite crystals were treated by resistance heating and observed at greater degrees of undercooling. Growth rates were found to be independent of time and to decrease with increasing albite content, ranging from 0.5 to 2 x 10 to the -5th cm/min. The crystal morphologies for all compositions are faceted near the liquidus and become progressively skeletal, dendritic and fibrillar with increasing undercooling.

  17. Competitive growth mechanisms of AlN on Si (111) by MOVPE.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yuxia; Wei, Hongyuan; Yang, Shaoyan; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Lianshan; Kong, Susu; Zhao, Guijuan; Liu, Xianglin

    2014-09-18

    To improve the growth rate and crystal quality of AlN, the competitive growth mechanisms of AlN under different parameters were studied. The mass transport limited mechanism was competed with the gas-phase parasitic reaction and became dominated at low reactor pressure. The mechanism of strain relaxation at the AlN/Si interface was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Improved deposition rate in the mass-transport-limit region and increased adatom mobility were realized under extremely low reactor pressure.

  18. Ni-silicide growth kinetics in Si and Si/SiO2 core/shell nanowires.

    PubMed

    Ogata, K; Sutter, E; Zhu, X; Hofmann, S

    2011-09-07

    A systematic study of the kinetics of axial Ni silicidation of as-grown and oxidized Si nanowires (SiNWs) with different crystallographic orientations and core diameters ranging from ∼ 10 to 100 nm is presented. For temperatures between 300 and 440 °C the length of the total axial silicide intrusion varies with the square root of time, which provides clear evidence that the rate limiting step is diffusion of Ni through the growing silicide phase(s). A retardation of Ni-silicide formation for oxidized SiNWs is found, indicative of a stress induced lowering of the diffusion coefficients. Extrapolated growth constants indicate that the Ni flux through the silicided NW is dominated by surface diffusion, which is consistent with an inverse square root dependence of the silicide length on the NW diameter as observed for (111) orientated SiNWs. In situ TEM silicidation experiments show that NiSi(2) is the first forming phase for as-grown and oxidized SiNWs. The silicide-SiNW interface is thereby atomically abrupt and typically planar. Ni-rich silicide phases subsequently nucleate close to the Ni reservoir, which for as-grown SiNWs can lead to a complete channel break-off for prolonged silicidation due to significant volume expansion and morphological changes.

  19. Ni-Silicide Growth Kinetics in Si and Si/SiO2 Core/Shell Nanowires

    SciT

    Hofmann, S.; Sutter, E.; Ogata, K.

    A systematic study of the kinetics of axial Ni silicidation of as-grown and oxidized Si nanowires (SiNWs) with different crystallographic orientations and core diameters ranging from {approx} 10 to 100 nm is presented. For temperatures between 300 and 440 C the length of the total axial silicide intrusion varies with the square root of time, which provides clear evidence that the rate limiting step is diffusion of Ni through the growing silicide phase(s). A retardation of Ni-silicide formation for oxidized SiNWs is found, indicative of a stress induced lowering of the diffusion coefficients. Extrapolated growth constants indicate that the Nimore » flux through the silicided NW is dominated by surface diffusion, which is consistent with an inverse square root dependence of the silicide length on the NW diameter as observed for <111> orientated SiNWs. In situ TEM silicidation experiments show that NiSi{sub 2} is the first forming phase for as-grown and oxidized SiNWs. The silicide-SiNW interface is thereby atomically abrupt and typically planar. Ni-rich silicide phases subsequently nucleate close to the Ni reservoir, which for as-grown SiNWs can lead to a complete channel break-off for prolonged silicidation due to significant volume expansion and morphological changes.« less

  20. Homoepitaxial and Heteroepitaxial Growth on Step-Free SiC Mesas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony

    2004-01-01

    C homojunction and heterojunction devices. In addition, these experiments offer important insights into the nature of polytypism during SiC crystal growth.

  1. Physical phenomena related to crystal growth in the space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The mechanism of crystal growth which may be affected by the space environment was studied. Conclusions as to the relative technical and scientific advantages of crystal growth in space over earth bound growth, without regard to economic advantage, were deduced. It was concluded that the crucibleless technique will most directly demonstrate the unique effects of the greatly reduced gravity in the space environment. Several experiments, including crucibleless crystal growth using solar energy and determination of diffusion coefficients of common dopants in liquid silicon were recommended.

  2. Nitrogen reaction with silicon: Investigation of Si undercooling and Si 3 N 4 growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudhuin, M.; Zaidat, K.; Duffar, T.; Lemiti, M.

    2011-12-01

    The interaction of nitrogen with liquid and solid silicon at high temperature is investigated in an electromagnetic levitation set-up. It is shown that the nucleation undercooling of Si decreases monotonically from 300 to 1 K when the concentration of nitrogen in the solidified droplet increases from 0 to 600 ppmw. Several α- and β-Si 3N 4 morphologies are observed and their growth conditions are linked to the various stages of the Si droplet cooling down. It follows that electromagnetic levitation is a valuable tool for investigation of the chemical behavior of highly reactive liquids at high temperature.

  3. Passive particle dosimetry. [silver halide crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Childs, C. B.

    1977-01-01

    Present methods of dosimetry are reviewed with emphasis on the processes using silver chloride crystals for ionizing particle dosimetry. Differences between the ability of various crystals to record ionizing particle paths are directly related to impurities in the range of a few ppm (parts per million). To understand the roles of these impurities in the process, a method for consistent production of high purity silver chloride, and silver bromide was developed which yields silver halides with detectable impurity content less than 1 ppm. This high purity silver chloride was used in growing crystals with controlled doping. Crystals were grown by both the Czochalski method and the Bridgman method, and the Bridgman grown crystals were used for the experiments discussed. The distribution coefficients of ten divalent cations were determined for the Bridgman crystals. The best dosimeters were made with silver chloride crystals containing 5 to 10 ppm of lead; other impurities tested did not produce proper dosimeters.

  4. Influence of stress in GaN crystals grown by HVPE on MOCVD-GaN/6H-SiC substrate

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Yu, Jiaoxian; Hao, Xiaopeng; Wu, Yongzhong; Dai, Yuanbin; Shao, Yongliang; Zhang, Haodong; Tian, Yuan

    2014-01-01

    GaN crystals without cracks were successfully grown on a MOCVD-GaN/6H-SiC (MGS) substrate with a low V/III ratio of 20 at initial growth. With a high V/III ratio of 80 at initial growth, opaque GaN polycrystals were obtained. The structural analysis and optical characterization reveal that stress has a great influence on the growth of the epitaxial films. An atomic level model is used to explain these phenomena during crystal growth. It is found that atomic mobility is retarded by compressive stress and enhanced by tensile stress. PMID:24569601

  5. Careful stoichiometry monitoring and doping control during the tunneling interface growth of an n + InAs(Si)/p + GaSb(Si) Esaki diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Kazzi, S.; Alian, A.; Hsu, B.; Verhulst, A. S.; Walke, A.; Favia, P.; Douhard, B.; Lu, W.; del Alamo, J. A.; Collaert, N.; Merckling, C.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, we report on the growth of pseudomorphic and highly doped InAs(Si)/GaSb(Si) heterostructures on p-type (0 0 1)-oriented GaSb substrate and the fabrication and characterization of n+/p+ Esaki tunneling diodes. We particularly study the influence of the Molecular Beam Epitaxy shutter sequences on the structural and electrical characteristics of InAs(Si)/GaSb(Si) Esaki diodes structures. We use real time Reflection High Electron Diffraction analysis to monitor different interface stoichiometry at the tunneling interface. With Atomic Force Microscopy, X-ray diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy analyses, we demonstrate that an "InSb-like" interface leads to a sharp and defect-free interface exhibiting high quality InAs(Si) crystal growth contrary to the "GaAs-like" one. We then prove by means of Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy profiles that Si-diffusion at the interface allows the growth of highly Si-doped InAs/GaSb diodes without any III-V material deterioration. Finally, simulations are conducted to explain our electrical results where a high Band to Band Tunneling (BTBT) peak current density of Jp = 8 mA/μm2 is achieved.

  6. Growth of triglycine sulfate (TGS) crystals by solution technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, R. B.; Kroes, R. L.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1982-01-01

    The growth of crystals from solution is greatly influenced by buoyancy driven convection. In a low-g environment, convection is greatly suppressed and diffusion becomes the predominant mechanism for thermal and mass transport. An experiment to grow TGS crystals by solution technique during the orbital Spacelab III mission has been designed. Crystals are grown by a new and unique technique of extracting heat from the crystal through a sting. The cooling at the sting tip is responsible for the desired supersaturation near the growing crystal. Calculations indicate that the cooled sting technique for solution crystal growth is necessary in low-g to maintain a maximum growth rate of 1 mm/day. Results of groundbased work in support of the flight experiment are discussed.

  7. Nucleation and Convection Effects in Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vekilow, Peter G.

    1998-01-01

    Our work under this grant has significantly contributed to the goals of the NASA supported protein crystallization program. We have achieved the main objectives of the proposed work, as outlined in the original proposal: (1) We have provided important insight into protein nucleation and crystal growth mechanisms to facilitate a rational approach to protein crystallization; (2) We have delineated the factors that currently limit the x-ray diffraction resolution of protein crystals, and their correlation to crystallization conditions; (3) We have developed novel technologies to study and monitor protein crystal nucleation and growth processes, in order to increase the reproducibility and yield of protein crystallization. We have published 17 papers in peer-reviewed scientific journals and books and made more than 15 invited and 9 contributed presentations of our results at international and national scientific meetings.

  8. Formation of equiaxed crystal structures in directionally solidified Al-Si alloys using Nb-based heterogeneous nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Bolzoni, Leandro; Xia, Mingxu; Babu, Nadendla Hari

    2016-01-01

    The design of chemical compositions containing potent nuclei for the enhancement of heterogeneous nucleation in aluminium, especially cast alloys such as Al-Si alloys, is a matter of importance in order to achieve homogeneous properties in castings with complex geometries. We identified that Al3Nb/NbB2 compounds are effective heterogeneous nuclei and are successfully produced in the form of Al-2Nb-xB (x = 0.5, 1 and 2) master alloys. Our study shows that the inoculation of Al-10Si braze alloy with these compounds effectively promotes the heterogeneous nucleation of primary α-Al crystals and reduces the undercooling needed for solidification to take place. Moreover, we present evidences that these Nb-based compounds prevent the growth of columnar crystals and permit to obtain, for the first time, fine and equiaxed crystals in directionally solidified Al-10Si braze alloy. As a consequence of the potent heterogeneous particles, the size of the α-Al crystals was found to be less dependent on the processing conditions, especially the thermal gradient. Finally, we also demonstrate that the enhanced nucleation leads to the refinement of secondary phases such as eutectic silicon and primary silicon particles. PMID:28008967

  9. Structural properties of a-Si films and their effect on aluminum induced crystallization

    SciT

    Tankut, Aydin; Ozkol, Engin; Karaman, Mehmet

    2015-10-15

    In this paper, we report the influence of the structural properties of amorphous silicon (a-Si) on its subsequent crystallization behavior via the aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) method. Two distinct a-Si deposition techniques, electron beam evaporation and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), are compared for their effect on the overall AIC kinetics as well as the properties of the final poly-crystalline (poly-Si) silicon film. Raman and FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that the PECVD grown a-Si films has higher intermediate-range order, which is enhanced for increased hydrogen dilution during deposition. With increasing intermediate-range order of the a-Si, the rate of AICmore » is diminished, leading larger poly-Si grain size.« less

  10. Investigating calcite growth rates using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Bo; Stack, Andrew G.; Steefel, Carl I.; DePaolo, Donald J.; Lammers, Laura N.; Hu, Yandi

    2018-02-01

    Calcite precipitation plays a significant role in processes such as geological carbon sequestration and toxic metal sequestration and, yet, the rates and mechanisms of calcite growth under close to equilibrium conditions are far from well understood. In this study, a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) was used for the first time to measure macroscopic calcite growth rates. Calcite seed crystals were first nucleated and grown on sensors, then growth rates of calcite seed crystals were measured in real-time under close to equilibrium conditions (saturation index, SI = log ({Ca2+}/{CO32-}/Ksp) = 0.01-0.7, where {i} represent ion activities and Ksp = 10-8.48 is the calcite thermodynamic solubility constant). At the end of the experiments, total masses of calcite crystals on sensors measured by QCM-D and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) were consistent, validating the QCM-D measurements. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were compared with reported macroscopic growth rates measured with auto-titration, ICP-MS, and microbalance. Calcite growth rates measured by QCM-D were also compared with microscopic growth rates measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and with rates predicted by two process-based crystal growth models. The discrepancies in growth rates among AFM measurements and model predictions appear to mainly arise from differences in step densities, and the step velocities were consistent among the AFM measurements as well as with both model predictions. Using the predicted steady-state step velocity and the measured step densities, both models predict well the growth rates measured using QCM-D and AFM. This study provides valuable insights into the effects of reactive site densities on calcite growth rate, which may help design future growth models to predict transient-state step densities.

  11. Onset temperature for Si nanostructure growth on Si substrate during high vacuum electron beam annealing.

    PubMed

    Fang, F; Markwitz, A

    2009-05-01

    Silicon nanostructures, called Si nanowhiskers, are successfully synthesized on Si(100) substrate by high vacuum electron beam annealing. The onset temperature and duration needed for the Si nanowhiskers to grow was investigated. It was found that the onset and growth morphology of Si nanowhiskers strongly depend on the annealing temperature and duration applied in the annealing cycle. The onset temperature for nanowhisker growth was determined as 680 degrees C using an annealing duration of 90 min and temperature ramps of +5 degrees C s(-1) for heating and -100 degrees C s(-1) for cooling. Decreasing the annealing time at peak temperature to 5 min required an increase in peak temperature to 800 degrees C to initiate the nanowhisker growth. At 900 degrees C the duration for annealing at peak temperature can be set to 0 s to grow silicon nanowhiskers. A correlation was found between the variation in annealing temperature and duration and the nanowhisker height and density. Annealing at 900 degrees C for 0 s, only 2-3 nanowhiskers (average height 2.4 nm) grow on a surface area of 5 x 5 microm, whereas more than 500 nanowhiskers with an important average height of 4.6 nm for field emission applications grow on the same surface area for a sample annealed at 970 degrees C for 0 s. Selected results are presented showing the possibility of controlling the density and height of Si nanowhisker growth for field emission applications by applying different annealing temperature and duration.

  12. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by polycarboxylic acids

    Reddy, M.M.; Hoch, A.R.

    2001-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth rates measured in the presence of several polycarboxyclic acids show that tetrahydrofurantetracarboxylic acid (THFTCA) and cyclopentanetetracarboxylic acid (CPTCA) are effective growth rate inhibitors at low solution concentrations (0.01 to 1 mg/L). In contrast, linear polycarbocylic acids (citric acid and tricarballylic acid) had no inhibiting effect on calcite growth rates at concentrations up to 10 mg/L. Calcite crystal growth rate inhibition by cyclic polycarboxyclic acids appears to involve blockage of crystal growth sites on the mineral surface by several carboxylate groups. Growth morphology varied for growth in the absence and in the presence of both THFTCA and CPTCA. More effective growth rate reduction by CPTCA relative to THFTCA suggests that inhibitor carboxylate stereochemical orientation controls calcite surface interaction with carboxylate inhibitors. ?? 20O1 Academic Press.

  13. An assessment of calcite crystal growth mechanisms based on crystal size distributions

    Kile, D.E.; Eberl, D.D.; Hoch, A.R.; Reddy, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    Calcite crystal growth experiments were undertaken to test a recently proposed model that relates crystal growth mechanisms to the shapes of crystal size distributions (CSDs). According to this approach, CSDs for minerals have three basic shapes: (1) asymptotic, which is related to a crystal growth mechanism having constant-rate nucleation accompanied by surface-controlled growth; (2) lognormal, which results from decaying-rate nucleation accompanied by surface-controlled growth; and (3) a theoretical, universal, steady-state curve attributed to Ostwald ripening. In addition, there is a fourth crystal growth mechanism that does not have a specific CSD shape, but which preserves the relative shapes of previously formed CSDs. This mechanism is attributed to supply-controlled growth. All three shapes were produced experimentally in the calcite growth experiments by modifying nucleation conditions and solution concentrations. The asymptotic CSD formed when additional reactants were added stepwise to the surface of solutions that were supersaturated with respect to calcite (initial Ω = 20, where Ω = 1 represents saturation), thereby leading to the continuous nucleation and growth of calcite crystals. Lognormal CSDs resulted when reactants were added continuously below the solution surface, via a submerged tube, to similarly supersaturated solutions (initial Ω = 22 to 41), thereby leading to a single nucleation event followed by surface-controlled growth. The Ostwald CSD resulted when concentrated reactants were rapidly mixed, leading initially to high levels of supersaturation (Ω >100), and to the formation and subsequent dissolution of very small nuclei, thereby yielding CSDs having small crystal size variances. The three CSD shapes likely were produced early in the crystallization process, in the nanometer crystal size range, and preserved during subsequent growth. Preservation of the relative shapes of the CSDs indicates that a supply-controlled growth mechanism

  14. Effect of process parameters and crystal orientation on 3D anisotropic stress during CZ and FZ growth of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drikis, Ivars; Plate, Matiss; Sennikovs, Juris; Virbulis, Janis

    2017-09-01

    Simulations of 3D anisotropic stress are carried out in <100> and <111> oriented Si crystals grown by FZ and CZ processes for different diameters, growth rates and process stages. Temperature dependent elastic constants and thermal expansion coefficients are used in the FE simulations. The von Mises stress at the triple point line is 5-11% higher in <111> crystals compared to <100> crystals. The process parameters have a larger effect on the von Mises stress than the crystal orientation. Generally, the <111> crystal has a higher azimuthal variation of stress along the triple point line ( 8%) than the <100> crystal ( 2%). The presence of a crystal ridge increases the stress beside the ridge and decreases it on the ridge compared with the round crystal.

  15. Growth and defects of explosives crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cady, H. H.

    Large single crystals of PETN, RDX, and TNT can be grown easily from evaporating ethyl acetate solutions. The crystals all share a similar type of defect that may not be commonly recognized. The defect generates conical faces, ideally mosaic crystals, and may account for the 'polymorphs' of TNT and detonator grades of PETN. TATB crystals manufactured by the amination of trichlorotrinitrobenzene in dry toluene entrain two forms of ammonium chloride. One of these forms causes 'worm holes' in the TATB crystals that may be the reason for its unusually low failure diameters. Strained HMX crystals form mechanical twins that can spontaneously revert back to the untwinned form when the straining force is removed. Large strains or temperatures above 100 C lock in the mechanical twins.

  16. Universality classes for unstable crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagi, Sofia; Misbah, Chaouqi; Politi, Paolo

    2014-06-01

    Universality has been a key concept for the classification of equilibrium critical phenomena, allowing associations among different physical processes and models. When dealing with nonequilibrium problems, however, the distinction in universality classes is not as clear and few are the examples, such as phase separation and kinetic roughening, for which universality has allowed to classify results in a general spirit. Here we focus on an out-of-equilibrium case, unstable crystal growth, lying in between phase ordering and pattern formation. We consider a well-established 2+1-dimensional family of continuum nonlinear equations for the local height h(x,t) of a crystal surface having the general form ∂th(x,t)=-∇.[j(∇h)+∇(∇2h)]: j (∇h) is an arbitrary function, which is linear for small ∇h, and whose structure expresses instabilities which lead to the formation of pyramidlike structures of planar size L and height H. Our task is the choice and calculation of the quantities that can operate as critical exponents, together with the discussion of what is relevant or not to the definition of our universality class. These aims are achieved by means of a perturbative, multiscale analysis of our model, leading to phase diffusion equations whose diffusion coefficients encapsulate all relevant information on dynamics. We identify two critical exponents: (i) the coarsening exponent, n, controlling the increase in time of the typical size of the pattern, L ˜tn; (ii) the exponent β, controlling the increase in time of the typical slope of the pattern, M ˜tβ, where M ≈H/L. Our study reveals that there are only two different universality classes, according to the presence (n =1/3, β =0) or the absence (n =1/4, β >0) of faceting. The symmetry of the pattern, as well as the symmetry of the surface mass current j (∇h) and its precise functional form, is irrelevant. Our analysis seems to support the idea that also space dimensionality is irrelevant.

  17. Growth of zeolite crystals in the microgravity environment of space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Sand, L. B.; Collette, D.; Dieselman, K.; Crowley, J.; Feitelberg, A.

    1986-01-01

    Zeolites are hydrated, crystalline aluminosilicates with alkali and alkaling earth metals substituted into cation vacancies. Typically zeolite crystals are 3 to 8 microns. Larger cyrstals are desirable. Large zeolite crystals were produced (100 to 200 microns); however, they have taken restrictively long times to grow. It was proposed if the rate of nucleation or in some other way the number of nuclei can be lowered, fewer, larger crystals will be formed. The microgravity environment of space may provide an ideal condition to achieve rapid growth of large zeolite crystals. The objective of the project is to establish if large zeolite crystals can be formed rapidly in space.

  18. Colloidal crystal growth monitored by Bragg diffraction interference fringes.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Justin J; Tikhonov, Alexander; Asher, Sanford A

    2010-10-15

    We monitored the crystal growth kinetics of crystallization of a shear melted crystalline colloidal array (CCA). The fcc CCA heterogeneously nucleates at the flow cell wall surface. We examined the evolution of the (1 1 1) Bragg diffraction peak, and, for the first time, quantitatively monitored growth by measuring the temporal evolution of the Bragg diffraction interference fringes. Modeling of the evolution of the fringe patterns exposes the time dependence of the increasing crystal thickness. The initial diffusion-driven linear growth is followed by ripening-driven growth. Between 80 and 90 microM NaCl concentrations the fcc crystals first linearly grow at rates between 1.9 and 4.2 microm/s until they contact homogeneously nucleated crystals in the bulk. At lower salt concentrations interference fringes are not visible because the strong electrostatic interactions between particles result in high activation barriers, preventing defect annealing and leading to a lower crystal quality. The fcc crystals melt to a liquid phase at >90 microM NaCl concentrations. Increasing NaCl concentrations slow the fcc CCA growth rate consistent with the expectation of the classical Wilson-Frenkel growth theory. The final thickness of wall-nucleated CCA, that is determined by the competition between growth of heterogeneously and homogenously nucleated CCA, increases with higher NaCl concentrations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Direct growth of freestanding GaN on C-face SiC by HVPE.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yuan; Shao, Yongliang; Wu, Yongzhong; Hao, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Lei; Dai, Yuanbin; Huo, Qin

    2015-06-02

    In this work, high quality GaN crystal was successfully grown on C-face 6H-SiC by HVPE using a two steps growth process. Due to the small interaction stress between the GaN and the SiC substrate, the GaN was self-separated from the SiC substrate even with a small thickness of about 100 μm. Moreover, the SiC substrate was excellent without damage after the whole process so that it can be repeatedly used in the GaN growth. Hot phosphoric acid etching (at 240 °C for 30 min) was employed to identify the polarity of the GaN layer. According to the etching results, the obtained layer was Ga-polar GaN. High-resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) were done to characterize the quality of the freestanding GaN. The Raman measurements showed that the freestanding GaN film grown on the C-face 6H-SiC was stress-free. The optical properties of the freestanding GaN layer were determined by photoluminescence (PL) spectra.

  20. Bridgman growth of large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate crystal

    SciT

    Wu, Anhua, E-mail: wuanhua@mail.sic.ac.cn; Jiang, Linwen; Qian, Guoxing

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► YCOB is a novel non-linear optical crystal possessing good thermal, mechanical and nonlinear optical properties. ► Large size crystal growth is key technology question for YCOB crystal. ► YCOB crystals 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method. ► It is a more effective growth method to obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal. -- Abstract: Large-aperture yttrium calcium oxyborate YCa{sub 4}O(BO{sub 3}){sub 3} (YCOB) crystals with 3 in. in diameter were grown with modified vertical Bridgman method, and the large crystal plate (63 mm × 68 mm × 20 mm) was harvested formore » high-average power frequency conversion system. The crack, facet growth and spiral growth can be effectively controlled in the as-grown crystal, and Bridgman method displays more effective in obtain large size and high quality YCOB crystal plate than Czochralski technique.« less

  1. Control of Protein Crystal Nucleation and Growth Using Stirring Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niino, Ai; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Kinoshita, Takayoshi; Warizaya, Masaichi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2004-11-01

    We have previously developed a protein crystallization technique using a stirring protein solution and revealed that (i) continuous stirring prevents excess spontaneous nucleation and accelerates the growth of protein crystals and (ii) prestirring (solution stirring in advance) promotes the crystal nucleation of hen egg-white lysozyme. In bovine adenosine deaminase (ADA) crystallization, continuous stirring improves the crystal quality but elongates the nucleation time. In this paper, in order to control both the crystal nucleation and growth of ADA using a Micro-Stirring technique, we carried out five different stirring patterns such as (i) no stirring, (ii) continuous stirring, (iii) prestirring, (iv) poststirring (stirring late in the growth period) and (v) restirring (combined pre- and poststirring). The results showed that high-quality well-shaped crystals were obtained under the continuous stirring and restirring conditions and the nucleation time under the prestirring and restirring conditions was shorter than that under the continuous stirring and poststirring conditions. Consequently, high-quality crystals were promptly obtained under the restirring condition. These results suggest that we are able to control both the nucleation and growth of protein crystals with the stirring techniques.

  2. Growth and properties of silicon heterostructures with buried nanosize Mg2Si clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.

    2005-06-01

    The technology of solid-phase growth of nanosize islands of magnesium suicide on Si (111) 7x7 with narrow distributions of lateral size and height (60 - 80 and 5 - 7 nanometers, respectively) and density of up to 2x 109 sm-2 is proposed. A 20-50 nm thick Si layer has been grown upon these islands. Basing on the data of AES, EELS, AFM and JR spectroscopy, a conclusion is made that the Mg2Si islands remain in depth of the Si layer. The suggestion is made that sizes, density and crystal structure of the buried magnesium suicide clusters preserves. It is shown, that the system of three as-grown layers of buried clusters has smoother surface than the one layer system. The contribution of the Mg2Si clusters into the dielectric function is observed at the energy 0.8-1.2 eV, it is maximal if the clusters are localized on the silicon surface. It is shown, that with increase of the number of Mg2Si cluster layers their contribution increases into the effective number of electrons per a unit cell and effective dielectric function of the sample.

  3. Growth of Solid Solution Single Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, Sandor L.; Szofran, F. R.; Gillies, Donald C.

    2001-01-01

    The solidification of a solid solution semiconductor, having a wide separation between liquidus and solidus has been extensively studied in ground based, high magnetic field and Spacelab experiments. Two alloys of mercury cadmium telluride have been studied; with 80.0 mole percent of HgTe and 84.8 mole percent of HgTe respectively, the remainder being cadmium telluride. Such alloys are extremely difficult to grow by directional solidification on earth due to high solutal and thermal density differences that give rise to fluid flow and consequent loss of interface shape and composition. Diffusion controlled growth is therefore impossible to achieve in conventional directional solidification. The ground based experiments consisted of growing crystals in several different configurations of heat pipe furnaces, NASA's Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF), and a similar furnace incorporated in a superconducting magnet capable of operating at up to 5T. The first microgravity experiment took place during the flight of STS-62 in March 1994, with the AADSF installed on the second United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-2). The alloy was solidified at 3/4 inch per day over a 9 day period, and for the first time a detailed evaluation was performed correlating composition variations to measured residual acceleration. The second flight experiment took place in the fourth United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-4) in November 1997. Due to contamination of the furnace system, analysis shows that the conditions prevailing during the experiment were quite different from the requirements requested prior to the mission. The results indicate that the sample did accomplish the desired objectives.

  4. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    SciT

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2013-09-27

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  5. Ames Lab 101: Single Crystal Growth

    Schlagel, Deborah

    2018-01-16

    Ames Laboratory scientist Deborah Schlagel talks about the Lab's research in growing single crystals of various metals and alloys. The single crystal samples are vital to researchers' understanding of the characteristics of a materials and what gives these materials their particular properties.

  6. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5.

    PubMed

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2014-12-01

    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta-silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo-octa-hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti-prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re-Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re-Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å.

  7. Crystal structure of the ternary silicide Gd2Re3Si5

    PubMed Central

    Fedyna, Vitaliia; Kozak, Roksolana; Gladyshevskii, Roman

    2014-01-01

    A single crystal of the title compound, the ternary silicide digadolinium trirhenium penta­silicide, Gd2Re3Si5, was isolated from an alloy of nominal composition Gd20Re30Si50 synthesized by arc melting and investigated by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. Its crystal structure belongs to the U2Mn3Si5 structure type. All atoms in the asymmetric lie on special positions. The Gd site has site symmetry m..; the two Mn atoms have site symmetries m.. and 2.22; the three Si atoms have site symmetries m.., ..2 and 4.. . The coordination polyhedra of the Gd atoms have 21 vertices, while those of the Re atoms are cubo­octa­hedra and 13-vertex polyhedra. The Si atoms are arranged as tricapped trigonal prisms, bicapped square anti­prisms, or 11-vertex polyhedra. The crystal structure of the title compound is also related to the structure types CaBe2Ge2 and W5Si3. It can be represented as a stacking of Gd-centred polyhedra of composition [GdSi9]. The Re atoms form infinite chains with an Re—Re distance of 2.78163 (5) Å and isolated squares with an Re—Re distance of 2.9683 (6) Å. PMID:25552967

  8. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    SciT

    Tamain, C., E-mail: christelle.tamain@cea.fr; Arab-Chapelet, B.; Rivenet, M.

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am{sub 2}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}(H{sub 2}O){sub 3}·xH{sub 2}O, Th(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O, M{sub 2+x}[Pu{sup IV}{sub 2−x}Pu{sup III}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 5}]·nH{sub 2}O and M{sub 1−x}[Pu{sup III}{sub 1−x}Pu{sup IV}{sub x}(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 2}·H{sub 2}O]·nH{sub 2}O. It is the first timemore » that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV–visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds. - Graphical abstract: Two new single crystal growth methods dedicated to actinide oxalate compounds. - Highlights: • Use of diester as oxalate precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Use of actinide oxide as precursor for crystal growth of actinide oxalates. • Crystal growth of Pu(III) and Am(III) oxalates. • Crystal growth of mixed Pu(III)/Pu(IV) oxalates.« less

  9. Fluid Physics and Macromolecular Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, M.; Snell, E.; Judge, R.; Chayen, N.; Boggon, T.; Helliwell, J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The molecular structure of biological macromolecules is important in understanding how these molecules work and has direct application to rational drug design for new medicines and for the improvement and development of industrial enzymes. In order to obtain the molecular structure, large, well formed, single macromolecule crystals are required. The growth of macromolecule crystals is a difficult task and is often hampered on the ground by fluid flows that result from the interaction of gravity with the crystal growth process. One such effect is the bulk movement of the crystal through the fluid due to sedimentation. A second is buoyancy driven convection close to the crystal surface. On the ground the crystallization process itself induces both of these flows.

  10. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    DOE PAGES

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; ...

    2015-03-30

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for themore » growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.« less

  11. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M.; Hodge, Teresa A.; Huang, Sijay

    2015-01-01

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. These include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations. PMID:25849493

  12. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography

    SciT

    Ng, Joseph D.; Baird, James K.; Coates, Leighton

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for themore » growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. We report that these include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.« less

  13. Large-volume protein crystal growth for neutron macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Ng, Joseph D; Baird, James K; Coates, Leighton; Garcia-Ruiz, Juan M; Hodge, Teresa A; Huang, Sijay

    2015-04-01

    Neutron macromolecular crystallography (NMC) is the prevailing method for the accurate determination of the positions of H atoms in macromolecules. As neutron sources are becoming more available to general users, finding means to optimize the growth of protein crystals to sizes suitable for NMC is extremely important. Historically, much has been learned about growing crystals for X-ray diffraction. However, owing to new-generation synchrotron X-ray facilities and sensitive detectors, protein crystal sizes as small as in the nano-range have become adequate for structure determination, lessening the necessity to grow large crystals. Here, some of the approaches, techniques and considerations for the growth of crystals to significant dimensions that are now relevant to NMC are revisited. These include experimental strategies utilizing solubility diagrams, ripening effects, classical crystallization techniques, microgravity and theoretical considerations.

  14. Self-Aligned Growth of Organic Semiconductor Single Crystals by Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Kotsuki, Kenji; Obata, Seiji; Saiki, Koichiro

    2016-01-19

    We proposed a novel but facile method for growing organic semiconductor single-crystals via solvent vapor annealing (SVA) under electric field. In the conventional SVA growth process, nuclei of crystals appeared anywhere on the substrate and their crystallographic axes were randomly distributed. We applied electric field during the SVA growth of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C8-BTBT) on the SiO2/Si substrate on which a pair of electrodes had been deposited beforehand. Real-time observation of the SVA process revealed that rodlike single crystals grew with their long axes parallel to the electric field and bridged the prepatterned electrodes. As a result, C8-BTBT crystals automatically formed a field effect transistor (FET) structure and the mobility reached 1.9 cm(2)/(V s). Electric-field-assisted SVA proved a promising method for constructing high-mobility single-crystal FETs at the desired position by a low-cost solution process.

  15. Analysis of channel confined selective area growth in evolutionary growth of GaN on SiO 2

    SciT

    Leung, Benjamin; Tsai, Miao-Chan; Song, Jie

    2015-09-01

    Here, we analyze the chemical vapor deposition of semiconductor crystals by selective area growth in a non-planar geometry. Specifically, the growth process in laterally and vertically confined masks forming single-crystal GaN on SiO2 by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition is considered in detail. A textured AlN seed is used to initiate growth of oriented GaN selectively through the mask, allowing the reduction of degrees of freedom by the evolutionary grain selection process. As shown by measurements of growth rates within the mask, the sub micron length scale of the channel opening is comparable to the mean free path of precursors inmore » the gas phase, resulting in transport characteristics that can be described by an intermediate flow regime between continuum and free-molecular. Mass transport is modeled through kinetic theory to explain the growth rate enhancements of more than a factor of two by changes in reactor pressure. The growth conditions that enable the modification of nucleation density within the channel are then discussed, and are measured by electron-back scatter diffraction of the nucleated grains on the AlN seed. Finally, the selectivity behavior using the low fill factor masks needed in these configurations has been optimized by control of precursor flow rates and the H2 enhanced etching of the polycrystalline GaN nuclei.« less

  16. Modified floating-zone growth of organic single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, S.; Chen, C. P.

    1994-04-01

    For organic materials floating-zone crystal growth is superior to other melt growth processes in two significant respects: (1) the absence of crucible-induced mechanical damage and (2) minimum heating-induced chemical degradation. Due to the rather low surface tension of organic melts, however, floating-zone crystal growth under normal gravity has not been possible so far but microgravity is ideal for such a purpose. With the help of a modified floating-zone technique, organic single crystals of small cross-sections were test grown first under normal gravity. These small crystals were round and rectangular single crystals of benzil and salol, up to about 7 cm long and 6 mm in diameter or 9 mm × 3 mm in cross-section.

  17. Method of Promoting Single Crystal Growth During Melt Growth of Semiconductors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The method of the invention promotes single crystal growth during fabrication of melt growth semiconductors. A growth ampoule and its tip have a semiconductor source material placed therein. The growth ampoule is placed in a first thermal environment that raises the temperature of the semiconductor source material to its liquidus temperature. The growth ampoule is then transitioned to a second thermal environment that causes the semiconductor source material in the growth ampoule's tip to attain a temperature that is below the semiconductor source material's solidus temperature. The growth ampoule so-transitioned is then mechanically perturbed to induce single crystal growth at the growth ampoule's tip.

  18. Reinvestigation of growth of 'L-valine zinc sulphate' crystal.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R; Jyai, Rita N

    2014-01-01

    A reinvestigation of the growth of l-valine zinc sulphate crystal is reported. The slow evaporation of an aqueous solution containing l-valine and zinc sulphate heptahydrate results in the fractional crystallization of l-valine and not the organic inorganic hybrid nonlinear optical l-valine zinc sulphate crystal, as reported by Puhal Raj and Ramachandra Raja (2012). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Salt-induced aggregation of lysozyme: Implications for crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Lori J.

    1994-01-01

    Crystallization of proteins is a prerequisite for structural analysis by x-ray crystallography. While improvements in protein crystals have been obtained in microgravity onboard the U.S. Space Shuttle, attempts to improve the crystal growth process both on the ground and in space have been limited by our lack of understanding of the mechanisms involved. Almost all proteins are crystallized with the aid of a precipitating agent. Many of the common precipitating agents are inorganic salts. An understanding of the role of salts on the aggregation of protein monomers is the key to the elucidation of the mechanisms involved in protein crystallization. In order for crystallization to occur individual molecules must self-associate into aggregates. Detection and characterization of aggregates in supersaturated protein solutions is the first step in understanding salt-induced crystallization.

  20. Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Flight on USML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, Albert, Jr.; Bac, Nurcan; Warzywoda, Juliusz; Guray, Ipek; Marceau, Michelle; Sacco, Teran L.; Whalen, Leah M.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of zeolites and their impact on the world's economy has resulted in many efforts to characterize their structure, and improve the knowledge base for nucleation and growth of these crystals. The zeolite crystal growth (ZCG) experiment on USML-2 aimed to enhance the understanding of nucleation and growth of zeolite crystals, while attempting to provide a means of controlling the defect concentration in microgravity. Zeolites A, X, Beta, and Silicalite were grown during the 16 day - USML-2 mission. The solutions where the nucleation event was controlled yielded larger and more uniform crystals of better morphology and purity than their terrestrial/control counterparts. The external surfaces of zeolite A, X, and Silicalite crystals grown in microgravity were smoother (lower surface roughness) than their terrestrial controls. Catalytic studies with zeolite Beta indicate that crystals grown in space exhibit a lower number of Lewis acid sites located in micropores. This suggests fewer structural defects for crystals grown in microgravity. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) of zeolite Beta crystals also show that crystals grown in microgravity were free of line defects while terrestrial/controls had substantial defects.

  1. Containerless protein crystal growth technology: Electrostatic multidrop positioner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhim, Won-Kyu

    1990-01-01

    A brief discussion of containerless protein crystal growth in space and a diagram of the electrostatic multidrop positioner are presented. A picture of lysome crystals growing in a drop and a graph of levitation voltage versus time (minutes) are also presented.

  2. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth HIV Reverse Transcriptase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    HIV Reverse Transcriptase crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission using Commercial Refrigerator/Incubator Module (CR/IM) at 4 degrees C and the Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA). Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme responsible for copying the nucleic acid genome of the AIDS virus from RNA to DNA. Studies indicated that the space-grown crystals were larger and better ordered (beyond 4 angstroms) than were comparable Earth-grown crystals. Principal Investigators were Charles Bugg and Larry DeLucas.

  3. Apparatus for single ice crystal growth from the melt.

    PubMed

    Zepeda, Salvador; Nakatsubo, Shunichi; Furukawa, Yoshinori

    2009-11-01

    A crystal growth apparatus was designed and built to study the effect of growth modifiers, antifreeze proteins and antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs), on ice crystal growth kinetics and morphology. We used a capillary growth technique to obtain a single ice crystal with well-defined crystallographic orientation grown in AFGP solution. The basal plane was readily observed by rotation of the capillary. The main growth chamber is approximately a 0.8 ml cylindrical volume. A triple window arrangement was used to minimize temperature gradients and allow for up to 10 mm working distance objective lens. Temperature could be established to within +/-10 mK in as little as 3.5 min and controlled to within +/-2 mK after 15 min for at least 10 h. The small volume growth chamber and fast equilibration times were necessary for parabolic flight microgravity experiments. The apparatus was designed for use with inverted and side mount configurations.

  4. Theory of the intermediate stage of crystal growth with applications to insulin crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    A theory for the intermediate stage of crystal growth, where two defining equations one for population continuity and another for mass-balance, is used to study the kinetics of the supersaturation decay, the homogeneous nucleation rate, the linear growth rate and the final distribution of crystal sizes for the crystallization of bovine and porcine insulin from solution. The cited experimental reports suggest that the crystal linear growth rate is directly proportional to the square of the insulin concentration in solution for bovine insulin and to the cube of concentration for porcine. In a previous work, it was shown that the above mentioned system could be solved for the case where the growth rate is directly proportional to the normalized supersaturation. Here a more general solution is presented valid for cases where the growth rate is directly proportional to the normalized supersaturation raised to the power of any positive integer. The resulting expressions for the time dependent normalized supersaturation and crystal size distribution are compared with experimental reports for insulin crystallization. An approximation for the maximum crystal size at the end of the intermediate stage is derived. The results suggest that the largest crystal size in the distribution at the end of the intermediate stage is maximized when nucleation is restricted to be only homogeneous. Further, the largest size in the final distribution depends only weakly upon the initial supersaturation.

  5. Liquid nitrogen dewar for protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar apparatus developed by Dr. Alex McPherson of the University of California, Irvine for use aboard Mir and the International Space Station allows large quantities of protein samples to be crystallized in orbit. The specimens are contained either in plastic tubing (heat-sealed at each end). Biological samples are prepared with a precipitating agent in either a batch or liquid-liquid diffusion configuration. The samples are then flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen before crystallization can start. On orbit, the Dewar is placed in a quiet area of the station and the nitrogen slowly boils off (it is taken up by the environmental control system), allowing the proteins to thaw to begin crystallization. The Dewar is returned to Earth after one to four months on orbit, depending on Shuttle flight opportunities. The tubes then are analyzed for crystal presence and quality

  6. Structural Characterization of Lateral-grown 6H-SiC am-plane Seed Crystals by Hot Wall CVD Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goue, Ouloide Yannick; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Dudley, Michael; Trunek, Andrew J.; Neudeck, Philip G.; Woodworth, Andrew A.; Spry, David J.

    2014-01-01

    The performance of commercially available silicon carbide (SiC) power devices is limited due to inherently high density of screw dislocations (SD), which are necessary for maintaining polytype during boule growth and commercially viable growth rates. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently proposed a new bulk growth process based on axial fiber growth (parallel to the c-axis) followed by lateral expansion (perpendicular to the c-axis) for producing multi-faceted m-plane SiC boules that can potentially produce wafers with as few as one SD per wafer. In order to implement this novel growth technique, the lateral homoepitaxial growth expansion of a SiC fiber without introducing a significant number of additional defects is critical. Lateral expansion is being investigated by hot wall chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) growth of 6H-SiC am-plane seed crystals (0.8mm x 0.5mm x 15mm) designed to replicate axially grown SiC single crystal fibers. The post-growth crystals exhibit hexagonal morphology with approximately 1500 m (1.5 mm) of total lateral expansion. Preliminary analysis by synchrotron white beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) confirms that the growth was homoepitaxial, matching the polytype of the respective underlying region of the seed crystal. Axial and transverse sections from the as grown crystal samples were characterized in detail by a combination of SWBXT, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopy to map defect types and distribution. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the seed crystal contained stacking disorders and this appears to have been reproduced in the lateral growth sections. Analysis of the relative intensity for folded transverse acoustic (FTA) and optical (FTO) modes on the Raman spectra indicate the existence of stacking faults. Further, the density of stacking faults is higher in the seed than in the grown crystal. Bundles of dislocations are observed propagating from the seed in m-axis lateral directions

  7. Transport modes during crystal growth in a centrifuge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, William A.; Wilcox, William R.; Carlson, Frederick; Chait, Arnon; Regel', Liia L.

    1992-01-01

    Flow modes arising under average acceleration in centrifugal crystal growth, the gradient of acceleration, and the Coriolis force are investigated using a fully nonlinear three-dimensional numerical model for a centrifugal crystal growth experiment. The analysis focuses on an examination of the quasi-steady state flow modes. The importance of the gradient acceleration is determined by the value of a new nondimensional number, Ad.

  8. Definition study for temperature control in advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz; Sowers, Jennifer W.; Monaco, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Some of the technical requirements for an expedient application of temperature control to advanced protein crystal growth activities are defined. Lysozome was used to study the effects of temperature ramping and temperature gradients for nucleation/dissolution and consecutive growth of sizable crystals and, to determine a prototype temperature program. The solubility study was conducted using equine serum albumin (ESA) which is an extremely stable, clinically important protein due to its capability to bind and transport many different small ions and molecules.

  9. SERS active Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanorods in electromagnetic wave absorption and crystal violet detection.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Samarpita; Srivastava, Suneel Kumar; Singh, Shiv Brat; Kulkarni, Ajit R

    2014-11-01

    The present work is focused on the preparation of Fe nanorods by the chemical reduction of FeCl3 (aq) using NaBH4 in the presence of glycerol as template followed by annealing of the product at 500°C in the presence of H2 gas flow. Subsequently, its surface has been modified by silica followed by silver nanoparticles to form silica coated Fe (Fe@SiO2) and Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure employing the Stöber method and silver mirror reaction respectively. XRD pattern of the products confirmed the formation of bcc phase of iron and fcc phase of silver, though silica remained amorphous. FESEM images established the growth of iron nanorods from the annealed product and also formation of silica and silver coating on its surface. The appearance of the characteristics bands in FTIR confirmed the presence of SiO2 on the Fe surface. Magnetic measurements at room temperature indicated the ferromagnetic behavior of as prepared iron nanorods, Fe@SiO2 and silver encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructures. All the samples exhibited strong microwave absorption property in the high frequency range (10GHz), though it is superior for Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 (-14.7dB) compared with Fe@SiO2 (-9.7dB) nanostructures of the same thickness. The synthesized Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure also exhibited the SERS phenomena, which is useful in the detection of the carcinogenic dye crystal violet (CV) upto the concentration of 10(-10)M. All these findings clearly demonstrate that the Ag encapsulated Fe@SiO2 nanostructure could efficiently be used in the environmental remediation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Homoepitaxial "Web Growth" of SiC to Terminate C-Axis Screw Dislocations and Enlarge Step-Free Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Powell, J. Anthony; Trunek, Andrew; Spry, David; Beheim, Glenn M.; Benavage, Emye; Abel, Phillip; Vetter, William M.; Dudley, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Homoepitaxial CVD growth of thin lateral cantilevers emanating from the edges of mesa patterns dry-etched into on-axis commercial 4H-SiC substrates prior to growth is reported. Cantilevers on the order of a micrometer thick extending tens of micrometers from the edge of a mesa have been grown. The termination of vertically propagating screw dislocations, including a micropipe, that are overgrown by the cantilevers has been demonstrated, in large part because the crystal structure of the cantilevers is established laterally from the mesa sidewalls. This technique could help reduce performance-degrading dislocations in SiC electrical devices.

  11. Protein crystal growth in low gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, Robert S.

    1992-01-01

    A study is presented of the crystallization of isocitrate lyase (ICL) and the influence of the lack of thermal solutal convection in microgravity on the morphology of ICL crystals is discussed. The latest results of studies with thermonucleation are presented. These include the nucleation of a protein with retrograde solubility and an unknown solubility curve. A new design for a more microgravity compatible thermonuclear is presented.

  12. Effect of elastic deformation and the magnetic field on the electrical conductivity of p-Si crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lys, R.; Pavlyk, B.; Didyk, R.; Shykorjak, J.; Karbovnyk, I.

    2018-03-01

    It is shown that at a deformation rate of 0.41 kg/min, the characteristic feature of the dependence of the surface resistance of the p-Si sample on the magnitude of its elastic deformation (R(σ)) is the reduction of the resistance during compression and unclamping. With the increase in the number of "compression-unclamping" cycles, the difference between the positions of the compression and unclamping curves decreases. The transformation of two types of magnetically sensitive defects occurs under the impact of a magnetic field on p-Si crystals. The defects are interrelated with two factors that cause the mutually opposite influence on the conductivity of the crystal. The first factor is that the action of the magnetic field decreases the activation energy of the dislocation holders, which leads to an increase in the electrical conductivity of the sample. The second factor is that due to the decay of molecules of oxygen-containing impurities in the magnetic field, the stable chemisorption bonds appear in the crystal that leads to a decrease in its conductivity. If the sample stays in the magnetic field for a long time, the one or the other mechanism predominates, causing a slow growth or decrease in resistance around a certain (averaged) value. Moreover, the frequency of such changes is greater in the deformed sample. The value of the surface resistance of p-Si samples does not change for a long time without the influence of the magnetic field.

  13. Crystallization from high temperature solutions of Si in copper

    DOEpatents

    Ciszek, Theodore F.

    1994-01-01

    A liquid phase epitaxy method for forming thin crystalline layers of device quality silicon having less than 5X10.sup.16 Cu atoms/cc impurity, comprising: preparing a saturated liquid solution melt of Si in Cu at about 16% to about 90% wt. Si at a temperature range of about 800.degree. C. to about 1400.degree. C. in an inert gas; immersing a substrate in the saturated solution melt; supersaturating the solution by lowering the temperature of the saturated solution melt and holding the substrate immersed in the solution melt for a period of time sufficient to cause growing Si to precipitate out of the solution to form a crystalline layer of Si on the substrate; and withdrawing the substrate from the solution.

  14. Identification of Gravity-Related Effects on Crystal Growth From Melts With an Immiscibility Gap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Sayir, A.; Farmer, S.

    1999-01-01

    This work involves an experimental-numerical approach to study the effects of natural and Marangoni convections on solidification of single crystals from a silicate melt with a liquid-liquid immiscibility gap. Industrial use of crystals grown from silicate melts is becoming increasingly important in electronic, optical, and high temperature structural applications. Even the simplest silicate systems like Al203-SiO2 have had, and will continue to have, a significant role in the development of traditional and advanced ceramics. A unique feature of crystals grown from the silicate systems is their outstanding linear electro-optic properties. They also exhibit exceptionally high optical rotativity. As a result, these crystals are attractive materials for dielectric, optical, and microwave applications. Experimental work in our laboratory has indicated that directional solidification of a single crystal mullite appears to be preceded by liquid-liquid phase separation in the melt. Disruption of the immiscible state results in crystallization of a two phase structure. There is also evidence that mixing in the melt caused by density-driven convection can significantly affect the stability of the immiscible liquid layers and result in poly-crystalline growth. On earth, the immiscible state has only been observed for small diameter crystals grown in float zone systems where natural convection is almost negligible. Therefore, it is anticipated that growth of large single crystals from silicate melts would benefit from microgravity conditions because of the reduction of the natural convective mixing. The main objective of this research is to determine the effects of transport processes on the phase separation in the melt during growth of a single crystal while addressing the following issues: (1) When do the immiscible layers form and are they real?; (2) What are the main physical characteristics of the immiscible liquids?; and (3) How mixing by natural or Marangoni convection

  15. Crystallization kinetics in Si-1 at%Sn during rapid solidification in undercooled melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuribayashi, K.; Ozawa, S.; Nagayama, K.; Inatomi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    In order to elucidate the cause of the morphological transition of crystals growing in an undercooled melt of semiconducting materials, we carried out the containerless solidification of undoped Si and Si-1 at%Sn using a CO2 laser-equipped electromagnetic levitator (EML). The crystallization of these materials was successfully achieved under controlled undercooling. The relation between the shape of growing crystals and the degree of undercooling in Si-1 at%Sn was similar to that in undoped Si; that is, plate-like needle crystals were observed at low undercooling, whereas at medium and high undercooling the shape of growing crystals changed to massive dendrites. The grain-size of as-solidified samples of Si-1 at%Sn was remarkably small compared with that of undoped Si. The surface morphologies of samples solidified by dropping the melt onto a chill plate of mirror-polished silicon consisted of typical twin-related <110> dendrites. On the other hand, samples that were dropped from the undercooled state consisted of twin-free <100> dendrites. The nucleation rate of two-dimensional nuclei calculated on the basis of two mechanisms, which are the twin-plane re-entrant edge mechanism and the twin-free mechanism, suggested that the morphological transition to twin-free <100> dendrites from twin-related <110> dendrites occurs when the degree of undercooling becomes larger than the critical value. These results indicate that the cause of the morphological transition of Si growing in the undercooled melt is not the roughening transition of the crystal-melt interface but the transition of the nucleation kinetics to the twin-free mechanism from the twin-related mechanism.

  16. Germanium growth on electron beam lithography patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrate using molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Subhendu Sinha; Katiyar, Ajit K.; Sarkar, Arijit; Dhar, Achintya; Rudra, Arun; Khatri, Ravinder K.; Ray, Samit Kumar

    2018-04-01

    It is important to investigate the growth dynamics of Ge adatoms under different surface stress regimes of the patterned dielectric to control the selective growth of self-assembled Ge nanostructures on silicon. In the present work, we have studied the growth of Ge by molecular beam epitaxy on nanometer scale patterned Si3N4/Si(001) substrates generated using electron beam lithography. The pitch of the patterns has been varied to investigate its effect on the growth of Ge in comparison to un-patterned Si3N4. For the patterned Si3N4 film, Ge did not desorbed completely from the Si3N4 film and hence no site selective growth pattern is observed. Instead, depending upon the pitch, Ge growth has occurred in different growth modes around the openings in the Si3N4. For the un-patterned substrate, the morphology exhibits the occurrence of uniform 3D clustering of Ge adatoms on Si3N4 film. This variation in the growth modes of Ge is attributed to the variation of residual stress in the Si3N4 film for different pitch of holes, which has been confirmed theoretically through Comsol Multiphysics simulation. The variation in stress for different pitches resulted in modulation of surface energy of the Si3N4 film leading to the different growth modes of Ge.

  17. SiPM based readout system for PbWO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonfanti, S.; Bonvicini, V.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2013-08-01

    Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPMs) consist of a matrix of small passively quenched silicon avalanche photodiodes operated in limited Geiger-mode (GM-APDs) and read out in parallel from a common output node. Each pixel (with a typical size in the 20-100 μm range) gives the same current response when hit by a photon; the SiPM output signal is the sum of the signals of all the pixels, which depends on the light intensity. The main advantages of SiPMs with respect to photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) are essentially the small dimensions, the insensitivity to magnetic fields and a low bias voltage. This contribution presents the performance of a SiPM based readout system for crystal calorimeters developed in the framework of the FACTOR/TWICE collaboration. The SiPM used for the test is a new device produced by FBK-irst which consists in a matrix of four sensors embedded in the same silicon substrate, called QUAD. The SiPM has been coupled to a lead tungstate crystal, an early-prototype version of the crystals developed for the electromagnetic calorimeter of the CMS experiment. New tests are foreseen using a complete module consisting of nine crystals, each one readout by two QUADs.

  18. Follow up on the crystal growth experiments of the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, K. F.; Lind, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The results of the 4 solution growth experiments on the LDEF have been published elsewhere. Both the crystals of CaCO3, which were large and well shaped, and the much smaller TTF-TCNQ crystals showed unusual morphological behavior. The follow up on these experiments was begun in 1981, when ESA initiated a 'Concept Definition Study' on a large, 150 kg, Solution Growth Facility (SGF) to be included in the payload of EURECA-1, the European Retrievable Carrier. This carrier was a continuation of the European Spacelab and at that time planned for launch in 1987. The long delay of the LDEF retrieval and of subsequent missions brought about reflections both on the concept of crystal growth in space and on the choice of crystallization materials that had been made for the LDEF. Already before the LDEF retrieval, research on TTF-TCNQ had been stopped, and a planned growth experiment with TTF-TCNQ on the SGF/EURECA had been cancelled. The target of the SGF investigation is now more fundamental in nature. None of the crystals to be grown here are, like TTF-TCNQ, in particular demand by science or industry, and the crystals only serve the purpose of model crystals. The real purpose of the investigation is to study the growth behavior. One of the experiments, the Soret Coefficient Measurement experiment is not growing crystals at all, but has it as its sole purpose to obtain accurate information on thermal diffusion, a process of importance in crystal growth from solution.

  19. The Si ribbon crystal for the solar battery using the horizontal pull method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norifuji, H.; Matsuo, M.; Maki, T.

    1979-01-01

    A method utilizing a device to spray noble gases to cool the site of silicon crystal growth is described. The salient points are: (1) soft and uniform cooling was possible, (2) the length of the boundary surface of growth along the growth direction was made long over a wide width compared to the thickness, and (3) this made it possible to effectively remove the heat produced from solification. By using forced gas spraying on the solution surface in contact with the points of crystal growth, growth at the points of growth is enhanced and the rate of growth is speeded up.

  20. Confinement of Screw Dislocations to Predetermined Lateral Positions in (0001) 4H-SiC Epilayers Using Homoepitaxial Web Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, Andrew J.; Trunek, Andrew J.; Powell, J. Anthony; Beheim, Glenn M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports initial demonstration of a cantilevered homoepitaxial growth process that places screw dislocations at predetermined lateral positions in on-axis 4H-SiC mesa epilayers. Thin cantilevers were grown extending toward the interior of hollow pre-growth mesa shapes etched into an on-axis 4H-SiC wafer, eventually completely coalescing to form roofed cavities. Each completely coalesced cavity exhibited either: 1) a screw dislocation growth spiral located exactly where final cantilever coalescence occurred, or 2) no growth spiral. The fact that growth spirals are not observed at any other position except the central coalescence point suggests that substrate screw dislocations, initially surrounded by the hollow portion of the pre-growth mesa shape, are relocated to the final coalescence point of the webbed epilayer roof. Molten potassium hydroxide etch studies revealed that properly grown webbed cantilevers exhibited no etch pits, confirming the superior crystal quality of the cantilevers.

  1. Imaging System For Measuring Macromolecule Crystal Growth Rates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corder, Eric L.; Briscoe, Jeri

    2004-01-01

    In order to determine how macromolecule crystal quality improvement in microgravity is related to crystal growth characteristics, a team of scientists and engineers at NASA's Marshal Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed flight hardware capable of measuring the crystal growth rates of a population of crystals growing under the same conditions. As crystal growth rate is defined as the change or delta in a defined dimension or length (L) of crystal over time, the hardware was named Delta-L. Delta-L consists of three sub assemblies: a fluid unit including a temperature-controlled growth cell, an imaging unit, and a control unit (consisting of a Data Acquisition and Control Unit (DACU), and a thermal control unit). Delta-L will be used in connection with the Glovebox Integrated Microgravity Isolation Technology (g-LIMIT) inside the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), onboard the International Space Station. This paper will describe the Delta-L imaging system. The Delta-L imaging system was designed to locate, resolve, and capture images of up to 10 individual crystals ranging in size from 10 to 500 microns with a point-to-point accuracy of +/- 2.0 microns within a quartz growth cell observation area of 20 mm x 10 mm x 1 mm. The optical imaging system is comprised of a video microscope camera mounted on computer controlled translation stages. The 3-axis translation stages and control units provide crewmembers the ability to search throughout the growth cell observation area for crystals forming in size of approximately 10 microns. Once the crewmember has selected ten crystals of interest, the growth of these crystals is tracked until the size reaches approximately 500 microns. In order to resolve these crystals an optical system with a magnification of 10X was designed. A black and white NTSC camera was utilized with a 20X microscope objective and a 0.5X custom designed relay lens with an inline light to meet the magnification requirement. The design allows a 500 pm

  2. Electron microscopy study of Ni induced crystallization in amorphous Si thin films

    SciT

    Radnóczi, G. Z.; Battistig, G.; Pécz, B., E-mail: pecz.bela@ttk.mta.hu

    2015-02-17

    The crystallization of amorphous silicon is studied by transmission electron microscopy. The effect of Ni on the crystallization is studied in a wide temperature range heating thinned samples in-situ inside the microscope. Two cases of limited Ni source and unlimited Ni source are studied and compared. NiSi{sub 2} phase started to form at a temperature as low as 250°C in the limited Ni source case. In-situ observation gives a clear view on the crystallization of silicon through small NiSi{sub 2} grain formation. The same phase is observed at the crystallization front in the unlimited Ni source case, where a secondmore » region is also observed with large grains of Ni{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. Low temperature experiments show, that long annealing of amorphous silicon at 410 °C already results in large crystallized Si regions due to the Ni induced crystallization.« less

  3. Growth and characterization of diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate single crystal

    SciT

    Siva Sankari, R.; Perumal, Rajesh Narayana, E-mail: r.shankarisai@gmail.com

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate (DACS) is one of the most promising inorganic dielectric crystals with exceptional mechanical properties. Good quality crystals of DACS were grown by using solution method in a period of 30 days. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis in order to establish their crystalline nature. Thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis were performed for the crystal. Several solid state physical parameters have been determined for the grown crystals. The dielectric constant and the dielectric loss and AC conductivity of the grown crystal were studied as a functionmore » of frequency and temperature has been calculated and plotted. - Highlights: • Diammonium copper disulphate is grown for the first time and CCDC number obtained. • Thermal analysis is done to see the stability range of the crystals. • Band gap and UV cut off wavelength of the crystal are determined to be 2.4 eV and 472.86 nm, respectively. • Dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity are plotted as a function of applied field. - Abstract: Diammonium copper disulphate hexahydrate is one of the most promising inorganic crystals with exceptional dielectric properties. A good quality crystal was harvested in a 30-day period using solution growth method. The grown crystal was subjected to various characterization techniques like single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, thermo gravimetric, differential thermal analysis, FTIR, and UV–vis–NIR analysis. Unit cell dimensions of the grown crystal have been identified from XRD studies. Functional groups of the title compounds have been identified from FTIR studies. Thermal stability of the samples was checked by TG/DTA studies. Band gap of the crystal was calculated. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss were studied as a function of frequency of the applied field. AC conductivity was plotted as a

  4. Nucleation and growth of the Naica giant gypsum crystals.

    PubMed

    Otálora, Fermín; García-Ruiz, JuanMa

    2014-04-07

    The Cave of Giant Crystals in the Naica mine (Mexico) is one of the most amazing displays of mineral beauty ever created in nature. In addition to the colossal crystals of gypsum, which in some cases exceed eleven meters in length and one meter in thickness, the scenery fashioned by the crystalline beams that thrust through the darkness of the cave from floor to ceiling with a luster like moonlight is a unique example of harmony based on crystal symmetry. We review the crystallogenesis of this remarkable and challenging phenomenon of mineralization near equilibrium that can be used to teach the basics of nucleation and crystal growth.

  5. Crystal growth of HVPE-GaN doped with germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwinska, M.; Takekawa, N.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Amilusik, M.; Kruszewski, P.; Piotrzkowski, R.; Litwin-Staszewska, E.; Lucznik, B.; Fijalkowski, M.; Sochacki, T.; Teisseyre, H.; Murakami, H.; Bockowski, M.

    2017-12-01

    Crystallization by hydride vapor phase epitaxy method of gallium nitride single crystals doped with germanium and properties of the obtained material are described in this paper. Growth was performed in hydrogen and nitrogen carrier gas. The results were studied and compared. Influence of different flows of germanium tetrachloride, precursor of germanium, on the grown crystals was investigated. Ammonothermal GaN substrates were used as seeds for crystallization. Structural, electrical, and optical properties of HVPE-GaN doped with germanium are presented and discussed in detail. They were compared to properties of HVPE-GaN doped with silicon and also grown on native seeds of high quality.

  6. Formation of nanoporous Si upon self-organized growth of Al and Si nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Thøgersen, Annett; Jensen, Ingvild J T; Stange, Marit; Kjeldstad, Torunn; Martinez-Martinez, Diego; Løvvik, Ole Martin; Ulyashin, Alexander G; Diplas, Spyros

    2018-08-03

    Nanostructured materials offer unique electronic and optical properties compared to their bulk counterparts. The challenging part of the synthesis is to create a balance between the control of design, size limitations, up-scalability and contamination. In this work we show that self-organized Al nanowires in amorphous Si can be produced at room temperature by magnetron co-sputtering using two individual targets. Nanoporous Si, containing nanotunnels with dimensions within the quantum confinement regime, were then made by selective etching of Al. The material properties, film growth, and composition of the films were investigated for different compositions. In addition, the reflectance of the etched film has been measured.

  7. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    DOE PAGES

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    2015-03-30

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO 4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl 2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overallmore » growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m -2∙h -1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl 2, respectively.« less

  8. Growth Kinetics and Morphology of Barite Crystals Derived from Face-Specific Growth Rates

    SciT

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Stack, Andrew G.

    Here we investigate the growth kinetics and morphology of barite (BaSO 4) crystals by measuring the growth rates of the (001), (210), (010), and (100) surfaces using vertical scanning interferometry. Solutions with saturation indices 1.1, 2.1, and 3.0 without additional electrolyte, in 0.7 M NaCl, or in 1.3 mM SrCl2 are investigated. Face-specific growth rates are inhibited in the SrCl 2 solution relative to a solution without electrolyte, except for (100). Contrarily, growth of all faces is promoted in the NaCl solution. The variation of face-specific rates is solution-specific, which leads to a. change of the crystal morphology and overallmore » growth rate of crystals. The measured face-specific growth rates are used to model the growth of single crystals. Modeled crystals have a morphology and size similar to those grown from solution. Based on the model the time dependence of surface area and growth rates is analyzed. Growth rates change with time due to surface area normalization for small crystals and large growth intervals. By extrapolating rates to crystals with large surfaces areas, time-independent growth rates are 0.783, 2.96, and 0.513 mmol∙m -2∙h -1, for saturation index 2.1 solutions without additional electrolyte, NaCl, and SrCl 2, respectively.« less

  9. Dendritic Growth of Hard-Sphere Crystals. Experiment 34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russel, W. B.; Chaikin, P. M.; Zhu, Ji-Xiang; Meyer, W. V.; Rogers, R.

    1998-01-01

    Recent observations of the disorder-order transition for colloidal hard spheres under microgravity revealed dendritic crystallites roughly 1-2 mm in size for samples in the coexistence region of the phase diagram. Order-of-magnitude estimates rationalize the absence of large or dendritic crystals under normal gravity and their stability to annealing in microgravity. A linear stability analysis of the Ackerson and Schaetzel model for crystallization of hard spheres establishes the domain of instability for diffusion-limited growth at small supersaturations. The relationship between hard-sphere and molecular crystal growth is established and exploited to relate the predicted linear instability to the well-developed dendrites observed.

  10. Influence of Polymers on the Crystal Growth Rate of Felodipine: Correlating Adsorbed Polymer Surface Coverage to Solution Crystal Growth Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Schram, Caitlin J; Taylor, Lynne S; Beaudoin, Stephen P

    2015-10-20

    The bioavailability of orally administered drugs that exhibit poor aqueous solubility can be enhanced with the use of supersaturating dosage forms. Stabilization of these forms by preventing or inhibiting crystallization in solution is an important area of study. Polymers can be used to stabilize supersaturated systems; however, the properties that impact their effectiveness as crystal growth rate inhibitors are not yet fully understood. In this study, the impact of various polymers on the crystal growth rate of felodipine and the conformation of these polymers adsorbed to crystalline felodipine was investigated in order to gain a mechanistic understanding of crystal growth inhibition. It was determined that polymer hydrophobicity impacted polymer adsorption as well as adsorbed polymer conformation. Polymer conformation impacts its surface coverage, which was shown to directly correlate to the polymer's effectiveness as a growth rate inhibitor. By modeling this correlation, it is possible to predict polymer effectiveness given the surface coverage of the polymer.

  11. Supercritical fluid crystallization of griseofulvin: crystal habit modification with a selective growth inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jarmer, Daniel J; Lengsfeld, Corinne S; Anseth, Kristi S; Randolph, Theodore W

    2005-12-01

    Poly (sebacic anhydride) (PSA) was used as a growth inhibitor to selectively modify habit of griseofulvin crystals formed via the Precipitation with a compressed-fluid antisolvent (PCA) process. PSA and griseofulvin were coprecipitated within a PCA injector, which provided efficient mixing between the solution and compressed antisolvent process streams. Griseofulvin crystal habit was modified from acicular to bipyramidal when the mass ratio of PSA/griseofulvin in the solution feed stream was crystal face of the acicular crystal form, which inhibited growth. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the griseofulvin and PSA particles, and gave results consistent with a selective growth inhibition mechanism. SEM micrographs showed regions on griseofulvin crystals where PSA microparticles had preferentially adsorbed. X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis of the griseofulvin crystals indicated no changes in the crystalline form after the habit modification. Powder compressibility decreased from 49 +/- 3% to 28 +/- 7% with the modification in crystal habit. No change in the physical stability of the processed powder was observed after being stored at 25 degrees C/60% RH and 40 degrees C/70% RH for 23 days. Despite the change in crystal habit, griseofulvin crystals achieved 100% dissolution within 60 min in a simulated gastric fluid. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Protein crystal growth and the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLucas, L. J.; Moore, K. M.; Long, M. M.

    1999-01-01

    Protein structural information plays a key role in understanding biological structure-function relationships and in the development of new pharmaceuticals for both chronic and infectious diseases. The Center for Macromolecular Crystallography (CMC) has devoted considerable effort studying the fundamental processes involved in macromolecular crystal growth both in a 1-g and microgravity environment. Results from experiments performed on more than 35 U.S. space shuttle flights have clearly indicated that microgravity can provide a beneficial environment for macromolecular crystal growth. This research has led to the development of a new generation of pharmaceuticals that are currently in preclinical or clinical trials for diseases such as cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, influenza, stroke and other cardiovascular complications. The International Space Station (ISS) provides an opportunity to have complete crystallographic capability on orbit, which was previously not possible with the space shuttle orbiter. As envisioned, the x-ray Crystallography Facility (XCF) will be a complete facility for growing protein crystals; selecting, harvesting, and mounting sample crystals for x-ray diffraction; cryo-freezing mounted crystals if necessary; performing x-ray diffraction studies; and downlinking the data for use by crystallographers on the ground. Other advantages of such a facility include crystal characterization so that iterations in the crystal growth conditions can be made, thereby optimizing the final crystals produced in a three month interval on the ISS.

  13. Fluid mechanics in crystal growth - The 1982 Freeman scholar lecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrach, S.

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made to unify the current state of knowledge in crystal growth techniques and fluid mechanics. After identifying important fluid dynamic problems for such representative crystal growth processes as closed tube vapor transport, open reactor vapor deposition, and the Czochralski and floating zone melt growth techniques, research results obtained to date are presented. It is noted that the major effort to date has been directed to the description of the nature and extent of bulk transport under realistic conditions, where bulk flow determines the heat and solute transport which strongly influence the temperature and concentration fields in the vicinity of the growth interface. Proper treatment of near field, or interface, problems cannot be given until the far field, or global flow, involved in a given crystal growth technique has been adequately described.

  14. A Century of Sapphire Crystal Growth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-17

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...and ruby were oxides of the elements aluminum and silicon.1 In 1817, J. L. Gay- Lussac found that pure aluminum oxide (also called alumina) could...thought to consist of Al2O3 and SiO2 •1817: Gay- Lussac : •1840: Rose: Found SiO2 in sapphire is from agate mortar used for grinding •1837-72: Gaudin

  15. Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC films in a vertical hot-wall CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guoguo, Yan; Feng, Zhang; Yingxi, Niu; Fei, Yang; Xingfang, Liu; Lei, Wang; Wanshun, Zhao; Guosheng, Sun; Yiping, Zeng

    2016-06-01

    Chloride-based fast homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC epilayers was performed on 4° off-axis 4H-SiC substrates in a home-made vertical hot-wall chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system using H2-SiH4-C2H4-HCl. The effect of the SiH4/H2 ratio and reactor pressure on the growth rate of 4H-SiC epilayers has been studied successively. The growth rate increase in proportion to the SiH4/H2 ratio and the influence mechanism of chlorine has been investigated. With the reactor pressure increasing from 40 to 100 Torr, the growth rate increased to 52 μm/hand then decreased to 47 μm/h, which is due to the joint effect of H2 and HCl etching as well as the formation of Si clusters at higher reactor pressure. The surface root mean square (RMS) roughness keeps around 1 nm with the growth rate increasing to 49 μm/h. The scanning electron microscope (SEM), Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate that 96.7 μm thick 4H-SiC layers of good uniformity in thickness and doping with high crystal quality can be achieved. These results prove that chloride-based fast epitaxy is an advanced growth technique for 4H-SiC homoepitaxy. Project supported by the National High Technology R&D Program of China (No. 2014AA041402), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474113, 61274007, 61574140), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 4132076, 4132074), the Program of State Grid Smart Grid Research Institute (No. SGRI-WD-71-14-004), and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of CAS.

  16. New simulation model of multicomponent crystal growth and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Wathen, Brent; Kuiper, Michael; Walker, Virginia; Jia, Zongchao

    2004-04-02

    We review a novel computational model for the study of crystal structures both on their own and in conjunction with inhibitor molecules. The model advances existing Monte Carlo (MC) simulation techniques by extending them from modeling 3D crystal surface patches to modeling entire 3D crystals, and by including the use of "complex" multicomponent molecules within the simulations. These advances makes it possible to incorporate the 3D shape and non-uniform surface properties of inhibitors into simulations, and to study what effect these inhibitor properties have on the growth of whole crystals containing up to tens of millions of molecules. The application of this extended MC model to the study of antifreeze proteins (AFPs) and their effects on ice formation is reported, including the success of the technique in achieving AFP-induced ice-growth inhibition with concurrent changes to ice morphology that mimic experimental results. Simulations of ice-growth inhibition suggest that the degree of inhibition afforded by an AFP is a function of its ice-binding position relative to the underlying anisotropic growth pattern of ice. This extended MC technique is applicable to other crystal and crystal-inhibitor systems, including more complex crystal systems such as clathrates.

  17. Advanced crystal growth techniques for thallium bromide semiconductor radiation detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Amlan; Becla, Piotr; Guguschev, Christo; Motakef, Shariar

    2018-02-01

    Thallium Bromide (TlBr) is a promising room-temperature radiation detector candidate with excellent charge transport properties. Currently, Travelling Molten Zone (TMZ) technique is widely used for growth of semiconductor-grade TlBr crystals. However, there are several challenges associated with this type of crystal growth process including lower yield, high thermal stress, and low crystal uniformity. To overcome these shortcomings of the current technique, several different crystal growth techniques have been implemented in this study. These include: Vertical Bridgman (VB), Physical Vapor Transport (PVT), Edge-defined Film-fed Growth (EFG), and Czochralski Growth (Cz). Techniques based on melt pulling (EFG and Cz) were demonstrated for the first time for semiconductor grade TlBr material. The viability of each process along with the associated challenges for TlBr growth has been discussed. The purity of the TlBr crystals along with its crystalline and electronic properties were analyzed and correlated with the growth techniques. Uncorrected 662 keV energy resolutions around 2% were obtained from 5 mm x 5 mm x 10 mm TlBr devices with virtual Frisch-grid configuration.

  18. A new 28Si single crystal: counting the atoms for the new kilogram definition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, G.; Becker, P.; Beckhoff, B.; Bettin, H.; Beyer, E.; Borys, M.; Busch, I.; Cibik, L.; D'Agostino, G.; Darlatt, E.; Di Luzio, M.; Fujii, K.; Fujimoto, H.; Fujita, K.; Kolbe, M.; Krumrey, M.; Kuramoto, N.; Massa, E.; Mecke, M.; Mizushima, S.; Müller, M.; Narukawa, T.; Nicolaus, A.; Pramann, A.; Rauch, D.; Rienitz, O.; Sasso, C. P.; Stopic, A.; Stosch, R.; Waseda, A.; Wundrack, S.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X. W.

    2017-10-01

    A new single crystal from isotopically enriched silicon was used to determine the Avogadro constant N A by the x-ray-crystal density method. The new crystal, named Si28-23Pr11, has a higher enrichment than the former ‘AVO28’ crystal allowing a smaller uncertainty of the molar mass determination. Again, two 1 kg spheres were manufactured from this crystal. The crystal and the spheres were measured with improved and new methods. One sphere, Si28kg01a, was measured at NMIJ and PTB with very consistent results. The other sphere, Si28kg01b, was measured only at PTB and yielded nearly the same Avogadro constant value. The mean result for both 1 kg spheres is N A  =  6.022 140 526(70)  ×  1023 mol-1 with a relative standard uncertainty of 1.2  ×  10-8. This value deviates from the Avogadro value published in 2015 for the AVO28 crystal by about 3.9(2.1)  ×  10-8. Possible reasons for this difference are discussed and additional measurements are proposed.

  19. Damage growth in Si during self-ion irradiation: A study of ion effects over an extended energy range

    SciT

    Holland, O.W.; El-Ghor, M.K.; White, C.W.

    1989-01-01

    Damage nucleation/growth in single-crystal Si during ion irradiation is discussed. For MeV ions, the rate of growth as well as the damage morphology are shown to vary widely along the track of the ion. This is attributed to a change in the dominant, defect-related reactions as the ion penetrates the crystal. The nature of these reactions were elucidated by studying the interaction of MeV ions with different types of defects. The defects were introduced into the Si crystal prior to high-energy irradiation by self-ion implantation at a medium energy (100 keV). Varied damage morphologies were produced by implanting different ionmore » fluences. Electron microscopy and ion-channeling measurements, in conjunction with annealing studies, were used to characterize the damage. Subtle changes in the predamage morphology are shown to result in markedly different responses to the high-energy irradiation, ranging from complete annealing of the damage to rapid growth. These divergent responses occur over a narrow range of dose (2--3 /times/ 10/sup 14/ cm/sup /minus/2/) of the medium-energy ions; this range also marks a transition in the growth behavior of the damage during the predamage implantation. A model is proposed which accounts for these observations and provides insight into ion-induced growth of amorphous layers in Si and the role of the amorphous/crystalline interface in this process. 15 refs, 9 figs.« less

  20. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1983-01-01

    GaAs device technology has recently reached a new phase of rapid advancement, made possible by the improvement of the quality of GaAs bulk crystals. At the same time, the transition to the next generation of GaAs integrated circuits and optoelectronic systems for commercial and government applications hinges on new quantum steps in three interrelated areas: crystal growth, device processing and device-related properties and phenomena. Special emphasis is placed on the establishment of quantitative relationships among crystal growth parameters-material properties-electronic properties and device applications. The overall program combines studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor material (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; and investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance.

  1. Growth and surface analysis of SiO2 on 4H-SiC for MOS devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodigala, Subba Ramaiah; Chattopadhyay, Somnath; Overton, Charles; Ardoin, Ira; Gordon, B. J.; Johnstone, D.; Roy, D.; Barone, D.

    2015-03-01

    The SiO2 layers have been grown onto C-face and Si-face 4H-SiC substrates by two different techniques such as wet thermal oxidize process and sputtering. The deposition recipes of these techniques are carefully optimized by trails and error method. The growth effects of SiO2 on the C-face and Si-face 4H-SiC substrates are thoroughly investigated by AFM analysis. The growth mechanism of different species involved in the growth process of SiO2 by wet thermal oxide is now proposed by adopting two body classical projectile scattering. This mechanism drives to determine growth of secondary phases such as α-CH nano-islands in the grown SiO2 layer. The effect of HF etchings on the SiO2 layers grown by both techniques and on both the C-face and Si-face substrates are legitimately studied. The thicknesses of the layers determined by AFM and ellipsometry techniques are widely promulgated. The MOS capacitors are made on the Si-face 4H-SiC wafers by wet oxidation and sputtering processes, which are studied by capacitance versus voltage (CV) technique. From CV measurements, the density of trap states with variation of trap level for MOS devices is estimated.

  2. Modeling the Growth Rates of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystal Faces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Meirong; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The measured macroscopic growth rates of the (110) and (101) faces of tetragonal lysozyme show an unexpectedly complex dependence on the supersaturation. The growth rates decay asymptotically to zero when the supersaturation is lowered to zero and increase rapidly when the supersaturation is increased. When supersaturations are increased still further the growth rates attain a maximum before starting to decrease. However, growth of these crystals is known to proceed by the classical dislocation and 2D nucleation growth mechanisms. This anomaly can be explained if growth is assumed to occur not by monomer units but by lysozyme aggregates. Analysis of the molecular packing of these crystals revealed that they were constructed of strongly bonded 4(sub 3) helices, while weaker bonds were responsible for binding the helices to each other. It follows that during crystal growth the stronger bonds are formed before the weaker ones. Thus, the growth of these crystals could be viewed as a two step process: aggregate growth units corresponding to the 4(sub 3) helix are first formed in the bulk solution by stronger intermolecular bonds and then attached to the crystal face by weaker bonds on dislocation hillocks or 2D islands. This will lead to a distribution of aggregates in the solution with monomers and lower order aggregates being predominant at low supersaturations and higher order aggregates being predominant at high supersaturations. If the crystal grows mostly by higher order aggregates, such as tetramers and octamers, it would explain the anomalous dependence of the growth rates on the supersaturation. Besides the analysis of molecular packing, a comprehensive analysis of the measured (110) and (101) growth rates was also undertaken in this study. The distribution of aggregates in lysozyme nutrient solutions at various solution conditions were determined from reversible aggregation reactions at equilibrium. The supersaturation was defined for each aggregate species

  3. Patterned solid state growth of barium titanate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugorek, Michael Stephen

    An understanding of microstructure evolution in ceramic materials, including single crystal development and abnormal/enhanced grain growth should enable more controlled final ceramic element structures. In this study, two different approaches were used to control single crystal development in a patterned array. These two methods are: (1) patterned solid state growth in BaTiO 3 ceramics, and (2) metal-mediated single crystal growth in BaTiO 3. With the patterned solid state growth technique, optical photolithography was used to pattern dopants as well as [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystal template arrays with a 1000 microm line pattern array with 1000 microm spacings. These patterns were subsequently used to control the matrix grain growth evolution and single crystal development in BaTiO3. It was shown that the growth kinetics can be controlled by a small initial grain size, atmosphere conditions, and the introduction of a dopant at selective areas/interfaces. By using a PO2 of 1x10-5 atm during high temperature heat treatment, the matrix coarsening has been limited (to roughly 2 times the initial grain size), while retaining single crystal boundary motion up to 0.5 mm during growth for dwell times up to 9 h at 1300°C. The longitudinal and lateral growth rates were optimized at 10--15 microm/h at 1300°C in a PO2 of 1x10 -5 atm for single crystal growth with limited matrix coarsening. Using these conditions, a patterned microstructure in BaTiO3 was obtained. With the metal-mediated single crystal growth technique, a novel approach for fabricating 2-2 single crystal/polymer composites with a kerf < 5 microns was demonstrated. Surface templated grain growth was used to propagate a single crystal interface into a polycrystalline BaTiO3 or Ba(Zr0.05 Ti0.95)O3 matrix with lamellar nickel layers. The grain growth evolution and texture development were studied using both [001] and [110] BaTiO3 single crystals templates. By using a PO 2 of 1x10-11 atm during high

  4. Purification, crystal growth and characterization of CdSe single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, A.; Henderson, D. O.; Morgan, S. H.; Silberman, E.

    1991-02-01

    CdSe single crystals have been grown from the stoichiometric melt and from Se rich solutions. Here we report the first mid and far infrared spectra of CdSe crystals free of any known impurity bands. Previous studies of the lattice vibrational properties of CdSe crystals have shown the presence of two bands at 538 and 270 cm -1. Modifications in the purification and crystal growth conditions lead us to assign these two bands to a sulfur impurity. Low temperature photoluminescence spectra are also presented and discussed.

  5. Center for the development of commercial crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.

    1989-01-01

    The second year of operation of the Center for Commercial Crystal Growth in Space is described. This center is a consortium of businesses, universities and national laboratories. The primary goal of the Center's research is the development of commercial crystal growth in space. A secondary goal is to develop scientific understanding and technology which will improve commercial crystal growth on earth. In order to achieve these goals the Center's research is organized into teams by growth technique; melt growth, solution growth, and vapor growth. The melt growth team is working on solidification and characterization of bulk crystals of gallium arsenide and cadmium telluride. They used high resolution X-ray topography performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Streak-like features were found in the diffraction images of semi-insulating undoped LEC GaAs. These were shown to be (110) antiphase boundaries, which have not been reported before but appear to be pervasive and responsible for features seen via less-sensitive characterization methods. The results on CdTe were not as definitive, but indicate that antiphase boundaries may also be responsible for the double peaks often seen in X-ray rocking curves of this material. A liquid encapsulated melt zone system for GaAs has been assembled and techniques for casting feed rods developed. It was found that scratching the inside of the quartz ampoules with silicon carbide abrasive minimized sticking of the GaAs to the quartz. Twelve floating zone experiments were done.

  6. Effect of SiC buffer layer on GaN growth on Si via PA-MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, S. A.; Mizerov, A. M.; Osipov, A. V.; Redkov, A. V.; Telyatnik, R. S.; Timoshnev, S. N.

    2017-11-01

    The study is devoted to comparison of GaN thin films grown on SiC/Si substrates made by the method of atoms substitution with the films grown directly on Si substrates. The growth was performed in a single process via plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The samples were studied via optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, ellipsometry, and a comparison of their characteristics was made. Using chemical etching in KOH, the polarity of GaN films grown on SiC/Si and Si substrates was determined.

  7. Calculation of Growth Stress in SiO2 Scales Formed by Oxidation of SiC Fibers (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    Poisson effect. Tensile hoop stresses can be >2 GPa for thick scales formed at 򒮨°C. Effects of different fiber radii on growth stresses are examined...original fiber radius and Ω is the ratio of SiC/SiO2 molar volume ratio . The outer radius of the SiO2 scale (c) is (Fig. 1): c = b+w...and νSiO2 are Poison’s ratio for the SiC fiber and the SiO2 scale. Stresses in older increments (j = i-2 to j = 0) are updated with the stress values

  8. The ion capturing effect of 5° SiOx alignment films in liquid crystal devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi; Bos, Philip J.; Bhowmik, Achintya

    2010-09-01

    We show that SiOx, deposited at 5° to the interior surface of a liquid crystal cell allows for a surprisingly substantial reduction in the ion concentration of liquid crystal devices. We have investigated this effect and found that this type of film, due to its surface morphology, captures ions from the liquid crystal material. Ion adsorption on 5° SiOx film obeys the Langmuir isotherm. Experimental results shown allow estimation of the ion capturing capacity of these films to be more than an order of 10 000/μm2. These types of materials are useful for new types of very low power liquid crystal devices such as e-books.

  9. Ferromagnetism in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal

    SciT

    Zhou, Ren-Wei; Wang, Hua-Jie; Chen, Wei-Bin

    Room-temperature ferromagnetism is observed in proton irradiated 4H-SiC single crystal. An initial increase in proton dose leads to pronounced ferromagnetism, accompanying with obvious increase in vacancy concentration. Further increase in irradiation dose lowers the saturation magnetization with the decrease in total vacancy defects due to the defects recombination. It is found that divacancies are the mainly defects in proton irradiated 4H-SiC and responsible for the observed ferromagnetism.

  10. The Growth of Berlinite (AlPO4) Single Crystals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-03-01

    Solubility of AlPO 4 18 6. Solubility Data of Jahn and Kordes on AlPO4 19 7. AlPO 4 Seed Crystal 23 8. Tem-Pres Hydrothermal Research Unit 25 9...Since the vapor pressure of water rises rapidly with temperature, a closed hydrothermal system was used. In a seeded hydrothermal growth process, the...to investigate the hydrothermal growth of Berlinite (AlPO4 ) to determine the optimum growth conditions for large high quality crystals. Over thirty

  11. Single-grain growth in Si film by chevron-shaped cw laser beam scanning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wenchang; Yamazaki, Satoki; Ishimoto, Akihisa; Morito, Shigekazu

    2016-02-01

    A single grain with a length of 450 µm and a width of 5-6 µm was grown in a 60 nm Si film on SiO2 by scanning a chevron-shaped cw laser beam, which was formed by passing a linear laser beam through a novel one-sided Dove prism. The crystal did not have any dominant orientations in both the growth and normal directions. The orientation rotated about the transverse direction at a rate of 0.47-0.51°/µm in the forward direction, which suggests that the lattice constant at the film surface was 0.049-0.053% larger than that at the film bottom.

  12. Novel protein crystal growth technology: Proof of concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyce, Thomas A.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1989-01-01

    A technology for crystal growth, which overcomes certain shortcomings of other techniques, is developed and its applicability to proteins is examined. There were several unknowns to be determined: the design of the apparatus for suspension of crystals of varying (growing) diameter, control of the temperature and supersaturation, the methods for seeding and/or controlling nucleation, the effect on protein solutions of the temperature oscillations arising from the circulation, and the effect of the fluid shear on the suspended crystals. Extensive effort was put forth to grow lysozyme crystals. Under conditions favorable to the growth of tetragonal lysozyme, spontaneous nucleation could be produced but the number of nuclei could not be controlled. Seed transfer techniques were developed and implemented. When conditions for the orthorhombic form were tried, a single crystal 1.5 x 0.5 x 0.2 mm was grown (after in situ nucleation) and successfully extracted. A mathematical model was developed to predict the flow velocity as a function of the geometry and the operating temperatures. The model can also be used to scaleup the apparatus for growing larger crystals of other materials such as water soluble non-linear optical materials. This crystal suspension technology also shows promise for high quality solution growth of optical materials such as TGS and KDP.

  13. Ice Crystal Growth Rates Under Upper Troposphere Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Harold S.; Bailey, Matthew; Hallett, John

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions for growth of ice crystals (temperature and ice supersaturation) are often not well constrained and it is necessary to simulate such conditions in the laboratory to investigate such growth under well controlled conditions over many hours. The growth of ice crystals from the vapour in both prism and basal planes was observed at temperatures of -60 C and -70 C under ice supersaturation up to 100% (200% relative humidity) at pressures derived from the standard atmosphere in a static diffusion chamber. Crystals grew outward from a vertical glass filament, thickening in the basal plane by addition of macroscopic layers greater than 2 m, leading to growth in the prism plane by passing of successive layers conveniently viewed by time lapse video.

  14. Shallow Melt Apparatus for Semicontinuous Czochralski Crystal Growth

    DOEpatents

    Wang, T.; Ciszek, T. F.

    2006-01-10

    In a single crystal pulling apparatus for providing a Czochralski crystal growth process, the improvement of a shallow melt crucible (20) to eliminate the necessity supplying a large quantity of feed stock materials that had to be preloaded in a deep crucible to grow a large ingot, comprising a gas tight container a crucible with a deepened periphery (25) to prevent snapping of a shallow melt and reduce turbulent melt convection; source supply means for adding source material to the semiconductor melt; a double barrier (23) to minimize heat transfer between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow melt in the growth compartment; offset holes (24) in the double barrier (23) to increase melt travel length between the deepened periphery (25) and the shallow growth compartment; and the interface heater/heat sink (22) to control the interface shape and crystal growth rate.

  15. Molecular modifiers reveal a mechanism of pathological crystal growth inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jihae; Granja, Ignacio; Taylor, Michael G.; Mpourmpakis, Giannis; Asplin, John R.; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-08-01

    Crystalline materials are crucial to the function of living organisms, in the shells of molluscs, the matrix of bone, the teeth of sea urchins, and the exoskeletons of coccoliths. However, pathological biomineralization can be an undesirable crystallization process associated with human diseases. The crystal growth of biogenic, natural and synthetic materials may be regulated by the action of modifiers, most commonly inhibitors, which range from small ions and molecules to large macromolecules. Inhibitors adsorb on crystal surfaces and impede the addition of solute, thereby reducing the rate of growth. Complex inhibitor-crystal interactions in biomineralization are often not well elucidated. Here we show that two molecular inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization—citrate and hydroxycitrate—exhibit a mechanism that differs from classical theory in that inhibitor adsorption on crystal surfaces induces dissolution of the crystal under specific conditions rather than a reduced rate of crystal growth. This phenomenon occurs even in supersaturated solutions where inhibitor concentration is three orders of magnitude less than that of the solute. The results of bulk crystallization, in situ atomic force microscopy, and density functional theory studies are qualitatively consistent with a hypothesis that inhibitor-crystal interactions impart localized strain to the crystal lattice and that oxalate and calcium ions are released into solution to alleviate this strain. Calcium oxalate monohydrate is the principal component of human kidney stones and citrate is an often-used therapy, but hydroxycitrate is not. For hydroxycitrate to function as a kidney stone treatment, it must be excreted in urine. We report that hydroxycitrate ingested by non-stone-forming humans at an often-recommended dose leads to substantial urinary excretion. In vitro assays using human urine reveal that the molecular modifier hydroxycitrate is as effective an inhibitor of nucleation

  16. A Microfluidic, High Throughput Protein Crystal Growth Method for Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers Jr, Carl W.; Gerdts, Cory; Johnson, Michael D.; Webb, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The attenuation of sedimentation and convection in microgravity can sometimes decrease irregularities formed during macromolecular crystal growth. Current terrestrial protein crystal growth (PCG) capabilities are very different than those used during the Shuttle era and that are currently on the International Space Station (ISS). The focus of this experiment was to demonstrate the use of a commercial off-the-shelf, high throughput, PCG method in microgravity. Using Protein BioSolutions’ microfluidic Plug Maker™/CrystalCard™ system, we tested the ability to grow crystals of the regulator of glucose metabolism and adipogenesis: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (apo-hPPAR-γ LBD), as well as several PCG standards. Overall, we sent 25 CrystalCards™ to the ISS, containing ~10,000 individual microgravity PCG experiments in a 3U NanoRacks NanoLab (1U = 103 cm.). After 70 days on the ISS, our samples were returned with 16 of 25 (64%) microgravity cards having crystals, compared to 12 of 25 (48%) of the ground controls. Encouragingly, there were more apo-hPPAR-γ LBD crystals in the microgravity PCG cards than the 1g controls. These positive results hope to introduce the use of the PCG standard of low sample volume and large experimental density to the microgravity environment and provide new opportunities for macromolecular samples that may crystallize poorly in standard laboratories. PMID:24278480

  17. Protein Crystal Movements and Fluid Flows During Microgravity Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggon, Titus J.; Chayen, Naomi E.; Snell, Edward H.; Dong, Jun; Lautenschlager, Peter; Potthast, Lothar; Siddons, D. Peter; Stojanoff, Vivian; Gordon, Elspeth; Thompson, Andrew W.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The growth of protein crystals suitable for x-ray crystal structure analysis is an important topic. The quality (perfection) of protein crystals is now being evaluated by mosaicity analysis (rocking curves) and x-ray topographic images as well as the diffraction resolution limit and overall data quality. In yet another study, use of hanging drop vapour diffusion geometry on the IML-2 shuttle mission showed, again via CCD video monitoring, growing apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) protein crystal executing near cyclic movement, reminiscent of Marangoni convection flow of fluid, the crystals serving as "markers" of the fluid flow. A review is given here of existing results and experience over several microgravity missions. Some comment is given on gel protein crystal growth in attempts to 'mimic' the benefits of microgravity on Earth. Finally, the recent new results from our experiments on the shuttle mission LMS are described. These results include CCD video as well as interferometry during the mission, followed, on return to Earth, by reciprocal space mapping at the NSLS, Brookhaven, and full X-ray data collection on LMS and Earth control lysozyme crystals. Diffraction data recorded from LMS and ground control apocrustacyanin C(sub 1) crystals are also described.

  18. Bulk Group-III Nitride Crystal Growth in Supercritical Ammonia-Sodium Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Steven Herbert

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its alloys with indium nitride (InGaN) and aluminum nitride (AlGaN), collectively referred to as Group-III Nitride semiconductors, have enabled white solid-state lighting (SSL) sources and power electronic devices. While these technologies have already made a lasting, positive impact on society, improvements in design and efficiency are anticipated by shifting from heteroepitaxial growth on foreign substrates (such as sapphire, Si, SiC, etc.) to homoepitaxial growth on native, bulk GaN substrates. Bulk GaN has not supplanted foreign substrate materials due to the extreme conditions required to achieve a stoichiometric GaN melt (temperatures and pressures in excess of 2200°C and 6 GPa, respectively). The only method used to produce bulk GaN on an industrial scale is hydride vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE), but the high cost of gaseous precursors and relatively poor crystal quality have limited the adoption of this technology. A solution growth technique known as the ammonothermal method has attracted interest from academia and industry alike for its ability to produce bulk GaN boules of exceedingly high crystal quality. The ammonothermal method employs supercritical ammonia (NH3) solutions to dissolve, transport, and crystallize GaN. However, ammonothermal growth pressures are still relatively high (˜200 MPa), which has thus far prevented the acquisition of fundamental crystal growth knowledge needed to efficiently (i.e. through data-driven approaches) advance the field. This dissertation focused on addressing the gaps in the literature through two studies employing in situ fluid temperature analysis. The first study focused on identifying the solubility of GaN in supercritical NH3-Na solutions. The design and utilization of in situ and ex situ monitoring equipment enabled the first reports of the two-phase nature of supercritical NH3-Na solutions, and of Ga-alloying of Ni-containing autoclave components. The effects of these error sources on

  19. Crucibleless crystal growth and Radioluminescence study of calcium tungstate single crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, M. S.; Jesus, L. M.; Barbosa, L. B.; Ardila, D. R.; Andreeta, J. P.; Silva, R. S.

    2014-11-01

    In this article, single phase and high optical quality scheelite calcium tungstate single crystal fibers were grown by using the crucibleless laser heated pedestal growth technique. The as-synthesized calcium tungstate powders used for shaping seed and feed rods were investigated by X-ray diffraction technique. As-grown crystals were studied by Raman spectroscopy and Radioluminescence measurements. The results indicate that in both two cases, calcined powder and single crystal fiber, only the expected scheelite CaWO4 phase was observed. It was verified large homogeneity in the crystal composition, without the presence of secondary phases. The Radioluminescence spectra of the as-grown single crystal fibers are in agreement with that present in Literature for bulk single crystals, presented a single emission band centered at 420 nm when irradiated with β-rays.

  20. Nucleation kinetics, crystal growth and optical studies on lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Senthilkumar; Paulraj, Rajesh; Ramasamy, P.

    2017-06-01

    Semi-organic lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate non-linear optical single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique at 40 °C. The nucleation parameters such as critical radius, interfacial tension, and critical free energy change have been evaluated using the experimental data. The solubility and the nucleation curve of the crystal at different temperatures have been analyzed. The crystal has a positive temperature coefficient of solubility. The metastable zone width and induction period have been determined for the aqueous solution growth of lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate. The UV-vis-NIR spectrum showed this crystal has high transparency. The photoconductivity studies indicate lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate has positive photoconductivity behaviour. The low etch pit density observed on (0 0 1) crystal surface and the high resolution x-ray difraction analysis indicate the good quality of the grown crystals

  1. Crystal Growth by Physical Vapor Transport: Experiments and Simulation Dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Worlikar, A.; Su, Ching-Hua; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Crystal growth from the vapor phase has various advantages over melt growth. The main advantage is from a lower processing temperature, which makes the process more amenable in instances where the melting temperature of the crystal is high. Other benefits stem from the inherent purification mechanism in the process due to differences in the vapor pressures of the native elements and impurities, and the enhanced interfacial morphological stability during the growth process. Further, the implementation of PVT growth in closed ampoules affords experimental simplicity with minimal needs for complex process control, which makes it an ideal candidate for space investigations in systems where gravity tends to have undesirable effects on the growth process. Bulk growth of wide band gap II-VI semiconductors by PVT has been developed and refined over the past several years at NASA MSFC. A new modeling approach for PVT has also been recently formulated and its validation and testing is the main objective of this work.

  2. Mechanistic Selection and Growth of Twinned Bicrystalline Primary Si in Near Eutectic Al-Si Alloys

    SciT

    Jung, Choonho

    2006-01-01

    Morphological evolution and selection of angular primary silicon is investigated in near-eutectic Al-Si alloys. Angular silicon arrays are grown directionally in a Bridgman furnace at velocities in the regime of 10 -3 m/sec and with a temperature gradient of 7.5 x 10 3 K/m. Under these conditions, the primary Si phase grows as an array of twinned bicrystalline dendrites, where the twinning gives rise to a characteristic 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology. While this primary Si remains largely faceted at the growth front, a complex structure of coherent symmetric twin boundaries enables various adjustment mechanisms which operate to optimize the characteristicmore » spacings within the primary array. In the work presented here, this primary silicon growth morphology is examined in detail. In particular, this thesis describes the investigation of: (1) morphological selection of the twinned bicrystalline primary starshape morphology; (2) primary array behavior, including the lateral propagation of the starshape grains and the associated evolution of a strong <100> texture; (3) the detailed structure of the 8-pointed star-shaped primary morphology, including the twin boundary configuration within the central core; (4) the mechanisms of lateral propagation and spacing adjustment during array evolution; and (5) the thermosolutal conditions (i.e. operating state) at the primary growth front, including composition and phase fraction in the vicinity of the primary tip.« less

  3. Resonant coherent excitation of relativistic Ar 17+ ions channeled in a Si crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azuma, T.; Ito, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Komaki, K.; Sano, M.; Torikoshi, M.; Kitagawa, A.; Takada, E.; Murakami, T.

    1998-02-01

    We observed resonant coherent excitation (RCE) of 1s electron to n=2 states in Ar 17+ through measurements of the survived fraction of 390 MeV/u hydrogen-like Ar 17+ channeled in a Si crystal. We adopted a totally depleted Si surface barrier detector as a target crystal as well as a probe of the energy deposition. The charge state of emerged ions was measured by a combination of a charge separation magnet and a 2D-position sensitive detector. We observed the RCE for planar channeled ions by tilting the target Si crystal from the direction of [1 1 0] axis in the (2 2¯ 0) , (0 0 4) , and (1 1¯ 1) planes. Prominent resonances at tilt angles under the resonance condition were observed. Moreover, each resonance profile is split into several lines due to the l· s interaction and the Stark effect originating in the static crystal field. The energy deposition in the crystal gives the information of the amplitude of the ion trajectory. The resonance peak position, intensity and width in the survived fraction of Ar 17+ reflect the position dependent strength of the crystal field, the RCE and the electron loss probabilities. They are in good accord with our calculation of the transition energy and probability.

  4. Crystal Growth of Ternary Compound Semiconductors in Low Gravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    A low gravity material experiment will be performed in the Material Science Research Rack (MSRR) on International Space Station (ISS). There are two sections of the flight experiment: (I) crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds, such as ZnSeS and ZnSeTe, by physical vapor transport (PVT) and (II) melt growth of CdZnTe by directional solidification. The main objective of the project is to determine the relative contributions of gravity-driven fluid flows to the compositional distribution, incorporation of impurities and defects, and deviation from stoichiometry observed in the grown crystals as results of buoyancy-driven convection and growth interface fluctuations caused by irregular fluid-flows on Earth. The investigation consists of extensive ground-based experimental and theoretical research efforts and concurrent flight experimentation. This talk will focus on the ground-based studies on the PVT crystal growth of ZnSe and related ternary compounds. The objectives of the ground-based studies are (1) obtain the experimental data and conduct the analyses required to define the optimum growth parameters for the flight experiments, (2) perfect various characterization techniques to establish the standard procedure for material characterization, (3) quantitatively establish the characteristics of the crystals grown on Earth as a basis for subsequent comparative evaluations of the crystals grown in a low-gravity environment and (4) develop theoretical and analytical methods required for such evaluations. ZnSe and related ternary compounds have been grown by vapor transport technique with real time in-situ non-invasive monitoring techniques. The grown crystals have been characterized extensively by various techniques to correlate the grown crystal properties with the growth conditions.

  5. Interaction between Convection and Heat Transfer in Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Crystals are integral components in some of our most sophisticated and rapidly developing industries. Single crystals are solids with the most uniform structures that can be obtained on an atomic scale. Because of their structural uniformity, crystals can transmit acoustic and electromagnetic waves and charged particles with essentially no scattering or interferences. This transparency, which can be selectively modified by controlled additions of impurities known as dopants, is the foundation of modern electronic industry. It has brought about widespread application of crystals in transistors, lasers, microwave devices, infrared detectors, magnetic memory devices, and many other magnets and electro-optic components. The performance of a crystal depends strongly on its compositional homogeneity. For instance, in modern microcircuitry, compositional variations of a few percent (down to a submicron length scale) can seriously jeopardize predicted yields. Since crystals are grown by carefully controlled phase transformations, the compositional adjustment in the solid is often made during growth from the nutrient. Hence, a detailed understanding of mass transfer in the nutrient is essential. Moreover, since mass transfer is often the slowest process during growth, it is usually the rate limiting mechanism. Crystal growth processes are usually classified according to the nature of the parent phase. Nevertheless, whether the growth occurs by solidification from a melt (melt growth), nucleation from a solution (solution growth), condensation from a vapor (physical vapor transport) or chemical reaction of gases (chemical vapor deposition), the parent phase is a fluid. As is with most non-equilibrium processes involving fluids, liquid or vapor, fluid motion plays an important role, affecting both the concentration and temperature gradients at the soli-liquid interface.

  6. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    DOEpatents

    Sachs, Emanual M.; Mackintosh, Brian H.

    1982-06-15

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  7. High-purity silicon crystal growth investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszek, T. F.; Hurd, J. L.; Schuyler, T.

    1985-01-01

    The study of silicon sheet material requirements for high efficiency solar cells is reported. Research continued on obtaining long lifetime single crystal float zone silicon and on understanding and reducing the mechanisms that limit the achievement of long lifetimes. The mechanisms studied are impurities, thermal history, point defects, and surface effect. The lifetime related crystallographic defects are characterized by X-ray topography and electron beam induced current.

  8. Crystal growth furnace with trap doors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sachs, Emanual M. (Inventor); Mackintosh, Brian H. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An improved furnace is provided for growing crystalline bodies from a melt. The improved furnace is characterized by a door assembly which is remotely controlled and is arranged so as to selectively shut off or permit communication between an access port in the furnace enclosure and a hot zone within that enclosure. The invention is especially adapted to facilitate use of crystal growing cartridges of the type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,118,197.

  9. Fluid Physics and Macromolecular Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helliwell, John R.; Snell, Edward H.; Chayen, Naomi E.; Judge, Russell A.; Boggon, Titus J.; Pusey, M. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The first protein crystallization experiment in microgravity was launched in April, 1981 and used Germany's Technologische Experimente unter Schwerelosigkeit (TEXUS 3) sounding rocket. The protein P-galactosidase (molecular weight 465Kda) was chosen as the sample with a liquid-liquid diffusion growth method. A sliding device brought the protein, buffer and salt solution into contact when microgravity was reached. The sounding rocket gave six minutes of microgravity time with a cine camera and schlieren optics used to monitor the experiment, a single growth cell. In microgravity a strictly laminar diffusion process was observed in contrast to the turbulent convection seen on the ground. Several single crystals, approx 100micron in length, were formed in the flight which were of inferior but of comparable visual quality to those grown on the ground over several days. A second experiment using the same protocol but with solutions cooled to -8C (kept liquid with glycerol antifreeze) again showed laminar diffusion. The science of macromolecular structural crystallography involves crystallization of the macromolecule followed by use of the crystal for X-ray diffraction experiments to determine the three dimensional structure of the macromolecule. Neutron protein crystallography is employed for elucidation of H/D exchange and for improved definition of the bound solvent (D20). The structural information enables an understanding of how the molecule functions with important potential for rational drug design, improved efficiency of industrial enzymes and agricultural chemical development. The removal of turbulent convection and sedimentation in microgravity, and the assumption that higher quality crystals will be produced, has given rise to the growing number of crystallization experiments now flown. Many experiments can be flown in a small volume with simple, largely automated, equipment - an ideal combination for a microgravity experiment. The term "protein crystal growth

  10. Vapor crystal growth technology development: Application to cadmium telluride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, Michael; Duval, Walter M. B.

    1991-01-01

    Growth of bulk crystals by physical vapor transport was developed and applied to cadmium telluride. The technology makes use of effusive ampoules, in which part of the vapor contents escapes to a vacuum shroud through defined leaks during the growth process. This approach has the advantage over traditional sealed ampoule techniques that impurity vapors and excess vapor constituents are continuously removed from the vicinity of the growing crystal. Thus, growth rates are obtained routinely at magnitudes that are rather difficult to achieve in closed ampoules. Other advantages of this effusive ampoule physical vapor transport (EAPVT) technique include the predetermination of transport rates based on simple fluid dynamics and engineering considerations, and the growth of the crystal from close to congruent vapors, which largely alleviates the compositional nonuniformities resulting from buoyancy driven convective transport. After concisely reviewing earlier work on improving transport rates, nucleation control, and minimization of crystal wall interactions in vapor crystal growth, a detail account is given of the largely computer controlled EAPVT experimentation.

  11. Subsurface Growth of CoSi2 by Deposition of Co on Si-Capped CoSi2 Seed Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fathauer, R. W.; George, T.; Pike, W. T.

    1991-01-01

    At a growth temperature of 800 C, Co deposited on Si(111) diffuses through a Si cap and exhibits oriented growth on buried CoSi2 grains, a process referred to as endotaxy. This occurs preferentially to surface nucleation of CoSi2 provided the thickness of the Si cap is less than a critical value between 100 and 200 nm for a deposition rate of 0.01 nm/s. Steady-state endotaxy is modeled under the assumption that the process is controlled by Co diffusion.

  12. Effect of Ge atoms on crystal structure and optoelectronic properties of hydrogenated Si-Ge films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tianwei; Zhang, Jianjun; Ma, Ying; Yu, Yunwu; Zhao, Ying

    2017-07-01

    Optoelectronic and structural properties of hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon-germanium (μc-Si1-xGex:H) alloys prepared by radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) were investigated. When the Ge atoms were predominantly incorporated in amorphous matrix, the dark and photo-conductivity decreased due to the reduced crystalline volume fraction of the Si atoms (XSi-Si) and the increased Ge dangling bond density. The photosensitivity decreased monotonously with Ge incorporation under higher hydrogen dilution condition, which was attributed to the increase in both crystallization of Ge and the defect density.

  13. Reduction of carbon contamination during the melting process of Czochralski silicon crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xin; Gao, Bing; Nakano, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Koichi

    2017-09-01

    Generation, incorporation, and accumulation of carbon (C) were investigated by transient global simulations of heat and mass transport during the melting process of Czochralski silicon (CZ-Si) crystal growth. Contact reaction between the quartz crucible and graphite susceptor was introduced as an extra origin of C contamination. The contribution of the contact reaction on C accumulation is affected by the back diffusion of C monoxide (CO) from the gap between the gas-guide and the crucible. The effect of the gas-guide coating on C reduction was elucidated by taking the reaction between the silicon carbide (SiC) coating and gaseous Si monoxide (SiO) into account. Application of the SiC coating on the gas-guide could effectively reduce the C contamination because of its higher thermochemical stability relative to that of graphite. Gas flow control on the back diffusion of the generated CO was examined by the parametric study of argon gas flow rate. Generation and back diffusion of CO were both effectively suppressed by the increase in the gas flow rate because of the high Péclet number of species transport. Strategies for C content reduction were discussed by analyzing the mechanisms of C accumulation process. According to the elucidated mechanisms of C accumulation, the final C content depends on the growth duration and contamination flux at the gas/melt interface.

  14. Hydrothermal crystal growth of oxides for optical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMillen, Colin David

    2007-12-01

    The manipulation of light has proven to be an integral part of today's technology-based society. In particular, there is great interest in obtaining coherent radiation in all regions of the optical spectrum to advance technology in military, medical, industrial, scientific and consumer fields. Exploring new crystal growth techniques as well as the growth of new optical materials is critical in the advancement of solid state optics. Surprisingly, the academic world devotes little attention to the growth of large crystals. This shortcoming has left gaps in the optical spectrum inaccessible by solid state devices. This dissertation explores the hydrothermal crystal growth of materials that could fill two such gaps. The first gap exists in the deep-UV region, particularly below 200 nm. Some materials such as LiB3O5 and beta-BaB2O4 can generate coherent light at wavelengths as low as 205 nm. The growth of these materials was explored to investigate the feasibility of the hydrothermal method as a new technique for growing these crystals. Particular attention was paid to the descriptive chemistry surrounding these systems, and several novel structures were elucidated. The study was also extended to the growth of materials that could be used for the generation of coherent light as low as 155 nm. Novel synthetic schemes for Sr2Be2B2O7 and KBe2BO 3F2 were developed and the growth of large crystals was explored. An extensive study of the structures, properties and crystal growth of related compounds, RbBe2BO3F2 and CsBe2BO 3F2, was also undertaken. Optimization of a number of parameters within this family of compounds led to the hydrothermal growth of large, high quality single crystal at rates suitable for large-scale growth. The second gap in technology is in the area of high average power solid state lasers emitting in the 1 mum and eye-safe (>1.5 mum) regions. A hydrothermal technique was developed to grow high quality crystals of Sc 2O3 and Sc2O3 doped with suitable

  15. Study of defect structures in 6H-SiC a/m-plane pseudofiber crystals grown by hot-wall CVD epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Goue, Ouloide Y.; Raghothamachar, Balaji; Yang, Yu; ...

    2015-11-25

    Structural perfection of silicon carbide (SiC) single crystals is essential to achieve high-performance power devices. A new bulk growth process for SiC proposed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, called large tapered crystal (LTC) growth, based on axial fiber growth followed by lateral expansion, could produce SiC boules with potentially as few as one threading screw dislocation per wafer. In this study, the lateral expansion aspect of LTC growth is addressed through analysis of lateral growth of 6H-SiC a/m-plane seed crystals by hot-wall chemical vapor deposition. Preliminary synchrotron white-beam x-ray topography (SWBXT) indicates that the as-grown boules match themore » polytype structure of the underlying seed and have a faceted hexagonal morphology with a strain-free surface marked by steps. SWBXT Laue diffraction patterns of transverse and axial slices of the boules reveal streaks suggesting the existence of stacking faults/polytypes, and this is confirmed by micro-Raman spectroscopy. Transmission x-ray topography of both transverse and axial slices reveals inhomogeneous strains at the seed–epilayer interface and linear features propagating from the seed along the growth direction. Micro-Raman mapping of an axial slice reveals that the seed contains high stacking disorder, while contrast extinction analysis (g·b and g·b×l) of the linear features reveals that these are mostly edge-type basal plane dislocations. Further high-resolution transmission electron microscopy investigation of the seed–homoepilayer interface also reveals nanobands of different SiC polytypes. A model for their formation mechanism is proposed. Lastly, the implication of these results for improving the LTC growth process is addressed.« less

  16. Extreme low thermal conductivity in nanoscale 3D Si phononic crystal with spherical pores.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lina; Yang, Nuo; Li, Baowen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a nanoscale three-dimensional (3D) Si phononic crystal (PnC) with spherical pores, which can reduce the thermal conductivity of bulk Si by a factor up to 10,000 times at room temperature. Thermal conductivity of Si PnCs depends on the porosity, for example, the thermal conductivity of Si PnCs with porosity 50% is 300 times smaller than that of bulk Si. The phonon participation ratio spectra demonstrate that more phonons are localized as the porosity increases. The thermal conductivity is insensitive to the temperature changes from room temperature to 1100 K. The extreme-low thermal conductivity could lead to a larger value of ZT than unity as the periodic structure affects very little the electric conductivity.

  17. Crystal growth of organics for nonlinear optical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, N. B.; Mazelsky, R.

    1993-01-01

    The crystal growth and characterization of organic and inorganic nonlinear optical materials were extensively studied. For example, inorganic crystals such as thallium arsenic selenide were studied in our laboratory for several years and crystals in sizes over 2.5 cm in diameter are available. Organic crystals are suitable for the ultraviolet and near infrared region, but are relatively less developed than their inorganic counterparts. Very high values of the second harmonic conversion efficiency and the electro-optic coefficient were reported for organic compounds. Single crystals of a binary organic alloy based on m.NA and CNA were grown and higher second harmonic conversion efficiency than the values reported for m.NA were observed.

  18. Controlled Growth of Rubrene Nanowires by Eutectic Melt Crystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Jeyon; Hyon, Jinho; Park, Kyung-Sun; Cho, Boram; Baek, Jangmi; Kim, Jueun; Lee, Sang Uck; Sung, Myung Mo; Kang, Youngjong

    2016-03-01

    Organic semiconductors including rubrene, Alq3, copper phthalocyanine and pentacene are crystallized by the eutectic melt crystallization. Those organic semiconductors form good eutectic systems with the various volatile crystallizable additives such as benzoic acid, salicylic acid, naphthalene and 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene. Due to the formation of the eutectic system, organic semiconductors having originally high melting point (Tm > 300 °C) are melted and crystallized at low temperature (Te = 40.8-133 °C). The volatile crystallizable additives are easily removed by sublimation. For a model system using rubrene, single crystalline rubrene nanowires are prepared by the eutectic melt crystallization and the eutectic-melt-assisted nanoimpinting (EMAN) technique. It is demonstrated that crystal structure and the growth direction of rubrene can be controlled by using different volatile crystallizable additives. The field effect mobility of rubrene nanowires prepared using several different crystallizable additives are measured and compared.

  19. Spiral crystal growth of potassium dichromate in gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suda, Jun-Ichiro; Matsushita, Mitsugu

    1995-02-01

    Huge spiral crystals of potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) have been found to grow three-dimensionally in a gelatin medium when gelatin containing K2Cr2O7 was dried slowly in a test tube at a low temperature. These spirals were all right-handed, and their widths, axial pitches and lengths were 2-3 mm, 5-6 mm and 20-25 mm, repectively. When the gelatin concentration in the medium was decreased, ordinary plate-like crystals were observed to grow, instead of the spiral crystals. To the best of our knowledge, inorganic compounds such as K2Cr2O7 have so far not been reported to form such huge spiral crystals. It is conjectured that collagen molecules, which compose the gelatin medium and have right-handed triple helix structure lead to the growth of spiral crystals.

  20. Improved growth method of (SN) x single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakada, Ichiroh

    1981-12-01

    The crystal growth of pure and sizable single crystals of polysulfur nitride (SN) x was improved by adopting a monitor system with a quadrapole mass spectrometer and a Pirani gauge. The mass spectrometer helped to find a temperature appropriate for trapping (SN) 2 selectively on a cold finger and removing other unnecessary or harmful materials produced by the thermal decomposition of (SN) 4 as well as out-gassing water vapour from the glass wall. Leakage of gasses in the vessel was monitored with the Pirani gauge. With a heat pipe the crystal tube is cooled locally so that only a small number of nuclei start to grow. (SN) x single crystals with dimensions of 1 to 6 mm in edge size have been obtained. The relation between the crystal habit and the crystallographic axes has also been determined.

  1. Characterization and In-Situ Monitoring of ZnSe Crystal Growth by Seeded PVT for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feth, Shari T.

    2001-01-01

    Crystal growth from the vapor phase continues to play a significant role in the production of II-VI semiconductor compounds (ZnO, ZnTe, CdTe, etc.) and SiC. As compared to melt growth methods (where available) the advantages are: (1) lower growth temperature(s); (2) reduction in defect concentration; (3) additional purification; and (4) enhanced crystal perfection. A powerful tool in determining the mechanism of PVT is microgravity. Under normal gravity conditions the transport mechanism is a superposition of diffusive and convective fluxes. Microgravity offers the possibility of studying the transport properties without the influence of convective effects. Research on the crystal growth of ZnSe by PVT (P.I.: Su of NASA/MSFC) will help to clarify the effects of convection on crystal growth. A crystal growth furnace with in-situ and real time optical monitoring capabilities was constructed and used to monitor the vapor composition and growing crystal surface morphology during the PVT growth of ZnSe. Using photoluminescence and SIMS, ex-situ, the incorporation of point defects (Zn vacancy) and impurities was found to be correlated to the gravity vector due to the influence of the convective flow. A summary of the results to date will be presented.

  2. Point Defect Distributions in ZnSe Crystals: Effects of Gravity Vector Orientation During Physical Vapor Transport Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ching-Hua; Feth, S.; Hirschfeld, D.; Smith, T. M.; Wang, Ling Jun; Volz, M. P.; Lehoczky, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    ZnSe crystals were grown by the physical vapor transport technique under horizontal and vertical (stabilized and destabilized) configurations. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements were performed on the grown ZnSe samples to map the distributions of [Si], [Fe], [Cu], [Al] and [Li or Na] impurities as well as Zn vacancy, [V (sub Zn)]. Annealings of ZnSe under controlled Zn pressures were studied to correlate the measured photoluminescence emission intensity to the equilibrium Zn partial pressure. In the horizontal grown crystals the segregations of [Si], [Fe], [Al] and [V (sub Zn)] were observed along the gravity vector direction whereas in the vertically stabilized grown crystal the segregation of these point defects was radially symmetrical. No apparent pattern was observed on the measured distributions in the vertically destabilized grown crystal. The observed segregations in the three growth configurations were interpreted based on the possible buoyancy-driven convection in the vapor phase.

  3. Fundamental Studies of Crystal Growth of Microporous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, P.; George, M.; Ramachandran, N.; Schoeman, B.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Microporous materials are framework structures with well-defined porosity, often of molecular dimensions. Zeolites contain aluminum and silicon atoms in their framework and are the most extensively studied amongst all microporous materials. Framework structures with P, Ga, Fe, Co, Zn, B, Ti and a host of other elements have also been made. Typical synthesis of microporous materials involve mixing the framework elements (or compounds, thereof) in a basic solution, followed by aging in some cases and then heating at elevated temperatures. This process is termed hydrothermal synthesis, and involves complex chemical and physical changes. Because of a limited understanding of this process, most synthesis advancements happen by a trial and error approach. There is considerable interest in understanding the synthesis process at a molecular level with the expectation that eventually new framework structures will be built by design. The basic issues in the microporous materials crystallization process include: (1) Nature of the molecular units responsible for the crystal nuclei formation; (2) Nature of the nuclei and nucleation process; (3) Growth process of the nuclei into crystal; (4) Morphological control and size of the resulting crystal; (5) Surface structure of the resulting crystals; (6) Transformation of frameworks into other frameworks or condensed structures. The NASA-funded research described in this report focuses to varying degrees on all of the above issues and has been described in several publications. Following is the presentation of the highlights of our current research program. The report is divided into five sections: (1) Fundamental aspects of the crystal growth process; (2) Morphological and Surface properties of crystals; (3) Crystal dissolution and transformations; (4) Modeling of Crystal Growth; (5) Relevant Microgravity Experiments.

  4. Growth of mercuric iodide single crystals from dimethylsulfoxide

    DOEpatents

    Carlston, Richard C.

    1976-07-13

    Dimethylsulfoxide is used as a solvent for the growth of red mercuric iodide (HgI.sub.2) crystals for use in radiation detectors. The hygroscopic property of the solvent allows controlled amounts of water to enter into the solvent phase and diminish the large solubility of HgI.sub.2 so that the precipitating solid collects as well-defined euhedral crystals which grow into a volume of several cc.

  5. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    SciT

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Morgan, Kenneth E.; Schowalter, Leo J.

    2017-04-18

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density.ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  6. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus and techniques used in effort to determine the relationships between crystal growth and electronic properties are described with emphasis on electroepitaxy and melt-grown gallium aresenide crystal. Applications of deep level transient spectroscopy, derivative photocapitance spectroscopy, and SEM-cathodoluminescene in characterizing wide bandgap semiconductors; determining photoionization in MOS, Schottky barriers, and p-n junctions; and for identifying inhomogeneities are examined, as well as the compensation of indium phosphide.

  7. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Morgan, Kenneth E.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Slack, Glen A.

    2017-06-06

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density .ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  8. Defect reduction in seeded aluminum nitride crystal growth

    DOEpatents

    Bondokov, Robert T.; Schowalter, Leo J.; Morgan, Kenneth; Slack, Glen A; Rao, Shailaja P.; Gibb, Shawn Robert

    2017-09-26

    Bulk single crystal of aluminum nitride (AlN) having an areal planar defect density.ltoreq.100 cm.sup.-2. Methods for growing single crystal aluminum nitride include melting an aluminum foil to uniformly wet a foundation with a layer of aluminum, the foundation forming a portion of an AlN seed holder, for an AlN seed to be used for the AlN growth. The holder may consist essentially of a substantially impervious backing plate.

  9. Growth, stress, and defects of heteroepitaxial diamond on Ir/YSZ/Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallheber, B.-C.; Fischer, M.; Mayr, M.; Straub, J.; Schreck, M.

    2018-06-01

    Basic understanding of the fundamental processes in crystal growth as well as the structural quality of diamond synthesized by chemical vapour deposition on iridium surfaces has reached a high level for samples with (001) orientation. Diamond deposition on the alternative (111) surface is generally more challenging but of appreciable technological interest, too. In the present work, heteroepitaxy of diamond on Ir/YSZ/Si(111) with different off-axis angles and directions has been studied. During the growth of the first microns, strong and complex intrinsic stress states were rapidly formed. They restricted the range of suitable temperatures in this study to values between 830 °C and 970 °C. At low-stress conditions, the maximum growth rates were about 1 μm/h. They facilitated long-time processes which yielded pronounced structural improvements with minimum values of 0.08° for the azimuthal mosaic spread, 4 × 107 cm-2 for the dislocation density and 1.8 cm-1 for the Raman line width. This refinement is even faster than on (001) growth surfaces. It indicates substantial differences between the two crystal directions in terms of merging of mosaic blocks and annihilation of dislocations. Crystals with a thickness of up to 330 μm have been grown. The correlation of photoluminescence and μ-Raman tomograms with topography data also revealed fundamental differences in the off-axis growth between (001) and (111) orientation. Finally, the analysis of the microscopic structures at the growth surface provided the base for a model that can conclusively explain the intriguing reversal of stress tensor anisotropy caused by a simple inversion in sign of the off-axis angle.

  10. Calcium oxalate crystal growth modification; investigations with confocal Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMulkin, Calum J.; Massi, Massimiliano; Jones, Franca

    2017-06-01

    Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) in combination with a photophysical investigation has been employed to give insight into the interaction between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and a series of tetrazole containing crystal growth modifier's (CGM's), in conjunction with characterisation of morphological changes using scanning electron and optical microscopy. The tetrazole CGM's were found to interact by surface adsorption with minimal morphological changes to the COM crystals however, significant interactions via chemisorption were observed; it was discovered that the chemisorption is sufficiently strong for aggregation of the tetrazole species to occur within the crystal during crystallisation.

  11. Iron single crystal growth from a lithium-rich melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fix, M.; Schumann, H.; Jantz, S. G.; Breitner, F. A.; Leineweber, A.; Jesche, A.

    2018-03-01

    α -Fe single crystals of rhombic dodecahedral habit were grown from a Li84N12Fe∼3 melt. Crystals of several millimeter along a side form at temperatures around T ≈ 800 ° C. Upon further cooling the growth competes with the formation of Fe-doped Li3N. The b.c.c. structure and good sample quality of α -Fe single crystals were confirmed by X-ray and electron diffraction as well as magnetization measurements and chemical analysis. A nitrogen concentration of 90 ppm was detected by means of carrier gas hot extraction. Scanning electron microscopy did not reveal any sign of iron nitride precipitates.

  12. Adaptive temperature profile control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    An intelligent measurement system is described which is used to assess the shape of a crystal while it is growing inside a multizone transparent furnace. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time, and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

  13. Zeolite crystal growth in space - What has been learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Thompson, R. W.; Dixon, A. G.

    1993-01-01

    Three zeolite crystal growth experiments developed at WPI have been performed in space in last twelve months. One experiment, GAS-1, illustrated that to grow large, crystallographically uniform crystals in space, the precursor solutions should be mixed in microgravity. Another experiment evaluated the optimum mixing protocol for solutions that chemically interact ('gel') on contact. These results were utilized in setting the protocol for mixing nineteen zeolite solutions that were then processed and yielded zeolites A, X and mordenite. All solutions in which the nucleation event was influenced produced larger, more 'uniform' crystals than did identical solutions processed on earth.

  14. Growth and characterization of struvite-Na crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, Chetan K.; Joshi, Mihirkumar J.

    2014-09-01

    Sodium magnesium phosphate heptahydrate [NaMgPO4·7H2O], also known as struvite-Na, is the sodium analog to struvite. Among phosphate containing bio-minerals, struvite has attracted considerable attention, because of its common occurrence in a wide variety of environments. Struvite and family crystals were found as urinary calculi in humans and animals. Struvite-Na crystals were grown by a single diffusion gel growth technique in a silica hydro gel medium. Struvite-Na crystals with different morphologies having transparent to translucent diaphaneity were grown with different growth parameters. The phenomenon of Liesegang rings was also observed with some particular growth parameters. The powder XRD study confirmed the structural similarity of the grown struvite-Na crystals with struvite and found that struvite-Na crystallized in the orthorhombic Pmn21 space group with unit cell parameters such as a= 6.893 Å, b=6.124 Å, c=11.150 Å, and α=β=γ=90°. FT-IR spectra of struvite-Na crystals revealed the presence of functional groups. The TGA, DTA and DSC were carried out simultaneously. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of dehydration/decomposition process were calculated. The variation of dielectric constant with frequency of applied field was studied in the range from 400 Hz to 100 kHz.

  15. Growth of large zeolite crystals in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacco, A., Jr.; Dixon, A.; Thompson, R.; Scott, G.; Ditr, J.

    1988-01-01

    Synthesis studies performed using close analogs of triethanolamine (TEA) have shown that all three hydroxyl groups and the amine group in this molecule are necessary to provide nucleation suppression. Studies using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) revealed that the hydroxyl ions and the amine group are involved in the formation of an aluminum complex. It was also shown that silicate species fo not interact this way with TEA in an alkaline solution. These results suggest that successful aluminum complexation leads to nucleation in zeolite-A crystallization.

  16. Analytics of crystal growth in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, C. E.; Lefever, R. A.; Wilcox, W. R.

    1975-01-01

    The variation of radial impurity distribution induced by surface tension driven flow increases as the zone length decreases in silicon crystals grown by floating zone melting. In combined buoyancy driven and surface tension driven convection at the gravity of earth, the buoyancy contribution becomes relatively smaller as the zone diameter decreases and eventually convection is dominated by the surface tension driven flow (in the case of silicon, for zones of less than about 0.8 cm in diameter). Preliminary calculations for sapphire suggest the presence of an oscillatory surface tension driven convection as a result of an unstable melt surface temperature that results when the zone is heated by a radiation heater.

  17. Nucleation and Convection Effects in Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-01-01

    Work during the second year under this grant (NAG8-1161) resulted in several major achievements. We have characterized protein impurities as well as microheterogeneities in the proteins hen egg white lysozyme and horse spleen apoferritin, and demonstrated the effects of these impurities on nucleation and crystallization. In particular, the purification of apoferritin resulted in crystals with an X-ray diffraction resolution of better than 1.8 A, i.e. a 1 A improvement over earlier work on the cubic form. Furthermore, we have shown, in association with studies of liquid-liquid phase separation, that depending on the growth conditions, lysozyme can produce all growth morphologies that have been observed with other proteins. Finally, in connection with our experimental and simulation work on growth step bunching, we have developed a system-dependent criterion for advantages and disadvantages of crystallization from solution under reduced gravity. In the following, these efforts are described in some detail.

  18. Minimal physical requirements for crystal growth self-poisoning

    DOE PAGES

    Whitelam, Stephen; Dahal, Yuba Raj; Schmit, Jeremy D.

    2016-02-10

    Self-poisoning is a kinetic trap that can impair or prevent crystal growth in a wide variety of physical settings. In this paper, we use dynamic mean-field theory and computer simulation to argue that poisoning is ubiquitous because its emergence requires only the notion that a molecule can bind in two (or more) ways to a crystal; that those ways are not energetically equivalent; and that the associated binding events occur with sufficiently unequal probability. If these conditions are met then the steady-state growth rate is in general a non-monotonic function of the thermodynamic driving force for crystal growth, which ismore » the characteristic of poisoning. Finally, our results also indicate that relatively small changes of system parameters could be used to induce recovery from poisoning.« less

  19. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, Harry C.; Lagowski, Jacek

    1989-01-01

    The program on Crystal Growth of Device Quality GaAs in Space was initiated in 1977. The initial stage covering 1977 to 1984 was devoted strictly to ground-based research. By 1985 the program had evolved into its next logical stage aimed at space growth experiments; however, since the Challenger disaster, the program has been maintained as a ground-based program awaiting activation of experimentation in space. The overall prgram has produced some 80 original scientific publications on GaAs crystal growth, crystal characterization, and new approaches to space processing. Publication completed in the last three years are listed. Their key results are outlined and discussed in the twelve publications included as part of the report.

  20. Kinetics of Nucleation and Crystal Growth in Glass Forming Melts in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, Delbert E.; Ray, Chandra S.

    1999-01-01

    The following list summarizes the most important results that have been consistently reported for glass forming melts in microgravity: (1) Glass formation is enhanced for melts prepared in space; (2) Glasses prepared in microgravity are more chemically homogeneous and contain fewer and smaller chemically heterogeneous regions than identical glasses prepared on earth; (3) Heterogeneities that are deliberately introduced such as Pt particles are more uniformly distributed in a glass melted in space than in a glass melted on earth; (4) Glasses prepared in microgravity are more resistant to crystallization and have a higher mechanical strength and threshold energy for radiation damage; and (5) Glasses crystallized in space have a different microstructure, finer grains more uniformly distributed, than equivalent samples crystallized on earth. The preceding results are not only scientifically interesting, but they have considerable practical implications. These results suggest that the microgravity environment is advantageous for developing new and improved glasses and glass-ceramics that are difficult to prepare on earth. However, there is no suitable explanation at this time for why a glass melted in microgravity will be more chemically homogeneous and more resistant to crystallization than a glass melted on earth. A fundamental investigation of melt homogenization, nucleation, and crystal growth processes in glass forming melts in microgravity is important to understanding these consistently observed, but yet unexplained results. This is the objective of the present research. A lithium disilicate (Li2O.2SiO2) glass will be used for this investigation, since it is a well studied system, and the relevant thermodynamic and kinetic parameters for nucleation and crystal growth at 1-g are available. The results from this research are expected to improve our present understanding of the fundamental mechanism of nucleation and crystal growth in melts and liquids, and to lead

  1. Erythritol: crystal growth from the melt.

    PubMed

    Lopes Jesus, A J; Nunes, Sandra C C; Ramos Silva, M; Matos Beja, A; Redinha, J S

    2010-03-30

    The structural changes occurring on erythritol as it is cooled from the melt to low temperature, and then heated up to the melting point have been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), polarized light thermal microscopy (PLTM), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By DSC, it was possible to set up the conditions to obtain an amorphous solid, a crystalline solid, or a mixture of both materials in different proportions. Two crystalline forms have been identified: a stable and a metastable one with melting points of 117 and 104 degrees C, respectively. The fusion curve decomposition of the stable form revealed the existence of three conformational structures. The main paths of the crystallization from the melt were followed by PLTM. The texture and colour changes allowed the characterization of the different phases and transitions in which they are involved on cooling as well as on heating processes. The type of crystallization front and its velocity were also followed by microscopic observation. These observations, together with the data provided by PXRD, allowed elucidating the transition of the metastable form into the stable one. The structural changes occurring upon the cooling and subsequent heating processes, namely those arising from intermolecular hydrogen bonds, were also accompanied by infrared spectroscopy. Particular attention was given to the spectral changes occurring in the OH stretching region. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Hanging drop crystal growth apparatus and method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor); Smith, Robbie E. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus (10) is constructed having a cylindrical enclosure (16) within which a disc-shaped wicking element (18) is positioned. A well or recess (22) is cut into an upper side (24) of this wicking element, and a glass cover plate or slip (28) having a protein drop disposed thereon is sealably positioned on the wicking element (18), with drop (12) being positioned over well or recess (22). A flow of control fluid is generated by a programmable gradient former (16), with this control fluid having a vapor pressure that is selectively variable. This flow of control fluid is coupled to the wicking element (18) where control fluid vapor diffusing from walls (26) of the recess (22) is exposed to the drop (12), forming a vapor pressure gradient between the drop (12) and the control fluid vapor. Initially, this gradient is adjusted to draw solvent from the drop (12) at a relatively high rate, and as the critical supersaturation point is approached (the point at which crystal nucleation occurs), the gradient is reduced to more slowly draw solvent from the drop (12). This allows discrete protein molecules more time to orient themselves into an ordered crystalline lattice, producing protein crystals which, when processed by X-ray crystallography, possess a high degree of resolution.

  3. Protein crystal growth in microgravity: Temperature induced large scale crystallization of insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Marianna M.; Delucas, Larry J.; Smith, C.; Carson, M.; Moore, K.; Harrington, Michael D.; Pillion, D. J.; Bishop, S. P.; Rosenblum, W. M.; Naumann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    One of the major stumbling blocks that prevents rapid structure determination using x-ray crystallography is macro-molecular crystal growth. There are many examples where crystallization takes longer than structure determination. In some cases, it is impossible to grow useful crystals on earth. Recent experiments conducted in conjuction with NASA on various Space Shuttle missions have demonstrated that protein crystals often grow larger and display better internal molecular order than their earth-grown counterparts. This paper reports results from three Shuttle flights using the Protein Crystallization Facility (PCF). The PCF hardware produced large, high-quality insulin crystals by using a temperature change as the sole means to affect protein solubility and thus, crystallization. The facility consists of cylinders/containers with volumes of 500, 200, 100, and 50 ml. Data from the three Shuttle flights demonstrated that larger, higher resolution crystals (as evidenced by x-ray diffraction data) were obtained from the microgravity experiments when compared to earth-grown crystals.

  4. Crystal growth of sulfide materials from alkali polysulfide liquids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. B.

    1979-01-01

    The fluids experiment system was designed for low temperature solution growth, nominally aqueous solution growth. The alkali polysulfides, compositions in the systems Na2S-S and K2S-S form liquids in the temperature range of 190 C to 400 C. These can be used as solvents for other important classes of materials such as transition metal and other sulfides which are not soluble in aqueous media. Among these materials are luminescent and electroluminescent crystals whose physical properties are sensitive functions of crystal perfection and which could, therefore, serve as test materials for perfection improvement under microgravity conditions.

  5. Analysis of models for two solution crystal growth problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fehribach, Joseph D.; Rosenberger, Franz

    1989-01-01

    Two diffusive solution crystal growth models are considered which are characterized by two phases separated by an interface, a lack of convective mixing in either phase, and the presence of diffusion components differing widely in diffusivity. The first model describes precipitant-driven solution crystal growth and the second model describes a hanging drop evaporation problem. It is shown that for certain proteins sharp concentration gradients may develop in the drop during evaporation, while under the same conditions the concentrations of other proteins remain uniform.

  6. Crystal growth of device quality GaAs in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatos, H. C.; Lagowski, J.

    1984-01-01

    The crystal growth, device processing and device related properties and phenomena of GaAs are investigated. Our GaAs research evolves about these key thrust areas. The overall program combines: (1) studies of crystal growth on novel approaches to engineering of semiconductor materials (i.e., GaAs and related compounds); (2) investigation and correlation of materials properties and electronic characteristics on a macro- and microscale; (3) investigation of electronic properties and phenomena controlling device applications and device performance. The ground based program is developed which would insure successful experimentation with and eventually processing of GaAs in a near zero gravity environment.

  7. The Influence of Mechanical Stress on the Growth of Crystals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    crystal surface. In Fig. 7 we present interferograms taken at various points during the straining of a paracetamol crystal28. In Fig. 7 we show the overall...dependence of growth rate on stress. The curvature observed fits well with the nature of the material. Paracetamol shows a well-defined plastic...0 6.6 -0.3 S13.5 4-0.7 21 *1 Fig. 6. Interferograms of the growth of a (001) surface of paracetamol as a function of applied tensile strain. 2.0

  8. Ridge InGaAs/InP multi-quantum-well selective growth in nanoscale trenches on Si (001) substrate

    SciT

    Li, S.; Zhou, X.; Li, M.

    Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of InGaAs/InP multi-quantum-well in nanoscale V-grooved trenches on Si (001) substrate was studied using the aspect ratio trapping method. A high quality GaAs/InP buffer layer with two convex (111) B facets was selectively grown to promote the highly uniform, single-crystal ridge InP/InGaAs multi-quantum-well structure growth. Material quality was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy and room temperature micro-photoluminescence measurements. This approach shows great promise for the fabrication of photonics devices and nanolasers on Si substrate.

  9. Dynamics of melt crystal interface and thermal stresses in rotational Bridgman crystal growth process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Ronghui; Zhang, Hui; Larson, David J.; Mandal, Krishna C.

    2004-05-01

    The growth process of potassium bromide (KBr) single crystals in a vertical Bridgman furnace has been studied numerically using an integrated model that combines formulation of global heat transfer and thermal elastic stresses. The global heat transfer sub-model accounts for conduction, convection and interface movement in the multiphase system. Using the elastic stress sub-model, thermal stresses in the growing crystal caused by the non-uniform temperature distribution is predicted. Special attention is directed to the interaction between the crystal and the ampoule. The global temperature distribution in the furnace, the flow pattern in the melt and the interface shapes are presented. We also investigate the effects of the natural convection and rotational forced convection on the shape of the growth fronts. Furthermore, the state of the thermal stresses in the crystal is studied to understand the plastic deformation mechanisms during the cooling process. The influence of the wall contact on thermal stresses is also addressed.

  10. Crystal structure and crystal growth of the polar ferrimagnet CaBaFe4O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, R. S.; Kurebayashi, H.; Gibbs, A.; Gutmann, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic materials are a cornerstone for developing spintronic devices for the transport of information via magnetic excitations. To date, relatively few materials have been investigated for the purpose of spin transport, mostly due to the paucity of suitable candidates as these materials are often chemically complex and difficult to synthesize. We present the crystal growth and a structure solution on the high-temperature crystal structure of the layered, polar ferrimagnet CaBaFe4O7 , which is a possible new contender for spintronics research. The space group is identified as P 3 by refinement of single crystal and powder neutron diffraction data. At 400 K, the trigonal lattice parameters are a =11.0114 (11 )Å and c =10.330 (3 )Å . The structure is similar to the low-temperature phase with alternating layers of triangular and Kagome-arranged Fe-O tetrahedra. We also present details of the crystal growth by traveling solvent method.

  11. Effect of Slag Composition on the Crystallization Kinetics of Synthetic CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO Slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esfahani, Shaghayegh; Barati, Mansoor

    2018-04-01

    The crystallization kinetics of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO (CSAM) slags was studied with the aid of single hot thermocouple technique (SHTT). Kinetic parameters such as the Avrami exponent ( n), rate coefficient ( K), and effective activation energy of crystallization ( E A ) were obtained by kinetic analysis of data obtained from in situ observation of glassy to crystalline transformation and image analysis. Also, the dependence of nucleation and growth rates of crystalline phases were quantified as a function of time, temperature, and slag basicity. Together with the observations of crystallization front, they facilitated establishing the dominant mechanisms of crystallization. In an attempt to predict crystallization rate under non-isothermal conditions, a mathematical model was developed that employs the rate data of isothermal transformation. The model was validated by reproducing an experimental continuous cooling transformation diagram purely from isothermal data.

  12. Studying of crystal growth and overall crystallization of naproxen from binary mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, E; Madejczyk, O; Tarnacka, M; Jurkiewicz, K; Kaminski, K; Paluch, M

    2017-04-01

    Broadband dielectric spectroscopy (BDS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were applied to investigate the molecular dynamics and phase transitions in binary mixtures composed of naproxen (NAP) and acetylated saccharides: maltose (acMAL) and sucrose (acSUC). Moreover, the application of BDS method and optical microscopy enabled us to study both crystallization kinetics and crystal growth of naproxen from the solid dispersions with the highest content of modified carbohydrates (1:5wt ratio). It was found that the activation barriers of crystallization estimated from dielectric measurements are completely different for both studied herein mixtures. Much higher E a (=205kJ/mol) was obtained for NAP-acMAL solid dispersion. It is probably due to simultaneous crystallization of both components of the mixture. On the other hand, lower value of E a in the case of NAP-acSUC solid dispersion (81kJ/mol) indicated, that naproxen is the only crystallizing compound. This hypothesis was confirmed by X-ray diffraction studies. We also suggested that specific intermolecular dipole-dipole interactions between active substance and excipient may be an alternative explanation for the difference between activation barrier obtained for NAP-acMAL and NAP-acSUC binary mixtures. Furthermore, optical measurements showed that the activation energy for crystal growth of naproxen increases in binary mixtures. They also revealed that both excipients: acMAL and acSUC move the temperature of the maximum of crystal growth towards lower temperatures. Interestingly, this maximum occurs for nearly the same structural relaxation time, which is a good approximation of viscosity, for all samples. Finally, it was also noticed that although naproxen crystallizes to the same polymorphic form in both systems, there are some differences in morphology of obtained crystals. Thus, the observed behavior may have a significant impact on the bioavailability and dissolution rate of API produced in that way

  13. Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiameni, S.; Famengo, A.; Agresti, F.; Boldrini, S.; Battiston, S.; Saleemi, M.; Johnsson, M.; Toprak, M. S.; Fabrizio, M.

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium silicide (Mg2Si)-based alloys are promising candidates for thermoelectric (TE) energy conversion in the middle-high temperature range. The detrimental effect of the presence of MgO on the TE properties of Mg2Si based materials is widely known. For this reason, the conditions used for synthesis and sintering were optimized to limit oxygen contamination. The effect of Bi doping on the TE performance of dense Mg2Si materials was also investigated. Synthesis was performed by ball milling in an inert atmosphere starting from commercial Mg2Si powder and Bi powder. The samples were consolidated, by spark plasma sintering, to a density >95%. The morphology, and the composition and crystal structure of samples were characterized by field-emission scanning electronic microscopy and x-ray diffraction, respectively. Moreover, determination of Seebeck coefficients and measurement of electrical and thermal conductivity were performed for all the samples. Mg2Si with 0.1 mol% Bi doping had a ZT value of 0.81, indicative of the potential of this method for fabrication of n-type bulk material with good TE performance.

  14. Thermal Optimization of Growth and Quality in Protein Crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiencek, John M.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that larger and higher quality crystals can be attained in the microgravity of space; however, the effect of growth rate on protein crystal quality is not well documented. This research is the first step towards providing strategies to grow crystals under constant rates of growth. Controlling growth rates at a constant value allows for direct one-to-one comparison of results obtained in microgravity and on earth. The overall goal of the project was to control supersaturation at a constant value during protein crystal growth by varying temperature in a predetermined manner. Applying appropriate theory requires knowledge of specific physicochemical properties of the protein solution including the effect of supersaturation on growth rates and the effect of temperature on protein solubility. Such measurements typically require gram quantities of protein and many months of data acquisition. A second goal of the project applied microcalorimetry for the rapid determination of these physicochemical properties using a minimum amount of protein. These two goals were successfully implemented on hen egg-white lysozyme. Results of these studies are described in the attached reprints.

  15. In situ TEM observation of preferential amorphization in single crystal Si nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jiangbin; Zhu, Xianfang

    2018-06-01

    The nanoinstability of a single crystal Si nanowire under electron beam irradiation was in situ investigated at room temperature by the transmission electron microscopy technique. It was observed that the Si nanowire amorphized preferentially from the surface towards the center, with the increasing of the electron dose. In contrast, in the center of the Si nanowire the amorphization seemed much more difficult, being accompanied by the rotation of crystal grains and the compression of d-spacing. Such a preferential amorphization, which is athermally induced by the electron beam irradiation, can be well accounted for by our proposed concepts of the nanocurvature effect and the energetic beam-induced athermal activation effect, while the classical knock-on mechanism and the electron beam heating effect seem inadequate to explain these processes. Furthermore, the findings revealed the difference of amorphization between a Si nanowire and a Si film under electron beam irradiation. Also, the findings have important implications for the nanoinstability and nanoprocessing of future Si nanowire-based devices.

  16. In situ TEM observation of preferential amorphization in single crystal Si nanowire.

    PubMed

    Su, Jiangbin; Zhu, Xianfang

    2018-06-08

    The nanoinstability of a single crystal Si nanowire under electron beam irradiation was in situ investigated at room temperature by the transmission electron microscopy technique. It was observed that the Si nanowire amorphized preferentially from the surface towards the center, with the increasing of the electron dose. In contrast, in the center of the Si nanowire the amorphization seemed much more difficult, being accompanied by the rotation of crystal grains and the compression of d-spacing. Such a preferential amorphization, which is athermally induced by the electron beam irradiation, can be well accounted for by our proposed concepts of the nanocurvature effect and the energetic beam-induced athermal activation effect, while the classical knock-on mechanism and the electron beam heating effect seem inadequate to explain these processes. Furthermore, the findings revealed the difference of amorphization between a Si nanowire and a Si film under electron beam irradiation. Also, the findings have important implications for the nanoinstability and nanoprocessing of future Si nanowire-based devices.

  17. The dynamic nature of crystal growth in pores

    DOE PAGES

    Godinho, Jose R. A.; Gerke, Kirill M.; Stack, Andrew G.; ...

    2016-09-12

    We report that the kinetics of crystal growth in porous media controls a variety of natural processes such as ore genesis and crystallization induced fracturing that can trigger earthquakes and weathering, as well as, sequestration of CO 2 and toxic metals into geological formations. Progress on understanding those processes has been limited by experimental difficulties of dynamically studying the reactive surface area and permeability during pore occlusion. Here, we show that these variables cause a time-dependency of barite growth rates in microporous silica. The rate is approximately constant and similar to that observed on free surfaces if fast flow velocitiesmore » predominate and if the time-dependent reactive surface area is accounted for. As the narrower flow paths clog, local flow velocities decrease, which causes the progressive slowing of growth rates. We conclude that mineral growth in a microporous media can be estimated based on free surface studies when a) the growth rate is normalized to the time-dependent surface area of the growing crystals, and b) the local flow velocities are above the limit at which growth is transport-limited. Lastly, accounting for the dynamic relation between microstructure, flow velocity and growth rate is shown to be crucial towards understanding and predicting precipitation in porous rocks.« less

  18. The growth of dislocation-free crystals of benzil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katoh, K.; Kato, N.

    1985-11-01

    Dislocation-free crystals of benzil have been obtained by repeated Czochralski growth and have been characterized using X-ray diffraction topography. At each stage of growth, the parts containing the defects were etched off and the rest was used for the seed in the next growth. The growth behaviour could be interpreted in connection with the shape of the solid-liquid interface. The double image of the screw dislocation could be explained elementarily and it was concluded that the Burgers vector was c/3.

  19. Linking Crystal Populations to Dynamic States: Crystal Dissolution and Growth During an Open-System Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J.; Burgisser, A.

    2016-12-01

    The identification of shared characteristics in zoned crystals has motivated the definition of crystal populations. These populations reflect the simultaneous transport of crystals, heat and composition during open-system events. An obstacle to interpreting the emergence of a population is the absence of a way to correlate specific dynamic conditions with the characteristic attributes of a population. By combining a boundary-layer diffusion controlled model for crystal growth/dissolution with discrete-element magma dynamics simulations of crystal-bearing magmas, the creation of populations can be simulated. We have implemented a method that decomposes the chemical potential into the thermal and compositional contributions to crystal dissolution/growth. This allows for the explicit treatment of thermal inertia and thermal-compositional decoupling as fluid circulation stirs the system during an open-system event. We have identified three distinct dynamic states producing crystal populations. They are based on the volume fraction of crystals. In a mushy system, thermal and compositional states are tightly linked as the volume involved in the mixing is constrained by the so-called mixing bowl (Bergantz et al., 2015). The mixing bowl volume is a function of the visco-plastic response of the mush and the intrusion width, not by the progressive entrainment of the new intrusion as commonly assumed. Crystal dissolution is the dominate response to input of more primitive magma. At the other endmember, under very dilute conditions, thermal and compositional conditions can become decoupled, and the in-coming magma forms a double-diffusive low-Re jet. This can allow for both dissolution and growth as crystals circulate widely into an increasingly stratified system. A middle range of crystal concentration produces a very complex feedback, as sedimenting crystals form fingers and chains that interact with the incoming magma, break-up the entrainment with chaotic stirring and add

  20. Melt-growth dynamics in CdTe crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Zhou, X. W.; Ward, D. K.; Wong, B. M.; ...

    2012-06-01

    We use a new, quantum-mechanics-based bond-order potential (BOP) to reveal melt growth dynamics and fine scale defect formation mechanisms in CdTe crystals. Previous molecular dynamics simulations of semiconductors have shown qualitatively incorrect behavior due to the lack of an interatomic potential capable of predicting both crystalline growth and property trends of many transitional structures encountered during the melt → crystal transformation. Here, we demonstrate successful molecular dynamics simulations of melt growth in CdTe using a BOP that significantly improves over other potentials on property trends of different phases. Our simulations result in a detailed understanding of defect formation during themore » melt growth process. Equally important, we show that the new BOP enables defect formation mechanisms to be studied at a scale level comparable to empirical molecular dynamics simulation methods with a fidelity level approaching quantum-mechanical methods.« less

  1. Progress toward thin-film GaAs solar cells using a single-crystal Si substrate with a Ge interlayer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Y. C. M.; Wang, K. L.; Zwerdling, S.

    1982-01-01

    Development of a technology for fabricating light-weight, high-efficiency, radiation-resistant solar cells for space applications is reported. The approaches currently adopted are to fabricate shallow homojunction n(+)/p as well as p/n AlGaAs-heteroface GaAs solar cells by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OM-CVD) on single-crystal Si substrates using in each case, a thin Ge epi-interlayer first grown by CVD. This approach maintains the advantages of the low specific gravity of Si as well as the high efficiency and radiation-resistant properties of the GaAs solar cell which can lead to greatly improved specific power for a solar array. The growth of single-crystal GaAs epilayers on Ge epi-interlayers on Si substrates is investigated. Related solar cell fabrication is reviewed.

  2. Direct observation of crystal growth from solution using optical investigation of a growing crystal face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lal, Ravindra

    1994-01-01

    The first technical report for the period 1 Jan. 1993 till 31 Dec. 1993 for the research entitled, 'Direct observation of crystal growth from solution using Optical Investigation of a growing crystal Face' is presented. The work on the project did not start till 1 June 1993 due to the non-availability of the required personnel. The progress of the work during the period 1 June 1993 till the end of 1993 is described. Significant progress was made for testing various optical diagnostic techniques for monitoring crystal solution. Some of the techniques that are being tested are: heterodyne detection technique, in which changes in phase are measured as a interferometric function of time/crystal growth; a conventional technique, in which a fringe brightness is measured as a function of crystal growth/time; and a Mach-Zehnder interferometric technique in which a fringe brightness is measured as a function of time to obtain information on concentration changes. During the second year it will be decided to incorporate the best interferometric technique along with the ellipsometric technique, to obtain real time in-situ growth rate measurements. A laboratory mock-up of the first two techniques were made and tested.

  3. The Growth of Protein Crystals Using McDUCK

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, Felicia; Wilson, Lori; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc

    1998-01-01

    Most of the current microgravity crystal growth hardware is optimized to produce crystals within the limited time available on orbit. This often results in the actual nucleation and growth process being rushed or the system not coming to equilibrium within the limited time available. Longer duration hardware exists, but one cannot readily pick out crystals grown early versus those which nucleated and grew more slowly. We have devised a long duration apparatus, the Multi-chamber Dialysis Unit for Crystallization Kinetics, or McDUCK. This apparatus-is a series of protein chambers, stacked upon a precipitant reservoir chamber. All chambers are separated by a dialysis membrane, which serves to pass small molecules while retaining the protein. The volume of the Precipitant chamber is equal to the sum of the volumes of the protein chamber. In operation, the appropriate chambers are filled with precipitant solution or protein solution, and the McDUCK is placed standing upright, with the precipitant chamber on the bottom. The precipitant diffuses upwards over time, with the time to reach equilibration a function of the diffusivity of the precipitant and the overall length of the diffusion pathway. Typical equilibration times are approximately 2-4 months, and one can readily separate rapid from slow nucleation and growth crystals. An advantage on Earth is that the vertical precipitant concentration gradient dominates that of the solute, thus dampening out solute density gradient driven convective flows. However, large Earth-grown crystals have so far tended to be more two dimensional. Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of lysozyme crystals grown in McDUCK have indicated that the best, and largest, come from the middle chambers, suggesting that there is an optimal growth rate. Further, the improvements in diffraction resolution have been better signal to noise ratios in the low resolution data, not an increase in resolution overall. Due to the persistently large crystals

  4. Development of X-ray spectroscopic polarimetry with bent Si crystals and CFRP substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iizuka, Ryo; Izumiya, Takanori; Tsuboi, Yohko

    2016-07-01

    The light from celestial objects includes four important quantities; images, time variation, energy spectrum, and polarization. In the field of X-ray astronomy, the capabilities of the former three have remarkably developed. On the other hand, the progress for the polarimetry is considerably delayed because of technical difficulties. In order to make a breakthrough in the field of X-ray polarimetry, we have developed a new type of optics for X-ray polarimetry. The system is collecting Bragg crystal with large area and very high sensitivity for the polarization dedicated to Fe-K lines. We adopt the 400 re ection of Si(100) crystals with high sensitivity for the polarization around Fe-K lines (6 7 keV), and bent the crystals with the wide X-ray band and high S/N ratio. Furthermore, to install small area of CCD to non-focal plane, it also has the spectroscopic capability with the better resolution than that of general X-ray CCD. Our previous development was to bent Si crystals to the cylindrical shape of circle and parabola with the DLC deposition. However, for the better optics for the X-ray polarimetry, the shape should be the paraboloid of revolution to collect X-rays with high S/N ratio. We searched for the method to bent the Si crystals to the shape of the paraboloid of revolution. We devised the method to mold the crystal and the CFRP substrate simultaneously pushed to the sophisticated foundation with the paraboloid of revolution. We developed the prototype of about 8 inch in radius of one-quater size. The crystals was also bent in the circumferential direction. Therefore, the image capability examined with optical parallel beam is 0.6 degree. In this thesis, we discussed the new design for X-ray spectroscopic polarimetry, the evaluation of image capability.

  5. Accumulated distribution of material gain at dislocation crystal growth

    SciT

    Rakin, V. I., E-mail: rakin@geo.komisc.ru

    2016-05-15

    A model for slowing down the tangential growth rate of an elementary step at dislocation crystal growth is proposed based on the exponential law of impurity particle distribution over adsorption energy. It is established that the statistical distribution of material gain on structurally equivalent faces obeys the Erlang law. The Erlang distribution is proposed to be used to calculate the occurrence rates of morphological combinatorial types of polyhedra, presenting real simple crystallographic forms.

  6. Modern trends in crystal growth and new applications of sapphire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akselrod, Mark S.; Bruni, Frank J.

    2012-12-01

    We provide an overview of the latest market trends and modern competing methods of sapphire crystal growth and the application of sapphire wafers as LED substrates. Almost all methods of high temperature growth from the melt are suitable for sapphire production, but each of these methods has its advantages and disadvantages depending on the application and required finished product form factor. Special attention is paid to the review of defects and imperfections that allow the engineering of new active devices based on sapphire.

  7. Device and method for screening crystallization conditions in solution crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A device and method for detecting optimum protein crystallization conditions and for growing protein crystals in either 1g or microgravity environments comprising a housing, defining at least one pair of chambers for containing crystallization solutions is presented. The housing further defines an orifice therein for providing fluid communication between the chambers. The orifice is adapted to receive a tube which contains a gelling substance for limiting the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. The solutions are diffusively mixed over a period of time defined by the quantity of gelling substance sufficient to achieve equilibration and to substantially reduce density driven convection disturbances therein. The device further includes endcaps to seal the first and second chambers. One of the endcaps includes a dialysis chamber which contains protein solution in which protein crystals are grown. Once the endcaps are in place, the protein solution is exposed to the crystallization solutions wherein the solubility of the protein solution is reduced at a rate responsive to the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. This allows for a controlled approach to supersaturation and allows for screening of crystal growth conditions at preselected intervals.

  8. Device and Method for Screening Crystallization Conditions in Solution Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A device and method for detecting optimum protein crystallization conditions and for growing protein crystals in either 1 g or microgravity environments comprising a housing defining at least one pair of chambers for containing crystallization solutions. The housing further defines an orifice therein for providing fluid communication between the chambers. The orifice is adapted to receive a tube which contains a gelling substance for limiting the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. The solutions are diffusively mixed over a period of time defined by the quantity of gelling substance sufficient to achieve equilibration and to substantially reduce density driven convection disturbances therein. The device further includes endcaps to seal the first and second chambers. One of the endcaps includes a dialysis chamber which contains protein solution in which protein crystals are grown. Once the endcaps are in place. the protein solution is exposed to the crystallization solutions wherein the solubility of the protein solution is reduced at a rate responsive to the rate of diffusive mixing of the crystallization solutions. This allows for a controlled approach to supersaturation and allows for screening of crystal growth conditions at preselected intervals.

  9. In Situ μGISAXS: II. Thaumatin Crystal Growth Kinetic

    PubMed Central

    Gebhardt, Ronald; Pechkova, Eugenia; Riekel, Christian; Nicolini, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The formation of thaumatin crystals by Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film nanotemplates was studied by the hanging-drop technique in a flow-through cell by synchrotron radiation micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The kinetics of crystallization was measured directly on the interface of the LB film crystallization nanotemplate. The evolution of the micrograzing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering patterns suggests that the increase in intensity in the Yoneda region is due to protein incorporation into the LB film. The intensity variation suggests several steps, which were modeled by system dynamics based on first-order differential equations. The kinetic data can be described by two processes that take place on the LB film, a first, fast, process, attributed to the crystal growth and its detachment from the LB film, and a second, slower process, attributed to an unordered association and conversion of protein on the LB film. PMID:20713011

  10. Identification and control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.; Singh, N. B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent adaptive control system for the control of a solid-liquid interface of a crystal while it is growing via directional solidification inside a multizone transparent furnace. The task of the process controller is to establish a user-specified axial temperature profile and to maintain a desirable interface shape. Both single-input-single-output and multi-input-multi-output adaptive pole placement algorithms have been used to control the temperature. Also described is an intelligent measurement system to assess the shape of the crystal while it is growing. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

  11. Second harmonic generation and crystal growth of new chalcone derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, P. S.; Dharmaprakash, S. M.; Ramakrishna, K.; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Sai Santosh Kumar, R.; Narayana Rao, D.

    2007-05-01

    We report on the synthesis, crystal structure and optical characterization of chalcone derivatives developed for second-order nonlinear optics. The investigation of a series of five chalcone derivatives with the second harmonic generation powder test according to Kurtz and Perry revealed that these chalcones show efficient second-order nonlinear activity. Among them, high-quality single crystals of 3-Br-4'-methoxychalcone (3BMC) were grown by solvent evaporation solution growth technique. Grown crystals were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), laser damage threshold, UV-vis-NIR and refractive index measurement studies. Infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis measurements were performed to study the molecular vibration and thermal behavior of 3BMC crystal. Thermal analysis does not show any structural phase transition.

  12. Polymer-mediated growth of crystals and mesocrystals.

    PubMed

    Cölfen, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    Polymers are important additives for the control of mineralization reactions in both biological and bioinspired mineralization. The reason is that they allow for a number of interactions with the growing crystals and even amorphous minerals. These can substantially influence the way the mineral grows on several levels. Already in the prenucleation phase, polymers can control the formation of prenucleation clusters and subsequently the nucleation event. Also, polymers can control whether the further crystallization follows a classical or nonclassical particle-mediated growth path. In this chapter, the main ways in which polymers can be used to control a crystallization reaction will be highlighted. In addition, polymers that are useful for this purpose and the experimental conditions suitable for directing a crystallization reaction into the desired direction through the use of polymers will be described. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Liquid-phase explosive crystallization of electron-beam-evaporated a-Si films induced by flash lamp annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2013-01-01

    We succeed in the formation of micrometer-order-thick polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) films through the flash-lamp-induced liquid-phase explosive crystallization (EC) of precursor a-Si films prepared by electron-beam (EB) evaporation. The velocity of the explosive crystallization (vEC) is estimated to be ˜14 m/s, which is close to the velocity of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) of Si at a temperature around the melting point of a-Si of 1418 K. Poly-Si films formed have micrometer-order-long grains stretched along a lateral crystallization direction, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction pattern measurements reveal that grains in poly-Si films tend to have a particular orientation. These features are significantly different from our previous results: the formation of poly-Si films containing randomly-oriented 10-nm-sized fine grains formed from a-Si films prepared by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) or sputtering. One possible reason for the emergence of a different EC mode in EB-evaporated a-Si films is the suppression of solid-phase nucleation (SPN) during Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA) due to tensile stress which precursor a-Si films originally hold. Poly-Si films formed from EB-evaporated a-Si films would contribute to the realization of high-efficiency thin-film poly-Si solar cells because of large and oriented grains.

  14. Crystal Growth and Fluid Mechanics Problems in Directional Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanveer, S.; Baker, G. R.; Foster, M. R.

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of a more complete theoretical understanding of convection effects in a vertical Bridgman apparatus is described. The aim is to develop a clear understanding of scalings of various features of dendritic crystal growth in the case that both the surface energy and undercooling are small.

  15. Solidification and crystal growth of solid solution semiconducting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehoczky, S. L.; Szofran, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Problems associated with the solidification and crytal growth of solid-solution semiconducting alloy crystals in a terrestrial environment are described. A detailed description is given of the results for the growth of mercury cadmium telluride (HgCdTe) alloy crystals by directional solidification, because of their considerable technological importance. A series of HgCdTe alloy crystals are grown from pseudobinary melts by a vertical Bridgman method using a wide range of growth rates and thermal conditions. Precision measurements are performed to establish compositional profiles for the crystals. The compositional variations are related to compositional variations in the melts that can result from two-dimensional diffusion or density gradient driven flow effects ahead of the growth interface. These effects are discussed in terms of the alloy phase equilibrium properties, the recent high temperature thermophysical data for the alloys and the highly unusual heat transfer characteristics of the alloy/ampule/furnace system that may readily lead to double diffusive convective flows in a gravitational environment.

  16. Crewmember working on the mid deck Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialist Bonnie Dunbar, in the mid deck, conducting the Zeolite Crystal Growth (ZCG) Experiment in the mid deck stowage locker work area. View shows assembly of zeolite sample in the metal autoclave cylinders prior to insertion into the furnace.

  17. Crewmember working on the spacelab Zeolite Crystal Growth experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    View showing Payload Specialists Bonnie Dunbar and Larry DeLucas in the aft section of the U. S. Microgravity Laboratory-1. Dunbar is preparing to load a sample in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) Integrated Furnace Experiment Assembly (IFEA) in rack 9 of the Microgravity Laboratory. DeLucas is checking out the multi-purpose Glovebox Facility.

  18. Astronaut Jan Davis monitors Commercial Protein Crystal Growth experiment

    1994-02-03

    STS060-21-031 (3-11 Feb 1994) --- Using a lap top computer, astronaut N. Jan Davis monitors systems for the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. Davis joined four other NASA astronauts and a Russian cosmonaut for eight days in space aboard Discovery.

  19. Protein crystal growth; Proceedings of the First International Conference, Stanford University, CA, August 14-16, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feigelson, R. S. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Papers are presented on mechanisms of nucleation and growth of protein crystals, the role of purification in the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids, and the effect of chemical impurities in polyethylene glycol on macromolecular crystallization. Also considered are growth kinetics of tetragonal lysozyme crystals, thermodynamic and kinetic considerations for crystal growth of complex molecules from solution, protein single-crystal growth under microgravity, and growth of organic crystals in a microgravity environment. Papers are also presented on preliminary investigations of protein crystal growth using the Space Shuttle, convective diffusion in protein crystal growth, and the growth and characterization of membrane protein crystals.

  20. Growth and photoluminescence study of several single crystal segments relevant to monolithic semiconductor cascade solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sillmon, Roger S.; Schreiner, Anton F.; Timmons, Michael

    1983-09-01

    Several representative single crystal stacked layers of III-V compound and alloy semiconductors were grown which are spatial regions relevant to a monolithic cascade solar cell, including the substrate, n-GaAs(Si), which was pre-growth heat treated in H 2(g) prior to its use. These structures were then studied by cryogenic laser excited photoluminescence (PL), and the substrate portion was explored in a depth profiling mode. Within the forbidden band gap region up to seven recombinations were observed and identified for undoped GaAs layers or the GaAs(Si) substrate, and several other PL recombinations were observed for undoped Al xGa 1- xAs and Al yGa 1- ySb zAs 1- z layers. In addition to the valence and conduction bands, these optical bands are also associa ted with the presence of C Ga, Si Ga, Si As, Cu Ga, V As, V Ga and vacancy-impurity complexes involving several of these defect types even in the absence of intentional doping. The findings also relate to problems of self-compensation and type inversion, so that the need for growth modifications is indicated.

  1. Crystal settling and crystal growth caused by Ostwald Ripening in a terrestrial magma ocean under rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maas, C.; Moeller, A.; Hansen, U.

    2013-12-01

    at the bottom of the magma ocean. At the equator we find three regimes (see A. Möller, U. Hansen (2013)) depending on the rotation strength. At low rotation a high fraction of silicate crystals settle at the bottom. At higher rotation the crystals form a thick layer in the bottom 1/3 of box. At high rotation all crystals are suspended and we observe a ribbon structure in the middle of the box. With a second model we investigate growing and shrinking of crystals by Ostwald Ripening and include formation and melting. In general we observe the same behaviour and regimes as described above, however due to Ostwald Ripening the evolution of crystal radius with time depends on the strength of rotation and on the orientation of the rotation axis. Very first results show that at the pole the growth of the silicate crystals is limited. The resulting small radius leads to a slow crystal settling. At the equator the crystals are able to grow larger than at the pole and therefore settle faster. This could lead to an asymmetrical crystallization of the magma ocean. In an extreme case due to the different settling times this could lead to a well mixed mantle at the pole whereas at the equator the mantle could be strongly differentiated after the solidification of the magma ocean.

  2. Formation mechanisms of nano and microcones by laser radiation on surfaces of Si, Ge, and SiGe crystals

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the mechanisms of laser radiation interaction with elementary semiconductors such as Si and Ge and their solid solution SiGe. As a result of this investigation, the mechanisms of nanocones and microcones formation on a surface of semiconductor were proposed. We have shown the possibility to control the size and the shape of cones both by the laser. The main reason for the formation of nanocones is the mechanical compressive stresses due to the atoms’ redistribution caused by the gradient of temperature induced by strongly absorbed laser radiation. According to our investigation, the nanocone formation mechanism in semiconductors is characterized by two stages. The first stage is characterized by formation of a p-n junction for elementary semiconductors or of a Ge/Si heterojunction for SiGe solid solution. The generation and redistribution of intrinsic point defects in elementary semiconductors and Ge atoms concentration on the irradiated surface of SiGe solid solution in temperature gradient field take place at this stage due to the thermogradient effect which is caused by strongly absorbed laser radiation. The second stage is characterized by formation of nanocones due to mechanical plastic deformation of the compressed Ge layer on Si. Moreover, a new 1D-graded band gap structure in elementary semiconductors due to quantum confinement effect was formed. For the formation of microcones Ni/Si structure was used. The mechanism of the formation of microcones is characterized by two stages as well. The first stage is the melting of Ni film after irradiation by laser beam and formation of Ni islands due to surface tension force. The second step is the melting of Ni and subsequent manifestations of Marangoni effect with the growth of microcones. PMID:23735193

  3. Crystallization kinetics of BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    1989-01-01

    Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.

  4. Crystallization kinetics of BaO-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Hyatt, Mark J.

    1988-01-01

    Barium aluminosilicate glasses are being investigated as matrix materials in high-temperature ceramic composites for structural applications. Kinetics of crystallization of two refractory glass compositions in the barium aluminosilicate system were studied by differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). From variable heating rate DTA, the crystallization activation energies for glass compositions (wt percent) 10BaO-38Al2O3-51SiO2-1MoO3 (glass A) and 39BaO-25Al2O3-35SiO2-1MoO3 (glass B) were determined to be 553 and 558 kJ/mol, respectively. On thermal treatment, the crystalline phases in glasses A and B were identified as mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2) and hexacelsian (BaO-Al2O3-2SiO2), respectively. Hexacelsian is a high-temperature polymorph which is metastable below 1590 C. It undergoes structural transformation into the orthorhombic form at approximately 300 C accompanied by a large volume change which is undesirable for structural applications. A process needs to be developed where stable monoclinic celsian, rather than hexacelsian, precipitates out as the crystal phase in glass B.

  5. Bridgman Growth of GeSi Alloys in a Static Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volz, M. P.; Szofran, F. R.; Vujisic, L.; Motakef, S.

    1998-01-01

    Ge(0.95)Si(0.050 alloy crystals have been grown by the vertical Bridgman technique, both with and without an axial 5 Tesla magnetic field. The crystals were processed in a constant axial thermal gradient and the effects of graphite, hot pressed boron nitride, and pyrolitic boron nitride ampoule materials on interface shapes and macrosegregation profiles were investigated. The sample grown in a graphite ampoule at 5 Tesla exhibited a macroscopic axial concentration profile close to that of complete mixing and strong striation patterns. In samples grown in boron nitride ampoules, both with and without a 5 Tesla magnetic field applied, measured macroscopic axial concentration profiles were intermediate between those expected for a completely mixed melt and diffusion-controlled growth, and striation patterns were also observed. Possible explanations for the apparent inability of the magnetic field to reduce the flow velocities to below the growth velocities are discussed, and results of growth experiments in pyrolitic boron nitride ampoules are also described.

  6. The controlled growth of GaN microrods on Si(111) substrates by MOCVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foltynski, Bartosz; Garro, Nuria; Vallo, Martin; Finken, Matthias; Giesen, Christoph; Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Cantarero, Andrés; Heuken, Michael

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a selective area growth (SAG) approach for growing GaN microrods on patterned SiNx/Si(111) substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) is studied. The surface morphology, optical and structural properties of vertical GaN microrods terminated by pyramidal shaped facets (six { 10 1 bar 1} planes) were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), room temperature photoluminescence (PL) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. Measurements revealed high-quality GaN microcolumns grown with silane support. Characterized structures were grown nearly strain-free (central frequency of Raman peak of 567±1 cm-1) with crystal quality comparable to bulk crystals (FWHM=4.2±1 cm-1). Such GaN microrods might be used as a next-generation device concept for solid-state lighting (SSL) applications by realizing core-shell InGaN/GaN multi-quantum wells (MQWs) on the n-GaN rod base.

  7. Control of interface shape during high melting sesquioxide crystal growth by HEM technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kaiwei; Zheng, Lili; Zhang, Hui

    2018-02-01

    During crystal growth in heat exchanger method (HEM) system, the shape of the growth interface changes with the proceeding of the growth process, which limits the crystal size and reduces the quality of the crystal. In this paper, a modified HEM system is proposed to control the interface shape for growth of sesquioxide crystals. Numerical simulation is performed to predict heat transfer, melt flow and interface shape during growth of high melting sesquioxide crystals by the heat exchanger method. The results show that a flat or slightly convex interface shape is beneficial to reduce the solute pileup in front of the melt/crystal interface and decrease the radial temperature gradient inside the crystal during growth of sesquioxide crystals. The interface shape can be controlled by adjusting the gap size d and lower resistance heater power during growth. The growth rate and the melt/crystal interface position can be obtained by two measured temperatures.

  8. Breadboard activities for advanced protein crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Banish, Michael

    1993-01-01

    The proposed work entails the design, assembly, testing, and delivery of a turn-key system for the semi-automated determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature. The system will utilize optical scintillation as a means of detecting and monitoring nucleation and crystallite growth during temperature lowering (or raising, with retrograde solubility systems). The deliverables of this contract are: (1) turn-key scintillation system for the semi-automatic determination of protein solubilities as a function of temperature, (2) instructions and software package for the operation of the scintillation system, and (3) one semi-annual and one final report including the test results obtained for ovostatin with the above scintillation system.

  9. Plateau-Rayleigh Crystal Growth of Nanowire Heterostructures: Strain-Modified Surface Chemistry and Morphological Control in One, Two, and Three Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Day, Robert W; Mankin, Max N; Lieber, Charles M

    2016-04-13

    One-dimensional (1D) structures offer unique opportunities for materials synthesis since crystal phases and morphologies that are difficult or impossible to achieve in macroscopic crystals can be synthesized as 1D nanowires (NWs). Recently, we demonstrated one such phenomenon unique to growth on a 1D substrate, termed Plateau-Rayleigh (P-R) crystal growth, where periodic shells develop along a NW core to form diameter-modulated NW homostructures with tunable morphologies. Here we report a novel extension of the P-R crystal growth concept with the synthesis of heterostructures in which Ge (Si) is deposited on Si (Ge) 1D cores to generate complex NW morphologies in 1, 2, or 3D. Depositing Ge on 50 nm Si cores with a constant GeH4 pressure yields a single set of periodic shells, while sequential variation of GeH4 pressure can yield multimodulated 1D NWs with two distinct sets of shell periodicities. P-R crystal growth on 30 nm cores also produces 2D loop structures, where Ge (Si) shells lie primarily on the outside (inside) of a highly curved Si (Ge) core. Systematic investigation of shell morphology as a function of growth time indicates that Ge shells grow in length along positive curvature Si cores faster than along straight Si cores by an order of magnitude. Short Ge deposition times reveal that shells develop on opposite sides of 50 and 100 nm Si cores to form straight 1D morphologies but that shells develop on the same side of 20 nm cores to produce 2D loop and 3D spring structures. These results suggest that strain mediates the formation of 2 and 3D morphologies by altering the NW's surface chemistry and that surface diffusion of heteroatoms on flexible freestanding 1D substrates can facilitate this strain-mediated mechanism.

  10. Growth and characterization of gold catalyzed SiGe nanowires and alternative metal-catalyzed Si nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The growth of semiconductor (SC) nanowires (NW) by CVD using Au-catalyzed VLS process has been widely studied over the past few years. Among others SC, it is possible to grow pure Si or SiGe NW thanks to these techniques. Nevertheless, Au could deteriorate the electric properties of SC and the use of other metal catalysts will be mandatory if NW are to be designed for innovating electronic. First, this article's focus will be on SiGe NW's growth using Au catalyst. The authors managed to grow SiGe NW between 350 and 400°C. Ge concentration (x) in Si1-xGex NW has been successfully varied by modifying the gas flow ratio: R = GeH4/(SiH4 + GeH4). Characterization (by Raman spectroscopy and XRD) revealed concentrations varying from 0.2 to 0.46 on NW grown at 375°C, with R varying from 0.05 to 0.15. Second, the results of Si NW growths by CVD using alternatives catalysts such as platinum-, palladium- and nickel-silicides are presented. This study, carried out on a LPCVD furnace, aimed at defining Si NW growth conditions when using such catalysts. Since the growth temperatures investigated are lower than the eutectic temperatures of these Si-metal alloys, VSS growth is expected and observed. Different temperatures and HCl flow rates have been tested with the aim of minimizing 2D growth which induces an important tapering of the NW. Finally, mechanical characterization of single NW has been carried out using an AFM method developed at the LTM. It consists in measuring the deflection of an AFM tip while performing approach-retract curves at various positions along the length of a cantilevered NW. This approach allows the measurement of as-grown single NW's Young modulus and spring constant, and alleviates uncertainties inherent in single point measurement. PMID:21711709

  11. Epitaxial graphene growth on FIB patterned 3C-SiC nanostructures on Si (111): reducing milling damage.

    PubMed

    Amjadipour, Mojtaba; MacLeod, Jennifer; Lipton-Duffin, Josh; Iacopi, Francesca; Motta, Nunzio

    2017-08-25

    Epitaxial growth of graphene on SiC is a scalable procedure that does not require any further transfer step, making this an ideal platform for graphene nanostructure fabrication. Focused ion beam (FIB) is a very promising tool for exploring the reduction of the lateral dimension of graphene on SiC to the nanometre scale. However, exposure of graphene to the Ga + beam causes significant surface damage through amorphisation and contamination, preventing epitaxial graphene growth. In this paper we demonstrate that combining a protective silicon layer with FIB patterning implemented prior to graphene growth can significantly reduce the damage associated with FIB milling. Using this approach, we successfully achieved graphene growth over 3C-SiC/Si FIB patterned nanostructures.

  12. The Faceted Discrete Growth and Phase Differentiation During the Directional Solidification of 20SiMnMo5 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Li, Dianzhong

    2018-03-01

    The microstructures, segregation and cooling curve were investigated in the directional solidification of 20SiMnMo5 steel. The typical characteristic of faceted growth is identified. The microstructures within the single cellular and within the single dendritic arm, together with the contradictive segregation distribution against the cooling curve, verify the discrete crystal growth in multi-scales. Not only the single cellular/dendritic arm but also the single martensite zone within the single cellular/dendritic arm is produced by the discrete growth. In the viewpoint of segregation, the basic domain following continuous growth has not been revealed. Along with the multi-scale faceted discrete growth, the phase differentiation happens for both the solid and liquid. The differentiated liquid phases appear and evolve with different sizes, positions, compositions and durations. The physical mechanism for the faceted discrete growth is qualitatively established based on the nucleation of new faceted steps induced by the composition gradient and temperature gradient.

  13. The Faceted Discrete Growth and Phase Differentiation During the Directional Solidification of 20SiMnMo5 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaoping; Li, Dianzhong

    2018-07-01

    The microstructures, segregation and cooling curve were investigated in the directional solidification of 20SiMnMo5 steel. The typical characteristic of faceted growth is identified. The microstructures within the single cellular and within the single dendritic arm, together with the contradictive segregation distribution against the cooling curve, verify the discrete crystal growth in multi-scales. Not only the single cellular/dendritic arm but also the single martensite zone within the single cellular/dendritic arm is produced by the discrete growth. In the viewpoint of segregation, the basic domain following continuous growth has not been revealed. Along with the multi-scale faceted discrete growth, the phase differentiation happens for both the solid and liquid. The differentiated liquid phases appear and evolve with different sizes, positions, compositions and durations. The physical mechanism for the faceted discrete growth is qualitatively established based on the nucleation of new faceted steps induced by the composition gradient and temperature gradient.

  14. Hot zone design for controlled growth to mitigate cracking in laser crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Zheng, Lili; Fang, Haisheng

    2011-03-01

    Cracking is a major problem during large diameter crystal growth. The objective of this work is to design an effective hot zone for a controlled growth of Yb:S-FAP [Yb3+:Sr5(PO4)3F] laser crystal by the Czochralski technology and effective cooling that can reduce stress. Theoretical and numerical analyses are performed to study the causes of cracking, mitigate the major cracking, as well as reduce cooling time. In the current system, three locations in the crystal are prone to crack, such as the top shoulder of the crystal, the middle portion above the crucible edge, and the bottom tail portion. Based on numerical simulations, we propose a new hot zone design and cooling procedure to grow and cool large diameter crystal without cracking.

  15. CRYSTAL GROWTH. Crystallization by particle attachment in synthetic, biogenic, and geologic environments.

    PubMed

    De Yoreo, James J; Gilbert, Pupa U P A; Sommerdijk, Nico A J M; Penn, R Lee; Whitelam, Stephen; Joester, Derk; Zhang, Hengzhong; Rimer, Jeffrey D; Navrotsky, Alexandra; Banfield, Jillian F; Wallace, Adam F; Michel, F Marc; Meldrum, Fiona C; Cölfen, Helmut; Dove, Patricia M

    2015-07-31

    Field and laboratory observations show that crystals commonly form by the addition and attachment of particles that range from multi-ion complexes to fully formed nanoparticles. The particles involved in these nonclassical pathways to crystallization are diverse, in contrast to classical models that consider only the addition of monomeric chemical species. We review progress toward understanding crystal growth by particle-attachment processes and show that multiple pathways result from the interplay of free-energy landscapes and reaction dynamics. Much remains unknown about the fundamental aspects, particularly the relationships between solution structure, interfacial forces, and particle motion. Developing a predictive description that connects molecular details to ensemble behavior will require revisiting long-standing interpretations of crystal formation in synthetic systems, biominerals, and patterns of mineralization in natural environments. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  16. Mutiple Czochralski growth of silicon crystals from a single crucible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, R. L.; Kachare, A. H.

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus for the Czochralski growth of silicon crystals is presented which is capable of producing multiple ingots from a single crucible. The growth chamber features a refillable crucible with a water-cooled, vacuum-tight isolation valve located between the pull chamber and the growth furnace tank which allows the melt crucible to always be at vacuum or low argon pressure when retrieving crystal or introducing recharge polysilicon feed stock. The grower can thus be recharged to obtain 100 kg of silicon crystal ingots from one crucible, and may accommodate crucibles up to 35 cm in diameter. Evaluation of the impurity contents and I-V characteristics of solar cells fabricated from seven ingots grown from two crucibles reveals a small but consistent decrease in cell efficiency from 10.4% to 9.6% from the first to the fourth ingot made in a single run, which is explained by impurity build-up in the residual melt. The crystal grower thus may offer economic benefits through the extension of crucible lifetime and the reduction of furnace downtime.

  17. Computer simulation of rapid crystal growth under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hisada, Yasuhiro; Saito, Osami; Mitachi, Koshi; Nishinaga, Tatau

    We are planning to grow a Ge single crystal under microgravity by the TR-IA rocket in 1992. The furnace temperature should be controlled so as to finish the crystal growth in a quite short time interval (about 6 min). This study deals with the computer simulation of rapid crystal growth in space to find the proper conditions for the experiment. The crystal growth process is influenced by various physical phenomena such as heat conduction, natural and Marangoni convections, phase change, and radiation from the furnace. In this study, a 2D simulation with axial symmetry is carried out, taking into account the radiation field with a specific temperature distribution of the furnace wall. The simulation program consists of four modules. The first module is applied for the calculation of the parabolic partial differential equation by using the control volume method. The second one evaluates implicitly the phase change by the enthalpy method. The third one is for computing the heat flux from surface by radiation. The last one is for calculating with the Monte Carlo method the view factors which are necessary to obtain the heat flux.

  18. Crystal growth methods dedicated to low solubility actinide oxalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamain, C.; Arab-Chapelet, B.; Rivenet, M.; Grandjean, S.; Abraham, F.

    2016-04-01

    Two novel crystal growth syntheses dedicated to low solubility actinide-oxalate systems and adapted to glove box handling are described. These methods based on the use of precursors of either actinide metal or oxalic acid have been optimized on lanthanide systems (analogue of actinides(III)) and then assessed on real actinide systems. They allow the synthesis of several actinide oxalate single crystals, Am2(C2O4)3(H2O)3·xH2O, Th(C2O4)2·6H2O, M2+x[PuIV2-xPuIIIx(C2O4)5]·nH2O and M1-x[PuIII1-xPuIVx(C2O4)2·H2O]·nH2O. It is the first time that these well-known compounds are formed by crystal growth methods, thus enabling direct structural studies on transuranic element systems and acquisition of basic data beyond deductions from isomorphic (or not) lanthanide compounds. Characterizations by X-ray diffraction, UV-visible solid spectroscopy, demonstrate the potentialities of these two crystal growth methods to obtain oxalate compounds.

  19. Organic/inorganic-doped aromatic derivative crystals: Growth and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanculescu, F.; Ionita, I.; Stanculescu, A.

    2014-09-01

    Results of a comparative study on the growth from melt by the Bridgman-Stockbarger method of meta-dinitrobenzene (m-DNB) and benzil (Bz) crystals in the same experimental set-up and the same experimental conditions are presented. The incorporation of an inorganic (iodine) dopant in m-DNB was analyzed in the given experimental conditions from the point of view of the solid-liquid interface stability. The limits for a stable growth and the conditions that favor the generation of morphological instability are emphasized. These limits for m-DNB are compatible with those previously determined for Bz, and therefore, even for a high gradient concentration at the growth interface, it is possible to grow m-DNB and Bz crystals in the same experimental conditions characterized by a high ΔT and v. The optical properties were investigated in relation with the dopant incorporation in the crystal in the mentioned experimental conditions. Effects of the dopant (m-DNB/iodine in Bz and iodine in m-DNB) on the optical band gap and optical non-linear properties of the crystals are discussed.

  20. Control of crystal growth in water purification by directional freeze crystallization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conlon, William M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A Directional Freeze Crystallization system employs an indirect contact heat exchanger to freeze a fraction of liquid to be purified. The unfrozen fraction is drained away and the purified frozen fraction is melted. The heat exchanger must be designed in accordance with a Growth Habit Index to achieve efficient separation of contaminants. If gases are dissolved in the liquid, the system must be pressurized.

  1. Thin film modeling of crystal dissolution and growth in confinement.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Luca; Pierre-Louis, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuum model describing dissolution and growth of a crystal contact confined against a substrate. Diffusion and hydrodynamics in the liquid film separating the crystal and the substrate are modeled within the lubrication approximation. The model also accounts for the disjoining pressure and surface tension. Within this framework, we obtain evolution equations which govern the nonequilibrium dynamics of the crystal interface. Based on this model, we explore the problem of dissolution under an external load, known as pressure solution. We find that in steady state, diverging (power-law) crystal-surface repulsions lead to flat contacts with a monotonic increase of the dissolution rate as a function of the load. Forces induced by viscous dissipation then surpass those due to disjoining pressure at large enough loads. In contrast, finite repulsions (exponential) lead to sharp pointy contacts with a dissolution rate independent of the load and the liquid viscosity. Ultimately, in steady state, the crystal never touches the substrate when pressed against it. This result is independent from the nature of the crystal-surface interaction due to the combined effects of viscosity and surface tension.

  2. Thin film modeling of crystal dissolution and growth in confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliardi, Luca; Pierre-Louis, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    We present a continuum model describing dissolution and growth of a crystal contact confined against a substrate. Diffusion and hydrodynamics in the liquid film separating the crystal and the substrate are modeled within the lubrication approximation. The model also accounts for the disjoining pressure and surface tension. Within this framework, we obtain evolution equations which govern the nonequilibrium dynamics of the crystal interface. Based on this model, we explore the problem of dissolution under an external load, known as pressure solution. We find that in steady state, diverging (power-law) crystal-surface repulsions lead to flat contacts with a monotonic increase of the dissolution rate as a function of the load. Forces induced by viscous dissipation then surpass those due to disjoining pressure at large enough loads. In contrast, finite repulsions (exponential) lead to sharp pointy contacts with a dissolution rate independent of the load and the liquid viscosity. Ultimately, in steady state, the crystal never touches the substrate when pressed against it. This result is independent from the nature of the crystal-surface interaction due to the combined effects of viscosity and surface tension.

  3. Semiconducting icosahedral boron arsenide crystal growth for neutron detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, C. E.; Zhang, Y.; Gong, Y.; Bakalova, S.; Mayo, A.; Edgar, J. H.; Kuball, M.

    2011-03-01

    Semiconducting icosahedral boron arsenide, B12As2, is an excellent candidate for neutron detectors, thermoelectric converters, and radioisotope batteries, for which high quality single crystals are required. Thus, the present study was undertaken to grow B12As2 crystals by precipitation from metal solutions (nickel) saturated with elemental boron (or B12As2 powder) and arsenic in a sealed quartz ampoule. B12As2 crystals of 10-15 mm were produced when a homogeneous mixture of the three elements was held at 1150 °C for 48-72 h and slowly cooled (3.5 °C/h). The crystals varied in color and transparency from black and opaque to clear and transparent. X-ray topography (XRT), and elemental analysis by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the crystals had the expected rhombohedral structure and chemical stoichiometry. The concentrations of residual impurities (nickel, carbon, etc.) were low, as measured by Raman spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Additionally, low etch-pit densities (4.4×107 cm-2) were observed after etching in molten KOH at 500 °C. Thus, the flux growth method is viable for growing large, high-quality B12As2 crystals.

  4. Direct Growth of CdTe on a (211) Si Substrate with Vapor Phase Epitaxy Using a Metallic Cd Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iso, Kenji; Gokudan, Yuya; Shiraishi, Masumi; Murakami, Hisashi; Koukitu, Akinori

    2017-10-01

    We successfully performed epitaxial CdTe growth on a Si (211) substrate with vapor-phase epitaxy using a cost-effective metallic cadmium source as a group-II precursor. The thermodynamic data demonstrate that the combination of metallic Cd and diisopropyl-telluride (DiPTe) with a H2 carrier gas enables the growth of CdTe crystals. A CdTe single crystal with a (422) surface orientation was obtained when a growth temperature between 600°C and 650°C was employed. The surface morphology and crystalline quality were improved with increasing film thickness. The full-width at half-maximum of the x-ray rocking curves with a film thickness of 15.7 μm for the skew-symmetrical (422) and asymmetrical (111) reflection were 528 arcsec and 615 arcsec, respectively.

  5. Selective epitaxial growth properties and strain characterization of Si1- x Ge x in SiO2 trench arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Sangmo; Jang, Hyunchul; Ko, Dae-Hong

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the formation of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure in SiO2 trench arrays via an ultra-high-vacuum chemical-vapor deposition (UHV-CVD) selective epitaxial growth (SEG) process. Defect generation and microstructures of Si1- x Ge x fin structures with different Ge concentrations ( x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.45) were examined. In addition, the strain evolution of a Si1- x Ge x fin structure was analyzed by using reciprocal space mapping (RSM). An (111) facet was formed from the Si1- x Ge x epi-layer and SiO2 trench wall interface to minimize the interface and the surface energy. The Si1- x Ge x fin structures were fully relaxed along the direction perpendicular to the trenches regardless of the Ge concentration. On the other hand, the fin structures were fully or partially strained along the direction parallel to the trenches depending on the Ge concentration: fully strained Si0.8Ge0.2 and Si0.7Ge0.3, and a Si0.55Ge0.45 strain-relaxed buffer. We further confirmed that the strain on the Si1- x Ge x fin structures remained stable after oxide removal and H2/N2 post-annealing.

  6. Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment aboard mission STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Joseph R. Tarner, mission specialist, works at an area amidst several lockers which support the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG) experiment during the STS-66 mission. This particular section is called the Crystal Observation System, housed in the Thermal Enclosure System (COS/TES). Together with the Vapor Diffusion Apparatus (VDA), housed in Single Locker Thermal Enclosure (SLTES), the COS/TES represents the continuing research into the structure of proteins and other macromolecules such as viruses.

  7. III-V semiconductor solid solution single crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gertner, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    The feasibility and desirability of space growth of bulk IR semiconductor crystals for use as substrates for epitaxial IR detector material were researched. A III-V ternary compound (GaInSb) and a II-VI binary compound were considered. Vapor epitaxy and quaternary epitaxy techniques were found to be sufficient to permit the use of ground based binary III-V crystals for all major device applications. Float zoning of CdTe was found to be a potentially successful approach to obtaining high quality substrate material, but further experiments were required.

  8. Kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 on InP and Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R.; Lile, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The kinetics of low pressure CVD growth of SiO2 from SiH4 and O2 has been investigated for the case of an indirect (remote) plasma process. Homogeneous (gas phase) and heterogeneous operating ranges have been experimentally identified. The process was shown to be consistent within the heterogeneous surface-reaction dominated range of operation. A kinetic rate equation is given for growth at 14 W RF power input and 400 mtorr total pressure on both InP and Si substrates. The process exhibits an activation energy of 8.4 + or - 0.6 kcal/mol.

  9. Structural variations and dielectric properties of (Bi1-xL ax ) 2Si O5 (0 ≤x ≤0.1 ): Polycrystallines synthesized by crystallization of Bi-Si-O and Bi-La-Si-O glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Hiroki; Tatewaki, Shingo; Yasui, Shintaro; Fujii, Yasuhiro; Yamaura, Jun-ichi; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2018-04-01

    This paper focuses on effects of isovalent La substitution on the crystal structure and dielectric properties of ferroelectric B i2Si O5 . Polycrystalline samples of (Bi1-xL ax ) 2Si O5 are synthesized by crystallization of Bi-Si-O and Bi-La-Si-O glasses with a composition range of 0 ≤x ≤0.1 . The crystal structure changes from monoclinic to tetragonal with increasing La-substitution rate x at room temperature. This structural variation stems from the change in orientation of Si O4 tetrahedra that form one-dimensional chains when they are in the ordered configuration, thus suggesting that lone-pair electrons play an important role in sustaining one-dimensional chains of Si O4 tetrahedra. Synchronizing with the disordering of Si O4 chains, ferroelectric phase transition temperature of (Bi1-xL ax ) 2Si O5 sharply decreases as x increases, and ferroelectricity finally vanishes at around x =0.03 . The present results demonstrate that lone-pair electrons of Bi play an important role in the ferroelectricity of B i2Si O5 through propping the ordered structure of one-dimensional Si O4 chains with stereochemical activity. Furthermore, an additional phase transition has been first discovered in the low-temperature region of (Bi1-xL ax ) 2Si O5 with x ≤0.01 , where the ordered one-dimensional Si O4 chains remain.

  10. Ag Nanotwin-Assisted Grain Growth-Induced by Stress in SiO₂/Ag/SiO₂ Nanocap Arrays.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yaxin; Zhang, Yongjun; Chen, Lei; Liu, Yang; Yang, Jinghai

    2018-06-14

    A trilayer SiO₂/Ag/SiO₂ nanocap array was prepared on a two-dimensional template. When annealed at different temperatures, the curvature of the SiO₂/Ag/SiO₂ nanocap arrays increased, which led to Ag nanocap shrinkage. The stress provided by the curved SiO₂ layer induced the formation of Ag nanotwins. Ag nanotwins assisted the growth of nanoparticles when the neighboring nanotwins changed the local misorientations. Nanocap shrinkage reduced the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) coupling between neighboring nanocaps; concurrently, grain growth decreased the SPR coupling between the particles in each nanocap, which led to a red shift of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) bands and decreased the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals.

  11. Secondary growth mechanism of SiGe islands deposited on a mixed-phase microcrystalline Si by ion beam co-sputtering.

    PubMed

    Ke, S Y; Yang, J; Qiu, F; Wang, Z Q; Wang, C; Yang, Y

    2015-11-06

    We discuss the SiGe island co-sputtering deposition on a microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si) buffer layer and the secondary island growth based on this pre-SiGe island layer. The growth phenomenon of SiGe islands on crystalline silicon (c-Si) is also investigated for comparison. The pre-SiGe layer grown on μc-Si exhibits a mixed-phase structure, including SiGe islands and amorphous SiGe (a-SiGe) alloy, while the layer deposited on c-Si shows a single-phase island structure. The preferential growth and Ostwald ripening growth are shown to be the secondary growth mechanism of SiGe islands on μc-Si and c-Si, respectively. This difference may result from the effect of amorphous phase Si (AP-Si) in μc-Si on the island growth. In addition, the Si-Ge intermixing behavior of the secondary-grown islands on μc-Si is interpreted by constructing the model of lateral atomic migration, while this behavior on c-Si is ascribed to traditional uphill atomic diffusion. It is found that the aspect ratios of the preferential-grown super islands are higher than those of the Ostwald-ripening ones. The lower lateral growth rate of super islands due to the lower surface energy of AP-Si on the μc-Si buffer layer for the non-wetting of Ge at 700 °C and the stronger Si-Ge intermixing effect at 730 °C may be responsible for this aspect ratio difference.

  12. Process for the homoepitaxial growth of single-crystal silicon carbide films on silicon carbide wafers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. Anthony (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a method for growing homoepitaxial films of SiC on low tilt angle vicinal (0001) SiC wafers. The invention proposes and teaches a new theoretical model for the homoepitaxial growth of SiC films on (0001) SiC substrates. The inventive method consists of preparing the growth surface of SiC wafers slightly off-axis (from less the 0.1 to 6 deg) from the (0001) plane, subjecting the growth surface to a suitable etch, and then growing the homoepitaxial film using conventional SiC growth techniques.

  13. Unsteady Crystal Growth Due to Step-Bunch Cascading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vekilov, Peter G.; Lin, Hong; Rosenberger, Franz

    1997-01-01

    Based on our experimental findings of growth rate fluctuations during the crystallization of the protein lysozym, we have developed a numerical model that combines diffusion in the bulk of a solution with diffusive transport to microscopic growth steps that propagate on a finite crystal facet. Nonlinearities in layer growth kinetics arising from step interaction by bulk and surface diffusion, and from step generation by surface nucleation, are taken into account. On evaluation of the model with properties characteristic for the solute transport, and the generation and propagation of steps in the lysozyme system, growth rate fluctuations of the same magnitude and characteristic time, as in the experiments, are obtained. The fluctuation time scale is large compared to that of step generation. Variations of the governing parameters of the model reveal that both the nonlinearity in step kinetics and mixed transport-kinetics control of the crystallization process are necessary conditions for the fluctuations. On a microscopic scale, the fluctuations are associated with a morphological instability of the vicinal face, in which a step bunch triggers a cascade of new step bunches through the microscopic interfacial supersaturation distribution.

  14. Growth and nonlinear optical characterization of organic single crystal films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ligui

    1997-12-01

    Organic single crystal films are important for various future applications in photonics and integrated optics. The conventional method for inorganic crystal growth is not suitable for organic materials, and the high temperature melting method is not good for most organic materials due to decomposition problems. We developed a new method-modified shear method-to grow large area organic single crystal thin films which have exceptional nonlinear optical properties and high quality surfaces. Several organic materials (NPP, PNP and DAST) were synthesized and purified before the thin film crystal growth. Organic single crystal thin films were grown from saturated organic solutions using modified shear method. The area of single crystal films were about 1.5 cm2 for PNP, 1 cm2 for NPP and 5 mm2 for DAST. The thickness of the thin films which could be controlled by the applied pressure ranged from 1μm to 10 μm. The single crystal thin films of organic materials were characterized by polarized microscopy, x-ray diffraction, polarized UV-Visible and polarized micro-FTIR spectroscopy. Polarized microscopy showed uniform birefringence and complete extinction with the rotation of the single crystal thin films under crossed- polarization, which indicated high quality single crystals with no scattering. The surface orientation of single crystal thin films was characterized by x-ray diffraction. The molecular orientation within the crystal was further studied by the polarized UV-Visible and Polarized micro-FTIR techniques combined with the x-ray and polarized microscopy results. A Nd:YAG laser with 35 picosecond pulses at 1064nm wavelength was employed to perform the nonlinear optical characterization of the organic single crystal thin films. Two measurement techniques were used to study the crystal films: second harmonic generation (SHG) and electro-optic (EO) effect. SHG results showed that the nonlinear optical coefficient of NPP was 18 times that of LiNbO3, a standard

  15. Two-step crystal growth mechanism during crystallization of an undercooled Ni50Al50 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Simin; Li, Jiahao; Li, Yang; Li, Shunning; Wang, Qi; Liu, Baixin

    2016-08-01

    Crystallization processes are always accompanied by the emergence of multiple intermediate states, of which the structures and transition dynamics are far from clarity, since it is difficult to experimentally observe the microscopic pathway. To insight the structural evolution and the crystallization dynamics, we perform large-scale molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the time-dependent crystallization behavior of the NiAl intermetallic upon rapid solidification. The simulation results reveal that the crystallization process occurs via a two-step growth mechanism, involving the formation of initial non-equilibrium long range order (NLRO) regions and of the subsequent equilibrium long range order (ELRO) regions. The formation of the NLRO regions makes the grains rather inhomogeneous, while the rearrangement of the NLRO regions into the ELRO regions makes the grains more ordered and compact. This two-step growth mechanism is actually controlled by the evolution of the coordination polyhedra, which are characterized predominantly by the transformation from five-fold symmetry to four-fold and six-fold symmetry. From liquids to NLRO and further to ELRO, the five-fold symmetry of these polyhedra gradually fades, and finally vanishes when B2 structure is distributed throughout the grain bulk. The energy decrease along the pathway further implies the reliability of the proposed crystallization processes.

  16. Room-temperature codeposition growth technique for pinhole reduction in epitaxial CoSi2 on Si (111)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, T. L.; Fathauer, R. W.; Grunthaner, P. J.; D'Anterroches, C.

    1988-01-01

    A solid-phase epitaxy has been developed for the growth of CoSi2 films on Si (111) with no observable pinholes (1000/sq cm detection limit). The technique utilizes room-temperature codeposition of Co and Si in stoichiometric ratio, followed by the deposition of an amorphous Si capping layer and subsequent in situ annealing at 550-600 C. CoSi2 films grown without the Si cap are found to have pinhole densities of (1-10) x 10 to the 7th/sq cm when annealed at similar temperatures. A CF4 plasma-etching technique was used to increase the visibility of the pinholes in the silicide layer.

  17. Heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on (100) Ge/Si using migration enhanced epitaxy

    SciT

    Tanoto, H.; Loke, W. K.; Yoon, S. F.

    In this paper, heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs on nominal (100) Ge/Si substrate was investigated. The root-mean square surface roughness of the sample where the first few monolayers of the GaAs were nucleated by migration enhanced epitaxy (MEE) is four times smaller compared to the sample without such a process, indicating better surface planarity. From the (004) x-ray diffraction rocking curve measurement, the full width at half maximum of the GaAs layer nucleated by MEE is 40% lower compared to that of the GaAs layer without such a process, indicating better crystal quality. Furthermore, it was found that the sample wheremore » the GaAs layer was nucleated by MEE experienced early relaxation. As the MEE process promotes two-dimensional growth, the GaAs layer where nucleation was initiated by such a process has fewer islandlike formations. This leads to a pseudomorphically grown GaAs layer, which experiences higher strain compared to the GaAs layer with more islandlike formations, where most relaxation occurs on the free surface of the islands. Therefore, for the same layer thickness, the GaAs layer on (100) Ge/Si substrate where nucleation was initiated by MEE relaxed first.« less

  18. Physical modelling of Czochralski crystal growth in horizontal magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grants, Ilmārs; Pal, Josef; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2017-07-01

    This study addresses experimentally the heat transfer, the temperature azimuthal non-uniformity and the onset of oscillations in a low temperature physical model of a medium-sized Czochralski crystal growth process with a strong horizontal magnetic field (HMF). It is observed that under certain conditions the integral heat flux may decrease with increasing magnetic field strength at the same time as the flow velocity increases. The azimuthal non-uniformity of the temperature field in the melt near the crystal model rim is only little influenced by its rotation rate outside of a narrow range where the centrifugal force balances the buoyant one. The flow oscillation onset has been observed for two values of the HMF strength. Conditions of this onset are little influenced by the crystal rotation. The critical temperature difference of the oscillation onset considerably exceeds that of the Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) cell in a strong HMF.

  19. Modelling the growth of triglycine sulphate crystals in Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoo, Hak-Do; Wilcox, William R.; Lal, Ravindra; Trolinger, James D.

    1988-01-01

    Two triglycine sulphate crystals were grown from an aqueous solution in Spacelab 3 aboard a Space Shuttle. Using a diffusion coefficient of 0.00002 sq cm/s, a computerized simulation gave reasonable agreement between experimental and theoretical crystal sizes and interferometric lines in the solution near the growing crystal. This diffusion coefficient is larger than most measured values, possibly due to fluctuating accelerations on the order of .001 g (Earth's gravity). The average acceleration was estimated to be less than .000001 g. At this level, buoyancy driven convection is predicted to add approx. 20 percent to the steady state growth rate. Only very slight distortion of the interferometric lines was observed at the end of a 33 hr run. It is suggested that the time to reach steady state convective transport may be inversely proportional to g at low g, so that the full effect of convection was not realized in these experiments.

  20. Crystal growth from the vapor phase experiment MA-085

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiedemeir, H.; Sadeek, H.; Klaessig, F. C.; Norek, M.

    1976-01-01

    Three vapor transport experiments on multicomponent systems were performed during the Apollo Soyuz mission to determine the effects of microgravity forces on crystal morphology and mass transport rates. The mixed systems used germanium selenide, tellurium, germanium tetraiodide (transport agent), germanium monosulfide, germanium tetrachloride (transport agent), and argon (inert atmosphere). The materials were enclosed in evacuated sealed ampoules of fused silica and were transported in a temperature gradient of the multipurpose electric furnace onboard the Apollo Soyuz spacecraft. Preliminary evaluation of 2 systems shows improved quality of space grown crystals in terms of growth morphology and bulk perfection. This conclusion is based on a direct comparison of space grown and ground based crystals by means of X-ray diffraction, microscopic, and chemical etching techniques. The observation of greater mass transport rates than predicted for a microgravity environment by existing vapor transport models indicates the existence of nongravity caused transport effects in a reactive solid/gas phase system.

  1. Metastable Solution Thermodynamic Properties and Crystal Growth Kinetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Soojin; Myerson, Allan S.

    1996-01-01

    The crystal growth rates of NH4H2PO4, KH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, KAl(SO4)2 central dot 12H2O, NaCl, and glycine and the nucleation rates of KBr, KCl, NaBr central dot 2H2O, (NH4)2Cl, and (NH4)2SO4 were expressed in terms of the fundamental driving force of crystallization calculated from the activity of supersaturated solutions. The kinetic parameters were compared with those from the commonly used kinetic expression based on the concentration difference. From the viewpoint of thermodynamics, rate expressions based on the chemical potential difference provide accurate kinetic representation over a broad range of supersaturation. The rates estimated using the expression based on the concentration difference coincide with the true rates of crystallization only in the concentration range of low supersaturation and deviate from the true kinetics as the supersaturation increases.

  2. Liquid drop stability for protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Robert B.; Broom, Beth H.; Snyder, Robert S.; Daniel, Ron

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to grow protein crystals for biomedical research in microgravity by deploying a protein-rich solution from a syringe, forming a drop in which crystallization can occur with the proper degree of supersaturation. Drop stability is critical to the success of this research, due to the large drop sizes which can be achieved in space. In order to determine the type of syringe tips most suitable to support these large drops, tests were performed during brief periods of weightlessness onboard the NASA KC-135 low-gravity simulation aircraft. The drops were analyzed using three simple models in which the samples were approximated by modified pendulum and spring systems. It was concluded that the higher frequency systems were the most stable, indicating that of the syringes utilized, a disk-shaped configuration provided the most stable environment of low-gravity protein crystal growth.

  3. Si nanowire growth on sapphire: Classical incubation, reverse reaction, and steady state supersaturation

    SciT

    Shakthivel, Dhayalan; Rathkanthiwar, Shashwat; Raghavan, Srinivasan, E-mail: sraghavan@cense.iisc.ernet.in

    2015-04-28

    Si nanowire growth on sapphire substrates by the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method using Au catalyst particles has been studied. Sapphire was chosen as the substrate to ensure that the vapor phase is the only source of Si. Three hitherto unreported observations are described. First, an incubation period of 120–480 s, which is shown to be the incubation period as defined in classical nucleation theory, is reported. This incubation period permits the determination of a desolvation energy of Si from Au-Si alloys of 15 kT. Two, transmission electron microscopy studies of incubation, point to Si loss by reverse reaction as an important partmore » of the mechanism of Si nanowire growth by VLS. Three, calculations using these physico-chemical parameters determined from incubation and measured steady state growth rates of Si nanowires show that wire growth happens from a supersaturated catalyst droplet.« less

  4. Titration of submonolayer Au growth on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kautz, J.; Copel, M. W.; Gordon, M. S.; Tromp, R. M.; van der Molen, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    We study and analyze the growth of submonolayers of Au on Si(111) by a complementary set of surface techniques. Specifically, we focus on the 5×2 and the α√3 ×√3 structures. We determine the gold coverage of these structures as a function of temperature by means of low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and low energy electron microscopy (LEEM). These results are independently calibrated by ex-situ ion scattering experiments. This allows us to present a phase diagram for this system. Remarkably, for all temperatures considered (820-1040 K), we find a coverage for the 5×2 phase that is significantly (≈10%) higher than the value of 0.6 monolayers which is assumed in the latest structural models. Therefore, a further refinement of the present picture of the quasi-one-dimensional 5×2 structure is required.

  5. Characterization of Mo/Si multilayer growth on stepped topographies

    SciT

    Boogaard, A. J. R. vcan den; Louis, E.; Zoethout, E.

    2011-08-31

    Mo/Si multilayer mirrors with nanoscale bilayer thicknesses have been deposited on stepped substrate topographies, using various deposition angles. The multilayer morphology at the stepedge region was studied by cross section transmission electron microscopy. A transition from a continuous- to columnar layer morphology is observed near the step-edge, as a function of the local angle of incidence of the deposition flux. Taking into account the corresponding kinetics and anisotropy in layer growth, a continuum model has been developed to give a detailed description of the height profiles of the individual continuous layers. Complementary optical characterization of the multilayer system using amore » microscope operating in the extreme ultraviolet wavelength range, revealed that the influence of the step-edge on the planar multilayer structure is restricted to a region within 300 nm from the step-edge.« less

  6. Mechanism of interactions between CMC binder and Si single crystal facets.

    PubMed

    Vogl, U S; Das, P K; Weber, A Z; Winter, M; Kostecki, R; Lux, S F

    2014-09-02

    Interactions of the active material particles with the binder are crucial in tailoring the properties of composite electrodes used in lithium-ion batteries. The dependency of the protonation degree of the carboxyl group in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) structure on the pH value of the preparation solution was investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Three different distinctive chemical states of CMC binder were chosen (protonated, deprotonated, and half-half), and their interactions with different silicon single crystal facets were investigated. The different Si surface orientations display distinct differences of strength of interactions with the CMC binder. The CMC/Si adhesion forces in solution and Si wettability of the silicon are also strongly dependent on the protonation degree of the CMC. This work provides an insight into the nature of these interactions, which determine the electrochemical performance of silicon composite electrodes.

  7. Crystallization and characterization of Y2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, C. H., III; Lee, W. E.; Sanders, W. A.; Kiser, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    Glasses in the yttria-silica system with 20-40 mol pct Y2O3 have been subjected to recrystallization studies after melting at 1900-2100 C in W crucibles in 1 and 50 atm N2. The TEM and XRD results obtained indicate the presence of the delta, gamma, gamma-prime, and beta-Y2Si2O7 crystalline phases, depending on melting and quenching conditions. Heat-treatment in air at 1100-1600 C increased the amount of crystallization, and led to the formation of Y2SiO5, cristobalite, and polymorphs of Y2Si2O7. Also investigated were the effects of 5 and 10 wt pct zirconia additions.

  8. Crystallization and characterization of Y2O3-SiO2 glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drummond, Charles H., III; Lee, William E.; Sanders, W. A.; Kiser, J. D.

    1991-01-01

    Glasses in the yttria-silica system with 20 to 40 mol pct Y2O3 were subjected to recrystallization studies after melting at 1900 to 2100 C in W crucibles in 1 and 50 atm N2. The TEM and XRD results obtained indicate the presence of the delta, gamma, gamma prime, and beta-Y2Si2O7 crystalline phases, depending on melting and quenching conditions. Heat treatment in air at 1100 to 1600 C increased the amount of crystallization, and led to the formation of Y2SiO5, cristabalite, and polymorphs of Y2Si2O7. Also investigated were the effects of 5 and 10 wt pct zirconia additions.

  9. Growth and adhesion properties of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Clare M.

    The presence of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals in the synovial fluid has long been associated with the joint disease gout. To elucidate the molecular level growth mechanism and adhesive properties of MSU crystals, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques were employed in the characterization of the (010) and (1-10) faces of MSU, as well as physiologically relevant solutions supersaturated with urate. Topographical AFM imaging of both MSU (010) and (1-10) revealed the presence of crystalline layers of urate arranged into v-shaped features of varying height. Growth rates were measured for both monolayers (elementary steps) and multiple layers (macrosteps) on both crystal faces under a wide range of urate supersaturation in physiologically relevant solutions. Step velocities for monolayers and multiple layers displayed a second order polynomial dependence on urate supersaturation on MSU (010) and (1-10), with step velocities on (1-10) generally half of those measured on MSU (010) in corresponding growth conditions. Perpendicular step velocities on MSU (010) were obtained and also showed a second order polynomial dependence of step velocity with respect to urate supersaturation, which implies a 2D-island nucleation growth mechanism for MSU (010). Extensive topographical imaging of MSU (010) showed island adsorption from urate growth solutions under all urate solution concentrations investigated, lending further support for the determined growth mechanism. Island sizes derived from DLS experiments on growth solutions were in agreement with those measured on MSU (010) topographical images. Chemical force microscopy (CFM) was utilized to characterize the adhesive properties of MSU (010) and (1-10). AFM probes functionalized with amino acid derivatives and bio-macromolecules found in the synovial fluid were brought into contact with both crystal faces and adhesion forces were tabulated into

  10. In situ observation of containerless protein crystallization by magnetically levitating crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Syou; Tanimoto, Yoshifumi; Udagawa, Chikako; Morimoto, Shotaro; Hagiwara, Masayuki

    2016-03-01

    We report on the results of the crystal growth of hen-egg lysozyme by magnetically levitating crystals in a small amount of buffer solution. The concentrations of lysozyme and the precipitating agent (gadolinium chloride) were 6.53 wt % and 0.362 mol/kg, respectively. Gadolinium chloride, which induces the magneto-Archimedes effect, was utilized to levitate the crystals with Bz · (dBz/dz) = 22.46 T2/m, where Bz is the vertical (z) component of the magnetic flux density vector. Although the collected crystals were small, we succeeded in maintaining the levitation of the crystals into a specific place in the liquid phase from the beginning of nucleation. In situ observation revealed that a state of pseudo-weightlessness was generated in the vicinity of the magnet bore edge, and small crystals were concentrated inside the domain moving along an hourglass-shaped surface. We found by numerical computations that the formation of the hourglass-shaped domain is attributable to the radial component of the magnetic force.

  11. Screening and Crystallization Plates for Manual and High-throughput Protein Crystal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorne, Robert E. (Inventor); Berejnov, Viatcheslav (Inventor); Kalinin, Yevgeniy (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    In one embodiment, a crystallization and screening plate comprises a plurality of cells open at a top and a bottom, a frame that defines the cells in the plate, and at least two films. The first film seals a top of the plate and the second film seals a bottom of the plate. At least one of the films is patterned to strongly pin the contact lines of drops dispensed onto it, fixing their position and shape. The present invention also includes methods and other devices for manual and high-throughput protein crystal growth.

  12. Electrochemical growth of linear conducting crystals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronise, Raymond J., IV

    1988-01-01

    Much attention has been given to the synthesis of linear conducting materials. These inorganic, organic, and polymeric materials have some very interesting electrical and optical properties, including low temperature superconductivity. Because of the anisotropic nature of these compounds, impurities and defects strongly influences the unique physical properties of such crystals. Investigations have demonstrated that electrochemical growth has provided the most reproducible and purest crystals. Space, specifically microgravity, eliminates phenomena such as buoyancy driven convection, and could permit formation of crystals many times purer than the ones grown to date. Several different linear conductors were flown on Get Away Special G-007 on board the Space Shuttle Columbia, STS 61-C, the first of a series of Project Explorer payloads. These compounds were grown by electrochemical methods, and the growth was monitored by photographs taken throughout the mission. Due to some thermal problems, no crystals of appreciable size were grown. The experimental results will be incorporated into improvements for the next 2 missions of Project Explorer. The results and conclusions of the first mission are discussed.

  13. Growth, properties, and applications of potassium niobate single crystals

    SciT

    Mizell, G.; Fay, W.R.; Alekel, T. III

    1994-12-31

    Production refinements and pragmatic optical properties of the frequency converter crystal KNbO{sub 3} (KN) are highlighted regarding its commercialization. The growth, morphological orientation, and processing of KN crystals into devices are outlined. Passive absorption data are presented that define the effective window range for KN devices. An absorption band at 2.85 {mu}m is attributed to the presence of OH groups in the crystal, and its vibrational strength varies with crystal growth conditions and incident polarized light orientation. Although blue light induced infrared absorption (BLIRA) can reduce second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency at high power, single-pass conversion efficiencies of 1%/W{center_dot}cm maymore » be achieved with incident fundamental powers of 10 W. The ability of KN to non-critically phasematch by temperature tuning provides blue-green wavelengths; together with critical angle-tuned phasematching, the entire visible spectrum may be accessed with efficient SHG conversion.« less

  14. Crystal growth within a phase change memory cell.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Abu; Le Gallo, Manuel; Krebs, Daniel

    2014-07-07

    In spite of the prominent role played by phase change materials in information technology, a detailed understanding of the central property of such materials, namely the phase change mechanism, is still lacking mostly because of difficulties associated with experimental measurements. Here, we measure the crystal growth velocity of a phase change material at both the nanometre length and the nanosecond timescale using phase-change memory cells. The material is studied in the technologically relevant melt-quenched phase and directly in the environment in which the phase change material is going to be used in the application. We present a consistent description of the temperature dependence of the crystal growth velocity in the glass and the super-cooled liquid up to the melting temperature.

  15. Crystallization in supercooled liquid Cu: Homogeneous nucleation and growth

    SciT

    E, J. C.; Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031; Wang, L.

    2015-02-14

    Homogeneous nucleation and growth during crystallization of supercooled liquid Cu are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations, and the microstructure is characterized with one- and two-dimensional x-ray diffraction. The resulting solids are single-crystal or nanocrystalline, containing various defects such as stacking faults, twins, fivefold twins, and grain boundaries; the microstructure is subject to thermal fluctuations and extent of supercooling. Fivefold twins form via sequential twinning from the solid-liquid interfaces. Critical nucleus size and nucleation rate at 31% supercooling are obtained from statistical runs with the mean first-passage time and survival probability methods, and are about 14 atoms and 10{sup 32} m{supmore » −3}s{sup −1}, respectively. The bulk growth dynamics are analyzed with the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami law and manifest three stages; the Avrami exponent varies in the range of 1–19, which also depends on thermal fluctuations and supercooling.« less

  16. Temperature and melt solid interface control during crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batur, Celal

    1990-01-01

    Findings on the adaptive control of a transparent Bridgman crystal growth furnace are summarized. The task of the process controller is to establish a user specified axial temperature profile by controlling the temperatures in eight heating zones. The furnace controller is built around a computer. Adaptive PID (Proportional Integral Derivative) and Pole Placement control algorithms are applied. The need for adaptive controller stems from the fact that the zone dynamics changes with respect to time. The controller was tested extensively on the Lead Bromide crystal growth. Several different temperature profiles and ampoule's translational rates are tried. The feasibility of solid liquid interface quantification by image processing was determined. The interface is observed by a color video camera and the image data file is processed to determine if the interface is flat, convex or concave.

  17. Investigation of Vibrational Control of the Bridgman Crystal Growth Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fedoseyev, Alexandre I.; Alexander, J. I. D.; Feigelson, R. S.; Zharikov, E. V.; Ostrogorsky, A. G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M. P.; Kansa, E. J.; Friedman, M. J.

    2001-01-01

    The character of natural buoyant convection in rigidly contained inhomogeneous fluids can be drastically altered by vibrating the container. Vibrations are expected to play a crucial influence on heat and mass transfer onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is becoming evident that substantial vibrations will exist on the ISS in the wide frequency spectrum. In general, vibrational flows are very complex and governed by many parameters. In many terrestrial crystal growth situations, convective transport of heat and constituent components is dominated by buoyancy driven convection arising from compositional and thermal gradients. Thus, it may be concluded that vibro-convective flow can potentially be used to influence and even control transport in some crystal growth situations.

  18. A new approach to the CZ crystal growth weighing control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasimkin, P. V.; Moskovskih, V. A.; Vasiliev, Y. V.; Shlegel, V. N.; Yuferev, V. S.; Vasiliev, M. G.; Zhdankov, V. N.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of a new approach was to improve the robustness of the weighing control of CZ growth especially for semiconductors, for which the “anomalous“ behavior of the apparent weight provokes instability of the servo-loop. In the described method, the periodic reciprocating measuring motion of small amplitude is superposed on the uniform pull-rod movement. The cross-sectional area is determined from the weight sensor responses that are modulated mainly by the forces of hydrostatic pressure. By the example of germanium crystal growth, it is shown that in the control system, based on such a way of the diameter measuring, a simple PI control law provides a good close loop system's stability and dynamics for the materials with the “anomalous” behavior of a weighing signal. The effect of a meniscus on the modulation measuring of a crystal diameter is also discussed.

  19. Contactless heater floating zone refining and crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lan, Chung-Wen (Inventor); Kou, Sindo (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Floating zone refining or crystal growth is carried out by providing rapid relative rotation of a feed rod and finish rod while providing heat to the junction between the two rods so that significant forced convection occurs in the melt zone between the two rods. The forced convection distributes heat in the melt zone to allow the rods to be melted through with a much shorter melt zone length than possible utilizing conventional floating zone processes. One of the rods can be rotated with respect to the other, or both rods can be counter-rotated, with typical relative rotational speeds of the rods ranging from 200 revolutions per minute (RPM) to 400 RPM or greater. Zone refining or crystal growth is carried out by traversing the melt zone through the feed rod.

  20. Fundamental Studies of Crystal Growth of Microporous Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Ramsharan; Doolittle, John, Jr.; Payra, Pramatha; Dutta, Prabir K.; George, Michael A.; Ramachandran, Narayanan; Schoeman, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Microporous materials are framework structures with well-defined porosity, often of molecular dimensions. Zeolites contain aluminum and silicon atoms in their framework and are the most extensively studied amongst all microporous materials. Framework structures with P, Ga, Fe, Co, Zn, B, Ti and a host of other elements have also been made. Typical synthesis of microporous materials involve mixing the framework elements (or compounds, thereof) in a basic solution, followed by aging in some cases and then heating at elevated temperatures. This process is termed hydrothermal synthesis, and involves complex chemical and physical changes. Because of a limited understanding of this process, most synthesis advancements happen by a trial and error approach. There is considerable interest in understanding the synthesis process at a molecular level with the expectation that eventually new framework structures will be built by design. The basic issues in the microporous materials crystallization process include: (a) Nature of the molecular units responsible for the crystal nuclei formation; (b) Nature of the nuclei and nucleation process; (c) Growth process of the nuclei into crystal; (d) Morphological control and size of the resulting crystal; (e) Surface structure of the resulting crystals; and (f) Transformation of frameworks into other frameworks or condensed structures.