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Sample records for side effects differently

  1. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    PubMed

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Side effects are problems that occur when treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about, ways to manage these problems, and treatment options.

  3. Medications and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  4. [Differences between men and women in side effects of second-generation antipsychotics].

    PubMed

    Aichhorn, W; Whitworth, A B; Weiss, E M; Hinterhuber, H; Marksteiner, J

    2007-01-01

    In this review we investigate whether sex differences exist for side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. Results are based on a MEDLINE search for the years 1974 through 2005. Even if pharmacokinetics differ between females and males, significantly higher plasma levels for women have been demonstrated only for olanzapine and clozapine. Hyperprolactinaemia is mainly induced by treatment with risperidone and amisulpride, and there is evidence for more pronounced prolactin levels in females. Most studies reviewed indicate that clozapine and olanzapine are associated with more body weight gain, once more especially in female patients. Furthermore, the few published studies indicate that metabolic syndrome is more frequent in females and there are likely no gender-specific differences between the new antipsychotic medications concerning frequency and degree of acute or chronic movement disturbance. The risk of QT prolongation with torsades de pointes arrhythmia is again higher in females. In conclusion, there is some evidence of sex differences in the side effects of second-generation antipsychotics. For better understanding of the basic mechanisms in sex differences, future studies with a primary focus on this topic are required. More specific data will help to determine how these differences shall affect clinical management.

  5. Side Effects (Management)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ... Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young ...

  6. Effects of SNS activation on SSRI-induced sexual side effects differ by SSRI.

    PubMed

    Ahrold, Tierney K; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HT(IA)); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HT(IA) receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are less selective for 5HT(IA), this could be counteracted by secondary binding to NE. Norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which has been shown to mediate genital arousal in women; thus, it is possible that increasing SNS activity in women taking SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) may counteract sexual side effects in those women. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a reanalysis of Meston (2004)'s 8-week, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of the effects of ephedrine (50 mg taken 1 h prior to sexual activity) on self-reported sexual functioning of women taking paroxetine (N = 5), sertraline (N = 7), or fluoxetine (N = 7). As predicted, women taking SSRIs, which are highly selective for 5HT(IA) (sertraline, paroxetine), showed improvement in sexual arousal and orgasm. By contrast, women taking SSRIs, which are less selective for 5HT(IA) relative to NE (fluoxetine), showed no change or decrease in sexual functioning. These findings have implications for treating certain SSRI-induced sexual side effects.

  7. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  8. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  9. [Side effects of antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Hoigné, R

    1975-03-01

    The clinically severe and newer forms of antibiotic side effects are reviewed. The study covers the following antibiotics: penicillins, cephalosporins, aminoglycosides and polymyxins, tetracyclines, chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol, macrolides and lincomycin, rifamycins and sulfonamides. Special reference is made to (1) hematologic side effects, and (2) general evaluation of drug reactions. The relationship between reaction time and clinical symptoms is of particular practical significance.

  10. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  11. Behavioral and Psychiatric Differences in Medication Side Effects in Adults with Severe Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Rivet, Tessa T.; Rojahn, Johannes

    2009-01-01

    Participants were 109 adults with severe intellectual disabilities and long histories of psychotropic drug use. Side effect profiles were examined in the context of types of mental health disorders observed using the Diagnostic Assessment for the Severely Handicapped-Revised (DASH-II) and the Behavior Problems Inventory-Revised (BPI-01). The best…

  12. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  13. Significant Differences in Pediatric Psychotropic Side Effects: Implications for School Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubiszyn, Thomas; Mire, Sarah; Dutt, Sonia; Papathopoulos, Katina; Burridge, Andrea Backsheider

    2012-01-01

    Some side effects (SEs) of increasingly prescribed psychotropic medications can impact student performance in school. SE risk varies, even among drugs from the same class (e.g., antidepressants). Knowing which SEs occur significantly more often than others may enable school psychologists to enhance collaborative risk-benefit analysis, medication…

  14. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Cancer.gov

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  15. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Cancer.gov

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  16. Side Effects: Pain

    Cancer.gov

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  17. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  18. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Find out how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  19. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    PubMed

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  20. Side Effects: Lymphedema

    Cancer.gov

    Lymphedema is a side effect that can be caused when part of the lymph system is damaged or blocked, such as during surgery to remove lymph nodes, or radiation therapy. Cancer patients may notice symptoms during treatment or lymphedema may start years afte

  1. Psychopharmaceuticals: effects and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Nathan S.

    1959-01-01

    Drugs which affect psychological behaviour are being used in vast amounts nowadays, with, in all too many cases, but scant regard for their exact uses or possible side effects. This article contains a clinical classification of these drugs, followed by an account of their principal side effects and the means of obviating them. PMID:14409889

  2. [Side effects of caffeine].

    PubMed

    Dworzański, Wojciech; Opielak, Grzegorz; Burdan, Franciszek

    2009-11-01

    Caffeine is one of the most commonly ingested alkaloids worldwide. It is present in coffee, tea, soft and energy drinks, chocolate, etc. Currently published data has been stressed that the metyloxantine consumption increases the risk of coronary heart disease, arterial hypertension, arterial stiffness, and an elevation of cholesterol and homocysteine plasma concentration. The acute high consumption may also modulate insulin sensitivity and glucose blood level. However, the long-term consumption reduces the incidence of the type 2 diabetes mellitus. When administered in high doses the substance may cause various side effects, related to abnormal stimulation of the central nervous system, decrease tonus of the lower esophageal sphincter, as well as increase risk of miscarriage and intrauterine growth retardation. The final manifestation of side reactions is dependent on the genotype, especially polymorphisms of genes associated with caffeine metabolism, i.e., cytochrome P450-CYP1A2 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT).

  3. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Pain It’s important to treat pain. If you ... to pay for pain medicine. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Pain Keep track of the pain. Each day, ...

  4. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Infection “I am extra careful to stay away ... doctor or nurse right away. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Infection Take these steps to lower your chances ...

  5. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  6. Side effects of stimulant use.

    PubMed

    Levy, F

    1993-08-01

    The current literature on side effects of central nervous system (CNS) stimulant medications used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is reviewed, with particular emphasis on dose-response effects on differing behavioural systems. The reasons for variation in findings may lie in individual differences in children, or in differing responses of target behavioural systems. These may be understood in terms of underlying pharmacological mechanisms. Social, educational and philosophical issues relating to medication use are discussed, and the need for ongoing critical clinical and research approaches, rather than polarization of professional attitudes, is emphasized.

  7. Side effects of generic competition?

    PubMed

    Hellström, Jörgen; Rudholm, Niklas

    2004-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between generic drug market shares and the number of reported side effects. Yearly time-series data for the number of reported side effects and information on market shares, prices, and quantities from 1972 to 1996 were used in this study. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were used in the statistical analysis. The results show that increased generic market share increases the number of reported side effects for all estimated models. When studying the relationship at the substance level, increasing generic market shares increases the number of side effects for 7 of the 15 substances. Generic substitution laws and measures to increase generic competition may thus have unintended consequences since these results show a positive relationship between generic market shares and reported side effects.

  8. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  9. Effect of Different Adjuvants on Protection and Side-Effects Induced by Helicobacter suis Whole-Cell Lysate Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Bosschem, Iris; Bayry, Jagadeesh; De Bruyne, Ellen; Van Deun, Kim; Smet, Annemieke; Vercauteren, Griet; Ducatelle, Richard; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Flahou, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter suis (H. suis) is a widespread porcine gastric pathogen, which is also of zoonotic importance. The first goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of several vaccine adjuvants (CpG-DNA, Curdlan, Freund's Complete and Incomplete, Cholera toxin), administered either subcutaneously or intranasally along with H. suis whole-cell lysate, to protect against subsequent H. suis challenge in a BALB/c infection model. Subcutaneous immunization with Freund's complete (FC)/lysate and intranasal immunization with Cholera toxin (CT)/lysate were shown to be the best options for vaccination against H. suis, as determined by the amount of colonizing H. suis bacteria in the stomach, although adverse effects such as post-immunization gastritis/pseudo-pyloric metaplasia and increased mortality were observed, respectively. Therefore, we decided to test alternative strategies, including sublingual vaccine administration, to reduce the unwanted side-effects. A CCR4 antagonist that transiently inhibits the migration of regulatory T cells was also included as a new adjuvant in this second study. Results confirmed that immunization with CT (intranasally or sublingually) is among the most effective vaccination protocols, but increased mortality was still observed. In the groups immunized subcutaneously with FC/lysate and CCR4 antagonist/lysate, a significant protection was observed. Compared to the FC/lysate immunized group, gastric pseudo-pyloric metaplasia was less severe or even absent in the CCR4 antagonist/lysate immunized group. In general, an inverse correlation was observed between IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-17, KC, MIP-2 and LIX mRNA expression and H. suis colonization density, whereas lower IL-10 expression levels were observed in partially protected animals.

  10. Side Effects: Infection and Neutropenia

    Cancer.gov

    Infection and neutropenia can be serious side effects during cancer treatment. Chemotherapy can increase your risk. Learn how to prevent infection during treatment. Find out what signs and symptoms to call the doctor about.

  11. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Cancer.gov

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  12. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Cancer.gov

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  13. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    PubMed

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p < 0.05) and dizziness (p < 0.05) were significantly increased in the female patients as compared to male patients by calcium stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p < 0.05) and warmth feeling (p < 0.05) were found by calcium stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p < 0.05) and abdominal cramping (p < 0.05) in male patients were significantly higher by pentagastrin stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  14. Gabapentin and carbamazepine affect eye movements and posture control differently: a placebo-controlled investigation of acute CNS side effects in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Noachtar, S; von Maydell, B; Fuhry, L; Büttner, U

    1998-06-01

    This prospective study examined the effects of the new antiepileptic drug (AED) gabapentin (GBP) compared to the standard AED carbamazepine (CBZ) and placebo (PLA) on eye movements, posture and finger force control in 12 healthy volunteers who received single doses of 600 mg GBP and 400 mg CBZ in a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over, randomized trial. CBZ and GBP reduced almost equally (8% vs. 10%) the mean peak saccade velocity as compared to PLA (P < 0.05). CBZ, but not GBP, significantly prolonged the duration of saccades as compared to placebo (14-24%) (P < 0.05). GBP produced a greater maximal increase of body sway than CBZ with eyes open (P < 0.01) and eyes closed (P < 0.001). CBZ and GBP did not significantly influence control of grip force. CBZ effects were better correlated with plasma levels. Subjective side effects were more pronounced with CBZ than GBP. Although CBZ and GBP cause similar CNS side effects, the effects on eye movements and body sway were different. CBZ predominantly affects saccadic eye movements, whereas GBP had more impact on posture control. Thus, electro-oculography seems to be more appropriate in the detection of CBZ-induced side effects and posturography appears to be more sensitive in the detection of side effects associated with GBP.

  15. Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164200.html Prostate Cancer Treatments Have Varying Side Effects, Study Shows Even ' ... News) -- The long-term side effects of different prostate cancer treatments vary -- and knowing that may help men ...

  16. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Treesearch

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  17. Casting alloys: side-effects.

    PubMed

    Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1992-09-01

    Side-effects from dental materials are a minor problem, but should be recognized. In recent questionnaire surveys about side-effects, the incidence was estimated to be 1:300 in periodontics and 1:2600 in pedodontics. None of these reactions was related to dental casting alloys. In prosthodontics, the incidence was calculated to be about 1:400, and about 27% were related to base-metal alloys for removable partial dentures (cobalt, chromium, nickel) and to noble/gold-based alloys for porcelain-fused-to-metal restorations. The complaints consisted of intra-oral reactions (such as redness, swelling, and pain of the oral mucosa and lips), oral/gingival lichenoid reactions, and a few instances of systemic reactions. In orthodontics, the incidence was 1:100, and most reactions (85%) were related to metal parts of the extra-oral anchorage devices. Even though the extensive use of base-metal alloys has been of major concern to the dental profession, relatively few case reports substantiate this concern. Allergy to gold-based dental restorations has been more commonly reported. Palladium-based alloys have been associated with several cases of stomatitis and oral lichenoid reactions. Palladium allergy seems to occur mainly in patients who are very sensitive to nickel. All casting alloys, except titanium, seem to have a potential for eliciting adverse reactions in individual hypersensitive patients. Tolerance induction may be a possible benefit of the use of intra-orally placed alloys. In non-sensitized individuals, oral antigenic contacts to nickel and chromium may induce tolerance rather than sensitization. A variety of systemic diseases and reactions has been claimed to be caused by dental materials. The claims are generally poorly documented.

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor ... thinking or remembering things Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes Get help to remember things. Write down ...

  19. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were ... too much at one time. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid retention) Weigh yourself. l Weigh yourself ...

  20. Side-to-side differences of three-dimensional knee kinematics during walking by normal subjects

    PubMed Central

    Ino, Takumi; Ohkoshi, Yasumitsu; Maeda, Tatsunori; Kawakami, Kensaku; Suzuki, Shoji; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the normal range of the side-to-side difference in three dimensional knee kinematics measured by the point cluster technique (PCT). [Subjects] The subjects were twenty-one healthy normal volunteers without knee pain or an episode of injury to the legs. [Methods] The subjects were tested bilaterally at a self-selected normal walking speed and six degrees of freedom knee kinematics were measured using the PCT, and the 95% confidence intervals of the average side-to-side differences in flexion-extension (FE), adduction-abduction (AA), internal-external (IE) rotation, and anterior-posterior (AP), medial-lateral (ML), superior-inferior (SI) translation in each stage of the gait cycle were determined. [Results] The average side-to-side differences and their 95% confidence intervals in rotation/translation in each stage of the gait cycle were determined. The side-to-side differences in AA rotation and AP translation of the tibia were significantly larger in the swing phase than in the stance phase. [Conclusion] The side-to-side differences in AA rotation and AP translation were highly dependent on the stage of the gait cycle. Therefore, the normal ranges of the side-to-side differences in knee kinematics in each stage of the gait cycle, in particular AA rotation and AP translation of the tibia, is useful information for evaluating knee kinematics during walking. PMID:26180325

  1. Can physiologic assessment and side effects tease out differences in PTSD trials? A double-blind comparison of citalopram, sertraline, and placebo.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Phebe; Potter-Kimball, Robin; Wyatt, Dorothy B; Parker, Don E; Burgin, Christie; Jones, Dan E; Masters, Barbara K

    2003-01-01

    Effects of double-blind treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with 2 SSRIs and placebo on emotional symptoms and autonomic reactivity were assessed prospectively. PTSD subjects received citalopram (n=25), sertraline (n=23), or placebo (n=10) for 10 weeks, with psychophysiologic assessments performed before and after treatment. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that all treatment groups improved significantly in total symptoms of PTSD (as measured by the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale), all 3 PTSD symptom clusters, and sleep time. However, subtle differences in improvements in PTSD symptom clusters, physiologic reactivity, and reported adverse events were identified. Citalopram treated subjects significantly lowered systolic and diastolic blood pressures, while sertraline and placebo treated patients significantly lowered only systolic blood pressure reactivity to individualized trauma scripts. The sertraline group showed significantly more improvement in avoidance/numbing symptoms than both other groups. Considering side effects, subjects on sertraline reported more gastrointestinal problems, with early terminators having more insomnia. Early terminators on citalopram reported more fatigue and appetite changes than other treatment groups, with completers reporting more sexual dysfunction. Results support a class effect of SSRIs in treating PTSD symptoms, but suggest a possible differential effect of drugs on symptom clusters, physiologic parameters, and side effects that may have clinical relevance. Implications of symptom reduction noted in the smaller placebo group are discussed relative to recent concerns about increasing placebo response in clinical trials.

  2. Different sensitivities of photosystem II in green algae and cyanobacteria to phenylurea and phenol-type herbicides: effect on electron donor side.

    PubMed

    Yotsova, Ekaterina K; Stefanov, Martin A; Dobrikova, Anelia G; Apostolova, Emilia L

    2017-07-14

    The effects of short-term treatment with phenylurea (DCMU, isoproturon) and phenol-type (ioxynil) herbicides on the green alga Chlorella kessleri and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis salina with different organizations of photosystem II (PSII) were investigated using pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic oxygen evolution measured by polarographic oxygen electrodes (Clark-type and Joliot-type). The photosynthetic oxygen evolution showed stronger inhibition than the PSII photochemistry. The effects of the studied herbicides on both algal and cyanobacterial cells decreased in the following order: DCMU>isoproturon>ioxynil. Furthermore, we observed that the number of blocked PSII centers increased significantly after DCMU treatment (204-250 times) and slightly after ioxynil treatment (19-35 times) in comparison with the control cells. This study suggests that the herbicides affect not only the acceptor side but also the donor side of PSII by modifications of the Mn cluster of the oxygen-evolving complex. We propose that one of the reasons for the different PSII inhibitions caused by herbicides is their influence, in different extents, on the kinetic parameters of the oxygen-evolving reactions (the initial S0-S1 state distribution, the number of blocked centers SB, the turnover time of Si states, misses and double hits). The relationship between the herbicide-induced inhibition and the changes in the kinetic parameters is discussed.

  3. Side Effects of Yttrium-90 Radioembolization

    PubMed Central

    Riaz, Ahsun; Awais, Rafia; Salem, Riad

    2014-01-01

    Limited therapeutic options are available for hepatic malignancies. Image guided targeted therapies have established their role in management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancies. Radioembolization with yttrium-90 (90Y) microspheres is safe and efficacious for treatment of hepatic malignancies. The tumoricidal effect of radioembolization is predominantly due to radioactivity and not ischemia. This article will present a comprehensive review of the side effects that have been associated with radioembolization using 90Y microspheres. Some of the described side effects are associated with all transarterial procedures. Side effects specific to radioembolization will also be discussed in detail. Methods to decrease the incidence of these potential side effects will also be discussed. PMID:25120955

  4. [Radiologic side effects of cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Beule, Annette; Tarkkanen, Maija

    2015-01-01

    Cancer therapy agents can cause a vast spectrum of side effects which can be detected with various imaging techniques. These side effects can affect all organs and vary from non-symptomatic to fatal. The rapid evolution of cancer therapy brings constantly new agents into clinical practice. Some side effects may be detected only after the marketing approval of the therapy. The radiological findings usually lead into a suspicion of a drug side effect especially if there are no other imminent causes for the findings. Collaboration between the radiologist and the treating physician is essential in the diagnostic work-up.

  5. Right-side and left-side colon cancer follow different pathways to relapse

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Kerry M.; Hummon, Amanda B.; Buechler, Steven

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cancer of the ascending (right-side) colon is different from cancer of the descending (left-side) colon at the molecular level. Using microarray data from 102 right-side colon carcinomas and 95 left-side colon carcinomas we show that different pathways dominate progression to relapse in right-side and left-side colon cancer. Right-side tumors at a high risk for relapse exhibit elevated expression of cell cycle control genes and elevated Wnt signaling. On the other hand, relapse-prone left-side tumors show elevated expression of genes that promote stromal expansion and reduced expression of tumor suppressor genes that initiate Wnt signaling. Single gene prognostic biomarkers are found separately for right-side and left-side disease. In left-side tumors with low expression levels of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) the 5-year relapse-free survival probability is 0.89 95%CI(0.80 – 0.99), and in tumors with elevated NOX4 expression the probability is 0.51 95%CI(0.37 – 0.70). Right-side tumors with elevated expression levels of caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2) have a 5-year relapse-free survival probability of 0.88 95%CI(0.80 – 0.96), and those with low CDX2 expression have a corresponding probability of 0.39 95%CI(0.15 – 0.78). Both NOX4 and CDX2 are much less prognostic on the opposite sides. This newly identified role of NOX4 in colon cancer is further investigated using the SW620 lymph-node metastasis colon adenocarcinoma cell line and RNA interference. We show that NOX4 is expressed in the SW620 cell line and that application of NOX4 siRNA causes a significant reduction in reactive oxidative species production. PMID:21656576

  6. Consumer strategies for coping with antipsychotic medication side effects.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Tom; Stedman, Terry; Wallace, Jane

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to investigate the strategies employed by consumers to manage the common side effects associated with antipsychotic medication use. Focus group discussions and individual interviews involving 238 consumers, 25 carers and 16 mental health staff were employed to identify key side effects and a range of consumer coping strategies for managing these adverse effects. Nine side effects were selected from a total pool of 32 proposed in the group discussions. Strategies that were perceived by the participants to be useful in coping with the selected side effects were then identified. While the strategies proposed for each side effect differed, common themes included the maintenance of a balanced lifestyle, healthy eating and sleeping routines, and fostering a positive outlook on life. Understanding the strategies employed by consumers to deal with the adverse effects of their medications may help clinicians to engage more effectively with consumers in the discussion and management of side effects.

  7. Side Effects of Contingent Shock Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oorsouw, W. M. W. J.; Israel, M. L.; von Heyn, R. E.; Duker, P. C.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the side effects of contingent shock (CS) treatment were addressed with a group of nine individuals, who showed severe forms of self-injurious behavior (SIB) and aggressive behavior. Side effects were assigned to one of the following four behavior categories; (a) positive verbal and nonverbal utterances, (b) negative verbal and…

  8. [Comparison of the effects of different side-cut angles on corneal biomechanical properties after femtosecond laser assisted-laser in situ keratomileusis].

    PubMed

    Li, H; Wang, Y; Dou, R; Wang, L; Xu, L L; Li, X J; Zhang, J M

    2017-01-11

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of side-cut angles on corneal biomechanical properties after femtosecond laser assisted-laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). Methods: In this clinical control study, 97 right eyes of 97 patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism undergoing FS-LASIK surgery were included randomly. Two types of side-cut angles were designed for the flap, 90° in 48 eyes and 130° in 49 eyes. The values of corneal resistance factor (CRF), cornea hysteresis (CH) and 37 biomechanical waveform parameters were measured using the ocular response analyzer preoperatively and at 1 and 3 months postoperatively. The comparison between the two groups at different follow-up time points was made with one-way analysis of variance, and the comparison among different follow-up time points in each group was performed with the repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: The mean CRF, CH, p area, h, dive1, dive2, w11 and w21 in both groups showed significant reduction at 1 month postoperatively (group 90°: CRF 10.49 vs. 6.85, CH 10.02 vs. 7.55, p1 area 3 537.54 vs. 1 918.07, h1 404.74 vs. 283.25, dive1 350.63 vs. 243.33, w11 10.50 vs. 7.58. group 130°: CRF 10.14 vs. 6.38, CH 9.93 vs. 7.13, p1 area 3 498.93 vs. 2 038.74, h1 411.93 vs. 304.49, dive1 352.51 vs. 265.12, w11 10.55 vs. 7.78. P<0.001) . The mean CRF, CH, p area, w, h, dive1 and dive2 in both groups showed significant reduction at 3 months postoperatively (group 90°: CRF 10.49 vs. 6.60, CH 10.02 vs. 7.65, p1 area 3537.54 vs. 2042.91, h1 404.74 vs. 307.77, dive1 350.63 vs. 263.33, w11 10.50 vs. 7.58. group 130°: CRF 10.14 vs. 6.45, CH 9.93 vs. 7.67, p1 area 3 498.93 vs. 2 187.97, h1 411.93 vs. 327.39, dive1 352.51 vs. 284.26, w11 10.55 vs. 7.61. P<0.001). The mean path in both groups showed significant increase at 1 and 3 months postoperatively (group 90°: path1 23.14 vs. 30.50 vs. 30.79. group 130°: path1 24.12 vs. 32.18 vs. 31.49. P<0.001). The mean aplhf, bindex, dive2 and path2 between both

  9. Side Effects and Their Management

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cognitive Changes Depression & Mood Changes Fertility Options Late Effects Seizures Diet & Nutrition During Treatment Support and Resources Caregiver Resource Center Pediatric Caregiver Resource Center About Us Our Founders Board of Directors Staff Leadership Strategic Plan Financials ...

  10. Negative side effects of noncontingent reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Ringdahl, J E; Roane, H S; Marcus, B A

    1997-01-01

    Noncontingent reinforcement (NCR) has emerged as a treatment package for severe behavior problems. Although concerns about potential side effects (such as incidental reinforcement) have been raised, there have been few reported negative side effects in published studies to date. In this article, we report an NCR treatment evaluation for severe aggression that produced (a) an extinction burst and (b) incidental reinforcement. These side effects were evaluated by examining within-session response patterns and response distributions. As a solution, a brief omission contingency was added to the reinforcement schedule. The omission contingency resulted in decreased aggression rates.

  11. A STUDY OF SIDE EFFECTS OF LITHIUM

    PubMed Central

    Rao, A. Venkoba; Hariharasubramanian, N.; Sugumar, A.

    1983-01-01

    SUMMARY The present report is a study on the side effects experienced by the patients attending the Lithium Clinic of the Institute of Psychiatry, Government Rajaji Hospital, Madurai. Out of the 120 (M 78, F42) patients studied, 97 had side effects. The effects were examined in respect of their frequency, time of onset and course, their relation to one dose and serum levels of lithium and to the clinical response. The duration of therapy ranged from 3 months to 6 years. The most frequent side effects were tremors (26.6%) and polyuria (20.8%). The side effects occurred at varying periods from the onset of therapy. During the first 3 months, tremors, excess salivation, nausea and abdominal discomfort; weight gain, memory defects and polyuria, between 3 months and 1 year; and hypothyroidism, tardive dyskinesia, acne and hair fall beyond one year. PMID:21847262

  12. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Top of Page Influenza (live) vaccine side-effects What are the risks from LAIV? With any medicine, including vaccines, there is a chance of reactions. These are usually mild and go away on their ...

  13. Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments may cause dental, mouth, and throat side effects such as changes in taste (dysgeusia), dry mouth (xerostomia), infections, mouth sores, pain or swelling in your mouth (oral mucositis), sensitivity to foods, and swallowing problems.

  14. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  15. [Local cutaneous side effects of interferons].

    PubMed

    Charron, A; Bessis, D; Dereure, O; Guilhou, J J; Guillot, B

    2001-10-27

    UNDERESTIMATED SIDE EFFECTS: Skin reactions to interferon (INF) treatment are uncommon in the larger series in the literature and are usually considered to be minor. They account for 5 to 12% of adverse effects to IFN and are encountered increasingly in patients with active chronic hepatitis C. Reactions may be local, occurring exclusively at the site of injection, or general. We reviewed the literature on local skin reactions at the site of injection of the different interferons to study the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and management schemes used. Local skin reactions can be divided into two types depending on the potential gravity and management. Minor reactions (transient erythema, eczema, depilation) have few clinical or therapeutic implications. More serious reactions, necrosis, vasculitis or injection can be potentially severe and require definitive interruption of treatment. Preventive measures include careful education concerning self-injections using proper asepsia, variation of injection sites, and self-assessment of persistent skin reactions.

  16. Exploiting online discussions to discover unrecognized drug side effects.

    PubMed

    Wu, H; Fang, H; Stanhope, S J

    2013-01-01

    Drugs can treat human diseases through chemical interactions between the ingredients and intended targets in the human body. However, the ingredients could unexpectedly interact with off-targets, which may cause adverse drug side effects. Notifying patients and physicians of potential drug effects is an important step in improving healthcare quality and delivery. With the increasing popularity of Web 2.0 applications, more and more patients start discussing drug side effects in many online sources. These online discussions form a valuable source for mining interesting knowledge about side effects. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of exploiting these discussions to discover unrecognized drug side effects. We propose methods that can 1) build a knowledge base for drug side effects by automatically integrating the information related to drug side effects from different sources; and 2) monitor online discussions about drugs and discover potential unrecognized drug side effects. Experiment results show that the online discussions indeed provide useful information discovering unrecognized drug side effects. We find that the integrated knowledge base contains more information than individual online sources. Moreover, both proposed detection methods can identify the side effects related to the four recently recalled drugs, and the information from online discussions makes it possible to make the detection much earlier than official announcements. Finally, the proposed generative modeling method is shown to be more effective than the discriminative method. We find that it is possible to monitor online discussions to detect unrecognized drug side effects. The developed system is expected to serve as a complementary tool for drug companies and FDA to receive feedbacks from the patients, and it has the potentials to expedite the discovery process of unrecognized drug side effects and to improve the quality of healthcare.

  17. The kneeling view: evaluation of the forces involved and side-to-side difference.

    PubMed

    Osti, Leonardo; Papalia, Rocco; Rinaldi, Paola; Denaro, Vincenzo; Bartlett, John; Maffulli, Nicola

    2009-12-01

    The kneeling view is a method to objectively measure posterior knee laxity. However, the actual amount of load applied and the reliability of this method in term of side to side difference are not known. We studies these issues in a group a 25 healthy volunteers who underwent measurements of posterior knee laxity in both knees. A standard digital scale was positioned under both kneeling supports to measure the actual amounts of posterior displacement forces applied. We measured the mass of the subject, the side-to-side difference of the weight applied into anterior aspect of the tibia, and the ratio weight of the subject/ amount of posterior displacement load applied. The average amount of forces applied was at least 75% of the body weight of each subject, with a side-to-side variability of 3.3% of the weight applied. The kneeling view can be considered, in terms of forces applied, a reliable and reproducible alternative method for the routine radiographic evaluation of the posterior knee laxity.

  18. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua

    2012-05-01

    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  19. [Side Effects of Occupational Group Therapy].

    PubMed

    Flöge, B; Fay, D; Jöbges, M; Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2016-12-01

    Background: Occupational therapy is an important co-therapy in psychiatric therapy. It is a common belief that no risks are associated with occupational therapy. Negative effects caused by group therapy, especially occupational therapy, have not been in the focus of research yet. In this study we want to illustrate possible types and intensities of group side effects through occupational therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients of an inpatient rehabilitation facility filled out the Adverse Treatment Reaction Group Checklist. The checklist contains 47 items divided in six dimensions: group size, content, group participants, group outcome and global. The self-rating used a 5-point likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = very much, extremely stressful) and gives information about types and intensities of the side effects. Results: 88.9 % of 45 patients reported negative effects of occupational group therapy. 28.9 % of the patients rated the side effect as at least severe. Discussion: Occupational therapy is associated with side effects as every other group therapy. Possible side effects caused by group therapy should be considered while planning and implementing occupational therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} < 011>, {110} < 001>, and {110} < 1-10 > are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  1. Understanding IBD Medications and Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... her illness is unique, as well. There is no “one-size-fits-all” approach. Doctors will customize treatment ... might reduce those effects. Even when there are no side effects, or just minimal ones, it may still seem like a nuisance to ...

  2. The side effects of silver sulfadiazine.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Frederick W

    2009-01-01

    Silver sulfadiazine cream has an enviable safety record in burn treatment. However, it side effects, exemplified by allergic reactions to its sulfadiazine moiety, silver staining of the treated burn wound, hyperosmolality, methemoglobinemia, and hemolysis due to a congential lack of glucose-6-phospate dehydrogenase, may be missed or misinterpreted. Early post burn leukopenia, once thought to be a side effect of the use of silver sulfadiazine in burn wound therapy, is no longer regarded as such since it has been found to occur with the use of other burn topical agents. Its presence is no longer an indication to discontinue silver sulfadiazine burn wound therapy. Because these side effects are uncommon, any one physician or burn facility usually has limited experience in diagnosing and treating them.

  3. Side effects of cytokines approved for therapy.

    PubMed

    Baldo, Brian A

    2014-11-01

    Cytokines, currently known to be more than 130 in number, are small MW (<30 kDa) key signaling proteins that modulate cellular activities in immunity, infection, inflammation and malignancy. Key to understanding their function is recognition of their pleiotropism and often overlapping and functional redundancies. Classified here into 9 main families, most of the 20 approved cytokine preparations (18 different cytokines; 3 pegylated), all in recombinant human (rh) form, are grouped in the hematopoietic growth factor, interferon, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) families. In the hematopoietin family, approved cytokines are aldesleukin (rhIL-2), oprelvekin (rhIL-11), filgrastim and tbo-filgrastim (rhG-CSF), sargramostim (rhGM-CSF), metreleptin (rh-leptin) and the rh-erythropoietins, epoetin and darbepoietin alfa. Anakinra, a recombinant receptor antagonist for IL-1, is in the IL-1 family; recombinant interferons alfa-1, alfa-2, beta-1 and gamma-1 make up the interferon family; palifermin (rhKGF) and becaplermin (rhPDGF) are in the PDGF family; and rhBMP-2 and rhBMP-7 represent the TGFβ family. The main physicochemical features, FDA-approved indications, modes of action and side effects of these approved cytokines are presented. Underlying each adverse events profile is their pleiotropism, potency and capacity to release other cytokines producing cytokine 'cocktails'. Side effects, some serious, occur despite cytokines being endogenous proteins, and this therefore demands caution in attempts to introduce individual members into the clinic. This caution is reflected in the relatively small number of cytokines currently approved by regulatory agencies and by the fact that 14 of the FDA-approved preparations carry warnings, with 10 being black box warnings.

  4. A second international cooperative investigation into thioacetazone side effects

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Fox, Wallace; Somasundaram, P. R.; Tall, Ruth

    1972-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international cooperative investigation into the side effects of thioacetazone-containing regimens in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of the variation in the frequency of side effects between different countries and between different centres in the same country and of the likely reasons for this variation. In 3 countries patients of different racial origin were under observation in the same hospital. Over a 12-week period of treatment there was considerable variation between the countries and centres in the overall frequency of side effects and of those leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment, the variation being similar for the two thioacetazone-containing regimens and for the streptomycin plus isoniazid control regimen, though at a lower level for the latter. In Malaysia, Singapore, and Trinidad, where different racial groups were under treatment, there was no clear indication that race was an important factor in explaining the differences between countries, except for cutaneous side effects in Trinidad and possibly in Malaysia. It is concluded that the differences in the frequency of side effects to thioacetazone-containing regimens probably result from variation in the closeness of supervision of patients, in the recording and interpretation of side effects, and in environmental factors including the previous use of other medicaments or exposure to sensitizing substances. PMID:4118761

  5. Radiation-induced stress response in peripheral blood of breast cancer patients differs between patients with severe acute skin reactions and patients with no side effects to radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skiöld, Sara; Naslund, Ingemar; Brehwens, Karl; Andersson, Arja; Wersall, Peter; Lidbrink, Elisabet; Harms-Ringdahl, Mats; Wojcik, Andrzej; Haghdoost, Siamak

    2013-08-30

    The aim of the study was to compare the radiation-induced oxidative stress response in blood samples from breast cancer patients that developed severe acute skin reactions during the radiotherapy, with the response in blood samples from patients with no side effects. Peripheral blood was collected from 12 breast cancer patients showing no early skin reactions after radiotherapy (RTOG grade 0) and from 14 breast cancer patients who developed acute severe skin reactions (RTOG grade 3-4). Whole blood was irradiated with 0, 5 and 2000mGy γ-radiation and serum was isolated. The biomarker for oxidative stress, 8-oxo-dG, was analyzed in the serum by a modified ELISA. While a significant radiation-induced increase of serum 8-oxo-dG levels was observed in serum of the RTOG 0 patients, no increase was seen in serum of the RTOG 3-4 patients. The radiation induced increase in serum 8-oxo-dG levels after 5mGy did not differ significantly from the increase observed for 2000mGy in the RTOG 3-4 cohort, thus no dose response relation was observed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) value of 0.97 was obtained from the radiation-induced increase in 8-oxo-dG indicating that the assay could be used to identify patients with severe acute adverse reactions to radiotherapy. The results show that samples of whole blood from patients, classified as highly radiosensitive (RTOG 3-4) based on their skin reactions to radiotherapy, differ significantly in their oxidative stress response to ionizing radiation compared to samples of whole blood from patients with no skin reactions (RTOG 0). Extracellular 8-oxo-dG is primarily a biomarker of nucleotide damage and the results indicate that the patients with severe acute skin reactions differ in their cellular response to ionizing radiation at the level of induction of oxidative stress or at the level of repair or both. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  7. Relating drug–protein interaction network with drug side effects

    PubMed Central

    Mizutani, Sayaka; Pauwels, Edouard; Stoven, Véronique; Goto, Susumu; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: Identifying the emergence and underlying mechanisms of drug side effects is a challenging task in the drug development process. This underscores the importance of system–wide approaches for linking different scales of drug actions; namely drug-protein interactions (molecular scale) and side effects (phenotypic scale) toward side effect prediction for uncharacterized drugs. Results: We performed a large-scale analysis to extract correlated sets of targeted proteins and side effects, based on the co-occurrence of drugs in protein-binding profiles and side effect profiles, using sparse canonical correlation analysis. The analysis of 658 drugs with the two profiles for 1368 proteins and 1339 side effects led to the extraction of 80 correlated sets. Enrichment analyses using KEGG and Gene Ontology showed that most of the correlated sets were significantly enriched with proteins that are involved in the same biological pathways, even if their molecular functions are different. This allowed for a biologically relevant interpretation regarding the relationship between drug–targeted proteins and side effects. The extracted side effects can be regarded as possible phenotypic outcomes by drugs targeting the proteins that appear in the same correlated set. The proposed method is expected to be useful for predicting potential side effects of new drug candidate compounds based on their protein-binding profiles. Supplementary information: Datasets and all results are available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/supp/smizutan/target-effect/. Availability: Software is available at the above supplementary website. Contact: yamanishi@bioreg.kyushu-u.ac.jp, or goto@kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp PMID:22962476

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. Then I got used ... uncovered.” Questions other people have asked: Why does hair fall out? Chemotherapy can harm the cells that ...

  9. Enhancing Clinical Trials by Incorporating Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Evidence-based medicine is often seen as a model for evidence-based education, and deservedly so, but evaluators in education have been slow to adopt one of its salient features, attention to side effects. Many education evaluations focus almost exclusively on efficacy, that is on achievement test scores. Regardless of domain, all interventions…

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nerve Changes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Nerve Changes “My fingers and toes felt numb and tingly. It was hard to button shirts. I got help from my wife. To keep from getting cuts, I always wore shoes.” u.s. Department of health anD human services national ...

  11. Is right-sided colon cancer different to left-sided colorectal cancer? - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lee, G H; Malietzis, G; Askari, A; Bernardo, D; Al-Hassi, H O; Clark, S K

    2015-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibits differences in incidence, pathogenesis, molecular pathways and outcome depending on the location of the tumor. This review focuses on the latest developments in epidemiological and scientific studies, which have enhanced our understanding on the underlying genetic and immunological differences between the proximal (right-sided) colon and the distal (left-sided) colorectum. The different ways in which environmental risk factors influence the pathogenesis of CRC depending on its location and the variations in surgical and oncological outcomes are also discussed in this review. In the current era of personalized medicine, we aim to reiterate the importance of tumor location in management of CRC and the implication on future clinical and scientific research.

  12. Sequence classification with side effect machines evolved via ring optimization.

    PubMed

    McEachern, Andrew; Ashlock, Daniel; Schonfeld, Justin

    2013-07-01

    The explosion of available sequence data necessitates the development of sophisticated machine learning tools with which to analyze them. This study introduces a sequence-learning technology called side effect machines. It also applies a model of evolution which simulates the evolution of a ring species to the training of the side effect machines. A comparison is done between side effect machines evolved in the ring structure and side effect machines evolved using a standard evolutionary algorithm based on tournament selection. At the core of the training of side effect machines is a nearest neighbor classifier. A parameter study was performed to investigate the impact of the division of training data into examples for nearest neighbor assessment and training cases. The parameter study demonstrates that parameter setting is important in the baseline runs but had little impact in the ring-optimization runs. The ring optimization technique was also found to exhibit improved and also more reliable training performance. Side effect machines are tested on two types of synthetic data, one based on GC-content and the other checking for the ability of side effect machines to recognize an embedded motif. Three types of biological data are used, a data set with different types of immune-system genes, a data set with normal and retro-virally derived human genomic sequence, and standard and nonstandard initiation regions from the cytochrome-oxidase subunit one in the mitochondrial genome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy: Side Effects Defined and Quantified

    PubMed Central

    Heyboer, Marvin; Sharma, Deepali; Santiago, William; McCulloch, Norman

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is an important advanced therapy in the treatment of problem wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers and late effect radiation injury. HBOT remains among the safest therapies used today. Nonetheless, there are side effects associated with HBOT. It is important for providers to be able to identify, understand, and quantify these side effects for prevention, management, and informed consent. Recent Advances: The past two decades have seen significant advancements in our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of HBOT. This has led to a better understanding of the underlying reason for clinical benefit. It has also led to a better understanding of its side effects. Moreover, more recent literature allows for better quantification of these side effects. This review will highlight these side effects. Critical Issues: Wound healing in the case of problem nonhealing wounds requires the use of various advanced treatment modalities, including HBOT. HBOT has been shown to significantly improve healing rates in certain problem wounds, including advanced diabetic foot ulcers and late effect radiation injury. It is provided in a variety of clinical settings by providers with varying levels of expertise. It is important for those providing this therapy to understand the potential side effects. Future Directions: Research in HBOT has led to significant advancements in the area of wound healing. At the same time, there remains a variety of treatment protocols used at different institutions. It is important to quantify risk and benefit at different treatment pressures and times to better standardize treatment and improve patient care. PMID:28616361

  14. Is ethnicity associated with morphine's side effects in children? morphine pharmacokinetics, analgesic response and side effects in children having tonsillectomy

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Nathalia; Anderson, Gail D.; Shen, Danny D.; Nielsen, Susan Searles; Farin, Federico M.; Seidel, Kristy; Lynn, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Aims To examine whether morphine pharmacokinetics (PK) and/or genetic polymorphisms in opioid-related genes, underlie differences in analgesic response and side effects to morphine in Latino (L) vs non-Latino Caucasian (NL) children. Background Morphine has high interindividual variability in its analgesic response and side effects profile. Earlier studies suggest that morphine response may vary by race and ethnicity. Methods Prospective cohort study in L and NL children, 3–17 years of age comparing pain scores, occurrence of side effects, plasma morphine, morphine-6-and morphine-3-glucuronide concentrations measured after a single morphine IV bolus administration. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis and genotyping for 28 polymorphisms in 8 genes (UGT1A8, UGT2B7, ABCB1, COMT, STAT6, MC1R, OPRM1, and ARRB2) were done. Results We enrolled 68 children (33 L, 35 NL). There were no differences in pain scores or need for rescue analgesia. Statistically significant differences in the occurrence of side effects were documented: While 58% of L children experienced at least one side effect only 20% of NL did (p=0.001). Pruritus was 4 times (p=0.006) and emesis 7 times (p=0.025) more frequent in L compared to NL. PK parameters were similar between groups. None of the assessed polymorphisms mediated the association between ethnicity and side effects. Conclusions We found statistically significant differences in occurrence of side effects after morphine administration between L and NL children. Neither differences in morphine or metabolite concentrations, nor the genetic polymorphisms examined, explain these findings. Studies are needed to further investigate reasons for the increase in morphine side effects by Latino ethnicity. PMID:22486937

  15. What side effects are problematic for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication? The Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure for antipsychotic medication.

    PubMed

    Wykes, T; Evans, J; Paton, C; Barnes, T R E; Taylor, D; Bentall, R; Dalton, B; Ruffell, T; Rose, D; Vitoratou, S

    2017-10-01

    Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact. MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted 'putting on weight' which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important. MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.

  16. [High-dose progestational contraception: side effects].

    PubMed

    Gorins, A

    1993-02-01

    Women rarely depend on progestational contraception. In France, physicians are unsure of its indications. Progestational contraception presents advantages for certain indications where a particular condition exists and, more particularly, for women aged 40 and over. Women who can use it are those who have contraindications to estrogen use. These contraindications include uterine fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia, endometriosis, and fibro-cystic disease of the breast. It does produces side effects but those affecting metabolism seem to be almost negligible, like those of the third generation progestins. These side effects are metrorrhagias, amenorrhea, weight gain, and atherogenic metabolic changes. Yet, the nor-pregnane derivatives (which do effectively suppress ovulation) do not adversely affect glucose and lipid parameters. Progestational contraception probably cannot assure absolute safety as can combined oral contraceptives. It is not yet clear whether women who have been treated for breast cancer should use progestational contraception.

  17. Coenzyme Q10: Can It Prevent Statin Side Effects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Q10: Can it prevent statin side effects? Can coenzyme Q10 reduce the risk of side effects from ... Francisco Lopez-Jimenez, M.D. At this time, coenzyme Q10 isn't universally recommended for preventing side ...

  18. Oral side-effects of the most frequently prescribed drugs.

    PubMed

    Smith, R G; Burtner, A P

    1994-01-01

    Oral side-effects and their respective prevalence rates for the 200 most frequently prescribed drugs for 1992, as measured by IMS America's National Prescription Audit is reviewed. Accounting for duplication due to brand and generic name listings, the actual number of different medications covered was 131. The results of this review are presented in a table and include the oral side-effects and prevalences as reported in the literature. The three most frequent side-effects encountered with these medications were xerostomia (80.5%), dysgeusia (47.5%), and stomatitis (33.9%). The included table should fill the need for a ready reference for dentists in monitoring and counseling patients regarding the potential oral side-effects of the medications.

  19. Opiates and elderly: use and side effects.

    PubMed

    Chau, Diane L; Walker, Vanessa; Pai, Latha; Cho, Lwin M

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.

  20. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Chau, Diane L; Walker, Vanessa; Pai, Latha; Cho, Lwin M

    2008-01-01

    The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them. PMID:18686750

  1. Effects and Side Effects of Flemish School Inspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased importance of school inspection in recent years, the current knowledge base does not provide a clear view on the effects and side effects of being inspected. More evidence is needed in more diverse educational contexts. This article responds to this need with a quantitative study on the effects and side effects of school…

  2. Effects and Side Effects of Flemish School Inspection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased importance of school inspection in recent years, the current knowledge base does not provide a clear view on the effects and side effects of being inspected. More evidence is needed in more diverse educational contexts. This article responds to this need with a quantitative study on the effects and side effects of school…

  3. Naloxone can act as an analgesic agent without measurable chronic side effects in mice with a mutant mu-opioid receptor expressed in different sites of pain pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Shu-Husan; Kao, Jen-Hsin; Tao, Pao-Luh; Law, Ping-Yee; Loh, Horace H.

    2012-01-01

    Midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) and spinal cord dorsal horn are major action sites of opioid analgesics in the pain pathway. Our previous study has shown that opioid antagonists activate MORS196A-CSTA (a mutant of mu-opioid receptor) as full agonists in vitro cell models and naloxone showed antinociceptive effects after the expression of MORS196A-CSTA in the spinal cord in mice. The purpose of this study is to investigate the site directed antinociceptive effects of naloxone in mice injected with dsAAV-MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP at spinal cord or at periaqueductal gray. MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP was administered to ICR mice using dsAAV as vector. We measured MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP expression by detecting the EGFP visualization with a fluorescence microscope. The antinociceptive effect of naloxone was determined by tail-flick test and hot plate test. Drug rewarding effect was evaluated by the conditioned place preference test. Naloxone (10 mg/kg, s.c.) elicited both supraspinal and spinal antinociceptive responses in mice injected with the virus at PAG while only spinal antinociceptive response was observed in mice injected with virus at dorsal horn region. Chronic naloxone treatment did not induce physical dependence or rewarding effect in mice injected with MORS196A-CSTA-EGFP in spinal cord or PAG. These data suggest that the observed naloxone-induced antinociceptive response is the consequence of the local expression of MORS196A-CSTA at specific sites of pain pathway. Injection of such MOR mutant and the systemic administration of naloxone can be a new strategy in the management of chronic pain without the various side effects associated with the use of morphine. PMID:22407757

  4. [Side effects of third generation progestins].

    PubMed

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    1993-04-01

    A large number of publications on oral contraceptives (OC) can be found in the medical literature. These reports deal not only with mode of action or efficacy of OCs but also with side effects. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are not accepted nor acceptable from a population of young women free of disease who expect from their mode of contraception to be fully efficient and devoid from side effects. In most instances, side effects observed with OCs as well as their efficacy are related to the total dose of steroïds contained in the combination, to the balance between the estrogen and the progestin content and to the specific characteristics of the molecules. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality reported in OC users have been related firstly to the ethinylestradiol (EE) and as a first step, the estrogen dose has been reduced in the OCs synthesized in the 70s. Later on, cardiovascular risk has been correlated to lipid profile changes and progestins with androgenic properties have been made responsible for cardiovascular events reported in OC users. In order to minimize the incidence of ADRs and to induce beneficial changes in lipid patterns, new progestational molecules devoid of androgenic properties have been recently synthesized. Three compounds called "third generation" progestins, derived from levonorgestrel are presently available in Europe. These three gonane progestins demonstrate affinity for the androgenic receptor, but when administered together with EE do not oppose the estrogenic effect observed on protein markers such as the Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) or the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Marano, Giuseppe; Traversi, Gianandrea; Romagnoli, Enrico; Catalano, Valeria; Lotrionte, Marzia; Abbate, Antonio; Biondi-Zoccai, Giuseppe; Mazza, Marianna

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity. The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness, can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course. The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity. Moreover, the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear. This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history. PMID:22783311

  6. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Bork, Peer

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug–side effect pairs. For 199 drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de. PMID:20087340

  7. Esomeprazole induced galactorrhea: a novel side effect.

    PubMed

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most frequently prescribed medications across the globe. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, and it is currently the most widely prescribed PPI. The safety profile of esomeprazole is extremely favorable with only minor side effects, like headache and diarrhea, that are encountered in day to day practice. We report a case of a young female with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed galactorrhea after starting esomeprazole therapy. Resolution of galactorrhea after stopping the drug and self-rechallenge by the patient herself with reappearance of galactorrhea confirmed the culprit to be esomeprazole only. We postulate that esomeprazole may have a mild inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, which leads to decreased metabolism of estrogen, thereby increasing serum estrogen levels. Estrogen causes stimulation and production of prolactin release, which results in development of galactorrhea. This is the first case of esomeprazole induced galactorrhea, to the best of our knowledge.

  8. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  9. Systemic side effects of locally used oxymetazoline

    PubMed Central

    Dokuyucu, Recep; Gokce, Hasan; Sahan, Mustafa; Sefil, Fatih; Tas, Zeynel Abidin; Tutuk, Okan; Ozturk, Atakan; Tumer, Cemil; Cevik, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The object of the study is to experimentally investigate the possible systemic side effects of Oxymetazoline including its nasal spray which has been in use for a long time both by the physicians and patients. There is no study in the literature to address the damages of oxymetazoline on the end organ. Materials and methods: The study conducted on 2 groups of rat. Group 1 (n = 8): Control; and Group 2 (n = 8): Oxymetazoline. During 4 week, the control group was applied with 2 drops of saline water on each nasal cavity 3 times a day and the other group was applied with 2 drops of oxymetazoline HCl 3 times a day. At the end of experiment, samples from mandible, parotid and tails of the rats were taken in 10% formalin for histopathological investigations. Results: In histopathological experiments, when compared with the control group, the oxymetazoline group showed significant increase in many of the histopathological parameters (ischemic changes: P = 0.0001; congestion: P = 0.0006; arterial thrombosis: P = Ns; PNL accumulations: P = 0.001; necrosis: P = 0.0001; and ulceration: P = 0.014). The results of histopathologic tests on the samples taken from mandible and parotid gland, in comparison with the control group, showed no significant increase (focal inflammation: P = Ns; and lymphocyte aggregation: P = Ns). Conclusion: Due to the damage that the long-term use of nasal spray including oxymetazoline, it may cause injury on the end organ, which we revealed in our histopathological experiments. We believe that it’s essential for the physicians to provide information on the side effects of the medicine to their patients who use for a long term. PMID:25932218

  10. Placebo-controlled evaluation of Ritalin side effects.

    PubMed

    Ahmann, P A; Waltonen, S J; Olson, K A; Theye, F W; Van Erem, A J; LaPlant, R J

    1993-06-01

    To address the frequency of side effects of Ritalin therapy in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using the Barkeley Side Effects Questionnaire (BSEQ) in a clinical setting. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. A large rural tertiary care clinic. 234 consecutive children aged 5 through 15 years who met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed, revised) criteria for ADHD were enrolled. Of these children, 206 had sufficient side effects data for analysis. 0.3 mg/kg per dose and 0.5 mg/kg per dose Ritalin compared to placebo in separate 2-week trials. Each treatment was given three times a day for 7 consecutive days. Parents, blinded to the treatment assignment, assessed side effects via the BSEQ at baseline and at the end of each of the 4 treatment weeks. Univariate odds ratios (OR) were used to describe the magnitude of differences in observed side effects between Ritalin and placebo weeks of the trial for each of the items on the BSEQ. The frequency of the following side effects significantly increased with Ritalin therapy: insomnia (OR = 3.13, 95% confidence interval [CI] = (1.80,5.42)), appetite disturbance (OR = 19.00, 95% CI = (9.18,39.31)), stomachache (OR = 7.00, 95% CI = (3.29, 14.89)), headache (OR = 5.29, 95% CI = (2.51,11.15)), and dizziness (OR = 7.50, 95% CI = (1.93,29.13)). The frequency of the following side effects significantly decreased with Ritalin therapy: staring and daydreaming (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = (0.27,0.84)), irritability (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = (0.18,0.61)), anxiety (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = (0.23,0.76)), and nailbiting (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = (0.07, 0.53)). The incidence rates of the remaining BSEQ items did not differ significantly between the Ritalin and placebo weeks of the trial. The BSEQ proved to be clinically effective in tracking Ritalin side effects and should be incorporated into the routine evaluation and monitoring of ADHD patients for whom stimulants are

  11. Antidepressants: Which Cause the Fewest Sexual Side Effects?

    MedlinePlus

    ... m worried about the sexual side effects from antidepressants. What can be done to prevent or reduce ... M.D. Sexual side effects are common with antidepressants in both men and women, so your concern ...

  12. Subjective Report of Side Effects of Prescribed and Nonprescribed Psychostimulant Use in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tess E; Martel, Michelle M; DeSantis, Alan D

    2017-03-21

    Side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use are understudied. The study examined side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use in a college sample with attention to possible gender differences. 2716 undergraduates (1448 male) between the ages of 17 and 57 years (M = 19.43 years, SD = 1.7 years) completed an online survey that included questions about the subjective side effects of prescribed and nonprescribed psychostimulant use. Results suggested that prescribed users more frequently reported side effects, compared to nonprescribed users. For prescribed users, females more frequently reported appetite, somatic, and anxiety-related side effects compared to males. For nonprescribed users, while females reported more somatic and anxiety-related side effects, males more frequently reported loss of sex drive and sweating as side effects. Conclusions/Importance: These findings suggest prescribed users of psychostimulants more frequently report side effects with prominent gender differences in line with gender roles.

  13. Reducing Aversion to Side Effects in Preventive Medical Treatment Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Erika A.; Weinstein, Neil D.; Colditz, Graham A.; Emmons, Karen M.

    2007-01-01

    Laypeople tend to be overly sensitive to side effects of treatments that prevent illness, possibly leading them to refuse beneficial therapies. This Internet-based study attempted to reduce such side effect aversion by adding graphic displays to the numerical risk probabilities. It also explored whether graphics reduce side effect aversion by…

  14. Nanomedicinal products: a survey on specific toxicity and side effects.

    PubMed

    Brand, Walter; Noorlander, Cornelle W; Giannakou, Christina; De Jong, Wim H; Kooi, Myrna W; Park, Margriet Vdz; Vandebriel, Rob J; Bosselaers, Irene Em; Scholl, Joep Hg; Geertsma, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Due to their specific properties and pharmacokinetics, nanomedicinal products (NMPs) may present different toxicity and side effects compared to non-nanoformulated, conventional medicines. To facilitate the safety assessment of NMPs, we aimed to gain insight into toxic effects specific for NMPs by systematically analyzing the available toxicity data on approved NMPs in the European Union. In addition, by comparing five sets of products with the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a conventional formulation versus a nanoformulation, we aimed to identify any side effects specific for the nano aspect of NMPs. The objective was to investigate whether specific toxicity could be related to certain structural types of NMPs and whether a nanoformulation of an API altered the nature of side effects of the product in humans compared to a conventional formulation. The survey of toxicity data did not reveal nanospecific toxicity that could be related to certain types of structures of NMPs, other than those reported previously in relation to accumulation of iron nanoparticles (NPs). However, given the limited data for some of the product groups or toxicological end points in the analysis, conclusions with regard to (a lack of) potential nanomedicine-specific effects need to be considered carefully. Results from the comparison of side effects of five sets of drugs (mainly liposomes and/or cytostatics) confirmed the induction of pseudo-allergic responses associated with specific NMPs in the literature, in addition to the side effects common to both nanoformulations and regular formulations, eg, with liposomal doxorubicin, and possibly liposomal daunorubicin. Based on the available data, immunotoxicological effects of certain NMPs cannot be excluded, and we conclude that this end point requires further attention.

  15. Nanomedicinal products: a survey on specific toxicity and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Giannakou, Christina; De Jong, Wim H; Kooi, Myrna W; Park, Margriet VDZ; Vandebriel, Rob J; Bosselaers, Irene EM; Scholl, Joep HG; Geertsma, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    Due to their specific properties and pharmacokinetics, nanomedicinal products (NMPs) may present different toxicity and side effects compared to non-nanoformulated, conventional medicines. To facilitate the safety assessment of NMPs, we aimed to gain insight into toxic effects specific for NMPs by systematically analyzing the available toxicity data on approved NMPs in the European Union. In addition, by comparing five sets of products with the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a conventional formulation versus a nanoformulation, we aimed to identify any side effects specific for the nano aspect of NMPs. The objective was to investigate whether specific toxicity could be related to certain structural types of NMPs and whether a nanoformulation of an API altered the nature of side effects of the product in humans compared to a conventional formulation. The survey of toxicity data did not reveal nanospecific toxicity that could be related to certain types of structures of NMPs, other than those reported previously in relation to accumulation of iron nanoparticles (NPs). However, given the limited data for some of the product groups or toxicological end points in the analysis, conclusions with regard to (a lack of) potential nanomedicine-specific effects need to be considered carefully. Results from the comparison of side effects of five sets of drugs (mainly liposomes and/or cytostatics) confirmed the induction of pseudo-allergic responses associated with specific NMPs in the literature, in addition to the side effects common to both nanoformulations and regular formulations, eg, with liposomal doxorubicin, and possibly liposomal daunorubicin. Based on the available data, immunotoxicological effects of certain NMPs cannot be excluded, and we conclude that this end point requires further attention. PMID:28883724

  16. Vaccine side effects: fact and fiction.

    PubMed

    Day, M J

    2006-10-05

    The debate over adverse reactions associated with companion animal vaccination has considerably exercised the veterinary profession internationally over the past decade. A range of suspected adverse reactions to vaccines is reported including the onset of inflammatory, allergic, autoimmune or neoplastic diseases. Lack of efficacy, interference with diagnostic testing and other occasional suspected product-related issues are also reported. Available data suggest that the overall prevalence of true adverse reactions is exceedingly low and that vaccination does not significantly contribute to ill-health in companion animals. There is increasing public interest in vaccination issues with transfer of focus from publicity over human vaccine side effects to those perceived to occur in animals. We must not lose sight of the fact that vaccination is a safe procedure that has impacted significantly on infectious disease control. Reduced population uptake of vaccination leads to re-emergence of disease in both humans and animals. Nevertheless, there have recently been a series of practical recommendations produced to ensure reduced 'vaccine load' on our companion animals and vaccine manufacturers are moving towards developing non-adjuvanted products with an extended duration of immunity. These measures will further reduce the very small current risk of any adverse consequences to vaccination in our pet population.

  17. [Surveillance and side-effects of transfusions].

    PubMed

    Rezaei Kalantari, H

    2002-06-01

    Allogenic blood transfusion may be required for the treatment of anemia due to a hematologic disease, the consequences of chemotherapy or other circumstances, such as haemorrage and/or surgery. Transfusion becomes indispensable to prevent the side effects of anemia, such as hypoxia, palpitations, tachycardia, cardiac ischemia and fatigue. However, frequent transfusions can cause several acute problems such as hemolysis, anaphylactic shock and septic shock but also chronic problems such as iron overload (hemochromatosis), alloimmunisation and metabolic disturbances. Each of these complications can produce serious consequences and could even be sometimes fatal. Therefore we should recognise, prevent and if necessary treat all these hazards. Our article emphasises the potential chronic problems. For hemochromatosis, an iron chelator (deferoxamine) should be administered. In the presence of allo-immunisation the more compatible ABO blood group must be chosen and blood products be eliminated by filtration, when there has been blood reaction. When an allo-graft of hematopoitic tissues is considered an irradiation of blood products is necessary. Research is being carried out to develop substitute products for transfusion (haemoglobine solutions) or molecules acting on the syntheses of haemoglobine (butyrate arginine). The efficacy of erythropoitine, (EPO) is well recognised for stimulation of haemoglobine syntheses in renal failure and oncology.

  18. Side Effects of Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Middaugh, John P.

    1979-01-01

    During a mass diphtheria-tetanus immunization campaign in November 1975, more than 220,000 doses of diphtheria-tetanus toxoid, adult type were administered to adults throughout Alaska. In Anchorage, where more than 87,000 doses were given, a survey was conducted to determine the frequency of side effects. Postcard questionnaires were mailed to 2,000 randomly selected Anchorage residents; 467 questionnaires were returned by the post office as undeliverable, and 697 questionnaires were completed and returned. A follow-up survey was done of a random sample of the 836 non-responders. Of those responding, 57.8 per cent reported at least one reaction to the toxoids. The most frequent side effects were sore arm (42.7 per cent), swelling at the site of injection (34.8 per cent), and itching (24.2 per cent). Serious side effects occurred less frequently—swelling of the arm below the elbow (1.1 per cent) and abscess or infection (0.7 per cent). Of those vaccinated, 0.5 per cent saw a physician. There were no statistically significant differences in reaction rates by age group, except for sore arms. The jet injector produced more arm swelling at the site of injection, hives, and itching. More women than men reported adverse reactions, especially sore arm, swelling at the site of injection, and itching. Fear of adverse side effects should not preclude mass vaccination of adults. (Am. J. Public Health (69:246-249,1979.) PMID:420370

  19. Knowledge of reproductive system cancers, their treatments and side effects.

    PubMed

    Rot, Irena; Ogah, Imhokhai; Wassersug, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We explored, via an online questionnaire, knowledge of breast and reproductive system cancers in patients and non-patients who access the internet for information on these diseases. We compared that knowledge to the attention the diseases have received in medical research and on the Internet. Data were collected from 690 respondents (37 % male, 63 % female) about their knowledge of prevalence, lethality, treatments and side effects of testicular, prostate, breast, uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers. Most males, but only half of the female participants, were patients themselves. Although participants showed better knowledge of cancers specific to their own sex, both sexes felt familiar with breast cancer and less aware of other cancers. Women were as aware as men of side effects of treatments for male reproductive cancers. Sex differences in awareness appear to reflect different attitudes towards illness, bias toward females as caregivers, and the disproportionate media attention given to breast cancer.

  20. Self-report of gastrointestinal side effects after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Marcus, Marsha D.; Courcoulas, Anita P.; Cheng, Yu; Levine, Michele D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Data on gastrointestinal (GI) side effects of bariatric surgery are limited due to incomplete reporting, cross sectional samples, and non-standardized assessments. Objective To report on GI side effects over the first 6 months following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB). Setting Academic Medical Center, United States. Methods One hundred forty-four patients completed a standardized clinical interview 6 months after operation, including questions on the occurrence and frequency of episodes of dumping syndrome, vomiting, and plugging for each of the past 6 months; monthly rates were stable, so results were averaged over the entire period. Although data were collected as part of a randomized controlled trial, randomization group and the interaction of group by surgical procedure were not related to GI side effects. Thus, results are reported by procedure only (RYGB; n = 87, LAGB; n= 56). Results RYGB patients had a higher preoperative Body Mass Index (BMI) than LAGB patients (46.8 ± 6.8 vs. 43.5 ± 4.8 kg/m2, respectively, p = 0.001), were more likely to report dumping (45.7% vs. 4.7%, p < 0.0001) and were less likely to report plugging (45.7% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.0005). Vomiting did not differ significantly by procedure (68.6% vs. 65.1%, p = 0.7). Most patients experienced each GI side effect less than once per week. Conclusions Although self-reported GI side effects were common over the first 6 months after operation, the frequency of episodes was relatively low. Longer-term follow-up is needed to determine whether symptoms worsen or improve over time. PMID:25443069

  1. Toward achieving optimal response: understanding and managing antidepressant side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Karen; Posternak, Michael; Jonathan, E. Alpert

    2008-01-01

    The safety and tolerability of antidepressants have improved considerably over the past two decades, Nevertheless, antidepressant side effects are still common and problematic. The majority of patients treated with contemporary agents experience one or more bothersome side effects. These side effects often create barriers to achieving depressive remission, as well as to preventing relapse and recurrence. Clinicians tend to underestimate the prevalence of side effects, and as many as one quarter of patients discontinue their antidepressants because of difficult-to-tolerate side effects; others may continue on antidepressant therapy but experience diminished quality of life related to troublesome side effects. This article reviews the prevalence of side effects, the impact of side effects on treatment adherence, and methodological issues including the challenge of distinguishing side effects from residual depressive symptoms, discontinuation effects, and general medical problems. In addition, we address the most common side effects such as sexual dysfunction, gastrointestinal problems, sleep disturbance, apathy, and fatigue, and offer strategies for management that may help patients achieve optimal response to pharmacotherapy. PMID:19170398

  2. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children

    PubMed Central

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. Objectives: The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. Patients and Methods: 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Results: Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. Conclusions: The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals. PMID:26495098

  3. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  4. Side-to-side differences in lower extremity biomechanics during multi-directional jump landing in volleyball athletes.

    PubMed

    Sinsurin, Komsak; Srisangboriboon, Sarun; Vachalathiti, Roongtiwa

    2017-07-01

    Side-to-side differences of lower extremities may influence the likelihood of injury. Moreover, adding the complexity of jump-landing direction would help to explain lower extremity control during sport activities. The aim was to determine the effects of limb dominance and jump-landing direction on lower extremity biomechanics. Nineteen female volleyball athletes participated. Both dominant limbs (DLs) and non-dominant limbs (NLs) were examined in single-leg jump-landing tests in four directions, including forward (0°), diagonal (30° and 60°), and lateral (90°) directions. Kinematic marker trajectories and ground reaction forces were collected using a 10 camera Vicon system and an AMTI force plate. Repeated measures ANOVA (2 × 4, limb × direction) was used to analyse. The finding showed that, at peak vertical GRF, a significant interaction of limb dominance and direction effects was found in the hip flexion angle and lower extremity joint kinetics (p < .05). NLs and DLs exhibited significantly different strategies while landing in various directions. Significantly higher increase of ankle dorsiflexion angle was observed in lateral direction compared to other directions for both DLs and NLs (p < .05). Increasingly using ankle dorsiflexion was observed from the forward to the lateral direction for both DLs and NLs. However, NLs and DLs preferentially used different strategies of joint moment organization to respond to similar VGRFs in various directions. The response pattern of DLs might not be effective and may expose DLs to a higher injury risk, especially with regard to landing with awkward posture compared with NLs.

  5. A randomized side-by-side study comparing alexandrite laser at different pulse durations for port wine stains.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Berit C; Wenande, Emily; Erlendsson, Andres M; Faurschou, Annesofie; Dierickx, Christine; Haedersdal, Merete

    2017-01-01

    Pulsed dye laser (PDL) represents the gold-standard treatment for port wine stains (PWS). However, approximately 20% of patients are poor responders and yield unsatisfactory end-results. The Alexandrite (Alex) laser may be a therapeutic alternative for selected PWS subgroups, but optimal laser parameters are not known. The aim of this study was to assess clinical PWS clearance and safety of Alex laser at a range of pulse durations. Sixteen individuals (14 previously PDL-treated) with deep red (n = 4), purple macular (n = 5) and purple hypertrophic (n = 7) PWS were included. Four side-by-side test areas were marked within each lesion. Three test areas were randomized to Alex laser at pulse durations of 3, 5, or 10 ms (8 mm spot, DCD 60/40), while the fourth was untreated. The lowest effective fluence to create purpura within the entire test spot was titrated and applied to intervention areas. Standardized clinical photographs were taken prior to, immediately after laser exposure and at 6-8 weeks follow up. Clinical PWS clearance and laser-related side effects were assessed using clinical photos. Alex laser at 3, 5, and 10 ms pulse durations demonstrated significant clearance compared to untreated controls (P < 0.001). Three milli second pulse duration exhibited improved clearance versus 5 ms (P = 0.016) and 10 ms (P = 0.004), while no difference between five and 10 ms was shown (P = 0.063). Though not significant, good responders (>50% clearance) were more likely to have purple hypertrophic PWS (5/7) compared to purple macular (2/5) and deep red lesions (1/4). Eight laser-exposed test areas (17%) developed hypopigmented atrophic scarring. Side effects tended to be more frequently observed with 5 ms (n = 4) and 10 ms (n = 3) versus 3 ms pulse duration (n = 1). Correspondingly, 3 ms was associated with a superior (n = 6) or comparable (n = 10) overall cosmetic appearance for all individuals. Alex

  6. [The Theriaque database and information on side effects of drugs].

    PubMed

    Amiel, M L; Husson, M C

    1994-01-01

    The new module of Theriaque data base deals with side effects of drugs. It is composed of 3,300 monographs. One or more nature of side effect appears on each monograph, to correspond to a defined entity; organ or apparatus, syndrome or special type of pharmacological effect. Side effects are attached to either a whole pharmacological or chemical class, either one or several drugs. Side effects of drugs are described at usual dose, or/and in case of overdose. Data are collected from specialized books and publications. Some difficulties were encountered with this work, particularly side effects frequency. Side effects module content is validated with experts in pharmacology or clinicians, their opinion being a determining factor in case of any doubt, especially on causality assessment or frequency.

  7. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    PubMed Central

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects. PMID:25396122

  8. Systemic side effects of eye drops: a pharmacokinetic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Farkouh, Andre; Frigo, Peter; Czejka, Martin

    2016-01-01

    When administering eye drops, even when completely correctly applied, several routes of absorption are possible and excess amounts can sometimes cause an unwanted systemic bioavailability of the drops when not completely absorbed into the eye. Furthermore, the concentration of active ingredients in such medicinal preparations is usually very high, so that despite the correct application of the recommended dose, considerable amounts may be absorbed in an unwanted manner through various routes. Children are subject to a much higher risk of systemic side effects because ocular dosing is not weight adjusted and physiological development (eg, liver status) differs from that of adults. There is a lack of information about pediatric dosing in the current literature. This review summarizes the most important clinically relevant systemic side effects that may occur during ophthalmic eye treatments. In this review, we discuss general pharmacokinetic considerations as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and consequences of administering drugs from some important drug groups to the eye. PMID:27994437

  9. Real-world Data on Atypical Antipsychotic Medication Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Mehra, Sagar; Meyer, Jonathan M

    2010-07-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking at least one of the following atypical antipsychotic medications: aripiprazole, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone. Approximately 54 percent of the 353 respondents reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an atypical antipsychotic medication. Most common side effects mentioned included the following: weight gain/hunger, tiredness/lethargy, and lack of coordination/muscle problems, such as tenderness, twitches, and tremors. Of those experiencing a side effect, less than 25 percent reported this side effect to their physician.

  10. A Comparison of Sexual Side Effects of Antidepressants With and Without Naltrexone.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Mona; Petrakis, Ismene; Ralevski, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the rate of sexual side effects of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine versus the tricyclic antidepressant desipramine and to examine the effect of co-prescription of naltrexone on sexual side effects among participants in a randomized clinical trial. This was a secondary analysis (N = 88) of veterans who participated in a 12-week trial. All veterans were randomized into one of four treatment groups: (a) desipramine/naltrexone, (b) desipramine/placebo, (c) paroxetine/naltrexone, and (d) paroxetine/placebo. The main outcome measure was the frequency of sexual side effects consisting of "decreased sex drive" and/or "impotence" reported by veterans at each weekly visit. Approximately 61% of the veterans reported sexual side effects at least once during the trial, and 26.4% reported sexual side effects throughout the study. There were no significant differences in the frequency of sexual side effects among the four treatment groups. The results were similar when the comparison was made between the two antidepressant groups. There were no significant differences in the reporting of sexual side effects between those receiving desipramine and paroxetine. Also, the comparison between naltrexone and placebo did not alter the results. This is the first study to compare frequency of sexual side effect reporting between paroxetine and desipramine. We found no statistically significant differences in sexual side effect reporting between the two antidepressants. Also, the addition of naltrexone did not show any beneficial effect on the sexual side effect profile.

  11. Metallic taste as a side effect of topical fluorouracil use.

    PubMed

    Han, Sandra Y; Youker, Summer

    2011-10-01

    Topical fluorouracil is widely used for the treatment of precancerous and cancerous lesions of the skin. The most common side effect of this medication is localized irritant dermatitis. The authors report a case of dysgeusia with metallic taste as a side effect of this medication. While not previously seen with topical use, this is not an uncommon side effect seen with systemic administration of 5-fluorouracil. The etiology of dysgeusia from chemotherapeutic agents and systemic absorption of fluorouracil is discussed.

  12. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant.

  13. Beam characteristics in two different proton uniform scanning systems: A side-by-side comparison

    PubMed Central

    Nichiporov, Dmitri; Hsi, Wen; Farr, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To compare clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of proton therapy fields produced by two uniform scanning systems that have a number of similar hardware components but employ different techniques of beam spreading. Methods: This work compares two technologically distinct systems implementing a method of uniform scanning and layer stacking that has been developed independently at Indiana University (IU) and by Ion Beam Applications, S. A. (IBA). Clinically relevant dosimetric characteristics of fields produced by these systems are studied, such as beam range control, peak-to-entrance ratio (PER), lateral penumbra, field flatness, effective source position, precision of dose delivery at different gantry angles, etc. Results: Under comparable conditions, both systems controlled beam range with an accuracy of 0.5 mm and a precision of 0.1 mm. Compared to IBA, the IU system produced pristine peaks with a slightly higher PER (3.23 and 3.45, respectively) and smaller, symmetrical, lateral in-air penumbra of 1 mm compared to about 1.9/2.4 mm in the inplane/crossplane (IP/CP) directions for IBA. Large field flatness results in the IP/CP directions were similar: 3.0/2.4% for IU and 2.9/2.4% for IBA. The IU system featured a longer virtual source-to-isocenter position, which was the same for the IP and CP directions (237 cm), as opposed to 212/192 cm (IP/CP) for IBA. Dose delivery precision at different gantry angles was higher in the IBA system (0.5%) than in the IU system (1%). Conclusions: Each of the two uniform scanning systems considered in this work shows some attractive performance characteristics while having other features that can be further improved. Overall, radiation field characteristics of both systems meet their clinical specifications and show comparable results. Most of the differences observed between the two systems are clinically insignificant. PMID:22559626

  14. Role of genetic factors in statins side-effects.

    PubMed

    Scarpini, Francesca; Cappellone, Roberta; Auteri, Alberto; Puccetti, Luca

    2012-09-01

    Statins are relevant drugs involved in the reduction of cardiovascular events both in primary and secondary prevention. Related muscular side-effects are the most common cause of withdrawal and statins discontinuation could induce a negative rebound effect in terms of vascular events. Among factors in association with statins side-effects the combination with other drugs and the female sex are established conditions. However recent data suggest a specific genetic influence in intolerance development, at least for some statins. Indeed a genome-wide study in patients treated with simvastatin found an impressive association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within SLCO1B1 gene on chromosome 12 and established myopathy. Furthermore, the association between the SLCO1B1*5 variant and side-effects was found also in patients treated with atorvastatin but not, apparently, with pravastatin and categorized as carriers of mild-myopathy. Recently a similar evidence has been suggested in type 2 diabetic patients treated mainly with simvastatin. However another relevant issue is that, apart from genetic influence in liver transporters influencing drug levels, the complexity of mechanisms involved in the muscular side effects of statins has been addressed by the evidence of other influencing pathways such as the variant within the COQ2 gene involved in Coenzyme Q(10) mild-asymptomatic deficiency and skeletal muscle drug transporters expression. In conclusion, the picture of putative pharmacogenetic modulation of statins safety is reaching a growing body of evidence for translation into clinical practice but more specific studies for each single statin, in different clinical settings, both from genome-wide or competitive candidate genes evaluation, are needed before describing a definitive class-risk profile.

  15. The effectiveness of side marker lamps: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Theeuwes, J; Alferdinck, J W

    1997-03-01

    The present experiment investigated the effect of small amber lamps mounted near the front and rear on each side of a passenger car-so called side marker lamps-on visual detection and recognition of passenger cars in complex nighttime environments. It was determined whether cars equipped with side marker lamps are detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than cars without side marker lamps. Subjects were presented with slides of natural nighttime scenes in which a car, either with or without side marker lamps, viewed from its side, approaching from a side street, was either present or not. Subjects determined as fast as possible whether a car was present or not. Reaction time measures (speed and accuracy) indicated that both under clear and fog visibility conditions, a car equipped with side marker lamps was detected and recognized earlier and more accurately than a car without side marker lamps. The results indicate that side marker lamps increase both lateral conspicuity and recognizability suggesting that side marker lamps may be effective in reducing the number of nighttime angle collisions.

  16. Pharmacogenetics and Antipsychotics: Therapeutic Efficacy and Side Effects Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Ping; Malhotra, Anil K.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field Antipsychotic drug is the mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia, and there are large inter-individual differences is clinical response and side effects. Pharmacogenetics provides a valuable tool to fulfill the promise of personalized medicine by tailoring treatment based on one's genetic markers. Areas covered in this review This article reviews the pharmacogenetic literature from early 1990s to 2010, focusing on two aspects of drug action: pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Genetic variants in the neurotransmitter receptors including dopamine and serotonin, and metabolic pathways of drugs including CYP2D6 and COMT, were discussed in association with clinical drug response and side effects. What the reader will gain Readers are expected to learn the up-to-date evidence in pharmacogenetic research, and to gain familiarity to the issues and challenges facing the field. Take home message Pharmacogenetic research of antipsychotic drugs is both promising and challenging. There is consistent evidence that some genetic variants can affect clinical response and side effects. However, more studies that are designed specifically to test pharmacogenetic hypotheses are clearly needed to advance the field. PMID:21162693

  17. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    PubMed

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  18. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  19. Pseudotumor Cerebriasa Rare Side Effect of Intrathecal Cytarabine

    PubMed Central

    Alraqibah, Elias A.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudotumorcerebri (PTC), also known as idiopathic increase in intracranial pressure, is associated with several conditions and as a side effect of many medications. We are reporting a case of a PTC caused by intrathecal cytarabine as a rare side effect of this medication. PMID:26309439

  20. Antipsychotic Drug Side Effects for Persons with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Mahan, Sara

    2010-01-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the most frequently prescribed of the psychotropic drugs among the intellectually disabled (ID) population. Given their widespread use, efforts to systematically assess and report side effects are warranted. Specific scaling methods such as the "Matson Evaluation of Side Effects" ("MEDS"), the "Abnormal Inventory Movement…

  1. A novel semisupervised algorithm for rare prescription side effect discovery.

    PubMed

    Reps, Jenna M; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Aickelin, Uwe; Soria, Daniele; Gibson, Jack E; Hubbard, Richard B

    2014-03-01

    Drugs are frequently prescribed to patients with the aim of improving each patient's medical state, but an unfortunate consequence of most prescription drugs is the occurrence of undesirable side effects. Side effects that occur in more than one in a thousand patients are likely to be signaled efficiently by current drug surveillance methods, however, these same methods may take decades before generating signals for rarer side effects, risking medical morbidity or mortality in patients prescribed the drug while the rare side effect is undiscovered. In this paper, we propose a novel computational metaanalysis framework for signaling rare side effects that integrates existing methods, knowledge from the web,metric learning, and semisupervised clustering. The novel framework was able to signal many known rare and serious side effects for the selection of drugs investigated, such as tendon rupture when prescribed Ciprofloxacin or Levofloxacin, renal failure with Naproxen and depression associated with Rimonabant. Furthermore, for the majority of the drugs investigated it generated signals for rare side effects at a more stringent signaling threshold than existing methods and shows the potential to become a fundamental part of post marketing surveillance to detect rare side effects.

  2. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    PubMed

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P

    2007-02-01

    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  3. Target Essentiality and Centrality Characterize Drug Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Haiyuan

    2013-01-01

    To investigate factors contributing to drug side effects, we systematically examine relationships between 4,199 side effects associated with 996 drugs and their 647 human protein targets. We find that it is the number of essential targets, not the number of total targets, that determines the side effects of corresponding drugs. Furthermore, within the context of a three-dimensional interaction network with atomic-resolution interaction interfaces, we find that drugs causing more side effects are also characterized by high degree and betweenness of their targets and highly shared interaction interfaces on these targets. Our findings suggest that both essentiality and centrality of a drug target are key factors contributing to side effects and should be taken into consideration in rational drug design. PMID:23874169

  4. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  5. Effect of Axonal Trauma on Nerve Regeneration in Side-to-side Neurorrhaphy: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Göransson, Harry; Taskinen, Hanna-Stiina; Paavilainen, Pasi; Vahlberg, Tero; Röyttä, Matias

    2016-01-01

    Background: Side-to-side (STS) neurorrhaphy can be performed distally to ensure timely end-organ innervation. It leaves the distal end of the injured nerve intact for further reconstruction. Despite encouraging clinical results, only few experimental studies have been published to enhance the regeneration results of the procedure. We examined the influence of different size epineural windows and degree of axonal injury of STS repair on nerve regeneration and donor nerve morbidity. Methods: Three clinically relevant repair techniques of the transected common peroneal nerve (CPN) were compared. Group A: 10-mm long epineural STS windows; group B: 2-mm long windows and partial axotomy to the donor tibial nerve; and group C: 2-mm long windows with axotomies to both nerves. Regeneration was followed by the walk track analysis, nerve morphometry, histology, and wet muscle mass calculations. Results: The results of the walk track analysis were significantly better in groups B and C compared with group A. The nerve fiber count, total fiber area, fiber density, and percentage of the fiber area values of CPN of the group C were significantly higher when compared with group A. The wet mass ratio of the CPN-innervated anterior tibial muscle was significantly higher in group C compared with group A. The wet mass ratio of the tibial nerve–innervated gastrocnemial muscle was higher in group A compared with the other groups. Conclusions: All three variations of the STS repair technique showed nerve regeneration. Deliberate donor nerve axotomy enhanced nerve regeneration. A larger epineural window did not compensate the effect of axonal trauma on nerve regeneration. PMID:28293524

  6. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Sanchez, Eduardo Milton; Goto, Hiro; Rivero, Dolores Helena Rodriguez Ferreira; Mauad, Thais; de Souza, Fernando Nogueira; Monteiro, Andrea Moreira; Gidlund, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI) indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs. PMID:25075786

  7. Local Ambipolar Graphene Field Effect Transistors via Metal Side Gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jifa; Jauregui, Luis; Lopez, Gabriel; Cao, Helin; Chen, Yong

    2010-03-01

    We fabricated local graphene field effect transistors (FET) based on metal side gates. The characteristic ambipolar field effect of graphene device was observed by sweeping only the voltage of a local metal side gate. The local charge neutrality point of the side-gate graphene FET can be tuned in a large voltage range from positive to negative by a second side gate. Furthermore, we observed that the field effect due to the side gate can be appreciably weakened by electrically grounding the back gate compared to floating the back gate. The experimental results can be well explained by electrostatic simulation using COMSOL. Our technique offers a simple method for local tuning of charge density of graphene nanodevices while avoiding coating graphene surface with dielectrics, which may cause contamination and degradation of graphene.

  8. [Opioid Therapy and Management of Side Effects Associated with Opioids].

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    Opioids are very useful medications to reduce suffering of cancer patients such as refractory pain and dyspnea. We physicians have to use opioids to have good management of pain and suffering associated with cancer including management of side effects caused by opioids. Opioids couple opioid receptors and affect several pharmacological effects. Other than analgesic effect, opioids have some side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting, respiratory depression. In this chapter, I take important side effects of constipation, nausea and vomiting and respiratory depression. Next, serotonin syndrome caused by tramadol combined with anti-depressants is remarked as assignable syndrome. As advancing in chemotherapy for cancer treatment, cancer survivors live longer with opioid therapy. We have to pay attention to the side effects and another dysfunction caused by long use of opioids. It is important that we physician use opioids effectively to keep activity of daily living(ADL) of patients and families as team approach.

  9. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Gross, Cornelius; Gavin, Anne-Claude; Bork, Peer

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug–target relations to identify overrepresented protein–side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7) is responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations. PMID:23632385

  10. Lack of anticholinergic side effects with a new antidepressent--trazodone.

    PubMed

    Gershon, S; Newton, R

    1980-03-01

    An analysis was made of the occurrence of anticholinergic side effects in 15 multicenter studies of 379 patients with endogenous depression who received either trazodone, imipramine, or placebo. The incidence of 4 anticholinergic side effects was examined: dry mouth, blurred vision, bowel movement disturbance, and delayed urine flow. When the number of patients having each of the 4 symptoms was compared, there were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of side effects between the trazodone and placebo groups. However, comparisons between trazodone and imipramine indicated the incidence of side effects was significantly lower in the trazodone group.

  11. Evaluation of vehicle side airbag effectiveness in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Angelo; Newstead, Stuart; Scully, Jim

    2013-05-01

    Side airbag systems were first introduced into vehicles around 1995 to help protect occupants from injury in side impact crashes. International studies have shown that side airbags are effective in reducing the risk of death and injury, however, serious injuries can still occur even when side airbags deploy. The objective of this study was to use detailed injury information from insurance injury compensation claims data linked to Police reported crash data to determine the effectiveness of side airbags in reducing the risk of death or injury for occupants involved in side impact crashes in Victoria, Australia based on the specific body regions that side airbag systems are designed to protect. It was found that head and torso-protecting dual airbag systems designed to protect the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen are highly effective in reducing driver death or injury due to near side crashes. They were associated with a statistically significant reduction of 41.1% (25.9%, 53.2%) in the odds of death or injury across all body regions; and a 48.0% (28.0%, 62.4%) reduction in the odds of death or injury to the head, neck, face, chest and abdomen. The study did not find any evidence that torso-protecting airbags alone are effective in reducing death or injury. Analysis results indicate that head and torso-protecting side airbag systems in vehicles are a highly effective technology for reducing the risk of death or injury to vehicle occupants in near side crashes. The magnitude of the injury reduction benefits estimated indicate that fitment of this technology to all vehicles should be a high priority and will yield significant savings in overall road trauma.

  12. Oral Overcorrection: Side Effects and Extended Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doke, Larry A.; Epstein, Leonard H.

    1975-01-01

    Three experiments are reported in which the effects of oral overcorrection, used as negative reinforcer, were determined for thumb sucking and other behaviors in two 4-year-old children enrolled in a day care program for culturally disadvantaged behavior-disordered preschoolers. (GO)

  13. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  14. The Unexpected Side-Effects of Dissonance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodner, Ehud; Gilboa, Avi; Amir, Dorit

    2007-01-01

    The effects of dissonant and consonant music on cognitive performance were examined. Situational dissonance and consonance were also tested and determined as the state where one's opinion is contrasted or matched with the majority's opinion, respectively. Subjects performed several cognitive tasks while listening to a melody arranged dissonantly,…

  15. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  16. Side effects of chemotherapy in musculoskeletal oncology.

    PubMed

    Mavrogenis, Andreas F; Papagelopoulos, Panayiotis J; Romantini, Matteo; Angelini, Andrea; Ruggieri, Pietro

    2010-01-01

    With recent advances in medical and orthopedic oncology, radiation therapy and single- or multiple-agent perioperative chemotherapy are currently applied as an essential part of the multidisciplinary treatment to improve disease-free and overall survival of patients with primary and metastatic bone and soft tissue tumors. However, these treatments have led to unwanted complications. A better understanding of the effects of various antineoplastic agents on bone, soft tissue, and organs may provide the basis for the more efficacious use of antiproliferative drugs when fracture healing or allograft incorporation is required. This knowledge may also provide a rationale for concurrent treatment with drugs that protect against or compensate for adverse effects in osseous repair resulting from chemotherapy.

  17. Factors affecting patient's perception of anticancer treatments side-effects: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Stefania; Cinausero, Marika; Gerratana, Lorenzo; Bozza, Claudia; Iacono, Donatella; Driol, Pamela; Deroma, Laura; Sottile, Roberta; Fasola, Gianpiero; Puglisi, Fabio

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of relative importance of side effects of anticancer therapy is extremely useful in the process of clinical decision making. There is evidence that patients' perception of the side effects of anticancer treatments changes over time. Aim of this study was to evaluate the cancer patients' perceptions of physical and non-physical side effects of contemporary anticancer therapy. Four hundred and sixty-four patients entered the study (153 men and 311 women). Participants were asked to rank their side effects in order of distress by using two sets of cards naming physical and non-physical effects, respectively. Influencing factors, including treatment and patient characteristics, were also analysed. Patients ranked the non-physical side effect 'Affects my family or partner' first. 'Constantly tired' and 'Loss of hair' were ranked second and third, respectively. Significant differences from previous studies on this topic emerged. In particular, 'Vomiting', a predominant concern in previous studies, almost disappeared, whereas 'Nausea' and 'Loss of hair' remained important side effects in the patients' perception. Interestingly, marital status was predominant in driving patients' perception, being associated with several side effects ('Constantly tired', 'Loss of appetite', 'Affects my work/Home duties', 'Affects my social activities', 'Infertility'). Other significant factors influencing patient's perception of side effects included age, disease characteristics and ongoing anticancer therapy. This study provided information on current status of patients' perceptions of side effects of anticancer treatment. These results could be used in pre-treatment patient education and counselling.

  18. [Associated metabolic and nutritional side effects to biological cancer therapy].

    PubMed

    Alonso Castellanos, Sara; Soto Célix, María; Alonso Galarreta, Judith; del Riego Valledor, Ana; Miján de la Torre, Alberto

    2014-02-01

    The different types of cancer represent one of the main causes of morbimortality worldwide. Classical anti-tumor therapy (surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy) has notably increased the survival rate. Biological therapies, with selective and frequently specific mechanisms of action, are a relatively recent acquisition in oncologic therapy; among the most commonly used ones are: cytokines, monoclonal antibodies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and mTOR inhibitors. The nutritional and metabolic adverse effects of classical therapy are well documented in the literature and the clinical guidelines, which is not the case for biological therapy. To review the literature in this field and to detail in an organized manner the results obtained. Indexed literature and the technical data sheets of the drugs included in the different families were revised through the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Health Care Products until July of 2013. The symptoms and clinical signs of a theoretical action on the nutritional and metabolic status were recorded. The specific action of each family is described. The possible adverse effects of each one of them on the nutritional and metabolic status are grouped, detailing and differentiating them in tables for easier and more friendly-user consultation. The most prevalent possible side effects observed are those related with the appetite, the gastrointestinal tract, and electrolytic impairments. the possible side effects associated to biological therapies are plenty and occur with different frequency and severity. It is important to know the nutritional and metabolic impact when using these therapies for preventing and managing them. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  19. Low dose naltrexone: side effects and efficacy in gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Ploesser, Jennifer; Weinstock, Leonard B; Thomas, Erin

    2010-01-01

    Use of low dose naltrexone has been advocated for a variety of medical problems. Only a few articles published in peer review journals have documented side effects of low dose naltrexone. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse effects of low dose naltrexone in patients who have been treated for a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. The secondary purpose was to determine global efficacy in a retrospective survey. Patients (206) form a single gastroenterologist's clinical practice who had been prescribed naltrexone were mailed a survey to evaluate the side effects and efficacy of naltrexone. Patients had either irritable bowel syndrome without evidence for small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, chronic idiopathic constipation, or inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with diarrhea were given 2.5 mg daily, constipation 2.5 mg twice daily, and inflammatory bowel disease 4.5 mg daily. In the patients who returned the survey, 47/121 (38.8%) had no side effects. Of the 74/121 (61.2%) patients who had side effects, 58 had one or more neurological complaints, and 32 had one or more gastrointestinal side effects. In the patients with side effects, 24/74 (32.4%) had short lived symptoms. Low dose naltrexone was terminated owing to side effects in 20/74 patients (27.0%). In 13 patients with idiopathic irritable bowel syndrome, 2 were markedly worse. In 85 patients with irritable bowel syndrome-small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, 15 were markedly improved, 32 were moderately worse, and 1 was markedly worse. In 12 patients with chronic constipation, 7 were markedly improved, 1 was moderately improved, 1 was mildly improved, and 4 were unchanged. Low dose naltrexone frequently has side effects but in most is tolerable. It appears to be helpful for a member of patients with gastrointestinal disorders.

  20. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    MedlinePlus

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability ...

  1. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with ... or nurse before treatment starts to learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may ...

  2. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause ... HealthDay News) -- Many women at high risk for breast cancer do not take the drug tamoxifen to prevent ...

  3. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hepatotoxicity

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hepatotoxicity (Last updated 11/15/2016; last reviewed 11/15/2016) Key Points Hepatotoxicity means damage to the liver caused by a medicine, chemical, or herbal or dietary supplement. Hepatotoxicity can ...

  4. Exanthema medicamentosum as a side effect of promazine.

    PubMed

    Lasić, Davor; Cvitanović, Marija Zuljan; Uglešić, Boran; Višić, Vitomir; Hlevnjak, Ivana

    2011-06-01

    Dermatological side effects of psychopharmacological drugs are fortunately not so often. They are mostly presented in the group of mood stabilizers and antiepileptic drugs, particularly the carbamazepine and lamotrigine, and can be manifested through the Stevens Johnson syndrome, Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN)/Lyell's syndrome with about 30% lethality. According to the literature the group of phenothiazines is the category of drugs with rare appearances of skin reactions. Promazine, aliphatic phenothiazines antipsychotic, including less frequent side effects in the leaflet states increased skin sensitivity to sun, skin rash-associated with contact dermatitis, allergic reactions, cholestatic icterus. The only reported dermatological side effect of promazine is its metabolites deposition in the cornea. Analyzing the e-data basis we have not found references connecting the Exanthema medicamentosum as a side effect of promazine. A forty-two years old female patient was admitted to the Dermatological Clinic because of suspected exanthema, undoubtedly caused by promazine as a medication for Sy. Borderline.

  5. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    MedlinePlus

    ... rare — and not all chemotherapy drugs carry the potential side effect of heart damage. Some anti-cancer treatments may cause temporary heart damage by weakening the heart muscle. These treatments include: A class of drugs known ...

  6. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  7. Side effects of antimotion sickness drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. D.; Vekovius, W. A.

    1984-01-01

    The effects on operational proficiency of the antimotion sickness drugs scopolamine, promethazine and d-amphetamine are tested using a computerized pursuit meter. Proficiency is not significantly affected by oral doses of 0.25 mg or 0.50 mg scopolamine but is descreased by oral or I.M. doses of 25 mg promethazine. The performance decrement associated with 25 mg oral promethazine is prevented when combined with 10 mg oral d-amphetamine. The combination of 25 mg I.M. promethazine, 25 mg oral promethazine and 10 mg d-amphetamine produces less performance decrement than oral or I.M. doses of promethazine alone, though more performance decrement than a placebo. I.M. promethazine is adsorbed slowly and consequently may provoke drowsiness.

  8. Sleeptalking! Sleepwalking! Side effects of montelukast.

    PubMed

    Alkhuja, Samer; Gazizov, Natalya; Alexander, Mary Ellen

    2013-01-01

    A 16-year-old Caucasian female presented to the pulmonary clinic for a followup on her asthma. Due to the worsening of allergy-related symptoms, therapy with montelukast 10 mg daily was started and resulted in good relief of the patient's symptoms. In the nights following initiating therapy with montelukast, the patient's mother reported daily parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking and sleepwalking. Montelukast was discontinued, and that resulted in absence of the parasomnias. In a second attempt montelukast was reinstituted to control the patient's symptoms. Parasomnias were immediately reported after resuming therapy. Montelukast was then discontinued indefinitely. Our patient has never had any history of parasomnias, and since the discontinuation of montelukast, parasomnias were never reported again. Parasomnias in the form of sleeptalking or sleepwalking were not previously reported as adverse effects of montelukast. Alternative modalities to treat allergy-related symptoms in patients, who develop parasomnias while receiving montelukast, should be explored.

  9. Ondansetron and metformin-induced gastrointestinal side effects.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Irene S; Roa, Magaly; Torrico, Fatima; Cubeddu, Luigi X

    2003-01-01

    Treatment with metformin is associated with a high incidence of gastrointestinal side effects of unknown mechanism. Metformin is a biguanide derivative, which resembles 5-HT3-receptor agonists in its structure. Activation of 5-HT3 receptors is known to induce nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. In this study, we investigated if the gastrointestinal side effects produced by metformin were antagonized by ondansetron, a selective antagonist of 5-HT3 receptors. Patients experiencing gastrointestinal side effects were randomized to ondansetron (4 mg bid p.o.) or placebo while maintained on metformin (double-blind, parallel-group design). If side effects persisted or worsened, metformin was discontinued and the patient considered a therapeutic failure. Of the 98 subjects treated with metformin, 22 developed side effects to match the study entry criteria. Diarrhea was the most frequent side effect. Subjects were randomized to ondansetron (10/2 F/M, 42.8 +/- 2.3 years, 28.6 +/- 1.1 kg/m2, 2585 +/- 35 mg/d metformin) or placebo (9/1 F/M, 43 +/- 4.3 years, 29.7 +/- 1.8 kg/m2, 2715 +/- 71 mg/d metformin). Ondansetron showed no efficacy against metformin-induced side effects. A comparable number of therapeutic failures were observed in ondansetron (8/12; 66%) and placebo-treated subjects (5/10; 50%) (P<0.1). Mean nausea scores (numeric analog scale) before and during treatment with ondansetron were 6.3 +/- 1 and 6.9 +/- 1 cm, respectively. Nausea scores averaged 7.3 +/- 1.5 and 5.9 +/- 1.5 cm, before and during treatment with placebo (P>0.1). In conclusion, 5-HT3 receptors do not seem to play a role in metformin-induced gastrointestinal side effects.

  10. [Risks and side effects of intraoperative autotransfusion].

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, W; Blumenberg, D

    1991-01-01

    At the Institute of Anesthesiology of the University of Würzburg, blood has routinely been replaced by autotransfusion in orthopedic and surgical patients since the mid-seventies. At present the Haemonetics-Cell-Saver 3 is used to prepare autologous erythrocyte concentrates. When using this or similar, older, autotransfusion machines, the most dangerous hazard is venous air embolism during manual use despite blood centrifugation and preparation. To avoid this danger, the connecting tube to the patient must be clamped during filling of the autotransfusion bag. During autotransfusion the connecting tube between blood centrifuge and retransfusion bag must be clamped. The time loss due to this management has to be accepted. Regarding coagulation disorders, autotransfusion of large amounts of blood resembles massive transfusion with homologous blood. To maintain coagulation, hemostaseological parameters (Quick, thrombin time, ATIII) should be analyzed at the latest after replacement of half the estimated blood volume. On principle, blood components should be substituted only according to measured values. The substitution of ATIII is most frequently necessary to decrease the hazard of vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in these patients. The hazard of blood contamination by suctioning of operating room air should be considered. The number of operating room personnel should be as low as possible. Additionally, the suction device could be constructed to function only when necessary and not continuously. When these safety measures are followed, risks of this effective blood-saving procedure are minimized.

  11. Prevention and management of glucocorticoid-induced side effects: A comprehensive review: Gastrointestinal and endocrinologic side effects.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Avrom; Fett, Nicole; Rosenbach, Misha; Werth, Victoria P; Micheletti, Robert G

    2017-01-01

    Part 2 of this 4-part continuing medical education series continues with a discussion of the prevention and management of gastrointestinal side effects associated with corticosteroid use, including peptic ulcer disease, gastrointestinal bleeding, and pancreatitis, followed by a review of corticosteroid-related endocrinologic side effects, such as diabetes, adrenal suppression, and Cushing syndrome. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Explaining Effects and Side Effects of School Inspections: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There are large differences between schools with regard to how they are affected by a school inspection. This study provides quantitative evidence about the extent to which perceived effects and side effects of an inspection are related to the inspection's judgement on the school, to features of the inspection, and to school features. This study…

  13. Explaining Effects and Side Effects of School Inspections: A Path Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There are large differences between schools with regard to how they are affected by a school inspection. This study provides quantitative evidence about the extent to which perceived effects and side effects of an inspection are related to the inspection's judgement on the school, to features of the inspection, and to school features. This study…

  14. Verification of effective thicknesses for side-grooved compact specimens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shivakumar, Kunigal N.; Newman, James C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The definition of effective thicknesses of the ASTM standard 25 percent side-grooved compact specimens to calculate the elastic compliance, elastic SIF, and elastic-plastic J integral is reevaluated. 3D elastic-plastic analyses of polane-strain, smooth, and 25 percent side-grooved compact specimen models are conducted using the ZIP3D code. Calculated compliance, SIFs, and J-integrals are compared with E-813 solutions.

  15. Androgen deprivation therapy: evidence-based management of side effects.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Hamed; Daneshmand, Siamak

    2013-04-01

    WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: The benefits of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are well recognized and a multitude of studies have documented the benefits of ADT in conjunction with other therapies. Given the widespread use of ADT due to its important clinical implications, it is imperative that clinicians understand the side effects to limit treatment-related morbidity. There are numerous well recognized adverse effects of ADT, including vasomotor flushing, loss of libido and impotence, fatigue, gynaecomastia, anaemia, osteoporosis and metabolic complications, as well as effects on cardiovascular health and bone density. Present study focuses on the most recent evidence-based treatment options for various side effects of ADT. To familiarize clinicians with the various side effects of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The present study focuses on the most recent evidence-based treatment strategies for the common side effects of ADT. A PubMed database search was conducted from 2000 to 2012. All prospective clinical studies were selected, including randomized and non-randomized clinical trials, as well as meta-analysis studies concerning preventive and therapeutic interventions for various side effects of ADT. 'The Oxford 2011 Levels of Evidence' classification system for treatment benefits was used to categorize selected studies. Gabapentin shows moderate efficacy for the long-term treatment of hot flashes in a dose-dependent manner. A combined resistance/aerobic exercise programme leads to significant improvement in fatigue, sexual function and cognitive function. A home-based/group exercise programme also improves fatigue and unfavourable metabolic changes. Denosumab increases lumbar spine, hip and radius bone mass density, and also reduces the risk of vertebral fractures in men receiving ADT for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Metformin coupled with lifestyle intervention is a safe, well-tolerated intervention for adverse

  16. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    PubMed

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-04

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed.

  17. Contingency valuation and preferences of health states associated with side effects of antipsychotic medications in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sevy, S; Nathanson, K; Schechter, C; Fulop, G

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the construct validity and the test-retest reliability of the willingness to pay (WTP) method for estimating health state preferences associated with side effects of antipsychotic medication. Ninety-six schizophrenia patients on antipsychotics were asked (1) how much they would be willing to pay to get rid of side effects with 100 percent probability, (2) a standard gamble (SG) question measuring utilities of patient's health state associated with side effects, and (3) their WTP to get rid of side effects based on the utility found with SG. Patients were divided into three groups based on severity of side effects. There was a significant difference between side effect severity groups for (1) the utility associated with side effects (Kruskal-Wallis [K-W] chi-square = 8.48, p = 0.014), and (2) their WTP to get rid of side effects with either 100 percent probability (K-W chi-square = 14.32,p = 0.001) or based on the utility associated with side effects (K-W chi-square = 5.96, p = 0.051). There was a significant correlation between utility and the WTP based on utility (Spearman r = -0.42, p = 0.003). Because of a wide variation in side effects at the 1-month interval, we were unable to assess the test-retest reliability of SG and WTP. Our results suggest that WTP has some construct validity in valuating and measuring preferences of health states associated with side effects of antipsychotics in schizophrenia.

  18. [Cardiovascular side effects of anabolic-androgenic steroids].

    PubMed

    Kindermann, Wilfried

    2006-09-01

    The intake of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) leads to an increase in skeletal muscle mass and is prohibited as a doping measure in sport. AAS abuse is not limited to competitive athletes. It is also prevalent in subjects who do body building or resistance training for cosmetic reasons only. Out of the numerous and partly serious side effects, the cardiovascular ones are presented here. An increase in left ventricular muscle mass is well documented, and some researchers have even reported concentric hypertrophy. By contrast, resistance training without AAS intake does not lead to increased ventricular wall thickness. AAS do not affect the systolic function of the left ventricle, whereas diastolic function might be impaired. Different ultrastructural myocardial alterations have been documented in animal studies. In addition, AAS can induce arterial hypertension. Blood clotting and fibrinolysis are negatively affected, and several case studies of thrombi exist in young strength athletes. Changes in the concentration of blood lipoproteins, particularly a reduction in vessel-protective HDL cholesterol, can lead to early atherosclerosis. Many case reports exist about cardiac deaths in seemingly healthy subjects-most often body builders and other strength athletes. In fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarctions patent coronary arteries were proven frequently. Besides the prothrombotic effects of AAS, an impaired endothelial function and vasospasms are discussed hypothetically as pathomechanisms. Also, cardiomyopathies can occur due to AAS abuse. On the basis of the described possible cardiovascular side effects, it can be concluded that in cases of sudden cardiac deaths in young athletes, a misuse of AS should be excluded.

  19. On the difference between single- and double-sided bandpass filtering of spatial frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xin; Jia, Wei; Wu, Di; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2017-02-01

    It is well-known that bandpass filtering will lead to edge extraction in image processing. However, the difference between single- and double-sided bandpass filtering has never been compared and investigated in the literature. We investigate the difference between single- and double-sided bandpass spatial filtering in a 4-f coherent optical image processing system. We find that single-sided filtering can approximate the operation of a first-order derivative, while double-sided filtering gives a second-order derivative. Simulations and optical experiments confirm our findings.

  20. Persistent sexual side effects of finasteride: could they be permanent?

    PubMed

    Irwig, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Finasteride has been associated with sexual side effects that may persist despite discontinuation of the medication. In a clinical series, 20% of subjects with male pattern hair loss reported persistent sexual dysfunction for ≥6 years, suggesting the possibility that the dysfunction may be permanent. These subjects also reported a wide range of symptoms including changes in cognition, ejaculate quality, and genital sensation. Other medications have been associated with irreversible neurological effects, such as phenothiazines with tardive dyskinesias. To prospectively study whether the persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride resolve or endure over time. Subjects (N = 54) with persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride were reassessed after 9-16 months (mean 14 months). All subjects were otherwise healthy young men without any baseline sexual dysfunction, medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, or use of oral prescription medications prior to taking finasteride for male pattern hair loss. Scores from the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The participation rate was 81%. At reassessment persistent sexual side effects continued to be present in 96% of subjects. According to the ASEX scores, 89% of subjects met the definition of sexual dysfunction. Neither the length of finasteride use nor the duration of the sexual side effects correlated to changes in scores of sexual dysfunction. In most men who developed persistent sexual side effects (≥3 months) despite the discontinuation of finasteride, the sexual dysfunction continued for many months or years. Although several rat studies have shown detrimental changes to erectile function caused by 5 alpha reductase inhibitors, the persistent nature of these changes is an area of active research. Prescribers of finasteride and men contemplating its use should be made aware of the potential adverse medication effects. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  1. Neuromuscular responses to incremental caffeine doses: performance and side effects.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, Jesús G; Fernández-Elías, Valentín E; Ortega, Juan F; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Mora-Rodríguez, Ricardo

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the oral dose of caffeine needed to increase muscle force and power output during all-out single multijoint movements. Thirteen resistance-trained men underwent a battery of muscle strength and power tests in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, under four different conditions: (a) placebo ingestion (PLAC) or with caffeine ingestion at doses of (b) 3 mg · kg(-1) body weight (CAFF 3mg), (c) 6 mg · kg(-1) (CAFF 6mg), and (d) 9 mg · kg(-1) (CAFF 9mg). The muscle strength and power tests consisted in the measurement of bar displacement velocity and muscle power output during free-weight full-squat (SQ) and bench press (BP) exercises against four incremental loads (25%, 50%, 75%, and 90% one-repetition maximum [1RM]). Cycling peak power output was measured using a 4-s inertial load test. Caffeine side effects were evaluated at the end of each trial and 24 h later. Mean propulsive velocity at light loads (25%-50% 1RM) increased significantly above PLAC for all caffeine doses (5.4%-8.5%, P = 0.039-0.003). At the medium load (75% 1RM), CAFF 3mg did not improve SQ or BP muscle power or BP velocity. CAFF 9mg was needed to enhance BP velocity and SQ power at the heaviest load (90% 1RM) and cycling peak power output (6.8%-11.7%, P = 0.03-0.05). The CAFF 9mg trial drastically increased the frequency of the adverse side effects (15%-62%). The ergogenic dose of caffeine required to enhance neuromuscular performance during a single all-out contraction depends on the magnitude of load used. A dose of 3 mg · kg(-1) is enough to improve high-velocity muscle actions against low loads, whereas a higher caffeine dose (9 mg · kg(-1)) is necessary against high loads, despite the appearance of adverse side effects.

  2. Evaluating the comparative effectiveness of different demand side interventions to increase maternal health service utilization and practice of birth spacing in South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo: an innovative, mixed methods approach.

    PubMed

    Dumbaugh, Mari; Bapolisi, Wyvine; van de Weerd, Jennie; Zabiti, Michel; Mommers, Paula; Balaluka, Ghislain Bisimwa; Merten, Sonja

    2017-07-03

    In this protocol we describe a mixed methods study in the province of South Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo evaluating the effectiveness of different demand side strategies to increase maternal health service utilization and the practice of birth spacing. Conditional service subsidization, conditional cash transfers and non-monetary incentives aim to encourage women to use maternal health services and practice birth spacing in two different health districts. Our methodology will comparatively evaluate the effectiveness of different approaches against each other and no intervention. This study comprises four main research activities: 1) Formative qualitative research to determine feasibility of planned activities and inform development of the quantitative survey; 2) A community-based, longitudinal survey; 3) A retrospective review of health facility records; 4) Qualitative exploration of intervention acceptability and emergent themes through in-depth interviews with program participants, non-participants, their partners and health providers. Female community health workers are engaged as core members of the research team, working in tandem with female survey teams to identify women in the community who meet eligibility criteria. Female community health workers also act as key informants and community entry points during methods design and qualitative exploration. Main study outcomes are completion of antenatal care, institutional delivery, practice of birth spacing, family planning uptake and intervention acceptability in the communities. Qualitative methods also explore decision making around maternal health service use, fertility preference and perceptions of family planning. The innovative mixed methods design allows quantitative data to inform the relationships and phenomena to be explored in qualitative collection. In turn, qualitative findings will be triangulated with quantitative findings. Inspired by the principles of grounded theory, qualitative

  3. Global University Rankings--Impacts and Unintended Side Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehm, Barbara M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, global and other university rankings are critically assessed with regard to their unintended side effects and their impacts on the European and national landscape of universities, as well as on individual institutions. An emphasis is put on the effects of ranking logics rather than on criticising their methodology. Nevertheless,…

  4. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  5. Insights into cardiovascular side-effects of modern anticancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Stortecky, Stefan; Suter, Thomas M

    2010-07-01

    Modern anticancer therapeutics can be associated with significant cardiovascular side-effects. Detection, risk assessment, and treatment of these unwanted effects are an important task for treating physicians. The purpose of this review is to focus on approved novel cancer therapeutics and discuss the most important cardiovascular side-effects, prognosis, and potential treatment. We will contrast these effects to those of conventional cardiotoxic chemotherapeutics. Modern anticancer therapeutics can cause cardiovascular ischemia, arrhythmias, cardiac dysfunction, heart failure, and arterial hypertension. Anti-HER2 drugs, or more specifically trastuzumab, can induce cardiac dysfunction and heart failure. Newer data show that these effects occur predominantly during treatment and patients who experience the side-effects often have a good cardiovascular prognosis. Antiangiogenic agents can induce arterial hypertension, arterial and venous thromboembolism, and less frequently QTc prolongation. Recent findings indicate that a high rate of patients treated with antivascular endothelial growth factor drugs develop arterial hypertension and may experience related complications. Preventive strategies or optimal treatment have been tested but controlled studies are missing. Cardiovascular side-effects of modern anticancer drugs can be a serious problem and need careful attention, prevention, or treatment.

  6. Electronic properties of amino acid side chains: quantum mechanics calculation of substituent effects

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Donard S

    2005-01-01

    Background Electronic properties of amino acid side chains such as inductive and field effects have not been characterized in any detail. Quantum mechanics (QM) calculations and fundamental equations that account for substituent effects may provide insight into these important properties. PM3 analysis of electron distribution and polarizability was used to derive quantitative scales that describe steric factors, inductive effects, resonance effects, and field effects of amino acid side chains. Results These studies revealed that: (1) different semiempirical QM methods yield similar results for the electronic effects of side chain groups, (2) polarizability, which reflects molecular deformability, represents steric factors in electronic terms, and (3) inductive effects contribute to the propensity of an amino acid for α-helices. Conclusion The data provide initial characterization of the substituent effects of amino acid side chains and suggest that these properties affect electron density along the peptide backbone. PMID:16078995

  7. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  8. What are the differences in outcomes between right-sided active infective endocarditis with and without left-sided infection?

    PubMed

    Kamaledeen, Abderahman; Young, Christopher; Attia, Rizwan Q

    2012-02-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was: in patients with isolated right-sided infective endocarditis (RSE) is the outcome of surgical management the same as in patients with or without left-sided involvement? Altogether, 419 papers were found using the reported search, six of which represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. Two studies point towards better outcomes with isolated RSE. In one paper, mortality was significantly lower in isolated RSE patients (P = 0.0093) for the duration of the follow-up time (median 488 patient-years). Two studies reported early mortality (<30 days) for RSE patients at 3.6 and 3.8%, respectively. Combined right- and left-sided endocarditis (RLSE) patients were found to have a poorer pre-operative clinical presentation than isolated RSE patients with a greater requirement for inotropic support (P < 0.006) and the likelihood of an emergency operation (P < 0.001). They had a poorer intra-operative course with a higher incidence of cardiac abscess formation (P < 0.001). One study suggested that there is no significant difference in in-hospital and long-term mortality between intravenous drug abuse (IVDA) patients and non-IVDA patients. Left-heart involvement in the IVDA group was 61.5%. This was in-line with the published literature, demonstrating a rise in RLSE in IVDA compared with non-IVDA patients. Three articles looking at isolated left-sided endocarditis (LSE) gave mortality rates in the surgical group to be 27.1, 27.8 and 38%, respectively. In one study, the LSE mortality was not different for native vs. prosthetic valve infection (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.23-1.87). After propensity matching and adjusting for hazards, the complication rate in the LSE group was higher and this translated to a higher mortality rate. We conclude from the literature that outcomes are more favourable with lower early and late mortality for isolated RSE patients

  9. Attitudes toward disclosure of medication side effects: a nationwide survey of Korean patients, caregivers, and oncologists.

    PubMed

    Shin, Dong Wook; Roter, Debra L; Cho, Juhee; Kim, So Young; Yang, Hyung Kook; Suh, Beomseok; Kim, Yoon; Han, Ji-Youn; Chung, Ik Joo; Park, Jong-Hyock

    2015-11-01

    We aimed to compare the views of cancer patients, family caregivers, and oncologists about the disclosure of side effects in respect to their probability of occurrence, severity, and treatment purpose. We also compared attitudes toward potential harm of side effect disclosure, patients' perceived ability to understand the risk of the side effects, and informed decision-making regarding side effects. A national survey was performed with 750 patient-caregiver dyads (75.5% participation rate) recruited by 134 oncologists in 13 cancer centers (93% participation rate). Attitudes toward communication of side effects were assessed in terms of drug purpose, severity of potential complications, and probability of harm. Most patients (82.1-87.0%) and caregivers (75.9-81.5%) thought they should be informed of all possible drug side effects regardless of risk, severity, or drug purpose and wanted these risks to be communicated explicitly. Patients and their caregivers believed that detailed explanations of side effects did not harm patients, and further, they believed that patients could understand risks and make treatment decision based on that information. In contrast, oncologists held less positive attitudes toward providing detailed information about drug side effects, especially if they were not severe and if the drugs were designed for supportive care. Cancer patients and family members had different perspectives and preferences regarding communication of drug side effects from their oncologists. The data from our study can serve as a guide for oncologists in presenting side effects information to their patients, as well as a basis for physician training. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Evaluation of side effects and patients' perceptions during tooth bleaching.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Ralph H; Smith, Lynn R; Garland, Glenn E; Tiwana, Karen K; Zaidel, Lynette A; Pugh, George; Lin, Nora C

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) study was to compare tooth sensitivity (TS), gingival irritation (GIr), and other side effects, as well as patients' perceptions during tooth bleaching, from treatment with experimental 5 and 7% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching solutions with those of a commercially available 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) product. Sixty-one participants completed the study wearing a scalloped maxillary treatment tray without reservoirs with the different concentrations of bleaching gels for 30 minutes twice a day for 7 days. Parameters evaluated were changes in gingival index (GI), nonmarginal gingival index, nongingival oral mucosal index, and tooth vitality. Participants were seen pretreatment, after 7 treatment days, and 1 week post-treatment. A daily log form to record TS and GIr was completed by each participant as well as a sensitivity questionnaire at each appointment. Additionally, at 10 months post-treatment, a questionnaire was sent to the participants concerning TS and GIr relative to the treatment process. Data from end-of-treatment questionnaires, daily log forms, and clinical examination revealed a statistical difference (p < or = 0.05) in the patients' ranking of and days of TS and GIr between group S (7% HP) and group T (10% CP, control group) at the end of active treatment. There also existed a statistical clinical change in the GI levels for groups R and S compared with the control group T. There was no statistical difference (p > 0.05) in any of the parameters evaluated among the three products at 7 days or 10 months post-treatment. Participants in group S reported significantly more TS, GIr, and days of each compared with the control. There also existed a significant clinical change in the GI levels for groups R and S compared with the control group T. There was no significant difference among the three products at 7 days post-treatment. After ending treatment, TS/GIr was resolved in 2 to 3 days and did not

  11. Visualisation of edge effects in side-gated graphene nanodevices

    PubMed Central

    Panchal, Vishal; Lartsev, Arseniy; Manzin, Alessandra; Yakimova, Rositza; Tzalenchuk, Alexander; Kazakova, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Using local scanning electrical techniques we study edge effects in side-gated Hall bar nanodevices made of epitaxial graphene. We demonstrate that lithographically defined edges of the graphene channel exhibit hole conduction within the narrow band of ~60–125 nm width, whereas the bulk of the material is electron doped. The effect is the most pronounced when the influence of atmospheric contamination is minimal. We also show that the electronic properties at the edges can be precisely tuned from hole to electron conduction by using moderate strength electrical fields created by side-gates. However, the central part of the channel remains relatively unaffected by the side-gates and retains the bulk properties of graphene. PMID:25073589

  12. Effects of breast cancer surgery and surgical side effects on body image over time.

    PubMed

    Collins, Karen Kadela; Liu, Ying; Schootman, Mario; Aft, Rebecca; Yan, Yan; Dean, Grace; Eilers, Mark; Jeffe, Donna B

    2011-02-01

    We examined the impact of surgical treatments (breast-conserving surgery [BCS], mastectomy alone, mastectomy with reconstruction) and surgical side-effects severity on early stage (0-IIA) breast cancer patients' body image over time. We interviewed patients at 4-6 weeks (T1), six (T2), 12 (T3), and 24 months (T4) following definitive surgical treatment. We examined longitudinal relationships among body image problems, surgery type, and surgical side-effects severity using the Generalized Estimating Equation approach, controlling for demographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors. We compared regression coefficients of surgery type from two models, one with and one without surgical side-effects severity. Of 549 patients enrolled (mean age 58; 75% White; 65% BCS, 12% mastectomy, 23% mastectomy with reconstruction), 514 (94%) completed all four interviews. In the model without surgical side-effects severity, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction reported poorer body image than patients who underwent BCS at T1-T3 (each P < 0.02), but not at T4. At T2, patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction also reported poorer body image than patients who underwent mastectomy alone (P = 0.0106). Adjusting for surgical side-effects severity, body image scores did not differ significantly between patients with BCS and mastectomy with reconstruction at any interview; however, patients who underwent mastectomy alone had better body image at T2 than patients who underwent mastectomy with reconstruction (P = 0.011). The impact of surgery type on body image within the first year of definitive surgical treatment was explained by surgical side-effects severity. After 2 years, body image problems did not differ significantly by surgery type.

  13. Cardiac MRI in Children and Adolescents Who Have Undergone Surgical Repair of Right-Sided Congenital Heart Disease: Automated Left Ventricular Volumes and Function Analysis and Effects of Different Manual Adjustments.

    PubMed

    Rompel, O; Janka, R; May, M S; Glöckler, M; Cesnjevar, R; Dittrich, S; Lell, M M; Uder, M; Hammon, M

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate automated segmentation and the effects of different manual adjustments regarding left ventricular parameter quantification in cardiac magnetic resonance (MR) data on children and adolescents who have undergone surgical repair of right-sided congenital heart disease (CHD). Dedicated software (syngo.via, Siemens AG) was used to automatically segment and/or manually adjust the end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), myocardial mass (MM) and ejection fraction (EF) before/after manual apex/base adjustment (ADJ-step 1) and after manual apex/base/myocardial contour adjustment (ADJ-step 2; reference standard). MR data of 40 patients (13.1 ± 3. y, 4 - 17 y) with repaired CHD with decreased pulmonary blood flow (CHD-DPBF) were evaluated. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was determined for 10 randomly selected patients. The software correctly detected the left ventricle in 38/40 (95%) patients. EDV after automated segmentation: 119.1 ± 44.0 ml; after ADJ-step 1: 115.8 ± 9.5 ml; after ADJ-step 2: 116.2 ± 39.4 ml. The corresponding results for ESV were 52.0 ± 18.5/49.6 ± 6.9/49.7 ± 16.4 ml; for SV 67.1 ± 28.5/66.2 ± 25.4/66.5 ± 25. ml; for EF 55.5 ± 7.3/56.7 ± 6.6/56.7 ± 6.3%; for MM 83.7 ± 35.9/76.2 ± 8.3/74.6 ± 27.2 g. Significant differences were found for ESV/MM/EF comparing the automated segmentation results with these after ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2. No significant differences were found when comparing all results of ADJ-step 1 and ADJ-step 2 or when comparing EDV/SV results. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was excellent. The mean time effort was 63.4 ± 6.9 s for the automated segmentation, 74.2 ± 8.9 s for ADJ-step 1 and 269.5 ± 39.4 s for ADJ-step 2. Automated left ventricular volumes and function analysis in children and adolescents with surgically treated CHD proved to be feasible with excellent intra- and inter-rater reliability. Automated segmentation with manual apex/base adjustment provided

  14. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D.

    PubMed

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-06-01

    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  15. Molecular differences in the microsatellite stable phenotype between left‐sided and right‐sided colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Habano, Wataru; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Eizuka, Makoto; Otsuka, Koki; Sasaki, Akira; Takayuki Matsumoto; Morikawa, Takanori; Unno, Michiaki; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-01-01

    Differences in the pathogenesis of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) between left‐sided CRC (LC) and right‐sided CRC (RC) have not been clarified. To identify pathogenesis‐related genomic differences between MSS CRCs within the two locations, we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis using crypt isolation with samples from 92 sporadic CRCs. Microsatellite instability (MSI; high and low/negative) and DNA methylation status (low methylation epigenome; intermediate methylation epigenome [IME] or high methylation epigenome [HME]) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis and PCR‐bisulfite pyrosequencing, respectively. Additionally, mutations in the TP53, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were examined using PCR‐bisulfite pyrosequencing (for KRAS and BRAF mutations) or PCR‐single conformation polymorphism (for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations), followed by sequencing of aberrant bands. Finally, a genome‐wide study using a copy number alteration (CNA)‐targeted single nucleotide polymorphism array was performed. Ninety‐two CRCs were classified into 71 MSS and 21 MSI phenotypes. We examined 71 CRCs with the MSS phenotype (LC, 56; RC, 15). Mutations in KRAS were associated with RC with the MSS phenotype, whereas mutations in TP53 were more frequently found in LC with the MSS phenotype. There were significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS and TP53 mutations in the IME between LC and RC with the MSS phenotype. Although CNA gains were associated with LC with the MSS phenotype, CNA losses were not major alterations associated with the MSS phenotype. These findings suggested that the molecular pathogenesis of the MSS phenotype in LC was different from that in RC. PMID:27509333

  16. Docetaxel-related side effects and their management.

    PubMed

    Baker, Jackie; Ajani, Jaffer; Scotté, Florian; Winther, Dorte; Martin, Miguel; Aapro, Matti S; von Minckwitz, Gunter

    2009-02-01

    Docetaxel is an effective treatment approved in five key cancers, but its effectiveness in clinical practice can be compromised by sub-optimal side-effect management. The aim of this review was to investigate the extent of the published work on specific docetaxel-related side effects and to provide, where possible, evidence-based recommendations for their prevention and management. PubMed and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) databases were systematically searched for articles published in English over the past 5 years and 2 years, respectively, and pertaining to six side effects identified as being common to the majority of docetaxel regimens and indications and of particular relevance to the oncology nurse. The Cochrane library was also searched. A total of 103 citations were identified, 14 of which discussed strategies for the prevention or management of febrile neutropenia (n=6), hypersensitivity reactions (3), fluid retention (1) and nail changes (4). No articles were identified that related to asthenia or neuropathy. Based on the literature review, evidence/guidelines-based advice for the use of G-CSF in febrile neutropenia is provided. The evidence base with respect to the other side effects does not permit the formulation of recommendations. It is the experience of the authors, however, that the severity of symptoms experienced by patients is generally mild and the side effects are for the most part easily managed with prophylactic and supportive care measures. It is, therefore, important to share and build on experiences, through research and discussion, to maximise the healthcare professional's ability to offer the best standard of care to patients.

  17. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in which levels ... diabetes and type 2 diabetes . Use of some HIV medicines may increase blood glucose levels and lead ...

  18. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Rash

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Rash (Last updated 11/23/2016; last reviewed 11/23/2016) Key Points A rash is an irritated area of ... requires immediate medical attention. Why do people with HIV develop rash? A rash is an irritated area ...

  19. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  20. The side-effects of head and neck tumors radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Skiba-Tatarska, Marta; Kusa-Podkańska, Marta; Surtel, Anna; Wysokińska-Miszczuk, Joanna

    2016-07-29

    Radiotherapy of head and neck tumours causes numerous complications in the oral cavity. The most frequent side effects are: mucositis, osteoradionecrosis, hypogeusia or dysgeusia, xerostomia, dental caries, dentinal hypersensitivity. It is recomended to prevent, reduce or relieve these complications in the oral cavity.

  1. Complementary Strategies for the Management of Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Stubbe, Christine E.; Valero, Meighan

    2013-01-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten­tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com­mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu­puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc­yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera­pies as well as related research and analysis. PMID:25032003

  2. Complementary strategies for the management of radiation therapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Stubbe, Christine E; Valero, Meighan

    2013-07-01

    Patients with cancer utilize complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for a variety of purposes, one of which is the reduction of side effects of conventional treatment. With a large number of their patients using CAM, it is important for advanced practitioners in oncology to have an understanding of these therapies to better guide their patients. Side effects of radiation therapy that may have dose-limiting poten-tial include diarrhea, mucositis, skin toxicity, and xerostomia. A com-mon side effect that is not necessarily dose-limiting but considerably troublesome to patients is cancer- and treatment-related fatigue. The CAM therapies that may alleviate some of the side effects of radiation therapy include probiotics, psyllium, exercise, melatonin, honey, acu-puncture, and calendula. Therapies that require more research or have been shown to be ineffective include aloe vera, glutamine, and deglyc-yrrhizinated licorice. This article provides an overview of these thera-pies as well as related research and analysis.

  3. [Side effects of phlebotomy: pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment and prophylaxis].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, Hiroaki

    2005-10-01

    Although phlebotomy is on the whole a safe procedure, the frequency of side effects being low and their severity weak, there have still been rare incidents of serious accidents such as nerve injury, vasovagal reaction and infections. Medical staff performing phlebotomy must be aware of the pathophysiology of these side effects, be careful in avoiding them, and be trained to properly treat them. Nerve injury is the complication of which phlebotomists should take the greatest caution. It sometimes causes permanent motor and/or sensory nerve dysfunction of arms and hands. Appropriate selection of vein and careful procedure of venipuncture are required. Vasovagal reaction is a relatively common complication causing hypotension, palor and occasional syncope. For emergency cases, a bed, oxygen tanks, and a utility cart with drug supplies should be provided in the phlebotomy room. Infections, especially those by blood-borne pathogen, are rare but serious complications. When performing evacuated tube venipuncture procedure, blood collecting tubes sterilized on the inside and single-use holders must be used to avoid infections through backflow of blood. Phlebotomists must follow the procedure presented in the guidelines to avoid backflow. Hematoma, allergy, hyperventilation, air embolism, anemia and thrombosis are other side effects occasionally caused by phlebotomy. Finally, medical staff should recognize that sincere communication with patients receiving phlebotomy is essential and efforts to inform them of the possibility of these side effects are becoming increasingly necessary in the current medical environment.

  4. Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…

  5. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Hyperlipidemia

    MedlinePlus

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Hyperlipidemia (Last updated 11/22/2016; last reviewed 11/22/2016) Key Points Hyperlipidemia refers to high levels ... pancreas). HIV infection and treatment with some HIV medicines can increase the risk of hyperlipidemia. Other risk ...

  6. Seborrheic dermatitis: a newly reported side effect of neuroleptics.

    PubMed

    Binder, R L; Jonelis, F J

    1984-03-01

    Of 42 chronic patients with neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism, 25 were found to have seborrheic dermatitis; this side effect was seen in only 1 of 17 acute patients with neuroleptic-induced parkinsonism. Parkinsonian symptoms may precede the onset of seborrheic dermatitis in patients receiving chronic neuroleptic treatment.

  7. Experience with side effects among users of injectables, the IUD, and oral contraceptive pills in four urban areas of Honduras.

    PubMed

    Barden-O'Fallon, Janine; Speizer, Ilene; Rodriguez, Francisco; Calix, Javier

    2009-06-01

    Contraceptive side effects are often the most commonly reported reason for method discontinuation, particularly of modern methods. We use data from eight focus groups and 800 exit interviews to examine women's experiences with contraceptive side effects in four urban areas of Honduras. Ease of treatment and differences in motivation to avoid pregnancy are suggested explanations for why side effects cause some women to continue and others to discontinue. Although side effects are a common reason for discontinuation in this population, less than half of the surveyed women were informed about potential side effects by a health worker on the day of the interview.

  8. Use of conjoint analysis to assess breast cancer patient preferences for chemotherapy side effects.

    PubMed

    Beusterien, Kathleen; Grinspan, Jessica; Kuchuk, Iryna; Mazzarello, Sasha; Dent, Susan; Gertler, Stan; Bouganim, Nathaniel; Vandermeer, Lisa; Clemons, Mark

    2014-02-01

    Our objective was to evaluate preferences associated with grade I/II and grade III/IV chemotherapy side effects among breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. We also assessed trade-offs that patients are willing to make between treatment side effects and the route and schedule of treatment administration. In this cross-sectional study, patients receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer completed a one-time Web survey. Conjoint analysis was used to elicit preferences for 17 grade I/II and III/IV side effects associated with available chemotherapies and regimens. In the analysis, the risk of each side effect was increased by 5%, holding all others constant, and the respective impact on patient preferences was identified. A total of 102 women participated (mean age 54 ± 11). Among the grade I/II side effects, a 5% reduction in the risk of sensory neuropathy, nausea, and motor neuropathy had the highest impact on preferences. Among grade III/IV side effects, motor neuropathy, nausea/vomiting, and myalgia made the most difference. An oral twice-daily regimen was most preferred; however, patients were willing to receive an intravenous regimen relative to oral to avoid an increased risk of 5% in the majority of side effects. Avoiding an increased chance of grade III/IV motor neuropathy was associated with willingness to tolerate one of the least preferred administration schedules. This study identified relative preferences among both mild/moderate to severe side effects from the patient perspective. Patients appear to be willing to make trade-offs between side effects and different regimens. These findings may help to inform medical decision-making processes.

  9. The Semiosis of "Side Effects" in Genetic Interventions.

    PubMed

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Genetic interventions, which include transgenic engineering, gene editing, and other forms of genome modification aimed at altering the information "in" the genetic code, are rapidly increasing in power and scale. Biosemiotics offers unique tools for understanding the nature, risks, scope, and prospects of such technologies, though few in the community have turned their attention specifically in this direction. Bruni (2003, 2008) is an important exception. In this paper, I examine how we frame the concept of "side effects" that result from genetic interventions and how the concept stands up to current perspectives of the role of organism activity in development. I propose that once the role of living systems in constructing and modifying the informational value of their various developmental resources is taken into account, the concept of a "side effect" will need to be significantly revised. Far from merely a disturbance brought about in a senseless albeit complex system, a biosemiotic view would take "side effects" as at least sometimes the organism's active re-organization in order to accommodate or make use of novelty. This insight is nascent in the work of developmental plasticity and niche construction theory (West-Eberhard 2003; Odling-Smee et al. 2003), but it is brought into sharper focus by the explicitly interpretive perspective offered by biosemiotics. Understanding the "side effects" of genetic interventions depends in part on being able to articulate when and where unexpected consequences are a result of semiotic activity at various levels within the system. While a semiotic interpretation of "side effects" puts into question the naive attitude that would see all unintended side effects as indications of disturbance in system functionality, it certainly does not imply that such side effects are of no concern for the viability of the organisms in the system. As we shall see, the fact that such interventions do not respect the translation of information

  10. Cancer Treatment Side Effects: A Meta-analysis of the Relationship Between Response Expectancies and Experience.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Elise J; Denson, Linley A; Whitford, Hayley S

    2017-08-01

    Although previous research has, overall, suggested a moderate relationship between response expectancies (REs) and cancer treatment-related side effects, empirical results have been mixed. We aimed to further explore these relationships, hypothesizing that REs would predict subsequent toxicities with the inclusion of more recent studies, across a broader range of side effects, while incorporating the impact of potential moderators including patients' experience with treatment and measurement methods. We further investigated the impact of REs across individual toxicities. A systematic search and analysis were conducted across four databases (PsychInfo, PubMed, CINAHL, and Embase) and reference lists, from 1985 to February 2016. This provided 27 eligible studies with 4474 participants, through which the main analysis, moderator analyses, and individual side-effect analyses were explored. REs were moderately related to side effects overall (r = 0.26), and effect sizes were significantly influenced by sample diagnostic homogeneity, whereas differences between type and timing of measurement showed trends. Of the 16 toxicities examined, 15 demonstrated significant relationships between REs and side-effect experience, with hair loss (r = 0.48) the strongest. No clear difference emerged between objective and subjective side effects; however, significant differences across individual toxicities were revealed. Findings support a relationship between REs and a wide range of subsequent side effects, yet differences between individual RE-toxicity associations emerged. These findings provide direction for the measurement of side effects and REs and support REs as potential targets for intervention during the informed consent process. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extrapyramidal side-effects of antipsychotics in a randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Del D.; Caroff, Stanley N.; Davis, Sonia M.; Rosenheck, Robert A.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Saltz, Bruce L.; Riggio, Silvana; Chakos, Miranda H.; Swartz, Marvin S.; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Stroup, T. Scott; Lieberman, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    Background There are claims that second-generation antipsychotics produce fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) compared with first-generation drugs. Aims To compare the incidence of treatment-emergent EPS between second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine in people with schizophrenia. Method Incidence analyses integrated data from standardised rating scales and documented use of concomitant medication or treatment discontinuation for EPS events. Mixed model analyses of change in rating scales from baseline were also conducted. Results There were no significant differences in incidence or change in rating scales for parkinsonism, dystonia, akathisia or tardive dyskinesia when comparing second-generation antipsychotics with perphenazine or comparing between second-generation antipsychotics. Secondary analyses revealed greater rates of concomitant antiparkinsonism medication among individuals on risperidone and lower rates among individuals on quetiapine, and lower rates of discontinuation because of parkinsonism among people on quetiapine and ziprasidone. There was a trend for a greater likelihood of concomitant medication for akathisia among individuals on risperidone and perphenazine. Conclusions The incidence of treatment-emergent EPS and change in EPS ratings indicated that there are no significant differences between second-generation antipsychotics and perphenazine or between second-generation antipsychotics in people with schizophrenia. PMID:18827289

  12. Juvenile anadromous salmonid production in upper Columbia River side channels with different levels of hydrological connection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martens, Kyle D.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the contribution of three types of side channels based on their hydrologic connectivity (seasonally disconnected, partially connected, and connected) to production of juvenile anadromous salmonids. Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss and Chinook Salmon O. tshawytscha were found in all three of these side channel types and in each year of the study. Upon connection with the main stem at high flows, the seasonally disconnected side channels experienced an emptying out of the previous year's fish while filling with young-of-year fish during the 2- to 4-month period of hydrologic connection. There were no differences between the densities of juvenile steelhead and Chinook Salmon and the rate of smolts produced among the three types of side channels. Recently reintroduced Coho Salmon O. kisutch had sporadic presence and abundance in partially and connected side channels, but the smolt production rate was over two times that of steelhead and Chinook Salmon in seasonally disconnected side channels. Within seasonally disconnected side channels, young-of-year salmonids in deep pools (≥100 cm) had greater survival than those in shallow pools (<100 cm). Densities of juvenile steelhead in all side channel types were similar to those in tributaries and were higher than in main-stem lateral margins. Juvenile Chinook Salmon densities were higher in side channels than in both tributary and main-stem lateral margins. Our results suggest that improving quality of pool habitat within seasonally disconnected side channels can result in improved survival for juvenile anadromous salmonids during the period of disconnection. Habitat improvement in these seasonally disconnected side channels should be recognized as a worthy restoration strategy, especially when full connectivity of side channels may not be a feasible target (e.g., through lack of water availability) or when full connectivity may present too high a risk (e.g., flooding, stream capture, bank

  13. Effects of Small-Sided Games on Physical Conditioning and Performance in Young Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05). The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05) while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05). After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05), while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05). The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key points Three-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games. In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals

  14. Side effects of phenobarbital in epilepsy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-Li; Zeng, Li-Nan; Li, You-Ping

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, phenobarbital, as an antiepileptic drug, has become less popular based on adverse events, especially cognitive and behavioural side effects. Despite the development of better tolerated new generation AEDs, phenobarbital is still widely used particularly in developing countries because of its low cost. The purpose of this review was to: (i) investigate whether phenobarbital can be safely used as an antiepileptic drug and (ii) determine the questions which need to be addressed in order to comprehensively and adequately evaluate the safety of phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy. The literature was searched using the Cochrane Central Register of randomised controlled trials (1800-2009), Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1966-2009) and three Chinese databases. Twenty studies were finally included in this systematic review. The determination of adverse effects of combined antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from different studies was complicated by numerous factors including study design, different descriptions of adverse events and a lack of standardised data collection. These factors may also have been responsible for the heterogeneity present in the meta-analysis. The data did not demonstrate any evidence of association between phenobarbital and a higher risk of adverse events. However, phenobarbital appeared to be associated with a higher rate of adverse drug reaction related withdrawal (ADR-related withdraw), compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin. This may have been due to a concern for possible adverse effects of phenobarbital. Phenobarbital was associated with a higher rate of drug withdrawal although there was no evidence to suggest that phenobarbital caused more adverse events compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid or phenytoin. However, in the case of pregnant women, it is important for clinicians to evaluate the benefits and risks of phenobarbital administration before making a final recommendation. Furthermore, unified scales for

  15. Supply-side and demand-side cost sharing in deregulated social health insurance: which is more effective?

    PubMed

    Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter; Beck, Konstantin

    2012-01-01

    Microeconomic theory predicts that if patients are fully insured and providers are paid fee-for-service, utilization of medical services exceeds the efficient level ('moral hazard effect'). In Switzerland, both demand-side and supply-side cost sharing have been introduced to mitigate this problem. Analyzing a panel dataset of about 160,000 adults, we find both types of cost sharing to be effective in curtailing the use of medical services. However, when moral hazard mitigation is traded off against risk selection, the minimum-deductible, supply-side cost sharing option ranks first, followed by the medium-deductible demand-side alternative, making the supply-side option somewhat more effective. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Phenytoin in cutaneous medicine: its uses, mechanisms and side effects.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeld, Noah

    2003-08-01

    Phenytoin (diphenylhydantoin or Dilantin) is a highly effective and widely prescribed anticonvulsant agent used in the treatment of grand mal and psychomotor epilepsy. In dermatology, phenytoin has been used to treat ulcers, epidermolysis bullosa, and inflammatory conditions. Its mechanism appears to involve its ability to inhibit collagenase. Its topical use for the promotion of wound healing seems promising but requires further trials. The side effects of phenytoin continue to create significant morbidity. Common side effects include gingival hyperplasia, coarsening of the facies, and hirsutism. Rarer cutaneous side effects include drug-induced lupus, purple-hand syndrome, pigmentary alterations, and IgA bullous dermatosis. It can cause generalized cutaneous eruptions that include a maculopapular exanthem, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, generalized exfoliative dermatitis, toxic epidermal necrolysis, vasculitis, and fixed-drug eruptions. Phenytoin is linked to a hypersensitivity syndrome manifested by fever, rash, and lymphadenopathy. Patients receiving phenytoin may develop pseudolymphoma or, rarely, malignant lymphoma and mycosis-fungoides-like lesions. Phenytoin can effect clotting function. Phenytoin can alter vitamin and mineral levels. Prenatal exposure to phenytoin may result in a spectrum of structural, developmental, and behavioral changes known as the fetal hydantoin syndrome. After 60 years of use, phenytoin uses and mechanisms of action have yet to be fully defined; the drug remains a useful tool and an important subject for additional research.

  17. Dim waters: side effects of geoengineering using ocean albedo modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskozub, J.; Neumann, T.

    2012-04-01

    We use a Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to check how the recently proposed geoengineering by injection of clean or coated microbubbles into the ocean mixed layer would impact in-water light fields. We show that due to massive multiscattering inside a bubble cloud, coating the bubbles with surfactant, needed to stabilize them, would not increase their albedo change effectiveness as much as expected basing on their backscattering coefficients. However, the bubble effect on reflectance is larger than estimated previously using a discrete ordinate method of solving the radiative transfer problem. We show significant side effects of ocean albedo change needed to counter global warming expected in this century and beyond (reduction of euphotic zone depth by respectively 20% and 50% in the case of global ocean albedo change corresponding to -1.25 K and -6 K global surface temperature change and irradiance decrease at 10 m depth by respectively 40% and over 80%) even if all ocean surface was "brightened". We discuss the possible negative side effect of such in-water light dimming on marine life. We conclude that the proposed "ocean brightening" is in fact "ocean dimming" as concerns the marine environment, on a scale that in any other circumstances would be called catastrophic. Finally, we briefly discuss other possible side effect of making the surface ocean waters turbid (both optically and acoustically), of adding large amounts of surfactants to the surface ocean layers and of surface cooling of the ocean, especially within the tropics.

  18. Medication Side Effects among People with Epilepsy Taking Phenobarbital in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Elafros, Melissa A.; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L.

    2014-01-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool Adverse Events Profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman’s correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1 mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4–8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the WHO report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional investigations

  19. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  20. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    PubMed

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  1. Metformin prevents metabolic side effects during systemic glucocorticoid treatment.

    PubMed

    Seelig, Eleonora; Meyer, Stefanie; Timper, Katharina; Nigro, Nicole; Bally, Martina; Pernicova, Ida; Schuetz, Philipp; Müller, Beat; Korbonits, Marta; Christ-Crain, Mirjam

    2017-03-01

    Patients receiving glucocorticoid treatment are prone to develop metabolic complications. In preclinical studies, metformin prevented the development of the metabolic syndrome during glucocorticoid excess. We herein investigated the metabolic effect of metformin during glucocorticoid treatment in non-diabetic patients. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, patients starting glucocorticoid treatment (prednisone, prednisolone or methylprednisolone) for four weeks were randomised to concomitantly receive metformin (850 mg once daily for one week followed by 850 mg twice daily for three weeks) or placebo. All patients underwent a standardised oral glucose tolerance test at baseline and after four weeks. The primary endpoint was change in the 2-h area under the curve (AUC) of glucose during the oral glucose tolerance test between baseline and four weeks. 29 of 34 randomised non-diabetic patients completed the trial (17 metformin and 12 placebo). In patients allocated to placebo, median glucose 2-h AUC increased from baseline to four weeks (836 (IQR 770-966) to 1202 (1009-1271) mmol/L per min; P = 0.01). In contrast, glucose levels remained similar to baseline in the metformin group (936 (869-1003) to 912 (825-1011) mmol/L per min; P = 0.83). This change within four weeks was different between both groups (P = 0.005). Glucocorticoid equivalent doses were similar in both groups (placebo: 980.0 (560.0-3259.8) mg/28 days; metformin: 683.0 (437.5-1970.5) mg/28 days; P = 0.26). In this first randomised controlled trial of metformin targeting metabolic complications in patients needing glucocorticoid therapy, we observed a beneficial effect of metformin on glycaemic control. Metformin thus seems to be a promising drug for preventing metabolic side effects during systemic glucocorticoid treatment. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  2. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of <12 months vs. ≥12 months. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with tumor size ≤4 cm vs. >4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of <12 months

  3. [Favorable, unfavorable and indifferent side effects of pharmacotherapy of psychoses].

    PubMed

    Gall, H

    1975-01-01

    Not all side-effects are undesirable side-effects of a treatment. Under certain conditions allergic side-effects during the therapy of phasic psychotics affect a turn in the course of the basic illness and bring a premature end to depression. As a result of the observation of a sudden cure of a deep vital depression in a 73 year old patient in direct chronological connection with the appearance of an allergic urticaria, studies were carried out, in the 8 years following, of a total of 18 cases of similar circumstances; during the treatment of an endogenous depression the development of intercurrent allergic skin reactions showed: in 6 cases the psychosis completely disappeared with the development of the urticaria; in 8 cases the symptoms were considerably relieved so that only the remains of vegetative disorders persisted; in 4 cases no effect could be determined. In 2 cases the same allergic reaction was consciously provoked by a reapplication of the medicaments concerned during a following depressive phase; again with favourable results since under these conditions coincidences are not very probable, the conclusion can be made, and experimentally supported, that allergic drug reactions may be employed in the course of depressions, with careful avoidance of complications.

  4. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus.

  5. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus. PMID:28223849

  6. Rare Side-effects during Spinal Cord Stimulation: Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    PubMed

    La Grua, Marco

    2009-04-01

    In current medical literature, most reported complications during spinal cord stimulation (SCS) concern technical problems, such as malfunction, migration or breakage of the lead, or internal pulse generator dysfunction, while reports about side-effects caused by SCS are rare. In this clinical report, we describe uncommon and unexplained gastrointestinal (GI) side-effects of constipation, abdominal pain, and distension during SCS in a patient suffering for chronic neuropathic pain caused by failed back surgery syndrome. These GI symptoms disappeared after suspension of SCS and were reduced if the stimulation settings were reduced below paresthesia threshold. The symptoms experienced by our patient could be related to a functional and reversible block of parasympathetic outflow in the GI system since SCS may involve not only dorsal horn structures but also somatic and visceral sensory afferents to these structures in an unpredictable way. © 2009 International Neuromodulation Society.

  7. The side effects of orthodontic mechanics in orthodontic treatments.

    PubMed

    Javaheri, Homan H

    2008-01-01

    The side effects of orthodontic mechanics at each tissue level (alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, gingiva, pulp, cementum, and enamel) are addressed, along with the issue of pain following orthodontic appointments, and psychobehavioral alterations observed in orthodontic patients. It is necessary to know how orthodontic treatment affects enamel health, including methods to manage these side effects, which are still a dilemma for orthodontic clinicians. It is interesting to note that the dental pulp, which lies deep in the tooth core, also reacts to orthodontic force. The way the periodontal ligament responds to light and heavy forces, in young and adult patients, with or without periodontal disease, should be considered. Root resorption is a well-recognized phenomenon following orthodontic treatment. Advances made in this area of research to identify the parameters and genes associated with this process are developing.

  8. Pharmaceutical ethics and physician liability in Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Dhiman, Gaurav J; Amber, Kyle T

    2013-12-01

    We review Side Effects, a 2013 film involving bioethics, pharmaceuticals, and financial conspiracies. After the main character Emily unsuccessfully attempts suicide, she begins receiving care from a psychiatrist, Dr. Banks. Following numerous events, she is placed on a fictional antidepressant, Ablixa, which leads her to suffer from sleepwalking. During an episode of sleepwalking she commits a serious crime. The film poses an interesting dilemma: How responsible would the physician be in this instance? We analyze this question by applying numerous ethical principles.

  9. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  10. Recurrent priapism as a side effect of zuclopenthixol decanoate.

    PubMed

    van Hemert, A M; Meinhardt, W; Moehadjir, D; Kropman, R F

    1995-09-01

    Priapism has been described as a rare side effect of certain phenothiazine antipsychotics with high alpha1-adrenergic blocking potential. We describe a patient who in the course of clinical treatment with the thioxanthene antipsychotic zuclopenthixol (Clopixol) decanoate had several episodes of priapism. Although the alpha-blocking potential of zuclopenthixol is only moderate, it seems that in sufficient dose, or in combination with other antipsychotics, this drug is capable of inducing priapism.

  11. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    PubMed

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  12. Intrahepatic Cholestasis as a Side-Effect of Drug Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Feuer, G.; Dhami, M.S.I.

    1982-01-01

    Drug-induced hepatotoxicity causes 2-5% of hospitalization for jaundice; in the elderly this figure is close to 20%. The liver is particularly susceptible to drug damage because its blood supply delivers drugs in higher concentrations, and because of its role in metabolizing drugs. This article reviews the morphological, biochemical and clinical features of intrahepatic cholestasis, outlining the hypotheses for this frequent side-effect of drug therapy. PMID:21286123

  13. Case Study: Osteosynthesis, Tenodesis Effect, and Side-to-Side Tendon Repair in Hand Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Drijkoningen, Tessa; Peters, Rinne M; Eberlin, Kyle R; Mudgal, Chaitanya S; Cetrulo, Curtis L

    2015-09-01

    Osteosynthesis and tendon repair are essential in upper extremity transplantation to optimally restore function. Transplant surgeons should be aware of all technical issues involved in osteosynthesis, tendon balancing, and tension setting as well as repair in an effort to optimize the function of the transplanted hand. Preoperative planning is vital to achieve good functional results. We present a case of successful osteosynthesis and side-to-side tendon repair, which led to a desirable functional outcome in hand transplantation.

  14. Misconceptions about the side effects of combined oral contraceptive pills.

    PubMed

    Küçük, Mert; Aksu, Hilmiye; Sezer, Selda Demircan

    2012-04-01

    Although combined oral contraceptive pills (COCPs) are one of the most commonly used methods of contraception in western countries, they are taken by only a minority of sexually active women in Turkey. The purpose of this research has been to define women's specific misconceptions with regard to the side effects of COCPs. This descriptive and cross-sectional research was conducted on 418 reproductive aged women who agreed to participate. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews with a questionnaire which assessed socio-demographic characteristics and women's beliefs about the side effects of COCPs. It is observed that 45.2% believed that the pills cause weight gain. Another 7.9% of the cases held the belief that COCPs cause cancer. A group of 13.4% of the subjects thought that COCPs lead to infertility, 28.7% believed that they cause headache, 41.1% believed that they cause acne and/or an increase in body hair, and 11.7% were afraid that they cause a decrease in libido. The present study has shown that misconceptions about the side effects of COCPs were considerably prevalent among this cohort group of Turkish women. Healthcare professionals have the potential of playing an important role in dispersing these misconceptions.

  15. [Side effects of meglumine antimoniate in cutaneous leishmaniasis: 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Ezzine Sebai, Nadia; Mrabet, Nozha; Khaled, Aida; Zeglaoui, Faten; Kharfi, Monia; Fazaa, Bécima; Kamoun, Mohamed Ridha

    2010-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is wide spread parasitic disease considered to be endemic in 88 countries in both old and new world. The standard treatment remains Meglumine antimoniate. We study the side effects of systemic meglumine antimoniate in cutaneous leishmaniasis. We conduct a retrospective study covering 3-year period (2002- 2005). All medical reports of cutaneous leishmaniasis treated by systemic Meglumine antimoniate are reviewed. The study comprise 63 patients all treated by systemic meglumine antimoniate at the dose of 60 mg/kg/day for 10-15 days. Side effects were noted in 15 cases (12 females and 3 males). The subject's age range from 11 to 78 years. Stibio-intolerance (fever, rash, arthralgia, abdominal pain) was observed in 12 cases and stibiotoxicity in 3 cases: precordialgies 1 case, hyperamylasemia and increase liver enzyme: 1 case, pancytopenia, renal and hepatic failure leading to death: 1 case, skin eruption: 7 cases, pruritus and erythema in the site of injection: 5 cases, urticaria: 1 case. Meglumine antimoniate was stopped in 13 cases. Meglumine antimoniate is the generally recommended treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. In spite of the rarity of Glucantime's side effects, we recommend a careful survey especially in older patients.

  16. Taking side effects into account for HIV medication.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Vicente; Rivadeneira, Pablo S; Biafore, Federico L; D'Attellis, Carlos E

    2010-09-01

    A control-theoretic approach to the problem of designing "low-side-effects" therapies for HIV patients based on highly active drugs is substantiated here. The evolution of side effects during treatment is modeled by an extra differential equation coupled to the dynamics of virions, healthy T-cells, and infected ones. The new equation reflects the dependence of collateral damages on the amount of each dose administered to the patient and on the evolution of the viral load detected by periodical blood analysis. The cost objective accounts for recommended bounds on healthy cells and virions, and also penalizes the appearance of collateral morbidities caused by the medication. The optimization problem is solved by a hybrid dynamic programming scheme that adhere to discrete-time observation and control actions, but by maintaining the continuous-time setup for predicting states and side effects. The resulting optimal strategies employ less drugs than those prescribed by previous optimization studies, but maintaining high doses at the beginning and the end of each period of six months. If an inverse discount rate is applied to favor early actions, and under a mild penalization of the final viral load, then the optimal doses are found to be high at the beginning and decrease afterward, thus causing an apparent stabilization of the main variables. But in this case, the final viral load turns higher than acceptable.

  17. Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Side-Effects after Antimuscarinic Treatment for Overactive Bladder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Aram; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Jung, Rangrhee; Na, Selee; Kim, Joon-Chul; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2017-09-01

    Drug therapy is the mainstay of treatment for overactive bladder (OAB), but antimuscarinic agents possess side-effects. These side-effects decrease the patients' quality of life. We therefore assessed the impact of side-effects on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) through an analysis of EQ-5D questionnaire. This study was designed to investigate the patients' satisfaction by quality weight of health status as affected by the side-effects of OAB medications. Patients who had OAB symptoms lasting longer than 3 months and have experienced side-effects after any antimuscarinic treatments filled in the EQ-5D questionnaire. The enrolled patients had two EQ-5D questionnaires for two different health statuses, i.e., presence or absence of side-effects. Quality weight was calculated using the ED-5D health status score with Korean tariff. One hundred patients were enrolled and completed the HR-QoL questionnaire. The most prevalent side-effect was dry mouth (61%) and 28% patients had dry mouth and constipation concurrently. Most of the patients with side-effects tried to endure and overcome these side-effects (79%), but 10% desired a change in medication, and 6% stopped medication altogether. The quality weight of EQ-5D without side-effects was 0.863, while the quality weight with side-effects was 0.666 (P < 0.001). The VAS score was 79 in patient without side-effects and 57 in those with side-effects, supporting the results of quality weight assessment. Overactive bladder patients may enjoy a better quality of life if side-effects associated with antimuscarinic therapy are fewer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Body-drug assemblages: theorizing the experience of side effects in the context of HIV treatment.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-10-01

    Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, it offers an original application of the theory of 'assemblage'. This theory offers a new way of theorizing side effects, and ultimately the relationship between the body and antiretroviral drugs (as technologies). Combining theory with examples derived from empirical data, we examine the multiple ways in which the body connects not only to the drugs but also to people, things, and systems. Our objective is to illustrate how this theory dares us to think differently about side effects and allows us to originally (re)think the experience of taking antiretroviral drugs.

  19. Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy: Treatment regimen and peripheral neuropathy as a side effect.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gulce Sari; Torcun, Ceyda Corek; Grune, Tilman; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal; Karademir, Betul

    2017-02-01

    Proteasomal system plays an important role in protein turnover, which is essential for homeostasis of cells. Besides degradation of oxidized proteins, it is involved in the regulation of many different signaling pathways. These pathways include mainly cell differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, transcriptional activation and angiogenesis. Thus, proteasomal system is a crucial target for treatment of several diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, cystic fibrosis, atherosclerosis, autoimmune diseases, diabetes and cancer. Over the last fifteen years, proteasome inhibitors have been tested to highlight their mechanisms of action and used in the clinic to treat different types of cancer. Proteasome inhibitors are mainly used in combinational therapy along with classical chemo-radiotherapy. Several studies have proved their significant effects but serious side effects such as peripheral neuropathy, limits their use in required effective doses. Recent studies focus on peripheral neuropathy as the primary side effect of proteasome inhibitors. Therefore, it is important to delineate the underlying mechanisms of peripheral neuropathy and develop new inhibitors according to obtained data. This review will detail the role of proteasome inhibition in cancer therapy and development of peripheral neuropathy as a side effect. Additionally, new approaches to prevent treatment-limiting side effects will be discussed in order to help researchers in developing effective strategies to overcome side effects of proteasome inhibitors.

  20. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation: side effects and other factors that influence medication adherence.

    PubMed

    Goethe, John W; Woolley, Stephen B; Cardoni, Alex A; Woznicki, Brenda A; Piez, Deborah A

    2007-10-01

    Patients with major depression discontinue taking their antidepressants for many reasons. Although side effects are often cited as the reason for discontinuation, few prospective studies have addressed this question, and none has specifically examined discontinuation in patients with severe depression. Inpatients and outpatients treated with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor for major depressive disorder were identified after admission. Three months later, patients were contacted and interviewed to determine antidepressant usage and the side effects experienced, including when these were experienced and their severity. Between October 2001 and April 2003, 406 English- or Spanish-speaking patients aged 18 to 75 years were followed up. One in 4 patients discontinued the index antidepressant. Among specific side effects noted, only "change in weight" and "anxiety" were significant predictors of discontinuation after controlling for confounders. Experiencing 1 or more "extremely" bothersome side effects was associated with more than a doubling of the risk of discontinuation, but the presence of side effects and side effects less severe than "extremely" bothersome were not significant predictors. There were no differences among selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants in either the presence/absence of side effects or in the discontinuation rates. The results suggest that the contribution of side effects to antidepressant discontinuation is more complex than previously suggested. Disparate findings from earlier studies may reflect aspects of study design, such as examining populations whose severity of depression varied widely or not controlling for important confounding factors. Future research should separately examine high-risk groups (or control for severity of depression) and carefully rule out other potential contributors to discontinuation.

  1. Perylene diimides with different side chains are selective in inducing different G-quadruplex DNA structures and in inhibiting telomerase.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, Luigi; Franceschin, Marco; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Ortaggi, Giancarlo; Savino, Maria

    2002-09-16

    Four N,N'-disubstituted perylene diimides, having different side chains, have been studied for their ability in inducing G-quadruplex DNA structures. We found that electrostatic interactions between ligands side chains and DNA grooves play a main role not only in the amount of G-quadruplex formed, but also in selecting its topology. Moreover, such compounds show also a different ability to inhibit telomerase. The correlation of these findings suggests the intriguing possibility that different G-quadruplex structures could differently inhibit the enzyme.

  2. Upper limb gangrene following intramuscular diclofenac: a rare side effect

    PubMed Central

    Hajong, Ranendra

    2013-01-01

    Diclofenac is a very commonly used analgesic medication. Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug and acts by inhibiting COX (cyclo-oxygenase) 1 and 2. It has both analgesic and anti-pyretic effects. It can be administered both orally and parentarelly. Among the many side effects of diclofencac, extensive ganrene of the extremities is never reported as one of the probable complications. Extensive PubMed and other literature searches did not reveal any previously reported case reports, hence the reporting of this case. PMID:24964408

  3. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  4. "So far it's been choosing which side effects I want or I can deal with": A grounded theory of HIV treatment side effects among people living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of new antiretroviral drugs and the simplification of treatment options, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. In this paper, we present the findings of a grounded theory study designed to gain a critical understanding of the experience of side effects. Three main categories emerged from the data: the side effects, the experience, and the connections. The first category suggests that we need to change how we think about side effects in order to take into account the context in which they are experienced as well as the types and nature of side effects. The second category puts forward the idea that the experience of side effects is composed of three interrelated processes: becoming with, living with, and dealing with. Finally, the third category points to new connections that are formed with people, things and systems in the presence of side effects.

  5. Cognitive effects of radiation emitted by cellular phones: the influence of exposure side and time.

    PubMed

    Luria, Roy; Eliyahu, Ilan; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the time dependence effects of exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by standard GSM cellular phones on the cognitive functions of humans. A total of 48 healthy right-handed male subjects performed a spatial working memory task (that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response) while being exposed to one of two GSM phones placed at both sides of the head. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was exposed to one of three exposure conditions: left-side of the head, right-side, or sham-exposure. The experiment consisted of 12 blocks of trials. Response times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses were recorded. It was found that the average RT of the right-hand responses under left-side exposure condition was significantly longer than those of the right-side and sham-exposure groups averaged together during the first two time blocks. These results confirmed the existence of an effect of exposure on RT, as well as the fact that exposure duration (together with the responding hand and the side of exposure) may play an important role in producing detectable RFR effects on performance. Differences in these parameters might be the reason for the failure of certain studies to detect or replicate RFR effects. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Nano- and micromechanical properties of dentine: investigation of differences with tooth side

    PubMed Central

    Brauer, Delia S.; Hilton, Joan F.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Marshall, Sally J.

    2011-01-01

    The soft zone in dentine beneath the dentino-enamel junction is thought to play an important role in tooth function, strain distribution and fracture resistance during mastication. Recently reported asymmetry in mechanical properties with tooth side may point at a basic property of tooth function. The aim of our study was to test if this asymmetry was reflected in the nano- and micromechanical properties of dentine. We investigated the mechanical properties of dentine on the buccal and lingual side of nine extracted human teeth using nano- and microindentation. Properties were analysed on the natural log scale, using maximum likelihood to estimate the parameters. Two-sided 0.05-level likelihood ratio tests were used to assess the influences of surface (buccal versus lingual) and dentine depth, measured from the DEJ in crown dentine and from the CDJ in root dentine. Results showed the well known gradual increase in mechanical properties with increasing distance from the DEJ. Coronal dentine showed higher elastic modulus and hardness on the lingual side of teeth for all measurements, while root dentine was harder on the buccal side. Due to the subtlety of these effects and the small number of teeth studied, results failed to reach statistical significance. Results suggest that dentine nano- and micromechanical properties vary with tooth side in agreement with recent literature using macroscopic methods. They also reveal that buccal-lingual ratios of hardness are in opposite directions in crown and root dentine, suggesting compensatory functions. PMID:21440894

  7. Effect of Communication Style on Perceptions of Medication Side Effect Risk among Pharmacy Students

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ruta V.; Beatty, Collin R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess the effect of communication style, and frequency and severity of medication side-effects, on pharmacy students’ perception of risk of experiencing side effects. Methods. One hundred responses from pharmacy students were obtained using an online survey. Participants were presented with a drug information box containing drug name, drug usage, and one side-effect associated with the drug. Information on side-effect for each drug was presented in one of eight experimental conditions, in a 2 (side-effect frequency: low, high), X2 (side-effect severity: mild, severe) X2 (communication style: verbal, verbal + natural frequency) factorial design. Risk perception of experiencing side effects was measured. Results. Communication style was found to have a significant impact on risk perception depending on the context of frequency and severity associated with the side effect. Conclusion. Communication style plays a significant role in formulating risk perceptions of medication side effects. Training in pharmaceutical counseling should include special emphasis on effective language use. PMID:27899827

  8. Severe akathisia as a side effect of metoclopramide

    PubMed Central

    Doorduijn, Jeanette K.; Seynaeve, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Case description A case of severe metoclopramide-induced akathisia in a breast cancer patient being treated with chemotherapy is presented, eventually culminating in hospital admission. In retrospect, this adverse effect was not recognized for several weeks because the prescription had not been properly recorded in the chart, the patient initially denied using the drug, and extensive psychological adjustment difficulties were also present. Conclusion Movement disorders as an adverse effect of metoclopramide have been described on a regular basis over the past decades. Case reports such as this confirm there is under-recognition of adverse effects and emphasize the need to take a comprehensive medication history and recognize well known side effects of medications such as metoclopramide. PMID:21052838

  9. [Downbeat nystagmus - a rare side-effect of lithium carbonate].

    PubMed

    Monden, M A H; Nederkoorn, P J; Tijsma, M

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman who had been treated with lithium carbonate for 10 years developed a downbeat nystagmus. The literature describes downbeat nystagmus as a rare side-effect of lithium carbonate. In this patient other causes of downbeat nystagmus were ruled out. In most cases stopping lithium carbonate does not alleviate the symptoms, which are often debilitating. At the moment there is no adequate treatment for the condition. In some cases, however, the symptoms subside after the patient stops taking lithium. Therefore, we consider that early recognition of downbeat nystagmus in patients being treated with lithium carbonate is vitally important.

  10. Gingival pain: an unusual side effect of ziprasidone

    PubMed Central

    Raghunath, Ashwati

    2013-01-01

    The patient is a 52-year-old man with schizophrenia who developed severe, unremitting gingival pain after his ziprasidone dosage was increased from 80 to 120 mg. His physical examination and laboratory findings were unremarkable. He did not have any extra-pyramidal side effects. His pain did not ameliorate after taking acetaminophen and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. As a last resort, the patient took benztropine and his pain subsided within half an hour. His ziprasidone dosage was decreased and the patient is currently doing well. He has not experienced gingival pain since his medication was adjusted. PMID:23283612

  11. Psychiatric side effects of medications prescribed in internal medicine

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande Tango, Rodrigo

    2003-01-01

    Several pharmacological treatments used in internal medicine can induce psychiatric side effects (PSEs) that mimic diagnoses seen in psychiatry. PSEs may occur upon withdrawal or intoxication, and also at usual therapeutic doses. Drugs that may lead to depressive, anxious, or psychotic syndromes include corticosteroids, isotretinoin, levo-dopar mefloquine, interferon-a, and anabolic steroids, as well as some over-the-counter medications. PSEs are often difficult to diagnose and can be very harmful to patients. PSEs are discussed in this review, as well as diagnostic clues to facilitate their identification. PMID:22034468

  12. Flash duration effect in one-sided thermal imaging.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. G.; Benz, J.; Energy Technology

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical formulation is developed for one-sided thermal imaging that utilizes an infrared camera for temperature measurement and photographic flash lamps for radiant heating of the sample surface. This formulation accounts for the radiant intensity variation of flash lamps, which typically exhibit a short rise time but a long exponential-decay time (several milliseconds). During the flash, the infrared camera receives radiation from the emission of the sample surface as well as the reflection of the flash energy. Experimental results clearly show the flash-reflection effect and the temperature response of the sample surface under finite flash durations. Theoretical and experimental data are compared and discussed.

  13. Adjunctive aripiprazole decreased metabolic side effects of clozapine treatment.

    PubMed

    Masopust, Jirí; Tůma, Ivan; Libiger, Jan

    2008-08-01

    Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic indicated for the treatment of refractory schizophrenia. Clozapine treatment is associated with the metabolic side effects. Weight gain, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia are the risk factors for onset of diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. We report a case vignette of a patient in whom the decrease in negative and general psychopathology after adjunctive aripiprazole appeared simultaneously with a reduction of clozapine-induced increase in weight and metabolic measures. Combined application of clozapine and aripiprazole is in accordance with a neurobiological rationale and appears to be a safe and well tolerated.

  14. Anordrin Eliminates Tamoxifen Side Effects without Changing Its Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Wenwen; Xu, Wenping; Sun, Xiaoxi; Zeng, Bubing; Wang, Shuangjie; Dong, Nian; Zhang, Xu; Chen, Chengshui; Yang, Long; Chen, Guowu; Xin, Aijie; Ni, Zhong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Tamoxifen is administered for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancers, but it can induce uterine endometrial cancer and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Importantly, ten years of tamoxifen treatment has greater protective effect against ER+ breast cancer than five years of such treatment. Tamoxifen was also approved by the FDA as a chemopreventive agent for those deemed at high risk for the development of breast cancer. The side effects are of substantial concern because of these extended methods of tamoxifen administration. In this study, we found that anordrin, marketed as an antifertility medicine in China, inhibited tamoxifen-induced endometrial epithelial cell mitosis and NAFLD in mouse uterus and liver as an anti-estrogenic and estrogenic agent, respectively. Additionally, compared with tamoxifen, anordiol, the active metabolite of anordrin, weakly bound to the ligand binding domain of ER-α. Anordrin did not regulate the classic estrogen nuclear pathway; thus, it did not affect the anti-tumor activity of tamoxifen in nude mice. Taken together, these data suggested that anordrin could eliminate the side effects of tamoxifen without affecting its anti-tumor activity. PMID:28266626

  15. Ocular side effects associated with dietary supplements and herbal medicines.

    PubMed

    Fraunfelder, Frederick W

    2005-08-01

    Dietary supplements are prevalent worldwide and play a significant role in the treatment of human disease. In the United States, allopathic physicians are at the early stage of learning how to treat patients with natural remedies and other forms of alternative medicine. Elsewhere, however, alternative remedies have been embraced more fully. In Germany, for example, the German Federal Health Agency created Commission E, which has allowed for a more sophisticated approach to assessing the efficacy and safety of dietary supplements and herbal medicines. Health insurance in Germany frequently covers costs for doctor-prescribed herbal remedies. While there is strong evidence that many herbal products have therapeutic effects, there are also a large number of cases of severe adverse reactions due to some of the many thousands of herbal products. One of the first signs of potential toxicity is in the visual system, as in many cases patients notice loss of vision more than systemic side effects. In addition, ophthalmologists are able to detect objective findings through external eye exams and dilated fundus exams. Presented here are some of the more common ocular side effects from frequently prescribed dietary supplements. In most instances, stopping the treatment or decreasing the dose allows for full resolution of symptoms. In addition, comment is made on the regulatory confusion that exists for this industry, especially in the United States.

  16. Managing immune checkpoint-blocking antibody side effects.

    PubMed

    Postow, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies that enhance the immune system's ability to fight cancer are becoming important components of treatment for patients with a variety of malignancies. Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) was the first immune checkpoint to be clinically targeted, and ipilimumab, an inhibitor of CTLA-4, was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for patients with advanced melanoma. The programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) receptor and one of its ligands, PD-L1, more recently have shown great promise as therapeutic targets in a variety of malignancies. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab recently have been FDA- approved for patients with melanoma and additional approvals within this therapeutic class are expected. The use of anti-CTLA-4 and anti-PD-1/PD-L1 antibodies is associated with side effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Immune-related adverse events affect the dermatologic, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine, and other organ systems. Temporary immunosuppression with corticosteroids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonists, mycophenolate mofetil, or other agents can be effective treatment. This article describes the side-effect profile of the checkpoint-blocking antibodies that target CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1 and provides suggestions on how to manage specific irAEs.

  17. Quality of life differences in patients with right- versus left-sided facial paralysis: Universal preference of right-sided human face recognition.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Nam Gyu; Lim, Byung Woo; Cho, Jae Keun; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We investigated whether experiencing right- or left-sided facial paralysis would affect an individual's ability to recognize one side of the human face using hybrid hemi-facial photos by preliminary study. Further investigation looked at the relationship between facial recognition ability, stress, and quality of life. To investigate predominance of one side of the human face for face recognition, 100 normal participants (right-handed: n = 97, left-handed: n = 3, right brain dominance: n = 56, left brain dominance: n = 44) answered a questionnaire that included hybrid hemi-facial photos developed to determine decide superiority of one side for human face recognition. To determine differences of stress level and quality of life between individuals experiencing right- and left-sided facial paralysis, 100 patients (right side:50, left side:50, not including traumatic facial nerve paralysis) answered a questionnaire about facial disability index test and quality of life (SF-36 Korean version). Regardless of handedness or hemispheric dominance, the proportion of predominance of the right side in human face recognition was larger than the left side (71% versus 12%, neutral: 17%). Facial distress index of the patients with right-sided facial paralysis was lower than that of left-sided patients (68.8 ± 9.42 versus 76.4 ± 8.28), and the SF-36 scores of right-sided patients were lower than left-sided patients (119.07 ± 15.24 versus 123.25 ± 16.48, total score: 166). Universal preference for the right side in human face recognition showed worse psychological mood and social interaction in patients with right-side facial paralysis than left-sided paralysis. This information is helpful to clinicians in that psychological and social factors should be considered when treating patients with facial-paralysis. Copyright © 2016 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of Protein Side-Chain Conformation Prediction Methods in Different Residue Environments

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Lenna X.; Kang, Xuejiao; Kihara, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Computational prediction of side-chain conformation is an important component of protein structure prediction. Accurate side-chain prediction is crucial for practical applications of protein structure models that need atomic detailed resolution such as protein and ligand design. We evaluated the accuracy of eight side-chain prediction methods in reproducing the side-chain conformations of experimentally solved structures deposited to the Protein Data Bank. Prediction accuracy was evaluated for a total of four different structural environments (buried, surface, interface, and membrane-spanning) in three different protein types (monomeric, multimeric, and membrane). Overall, the highest accuracy was observed for buried residues in monomeric and multimeric proteins. Notably, side-chains at protein interfaces and membrane-spanning regions were better predicted than surface residues even though the methods did not all use multimeric and membrane proteins for training. Thus, we conclude that the current methods are as practically useful for modeling protein docking interfaces and membrane-spanning regions as for modeling monomers. PMID:24619909

  19. [Potentially lethal cardiac side effects caused by psychiatric drugs].

    PubMed

    Sawicke, Luciana; Sturla, Soledad

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this article is to analyze some of the potentially lethal cardiac side effects of psychiatric drugs and to contribute with the necessary instruments to diagnose and treat them properly. Prolongation of the QT interval caused by most of antipsychotics is discussed, focusing on those drugs with greater risk: pimozide, thioridazine, ziprasidone and sertindole. The QT interval prolongation is a risk marker of arrhythmias like the torsade de pointes, a polymorphic arrhythmia that produces dizziness, syncope, ventricular fibrillation and sudden death. Arrhythmias caused by lithium are also considered. Even though they are unusual, they constitute the most common cardiac effect of treatment with this drug. Miocarditis and cardiomyopathy, although infrequent cardiac muscle diseases, are catastrophic but potentially reversible complications, mainly associated with clozapine. Last but not least, the diagnosis and clinical management of these adverse effects is reviewed.

  20. Preference weights for chemotherapy side effects from the perspective of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, I; Bouganim, N; Beusterien, K; Grinspan, J; Vandermeer, L; Gertler, S; Dent, S F; Song, X; Segal, R; Mazzarello, S; Crawley, F; Dranitsaris, G; Clemons, M

    2013-11-01

    Perceptions among women with breast cancer about the relative importance of different potential chemotherapy side effects is not well understood. A survey was performed by women receiving chemotherapy for breast cancer. Grade I/II (mild to moderate) and III/IV (moderate to severe) descriptions of nine common chemotherapy side effects were assigned preference weights using the standard gamble technique. For each hypothetical side effect, patients could choose to stay in the respective side effect state or take a gamble between full health (probability p) or being dead (1 - p). For each side effect, p was varied until the patient was indifferent between these options. The survey also included questions about the importance of survival, slowing cancer growth, and quality of life. This analysis included 69 patients; mean age 54 years (range 35-84), representing all cancer stages. Standard gamble preferences were lowest (i.e., least preferred) for grade III/IV nausea/vomiting (0.621), indicating that patients would, on average, risk a 38 % chance of being dead to avoid having grade III/IV nausea/vomiting for the rest of their lives. The next least preferred side effects were grade III/IV diarrhea (0.677) and grade III/IV sensory neuropathy (0.694). Survival appeared more important than slowing cancer growth and maintaining quality of life across cancer stages. Nevertheless, patients with advanced disease placed less importance on survival (p = 0.09) and higher importance on quality of life (p = 0.05). These standard gamble utilities provide unique insights into chemotherapy toxicities from the patient perspective. Differences in the relative importance of overall survival and quality of life with treatment existed between patients with different stages of disease. These studies should be expanded as the data may also be used to calculate quality-adjusted life expectancy in cost-effectiveness evaluations of breast cancer chemotherapies.

  1. Illegal use patterns, side effects, and analytical methods of ketamine.

    PubMed

    Han, Eunyoung; Kwon, Nam Ji; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2016-11-01

    In Asian countries, such as China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, ketamine (KT) is one of the most prevalent illicit use drugs. KT is regulated by various drug-related laws in many countries, such as Korea, Taiwan, China, U.S.A, Netherlands, UK, Australia, Mexico, and Canada. This review research explored pharmacology and side effects of KT, the illicit use patterns of KT, the analytical methods of KT in biological samples, and the concentrations of KT from abusers and non-abusers. Many side effects of KT have been reported mental and physical problems. Although many studies conducted various analytical methods for KT, this research focused on the urine and hair analysis and compared some parameters of samples, instruments, columns, extraction methods, internal standards, LOD/LOQ levels, metabolites, NK/K ratio, cut off values, and m/z values. Our research also compared the concentrations of KT in biological samples from abusers and non-abusers. Many rapid and precise analytical methods for illegal KT use are needed to be developed and applied to real samples. To minimize and prevent harm from KT, the authorities and appropriate agencies require a careful assessment, evaluation, early identification, and surveillance of KT users in both clinical and social settings. In addition, there is a need to construct a stricter legislative management and provide preventive education to younger individuals because illegal KT use is relatively common among the young populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Pituitary side effects of old and new drugs.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Bondanelli, Marta; Degli Uberti, Ettore

    2014-10-01

    Pituitary function is influenced by several drugs, including anti-depressant, opioids, glucocorticoids, chemotherapeutic agents, immunomodulators and the newly developed tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In most instances, treatment with these drugs negatively affects pituitary function, but in rare cases an activation of specific hypothalamic-pituitary axes may be observed. Several of the observed pituitary side effects are reversible after drug withdrawal, but pituitary function deficiency may persist long-term. In addition to the well known drugs, recent evidence shows that also non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impair gonadal axis at pituitary level, while antipsychotic phenothiazines alter TSH response to TRH and TSH levels. Atypical antipsychotics may decrease TRH-stimulated TSH. Tricyclic antidepressant drugs interfere with the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis by decreasing TSH response to TRH. Anabolic-androgenic steroids, marijuana, cocaine, methamphetamines, and opioid narcotics negatively impact fertility, also acting at hypothalamic-pituitary level. Many of the drugs administered routinely in the intensive care unit significantly impact the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Therefore, an increased awareness on pituitary side effects of drugs commonly used in clinical practice is necessary in order to rule out possible pharmacological interference when assessing patients with pituitary deficiencies.

  3. Side effects, dropouts from treatment and cost consequences.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, S A; Kasper, S

    1998-02-01

    Estimating the cost of treatment of depression has to take into account the quantifiable direct costs of medication, and hospital and community care, and the indirect costs such as loss of productivity, unemployment, costs of social support, etc. It also has to take into account the intangible costs to the depressed individual which are more difficult to quantify. Depression is a long-term illness and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality which contribute substantially to the indirect costs of the illness. Successful treatment can be expected to reduce the overall costs of depression to the individual and to society at large. Compliance with treatment is an essential factor in the successful treatment of depression. Meta-analyses of published papers have indicated that significantly more patients discontinue treatment with tricyclic antidepressants due to side effects than with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and therefore better tolerated antidepressants should be the first choice of treatment. Pharmacoeconomic studies that take account of the failure of treatment represented by the discontinuations due to side effects show that an apparently cheaper antidepressant like imipramine may turn out to be more expensive than the better tolerated antidepressants.

  4. HPV vaccination: vaccine acceptance, side effects and screening intentions.

    PubMed

    Paul-Ebhohimhen, Virginia; Huc, Sara; Tissington, Helen; Oates, Ken; Stark, Cameron

    2010-06-01

    As part of an evaluation of the introductory campaign of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine in a Scottish health board, self-administered questionnaires were offered to all 5007 eligible girls in school following the third dose of HPV to identify side-effects, reasons for non-vaccination and future cervical screening intentions, and 2775 (56.2%) replied. In all, 630 (23.5%) of vaccinated girls reported side effects to the vaccination, about half of which were common injection-site reactions. Main reported reasons for non-vaccination related to perceived inadequate evidence for HPV safety and efficacy, and lack of perceived need or desire to be vaccinated. A total of 2430 (89.2%) of the girls expressed plans to take up cervical screening when older. Reasons for not planning to take up cervical smear were lack of knowledge about cervical screening, anticipated discomfort or embarrassment with the process and no perceived need for a cervical smear. Unvaccinated girls were less likely to report planning to attend for cervical smears in later life (Yates chi-square = 24.30, p < 0.001). The findings emphasise the importance of information on safety and efficacy in future communications about HPV with schoolage girls. The relationship between vaccination and screening intention, and its implications for widening the gap in health inequalities, also requires careful attention in local implementation of the national HPV vaccination programme.

  5. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be willing to use hypnosis to control side effects associated with cancer treatment. Mean intention levels did not differ by gender, ethnicity, education or age. These results indicate that in the general public, there is a willingness to consider the use of hypnosis, and that willingness is not determined by demographic factors. This broad acceptance of hypnosis argues for more widespread dissemination. PMID:21049742

  6. Memory for Medication Side Effects in Younger and Older Adults: The Role of Subjective and Objective Importance

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Michael C.; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Older adults often experience memory impairments, but can sometimes use selective processing and schematic support to remember important information. The current experiments investigate to what degree younger and healthy older adults remember medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember. Participants studied a list of common side effects, and rated how negative these effects were if they were to experience them, and were then given a free recall test. In Experiment 1, the severity of the side effects ranged from mild (e.g., itching) to severe (e.g., stroke), and in Experiment 2, certain side effects were indicated as critical to remember (i.e., “contact your doctor if you experience this”). There were no age differences in terms of free recall of the side effects, and older adults remembered more severe side effects relative to mild effects. However, older adults were less likely to recognize critical side effects on a later recognition test, relative to younger adults. The findings suggest that older adults can selectively remember medication side effects, but have difficulty identifying familiar but potentially critical side effects, and this has implications for monitoring medication use in older age. PMID:25331278

  7. Side effects and complications of fractional laser photothermolysis: experience with 961 treatments.

    PubMed

    Graber, Emmy M; Tanzi, Elizabeth L; Alster, Tina S

    2008-03-01

    A novel 1,550-nm erbium-doped laser (Fraxel, Reliant Technologies Inc.) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of photodamaged skin and scars with minimal postoperative recovery; however, studies evaluating its side effects and complication rates have been limited. The purpose was to determine the frequency and range of side effects and complications associated with fractional photothermolysis treatment. A retrospective evaluation of 961 successive 1,550-nm erbium-doped laser treatments in patients of various skin phototypes (I-V) was conducted in a single center. Side effects and complications of treatment, including time of onset and duration, were identified and tabulated. Patient demographics and laser parameters were also assessed. Seventy-three treatments (7.6%) resulted in development of complications. The most frequent complications were acneiform eruptions (1.87%) and herpes simplex virus outbreaks (1.77%). Side effects and complications were equally distributed across different ages, skin types, body locations, laser parameters, and underlying skin conditions, except for postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, which occurred with increased frequency in patients with darker skin phototypes. Fractional laser skin treatment is associated with a relatively low complication rate. Side effects and complications observed in this study were temporary and did not result in long-term or significantly severe sequelae (e.g., scarring).

  8. The Relation between Different Facets of Creativity and the Dark Side of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahmen-Wassenberg, Phoebe; Kämmerle, Monika; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between different facets of creativity and personality, focusing on the dark side of personality. In a sample of 247 students, psychometric measures for the assessment of the dark triad of personality (subclinical narcissism, Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy), personality organization (structural deficit:…

  9. Functional possibilities for forming different inverse population distributions in diode-side-pumped laser heads

    SciTech Connect

    Grechin, S G; Nikolaev, P P; Sharandin, E A

    2014-10-31

    The functional possibilities of diode-side-pumped laser heads of solid-state lasers for forming inverse population distributions of different types are analysed. The invariants determining the relationship between the laser head parameters upon scaling are found. The results of comparative experimental studies are presented. (lasers)

  10. The Relation between Different Facets of Creativity and the Dark Side of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahmen-Wassenberg, Phoebe; Kämmerle, Monika; Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Fink, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between different facets of creativity and personality, focusing on the dark side of personality. In a sample of 247 students, psychometric measures for the assessment of the dark triad of personality (subclinical narcissism, Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy), personality organization (structural deficit:…

  11. Species differences in unlocking B-side electron transfer in bacterial reaction centers

    DOE PAGES

    Dylla, Nicholas P.; Faries, Kaitlyn M.; Wyllie, Ryan M.; ...

    2016-06-21

    The structure of the bacterial photosynthetic reaction center (RC) reveals symmetry-related electron transfer (ET) pathways, but only one path is used in native RCs. Analogous mutations have been made in two Rhodobacter (R.) species. A glutamic acid at position 133 in the M subunit increases transmembrane charge separation via the naturally inactive (B-side) path through impacts on primary ET in mutant R. sphaeroidesRCs. Prior work showed that the analogous substitution in the R. capsulatusRC also increases B-side activity, but mainly affects secondary ET. Finally, the overall yields of transmembrane ET are similar, but enabled in fundamentally different ways.

  12. Uncommon side effect of MMF in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Balal, M; Demir, E; Paydas, Saime; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U

    2005-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation. Gastrointestinal and hematological side effects are commonly observed, but hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we assessed MMF-related hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. A total of 124 renal transplantation recipients (RTRs) were evaluated for elevated liver enzymes associated with MMF, and 79 patients were enrolled to the study. Patients used MMF 2 g/day. The patients who had progressive increase in liver enzymes after renal transplantation and their AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin levels, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), abdominal ultrasonography, duration of hepatotoxicity, and decreased dosage or withdrawal of MMF were recorded. Also, we evaluated their liver enzymes while the patients were on the waiting list. Of the 79 patients, 11 patients (13.9%) had a progressive increase in liver enzymes. The median (min-max) age of the patients with MMF-hepatotoxicity was 29 (19-54) and 72.7% of them were male. None of the patients had hepatitis B or C, CMV infection, or other possible causes for elevated liver enzymes and their abdominal ultrasonography were normal. High liver enzyme levels regressed after the withdrawal (n=6) or reduce dosage (n=5) of MMF. The median time of the increase in liver enzymes was 28 (4-70) days and after 50% reduction or withdrawal of MMF, returned to normal values in 16 (4-210) days. The median levels of ALT in waiting list (I), before (II), and after (III) reduction dosage or withdrawal of MMF were 22.0 (3-22), 222.0 (51-508), and 33.0 (21-64) U/L, respectively (p I-II=0.004,p I-II=0.013, andp II-III=0.005). There were no differences for ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels. Also, the correlation between recovery time of ALT and persistence time of ALT elevation before adjustment of MMF was significant (r=0.739, p=0.009). Consequently, after renal transplantation, hepatotoxicity can occur due to a

  13. Differences in Muscle Strength in Parkinsonian Patients Affected on the Right and Left Side

    PubMed Central

    Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Ferrazzoli, Davide; Maestri, Roberto; Rovescala, Roberta; Guaglio, Gabriele; Bera, Rossana; Volpe, Daniele; Pezzoli, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Background Muscular weakness is a frequent cause of instability that contributes to falls in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Isokinetic dynamometry is a method of muscle assessment useful to measure the muscular strength giving a quantification of the weakness, but only few studies about isokinetic assessment were performed in PD. The aims of the study were to evaluate the muscle strength in PD and to investigate the differences in patients affected on the right and left side. Methods Knee flexor and extensor muscles strength was assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer in 25 patients in stage 3 H&Y and in 15 healthy controls. Subjects were tested in both legs at three fixed angular velocities: 90°/s, 120°/s, 180°/s. Results Considering the whole population of Parkinsonians, no difference in strength was observed with respect to controls. Considering the side, patients affected on the right side showed a clear tendency to be weaker than patients affected on the left side and controls. Conclusions PD patients affected on the right side, but not those affected on the left side, had a reduction in muscle strength as compared to controls. We postulate a central origin deficit in muscle strength in PD. It is known that dopamine transporter binding is more severely reduced in the left posterior putamen and our results suggest that the control of the muscle strength in PD is linked to the right–left hemispheric asymmetry of the functional organization of basal ganglia and with their connections to cortical motor and pre-motor areas. PMID:25806509

  14. No blank slates: Pre-existing schemas about pharmaceuticals predict memory for side effects.

    PubMed

    Heller, Monika K; Chapman, Sarah C E; Horne, Rob

    2017-04-01

    Attribution of symptoms as medication side effects is informed by pre-existing beliefs about medicines and perceptions of personal sensitivity to their effects (pharmaceutical schemas). We tested whether (1) pharmaceutical schemas were associated with memory (recall/recognition) for side effect information (2) memory explained the attribution of a common unrelated symptom as a side effect. In this analogue study participants saw the patient leaflet of a fictitious asthma drug listing eight side effects. We measured recall and recognition memory for side effects and used a vignette to test whether participants attributed an unlisted common symptom (headache) as a side effect. Participants who perceived pharmaceuticals as more harmful in general recalled fewer side effects correctly (rCorrect Recall = -.273), were less able to differentiate between listed and unlisted side effects (rRecognition Sensitivity = -.256) and were more likely to attribute the unlisted headache symptom as a side effect (rside effect attribution = .381, ps < .01). The effect of harm beliefs on side effect attribution was partially mediated by correct recall of side effects. Pharmaceutical schemas are associated with memory for side effect information. Memory may explain part of the association between pharmaceutical schemas and the attribution of unrelated symptoms as side effects.

  15. Effect of flow rate of side-type orifice intake on withdrawn water temperature.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xueping; Li, Guangning; Han, Yunpeng

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs.

  16. [Antidepressant and tolerance: Determinants and management of major side effects].

    PubMed

    David, D J; Gourion, D

    2016-12-01

    Antidepressant therapy aims to reach remission of depressive symptoms while reducing the complications and risks of relapse. Even though they have proven their efficacy, it takes several weeks for antidepressants to demonstrate full effectiveness, and adverse effects occur more quickly or (quicker) which can be a source of poor compliance. This latest aspect often leads to dose reduction and/or change of molecule that have the effect of delaying remission. This review attempts to present, from the pharmacological properties of the major classes of antidepressants (monoamine oxidase inhibitor [MAOI], tricyclic antidepressants [TCA], selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor [SSRI] and serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor [SNRI]), to the pharmacological mechanisms involved in adverse effects by focusing on sexual dysfunction, nausea/vomiting, and weight changes and sleep disruption. If the activation of dopamine D1/2 or norepinephrine receptors through the autonomic nervous system controls and facilitates sexual desire, increasing serotoninergic transmission through 5-HT1B/2A/2C receptors activation inhibits this process. The pharmacological properties of drugs inducing nausea/vomiting activate opiate receptors μ, increase dopaminergic and serotoninergic transmission activating the dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT3 receptors, respectively. Among the causes responsible for weight gain under antidepressant therapy, monoamine neurotransmission still plays an important role. The blockade of serotonin 5-HT2C or histamine H1 receptors is directly responsible for weight gain. Finally, the activation of 5-HT1A/1B/3/7 serotoninergique receptors modulates wakefulness, raid eyes movement or sleep duration. In conclusion, if antidepressant activity of SERT or MAO inhibitors is an indirect consequence of postsynaptic 5-HT, DA, NA receptor activation, it is also responsible for side effects, causes of poor compliance and hence therapeutic failures. Finally, we need to

  17. Endocrine side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Barnabei, Agnese; Marchetti, Paolo; De Vecchis, Liana; Salvatori, Roberto; Torino, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy by the development of drugs acting as modulators of immune checkpoint proteins, such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on T cells upon activation. These molecules play crucial roles in maintaining immune homeostasis by down-regulating T-cell signaling, thereby preventing unbridled T-cell proliferation while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens. CTLA4 blockade through systemic administration of the CTLA4-blocking antibody ipilimumab was shown to confer significant survival benefit and prolonged stable disease in patients affected by advanced cutaneous melanoma. Other immune checkpoint inhibitors are under clinical evaluation. However, immune checkpoint blockade can lead to the breaking of immune self-tolerance, thereby inducing a novel syndrome of autoimmune/autoinflammatory side effects, designated as "immune-related adverse events," mainly including rash, colitis, hepatitis, and endocrinopathies. We searched the medical literature using the words "hypophysitis," "hypopituitarism," "thyroid," "adrenal insufficiency," and "endocrine adverse events" in association with "immune checkpoint inhibitors," "ipilimumab," "tremelimumab," "PD-1," and "PD-1-L." The spectrum of endocrine disease experienced by patients treated with ipilimumab includes most commonly hypophysitis, more rarely thyroid disease or abnormalities in thyroid function tests, and occasionally primary adrenal insufficiency. Hypophysitis has emerged as a distinctive side effect of CTLA4-blocking antibodies, establishing a new form of autoimmune pituitary disease. This condition, if not promptly recognized, may be life-threatening (due to secondary hypoadrenalism). Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, and prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment is often required. The precise

  18. Patient preferences for side effects associated with cervical cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Sun, Charlotte; Brown, Alaina J; Jhingran, Anuja; Frumovitz, Michael; Ramondetta, Lois; Bodurka, Diane C

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess patient preferences regarding side effects associated with cervical cancer treatment. The visual analog scale (VAS) and modified standard gamble (SG) were used to elicit preferences of women with no evidence of disease after primary treatment of cervical cancer. Higher scores on VAS and SG indicated more favorable ratings for a given health state. Health states (HS) included vaginal shortening, diarrhea, dietary changes, menopause, moderate nausea/vomiting, rectal bleeding, sexual dysfunction, and urinary self-catheterization. Descriptive statistics, Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-ranks tests and correlation coefficients were used for statistical analysis. Seventy-eight patients participated in the study. Median age was 44.1 years (range, 24.9-67.8 years). Median time since treatment completion was 31.2 months (range, 1.0-113.3 months). The HSs rated as most favorable by VAS were also rated as most favorable by SG. Increasing age was associated with higher VAS scores for menopause and vaginal shortening (P = 0.04 and 0.036). African Americans had higher VAS scores for dietary changes (P = 0.05), sexual dysfunction (P = 0.028), and diarrhea (P = 0.05) when compared with Hispanic and non-Hispanic white patients. Women receiving radiation had more favorable VAS scores for menopause compared with women undergoing radical hysterectomy (P = 0.05). Women receiving chemotherapy rated urinary self-catheterization less favorably by VAS score compared with those not receiving chemotherapy (P = 0.045). Multiple demographic and clinical factors influence the severity of treatment-related adverse effects perceived by women surviving cervical cancer. A better understanding of factors influencing patient preferences regarding treatment side effects will allow providers to formulate care better tailored to the individual desires of each patient.

  19. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    PubMed

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI<21), (2) normal (BMI 24-27), (3) obese (BMI>30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI

  20. Are there any functional differences of the enteric nervous system between the right-sided diverticular colon and the left-sided diverticular colon? An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Ryouichi

    2014-05-01

    To evaluate functional differences of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in patients between right-side colonic diverticula (RCD) and left-sided colonic diverticula (LCD), the author compared the ENS responses between RCD and LCD. Ten specimens were obtained from 10 patients with RCD, and 16 specimens were taken from 16 LCD. As a control, twenty-two specimens of right-sided normal colon (RNC) were obtained from 22 colonic cancers. Twenty-four specimens of left sided normal colon (LNC) were obtained from 24 colonic cancers. A mechanography was used to evaluate in vitro muscle responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) before and after treatment with various autonomic nerve blockers. Before blockade of the adrenergic and cholinergic nerves, the incidences of contraction via cholinergic nerve in the colons with diverticula were significantly greater than those in the normal colons (right-sided colon; p = 0.0022, left-sided colon; p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between RNC and LNC (p = 0.3606), and between RCD and LCD (p = 0.7684). After the blockade of adrenergic and cholinergic nerves, the incidence of relaxation via non-adrenergic non-cholinergic inhibitory (NANC) nerve in the normal colons was significantly greater than that in the diverticular colons (right-sided colon; p = 0.0435, left-sided colon; p = 0.0034). There were no significant differences between RNC and LNC (p = 0.2909) and between RCD and LCD (p = 0.9464). Cholinergic nerves were dominant in bilateral diverticular colon compared with bilateral normal colon. NANC inhibitory nerves were dominant in bilateral normal colon compared with bilateral diverticular colon. There were also no functional differences of the ENS between RCD and LCD.

  1. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    PubMed

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  2. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed.

  3. [Renal side effects of long-term lithium therapy].

    PubMed

    Ibbeken, C; Becker, J U; Baumgärtel, M W

    2012-01-01

    Lithium is widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorders. Long-term administration of lithium often leads to side effects concerning the subjects: nephrology, endocrinology and surgery. This review emphasizes nephrotoxicity.Lithium treatment may disturb responsiveness to antidiuretic hormone (ADH), causing a nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. Furthermore long-term lithium therapy may trigger hyperparathyreoidism with hypercalcemia and chronic interstitial nephritis with development of microcysts. Long-term patients have an increased risk to develop impaired renal function. Lithium-induced endstage renal disease is rare. Termination of lithium treatment may decrease the risk of progression.To ensure security of lithium treatment regular controls of urine osmolarity, lithium-, creatinine- , thyroid stimulating hormone- and calcium-levels are essential. Patients with decreased renal function should be referred to a specialist early.

  4. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  5. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard

  6. Adverse side effects of statins in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Pascual Cruz, Montserrat; Chimenos Küstner, Eduardo; García Vicente, José António; Mezquiriz Ferrero, Xavier; Borrell Thio, Eulalia; López López, José

    2008-02-01

    Increased plasma levels of cholesterol are high risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Statins are drugs that inhibit cholesterol synthesis at both pancreatic and extrahepathic levels, being the treatment of choice for hypercholesterolemia. To analyze the side effects of statins in the mouth cavity, and to analyze the symptoms after interruption of the treatment. Observational study, preliminary. Patients aged 50-70, diagnosed with hypercholesterolemia and undergoing treatment with statins, referred from their primary care physician to the dentist's office. Anamnesis over oral symptoms was performed in the first visit. Statin treatment was discontinued, followed by lab tests and control visits seven and fifteen days later. We monitored the improvement and/or remission of oral symptoms. Statin treatment was resumed, sending out a report of the patient evolution to the PCP. Symptoms were registered in sheet specially designed for the study. patient refusal, use of drugs for dry mouth treatment, Sjögren's syndrome. n=26 patients. Dry mouth patients: improvement in 17 out of 23 patients (88.5%). Itchiness: 6 out of 15 cases improved (57.7%). Bitterness: improvement in 13 out of 14 patients (53.8%). Cough: improvement in 11 out of 12 patients (46.1%). A high percentage of oral symptoms are associated to treatment with statins. There is a marked improvement after temporary interruption of the treatment. Little is known regarding the side effects of oral treatment with statins. This preliminary study includes a relatively small number of patients. The design of experimental treatments will be required to establish a true correlation between statin treatment and oral symptoms.

  7. [CO₂ fractional resurfacing: side effects and immediate complications].

    PubMed

    Naouri, M; Delage, M; Khallouf, R; Georgesco, G; Atlan, M

    2011-01-01

    Fractional resurfacing is a new concept in laser treatment designed to divide radiation into multiple evenly spaced microspots. The aim of our study was to analyze side effects and complications following fractional CO₂ laser therapy. This retrospective study involved the analysis of records of patients treated with ablative fractional CO₂ laser. Pain, type and duration of usual side effects, and immediate complications were analysed. Forty-six treatments were studied. The average duration of erythema was 5.2 (±2) days while that of scabs was 4.1 (±1.9) days. Average pain was 3.3/10 (±2.5) for nine patients premedicated with Emla® and 4.1/10 (±2) for the other 14 non-premedicated patients. Complications were reported for 21.7% of the 46 treatments, as follows: 10.6% facial herpes, some of which occurred despite antiviral prophylaxis (valacyclovir 500 mg/day p.o.), 8.7% inflammatory reactions, including severe facial swelling, and 2.2% acne. All complications resolved quickly. Our study specifically examined the safety of CO₂ fractional lasers and showed an acceptable per interventional pain and simple follow-ups. The frequency of complications was high compared to that described with the Fraxel®, but no severe complications were reported. Given the extent of herpes complications, our study encourages the prescription of valacyclovir prophylaxis 500 mg twice a day for all patients. Patients should also be informed of the high risk of severe inflammatory reaction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Sexual side effects of serotonergic antidepressants: mediated by inhibition of serotonin on central dopamine release?

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G; Millan, Mark J; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction adversely affects the quality of life of antidepressant users and reduces compliance with treatment. Animal models provide an instructive approach for examining potential sexual side effects of novel drugs. This review discusses the stability and reproducibility of our standardized test procedure that assesses the acute, subchronic and chronic effects of psychoactive compounds in a 30 minute mating test. In addition, we present an overview of the effects of several different (putative) antidepressants on male rat sexual behavior, as tested in our standardized test procedure. By comparing the effects of these mechanistically distinct antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, buspirone, DOV 216,303 and S32006), this review discusses the putative mechanism underlying sexual side effects of antidepressants and their normalization. This review shows that sexual behavior is mainly inhibited by antidepressants that increase serotonin neurotransmission via blockade of serotonin transporters, while those that mainly increase the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline are devoid of sexual side effects. Those sexual disturbances cannot be normalized by simultaneously increasing noradrenaline neurotransmission, but are normalized by increasing both noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be mediated by their inhibitory effects on dopamine signaling in sex brain circuits. Clinical development of novel antidepressants should therefore focus on compounds that simultaneously increase both serotonin and dopamine signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Persisting side-to-side differences in bone mineral content, but not in muscle strength and tendon stiffness after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Reeves, Neil D; Narici, Marco V; Belavý, Daniel L; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Maffulli, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Tendon stiffness may be involved in limiting peak musculoskeletal forces and thus may constitute an upper limit for bone strength. The patellar tendon bone (PTB) graft, which is harvested from the patellar tendon during surgical reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), is an ideal scenario to test this hypothesis. Eleven participants were recruited who had undergone surgical reconstruction of the ACL with a PTB graft 1-10 years prior to study inclusion. As previously reported, there was no side-to-side difference in thigh muscle cross-sectional area, in maximum voluntary knee extension torque, or in patellar tendon stiffness, suggesting full recovery of musculature and tendon. However, in the present study bone mineral content (BMC), assessed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography, was lower on the operated side than on the control side in four regions studied (P = 0·0019). Differences were less pronounced in the two sites directly affected by the operation (patella and tibia epiphysis) when compared to the more remote sites. Moreover, significant side-to-side differences were found in BMC in the trabecular compartment in the femoral and tibial epiphysis (P = 0·004 and P = 0·047, respectively) with reductions on the operated side, but increased in the patella (P = 0·00016). Cortical BMC, by contrast, was lower on the operated side at all sites except the tibia epiphysis (P = 0·09). These findings suggest that impaired recovery of BMC following ACL reconstruction is not because of lack of recovery of knee extensor strength or patellar tendon stiffness. The responsible mechanisms still remain to be determined.

  10. A meta-analysis of the relationship between response expectancies and cancer treatment-related side effects.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Stephanie J; Schnur, Julie B; Montgomery, Guy H

    2009-11-01

    Response expectancies, defined as expectations for nonvolitional responses, have been proposed to contribute to the experience of side effects of cancer and its treatment. To statistically evaluate this association, a systematic search of the published literature was conducted, resulting in 14 studies appropriate for meta-analysis. Results revealed a significant (Z=6.58, P<0.001) medium-sized (r=0.36) association between patients' response expectancies for cancer treatment-related side effects and the experience of these side effects. Assessment of response expectancies with reference to the time the treatment-related side effect would occur resulted in larger effect sizes than when such temporal specificity in assessment was not included, Q(1)=10.27, P<0.01. Effect sizes were also moderated by patients' prior experience with cancer treatment, Q(1)=18.91, P=0.001, such that prior experience led to stronger associations between response expectancies and side effects than no prior experience. Relationships between response expectancies and pain, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting were explored. Effect sizes did not differ between side effects, with the exception that the relationship was significantly stronger for pain than for vomiting (P<0.05). Overall, these results support the contribution of response expectancies to cancer treatment-related side effects. Additionally, the results support the conduct of research on interventions to alter response expectancies, with the goal of reducing side effects and improving patient quality of life.

  11. Side-by-Side Comparison of Commonly Used Biomolecules That Differ in Size and Affinity on Tumor Uptake and Internalization.

    PubMed

    Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Kwon, Keon-Woo; Michael, Praveesuda; Ting, Richard; Kim, Ju-Young; Jin, Moonsoo M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to use a systemically injected agent to image tumor is influenced by tumor characteristics such as permeability and vascularity, and the size, shape, and affinity of the imaging agent. In this study, six different imaging biomolecules, with or without specificity to tumor, were examined for tumor uptake and internalization at the whole body, ex-vivo tissue, and cellular levels: antibodies, antibody fragments (Fab), serum albumin, and streptavidin. The time of peak tumor uptake was dependent solely on the size of molecules, suggesting that molecular size is the major factor that influences tumor uptake by its effect on systemic clearance and diffusion into tumor. Affinity to tumor antigen failed to augment tumor uptake of Fab above non-specific accumulation, which suggests that Fab fragments of typical monoclonal antibodies may fall below an affinity threshold for use as molecular imaging agents. Despite abundant localization into the tumor, albumin and streptavidin were not found on cell surface or inside cells. By comparing biomolecules differing in size and affinity, our study highlights that while pharmacokinetics are a dominant factor in tumor uptake for biomolecules, affinity to tumor antigen is required for tumor binding and internalization.

  12. Side-by-Side Comparison of Commonly Used Biomolecules That Differ in Size and Affinity on Tumor Uptake and Internalization

    PubMed Central

    Leelawattanachai, Jeerapond; Kwon, Keon-Woo; Michael, Praveesuda; Ting, Richard; Kim, Ju-Young; Jin, Moonsoo M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to use a systemically injected agent to image tumor is influenced by tumor characteristics such as permeability and vascularity, and the size, shape, and affinity of the imaging agent. In this study, six different imaging biomolecules, with or without specificity to tumor, were examined for tumor uptake and internalization at the whole body, ex-vivo tissue, and cellular levels: antibodies, antibody fragments (Fab), serum albumin, and streptavidin. The time of peak tumor uptake was dependent solely on the size of molecules, suggesting that molecular size is the major factor that influences tumor uptake by its effect on systemic clearance and diffusion into tumor. Affinity to tumor antigen failed to augment tumor uptake of Fab above non-specific accumulation, which suggests that Fab fragments of typical monoclonal antibodies may fall below an affinity threshold for use as molecular imaging agents. Despite abundant localization into the tumor, albumin and streptavidin were not found on cell surface or inside cells. By comparing biomolecules differing in size and affinity, our study highlights that while pharmacokinetics are a dominant factor in tumor uptake for biomolecules, affinity to tumor antigen is required for tumor binding and internalization. PMID:25901755

  13. Transient Adverse Side Effects During Neurofeedback Training: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Double Blind Study.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Ainat; Guez, Jonathan; Getter, Nir; Keha, Eldad; Cohen, Tzlil; Amor, Tali; Todder, Doron

    2015-09-01

    The benefits of clinical neurofeedback training are well known, however, its adverse side-effects are less studied. This research focuses on the transient adverse side effects of neurofeedback training via a double-blind, sham/controlled methodology. Thirty healthy undergraduate students volunteers were randomly divided into three treatment groups: increasing a modified Sensory Motor Rhythm, increasing Upper Alpha, and Sham/control group who receive a random reward. The training sessions were administered for a total of ten sessions. Questionnaires of transient adverse side effects were completed by all volunteers before each session. The results suggest that similar to most medical treatments, neurofeedback can cause transient adverse side effects. Moreover, most participants reported experiencing some side effects. The side effects can be divided into non-specific side effect, associated with the neurofeedback training in general and specific ones associated with the particular protocol. Sensory Motor Rhythm protocol seems to be the most sensitive to side effects.

  14. Water structure around hydrophobic amino acid side chain analogs using different water models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajari, Timir; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy

    2017-06-01

    The water structure around hydrophobic groups governs various biochemical processes. There is an ongoing debate on whether water molecules near hydrophobic groups are more ordered with greater participation in water-water hydrogen bonding with respect to water in the pure bulk state. The water structure around six different hydrophobic amino acid side chain analog molecules has been studied in pure water using molecular dynamics simulations. The analysis of water tetrahedral order parameter and the number of hydrogen bonds formed by the individual water molecules in the first hydration shell of the hydrophobic analogs provide evidence that both ordering and hydrogen bonds involving water molecules are to some extent reduced in the hydrophobic hydration shell. It is revealed that the water tetrahedrality in the outer part of the first hydrophobic hydration shell is equivalent to bulk water for all the water models except for the TIP4P-2005 model which shows marginally higher tetrahedrality. However, irrespective of the model employed, water tetrahedrality has always been found to be reduced in the inner part of the first hydration shell, which eventually makes the overall water tetrahedrality in the first hydrophobic hydration shell marginally lower than that observed for pure bulk water. Importantly, it is noticed that the decrease in water structuring exhibits solute size dependencies. Around a small solute like methane, the water tetrahedral ordering or hydrogen bonding propensity is quite similar to that of the bulk state. The effect, reduction in water structuring, is however more pronounced for relatively larger solutes.

  15. Focused Study on the Quiet Side Effect in Dwellings Highly Exposed to Road Traffic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Renterghem, Timothy Van; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-01-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high Lden-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade Lden). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers. PMID:23330222

  16. Focused study on the quiet side effect in dwellings highly exposed to road traffic noise.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick

    2012-12-01

    This study provides additional evidence for the positive effect of the presence of a quiet façade at a dwelling and aims at unraveling potential mechanisms. Locations with dominant road traffic noise and high L(den)-levels at the most exposed façade were selected. Dwellings both with and without a quiet façade were deliberately sought out. Face-to-face questionnaires (N = 100) were taken to study the influence of the presence of a quiet side in relation to noise annoyance and sleep disturbance. As a direct effect, the absence of a quiet façade in the dwelling (approached as a front-back façade noise level difference smaller than 10 dBA) leads to an important increase of at least moderately annoyed people (odds-ratio adjusted for noise sensitivity equals 3.3). In an indirect way, a bedroom located at the quiet side leads to an even stronger reduction of the self-reported noise annoyance (odds-ratio equal to 10.6 when adjusted for noise sensitivity and front façade L(den)). The quiet side effect seems to be especially applicable for noise sensitive persons. A bedroom located at the quiet side also reduces noise-induced sleep disturbances. On a loud side, bedroom windows are more often closed, however, conflicting with the preference of dwellers.

  17. [The effects of captopril and metoprolol on blood pressure and side effects in patients with mild to moderate hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kornerup, H J; Korsager, S

    1989-04-03

    A material of 76 patients from general practice treated with diuretics for mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to supplementary treatment with captopril (39 patients) and metoprolol (37 patients), respectively, on account of diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. Satisfactory regulation of the blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mmHg) and acceptable wellbeing was obtained in 29 patients in the captopril group and in 23 patients in the metoprolol group. Six patients in the captopril group were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and four dropped out on account of side effects. In the metoprolol group, nine patients were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and five on account of side effects. This difference was not significant. In the captopril group, 14 side effects were registered in eight patients while 23 side effects were observed in 15 patients in the metoprolol group. This difference was not statistically significant, p greater than 0.05 (risk for type 2 error = 60%). It is concluded that captopril + a diuretic is just as effective a form of treatment of slight to moderate hypertension as metoprolol + a diuretic and that treatment with captopril + a diuretic is associated with so few side effects that it may be considered as an alternative first choice of treatment in cases of slight to moderate hypertension.

  18. [Response of a finite element model of the pelvis to different side impact loads].

    PubMed

    Ruan, Shijie; Zheng, Huijing; Li, Haiyan; Zhao, Wei

    2013-08-01

    The pelvis is one of the most likely affected areas of the human body in case of side impact, especially while people suffer from motor vehicle crashes. With the investigation of pelvis injury on side impact, the injury biomechanical behavior of pelvis can be found, and the data can help design the vehicle security devices to keep the safety of the occupants. In this study, a finite element (FE) model of an isolated human pelvis was used to study the pelvic dynamic response under different side impact conditions. Fracture threshold was established by applying lateral loads of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 and 5000 N, respectively, to the articular surface of the right acetabulum. It was observed that the smaller the lateral loads were, the smaller the von Mises stress and the displacement in the direction of impact were. It was also found that the failure threshold load was near 3000 N, based on the fact that the peak stress would not exceed the average compressive strength of the cortical bone. It could well be concluded that with better design of car-door and hip-pad so that the side impact force was brought down to 3000 N or lower, the pelvis would not be injured.

  19. Isolated glenohumeral range of motion, excluding side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion, in asymptomatic high-school baseball players.

    PubMed

    Mihata, Teruhisa; Takeda, Atsushi; Kawakami, Takeshi; Itami, Yasuo; Watanabe, Chisato; Doi, Munekazu; Neo, Masashi

    2016-06-01

    Glenohumeral range of motion is correlated with shoulder capsular condition and is thus considered to be predictive of shoulder pathology. However, in throwing athletes, a side-to-side difference in humeral retroversion makes it difficult to evaluate capsular condition on the basis of glenohumeral range of motion measured by using the conventional technique. The purpose of this study was to measure isolated glenohumeral rotation, excluding side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion, in asymptomatic high-school baseball players. A total of 195 high-school baseball players (52 pitchers and 143 position players; median age, 16 years) and 20 high-school non-throwing athletes (median age, 16 years) without any shoulder symptoms were enroled in this study. Glenohumeral external and internal rotations were measured by using both a conventional technique and our ultrasound-assisted technique. This technique, neutral rotation, was standardized on the basis of the ultrasonographically visualized location of the bicipital groove to exclude side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion from the calculated rotation angle. Intra- and inter-observer agreements of rotational measurements were evaluated by using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs). Isolated glenohumeral rotation measurements, excluding side-to-side differences in humeral retroversion, demonstrated excellent intra-observer (ICC > 0.89) and inter-observer (ICC > 0.78) agreements. Isolated glenohumeral internal rotation was significantly less in the dominant shoulder than in the non-dominant shoulder in asymptomatic baseball players (P < 0.001). Isolated glenohumeral external rotation in baseball players was significantly greater than in non-throwing athletes (P < 0.05). In the baseball players, humeral torsion in the dominant shoulder was significantly greater than that in the non-dominant shoulder (P < 0.001), indicating that the retroversion angle was greater in dominant shoulders than

  20. Immune-mediated side-effects of cytokines in humans.

    PubMed

    Vial, T; Descotes, J

    1995-12-20

    A large body of clinical experience on the adverse consequences of cytokine administration has accumulated since the last decade. Side-effects reported after the therapeutic use of cytokines has provided evidence that activation of the immune response may sometimes have deleterious consequences. Several effects appeared as a direct consequence of the immune activation induced by cytokines, e.g. flu-like reactions, vascular leak syndrome. Cytokine-induced exacerbation of underlying diseases or immune dysregulation were other complications of growing concern. Interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment has now been clearly linked with the exacerbation or the occurrence of several types of autoantibodies or autoimmune diseases (thyroiditis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hematologic disorders, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) or diseases involving altered cell-mediated immune functions (inflammatory dermatologic diseases, nephritis, pneumonitis, colitis). By contrast immunological side-effects of IFN-beta and IFN-gamma have been seldom reported. However, the extent of clinical experience with both of these cytokines is still very limited. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) has also been implicated in various conditions that may involve immunopathological processes (thyroid disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, dermatological diseases, interstitial nephritis). Growth factors have been more specifically linked with the development or the exacerbation of dermatological inflammatory diseases through neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages or eosinophils activation (e.g. cutaneous vasculitis and generalized cutaneous eruption, Sweet's syndrome, bullous eruption, psoriasis). Exacerbation of autoimmune thyroiditis was described with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) only. The immunogenicity of cytokines is also of great relevance and the occurrence of antibodies binding IFN-alpha and IFN-beta, IL2 and GM-CSF have been reported. While the clinical significance of non

  1. Brinzolamide-timolol suspension: acceptability and side effect profile

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, MD; Fraser, SG; Phelan, PS

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to determine the frequency, nature, and impact of side effects associated with the use of brinzolamide-timolol suspension, a topical ocular antihypertensive preparation. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 76 consecutive patients attending the Sunderland Eye Infirmary Glaucoma Service who were using the brinzolamide-timolol suspension. The questions related specifically to effects on daily life, blurring of vision, stinging, irritation, and acceptability compared with any drops previously used. Respondents were asked to grade their answers to these questions using a numerical scale from 0 to 10. Results: Seventy-six patients (100%) responded, comprising 58 females and 18 males, aged 68–95 years, treated for 3–7 months. Quality of life was not significantly affected, with the majority of patients recording a response between 0 and 2. Visual blurring was a more prominent feature, with the most common scores being 3 and 4. Stinging did not appear to be a prominent feature, with 0 as the most common response. Similarly, irritation was not a common finding, with most respondents scoring 0 and 1. Finally, the brinzolamide-timolol suspension compared favorably with previously used drops, with the vast majority of patients expressing a preference for this suspension over other topical medications. Conclusion: Brinzolamide-timolol suspension appears to be a well tolerated and acceptable medication, with minimal effect on patient quality of life. PMID:21499567

  2. Rhinological, laryngological, oropharyngeal and other head and neck side effects of drugs.

    PubMed

    Lee, C A; Mistry, D; Sharma, R; Coatesworth, A P

    2006-02-01

    Following a previous paper in which we documented the otological side effects of drug therapy, we here review other drug side effects that ENT surgeons may encounter when dealing with patients. Although otological drug side effects such as hearing loss and tinnitus are well recognized there are many rhinological, laryngeal, oropharyngeal and other head and neck drug side effects. Our data were sourced from the British National Formulary and Electronic Medical Compendium websites.

  3. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  4. Longitudinal perceptions of the side effects of chemotherapy in patients with gynecological cancer.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Hui-Chun; Tsai, Su-Yu; Wu, Shang-Liang; Jeang, Shiow-Roug; Ho, Mei-Yao; Liou, Wen-Shiung; Chiang, An-Jen; Chang, Tsung-Hsien

    2017-06-21

    This study aimed to assess the incidence and difference of side effects among six courses of chemotherapy (C/T) in gynecological cancer patients. The study period was from Sep. 2010 to Dec. 2011 at the Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan. The treating protocols, courses, and drugs of C/T in patient were considered according to the different malignant cancers and clinical conditions. The patient data of age, marriage status, education, religion, and experiences of C/T were collected. The patients' or their families' reported side effects of C/T were recorded daily from the beginning of C/T to the 10th day after C/T in each cycle and every course of C/T. Total 89 patients enrolled into the study received total 450 courses of C/T. The mean age was 54.52 ± 11.02. Ovarian cancer was the most common malignant disease (64.0%). The most often combination of drugs used was Taxol and carboplatin (40.9%). Patients complained peripheral numbness of limbs, with the highest incidence of 58.6%. The side effects with incidence about 50% were decreased fatigue (55.0%) and hair loss (49.9%). Other side effects with different levels of incidence were also noticed, such as lack of appetite, changes in taste, and muscle ache. The incidences of peripheral limb numbness and hair loss were increased with following courses of C/T. The high incidence of fatigue did not show variation between different courses of C/T. This study revealed the incidence of side effects and occurrence timing during C/T in patients with gynecological cancer. These data provide substantial information to patients and their families to understand the potential side effects of C/T courses, which might increase their compliance in receiving adjuvant C/T. Relieving the side effects in C/T would be important to improve their quality of daily life and treatment willingness.

  5. Echocardiographic Tissue Characterization Demonstrates Differences in the Left and Right Sides of the Ventricular Septum

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Mark R.; Gibson, Allyson A.; Bauer, Adam Q.; Peterson, Linda R.; Schaffer, Jean E.; Bach, Richard G.; Cresci, Sharon; Miller, James G.

    2010-01-01

    The left and right ventricular function of the heart are influenced by the complex structure of the ventricular septum. The cyclic variation of ultrasonic backscatter over the cardiac cycle is known to be sensitive to both structural and functional characteristics of the myocardium. The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the measured magnitude and normalized delay of cyclic variation between the left and right sides of the ventricular septum in normal adult subjects (N=31). The measured mean magnitudes of cyclic variation were found to be 4.9 ± 0.4 dB and 2.4 ± 0.3 dB (mean ± SE; p < 0.0001) and the corresponding normalized delay values were found to be 0.94 ± 0.05 and 1.59 ± 0.12 (mean ± SE; p < 0.0001) for the left and right sides, respectively. These results show significant differences in the measured magnitude and normalized delay of cyclic variation between the left and right sides of the ventricular septum in normal subjects that appear consistent with predictions based on previously described models of cyclic variation of backscatter and reported measurements of transmural differences in strain properties of the septum. PMID:20800946

  6. [Internal medicine and local anesthesia in dentistry. A review of possible side effects].

    PubMed

    Fennis, J F

    1996-05-01

    When using local anaesthesia the dentist may be confronted with a variety of side effects, either caused by the anaesthetic solution itself or its additives, including vasoconstrictive drugs such as epinephrine. Early recognition and treatment of these side-effects are essential. Even more important is the possible prevention of such side-effects by a properly taken medical history before using local anaesthesia.

  7. LGD-5552, an antiinflammatory glucocorticoid receptor ligand with reduced side effects, in vivo.

    PubMed

    López, Francisco J; Ardecky, Robert J; Bebo, Bruce; Benbatoul, Khalid; De Grandpre, Louise; Liu, Sha; Leibowitz, Mark D; Marschke, Keith; Rosen, Jon; Rungta, Deepa; Viveros, Humberto O; Yen, Wan-Ching; Zhi, Lin; Negro-Vilar, Andrés; Miner, Jeffrey N

    2008-05-01

    Treatment of inflammation is often accomplished through the use of glucocorticoids. However, their use is limited by side effects. We have examined the activity of a novel glucocorticoid receptor ligand that binds the receptor efficiently and strongly represses inflammatory gene expression. This compound has potent antiinflammatory activity in vivo and represses the transcription of the inflammatory cytokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and induces the antiinflammatory cytokine IL-10. The compound demonstrates differential gene regulation, compared with commonly prescribed glucocorticoids, effectively inducing some genes and repressing others in a manner different from the glucocorticoid prednisolone. The separation between the antiinflammatory effects of LGD-5552 and the side effects commonly associated with glucocorticoid treatment suggest that this molecule differs significantly from prednisolone and other steroids and may provide a safer therapeutic window for inflammatory conditions now commonly treated with steroidal glucocorticoids.

  8. Targeting multiple opioid receptors - improved analgesics with reduced side effects?

    PubMed

    Günther, Thomas; Dasgupta, Pooja; Mann, Anika; Miess, Elke; Kliewer, Andrea; Fritzwanker, Sebastian; Steinborn, Ralph; Schulz, Stefan

    2017-04-05

    Classical opioid analgesics, including morphine, mediate all of their desired and undesired effects by specific activation of the μ-opioid receptor (μ receptor). The use of morphine for treating chronic pain, however, is limited by the development of constipation, respiratory depression, tolerance and dependence. Analgesic effects can also be mediated through other members of the opioid receptor family such as the κ-opioid receptor (κ receptor), δ-opioid receptor (δ receptor) and the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide receptor (NOP receptor). Currently, a new generation of opioid analgesics is being developed that can simultaneously bind with high affinity to multiple opioid receptors. With this new action profile, it is hoped that additional analgesic effects and fewer side effects can be achieved. Recent research is mainly focused on the development of bifunctional μ/NOP receptor agonists, which has already led to novel lead structures such as the spiroindole-based cebranopadol and a compound class with a piperidin-4-yl-1,3-dihydroindol-2-one backbone (SR16835/AT-202 and SR14150/AT-200). In addition, the ornivol BU08028 is an analogue of the clinically well-established buprenorphine. Moreover, the morphinan-based nalfurafine exerts its effect with a dominant κ receptor-component and is therefore utilized in the treatment of pruritus. The very potent dihydroetorphine is a true multi-receptor opioid ligand in that it binds to μ, κ and δ receptor. The main focus of this review is to assess the paradigm of opioid ligands targeting multiple receptors with a single chemical entity. We reflect on this rationale by discussing the biological actions of selected multi-opioid receptor ligands, but not on their medicinal chemistry and design.

  9. Ophthalmological side effects of interferon therapy of chronic hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Medhat, Eman; Esmat, Gamal; Hamza, Eman; Abdel Aziz, Amr; Fouad Fathalah, Waleed; Zakaria, Zeinab; Mostafa, Sameh

    2016-01-01

    Background Egypt has one of the highest prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) worldwide. Ophthalmological side effects are recognized complications of interferon (IFN) therapy. This study aimed to evaluate IFN-induced ophthalmological manifestations in patients receiving PEGylated interferon (PEG IFN) and ribavirin (RBV) and to assess the effect of IFN duration, response and systemic risk factors on the severity. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 100 patients with chronic HCV who were candidates for PEG-IFN and RBV therapy. All patients were subjected to clinical and ophthalmological examination, laboratory investigations, abdominal ultrasound, colored fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography, follow up was made at weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Results IFN-induced retinopathy had been found in (9/100; 9%), 5 (5/9; 55.5%) of them had bilateral lesions, (3/9; 33.3%) were treatment responders and (6/9; 66.6%) non responders. The time of retinopathy appearance was mainly at W12. Retinopathy was asymptomatic in most of the affected patients (7/9; 77.77%) and reversible, cotton wool spots was the major associated sign. Patients with older age, DM and or HTN, and non-responders to antiviral therapy were associated with more severe retinopathy. Conclusions Retinopathy is not a rare complication of IFN therapy for chronic HCV infection, but fortunately it’s asymptomatic and reversible. Ophthalmological assessment at base-line and at follow up during IFN treatment is very important. PMID:27275462

  10. Detecting drug targets with minimum side effects in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Wang, R-S; Zhang, X-S; Chen, L

    2009-11-01

    High-throughput techniques produce massive data on a genome-wide scale which facilitate pharmaceutical research. Drug target discovery is a crucial step in the drug discovery process and also plays a vital role in therapeutics. In this study, the problem of detecting drug targets was addressed, which finds a set of enzymes whose inhibition stops the production of a given set of target compounds and meanwhile minimally eliminates non-target compounds in the context of metabolic networks. The model aims to make the side effects of drugs as small as possible and thus has practical significance of potential pharmaceutical applications. Specifically, by exploiting special features of metabolic systems, a novel approach was proposed to exactly formulate this drug target detection problem as an integer linear programming model, which ensures that optimal solutions can be found efficiently without any heuristic manipulations. To verify the effectiveness of our approach, computational experiments on both Escherichia coli and Homo sapiens metabolic pathways were conducted. The results show that our approach can identify the optimal drug targets in an exact and efficient manner. In particular, it can be applied to large-scale networks including the whole metabolic networks from most organisms.

  11. [Analgesics in geriatric patients. Adverse side effects and interactions].

    PubMed

    Gosch, Markus

    2015-07-01

    Pain is a widespread symptom in clinical practice. Older adults and chronically ill patients are particularly affected. In multimorbid geriatric patients, pharmacological pain treatment is an extension of a previously existing multimedication. Besides the efficacy of pain treatment, drug side effects and drug-drug interactions have to be taken into account to minimize the health risk for these patients. Apart from the number of prescriptions, the age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes significantly increase the risk among older adults. The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) is widespread but NSAIDs have the highest risk of adverse drug reactions and drug interactions. In particular, the gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, renal and coagulation systems are affected. Apart from the known toxic effect on the liver (in high doses), paracetamol (acetaminophen) has similar risks although to a lesser degree. According to current data, metamizol is actually better than its reputation suggests. The risk of potential drug interactions seems to be low. Apart from the risk of sedation in combination with other drugs, tramadol and other opioids can induce the serotonin syndrome. Among older adults, especially in the case of polypharmacy, an individualized approach should be considered instead of sticking to the pain management recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) in order to minimize drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions.

  12. Statin Therapy: Review of Safety and Potential Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Satish; Raghunath, Ajay; Raghunath, Sudhakshini

    2016-01-01

    Background Hydroxymethyl glutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly called statins, are some of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide. Evidence suggests that statin therapy has significant mortality and morbidity benefit for both primary and secondary prevention from cardiovascular disease. Nonetheless, concern has been expressed regarding the adverse effects of long term statin use. The purpose of this article was to review the current medical literature regarding the safety of statins. Methods Major trials and review articles on the safety of statins were identified in a search of the MEDLINE database from 1980 to 2016, which was limited to English articles. Results Myalgia is the most common side effect of statin use, with documented rates from 1-10%. Rhabdomyolysis is the most serious adverse effect from statin use, though it occurs quite rarely (less than 0.1%). The most common risk factors for statin-related myopathy include hypothyroidism, polypharmacy and alcohol abuse. Derangement in liver function tests is common, affecting up to 1% of patients; however, the clinical significance of this is unknown. Some statin drugs are potentially diabetogenic and the risk appears to increase in those patients on higher doses. Pitavastatin has not been associated with increased risk of diabetes. Statins have not been proven to increase the risk of malignancy, dementia, mood disorders or acute interstitial nephritis. However, statins do have multiple drug interactions, primarily those which interact with the cytochrome p450 enzyme group. Conclusions Overall, statin drugs appear to be safe for use in the vast majority of patients. However, patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are at increased risk of adverse effects from long-term statin use. PMID:27899849

  13. Steam inhalation therapy: severe scalds as an adverse side effect.

    PubMed

    Baartmans, Martin; Kerkhof, Evelien; Vloemans, Jos; Dokter, Jan; Nijman, Susanne; Tibboel, Dick; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne

    2012-07-01

    Steam inhalation therapy is often recommended in the treatment of a common cold. However, it has no proven benefit and may in fact have serious adverse side effects in terms of burn injuries. To quantify the human and economic costs of steam inhalation therapy in terms of burn injury. A prospective database study of all patients admitted to the burn centres (Beverwijk, Groningen, Rotterdam) and the hospital emergency departments in the Netherlands. Number and extent of burn injuries as a result of steam inhalation therapy were analysed, as well as an approximation made of the direct costs for their medical treatment. Annually, on average three people are admitted to in one of the Dutch burn centres for burns resulting from steam inhalation therapy. Most victims were children, and they needed skin grafting more often than adults. The total direct medical costs for burn centre and emergency department treatment were €115,500 (£93,000), emotional costs are not reflected. As steam inhalation therapy has no proven benefit and the number and extent of complications of this therapy in terms of burn injury are significant, especially in children, steam inhalation therapy should be considered a dangerous procedure and not recommended anymore in professional guidelines and patient brochures.

  14. Transversus abdominis block: clinical uses, side effects, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Joseph V; Sinclair, Alexander; Raffa, Robert B; Aldington, Dominic; Plavin, Stanford; Apfel, Christian C

    2013-04-01

    Poorly controlled acute pain during the postoperative setting after abdominal surgery can be detrimental to the patient. Current pain management practices for the postoperative abdominal surgery patient rely heavily on opioids, which are associated with many unwanted side effects. Recently, interest surrounding regional anesthesia has been growing owing to its demonstrated efficacy and safety outcomes. More specifically, the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block procedure has attracted attention owing to its ability to successfully block peripheral pain signaling in the abdomen, its ease of use, few complications, and its greater acceptability. A majority of the studies published has demonstrated the successful reduction in pain in many abdominal surgical procedures using local anesthetics during the TAP block. However, the short duration of the pain block causes the patient to still rely on other analgesics throughout the additional postoperative days. Preliminary studies using continuous infusion catheters placed in the TAP has been one of the ways to prolong the nerve block in the abdomen; however, technical and operational issues currently limit the widespread adoption of this method. In this review, current studies will be presented and summarized to update the field on the potential benefits of the TAP block procedure, in addition to providing insight into the future direction of the drugs that could be used for TAP block. © 2012 The Authors. Pain Practice © 2012 World Institute of Pain.

  15. Steam inhalation therapy: severe scalds as an adverse side effect

    PubMed Central

    Baartmans, Martin; Kerkhof, Evelien; Vloemans, Jos; Dokter, Jan; Nijman, Susanne; Tibboel, Dick; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Background Steam inhalation therapy is often recommended in the treatment of a common cold. However, it has no proven benefit and may in fact have serious adverse side effects in terms of burn injuries. Aim To quantify the human and economic costs of steam inhalation therapy in terms of burn injury. Design and setting A prospective database study of all patients admitted to the burn centres (Beverwijk, Groningen, Rotterdam) and the hospital emergency departments in the Netherlands. Method Number and extent of burn injuries as a result of steam inhalation therapy were analysed, as well as an approximation made of the direct costs for their medical treatment. Results Annually, on average three people are admitted to in one of the Dutch burn centres for burns resulting from steam inhalation therapy. Most victims were children, and they needed skin grafting more often than adults. The total direct medical costs for burn centre and emergency department treatment were €115 500 (£93 000), emotional costs are not reflected. Conclusion As steam inhalation therapy has no proven benefit and the number and extent of complications of this therapy in terms of burn injury are significant, especially in children, steam inhalation therapy should be considered a dangerous procedure and not recommended anymore in professional guidelines and patient brochures. PMID:22781995

  16. Central Diabetes Insipidus: A Previously Unreported Side Effect of Temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. Case Presentations: A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Conclusions: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ. PMID:23928668

  17. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  18. Urologic medications and ophthalmologic side effects: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gani, Johan; Perlis, Nathan; Radomski, Sidney B.

    2012-01-01

    Commonly prescribed urologic medications can have significant ophthalmologic side effects. The existing information can be conflicting. We looked at alpha-blockers and intraoperative floppy iris syndrome (IFIS), phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors and non-arteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and lastly anticholinergic medications and glaucoma. There is no conclusive scientific data on what to do if the risk of urinary retention is low to moderate, however, we recommend that patients having cataract surgery should stop alpha-blocker medications preoperatively. If there is a high risk of urinary retention, the alpha-blocker should not be withheld, with the active involvement of the ophthalmologist. The role of using 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) can be considered. There is no convincing evidence that PDE5 inhibitors cause non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), but patients should be advised of the possible risk of visual loss, especially in patients with risk factors of ischemic heart disease. Acute angle closure glaucoma (AACG or closed angle glaucoma) is very rarely caused by anticholinergic medications in patients with narrow angle anterior eye chambers. However, these medications are safe in patients with open angle glaucoma or treated closed angle glaucoma. Urologists should inquire about the patient’s glaucoma history from his/her ophthalmologist before starting an anticholinergic medication. PMID:22396371

  19. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    PubMed

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  20. Treatment of neuroblastoma with metaiodobenzylguanidine: results and side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Treuner, J.; Klingebiel, T.; Bruchelt, G.; Feine, U.; Niethammer, D.

    1987-01-01

    Between April 1984 and December 1985 we treated ten children suffering from neuroblastoma in a total of 25 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) courses. Five had had a relapse of neuroblastoma stage III or IV, three had never achieved a remission in spite of intensive chemotherapy, and two were treated with an unstable remission. The children were each administered from 1 to 5 courses with a dosage per course of between 1295 and 9065 MBq. The sum of the single doses during the whole course of therapy ranged between 3145 and 21,904 MBq per child. Five of five children suffering from bone pain and fever became free of complaints during the first three treatment days. Six of eight children with manifest tumor at onset of therapy responded well to the treatment: response extended from transitory decrease in elevated catecholamine levels in serum and urine to complete disappearance of large abdominal tumor masses. We also observed a decrease in bone marrow involvement and a stabilization of osteolytic lesions. Seven of these eight children died in spite of a good response from 55 to 350 days after the first MIBG treatment course. The only side effect we witnessed was a reversible bone marrow depression. In three children we combined the MIBG therapy with bone marrow transplantation.

  1. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  2. Medical and Behavioral Symptoms as Potential Medication Side Effects in Adults with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdovinos, Maria G.; Caruso, Mary; Roberts, Celeste; Kim, Geunyoung; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2005-01-01

    The incidence of medical and behavioral symptoms that could occur as side effects of psychotropic medication was assessed in a sample of 30 adults with developmental disabilities. Using a retrospective chart review method, we measured symptoms in six a priori classes of potential side effects over a 2-year period. The majority of side effects…

  3. Ipsilateral coordination at preferred rate: effects of age, body side and task complexity.

    PubMed

    Van Impe, Annouchka; Coxon, James P; Goble, Daniel J; Wenderoth, Nici; Swinnen, Stephan Patrick

    2009-10-01

    Functional imaging studies have shown that elderly individuals activate widespread additional brain networks, compared to young subjects, when performing motor tasks. However, the parameters that effect this unique neural activation, including the spatial distribution of this activation across hemispheres, are still largely unknown. Here, we examined the effect of task complexity and body side on activation differences between older and younger adults while performing cyclical flexion-extension movements of the ipsilateral hand and foot. In particular, easy (isodirectional) and more difficult (non-isodirectional) coordination patterns were performed with either the left or right body side at a self-selected, comfortable rate. Even in the absence of imposed pacing the older group activated a larger brain network, suggestive of increased attentional deployment for monitoring the spatial relationships between the simultaneously moving segments and enhanced sensory processing and integration. Evidence of age-dependent underactivation was also found in contralateral M1, SMA and bilateral putamen, possibly reflecting a functional decline of the basal ganglia-mesial cortex pathway in the older group. An ANOVA model revealed significant main effects of task complexity and body side. However the interaction of these factors with age did not reach significance. Consequently, we conclude that under self-paced conditions, task complexity and body side did not have a modulatory effect on age-related brain activation.

  4. Frontal Plane Knee Moments in Golf: Effect of Target Side Foot Position at Address

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, Scott K.; Noffal, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Golf has the potential to keep people active well into their later years. Injuries to the target side knee have been reported in golfers, yet no mechanisms for these injuries have been proposed. The loads on the knee during the golf swing may be insufficient to cause acute injury, yet they may be a factor in the progression of overuse/degenerative conditions; therefore, research developing swing modifications that may alter loading of the knee is warranted. It has been suggested that the proper golf set-up position has the target-side foot externally rotated but no reasoning for this modification has been provided. Frontal plane knee moments have been implicated in many knee pathologies. Therefore, this study used a 3-dimensional link segment model to quantify the frontal plane knee moments during the golf swing in a straight (STR) and externally rotated (EXT) target-side foot position. Subjects were 7 collegiate golfers and knee moments were compared between conditions using repeated measures T-tests. The golf swing knee moment magnitudes were also descriptively compared to those reported for two athletic maneuvers (drop jump landing, side-step cutting) and activities of daily living (gait, stair ascent). The EXT condition decreased the peak knee adduction moment as compared to the STR condition; however, foot position had no effect on the peak knee abduction moment. Also, the magnitude of the knee adduction moments during the two activities of daily living were 9-33% smaller than those experienced during the two different golfing conditions. The drop jump landing and golf swing knee moments were of similar magnitude (STR= - 5%, EXT= + 8%); however, the moments associated with side- step cutting were 50-71% larger than those on the target side knee during the golf swing. The loading of the target side knee during the golf swing may be a factor in the development and progression of knee pathologies and further research should examine ways of attenuating these loads

  5. [Metabolic side effects of risperidone in early onset schizophrenia].

    PubMed

    Goeb, J-L; Marco, S; Duhamel, A; Kechid, G; Bordet, R; Thomas, P; Delion, P; Jardri, R

    2010-06-01

    Atypical antipsychotics have a favourable risk/benefit profile in early onset schizophrenia (EOS). However, despite increasing use of psychotropic medication in children and adolescents, their endocrine and metabolic side-effects (weight gain, obesity, and related metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia) are of particular concern, especially within this paediatric population that appears to be at greater risk as compared with adults for antipsychotic-induced metabolic adverse effects. In addition to medication, many factors contribute to weigh gain in psychiatric patients, including sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. Excessive weigh gain has several deleterious effects in psychiatric patients, including stigmatization and further social withdrawal, and non compliance with medication. Furthermore, excessive corpulence may evolve to a metabolic syndrome with a high-risk state for future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adult age. Because youths are still developing at the time of psychotropic drug exposure, in a context of physiological changes in hormonal and endocrines levels and body composition, most reference values need to be adjusted for gender, age and growth charts. Hence, sex- and age-adjusted BMI percentiles and BMI Z scores are crucial to assess weight gain in children and adolescents. Obesity thresholds have been proposed to define "at risk" categories of patients. In recently issued guidelines, thresholds for antipsychotic-induced weight gain in adults have been set at a 5% increase or one point increase in BMI unit. To date, no definition has reached a consensus in childhood and adolescence. However, some at risk states requiring action are proposed in literature: more than 5% increase in weight within a three-month period; more than half a point increase in BMI Z score; between 85th and 95th BMI percentile plus one adverse health consequence (i.e. hyperglycaemia, dyslipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, or

  6. Real-World Data on: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Medication Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Cascade, Elisa; Kalali, Amir H; Wigal, Sharon B

    2010-04-01

    In this article, we provide information on patient-reported side effects from a cross-section of real-world patients. Specifically, data on side effects were tabulated for patients taking one of the following attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: amphetamine and dextroamphetamine; atomoxetine; dexmethylphenidate; isdexamfetamine; and methylphenidate. Forty-eight percent of the approximately 325 patients surveyed reported having experienced a side effect as a result of taking an attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication. Most common side effects mentioned included loss of appetite, sleep problems, and mood disturbances. Only 21 percent of side effects were considered very bothersome or extremely bothersome. Regardless of how bothersome the side effects were, only 20 percent of patients mentioned the side effects to their prescribing physicians.

  7. Side effects of aesthetic therapy by lasers and IPL source: a dark side of the correct management of the patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oskarbski, George V.

    2004-09-01

    A medical practice by laser or IPL device means professional experience, reputation, strong economical investment, while a patient needs results for the bill he pays. In front of a publicity of non-invasive solutions for a broad base of clinical applications, the everyday practice offers embarrassing side effects about which it is better to prepare the users. Inefficiency, hypo-hyper-pigmentations, scars show that we need to have clear instructions and experienced studies, before emphasizing good results.

  8. Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berna, Chantal; Kirsch, Irving; Zion, Sean R; Lee, Yvonne C; Jensen, Karin B; Sadler, Pamela; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-02-04

    In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 of the 4 conditions: (1) 100 mg diclofenac + 1.2 mg atropine, (2) placebo + 1.2 mg atropine, (3) 100 mg diclofenac + placebo, or (4) placebo + placebo, and tested with heat-induced pain. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, temperature producing moderate pain, state anxiety, or depression. Analgesia was observed in all groups; there was a significant interaction between diclofenac and atropine, without main effects. Diclofenac alone was not better than double-placebo. The addition of atropine increased pain relief more than 3-fold among participants given diclofenac (d = 0.77), but did not enhance the response to placebo (d = 0.09). A chain of mediation analysis demonstrated that the addition of atropine increased dry mouth symptoms, which increased beliefs that one had received the active medication, which, in turn, increased analgesia. In addition to this indirect effect of atropine on analgesia (via dry mouth and beliefs), analyses suggest that among those who received diclofenac, atropine directly increased analgesia. This possible synergistic effect between diclofenac and atropine might warrant future research.

  9. Preventing side-channel effects in continuous-variable quantum key distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Filip, Radim

    2016-03-01

    The role of the side channels in the continuous-variable quantum key distribution is studied. It is shown how the information leakage through a side channel from the trusted sender station increases the vulnerability of the protocols to the eavesdropping in the main quantum communication channel. Moreover, the untrusted noise infusion by an eavesdropper on the trusted receiving side breaks the security even for a purely attenuating main quantum channel. As a method to compensate for the effect of the side-channel leakage on the sender side, we suggest several types of manipulations on the side-channel input. It is shown that by applying the modulated coherent light on the input of the side channel that is optimally correlated to the modulation on the main signal and optionally introducing additional squeezing in the case of the squeezed-state protocol, the negative influence of the lossy side channel on the sender side can be completely removed. For the trusted receiving side, the method of optimal monitoring of the residual noise from the side-channel noise infusion is suggested and shown to be able to completely eliminate the presence of the noisy side channel. We therefore prove that the side-channel effects can be completely removed using feasible operations if the trusted parties access the respective parts of the side channels.

  10. Side Effects of alpha-Blocker Use: Retrograde Ejaculation.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    There are currently 5 alpha-blockers that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The American Urological Association guidelines committee believes that all alpha-blockers are equally effective. However, alpha-blockers differ in their likelihood of causing abnormal ejaculation. This article discusses the effects on ejaculatory function, and specifically retrograde ejaculation, of the currently available alpha-blockers being used to treat men with LUTS due to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  11. Antiinflammatory glucocorticoid receptor ligand with reduced side effects exhibits an altered protein-protein interaction profile.

    PubMed

    Miner, Jeffrey N; Ardecky, Bob; Benbatoul, Khalid; Griffiths, Kimberly; Larson, Christopher J; Mais, Dale E; Marschke, Keith; Rosen, Jon; Vajda, Eric; Zhi, Lin; Negro-Vilar, Andres

    2007-12-04

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used antiinflammatory agents whose use is limited by side effects. We have developed a series of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligands that retain the strong antiinflammatory activity of conventional glucocorticoids with reduced side effects. We present a compound, LGD5552, that binds the receptor efficiently and strongly represses inflammatory gene expression. LGD5552 bound to GR activates gene expression somewhat differently than glucocorticoids. It activates some genes with an efficacy similar to that of the glucocorticoids. However, other glucocorticoid-activated genes are not regulated by LGD5552. These differences may be because of the more efficient binding of corepressor in the presence of LGD5552, compared with glucocorticoid agonists. This class of nonsteroidal, GR-dependent antiinflammatory drugs may offer a safer alternative to steroidal glucocorticoids in the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  12. Antiinflammatory glucocorticoid receptor ligand with reduced side effects exhibits an altered protein–protein interaction profile

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Jeffrey N.; Ardecky, Bob; Benbatoul, Khalid; Griffiths, Kimberly; Larson, Christopher J.; Mais, Dale E.; Marschke, Keith; Rosen, Jon; Vajda, Eric; Zhi, Lin; Negro-Vilar, Andres

    2007-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are commonly used antiinflammatory agents whose use is limited by side effects. We have developed a series of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) ligands that retain the strong antiinflammatory activity of conventional glucocorticoids with reduced side effects. We present a compound, LGD5552, that binds the receptor efficiently and strongly represses inflammatory gene expression. LGD5552 bound to GR activates gene expression somewhat differently than glucocorticoids. It activates some genes with an efficacy similar to that of the glucocorticoids. However, other glucocorticoid-activated genes are not regulated by LGD5552. These differences may be because of the more efficient binding of corepressor in the presence of LGD5552, compared with glucocorticoid agonists. This class of nonsteroidal, GR-dependent antiinflammatory drugs may offer a safer alternative to steroidal glucocorticoids in the treatment of inflammatory disease. PMID:18032610

  13. [Study of IUD side-effects indicated in hysteroscopic and pathologic examinations].

    PubMed

    Jin, E Q

    1991-02-01

    The IUD is the most extensively used method of contraception among Chinese women. 7-15% of IUD users stopped using the method because of side effects such as irregular menstrual bleeding, spotting, and cramps. This study of the causes of IUD side effects examined 80 women who had had an IUD for over 6 months and experienced side effects for over 3 months and 40 women requesting IUD removal for nonmedical reasons were chosen as the controls. The conditions of the IUDs and their positions inside the uterine cavity were observed. Endometrial tissue structure was also taken. The differences in age, parity, occupation, number of previous IUD insertions, previous experience of abortion, and duration of use of the current IUD between the case and the control groups were not statistically significant. 49% of cases had irregular menstruation 6 months prior to IUD insertion compared with 2.5% among the controls. 38% of cases had size and position of IUD that were incompatible with the shape of the uterine cavity while 10% of the controls had the same situation. Pathological changes of endometria were observed in 52 cases and 8 controls. It is concluded that women with a history of anemia, heart condition, irregular menstruation, and abdominal surgery as well as those with uterine polyps or cysts are more likely to experience side effects. Screening for these contraindications should be conducted before IUD insertion. Patients who experienced IUD side effects persistently after treatment might have a dislocated IUD or an IUD incompatible with the uterine cavity. Pathological changes of endometria might be associated with the mechanic compression of an IUD or because of the operator's skill of insertion. Stereoscopic examinations also discovered cases with gynecological problems that were unrelated to the presence of an IUD.

  14. The effect of naloxone treatment on opioid-induced side effects

    PubMed Central

    He, Feifang; Jiang, Yilei; Li, Li

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the effects of naloxone on opioid-induced side effects, the present meta-analysis was constructed. Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI (China National Knowledge Internet) were used for literature search. Studies on comparison of opioid-side effects between naloxone-treated group and placebo or normal saline-related group were included in the meta-analysis. Heterogeneity analysis was performed with Chi-square and I2 test. Pooled analysis was based on fixed-effects model, if heterogeneity between the eligible studies was negligible (I2 < 50%, P > 0.05), otherwise, random-effects model was used. Sensitivity analysis was applied to assess the robustness of the results and publication bias was evaluated by Begg and Egger test. Results: Thirteen studies including 1138 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Pooled analysis indicated that naloxone could significantly reduce the occurrence of pruritus (RR [risk ratio] = 0.252, 95% CI [confidence interval] = 0.137–0.464), nausea (RR = 0.323, 95% CI = 0.245–0.428), and vomiting (RR = 0.338, 95% CI = 0.192–0.593) which were induced by opioids. However, naloxone did not relieve pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] = −0.052, 95% CI = −0.453 to 0.348) and somnolence (RR = 0.561, 95% CI = 0.287 to 1.097) in patients received opioid treatment. Additionally, there were no significant publication bias between the included studies (Begg test, P = 0.602; Egger test, P = 0.388). Conclusion: Addition of naloxone might act as an effective treatment for prophylaxis of opioid-induced pruritus, nausea, and vomiting in clinical practice. PMID:27631221

  15. Field-aligned electrostatic potential differences on the Martian night side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lillis, Rob; Collinson, Glyn; Mitchell, David

    2017-04-01

    Field-aligned electrostatic potential differences on the Martian night side above 170 km can be inferred with the aid of a kinetic electron transport model and in a statistical sense, by energy-dependent angular shifts in electron loss cones measured in Mars orbit. Potentials between 170 km and 400 km derived from pitch angle distributions measured by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Magnetometer/ Electron Reflectometer experiment (MAG/ER) at 2 a.m. local time are typically small (-10 V to 10 V) but can reach magnitudes of >100 V. Geographically, the strongest negative potential differences (with mean values up to -50 V) are preferentially observed at the boundaries between open and closed strong magnetic field regions, while positive potential differences are preferentially observed further from open field lines. These characteristics may reflect current systems closing at high altitude through cross-tail currents and at low altitude in the conducting night side ionosphere. We will present a synthesis of potentials derived from pitch angle distributions measured by both MGS MAG/ER as mentioned above, and by the MAVEN Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) collected at a range of local times and altitudes.

  16. Calcitriol derivatives with two different side chains at C-20 III. An epimeric pair of the gemini family with unprecedented antiproliferative effects on tumor cells and renin mRNA expression inhibition.

    PubMed

    Maehr, Hubert; Uskokovic, Milan; Adorini, Luciano; Penna, Giuseppe; Mariani, Roberto; Panina, Paola; Passini, Nadia; Bono, Elisa; Perego, Silvia; Biffi, Mauro; Holick, Michael; Spina, Catherine; Suh, Nanjoo

    2007-03-01

    The searches for drugs that exhibit antineoplastic activity and regulate blood pressure are among the most prevalent and compelling research activities today. Amazingly, there is ample precedence for the antiproliferative action of vitamin-D-related compounds and their role as endocrine suppressors of renin biosynthesis. We have recently synthesized a number of novel calcitriol analogs of the gemini family and originally selected for further studies an epimeric pair related to 19-nor-calcitriol whose 21-methyl group was replaced by a 5,5,5-trifluoro-4-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pentynyl group. While maintaining the acceptable calcemic responses, the IC50 concentrations of interferon-gamma release were reduced and the antiproliferative activity and inhibition of renin mRNA expression enhanced. Replacing the geminal methyl groups on the calcitriol-related side chain of these gemini compounds with trideuteriomethyl moieties further boosted the potency in the colon cancer model in mice some 10-fold, reduced NMU-induced breast cancer carcinogenesis in rats and decreased the IC(50) values for renin mRNA inhibition into the pM range.

  17. Differences between left- and right-sided neglect revisited: A large cohort study across multiple domains.

    PubMed

    Ten Brink, Antonia F; Verwer, Jurre H; Biesbroek, J Matthijs; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A; Nijboer, Tanja C W

    2017-09-01

    Unilateral spatial neglect (USN) is a syndrome that can occur after right- and left-hemisphere damage. It is generally accepted that left-sided USN is more severe than right-sided USN. Evidence for such a difference in other domains is lacking. Primary aims were to compare frequency, severity, region specificity, cognition, physical functioning, and physical independence between left and right USN. Secondary aims were to compare lesion characteristics. A total of 335 stroke patients admitted for inpatient rehabilitation were included. The severity of the lateralized attentional deficit was measured with a shape cancellation and line bisection test (in peripersonal and extrapersonal space) and the Catherine Bergego scale. The Mini-Mental State Examination, Stichting Afasie Nederland score, search organization (i.e., best R and intersections rate), Motricity Index, balance, mobility, and self-care were assessed. Measures were statistically compared between left, right, and no USN patients. Lesion overlay plots were compared with lesion subtraction analyses. Left USN (15.82%) was more frequent than right USN (9.25%). Demographic and stroke characteristics were comparable between groups. The lateralized attentional deficit was most severe in left USN. USN in both peripersonal and extrapersonal space was more frequently left-sided in nature. Search efficiency was lower in left USN. Balance was poorer in right USN. No differences between left and right USN were found for cognitive ability, communication, motor strength, mobility, and self-care. Most patients with left USN had right-hemispheric lesions, whereas patients with right USN could have lesions in either the left or the right hemisphere. To conclude, left and right USN are both common after stroke. Although the lateralized attention deficit is worse in left than in right USN, consequences at the level of physical functioning and physical independence are largely comparable. From a clinical perspective, it is

  18. Parents' and health-care providers' perspectives on side- effects of childhood cancer treatment in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van Dongen, Josephine; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan; Mostert, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Efficacy of childhood cancer treatment in low-income countries may be impacted by parents' and health-care providers' perspectives on chemotherapy-related side-effects. This study explores prevalence and severity of side-effects in childhood cancer, and compares health beliefs about side-effects between parents and health-care providers, and between nurses and doctors in Indonesia. Semi-structured questionnaires were filled in by 40 parents and 207 health-care providers in an academic hospital. Parents exporessed a desire to receive more information about side-effects (98%) and worried about this aspect of treatment (90%), although side-effects were less severe than expected (66%). The most frequent was behavior alteration (98%) and the most severe was hair loss. Only 26% of parents consulted doctors about side-effects. More parents, compared to health-care providers, believed that medicines work better when side-effects are more severe (p<0.001), and accepted severe side-effects (p=0.021). More health-care providers, compared to parents, believed that chemotherapy can be stopped or the dosage altered when there are side-effects (p=0.011). More nurses, compared to doctors, stated that side-effects were unbearable (p=0.004) and made them doubt efficacy of treatment (p<0.001). Behavior alteration is the most frequent and hair loss the most severe side-effect. Apparent discrepancies in health beliefs about side-effects exist between parents and health-care providers. A sustainable parental education program about side-effects is recommended. Health-care providers need to update and improve their knowledge and communication skills in order to give appropriate information. Such measures may improve outcome of childhood cancer treatment in low-income countries, where adherence to therapy is a major issue.

  19. Side chain effect on the double helix formation of ethynylhelicene oligomers.

    PubMed

    Saito, Nozomi; Terakawa, Ryo; Shigeno, Masanori; Amemiya, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2011-06-17

    Three series of ethynylhelicene oligomers with different side chains were synthesized: (P)-bD-n (n = 2-6) with branched alkyloxycarbonyl side chains; (P)-S-n (n = 2-7) with decylsulfanyl side chains; and (P)-DF-n (n = 4, 6, 8, 10) with alternating decyloxycarbonyl and perfluorooctyl side chains. The double helix formation of these side chain derivatives was compared to that of (P)-D-n with decyloxycarbonyl side chains. CD, UV-vis, and vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) studies showed that (P)-bD-n formed double helices as well as (P)-D-n. CD studies in trifluoromethylbenzene at different temperatures and concentrations indicated that the stability of the aggregate of (P)-bD-6 was similar to that of (P)-D-6. Bulkiness of side chains had little effect on aggregation, which indicated that π-π interactions of the aromatic moiety were essential for double helix formation. (P)-S-n were random coils in all solvents examined except in trifluoromethylbenzene. Whereas (P)-D-7 formed a double helix at 1 × 10(-3) M in toluene, (P)-S-7 was a random coil. This result indicated that the double helix forming ability of (P)-S-n was substantially lower than that of (P)-D-n. Based on the previous observation that (P)-F-n formed a more stable double helix than (P)-D-n, the order of stability may be summarized as follows: (P)-F-n > (P)-D-n and (P)-bD-n >(P)-S-n. The lower stability of (P)-S-n compared to that of (P)-F-n was ascribed to the softness and/or the electron-rich nature at the m-phenylene moiety. (P)-DF-n did not form a stable double helix. It was speculated that a regular alternating arrangement of soft/hard or electron-rich/deficient moieties is important for stable double helix formation. Side chains of ethynylhelicene oligomers can play significant roles in determining the stability of double helices.

  20. Side Effects of α-Blocker Use: Retrograde Ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Steven A

    2009-01-01

    There are currently 5 α-blockers that are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). The American Urological Association guidelines committee believes that all α-blockers are equally effective. However, α-blockers differ in their likelihood of causing abnormal ejaculation. This article discusses the effects on ejaculatory function, and specifically retrograde ejaculation, of the currently available α-blockers being used to treat men with LUTS due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:20126607

  1. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Daniel C; Filipp, Fabian V; Bordbar, Aarash; Jensen, Kasper; Smith, Jeffrey W; Herrgard, Markus J; Mo, Monica L; Palsson, Bernhard O

    2015-06-09

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating the relationships between the cellular response to drugs, genetic variation of patients and cell metabolism may help managing side effects by personalizing drug prescriptions and nutritional intervention strategies.

  2. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Bordbar, Aarash; Jensen, Kasper; Smith, Jeffrey W.; Herrgard, Markus J.; Mo, Monica L.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating the relationships between the cellular response to drugs, genetic variation of patients and cell metabolism may help managing side effects by personalizing drug prescriptions and nutritional intervention strategies. PMID:26055627

  3. Effects of the pelvic compression belt on gluteus medius, quadratus lumborum, and lumbar multifidus activities during side-lying hip abduction.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Suhn-Yeop; Oh, Duck-Won

    2010-12-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the effect of the pelvic compression belt on the electromyographic (EMG) activities of gluteus medius (GM), quadratus lumborum (QL), and lumbar multifidus (LM) during side-lying hip abduction. Thirty-one volunteers (15 men and 16 women) with no history of pathology volunteered for this study. Subjects were instructed to perform hip abduction in side-lying position with and without applying the pelvic compression belt. The pelvic compression belt was adjusted just below the anterior superior iliac spines with the stabilizing pressure using elastic compression bands. Surface EMG data were collected from the GM, QL, and LM of the dominant limb. Significantly decreased EMG activity in the QL (without the pelvic compression belt, 60.19±23.66% maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]; with the pelvic compression belt, 51.44±23.00% MVIC) and significantly increased EMG activity in the GM (without the pelvic compression belt, 26.71±12.88% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 35.02±18.28% MVIC) and in the LM (without the pelvic compression belt, 30.28±14.60% MVIC; with the pelvic compression belt, 37.47±18.94% MVIC) were found when the pelvic compression belt was applied (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences of the EMG activity between male and female subjects. The findings suggest that the pelvic compression belt may be helpful to prevent unwanted substitution movement during side-lying hip abduction, through increasing the GM and LM and decreasing the QL.

  4. Side Effects to Antidepressant Treatment in Patients With Depression and Comorbid Panic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Shankman, Stewart A; Gorka, Stephanie M; Katz, Andrea C; Klein, Daniel N; Markowitz, John C; Arnow, Bruce A; Manber, Rachel; Rothbaum, Barbara O; Thase, Michael E; Schatzberg, Alan F; Keller, Martin B; Trivedi, Madhukar H; Kocsis, James H

    2017-04-01

    Side effects to antidepressant medication can affect the efficacy of treatment, but few predictors foretell who experiences side effects and which side effects they experience. This secondary data analysis examined whether depressed patients with comorbid panic disorder were more likely to experience side effects than those without panic disorder. The study also examined whether greater burden of side effects predicted a poorer treatment course for patients with panic disorder than those without panic disorder. To examine the specificity of these effects, analyses also examined 2 other anxiety disorders-social phobia and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Between 2002 and 2006, a large sample (N = 808) of chronically depressed individuals (assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders [SCID-IV]) received antidepressants according to a predetermined algorithm for 12 weeks. Every 2 weeks, depressive symptoms (per the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale) and side effects (specific side effects as well as several indicators of side effect burden) were assessed. Lifetime diagnosis of panic disorder (assessed using the SCID-IV) at baseline was associated with higher likelihood of gastrointestinal (OR = 1.6 [95% CI, 1.0-2.6]), cardiac (OR = 1.8 [95% CI, 1.1-3.1]), neurologic (OR = 2.6 [95% CI, 1.6-4.2]), and genitourinary side effects (OR = 3.0 [95% CI, 1.7-5.3]) during treatment. Increases in side effect frequency, intensity, and impairment over time were more strongly associated with increases in depressive symptoms for patients with panic disorder compared to those without panic disorder. Neither social phobia nor GAD was associated with these effects. Potentially due to heighte​ned interoceptive awareness of changes in their body, chronically depressed individuals with panic disorder may be at greater risk than those without panic disorder for antidepressant side effects and to experience a worsening of depressive symptoms as a result

  5. The other side of progestins: effects in the brain.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Pesaresi, Marzia

    2016-08-01

    Progestins are a broad class of progestational agents widely differing in their chemical structures and pharmacological properties. Despite emerging data suggest that progestins, besides their action as endometrial protection, can also have multiple nonreproductive functions, much remains to be discovered regarding the actions exerted by these molecules in the nervous system. Here, we report the role exerted by different progestins, currently used for contraception or in postmenopausal hormone replacement therapies, in regulating cognitive functions as well as social behavior and mood. We provide evidence that the effects and mechanisms underlying their actions are still confusing due to the use of different estrogens and progestins as well as different doses, duration of exposure, route of administration, baseline hormonal status and age of treated women. We also discuss the emerging issue concerning the relevant increase of these substances in the environment, able to deeply affect aquatic wildlife as well as to exert a possible influence in humans, which may be exposed to these compounds via contaminated drinking water and seafood. Finally, we report literature data showing the neurobiological action of progestins and in particular their importance during neurodegenerative events. This is extremely interesting, since some of the progestins currently used in clinical practice exert neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the nervous system, opening new promising opportunities for the use of these molecules as therapeutic agents for trauma and neurodegenerative disorders.

  6. Amphiphilic polybetaines: the effect of side-chain hydrophobicity on protein adsorption.

    PubMed

    Colak, Semra; Tew, Gregory N

    2012-05-14

    Novel amphiphilic polybetaines were synthesized and used as the base material for nonfouling coatings. The amphiphilicity of these polybetaines was systematically tuned by coupling chains of increasing hydrophobicity to the zwitterionic functionality side at the repeat unit level. An oligoethylene glycol (OEG) moiety was selected to yield the most hydrophilic coating, while octyl (C(8)) and fluorinated (F) groups were used to impart lipophilicity and lipophobicity to the coatings, respectively. This unique design allowed us to investigate the effect of the lipophilicity/lipophobicity of the side chain on the nonfouling properties of these zwitterionic systems. Adsorption studies, performed using six different proteins, showed that the fluorinated polybetaine, Poly[NFZI-co-NSi], resisted nonspecific adsorption as effectively as, and in some cases even better than, the most hydrophilic Poly[NOEGZI-co-NSi] coating. The comparison of Poly[NFZI-co-NSi] to its noncharged analog demonstrated the essential nature of the zwitterionic functionality in imparting nonfouling character to the coating.

  7. Effects of amrinone on the right side of the heart.

    PubMed

    Hess, W

    1989-12-01

    Unlike the left ventricle, the right ventricle is a thin-walled, low-pressure, volume-displacement pump that ensures adequacy of left ventricular filling and maintains a low pressure in the venous system. In healthy human subjects, there is no burden for right ventricular systolic emptying, because normal pulmonary vessels have a low impedance and show a passive recruitment when cardiac output increases. However, under a pathological condition like right-sided heart failure, the right ventricle may exert profound influences on the circulatory state. Right-sided heart failure most often results from primary or secondary pulmonary arterial hypertension. Pharmacologic vasodilation of the hypertensive pulmonary vascular bed is an ideal therapy for right-sided heart failure. The bipyridine derivative amrinone has positive inotropic and direct vasodilator properties, and therefore seems suitable for the therapy of right ventricular dysfunction accompanied by pulmonary arterial hypertension. In one study, 12 patients with right ventricular failure due to mitral valve stenosis were evaluated, and it was found that amrinone increased cardiac output by 25% and decreased pulmonary artery pressure by 30% to 50%. In a second study, the hemodynamic properties of amrinone versus sodium nitroprusside were compared in patients with aortic or mitral valve failure (n = 17), when both agents lowered systemic vascular resistance equally. Pulmonary vascular resistance decreased significantly (25%) only in the amrinone group.

  8. Quantum transport in graphene Hall bars: Effects of side gates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrović, M. D.; Peeters, F. M.

    2017-05-01

    Quantum electron transport in side-gated graphene Hall bars is investigated in the presence of quantizing external magnetic fields. The asymmetric potential of four side-gates distorts the otherwise flat bands of the relativistic Landau levels, and creates new propagating states in the Landau spectrum (i.e. snake states). The existence of these new states leads to an interesting modification of the bend and Hall resistances, with new quantizing plateaus appearing in close proximity of the Landau levels. The electron guiding in this system can be understood by studying the current density profiles of the incoming and outgoing modes. From the fact that guided electrons fully transmit without any backscattering (similarly to edge states), we are able to analytically predict the values of the quantized resistances, and they match the resistance data we obtain with our numerical (tight-binding) method. These insights in the electron guiding will be useful in predicting the resistances for other side-gate configurations, and possibly in other system geometries, as long as there is no backscattering of the guided states.

  9. Living with antipsychotic medication side-effects: the experience of Australian mental health consumers.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom; Stomski, Norman Jay

    2015-06-01

    The present study explores people's experience of living with antipsychotic medication side-effects. Qualitative data were gathered through semistructured interviews with 10 mental health consumers in a community care setting in Australia. The interview transcriptions were content analysed, and enhanced by combining manifest and latent content. Important contextual cues were identified through replaying the audio-recordings. Several main themes emerged from the analysis, including the impact of side-effects, attitudes to the use of medication and side-effects, and coping strategies to manage medication side-effects. Each participant reported between six and seven side-effects on average, which were often pronounced and had a major disruptive impact on their lives. Of these effects, the most commonly mentioned was sedation, which the participants described as leaving them in a 'zombie'-like state. Most participants expressed an attitude of acceptance about the side-effects. The participants' most common strategy to manage side-effects was to change the dosage of the medication. Other common side-effect management strategies involved using other medications to control side-effects, and diverse self-help techniques, the most common of which was relaxation/distraction techniques.

  10. Effects of physical activity on common side effects of breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2012-01-01

    Motivating women with breast cancer to engage in regular physical activity may be an enormous challenge given the common side effects of breast cancer treatment. The objective of this narrative review is to briefly summarize recent research evidence examining the influence of physical activity on commonly occurring side effects of breast cancer treatment. Overall, current research evidence indicates that regular participation in physical activity after breast cancer diagnosis may mitigate common side effects of breast cancer adjuvant therapy, including fatigue, depression, impaired quality of life, decreased muscular strength, decreased aerobic capacity, and weight gain. Future research could examine the influence that physical activity has on the effectiveness of breast cancer treatment. Implications for health care professionals are discussed.

  11. The adsorption of xyloglucan on cellulose: effects of explicit water and side chain variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong; Brumer, Harry; Ågren, Hans; Tu, Yaoquan

    2011-11-29

    The interaction between para-crystalline cellulose and the cross-linking glycan xyloglucan (XG) plays a central role for the strength and extensibility of plant cell walls. The coating of XGs on cellulose surfaces is believed to be one of the most probable interaction patterns. In this work, the effects of explicit water and side chain variation on the adsorption of XGs on cellulose are investigated by means of atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. The adsorption properties are studied in detail for three XGs on cellulose Iβ 1-10 surface in aqueous environment, namely GXXXGXXXG, GXXLGXXXG, and GXXFGXXXG, which differ in the length and composition of one side chain. Our work shows that when water molecules are included in the theoretical model, the total interaction energies between the adsorbed XGs and cellulose are considerably smaller than in vacuo. Furthermore, in water environment the van der Waals interactions prevail over the electrostatic interactions in the adsorption. Variation in one side chain does not have significant influence on the interaction energy and the binding affinity, but does affect the equilibrium structural properties of the adsorbed XGs to facilitate the interaction between both the backbone and the side chain residues with the cellulose surface. Together, this analysis provides new insights into the nature of the XG-cellulose interaction, which helps to further refine current molecular models of the composite plant cell wall.

  12. Transporter-mediated Efflux Influences CNS Side Effects: ABCB1, from Antitarget to Target

    PubMed Central

    Broccatelli, Fabio; Carosati, Emanuele; Cruciani, Gabriele; Oprea, Tudor I.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between sedation and orthostatic hypotension, two central side effects and ABCB1 transporter-mediated efflux for a set of 64 launched drugs that are documented as histamine H1 receptor antagonists. This relationship was placed in the context of passive diffusion (estimated using LogP, the octanol/water partition coefficient), receptor affinity, and the adjusted therapeutic daily dose, in order to account for side effect variability. Within this set, CNS permeability was not dependent on passive diffusion, as no significant differences were found for LogP and its pH-corrected equivalent, LogD74. Sedation and orthostatic hypotension can be explained within the framework of ABCB1-mediated efflux and adjusted dose, while target potency has less influence. ABCB1, an antitarget for anti-cancer agents, acts in fact as a drug target for non-sedating antihistamines. An empirical set of rules, based on the incidence of these two side-effects, target affinity and dose was used to predict efflux effects for a number of drugs. Among them, azelastine and mizolastine are predicted to be effluxed via ABCB1-mediated transport, whereas aripiprazole, clozapine, cyproheptadine, iloperidone, olanzapine, and ziprasidone are likely to be non-effluxed. PMID:22347894

  13. Patient-provider communication and hormonal therapy side effects in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jenny J; Chao, Jennifer; Bickell, Nina A; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2016-09-12

    Side effects from hormonal therapy (HT) for breast cancer treatment occur frequently and are associated with worse quality of life and HT non-adherence. Whether improved patient-physician communication is associated with patients' reporting of side effects is unknown. We undertook this study to assess factors associated with women's reports of HT side effects. Between December 2012 and April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of breast cancer patients undergoing HT in an urban medical center. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate associations. Of the 100 participants, 67% reported having HT side effects. However, when prompted, an additional 9% reported experiencing specific HT-related symptoms. Despite very high communication scores, one-third of participants reported they had not discussed side effects with providers. Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for age, education, race, and medication beliefs, women who had difficulty asking providers for more information were more likely to report side effects (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval 1.01-69.88). Although HT side effects often occur and are bothersome, patient-provider discussions about side effects remain suboptimal. Providers should actively ask patients about medication side effects so that they can be addressed to improve quality of life and potentially, medication adherence.

  14. Exploring the relationship between drug side-effects and therapeutic indications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Fei; Hu, Jianying; Sorrentino, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Therapeutic indications and drug side-effects are both measureable human behavioral or physiological changes in response to the treatment. In modern drug development, both inferring potential therapeutic indications and identifying clinically important drug side-effects are challenging tasks. Previous studies have utilized either chemical structures or protein targets to predict indications and side-effects. In this study, we compared indication prediction using side-effect information and side-effect prediction using indication information against models using only chemical structures and protein targets. Experimental results based on 10-fold cross-validation, show that drug side-effects and therapeutic indications are the most predictive features for each other. In addition, we extracted 6,706 statistically highly correlated disease-side-effect pairs from all known drug-disease and drug-side-effect relationships. Many relationship pairs provide explicit repositioning hypotheses (e.g., drugs causing postural hypotension are potential candidates for hypertension) and clear adverse-reaction watch lists (e.g., drugs for heart failure possibly cause impotence). All data sets and highly correlated disease-side-effect relationships are available at http://astro.temple.edu/~tua87106/druganalysis.html.

  15. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  16. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-12-15

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga{sup +} beam etching process.

  17. The Effect of Probiotics Supplementation on Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rates and Side Effects during Eradication Therapy: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yini; Reinhardt, Jan D.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Zhang, Guoxin

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. Methods This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER) and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER <80% vs.>80%). Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086–1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070–1.159). Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036) and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598–0.902). This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. Conclusions The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  18. Quantification and Analysis of Offensive Situations in Different Formats of Sided Games In Soccer

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Jorge Diaz-Cidoncha; Román, Ignacio Refoyo; Calleja-González, Julio; Dellal, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    There has been a lot of research that enabled soccer to improve: its technique, tactics and strategy through analysis and training. Nevertheless, players’ need to interact with each other turns any defending or attacking situation into complex solutions with a wide range of variables to be considered, in which the player is never isolated and must make the move that has the most positive impact on play. Fifty-four sided games played in three different formats (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9) and with two age groups (U9 and U14) were filmed at three soccer clubs in Spain in order to identify the most relevant attacking moves, from a technical and tactical perspective. This study used the observational method; it is descriptive and is applied through well-prepared systematic quantitative observation in a natural environment. A key part of the method involved viewing the match recordings and logging moves that had been categorised beforehand. Cohen’s Kappa analysis showed that the results for the most representative variables presented a substantial degree of concordance (0.61–0.80). The results show that there were significant variations depending on the game format, and the following study will present a description and analysis of the aspects that had considerable influence on attacking moves in different formats of sided games (5v5, 7v7 and 9v9). The study also presents various practical applications for the area of training and analysing both youth and professional soccer. PMID:25713680

  19. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  20. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    PubMed

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  2. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  3. Enquiry into the Side Effects of School Inspection in a "Low-Stakes" Inspection Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study into the occurrence of the side effects of school inspection through in-depth interviews in five case schools. The study investigates the extent to which strategic activities, disturbing effects and emotional side effects occur in the case schools. The study also aims to understand features that may…

  4. The Relationship among Side Effects Associated with Anti-Epileptic Medications in Those with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Belva, Brian; Turygin, Nicole; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Horovitz, Max

    2011-01-01

    Seizures are fairly common in those with intellectual disabilities. In order to treat these seizures, antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are often used and in many cases are effective. However, these medications often create a variety of associated side effects. In order to monitor these side effects, measures such as the SEIZES-B have been used. While…

  5. Enquiry into the Side Effects of School Inspection in a "Low-Stakes" Inspection Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative study into the occurrence of the side effects of school inspection through in-depth interviews in five case schools. The study investigates the extent to which strategic activities, disturbing effects and emotional side effects occur in the case schools. The study also aims to understand features that may…

  6. Renal Side Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Allegaert, Karel; de Hoon, Jan; Debeer, Anne; Gewillig, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or indomethacin are commonly prescribed drugs to induce pharmacologic closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. Based on a recently published Cochrane meta-analysis, both drugs are equally effective to induce closure. Drug choice can therefore be based on differences in side effects or pharmaco-economic arguments. The current review quantifies the negative impact of either ibuprofen or indomethacin on renal function, including diuresis, glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular function. Both ibuprofen and indomethacin have a quantifiable impact on renal function. However, compared to ibuprofen, the negative impact of indomethacin is more pronounced. PMID:27713258

  7. Incidence of Antipsychotic-Associated Side Effects: Impact of Clinician Versus Patient Ratings and Change Versus Absolute Scores.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Fervaha, Gagan; Remington, Gary

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to compare (1) the detection rates of antipsychotic-associated side effects between clinician and patient ratings and (2) differences as a function of change and absolute score definitions. Data from phase 1 of the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (N = 1460) were analyzed. In this trial, 18 adverse events were systematically and concurrently assessed by clinicians and patients using a 4-point severity scale ranging from 0 (absent) to 3 (severe). The incidence of antipsychotic-associated side effects was calculated according to 2 definitions: change score (ie, higher score on the scale versus baseline) and absolute score (a score of 2 or 3 on the scale). In addition, patient and clinician concurrent detection rates were examined. The differences in incidence of antipsychotic-associated side effects between clinician and patient ratings were as small as 5.7% across the 2 definitions. The incidence of all side effects across clinician and patient ratings was approximately 2 times higher when using the change versus absolute score definition. Among the side effects detected by patients, 11 side effects were identified more frequently by clinicians, with 14.3% to 30.2% differences when using the change versus absolute score definition. Conversely, there was no difference of 10% or greater in patient or clinician concurrent detection rate on any item when using the absolute versus change score definition. Our findings suggest that patient ratings are in line with clinician ratings and that the change score definition may be superior for the assessment of antipsychotic-associated side effects in clinical studies.

  8. Specific side effects of long-term imipramine management of panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Mavissakalian, Matig; Perel, James; Guo, Shenyang

    2002-04-01

    In a recent study, the authors suggested that tachycardia, dry mouth, and sweating continued to burden patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who have shown marked and stable response to 6 months of imipramine treatment at the fixed, weight-adjusted dose of 2.25 mg/kg/day. Although sexual dysfunction and weight gain were not a significant burden in that study, they are important problems in long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs. In the present study, in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year discontinuation and maintenance study of 53 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who respond to imipramine, the authors examine the extent and the specificity of these five side effects of imipramine maintenance using data at pretreatment, at the end of 24 weeks of open imipramine treatment (or month 0 of randomization), and at months 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 of randomized treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling and repeated measures of analyses of variance in subsamples of completers confirmed that dry mouth, sweating, and increased heart rate constitute a significant and specific enduring burden of imipramine maintenance treatment. The data also revealed that weight gain is a significant and specific side effect of 1-year imipramine maintenance treatment; however, the likelihood of reporting sexual dysfunction decreased over time, with no difference between the placebo and imipramine maintenance conditions. The results are discussed in the context of previous studies of imipramine side effects in the management of depression and the available literature of sexual and weight side effects of antidepressant medications in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  9. The effective theory of quintessence: the w < -1 side unveiled

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Vernizzi, Filippo; D'Amico, Guido; Norena, Jorge E-mail: damico@sissa.it E-mail: filippo.vernizzi@cea.fr

    2009-02-15

    We study generic single-field dark energy models, by a parametrization of the most general theory of their perturbations around a given background, including higher derivative terms. In appropriate limits this approach reproduces standard quintessence, k-essence and ghost condensation. We find no general pathology associated to an equation of state w{sub Q} < -1 or in crossing the phantom divide w{sub Q} = -1. Stability requires that the w{sub Q} < -1 side of dark energy behaves, on cosmological scales, as a k-essence fluid with a virtually zero speed of sound. This implies that one should set the speed of sound to zero when comparing with data models with w{sub Q} < -1 or crossing the phantom divide. We summarize the theoretical and stability constraints on the quintessential plane (1+w{sub Q}) vs. speed of sound squared.

  10. Asymmetric Cancer Hallmarks in Breast Tumors on Different Sides of the Body

    PubMed Central

    Campoy, Emanuel M.; Laurito, Sergio R.; Branham, María T.; Urrutia, Guillermo; Mathison, Angela; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Urrutia, Raul; Mayorga, Luis S.; Roqué, María

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90–100%), which correlate with breast laterality (p = 0.05). For validating these observations, gene expression data was obtained by RealTime-PCR in a different cohort of 25 tumors and converted into CH profiles. This analyses confirmed the same clustering and a tendency of association with breast laterality (p = 0.15). In silico analyses on gene expression data from TCGA Breast dataset from left and right breast tumors showed that they differed significantly when data was previously converted into CH profiles (p = 0.033). We show here for the first time, that breast carcinomas arising on different sides of the body present differential cancer traits inferred from methylation and expression profiles. Our results indicate that by converting methylation or expression profiles in terms of Cancer Hallmarks, it would allow to uncover veiled associations with clinical features. These results contribute with a new finding to the better understanding of breast tumor behavior, and can moreover serve as proof of principle for other

  11. Asymmetric Cancer Hallmarks in Breast Tumors on Different Sides of the Body.

    PubMed

    Campoy, Emanuel M; Laurito, Sergio R; Branham, María T; Urrutia, Guillermo; Mathison, Angela; Gago, Francisco; Orozco, Javier; Urrutia, Raul; Mayorga, Luis S; Roqué, María

    2016-01-01

    During the last decades it has been established that breast cancer arises through the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations in different cancer related genes. These alterations confer the tumor oncogenic abilities, which can be resumed as cancer hallmarks (CH). The purpose of this study was to establish the methylation profile of CpG sites located in cancer genes in breast tumors so as to infer their potential impact on 6 CH: i.e. sustained proliferative signaling, evasion of growth suppressors, resistance to cell death, induction of angiogenesis, genome instability and invasion and metastasis. For 51 breast carcinomas, MS-MLPA derived-methylation profiles of 81 CpG sites were converted into 6 CH profiles. CH profiles distribution was tested by different statistical methods and correlated with clinical-pathological data. Unsupervised Hierarchical Cluster Analysis revealed that CH profiles segregate in two main groups (bootstrapping 90-100%), which correlate with breast laterality (p = 0.05). For validating these observations, gene expression data was obtained by RealTime-PCR in a different cohort of 25 tumors and converted into CH profiles. This analyses confirmed the same clustering and a tendency of association with breast laterality (p = 0.15). In silico analyses on gene expression data from TCGA Breast dataset from left and right breast tumors showed that they differed significantly when data was previously converted into CH profiles (p = 0.033). We show here for the first time, that breast carcinomas arising on different sides of the body present differential cancer traits inferred from methylation and expression profiles. Our results indicate that by converting methylation or expression profiles in terms of Cancer Hallmarks, it would allow to uncover veiled associations with clinical features. These results contribute with a new finding to the better understanding of breast tumor behavior, and can moreover serve as proof of principle for other

  12. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Side Effect Impacted on Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptomatology: A Mixed-Method Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Simoni, Jane M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, karen I; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Zhao, Hongxin

    2013-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known for its side effects. In this paper, we describe ART side effects as experienced by Chinese HIV+ individuals. This study presents two stages of a research project, combining qualitative in-depth interviews (29 HIV+ participants) with quantitative statistical data analysis (N = 120). All data was collected between July 2005 to March 2008 at Beijing's Ditan Hospital. Consent was obtained from each participant for the qualitative interview and again for the quantitative survey. During in-depth interviews, Chinese HIV+ patients reported experiencing digestive discomfort, skin rashes, numbness, memory loss, nightmares, and dizziness, which not only brought them physical discomfort, but also interrupted different dimensions of their social lives. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that those who reported more severe side effects also experienced greater depressive mood after controlling for other clinical and psychosocial factors. ART side effects are one of the primary reasons causing HIV+ individuals to delay or stop taking life-saving medication; therefore, clinical interventions are critically needed to assist HIV+ individuals in managing ART side effects. ART side effects reinforced existing negative attitudes toward ART and lead to lower ART adherence. Future research should focus on developing culturally sensitive interventions to enhance HIV+ self-management, to alleviate physical and psychological burden from ART and HIV. PMID:24083060

  13. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  14. Staff Knowledge of the Side Effects of Anti-Psychotic Medication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fretwell, Christine; Felce, David

    2007-01-01

    Background: Anti-psychotic medications are widely prescribed to people with intellectual disabilities and have a range of negative side effects. The aim was to identify the level of knowledge of anti-psychotic medications and their side effects among key carers or home managers of adults with intellectual disabilities living in residential group…

  15. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  16. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  17. Side effects of the Yuzpe regimen of emergency contraception and two modifications.

    PubMed

    Shochet, Tara; Blanchard, Kelly; King, Helen; Henchcliffe, Bridget; Hunt, Janice; McCaig, Chris; Weaver, Kate; Stirling, Alex; Glasier, Anna; Webb, Anne; Ellertson, Charlotte

    2004-04-01

    We investigated side effects after the standard Yuzpe regimen or two modifications: substituting norethindrone as the progestin or eliminating the second dose. We also examined the impact of taking either dose with food. Nearly two thirds of women reported at least one side effect, the majority of which were mild or moderate. Women in our study experienced more side effects after the second dose than after the first. Taking the first dose within 1 h of a meal or snack was associated with increased nausea and vomiting; taking the second dose within 1 h of a meal or snack was associated with decreased nausea and vomiting. A targeted approach to prophylactic antiemetic use could reduce the number of women given these drugs, and the number who experience unnecessary side effects. The impact of counseling on side effects should be further evaluated.

  18. Absence of oxysterol-like side effects in human monocytic cells treated with phytosterols and oxyphytosterols.

    PubMed

    Vejux, Anne; Montange, Thomas; Martine, Lucy; Zarrouk, Amira; Riedinger, Jean-Marc; Lizard, Gérard

    2012-04-25

    Oxysterols, found in some commonly consumed foods, can induce a wide range of cytotoxic effects, which have been extensively studied. On the other hand, the side effects of phytosterols and oxyphytosterols are less well-known. Over the past few years, different types of foods have been enriched with phytosterols on the basis of the properties of these compounds that reduce circulating cholesterol levels in certain experimental conditions. It is therefore important to gain better knowledge of the risks and benefits of this type of diet. In this study, conducted in human monocytic U937 cells, the ability of phytosterols (sitosterol, campesterol) and oxyphytosterols (7β-hydroxysitosterol, 7-ketositosterol) to induce cell death, polar lipid accumulation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine (MCP-1; IL-8) secretion was determined and compared to that of oxysterols (7-ketocholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol). Phytosterols and oxyphytosterols had no significant effects on the parameters studied; only 7β-hydroxysitosterol slightly increased cell death, whereas at the concentration used (20 μg/mL), strong cytotoxic effects were observed with the oxysterols. With sitosterol, campesterol, and 7-ketositosterol, IL-8 secretion was decreased, and with campesterol the intracellular polar lipid level was reduced. The data show that phytosterols and oxyphytosterols have no oxysterol-like side effects, and they rather argue in favor of phytosterols' beneficial effects.

  19. Differences of protein expression profiles, KRAS and BRAF mutation, and prognosis in right-sided colon, left-sided colon and rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xian Hua; Yu, Guan Yu; Gong, Hai Feng; Liu, Lian Jie; Xu, Yi; Hao, Li Qiang; Liu, Peng; Liu, Zhi Hong; Bai, Chen Guang; Zhang, Wei

    2017-08-11

    To compare protein expression levels, gene mutation and survival among Right-Sided Colon Cancer (RSCC), Left-Sided Colon Cancer (LSCC) and rectal cancer patients, 57 cases of RSCC, 87 LSCC and 145 rectal cancer patients were included retrospectively. Our results demonstrated significant differences existed among RSCC, LSCC and rectal cancer regarding tumor diameter, differentiation, invasion depth and TNM stage. No significant difference was identified in expression levels of MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, β-Tubulin III, P53, Ki67 and TOPIIα, and gene mutation of KRAS and BRAF among three groups. Progression Free Survival (PFS) of RSCC was significantly lower than that of LRCC and rectal cancer. In univariate analyses, RSCC, preoperative chemoradiotherapy, poor differentiation, advanced TNM stage, elevated serum CEA and CA19-9 level, tumor deposit, perineural and vascular invasion were found to be predictive factors of shorter PFS. In multivariate analyses, only differentiation and TNM stages were found to be independent predictors of PFS. In conclusion, compared with LSCC and rectal cancer, RSCC has larger tumor size, poor differentiation, advanced TNM stage and shorter survival. The shorter survival in RSCC might be attributed to the advanced tumor stage caused by its inherent position feature of proximal colon rather than genetic difference.

  20. Occurrence and current management of side effects in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated frontline with tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Breccia, Massimo; Alimena, Giuliana

    2013-06-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent the gold standard therapy of chronic myeloid leukemia and, after being used in imatinib resistant patients, dasatinib and nilotinib are now also used in frontline. In this article, we review data about occurrence of side effects in several trials testing imatinib or second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors first line. Literature data about high-dose imatinib used front-line as single treatment or with different combinations is also examined. A literature search for relevant studies was undertaken mainly in PubMed. This review is aimed to summarize the safety of different treatments and to discuss the current management of most common side effects. Literature evidence supports the fact that side effects associated to TKIs seem to differ between agents, but most of side effects reported occur early within the treatment course. Second generation frontline TKIs reduce the incidence of most of side effects reported with imatinib and peculiar events observed are typically manageable through drug dose reduction or treatment interruption.

  1. Synchronized vortex shedding and sound radiation from two side-by-side rectangular cylinders of different cross-sectional aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Octavianty, Ressa Asai, Masahito

    2015-10-15

    Synchronized vortex shedding from two side-by-side cylinders and the associated sound radiation were examined experimentally at Reynolds numbers of the order of 10{sup 4} in low-Mach-number flows. In addition to a pair of square cylinders, a pair of rectangular cylinders, one with a square cross section (d × d) and the other with a rectangular cross section (d × c) having a cross-sectional aspect ratio (c/d) of 1.2–1.5, was considered. The center-to-center distance between the two cylinders L/d was 3.6, 4.5, and 6.0; these settings were within the non-biased flow regime for side-by-side square cylinders. In case of a square cylinder pair, anti-phase synchronized vortex shedding occurring for L/d = 3.6 and 4.5 generated a quadrupole-like sound source which radiated in-phase, planar-symmetric sound in the far field. Synchronized vortex shedding from the two rectangular cylinders with different c/d also occurred with almost the same frequency as the characteristic frequency of the square-cylinder wake in the case of the small center-to-center distance, L/d = 3.6, for all the cylinder pairs examined. The synchronized sound field was anti-phase and asymmetric in amplitude, unlike the case of a square cylinder pair. For larger spacing L/d = 4.5, synchronized vortex shedding and anti-phase sound still occurred, but only for close cross-sectional aspect ratios (c/d = 1.0 and 1.2), and highly modulated sound was radiated with two different frequencies due to non-synchronized vortex shedding from the two cylinders for larger differences in c/d. It was also found that when synchronized vortex shedding occurred, near-wake velocity fluctuations exhibited high spanwise-coherency, with a very sharp spectral peak compared with the single-cylinder case.

  2. A comparison of geoengineering methods: assessment of precipitation side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, L. S.; Crook, J. A.; Osprey, S. M.; Forster, P.

    2014-12-01

    Intentional modification of Earth's climate by geoengineering can restore global mean temperature in climate model simulations but is expected to cause regional inequalities in temperature change and shifts in precipitation which may depend on the geoengineering method employed. In simulations of twenty-first century climate using the UKMO HadGEM2 climate model, we have assessed the effectiveness of two regional scale geoengineering methods (crop and desert albedo modification) and four large scale geoengineering methods (ocean albedo modification, marine cloud brightening by sea salt, cirrus cloud thinning and stratospheric sulphur). We projected anthropogenic emissions based on RCP4.5, applied geoengineering from 2020 to 2069 and quantified the impact on temperature and precipitation for 2040-2059 compared to a no-geoengineering control simulation. We found forcing for crop albedo modification was largely insignificant (-0.3 ± 0.3 Wm-2). Desert albedo modification had a catastrophic impact on tropical precipitation drying the Amazon, the Sahel, India and China. Of the large scale geoengineering simulations, only stratospheric sulphur and ocean albedo modification were potentially scalable to temporarily return global mean temperature to the late twentieth century climate. Cirrus cloud thinning was the only method that increased global mean precipitation (+0.7%) while in other respects the four methods were remarkable in the consistency of their precipitation response to geoengineering compared to the control simulation (Figure 1). Over land, precipitation reduced less (between -0.5% and +1.8%) than global precipitation (between -3.8% and +0.7%). A northward shift in tropical precipitation over the Atlantic and eastern Pacific was found for all four methods, likely driven by cloud rapid adjustments and changes in atmospheric circulation. After geoengineering, during 2080-2099, significant differences in maritime tropical precipitation persisted despite regional

  3. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario.

    PubMed

    Keller, David P; Feng, Ellias Y; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-25

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  4. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    PubMed Central

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited. PMID:24569320

  5. Potential climate engineering effectiveness and side effects during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, David P.; Feng, Ellias Y.; Oschlies, Andreas

    2014-02-01

    The realization that mitigation efforts to reduce carbon dioxide emissions have, until now, been relatively ineffective has led to an increasing interest in climate engineering as a possible means of preventing the potentially catastrophic consequences of climate change. While many studies have addressed the potential effectiveness of individual methods there have been few attempts to compare them. Here we use an Earth system model to compare the effectiveness and side effects of afforestation, artificial ocean upwelling, ocean iron fertilization, ocean alkalinization and solar radiation management during a high carbon dioxide-emission scenario. We find that even when applied continuously and at scales as large as currently deemed possible, all methods are, individually, either relatively ineffective with limited (<8%) warming reductions, or they have potentially severe side effects and cannot be stopped without causing rapid climate change. Our simulations suggest that the potential for these types of climate engineering to make up for failed mitigation may be very limited.

  6. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides.

    PubMed

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome.

  7. Investigation of lubrication effects in the right side of the forming limit diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sener, Bora; Kayali, Eyup Sabri

    2014-10-01

    In the present work, effect of lubrications was investigated in the right side of the forming limit diagram (FLD) by using the out-of-plane formability test. Interstitial-free steel (IF) sheet was used in this study. Primarily, mechanical properties of material like yield, tensile strengths, strain hardening coefficient (n), normal and planar anisotropy were determined by tensile test. Then, IF steel sheet was subjected to the out-of-plane formability test using four different lubricants. Polyethylene, Teflon, PVC film and deep drawing oil were used in the experiments. Major and minor strains were measured by image processing technique on the deformed sheets and was determined the right side of the FLD as per these lubricants separately. Deep drawability of IF steel sheet is high because of high normal anisotropy coefficient and while earing tendency during deep drawing is expected to be low due to its low planar anisotropy. It was shown that, the right side of the FLD was changed with these lubricants in out-of-plane formability test and almost biaxial deformation conditions were provided with deep drawing oil.

  8. Evaluatıng the effectiveness of frozen shoulder treatment on the right and left sides

    PubMed Central

    Alptekin, Hasan Kerem; Aydın, Tuğba; İflazoğlu, Enes Serkan; Alkan, Mirsad

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate treatments with interferential current, hot pack, ultrasound therapy, stretching, strengthening and range-of-motion exercises, comparing between the right and left shoulders in terms of pain and functional capacity in patients with frozen shoulder. This was a retrospective study. [Subjects and Methods] Sixty-four patients (34 right side, 30 left side) were treated with interferential current and hot pack application for 20 min each, ultrasound therapy for 3 min, regular range-of-motion exercises, stretching exercises, strengthening with a Theraband in all directions and post-exercise proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques. All cases were evaluated with visual analogue scales for pain, passive and active range of motion, Constant score, and the shoulder disability questionnaire, at baseline and 7 and 12 weeks after baseline. [Results] Marked improvement was noted in all patients in both right and left sides after treatment, and at 7 and 12 weeks of follow-up compared with baseline. There was no significant difference between the right and left shoulder groups, in all outcome measures. [Conclusion] The combination of physical therapy, exercise, and manual techniques is effective in treating frozen shoulder. The location of the lesion in the right or left shoulder does not, in itself, affect the prognosis or treatment outcome. PMID:26957759

  9. Simulation of mixed convection in a channel with cavity heated from different sides using fluent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saadun, Mohd Noor Asril; Haminudin, Nor Faizah Binti; Zakaria, Mohamad Shukri; Manaf, Muhammad Zaidan Abdul; Hanafi, Mohd Hafidzal Mohd

    2015-05-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) is one of the methods used in industry and in education to solve problems related to fluid flow in closed channel. Through simulation, the type of fluid flow, streamlines and vorticity can be seen to determine the ability of the airway is produced through a rectangular shape to remove contaminants that are trapped in it. In addition, the project is also looking at the effects of conductive heat transfer that being supply at the sided wall to the water flow and it will be seen whether able to help the flow of air to remove pollutants altogether. Time is the element that is reviewed and any. Interest in the rate of contaminants being transfer was varied by the investigated ratio of neither 2:1, 4:1 nor 1:2 to the length and width in 2D simulation for best possible cavity design. The removal percentage shown that as the aspect ratio increase, the removal rate also increase with steady flow constant.

  10. Effects of Alkylthio and Alkoxy Side Chains in Polymer Donor Materials for Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Chaohua; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2016-02-01

    Side chains play a considerable role not only in improving the solubility of polymers for solution-processed device fabrication, but also in affecting the molecular packing, electron affinity and thus the device performance. In particular, electron-donating side chains show unique properties when employed to tune the electronic character of conjugated polymers in many cases. Therefore, rational electron-donating side chain engineering can improve the photovoltaic properties of the resulting polymer donors to some extent. Here, a survey of some representative examples which use electron-donating alkylthio and alkoxy side chains in conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cell applications will be presented. It is envisioned that an analysis of the effect of such electron-donating side chains in polymer donors would contribute to a better understanding of this kind of side chain behavior in solution-processed conjugated organic polymers for polymer solar cells.

  11. Side effects of low-dose pyridostigmine bromide are not related to cholinesterase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cook, M R; Gerkovich, M M; Sastre, A; Graham, C

    2001-12-01

    Pretreatment with pyridostigmine bromide (PB) has become part of standard military procedures for protection against the effects of possible chemical warfare attack. The purpose of the work reported here was to quantify the type, intensity and frequency of side effects of low-dose PB, and to examine factors that predict the intensity and frequency of side effects. A double-blind, cross-over, placebo (PL)-controlled design was used. Of the 67 subjects, 33 received 30 mg PB every 8 h for 13 doses, and 34 received 60 mg on the same schedule. Order of PB and PL administration was counterbalanced. Overall, side effects were mild, even at the 60-mg dose level. More side effects were reported when volunteers were taking PB than when they were taking placebo. Women reported more symptoms than men. Neither cholinesterase inhibition nor plasma levels of PB predicted side effect scores during the PB week; the best predictor of side effect scores during the PB week was side effect scores during the PL week. PB is well tolerated by healthy young people, even when twice the recommended military dose is administered.

  12. Effect of vitamin B6 on the side effects of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Salas, E; Ponce de León, R; Juárez-Perez, M A; Grubb, G S

    1997-04-01

    Analogous to recommendations for treatment of side effects of early pregnancy and premenstrual syndrome, use of vitamin B6 has been recommended for the treatment of side effects of oral contraceptive (OC) use. A randomized, triple-blinded controlled trial of 124 women was done to evaluate the effect of taking 150 mg of vitamin B6 daily for 30 days on the severity of nausea, headache, vomiting, dizziness, depression, and irritability associated with the initiation of low-dose (30 micrograms norgestrel and 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol) OG use. The severity of the symptoms was measured on a scale from 0 to 3 (not present to severe), and was evaluated at one month after admission. The two treatment groups (vitamin B, and placebo) had comparable baseline characteristics. From admission to follow up, there was a decrease in the severity of all symptoms in both groups. There was no statistically significant difference in the reductions found in the vitamin B6 and the placebo groups, although reductions in the severity of headache and dizziness were greater in the B6 group. The decrease in the severity of all OC side effects can be explained more by a placebo effect than by a marginal pharmacological effect of the vitamin B6.

  13. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. Results In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments) and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA). In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. Conclusions The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process. PMID:21586169

  14. DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF SIJUNZI DECOCTION INHIBIT PROLIFERATION AND INDUCE APOPTOSIS OF HUMAN GASTRIC CANCER SGC-7901 SIDE POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Qian, Jun; Li, Jing; Jia, Jianguang; Jin, Xin; Yu, Dajun; Guo, Chenxu; Xie, Bo; Qian, Liyu

    2016-01-01

    Sijunzi Decoction (SD) is a traditional Chinese medicine which is composed of Ginseng, Atractylodes, Poria and Licorice. It is one of the commonly used Chinese traditional medicines that showed anti-gastric cancer activity in clinical studies. Previous evidence demonstrated SD parties (Ginseng, Atractylodes, Poria, Licorice) can inhibit proliferation and induced apoptosis for gastric cancer cell. In order to further investigate the anticancer effect of SD in gastric cancer, we observed the effects of different concentrations of SD on proliferation and apoptosis of Side Population Cells (SP) of human gastric cancer SGC-7901. SGC-7901 SP and Non- Side Population Cells (NSP) were sorted through flow cytometry; to detect the changes of proliferation of SP and NSP before and after the intervention of serum containing different concentrations of SD using cck-8 method; to detect the changes of cell cycle and apoptosis of SP and NSP before and after the intervention of serum containing different concentrations of SD through flow cytometry; to detect the effects of serum containing different concentrations of SD on apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2 of SP and NSP before and after the intervention by western-blot. It was found that different concentrations of SD serum treatments inhibited cell proliferation in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Compared with the control group (normal saline serum treatment), there were increase in G1/G0 phase population of SP and NSP, and decrease in G2/M and S phase population (P<0.05). Meanwhile, we found G1/G0 arrest induced by different concentrations of SD serum which was followed by apoptosis in a time-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. The apoptosis rate of SD serum treatment group was higher than the control group (P<0.05), the apoptosis rate of 48 h treatment was higher than 24 h treatment (P<0.05), and as the SD serum concentration increases, apoptosis rate is higher and higher (P<0.05). The

  15. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  16. Types of progestogens in combined oral contraception: effectiveness and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Lawrie, Theresa A; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Maitra, Nandita K; Kulier, Regina; Bloemenkamp, Kitty; Gülmezoglu, A Metin

    2011-05-11

    The progestogen component of combined oral contraceptives (COC) has undergone changes since it was first recognised that it's chemical structure could influence the spectrum of minor adverse and beneficial effects. The major determinants of effectiveness are compliance and continuation which may be influenced by cycle control and common side effects. The rationale of this review is to provide a systematic comparison of COCs containing the progestogens currently in use worldwide. To compare currently available low-dose COCs containing ethinyl estradiol and different progestogens in terms of contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, side effects and continuation rates. A search of PubMed, LILACS, EMBASE, Popline, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted in September 2010 to update the 2004 review. Randomised trials reporting clinical outcomes were considered for inclusion. We excluded studies comparing monophasic with multiphasic pills, crossover trials, trials in which the difference in total content of ethinyl estradiol between preparations exceeded 105 µg per cycle and those comparing continuous dosing regimens. Two reviewers independently assessed methodological quality, applied inclusion criteria and extracted data. Thirty trials with a total of 13,923 participants were included, generating 16 comparisons. Overall the quality of trials was low. Only four trials were double-blind. At least twenty-three trials were sponsored by pharmaceutical companies. There was less discontinuation with second-generation compared with first-generation monophasic progestogens (3 trials, 2,709 women, Relative Risk (RR) 0.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.67-0.86); this remained significant when only double-blind trials were considered (812 women, RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66-0.94).Women using monophasic COC's containing third-generation progestogens were less likely to discontinue than the second-generation group (3 trials, 1,815 women, RR

  17. A new method of evaluating the side wall interference effect on airfoil angle of attack by suction from the side walls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawada, H.; Sakakibara, S.; Sato, M.; Kanda, H.; Karasawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation method of the suction effect from a suction plate on side walls is explained. It is found from wind tunnel tests that the wall interference is basically described by the summation form of wall interferences in the case of two dimensional flow and the interference of side walls.

  18. Neonicotinoids in bees: a review on concentrations, side-effects and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Blacquière, Tjeerd; Smagghe, Guy; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Mommaerts, Veerle

    2012-05-01

    Neonicotinoid insecticides are successfully applied to control pests in a variety of agricultural crops; however, they may not only affect pest insects but also non-target organisms such as pollinators. This review summarizes, for the first time, 15 years of research on the hazards of neonicotinoids to bees including honey bees, bumble bees and solitary bees. The focus of the paper is on three different key aspects determining the risks of neonicotinoid field concentrations for bee populations: (1) the environmental neonicotinoid residue levels in plants, bees and bee products in relation to pesticide application, (2) the reported side-effects with special attention for sublethal effects, and (3) the usefulness for the evaluation of neonicotinoids of an already existing risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds. Although environmental residue levels of neonicotinoids were found to be lower than acute/chronic toxicity levels, there is still a lack of reliable data as most analyses were conducted near the detection limit and for only few crops. Many laboratory studies described lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids on the foraging behavior, and learning and memory abilities of bees, while no effects were observed in field studies at field-realistic dosages. The proposed risk assessment scheme for systemic compounds was shown to be applicable to assess the risk for side-effects of neonicotinoids as it considers the effect on different life stages and different levels of biological organization (organism versus colony). Future research studies should be conducted with field-realistic concentrations, relevant exposure and evaluation durations. Molecular markers may be used to improve risk assessment by a better understanding of the mode of action (interaction with receptors) of neonicotinoids in bees leading to the identification of environmentally safer compounds.

  19. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liyan; Shan, Fengling; Li, Wenbin; Lu, Hankui

    2016-01-01

    I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100-250 mCi) were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck's pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  1. [Cardiotoxicity as undesired side effect in the treatment of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Gramatyka, Michalina

    2014-05-08

    Improvement of methods used in breast cancer therapy resulted in increased treatment effectiveness and prolonged survival of patients. However, this is accompanied by increased frequency of adverse side effects, including cardiac toxicity, which is becoming a serious problem affecting the quality of life and overall survival of cancer patients. The risk of developing cardiovascular complications depends on the type and dose of therapeutic agent used. The highest risk of cardiotoxicity is associated with anthracyclines. They are used frequently in cancer therapy due to their high efficiency but show a dose-dependent toxicity to the cardiovascular system. Cardiotoxicity can also occur with other substances used in breast cancer chemotherapy, as well as with radiotherapy. Combining potentially cardiotoxic therapeutic agents, commonly used in combination therapy, may result in escalation of toxic side effects. Mechanisms of heart damage are different for various cardiotoxic agents, but symptoms usually involve heart failure, ischemic heart disease, arrhythmias, hypertension, valvular diseases or pericarditis and myocarditis. The practices used to reduce the risk of cardiotoxic effects of cancer therapy include evaluation of cardiac functions before treatment and constant monitoring during and after treatment. Furthermore, limited doses and modifications of anticancer agent administration patterns are employed, as well as simultaneous application of cardioprotective agents. Understanding of cardiotoxic mechanisms of agents used in breast cancer treatment can help to develop efficient cardioprotective substances. Because oxidative stress plays an important role in the toxicity of cancer therapy, compounds with antioxidant properties are a very promising target of research.

  2. [Side effects of drugs on the oral cavity].

    PubMed

    Bascones-Martínez, Antonio; Muñoz-Corcuera, Marta; Bascones-Ilundain, Cristina

    2015-02-02

    Although drugs are the most powerful therapeutic tools we have for improving the quality of life of the population, their use is not free of adverse effects. Today there are many polymedicated patients, and it is difficult to find the cause of their adverse effects that increase exponentially when more than 4 drugs are combined. There are a large number of drugs that can result in numerous adverse effects in the oral cavity. The most common are xerostomia, altered taste, gingival enlargement and mucositis caused by cancer treatment. We also review other disorders of the salivary glands, oral mucosal changes, pigmentations, halitosis, osteonecrosis, opportunistic infections and bleeding diathesis.

  3. Cancer Treatment for Women: Possible Sexual Side Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects among women include: Difficulty reaching climax Less energy for sexual activity Loss of desire for sex ... org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation ...

  4. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... lipodystrophy can be upsetting and affect a person’s self-esteem. Because of lipodystrophy, a person may decide to ... Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents/Adverse Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the Department ...

  5. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect

    PubMed Central

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-01-01

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect. PMID:27121433

  6. Risperidone-induced Gingival Bleeding in a Pediatric Case: A Dose-dependent Side Effect.

    PubMed

    Hergüner, Sabri; Özayhan, Hatice Yardım; Erdur, Emire Aybuke

    2016-05-31

    There are several case reports on risperidone-related bleeding; however, to our knowledge, there is no report about gingival bleeding associated with risperidone in the literature. We presented a case who experienced gingival bleeding when risperidone dose was increased to 0.5 mg/day, and subsided after decreasing the dose to 0.25 mg/day, suggesting a dose-dependent side-effect. The bleeding side effect of risperidone might be caused by several mechanisms, including 5-hydroxytryptamine 2A receptor antagonism. Although bleeding associated with risperidone is rarely reported, clinicians should be aware of this side effect.

  7. Treatment strategy: Role of enfuvirtide in managing treatment-limiting side effects

    PubMed Central

    Tsoukas, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Side effects can limit the options available to physicians for the treatment of HIV infection. Management of these side effects is essential, to avoid cessation of treatment. The entry inhibitor enfuvirtide can be useful as one of three active agents in an HIV treatment regimen as a way to both reduce treatment-limiting side effects and provide an efficacious agent for viral control. In the present case, the patient had a problematic and lengthy treatment history, with numerous concomitant conditions. His latest regimen, which includes an agent in a new drug class (enfuvirtide), has maintained HIV suppression while minimizing toxicity. PMID:23365593

  8. Treatment strategy: Role of enfuvirtide in managing treatment-limiting side effects.

    PubMed

    Tsoukas, Christos

    2007-01-01

    Side effects can limit the options available to physicians for the treatment of HIV infection. Management of these side effects is essential, to avoid cessation of treatment. The entry inhibitor enfuvirtide can be useful as one of three active agents in an HIV treatment regimen as a way to both reduce treatment-limiting side effects and provide an efficacious agent for viral control. In the present case, the patient had a problematic and lengthy treatment history, with numerous concomitant conditions. His latest regimen, which includes an agent in a new drug class (enfuvirtide), has maintained HIV suppression while minimizing toxicity.

  9. TEC differences for the mid-latitude ionosphere in both sides of the longitudes with zero declination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J. S.; Li, X. J.; Liu, Y. W.; Jing, M.

    2014-09-01

    Based on measurements of ground-based GPS station network, differences of the mid-latitude ionospheric TEC in the east and west sides of North America, South America and Oceania have been analyzed in this paper. Results show that for nearly all seasons from 2001 to 2010 and in both sides of the longitudes with zero declination, there exist systematic differences for the mid-latitude ionospheric TEC in the regions mentioned above and the features of these differences markedly depend upon the local time but less depend upon seasons and the level of solar activity. Theory analysis shows that the longitude variations of both declination and zonal thermospheric winds are one of important factors to cause differences of the mid-latitude ionospheric TEC in both sides of the longitudes with zero declination.

  10. Radioiodine therapy in benign thyroid diseases: effects, side effects, and factors affecting therapeutic outcome.

    PubMed

    Bonnema, Steen Joop; Hegedüs, Laszlo

    2012-12-01

    Radioiodine ((131)I) therapy of benign thyroid diseases was introduced 70 yr ago, and the patients treated since then are probably numbered in the millions. Fifty to 90% of hyperthyroid patients are cured within 1 yr after (131)I therapy. With longer follow-up, permanent hypothyroidism seems inevitable in Graves' disease, whereas this risk is much lower when treating toxic nodular goiter. The side effect causing most concern is the potential induction of ophthalmopathy in predisposed individuals. The response to (131)I therapy is to some extent related to the radiation dose. However, calculation of an exact thyroid dose is error-prone due to imprecise measurement of the (131)I biokinetics, and the importance of internal dosimetric factors, such as the thyroid follicle size, is probably underestimated. Besides these obstacles, several potential confounders interfere with the efficacy of (131)I therapy, and they may even interact mutually and counteract each other. Numerous studies have evaluated the effect of (131)I therapy, but results have been conflicting due to differences in design, sample size, patient selection, and dose calculation. It seems clear that no single factor reliably predicts the outcome from (131)I therapy. The individual radiosensitivity, still poorly defined and impossible to quantify, may be a major determinant of the outcome from (131)I therapy. Above all, the impact of (131)I therapy relies on the iodine-concentrating ability of the thyroid gland. The thyroid (131)I uptake (or retention) can be stimulated in several ways, including dietary iodine restriction and use of lithium. In particular, recombinant human thyrotropin has gained interest because this compound significantly amplifies the effect of (131)I therapy in patients with nontoxic nodular goiter.

  11. When the Patient Seeks Cure: Challenging Chemotherapy and Radiation Side Effects Requiring Creative Solutions.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Aurelie C; Drapek, Lorraine; Fahey, Jean; Rowen, Brenna; Burns-Britton, Betty; Lavadinho-Lemos, Maria; Hultman, Todd

    2016-04-01

    When undergoing concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy for anal cancer, patients often experience significant side effects, including grade 1 or 2 radiation dermatitis, pain, exudate, and diarrhea. This case study presents a grade 3 reaction complicated by complex medical conditions. In addition to an evidence-based skin care treatment and side effect management plan that support patients during this intense period, this article offers creative strategies to provide a cost-effective healing option.

  12. Comparison of two doses of elemental iron in the treatment of latent iron deficiency: efficacy, side effects and blinding capabilities.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Alecia J; Chalmers, Kerry A; Collins, Clare E; Patterson, Amanda J

    2014-04-04

    Adherence to iron supplementation can be compromised due to side effects, and these limit blinding in studies of iron deficiency. No studies have reported an efficacious iron dose that allows participants to remain blinded. This pilot study aimed to determine a ferrous sulfate dose that improves iron stores, while minimising side effects and enabling blinding. A double-blinded RCT was conducted in 32 women (18-35 years): 24 with latent iron deficiency (serum ferritin < 20 µg/L) and 8 iron sufficient controls. Participants with latent iron deficiency were randomised to 60 mg or 80 mg elemental iron or to placebo, for 16 weeks. The iron sufficient control group took placebo. Treatment groups (60 mg n = 7 and 80 mg n = 6) had significantly higher ferritin change scores than placebo groups (iron deficient n = 5 and iron sufficient n = 6), F(1, 23) = 8.46, p ≤ 0.01. Of the 24 who completed the trial, 10 participants (77%) on iron reported side effects, compared with 5 (45%) on placebo, but there were no differences in side effects (p = 0.29), or compliance (p = 0.60) between iron groups. Nine (69%) participants on iron, and 11 (56%) on placebo correctly guessed their treatment allocation. Both iron doses were equally effective in normalising ferritin levels. Although reported side-effects were similar for both groups, a majority of participants correctly guessed their treatment group.

  13. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation by cinnarizine. Possible implications to its therapeutic and side-effects.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, A C; Filipe, P M; Coelho, H; Manso, C F

    1991-03-01

    Cinnarizine has antivasoconstrictor properties and improves red-cell deformability. Its major side-effects are the induction of extrapyramidal reactions. It is a calcium antagonist, but it was suggested that its effects may depend on other mechanisms, namely on antiperoxidant properties. We have studied these properties in different biological systems, intact red-cells included. The occurrence of lipid peroxidation was determined by the formation of 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive products. Cinnarizine was found to inhibit spontaneous lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenates, copper-induced lipid peroxidation in human plasma and copper-induced and hydrogen peroxide-induced lipid peroxidation in human red-cells. In red-cells, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation is accompanied by the inhibition of hemolysis. Copper-induced red-cell lipid peroxidation is 85% inhibited by as little as 5 microM cinnarizine. The antioxidant activity of cinnarizine may contribute to explain some of the effects of this drug.

  14. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Lipodystrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection or medicines used to treat HIV. Other risk factors for lipodystrophy include: Age : Older people are at ... Effects of Antiretroviral Agents From the Department of Veterans Affairs: Body Shape Changes with HIV From the Health Resources and Services Administration: Guide for HIV/AIDS ...

  15. Performance outcomes and unwanted side effects associated with energy drinks.

    PubMed

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Pallarés, Jesús G

    2014-10-01

    Energy drinks are increasingly popular among athletes and others. Advertising for these products typically features images conjuring great muscle power and endurance; however, the scientific literature provides sparse evidence for an ergogenic role of energy drinks. Although the composition of energy drinks varies, most contain caffeine; carbohydrates, amino acids, herbs, and vitamins are other typical ingredients. This report analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on prolonged submaximal (endurance) exercise as well as on short-term strength and power (neuromuscular performance). It also analyzes the effects of energy drink ingredients on the fluid and electrolyte deficit during prolonged exercise. In several studies, energy drinks have been found to improve endurance performance, although the effects could be attributable to the caffeine and/or carbohydrate content. In contrast, fewer studies find an ergogenic effect of energy drinks on muscle strength and power. The existing data suggest that the caffeine dose given in studies of energy drinks is insufficient to enhance neuromuscular performance. Finally, it is unclear if energy drinks are the optimal vehicle to deliver caffeine when high doses are needed to improve neuromuscular performance. © 2014 International Life Sciences Institute.

  16. NEW APPLICATIONS OF ADAPTOGENS TO REDUCE RADIATION SIDE EFFECTS.

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S N; Antipina, U D; Arzhakova, L I; Protodyakonov, S V

    2015-01-01

    One of the live medical issues today is to find medication to prevent adverse effects of ionizing radiation on the immune and hematopoietic systems. In Yakutia where in most of its regions the overall environmental situation is getting worse due to the development of natural deposits including radioactive deposits, this problem remains vital. The purpose of this work is to study radioprotective properties of adaptogens in the case of the hematopoietic system under irradiation. The studies were conducted on certain groups of hybrid mice. We used the methods of radiation exposure by a radiological apparatus RUM-25 on hybrid mice followed by studying the cellularity of bone marrow, spleen and thymus. The functional activity of all compartments of early hematopoiesis (bone marrow hematopoiesis) was identified by the exogenous colony forming method. The study found that the extracts of reindeer and moose antlers have a stimulating effect on the functional activity of the hematopoietic precursors in response to radiation. The study medication stimulates regeneration processes in the thymus and bone marrow after irradiation. Further, the adaptogens stimulatory effect on CFU functional activity was identified. The most pronounced effect has the extracts of reindeer antlers "Epsorin".

  17. Oral tissues and orthodontic treatment: common side effects.

    PubMed

    Farronato, G; Giannini, L; Galbiati, G; Cannalire, P; Martinelli, G; Tubertini, I; Maspero, C

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a literature review about the problems that can occur during orthodontic treatment. Using the PubMed database we collected items that would provide information regarding the direct consequences of the placement of an orthodontic appliance: coming to the discussion of the following topics: candida infections, the effects on the soft tissues, the effects on periodontal tissues and effects on hard tissues. The presence of appliances in the oral cavity increases the prevalence of people with candida, specifically the species Candida Albicans is the most frequently isolated. The balance between the clearance of the microorganism, the colonization and the state of candidiasis depends both on the virulence of the fungus, and the competence of the host immune system. On soft tissues, cases of ulceration of the upper jaw by a rapid palatal expander and pyogenic granuloma due to quad helix appliance have been reported. The second one is mostly observed on vestibular gingiva. The first one was found, however, in patients suffering from diabetes mellitus type 1 because of the tissue modifications induced by this pathological condition. The more severe periodontic effects are those caused by incorrect use of orthodontic elastic separators. Finally, the White Spot Lesions are the direct consequences of a wrong conditioning of enamel when attaching the bracket. They represent a first stage of caries in the positioning area of the bracket. The orthodontist is required to intercept these issues not to affect the success of the treatment.

  18. Side effects of pain and analgesia in animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Jirkof, Paulin

    2017-03-22

    This review highlights selected effects of untreated pain and of widely used analgesics such as opioids, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and antipyretics, to illustrate the relevance of carefully planned, appropriate and controlled analgesia for greater reproducibility in animal experiments involving laboratory rodents.

  19. Modification of eucalyptus pulp fiber using silane coupling agents with aliphatic side chains of different length

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of three silane coupling agents with different aliphatic chain lengths on the hydrophobicity of eucalyptus pulp fiber. The three silanes coupling agents used (isobutyltrimethoxysilane, methyltrimethoxysilane, and n-octyltriethoxysilane [OTES]) we...

  20. Ayurveda for chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Metri, Kashinath; Bhargav, Hemant; Chowdhury, Praerna; Koka, Prasad S

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are highly toxic and both damage adjacent healthy cells. Side effects may be acute (occurring within few weeks after therapy), intermediate or late (occurring months or years after the therapy). Some important side effects of chemotherapy are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, alopecia, constipation etc; whereas radiation therapy though administered locally, can produce systemic side effects such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, alteration in the taste, sleep disturbance, headache, anemia, dry skin, constipation etc. Late complications of these therapies also include pharyngitis, esophagitis, laryngitis, persistent dysphagia, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, infertility and cognitive deficits. These arrays of side effects have a devastating effect on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Due to the inadequacy of most of the radio-protectors and chemo-protectors in controlling the side effects of conventional cancer therapy the complementary and alternative medicines have attracted the view of researchers and medical practitioners more recently. This review aims at providing a comprehensive management protocol of above mentioned chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects based on Ayurveda, which is an ancient system of traditional medicine practiced in Indian peninsula since 5000 BC. When the major side effects of chemo-radiotherapy are looked through an ayurvedic perspective, it appears that they are the manifestations of aggravated pitta dosha, especially under the group of disorders called Raktapitta (haemorrhage) or Raktadushti (vascular inflammation). Based on comprehensive review of ancient vedic literature and modern scientific evidences, ayurveda based interventions are put forth. This manuscript should help clinicians and people suffering from cancer to combat serious chemo-radiotherapy related side effects through simple but effective home-based ayurveda remedies. The remedies described are commonly available and

  1. Perceived risk of tamoxifen side effects: a study of the use of absolute frequencies or frequency bands, with or without verbal descriptors.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Peter; Gardner, Peter H; Raynor, David K; Woolf, Elizabeth; McMillan, Brian

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of presenting medicine side effect risk information in different forms, including that proposed by UK guidelines [[1] Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Always read the leaflet-Getting the best information with every medicine. (Report of the Committee on Safety of Medicines Working Group on Patient Information). London: The Stationery Office, 2005.]. 134 Cancer Research UK (CRUK) website users were recruited via a 'pop-up'. Using a 2x2 factorial design, participants were randomly allocated to one of four conditions and asked to: imagine they had to take tamoxifen, estimate the risks of 4 side effects, and indicate a presentation mode preference. Those presented with absolute frequencies demonstrated greater accuracy in estimating 2 of 4 side effects, and of any side effect occurring, than those presented with frequency bands. Those presented with combined descriptors were more accurate at estimating the risk of pulmonary embolism than those presented with numeric descriptors only. Absolute frequencies outperform frequency bands when presenting side effect risk information. However, presenting such exact frequencies for every side effect may be much less digestible than all side effects listed under 5 frequency bands. Combined numerical and verbal descriptors may be better than numeric only descriptors when describing infrequent side effects. Information about side effects should be presented in ways that patients prefer, and which result in most accurate risk estimates. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Orientation of tyrosine side chain in neurotoxic Aβ differs in two different secondary structures of the peptide

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swagata; Das, Supriya; Roy, Anupam

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is present as a major component in amyloid plaque that is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. The peptide contains a single tyrosine residue and Aβ has a major implication in the pathology of the disease progression. Current investigation revealed that the tyrosine side chain attained two different critical stereo orientations in two dissimilar conformational states of the peptide. The extended α-helical structure of the peptide observed in an apolar solvent or methanol/water mixture became disordered in aqueous medium and the radius of gyration decreased. In aqueous medium, the torsional angle around Cα–Cβ of tyrosine group became −60°. However, in its α-helical conformation in an apolar system, the measured angle was 180° and this rotameric state may be reasoned behind stronger tyrosine fluorescence compared with the disordered state of the peptide. Molecular dynamics simulation analyses and spectroscopic studies have helped us to understand the major structural changes in the secondary structure of the peptide in the two conformational states. A conformational clustering indicated that the compact state is more stable with tyrosine residue attaining the torsion angle value of −60°, whereas the native state (in HFIP/water mixture) is prevalent at a torsion angle value of −180°. High solvent accessibility has possibly stabilized the particular rotameric state (−60°) of the tyrosine residue and could be the reason behind decrease in fluorescence of the sole tyrosine residue in an aqueous buffer solution (pH 7.4) compared with its fluorescence in the α-helical structure in the micellar environment. PMID:27853536

  3. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    PubMed

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  4. Side Effects of Culture Media Antibiotics on Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Llobet, Laura; Montoya, Julio; López-Gallardo, Ester; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2015-11-01

    Besides the advance in scientific knowledge and the production of different compounds, cell culture can now be used to obtain cells for regenerative medicine. To avoid microbial contamination, antibiotics were usually incorporated into culture media. However, these compounds affect cell biochemistry and may modify the differentiation potential of cultured cells. To check this possibility, we grew human adipose tissue-derived stem cells and differentiated them to adipocyte with or without antibiotics commonly used in these culture protocols, such as a penicillin-streptomycin-amphotericin mix or gentamicin. We show that these antibiotics affect cell differentiation. Therefore, antibiotics should not be used in cell culture because aseptic techniques make these compounds unnecessary.

  5. A detailed insight into drug delivery from PEDOT based on analytical methods: effects and side effects.

    PubMed

    Boehler, Christian; Asplund, Maria

    2015-03-01

    The possibility to release drugs from conducting polymers, like polypyrrole or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), has been described and investigated for a variety of different substances during the last years, showing a wide interest in these release systems. A point that has not been looked at so far however is the possibility of other substances, next to the intended ones, leaving the polymer film under the high voltage excursions during redox sweeping. In this study we target this weakness of commonly used detection methods by implementing a high precision analytical method (high-performance liquid chromatography) that allows a separation and subsequently a detailed quantification of all possible release products. We could identify a significantly more complex release behavior for a PEDOT:Dex system than has been assumed so far, revealing the active release of the monomer upon redox activation. The released EDOT could thereby be shown to result from the bulk material, causing a considerable loss of polymer (>10% during six release events) that could partly account for the observed degradation or delamination effects of drug-eluting coatings. The monomer leakage was found to be substantially higher for a PEDOT:Dex film compared to a PEDOT:PSS sample. This finding indicates an overestimation of drug release if side products are mistaken for the actual drug mass. Moreover the full picture of released substances implements the need for further studies to reduce the monomer leakage and identify possible adverse effects, especially in the perspective of releasing an anti-inflammatory substance for attenuation of the foreign body reaction toward implanted electrodes.

  6. [Preventive measures against transfusion-associated complications and side effects].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Miho; Ikebuchi, Kenji

    2008-09-01

    The current efforts and strategies have greatly helped reduce transfusion-associated risks. Indeed, the risk of being infected by a contaminated blood unit today is lower than that thirty years ago. This improvement is due to the introduction of nucleic acid testing (NAT). Compatibility testing is designed to ensure that the patient receives the intended units of red cell concentrate (RCC) and that transfusion will be effective with minimum risk of adverse reactions. The process includes ABO and Rh typing of patients, testing recipient serum for clinically important alloantibodies, and crossmatching donor red cells with recipient serum by a technique that detects serological incompatibility.

  7. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    PubMed

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT.

  8. The frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of immersion virtual reality.

    PubMed

    Regan, E C; Price, K R

    1994-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become increasingly well-known over the last few years. However, little is known about the side-effects of prolonged immersion in VR. This study set out to investigate the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion VR system. Out of 146 subjects, 61% reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. These ranged from symptoms such as dizziness, stomach awareness, headaches, eyestrain and lightheadedness to severe nausea. These symptoms caused 5% of the subjects to withdraw from the experiment before completing their 20-min immersion period. Further research needs to be conducted that attempts to identify those factors that play a causative role in the side-effects of the VR system, and that looks for methods of reducing these side-effects.

  9. A second international co-operative investigation into thioacetazone side-effects*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Ferguson, G. C.; Fox, Wallace; Tall, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international, co-operative investigation into the side-effects produced by thioacetazone employed in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of a supplement incorporating vitamins and an antihistamine as a prophylactic. Over a 12-week period of treatment, the additive supplement failed to reduce the over-all frequency of side-effects or the frequency of side-effects leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment. There was also no evidence that the more serious side-effects, particularly rashes, jaundice and agranulocytosis, were reduced by the additives, although the occurrence of vomiting, which was however infrequent, was reduced. In view of this lack of appreciable benefit, as well as the higher cost and impaired keeping properties of tablets containing thioacetazone plus isoniazid when the supplement is added, the use of the supplement as a prophylactic cannot be recommended. PMID:4098113

  10. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  11. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    PubMed

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  12. A Weighty Matter: Heaviness Influences the Evaluation of Disease Severity, Drug Effectiveness, and Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Peoples' perception of diseases and pharmaceutical drugs is a critical issue in health research. Beliefs about disease severity influence the compliance with recommendations for convalescence and the motivation to perform proper health-behavior. The estimated effectiveness of drugs and severity of side effects influence medication adherence and contribute to placebo effects. The present paper closes the gap between these effects and the concept of embodied cognition from a metaphor-enriched perspective. In five studies, we demonstrate that the bodily sensation of weight influences our evaluations of diseases and drugs. The experience of heaviness enhanced the estimated seriousness of diseases and the estimated effectiveness of drugs. The perceived seriousness of drug side effects was also affected by weight but only when drug effectiveness was not attended to. Moreover, the incidental sensation of weight shows a novel effect when evaluating weight-related drugs. The results are in line with the idea of embodied metaphors and reveal important boundary conditions which contribute to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:24244302

  13. Immune checkpoint inhibitors renal side effects and management.

    PubMed

    Rassy, Elie El; Kourie, Hampig R; Rizkallah, Jamale; Karak, Fadi El; Hanna, Colette; Chelala, Dania N; Ghosn, Marwan

    2016-12-01

    The choice of immunotherapy in the treatment of cancer has improved the prognosis of many patients affected by various malignancies. The high expectations foreseen with immunotherapy have led to fast approvals despite the incomplete understanding of the toxicity profiles in the different organs, including the kidneys. The high prevalence of chronic kidney disease in cancer patients complicates the issue further and requires a better knowledge of the renal safety profile to ensure an optimal safe treatment. This review summarizes the present knowledge of renal adverse events secondary to immune checkpoint inhibitors and discusses their pathophysiology, clinical presentation and adequate management. We also advocate the need for a multidisciplinary approach in patients with immune-related toxic adverse events.

  14. Managing Side Effects of Vemurafenib Therapy for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Brenda; Trinh, Van Anh

    2014-01-01

    Somatic point mutations in the BRAF gene have been found in approximately 50% of melanomas. BRAFV600E, the most common mutation, results in the constitutive activation of BRAFV600E kinase, sustaining MAPK signaling and perpetuating cell growth. This groundbreaking discovery led to the clinical development of vemurafenib, a selective BRAF inhibitor. Vemurafenib has been approved for the treatment of patients with BRAFV600E-positive unresectable or metastatic melanoma based on survival benefit demonstrated in a randomized phase III study. The current approved dosing schedule of vemurafenib is 960 mg orally twice a day until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Vemurafenib is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects including skin reactions, photosensitivity, headache, and arthralgia. Active research is ongoing to expand the utility of vemurafenib into the adjuvant setting and to circumvent rapid emergence of drug resistance. PMID:26328215

  15. Evaluation of antimotion sickness drug side effects on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.

  16. Evaluation of antimotion sickness drug side effects on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, C. D.; Manno, J. E.; Manno, B. R.; Redetzki, H. M.; Wood, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of antimotion-sickness drugs on the performance in computerized-pursuit-meter tests of groups of ten 18-30-yr-old male and female subjects are investigated experimentally using double-blind placebo techniques. The results are presented in tables and graphs and discussed in detail. The proficiency scores are as good as or better than placebo values for subjects given d-amphetamine (DA) 5 or 10 mg, promethazine (P) 25 mg + scopolamine (S) 400 ng + DA 10 mg, S 1 mg + DA 10 mg, S 250-600 ng, marezine 50 mg, meclizine 50 mg, dimenhydrinate 50 mg, S 1 mg + DA 5 mg, or P 25 mg + DA 10 mg. Significantly lower scores are seen in subjects given S 800 ng or 1 mg, P 25 mg (oral or IM), P 25 mg + S 400 ng, and P 25 mg oral + P 25 mg IM + DA 10 mg.

  17. Hypertrichosis as a side effect of inhaled steroids in children.

    PubMed

    de Vries, T W; de Langen-Wouterse, J J; de Jong-Van den Berg, L T W; Duiverman, E J

    2007-04-01

    Three spontaneous reports of patients in whom a relationship between hypertrichosis and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) was suspected, were reported to Lareb, The Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Center. We sought evidence for and against a causal relationship between hypertrichosis and ICS in children. The relationship between hypertrichosis and ICS was studied mathematically by assessing the Reporting Odds Ratio (ROR) and by determining the Naranjo Score (NS). We also studied the reports sent to the Pharmacovigilance Database of the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) of the WHO and reviewed the literature. In the Dutch children, the ROR between hypertrichosis and ICS was 14.6 (95%CI 3.6-59.5), the NS was 4. In the database of the UMC 20 more reports on hypertrichosis and ICS were found, contributing to the results of the Dutch database. Taken together, 11 boys and 12 girls were involved with a mean age of 7 years (range 1-17). The time between the start of ICS and the occurrence of hypertrichosis varied between 1 month and 3 years. Besides the hypertrichosis, growth retardation was found in 5 children and adrenal suppression in 12. In 12 children the outcome after cessation was reported: in 6 children the hypertrichosis improved, whilst in 6 it did not. We found sufficient evidence to support the suspicion that hypertrichosis might be a true adverse effect of ICS. We found no simple dose-effect relationship but obviously there is an individual susceptibility. After cessation of ICS the exaggerated hair growth will not disappear in all children. Hypertrichosis may be a useful clinical pointer to exogenous steroid excess.

  18. Polarized optical spectroscopy applied to investigate two poly(phenylene-vinylene) polymers with different side chain structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pâlsson, Lars-Olof; Vaughan, Helen L.; Monkman, Andrew P.

    2006-10-01

    Two related poly(phenylene-vinylene) (PPV) light-emitting polymers have been investigated by means of polarized optical spectroscopy. The purpose of the investigation was to investigate the nature of the interactions in thin films and to examine what impact the difference in side chain structure and molecular weight in poly(2'-methoxy-5-2-ethyl-hexoxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV) and poly(2-(3',7'-dimethyloctyloxy)-5-methoxy-1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (OC1C10-PPV) has on the electronic and optical properties of the two polymers. Aligning the polymers by dispersing them in anisotropic solvents and stretched films shows that the side chains have an impact on the relative orientations of the transition dipole moments. In anisotropic solvents the linear dichroism is larger for MEH-PPV than for the related polymer OC1C10-PPV, while in stretched films the opposite situation prevails. A lower polarization of the luminescence from OC1C10-PPV, relative to MEH-PPV, was also obtained independent of alignment medium used. The data therefore suggest that while mechanical stretching may align the OC1C10-PPV to a greater degree, the emitting species is distinct from the absorbing species. The circular dichroism (CD) spectra of both polymers undergo dramatic changes when the liquid phase and the solid state (film) are compared. The solution CD spectra shows no evidence of interchain interactions; instead the spectra of both systems indicate a helical conformation of the polymers. The CD spectra of films are dramatically different with the strong Cotton effect being observed. This points to the formation of an aggregate in the film, with an associated ground state interaction, an interchain species such as a physical dimer, or a more complex higher aggregate.

  19. Performance of Booster Seats in Side Impacts: Effect of Adjacent Passengers and Isofix Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Judith L.; Fildes, Brian; Taranto, David; Laemmle, Ronald; Smith, Stuart; Clark, Anthony; Holden, GM

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the performance of a booster seat in different seating configurations in side-impact hyGe sled tests (crash severity 30 km/h) with two attachment systems: a standard seatbelt and ISOfix (rigid). The objectives of the study were twofold: (i) to identify the relative benefits of ISOfix attachment compared with seatbelt attachment of a near-side booster seat in a 3-abreast seating configuration with adjacent occupants in child restraints (CRS); and (ii) to examine the effects of 3-abreast seating configurations compared with no adjacent passengers on booster seat crash protection characteristics. Overall, the findings confirmed the superior performance of the rigid anchorages in reducing lateral motion of the booster as well as the two adjacent CRS. However, the expected benefits of the rigid attachment in reducing head accelerations were not uniformly observed across the three occupants/seating positions and also appeared to be influenced by seating configuration (3-abreast versus no adjacent occupant). Further research is warranted to explore the applicability of the findings for different CRS types and seating configurations. PMID:18184490

  20. Critical assessment of side-chain conformational space sampling procedures designed for quantifying the effect of side-chain environment.

    PubMed

    Gautier, R; Tufféry, P

    2003-11-30

    We introduce a family of procedures designed to sample side-chain conformational space at particular locations in protein structures. These procedures (CRSP) use intensive cycles of random assignment of side-chain conformations followed by minimization to determine all the conformations that a group of side-chains can adopt simultaneously. First, we consider a procedure evolving in the dihedral space (dCRSP). Our results suggest that it can accurately map low-energy conformations adopted by clusters of side-chains of a protein. dCRSP is relatively insensitive to various important parameters, and it is sufficiently accurate to capture efficiently the constraint induced by the environment on the conformations a particular side-chain can adopt. Our results show that dCRSP, compared with molecular dynamics (MD), can overcome the problem of the limited set of conformations reached in a reasonable amount of simulations. Next, we introduce procedures (vCRSP) in which valence angles are relaxed, and we assess how efficiently they quantify the conformational entropy of side-chains in the protein native state. For simple peptides, entropies obtained with vCRSP are fully compatible with those obtained with a Monte Carlo procedure. For side-chains in a protein environment, however, vCRSP appears of limited use. Finally, we consider a two-step procedure that combines dCRSP and vCRSP. Our tests suggest that it is able to overcome the limitations of vCRSP. We also note that dCRSP provides a reasonable initial approximation. This family of procedures offers promise in quantifying the contribution of conformational entropy to the energetics of protein structures. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 15: 1950-1961, 2003

  1. Osmolyte effects on protein stability and solubility: a balancing act between backbone and side-chains

    PubMed Central

    Auton, Matthew; Rösgen, Jörg; Sinev, Mikhail; Holthauzen, Luis Marcelo F.; Bolen, D. Wayne

    2011-01-01

    In adaptation biology the discovery of intracellular osmolyte molecules that in some cases reach molar levels, raises questions of how they influence protein thermodynamics. We’ve addressed such questions using the premise that from atomic coordinates, the transfer free energy of a native protein (ΔGtr,N) can be predicted by summing measured water-to-osmolyte transfer free energies of the protein’s solvent exposed side chain and backbone component parts. ΔGtr,D is predicted using a self avoiding random coil model for the protein, and ΔGtr,D − ΔGtr,N, predicts the m-value, a quantity that measures the osmolyte effect on the N ⇌ D transition. Using literature and newly measured m-values we show 1:1 correspondence between predicted and measured m-values covering a range of 12 kcal/mol/M in protein stability for 46 proteins and 9 different osmolytes. Osmolytes present a range of side chain and backbone effects on N and D solubility and protein stability key to their biological roles. PMID:21683504

  2. Understanding the side effects of emission trading: implications for waste management.

    PubMed

    Braschel, Nina; Posch, Alfred; Pierer, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The trading of emission allowances is an important market instrument in climate policy. However, the inclusion of certain branches of industry in the trading system not only provides incentives for emission reduction, it also entails unwanted side effects. Thus, the objective of the present study is to identify such side effects-positive and negative-by examining the potential impact of waste management inclusion in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Desk research was supplemented with qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis (based on expert interviews and a questionnaire) in order to analyse the related perceptions and expectations of actors and stakeholders. The impact of waste management inclusion in the EU ETS is analysed in terms of the following three areas: (i) costs and cost pass-through, (ii), competitiveness and market position, and (iii) carbon leakage. Concerning expectations in the area of costs, both the interviewed experts and the practitioners surveyed thought that costs were likely to increase or that they could be passed on to customers. However, experts and practitioners differed with respect to the possibility of carbon leakage. Clearly, increased knowledge of the possible impact arising from inclusion of the waste sector in the EU ETS would enable managers to become more proactive and to manage waste streams and treatment options more economically.

  3. Image-guided conformation arc therapy for prostate cancer: Early side effects

    SciTech Connect

    Soete, Guy . E-mail: guy.soete@az.vub.ac.be; Verellen, Dirk; Michielsen, Dirk; Rappe, Bernard; Keuppen, Frans; Storme, Guy

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate early side effects in prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy (IGCAT) using a minimultileaf collimator and daily X-ray-assisted patient positioning. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2004, 238 cT1-T3N0M0 tumors were treated with doses of 70 or 78 Gy. Seventy patients also received neoadjuvant or concurrent hormonal treatment. Median follow-up is 18 months (range, 4-55 months). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity scoring system was used to evaluate early side effects. Results: Grade 1, 2, and >2 acute side effects occurred in 19, 6, and 0% (gastrointestinal) and 37, 16, and 0% (genitourinary) of the patients. No relation between radiation dose and early side effects was observed. Conclusion: Patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy experience a low rate of Grade 2 (i.e., requiring medication) early side effects. The definitive evaluation of late side effects and biochemical control requires further follow-up.

  4. Rejection and acceptance of possible side effects of migraine prophylactic drugs.

    PubMed

    Kowacs, Pedro A; Piovesan, Elcio J; Tepper, Stewart J

    2009-07-01

    Successful prophylactic therapy might require not only efficacy but meeting patients' expectations about the potential side effects of the preventative drug selected. Prior to prescribing prophylactic drugs to prophylaxis-naive migraine patients, we aimed to quantify the acceptance or rejection of some of the possible adverse events associated with migraine prophylactic drugs. A total of 203 prophylactic-naive migraine/chronic migraine patients, 17 (8.4%) male, 186 (91.6%) female, aged 19 to 65 years were serially selected and asked to answer bidirectional visual numerical scales designed for this purpose, with 1 scale for each side effect. The question posed was: "How much would you accept or reject the following side effects to get rid of your migraine headaches?" The side effects listed were dry mouth, epigastric burning, low energy, tingling, somnolence, depression, tremor, insomnia, memory loss, sluggishness, weight gain, and weight loss. The most rejected possible side effects were weight gain, memory loss, and depression. Weight loss was better accepted by patients with a higher body mass. In general, there was a higher acceptance of side effects for patients taking more than 10 symptomatic medications a month, especially for loss of energy and somnolence. Older patients lacked an acceptance of tremor. Our findings reinforce and quantify findings similar to those in the literature, and provide new data regarding the preference determinants for prophylactic medication.

  5. Side effects of carbamazepine, valproate and clonazepam during long-term treatment of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Keränen, T; Sivenius, J

    1983-01-01

    Side effects of carbamazepine (CBZ), valproate (VPA) and clonazepam (CZP) are rare during long-term use but rather common and usually transient during the early phases of treatment. The usual side effects of CBZ are drowsiness, dizziness, and diplopia, which are dose dependent in long-term use, but CBZ does not seem to cause cognitive disturbances, as do phenobarbital and phenytoin. Other reactions to CBZ may include leukopenia, hyponatremia, disturbances of vitamin D metabolism and fortunately rarely, agranulocytosis and hepatitis. Use of VPA can lead to gastrointestinal discomfort, weight gain, hair loss, tremor and sedation, but these side effects are rather uncommon, mild, and transient during VPA monotherapy. Potentially hazardous reactions such as hepatitis and pancreatitis have occurred in a few patients on VPA, generally with multidrug therapy. Some of the side effects are dose related. They infrequently lead to withdrawal of VPA. Side effects limited to initiation of CZP therapy include drowsiness, ataxia, and behavioral changes; they are usually transient but can lead to dose reduction or even withdrawal of the drug. Except for development of tolerance, CZP seems to be practically free of long-term side effects.

  6. Spontaneous mental associations with the words "side effect": Implications for informed and shared decision making.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Sonya; Pachur, Thorsten; Wheeler, Courtney; McGuire, Jaclyn; Waters, Erika A

    2017-10-01

    To gain insight into patients' medical decisions by exploring the content of laypeople's spontaneous mental associations with the term "side effect." An online cross-sectional survey asked 144 women aged 40-74, "What are the first three things you think of when you hear the words 'side effect?"' Data were analyzed using content analysis, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. 17 codes emerged and were grouped into 4 themes and a Miscellaneous category: Health Problems (70.8% of participants), Decision-Relevant Evaluations (52.8%), Negative Affect (30.6%), Practical Considerations (18.1%) and Miscellaneous (9.7%). The 4 most frequently identified codes were: Risk (36.1%), Health Problems-Specific Symptoms (35.4%), Health Problems-General Terms (32.6%), and Negative Affect-Strong (19.4%). Code and theme frequencies were generally similar across demographic groups (ps>0.05). The term "side effect" spontaneously elicited comments related to identifying health problems and expressing negative emotions. This might explain why the mere possibility of side effects triggers negative affect for people making medical decisions. Some respondents also mentioned decision-relevant evaluations and practical considerations in response to side effects. Addressing commonly-held associations and acknowledging negative affects provoked by side effects are first steps healthcare providers can take towards improving informed and shared patient decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A review of self-report medication side effect questionnaires for mental health patients.

    PubMed

    Ashoorian, Deena; Davidson, Rowan; Rock, Daniel; Gudka, Sajni; Clifford, Rhonda

    2014-11-30

    Side effects of psychotropic medications are important determinants of adherence to treatment. Discussion between the patient and clinician facilitated through the use of a side effect self-report questionnaire (SRQ) could lead to improved communications and treatment adherence. The aim of this review was to 1) identify all currently available side effect SRQs used in the assessment of mental health patients' subjective experiences, 2) evaluate the characteristics of the studies and 3) assess the psychometric properties of each of the questionnaires. Eight electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed published articles. Six side effect SRQs were identified. Two independent reviewers assessed the quality of the study designs and psychometric properties of the identified SRQs. All questionnaires consisted of closed questions relating to antipsychotic side effects and completion times ranged from 5 to 20 min. Five questionnaires had undergone some form of psychometric testing, ranging from basic to comprehensive. There is a need in everyday clinical practice for a side effect communication tool applicable to all psychotropic medications, which allows the patient to express their subjective beliefs about their medications. This could provide an important contribution to the working relationship between patients and clinicians leading to informed decision-making and improved adherence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of highly efficacious glucocorticoid receptor agonists with a potential for reduced clinical bone side effects.

    PubMed

    Harcken, Christian; Riether, Doris; Kuzmich, Daniel; Liu, Pingrong; Betageri, Raj; Ralph, Mark; Emmanuel, Michel; Reeves, Jonathan T; Berry, Angela; Souza, Donald; Nelson, Richard M; Kukulka, Alison; Fadra, Tazmeen N; Zuvela-Jelaska, Ljiljana; Dinallo, Roger; Bentzien, Jörg; Nabozny, Gerald H; Thomson, David S

    2014-02-27

    Synthesis and structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a series of nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonists are described. These compounds contain "diazaindole" moieties and display different transcriptional regulatory profiles in vitro and are considered "dissociated" between gene transrepression and transactivation. The lead optimization effort described in this article focused in particular on limiting the transactivation of genes which result in bone side effects and these were assessed in vitro in MG-63 osteosarcoma cells, leading to the identification of (R)-18 and (R)-21. These compounds maintained anti-inflammatory activity in vivo in collagen induced arthritis studies in mouse but had reduced effects on bone relevant parameters compared to the widely used synthetic glucocorticoid prednisolone 2 in vivo. To our knowledge, we are the first to report on selective glucocorticoid ligands with reduced bone loss in a preclinical in vivo model.

  9. Cardiac Side-effects From Breast Cancer Radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Taylor, C W; Kirby, A M

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer radiotherapy reduces the risk of cancer recurrence and death. However, it usually involves some radiation exposure of the heart and analyses of randomised trials have shown that it can increase the risk of heart disease. Estimates of the absolute risks of radiation-related heart disease are needed to help oncologists plan each individual woman's treatment. The risk for an individual woman varies according to her estimated cardiac radiation dose and her background risk of ischaemic heart disease in the absence of radiotherapy. When it is known, this risk can then be compared with the absolute benefit of the radiotherapy. At present, many UK cancer centres are already giving radiotherapy with mean heart doses of less than 3 Gy and for most women the benefits of the radiotherapy will probably far outweigh the risks. Technical approaches to minimising heart dose in breast cancer radiotherapy include optimisation of beam angles, use of multileaf collimator shielding, intensity-modulated radiotherapy, treatment in a prone position, treatment in deep inspiration (including the use of breath-hold and gating techniques), proton therapy and partial breast irradiation. The multileaf collimator is suitable for many women with upper pole left breast cancers, but for women with central or lower pole cancers, breath-holding techniques are now recommended in national UK guidelines. Ongoing work aims to identify ways of irradiating pan-regional lymph nodes that are effective, involve minimal exposure of organs at risk and are feasible to plan, deliver and verify. These will probably include wide tangent-based field-in-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy or arc radiotherapy techniques in combination with deep inspiratory breath-hold, and proton beam irradiation for women who have a high predicted heart dose from intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

  10. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Gözübüyük, Alper; Ozpolat, Berkant; Ciçek, Ali Fuat; Caylak, Hasan; Yücel, Orhan; Kavaklı, Kuthan; Gürkök, Sedat; Genç, Onur

    2010-12-13

    Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in

  11. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0,0042). Talc produced significant edema compared to oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p < 0.0042). Conclusions Both agents were shown to produce pulmonary lesions. In acute phase, the pulmonary side effects of oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose

  12. Applying Thienyl Side Chains and Different π-Bridge to Aromatic Side-Chain Substituted Indacenodithiophene-Based Small Molecule Donors for High-Performance Organic Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-Liang; Liu, Kai-Kai; Liu, Sha; Liu, Feng; Wu, Hong-Bin; Cao, Yong; Russell, Thomas P

    2017-06-14

    A pair of linear tetrafluorinated small molecular donors, named as ThIDTTh4F and ThIDTSe4F, which are with tetrathienyl-substituted IDT as electron-rich central core, electron-deficient difluorobenzothiadiazole as acceptor units, and donor end-capping groups, but having differences in the π-bridge (thiophene and selenophene), were successfully synthesized and evaluated as donor materials in organic solar cells. Such π-bridge and core units in these small molecules play a decisive role in the formation of the nanoscale separation of the blend films, which were systematically investigated through absorption spectra, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction pattern, transmission electron microscopy images, resonant soft X-ray scattering profiles, and charge mobility measurement. The ThIDTSe4F (with selenophene π-bridge)-based device exhibited superior performance than devices based on ThIDTh4F (with thiophene π-bridge) after post annealing treatment owing to optimized film morphology and improved charge transport. Power conversion efficiency of 7.31% and fill factor of ∼0.70 were obtained by using a blend of ThIDTSe4F and PC71BM with thermal annealing and solvent vapor annealing treatments, which is the highest PCE from aromatic side-chain substituted IDT-based small molecular solar cells. The scope of this study is to reveal the structure-property relationship of the aromatic side-chain substituted IDT-based donor materials as a function of π-bridge and the post annealing conditions.

  13. [Protective effects of d-chlorpheniramine maleate pre-treatment against acute side effects of Irinotecan(CPT- 11)].

    PubMed

    Misumi, Nobuhiro; Hiraike, Mikako; Nawata, Fusako; Hashimoto, Mirai; Tanigawa, Kayoko; Takase, Izumi; Nabeshima, Aya; Honda, Shinobu

    2011-07-01

    It is wellknown that cholinomimetic side effects, such as sedation, abdominal pain, nasal flow and watery eyes, may develop in patients in the early stage of Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration; however, there have been no investigations concerning methods for preventing the development of these side effects. To assess the protective effects of pre-treatment with d-CM on cholinomimetic side effects in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration, we prescribed d- Chlorpheniramine maleate (d-CM) to a group of patients prior to Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration. Twenty members from the group of non-d-CM-treated patients (n=39) and 4 members from the group of treated patients (n=20) complained of side effects. The pre-administration of d-CM significantly reduced the number of patients with side effects (p<0.05). The relative risk (RR) for the frequency of side effects was 0.39 (95% CI; 0.15-0.98), demonstrating that the frequency of side effects was significantly reduced. Based on theses findings, we concluded that the pre-administration of d-CM had protective effects against side effects that might develop in the early stage after Irinotecan (CPT-11) administration.

  14. Characterization of esterified cassava starch with long alkyl side chains and different substitution degrees.

    PubMed

    Barrios, Simón E; Giammanco, Giuseppe; Contreras, Jesús M; Laredo, Estrella; López-Carrasquero, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    The present work describes the characterization and thermal properties of hydrophobic starch obtained by the esterification of cassava starch with acyl imidazoles, acid chlorides and methyl ester derivatives of fatty acids with n-alkyl chains with 12-22 carbon atoms, in order to compare the dependence of their properties as a function of the length of the side chain and the methodology used for their synthesis. The n-acyl starches presented degrees of substitution (DS) between 0.06 and 1.2. Most of the derivatives obtained with acyl imidazoles were found to be stable at temperatures up to 300°C, whereas those synthesized with acid chlorides or methyl ester decomposed below. Finally, when the n-acyl starches were substituted with n-alkyl side chains of 16 or more carbon atoms, they were capable to crystallize in separate paraffinic phases independent of the starch backbone.

  15. Reduction of Patient-Reported Antidepressant Side Effects in Collaborative Care

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Teresa J; Fortney, John C.; Pyne, Jeffrey M; Lu, Liya; Mittal, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Antidepressants are effective for treating depression; collaborative care increases initiation of and adherence to antidepressants. Side effects of antidepressants are common and can adversely impact quality of life. Care managers address antidepressant side effects directly, but the impact of collaborative care on adverse effects is unknown. This secondary data analysis tested the hypothesis that patient-reported antidepressant side effects were lower in depressed patients receiving high-intensity, telemedicine-based collaborative care (TBCC) compared with those receiving low-intensity practice-based collaborative care (PBCC). METHODS This analysis used data from 190 patients enrolled in a pragmatic, multi-site, comparative-effectiveness trial from 2007–2009 and followed for 18 months. The majority of patients were female (83%) and Caucasian (75%). The mean age was 50±11.1. Patients randomized to PBCC received 12 months of evidence-based care from an on-site primary care provider and nurse care manager. TBCC patients received evidence-based care from an on-site primary care provider supported by an off-site telephone nurse care manager, tele-pharmacist, tele-psychologist and tele-psychiatrist. Telephone interviews completed at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months included assessments of sociodemographics, beliefs about antidepressant treatment, depression severity, psychiatric comorbidity, medications, adherence, and side effects. RESULTS Controlling for baseline case-mix and time-variant medication characteristics (e.g., number, dose, or specific antidepressant), the TBCC group reported significantly fewer side effects at 6 and 12 months (p=.02 and .01, respectively). The number of antidepressants prescribed increased risk of side effects (p=.03). CONCLUSIONS Patients in the TBCC group reported fewer antidepressant-related side effects which may have contributed to improved quality of life. PMID:25727115

  16. Dose Comparison And Side Effect Profile Of Metformin Extended Release Versus Metformin Immediate Release.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Maliha; Khan, Khurshid; Salman, Sadia; Mehmood, Nasir

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is very common worldwide, with majority of cases in Asia Pacific region. Metformin is the first line therapy, along with lifestyle modification for all type 2 diabetics as recommended by ADA. Metformin is available as conventional Metformin Immediate Release (MIR) and Metformin Extended Release (MXR). Metformin XR has better gastrointestinal tolerability and fewer side effects as compared to Metformin IR, with similar efficacy regarding anti-hyperglycaemic effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether metformin XR is as effective as Metformin IR in maintaining glycaemic control at equivalent doses or even at reduced doses; and to compare the side effect profile of the two preparations. This randomized control trial was conducted at Medical and Endocrinology OPD of Jinnah Hospital Lahore. A total of 90 type 2 diabetics of both genders were recruited using nonprobability purposive sampling. Patients were randomized into 3 groups; 30 in each group. Group 1 received Metformin IR 1000 mg twice daily; group 2 received metformin XR 1000 mg twice daily; and group 3 received metformin XR 500 mg twice daily, for a period of three months. HbA1c was done at baseline and after three months of therapy along with fasting blood sugars and random blood sugars weekly. The mean age of patients was 46±9 years, with 54% being males and 46% being females. There was a 1% reduction in HbA1c in group 1, 0.7% reduction in group 2 and only 0.4% reduction in group 3. Similarly, all three therapies were equally effective in reducing blood sugar fasting and blood sugar random at three months. Side effects namely diarrhoea, dyspepsia and flatulence were greatest with Metformin IR (40%) but less than half with Metformin XR at equivalent dose and negligible at half the dose. All three Metformin groups were effective in reduction of HbA1C and glycaemic control clinically and there is no statistical difference in HbA1c reduction among groups at three months.

  17. Applications of the Wei-Lachin multivariate one-sided test for multiple outcomes on possibly different scales.

    PubMed

    Lachin, John M

    2014-01-01

    Many studies aim to assess whether a therapy has a beneficial effect on multiple outcomes simultaneously relative to a control. Often the joint null hypothesis of no difference for the set of outcomes is tested using separate tests with a correction for multiple tests, or using a multivariate T2-like MANOVA or global test. However, a more powerful test in this case is a multivariate one-sided or one-directional test directed at detecting a simultaneous beneficial treatment effect on each outcome, though not necessarily of the same magnitude. The Wei-Lachin test is a simple 1 df test obtained from a simple sum of the component statistics that was originally described in the context of a multivariate rank analysis. Under mild conditions this test provides a maximin efficient test of the null hypothesis of no difference between treatment groups for all outcomes versus the alternative hypothesis that the experimental treatment is better than control for some or all of the component outcomes, and not worse for any. Herein applications are described to a simultaneous test for multiple differences in means, proportions or life-times, and combinations thereof, all on potentially different scales. The evaluation of sample size and power for such analyses is also described. For a test of means of two outcomes with a common unit variance and correlation 0.5, the sample size needed to provide 90% power for two separate one-sided tests at the 0.025 level is 64% greater than that needed for the single Wei-Lachin multivariate one-directional test at the 0.05 level. Thus, a Wei-Lachin test with these operating characteristics is 39% more efficient than two separate tests. Likewise, compared to a T2-like omnibus test on 2 df, the Wei-Lachin test is 32% more efficient. An example is provided in which the Wei-Lachin test of multiple components has superior power to a test of a composite outcome.

  18. Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and Late Side Effects in Magnetic Resonance Image-Guided Adaptive Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Georg, Petra; Lang, Stefan; Dimopoulos, Johannes C.A.; Doerr, Wolfgang; Sturdza, Alina E.; Berger, Daniel; Georg, Dietmar; Kirisits, Christian; Poetter, Richard

    2011-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the predictive value of dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters for late side effects of the rectum, sigmoid colon, and bladder in image-guided brachytherapy for cervix cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 141 patients received external-beam radiotherapy and image-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. The DVH parameters for the most exposed 2, 1, and 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 2cc}, D{sub 1cc}, and D{sub 0.1cc}) of the rectum, sigmoid, and bladder, as well as International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements point doses (D{sub ICRU}) were computed. Total doses were converted to equivalent doses in 2 Gy by applying the linear-quadratic model ({alpha}/{beta} = 3 Gy). Late side effects were prospectively assessed using the Late Effects in Normal Tissues-Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic score. The following patient groups were defined: Group 1: no side effects (Grade 0); Group 2: side effects (Grade 1-4); Group 3: minor side effects (Grade 0-1); and Group 4: major side effects (Grade 2-4). Results: The median follow-up was 51 months. The overall 5-year actuarial side effect rates were 12% for rectum, 3% for sigmoid, and 23% for bladder. The mean total D{sub 2cc} were 65 {+-} 12 Gy for rectum, 62 {+-} 12 Gy for sigmoid, and 95 {+-} 22 Gy for bladder. For rectum, statistically significant differences were observed between Groups 1 and 2 in all DVH parameters and D{sub ICRU}. Between Groups 3 and 4, no difference was observed for D{sub 0.1cc.} For sigmoid, significant differences were observed for D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc}, but not for D{sub 0.1cc} in all groups. For bladder, significant differences were observed for all DVH parameters only comparing Groups 3 and 4. No differences were observed for D{sub ICRU}. Conclusions: The parameters D{sub 2cc} and D{sub 1cc} have a good predictive value for rectal toxicity. For sigmoid, no prediction could be postulated because of limited data. In bladder, DVH

  19. Differences between single-side and uniform heating for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, R.D.; Meng, X.

    1994-12-31

    Many international engineering activities are under way to support fusion reactor implementation for the production of economical energy in the distant future. Among the many key technological issues is the development of plasma-facing components for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the related engineering design activity. Such components will be exposed to single-side (i.e., internal flow channels will be heated externally from one side only) heat flux ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 MW/m{sup 2} over lengths up to 0.3 m. Although other heat-transfer techniques such as liquid-metal and high-velocity-helium cooling are being seriously considered, subcooled flow boiling (with water) is the leading contender for high heat-flux fusion accommodation (HHFFA). Accordingly, interest must be focused on both the local heat transfer and the critical heat-flux (CHF) phenomena. However, irrespective of the convective fluid used (helium, water, or liquid metal) the advantages and adverse consequences associated with single-side heating must be explored and accommodated in future component designs.

  20. Side chain fluorination and anion effect on the structure of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Henry; Hollóczki, Oldamur; Pensado, Alfonso S.; Kirchner, Barbara

    2013-08-01

    We present a comprehensive molecular dynamics simulation study on 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ionic liquids and their fluorinated analogs. The work focused on the effect of fluorination at varying anions. The main findings are that the fluorination of the cations side chain increases overall structuring, especially the aggregation of cation side chain. Furthermore, large and weakly coordinating anions tend to occupy on-top positions of the cation and decrease the aggregation of cation side chains, most likely due to enhanced alkyl-anion interaction.

  1. Complementary medicine down-regulates side-effects of hormone therapy in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Beuth, Josef; Van Leendert, Rudolf; Pempelfort, Kirsten; Schneider, Berthold; Grund, Christina; Engelmann, Udo

    2014-01-01

    The present clinical investigation was performed to evaluate the benefits of complementary medicine in prostate cancer patients undergoing hormone therapy (HT). Patients (N=93) were treated according to international guidelines. All patients suffered from side-effects induced by the HT. To reduce the side-effects, the patients were complementarily treated with a combination of sodium selenite, proteolytic plant enzymes and Lens culinaris (Lc) lectin. On case report formulas (CRFs), self assessment of defined side-effects of HT (arthralgia, mucosal dryness, bone pain and hot flushes) were documented before (T-0) and on days 25 (T-1) and 50 (T-2) after complementary treatment. Validation was carried-out by scoring from 1 (no side-effects/optimal tolerability) to 6 (extreme side-effects/extremely bad tolerability), however, only patients suffering from severe side-effects (symptom scores >3) were enrolled in this investigation. The severity of side-effects of HT was reduced by complementary treatment with sodium selenite, proteolytic plant enzymes and Lc-lectin. The mean scores of side-effects declined for arthralgia from 4.72 (T-0) to 3.66 (T-1) to 2.76 (T-2), for mucosal dryness from 4.45 (T-0) to 3.65 (T-1) to 2.90 (T-2), for bone pain from 4.74 (T-0) to 3.44 (T-1) to 2.82 (T-2), for hot flushes from 4.97 (T-0) to 3.70 (T-1) to 3.15 (T-2). The reduced severity of the side-effects was statistically significant (p<0.001) for T-1 and T-2, compared to T-0. This investigation demonstrates benefits of indication-based complementary treatment with the combination of sodium selenite, proteolytic plant enzymes and Lc-lectin in prostate cancer patients, e.g. reduction of side-effects of HT. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  2. Mood, side-effects and smoking outcomes among persons with and without probable lifetime depression taking varenicline.

    PubMed

    McClure, Jennifer B; Swan, Gary E; Jack, Lisa; Catz, Sheryl L; Zbikowski, Susan M; McAfee, Tim A; Deprey, Mona; Richards, Julie; Javitz, Harold

    2009-05-01

    Varenicline may be associated with greater mood disturbance and side-effects among smokers with psychiatric history, but empirical evidence is limited. Differential treatment effectiveness by psychiatric history may also exist. To compare mood, prevalence and intensity of treatment side-effects, and abstinence among people with a probable history of major depression (DH+) or not (DH-) who took varenicline and received behavioral smoking cessation treatment. Smokers participated in a randomized behavioral intervention effectiveness trial. Treatment side-effects and outcomes were compared between DH+ and DH- participants (n = 1,117) at 21 [corrected] days and 3 months after the target quit date. Smokers recruited from a large regional health plan. Change in stress and depression scores, prevalence and intensity of treatment side-effects, and abstinence rates. All side-effects averaged moderate intensity or less and were similar across DH groups, except DH+'s endorsed slightly worse confusion, nausea (adjusted P = 0.04) and trouble sleeping (adjusted P = 0.008) at 21 days. Depression and stress scores declined in both DH groups and an equal proportion of each evidenced new/worsening depressive symptoms. Despite few differences in symptom intensity, more DH+ participants reported recent tension/agitation, irritability/anger, confusion, and depression at 21 days (adjusted P < 0.05), and depression and anxiety (adjusted P < 0.01) at three months. Nonsmoking rates did not differ by DH group at follow-up. While some group differences were noted, DH+ smokers did not report qualitatively worse neuropsychiatric symptoms, more new/worsening mood disturbance, or differential abstinence rates compared to DH- smokers.

  3. Physiological responses and time-motion characteristics of 4-a-side small-sided game in young soccer players: the influence of different team formation methods.

    PubMed

    Köklü, Yusuf; Ersöz, Gülfem; Alemdaroğlu, Utku; Aşç, Alper; Ozkan, Ali

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of different team formation methods on the physiological responses to and time-motion characteristics of 4-a-side small-sided games (SSG4) in young soccer players. Thirty-two young soccer players (age 16.2 ± 0.7 years; height 172.9 ± 6.1 cm; body mass 64.1 ± 7.7 kg) voluntarily participated in this study. Anthropometric measurements, technical tests, and maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) tests were carried out on the players. The SSG4 teams were then created using 4 different methods: according to the coaches' subjective evaluation (CE), technical scores (TS), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max (AP), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max multiplied by TSs (CG). The teams thus created played 4 bouts of SSG4 at 2-day intervals. During the SSG4, heart rate (HR) responses, distance covered, and time spent in HRmax zones were recorded. In addition, rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and blood lactate level (La) were determined at the end of the last bout of each SSG4. Percent of HRmax (%HRmax), La, and RPE responses during SSG4 were significantly higher for teams chosen according to AP and CG compared with that according to CE and TS (p < 0.05). In addition, teams chosen by AP and CG spent significantly more time in zone 4 (>90% HRmax ) and covered a greater distance in the high-intensity running zone (>18 km·h) than did teams formed according to TS. Moreover, AP teams covered significantly greater total distance than TS teams did (p < 0.05). In conclusion, to spend more time in both the high-intensity HR zone and the high-intensity running zone, the teams in SSG4 should be formed according to the players' V[Combining Dot Above]O2max values or the values calculated using both the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and technique scores.

  4. Predicting drugs side effects based on chemical-chemical interactions and protein-chemical interactions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Feng, Kai-Yan; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2013-01-01

    A drug side effect is an undesirable effect which occurs in addition to the intended therapeutic effect of the drug. The unexpected side effects that many patients suffer from are the major causes of large-scale drug withdrawal. To address the problem, it is highly demanded by pharmaceutical industries to develop computational methods for predicting the side effects of drugs. In this study, a novel computational method was developed to predict the side effects of drug compounds by hybridizing the chemical-chemical and protein-chemical interactions. Compared to most of the previous works, our method can rank the potential side effects for any query drug according to their predicted level of risk. A training dataset and test datasets were constructed from the benchmark dataset that contains 835 drug compounds to evaluate the method. By a jackknife test on the training dataset, the 1st order prediction accuracy was 86.30%, while it was 89.16% on the test dataset. It is expected that the new method may become a useful tool for drug design, and that the findings obtained by hybridizing various interactions in a network system may provide useful insights for conducting in-depth pharmacological research as well, particularly at the level of systems biomedicine.

  5. Predicting Drugs Side Effects Based on Chemical-Chemical Interactions and Protein-Chemical Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Jian; Zheng, Ming-Yue; Feng, Kai-Yan; Cai, Yu-Dong; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2013-01-01

    A drug side effect is an undesirable effect which occurs in addition to the intended therapeutic effect of the drug. The unexpected side effects that many patients suffer from are the major causes of large-scale drug withdrawal. To address the problem, it is highly demanded by pharmaceutical industries to develop computational methods for predicting the side effects of drugs. In this study, a novel computational method was developed to predict the side effects of drug compounds by hybridizing the chemical-chemical and protein-chemical interactions. Compared to most of the previous works, our method can rank the potential side effects for any query drug according to their predicted level of risk. A training dataset and test datasets were constructed from the benchmark dataset that contains 835 drug compounds to evaluate the method. By a jackknife test on the training dataset, the 1st order prediction accuracy was 86.30%, while it was 89.16% on the test dataset. It is expected that the new method may become a useful tool for drug design, and that the findings obtained by hybridizing various interactions in a network system may provide useful insights for conducting in-depth pharmacological research as well, particularly at the level of systems biomedicine. PMID:24078917

  6. Reduced side-effects of adjuvant hormone therapy in breast cancer patients by complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Uhlenbruck, G; VAN Leendert, R; Schneider, B; Beuth, J

    2010-01-01

    A clinical investigation (representing evidence-based medicine level III) was performed to evaluate the benefit of complementary medicine in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant hormone therapy (HT). The patients (n=129) were treated according to international guidelines. All patients suffered from arthralgia and mucosal dryness induced by the adjuvant HT. To reduce these side-effects, the patients were complementarily treated with a combination of sodium selenite, proteolytic plant enzymes (bromelaine and papain) and Lens culinaris lectin. On the basis of case report formulas (CRFs), self assessment of defined side-effects of HT (arthralgia and mucosal dryness) were documented before as well as 4 and 8 weeks after complementary treatment. Validation was carried out by scoring from 1 (no side-effects/optimal tolerability) to 6 (extreme side-effects/extremely bad tolerability). The severity of side-effects of HT was reduced by complementary treatment with sodium selenite, plant enzymes (bromelaine and papain) and Lens culinaris lectin. The mean score of symptoms declined from 4.2 (before treatment) to 3.2 (after 4 weeks of treatment) to 2.7 (after 8 weeks of treatment) for arthralgia and from 3.2 (before treatment) to 2.9 (after 4 weeks of treatment) to 2.6 (after 8 weeks of treatment) for mucosal dryness, the primary aims of this investigation. The reduction of side-effects of HT was statistically significant (p<0.001 after 4 weeks and p<0.0001 after 8 weeks). This investigation demonstrates benefits of indication-based complementary treatment in breast cancer patients, e.g. reduction of side-effects of adjuvant HT. A randomized controlled trial is planned to integrate the complementary treatment with the combination of sodium selenite, proteolytic enzymes and Lens culinaris lectin into evidence-based medicine.

  7. Guideline sheets on the side effects of anticancer drugs are useful for general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Rouge-Bugat, Marie-Eve; Lassoued, Donia; Bacrie, Joy; Boussier, Nathalie; Delord, Jean-Pierre; Oustric, Stéphane; Bauvin, Eric; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Bertucci, François; Grosclaude, Pascale

    2015-12-01

    General practitioners (GPs) are more and more involved in the treatment of cancer patients but feel not informed enough about anticancer treatments and associated side effects. Better communication with treatment centers is needed. We hypothesized that information sheets could improve communication. This prospective, multicentric, and interventionist study aimed at implementing and assessing therapeutic sheets describing the side effects of anticancer drugs used for digestive and gynecological cancers and their recommended management. GPs' phone interviews were done through three successive phases and two independent cohorts. The first phase (T1; 242 GPs with one patient recently treated) listed their expectations, the second (T2; 158 GPs with one patient beginning treatment) assessed the GPs' opinion regarding the sheets, and the third (T3; responder GPs 4 months after the start of T2) assessed their usefulness in practice. In T1, 94% of GPs declared their need of having information sheets, notably for the management of side effects. Thirty-one one-page sheets were created. In T2, 83.5% gave a favorable opinion about sheets and 80% envisaged their use in the case of side effect. In T3, 56% of GPs whose patient had experienced a side effect had used successfully the sheets for its management, and 21% of patients with side effect were hospitalized. A strong correlation existed between the use of the sheet by GPs and the hospitalization (OR 7.35 in the case of no use vs use). The guideline sheets represent a simple and low-cost solution to help GPs managing drugs' side effects and perhaps decrease the rate of unplanned hospitalizations.

  8. Living with side effects from cancer treatment--a challenge to target information.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte P; Nielsen, Lene L

    2013-09-01

    Patients with cancer experience side effects related to their antineoplastic treatment. Demands for efficiency limit the time patients spend with health professionals. This requires that professionals are able to offer adequate support to patients in coping with side effects of treatment in everyday life. However, it appears that the level of information about and support in living with side effects may be insufficient. To explore patients' experiences of how side effects from chemotherapy and radiotherapy impact everyday life as well as the information needs in coping with these side effects. Nine patients' experiences were analysed and interpreted using a phenomenological-hermeneutical approach. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The patients are deeply impacted by side effects in their everyday life. They struggle to take power but experience loss of control. They feel inexperienced without knowledge in an 'ongoing system', and because of lack of continuity, they do not come up with their real needs. To avoid pitfalls in the information, the patients need individualized support from the professionals. If the patients have to be supported during everyday life with side effects from cancer treatment in an individualized way, the professional must be aware that the patients risk adapting to the busy healthcare system. To empower the patient, the professional must be able to sense the patients' appeal for help and enter into caring relationships. To ensure targeted information, the relationship between nurse and patient must build on nursing values including the patients' illness - perspective. However, the professionals must take a critical look at how they provide information and how they act to empower the patients. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  9. Complementary medicine on side-effects of adjuvant hormone therapy in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Beuth, Josef; van Leendert, Rudolf; Schneider, Berthold; Uhlenbruck, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    This clinical investigation was performed in order to evaluate the benefit of complementary medicine in patients with breast cancer undergoing adjuvant hormone therapy (HT). The patients (n=680) were treated according to international guidelines. All patients suffered from arthralgia and mucosal dryness induced by the adjuvant HT. In order to reduce side-effects, the patients were complementarily treated with a combination of sodium selenite, proteolytic plant enzymes (bromelaine and papain) and Lens culinaris lectin. On case report formulas, self assessment of defined side-effects of HT (namely arthralgia and mucosal dryness) were documented before and four weeks after complementary treatment. Validation was carried out by scoring from 1 (no side-effects/optimal tolerability) to 6 (extreme side-effects/extremely poor tolerability), however, only patients suffering from severe side-effects (symptom scores >3) were enrolled in this investigation. A total of 64% (316 out of 494) of patients suffering from severe arthralgia and 62% of patients (194 out of 310) with severe mucosal dryness significantly benefited from complementary medicine. The severity of side-effects of HT was reduced by complementary treatment. Mean scores of symptoms declined from 4.92 before treatment to 3.16 after four weeks of treatment for arthralgia and from 4.83 before treatment to 3.21 after four weeks of treatment for mucosal dryness, and these were the primary aims of this investigation. The reduction of side-effects of HT was statistically significant (p<0.001) after four weeks. This investigation further demonstrates benefits of indication-based complementary treatment with the combination of sodium selenite, proteolytic enzymes and L. culinaris lectin in patients with breast cancer.

  10. [Enteric-coated aspirin does not reduce the risk of gastrointestinal side effects].

    PubMed

    Haastrup, Peter; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2014-04-28

    Enteric-coated aspirin has been developed in order to decrease the risk of gastrointestinal side effects. When reviewing the existing literature on the effects of the coating on the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects we find that enteric-coated aspirin causes significantly less minor gastrointestinal lesions compared to plain aspirin evaluated by endoscopy after short-term treatment, but there seems to be no effect of enteric-coating on the incidence of dyspepsia or gastrointestinal bleeding of clinical relevance. In conclusion enteric-coated aspirin is not superior to plain aspirin.

  11. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: thyroid effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Illouz, Frédéric; Braun, Doreen; Briet, Claire; Schweizer, Ulrich; Rodien, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently used by most oncologists. Among their side effects, thyroid dysfunctions are nowadays clearly observed. Whereas changes in thyroid function tests have been originally described with sunitinib, we now know that many TKIs can induce hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this study, the various molecules implicated in thyroid dysfunctions are analysed and the latest data on physiopathological mechanisms are approached in order to propose a strategy of thyroid monitoring of patients on TKI therapy. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  12. Effectiveness, side effects and long-term status of nightguard vital bleaching.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Leonard, R H; Nelson, C F; Brunson, W D

    1994-09-01

    In this clinical trial of nightguard vital bleaching for six weeks, 92 percent of the patients experienced some lightening of treated teeth. About 97 percent of patients with teeth stained through aging, inherent discoloration, brown fluorosis or trauma experienced lightening, as did 75 percent with tetracycline-stained teeth. Sixty-six percent experienced side effects, which resolved in 24 to 48 hours. Earliest re-treatment was done after one year in less time. Minimal color change occurred for 74 percent after 1 1/2 years and 62 percent after three years.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors side effects--physiologic and non-physiologic considerations.

    PubMed

    Sica, Domenic A

    2004-07-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are increasingly recognized as having an important role in the treatment of hypertension and/or end-organ disease. The sheer number of ACE inhibitors in the United States--now numbering 10 different chemical entities--has created a sense of comfort with these compounds, which is particularly evident when these compounds are used in the patient with essential hypertension; conversely, when comorbid conditions are present in the ACE inhibitor-treated patient, circumstances change and physician vigilance becomes more of a necessity. ACE inhibitor therapy in patients with either cardiac and/or renal disease is as much an art as it is a science, and even in the most skilled hands can prove a challenging undertaking. This review discusses the physiologic and non-physiologic basis for side effects with ACE inhibition.

  14. The effect of side motion in the dynamics of interacting molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Midha, Tripti; Gupta, Arvind Kumar; Kolomeisky, Anatoly B.

    2017-07-01

    To mimic the collective motion of interacting molecular motors, we propose and discuss an open two-lane symmetrically coupled interactive TASEP model that incorporates interaction in the thermodynamically consistent fashion. We study the effect of both repulsive and attractive interaction on the system’s dynamical properties using various cluster mean field analysis and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The interactions bring correlations into the system, which were found to be reduced due to the side motion of particles. We produce the steady-state phase diagrams for symmetrically split interaction strength. The behavior of the maximal particle current with respect to the interaction energy E is analyzed for different coupling rates and interaction splittings. The results suggest that for strong coupling and large splittings, the maximal flow of the motors occurs at a weak attractive interaction strength which matches with the known experimental results on kinesin motor protein.

  15. Poly-dimethylsiloxane derivates side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migani, V.; Weiss, H.; Massafra, M. R.; Merlo, A.; Colleoni, C.; Rosace, G.

    2011-02-01

    Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymers finishing of Polyamide-6,6 (PA66) fabrics involves ionic interactions between reactive groups on the PDMS polymers and the ones of the textile fabric. Such interactions could be strengthened by a pretreatment with a fixing agent to promote either ion-ion and H-bonding and ion-dipole forces. These forces could contribute towards the building of substantial PDMS-PA66 systems and the achieving of better adhesion properties to fabrics. Four different silicone polymers based on PDMS were applied on a synthetic tanning agent (syntan) finished Polyamide-6,6 fabric under acid conditions. Soxhlet extraction method and ATR FT-IR technique were used to investigate the application conditions. The finishing parameters such as pH and temperature together with fastness, mechanical and performance properties of the treated samples were studied and related to PDMS side chains effect on syntan functionalized Polyamide fabric.

  16. Side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of tennis elbow.

    PubMed

    Haake, M; Böddeker, I R; Decker, T; Buch, M; Vogel, M; Labek, G; Maier, M; Loew, M; Maier-Boerries, O; Fischer, J; Betthäuser, A; Rehack, H C; Kanovsky, W; Müller, I; Gerdesmeyer, L; Rompe, J D

    2002-05-01

    Apart from a few observational reports, there are no studies on the side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of insertion tendopathies. Within the framework of a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, multicentre study to test the effectiveness of ESWT in the case of lateral epicondylitis (LE), side-effects were systematically recorded. A total of 272 patients from 15 centres was allocated at random to active ESWT (3 x 2000 pulses, energy flux density ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) under local anaesthesia) or placebo ESWT. In all, 399 ESWT and 402 placebo treatments were analysed. More side-effects were documented in the ESWT group (OR = 4.3, CI = [2.9; 6.3]) than in the placebo group. Most frequently, transitory reddening of the skin (21.1%), pain (4.8%) and small haematomas (3.0%) were found. Migraine was registered in four and syncopes in three instances after ESWT. ESWT for LE with an energy flux density of ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) is a treatment method which has very few side-effects. The possibility of migraine being triggered by ESWT and the risk of a syncope should be taken into account in the future. No physical shock wave parameters could be definitely identified as the cause of the side-effects observed.

  17. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    PubMed Central

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  18. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects.

    PubMed

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-06-01

    Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient's lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient's effective participation in care process improved.

  19. Efficacy and Side Effects of Chinese Herbal Medicine for Menopausal Symptoms: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lian-Wei; Jia, Man; Salchow, Roland; Kentsch, Michael; Cui, Xue-Jun; Deng, Hong-Yong; Sun, Zhuo-Jun; Kluwe, Lan

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates 23 (9 Chinese and 14 non-Chinese) randomized controlled trials for efficacy and side effects of Chinese herbal medicine on menopausal symptoms. Menopause was diagnosed according to western medicine criteria in all studies while seven Chinese studies and one non-Chinese study further stratified the participants using traditional Chinese medical diagnosis “Zheng differentiation.” Efficacy was reported by all 9 Chinese and 9/14 non-Chinese papers. Side effects and adverse events were generally mild and infrequent. Only ten severe adverse events were reported, two with possible association with the therapy. CHM did not increase the endometrial thickness, a common side effect of hormone therapy. None of the studies investigated long-term side effects. Critical analysis revealed that (1) high-quality studies on efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for menopausal syndrome are rare and have the drawback of lacking traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis (Zheng-differentiation). (2) Chinese herbal medicine may be effective for at least some menopausal symptoms while side effects are likely less than hormone therapy. (3) All these findings need to be confirmed in further well-designed comprehensive studies meeting the standard of evidence-based medicine and including Zheng-differentiation of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23365599

  20. The influence of the channel size on the reduction of side effects in microchannel proton therapy.

    PubMed

    Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Zlobinskaya, Olga; Dollinger, Günther; Schmid, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    The potential of proton microchannel radiotherapy to reduce radiation effects in the healthy tissue but to keep tumor control the same as in conventional proton therapy is further elucidated. The microchannels spread on their way to the tumor tissue resulting in different fractions of the healthy tissue covered with doses larger than the tumor dose, while the tumor gets homogeneously irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing channel width on potential side effects in the normal tissue. A rectangular 180 × 180 µm(2) and two Gaussian-type dose distributions of σ = 260 µm and σ = 520 µm with an interchannel distance of 1.8 mm have been applied by 20-MeV protons to a 3D human skin model in order to simulate the widened channels and to compare the irradiation effects at different endpoints to those of a homogeneous proton irradiation. The number of protons applied was kept constant at all irradiation modes resulting in the same average dose of 2 Gy. All kinds of proton microchannel irradiation lead to higher cell viability and produce significantly less genetic damage than homogeneous proton irradiation, but the reduction is lower for the wider channel sizes. Our findings point toward the application of microchannel irradiation for clinical proton or heavy ion therapy to further reduce damage of normal tissues while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose distribution inside the tumor.

  1. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players’ External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games

    PubMed Central

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0–1.4 m·s-1; 1.4–3.4 m·s-1; 3.4–5.2 m·s-1; >5.2 m·s-1) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  2. Effect of Court Dimensions on Players' External and Internal Load during Small-Sided Handball Games.

    PubMed

    Corvino, Matteo; Tessitore, Antonio; Minganti, Carlo; Sibila, Marko

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different court dimensions on the internal and external load during small-sided handball games. Six male amateur handball players took part in this study and participated in three different 8-min 3vs3 (plus goalkeepers) small-sided handball games (each repeated twice). The three court dimensions were 12×24m, 30×15m and 32×16m. Through Global Positioning System devices (SPI pro elite 15Hz, GPSports) and video analysis, the following parameters were recorded: cyclic and acyclic movements (distance covered and number of technical actions executed), heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Total distance travelled increased with court dimensions (885.2m ± 66.6m in 24×12m; 980.0m ± 73.4m in 30×15m; 1095.0m ± 112.9m in 32×16m, p < 0.05). The analysis of distance covered in the four speed zones (0-1.4 m·s(-1); 1.4-3.4 m·s(-1); 3.4-5.2 m·s(-1); >5.2 m·s(-1)) highlighted substantial differences: playing with the 30×15m court in comparison to the 24×12m, the players covered less distance in the first speed zone (p = 0.012; ES = 0.70) and more distance in the second (p = 0.049; ES = 0.73) and third (p = 0.012; ES = 0.51) speed zones. Statistical differences were also found between the 24×12m and 32×16m courts: the players covered more distance in the second and third speed zones (p = 0.013, ES = 0.76; p = 0.023 ES = 0.69) with the 32×16m court in comparison to the 24×12m. There was no significant effect of court dimensions on the technical parameters (number of team actions, passes, piston movements toward goal and defensive activities), the number of specific handball jumps and changes of direction, and the time spent in the different heart rate zones. Considering the average data of all the experimental conditions together (24×12m, 30×15m, 32×16m), a pronounced statistical difference was highlighted between the values in first two HR zones and the last two (p < 0.05; large ES). The

  3. Effect of Dexmedetomidine in Preventing Postoperative Side Effects for Laparoscopic Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoqi; Zhang, Licheng; Lou, Shenghan; Chen, Yuxiang; Cao, Yanxiang; Wang, Ruirui; Zhang, Lihai; Tang, Peifu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Dexmedetomidine (DEX) has been used extensively for patients during surgery. Some studies found that DEX could reduce the incidence of postoperative side effects in laparoscopic surgical patients. However, no firm conclusions were made about it. The authors searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials testing DEX administrated in laparoscopic surgical patients and reporting on postoperative nausea, vomiting, shivering, heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), or extubation time after surgery or within 1 hour in postoperative care unit. Trial sequential analysis (TSA) was used for RCTs comparing DEX with placebo or no treatment in laparoscopic surgery patients. A protocol for this meta-analysis has been registered on PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero) and the registration number is CRD42015020226. Fifteen studies (899 patients) were included. DEX could significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative nausea (risk ratio [RR] and 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43 [0.28, 0.66], P < 0.0001), vomiting (RR and 95% CI, 0.36 [0.18, 0.72], P = 0.004), shivering (RR and 95% CI, 0.19 [0.11, 0.35], P < 0.00001), rescue antiemetic (RR and 95% CI, 0.18 [0.07, 0.47], P = 0.0006), and increase the incidence of dry mouth (RR and 95% CI, 7.40 [2.07, 26.48], P = 0.002) comparing with the control group. In addition, firm conclusions can be made on the results of postoperative nausea according to the TSA. Meta-analysis showed that DEX group had a significantly lower heart rate (mean difference [MD] and 95% CI, −14.21 [−18.85, −9.57], P < 0.00001) and MAP (MD and 95% CI, −12.35 [−15.28, −9.42], P < 0.00001) than the control group, and firm conclusions can be made according to the TSA. No significance was observed on extubation time between 2 groups (MD and 95% CI, 0.70 [−0.89, 2.28], P = 0.39). The results from this meta-analysis indicated

  4. Simple pharmacological test battery to assess efficacy and side effect profile of centrally acting muscle relaxant drugs.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Sándor; Berzsenyi, Pál; Kárpáti, Egon; Kocsis, Pál; Tarnawa, István

    2005-01-01

    Centrally muscle relaxants (CMRs) are used mainly for treating muscle spasticities of neurological origin, and painful muscle spasms due to rheumatologic conditions. Their use is frequently associated with dose-limiting adverse effects. New drugs with improved side-effect characteristics are badly needed. However, there is no general agreement in the pharmacological literature on what methods are adequate to assess CMR effect and side effects in behaving rodents, which may hinder the development of new drugs. Here we report on the establishment of a simple pharmacological test battery, which was used to compare efficacies and side effect profiles of 11 compounds with central muscle relaxant action, in mice (intraperitoneal application). For measuring muscle relaxant activity, (1) a new tremor model (GYKI 20039-induced tremor) and (2) the morphine-induced Straub-tail assay were used. The former, newly developed method has advantages over harmaline- or LON-954-induced tremor. For detecting side effect liability (ataxia, sedation, impairment of voluntary motor functions), (1) the rota-rod test, (2) measurement of spontaneous motility, (3) the weight-lifting test and (4) the thiopental sleep test were used. Among the 11 muscle relaxant compounds tested (tolperisone, eperisone, silperisone, diazepam, baclofen, tizanidine, afloqualon, mephenesin, zoxazolamine, memantine and carisoprodol), the calculated safety ratios (i.e. ID50 for side effect/ID50 for muscle relaxant effect) varied in a wide range. Silperisone seems to have the most advantageous profile (safety ratios range between 1.7 and 3.3 in the different pairs of assays) compared to the other tested drugs with lower (one or more ratios below 1.5, and often far below 1) and more varying ratios. Therapeutic indices calculated from the results of these in vivo experiments for the clinically used muscle relaxants are in agreement with their adverse effect profiles in humans. Thus the present test battery seems to be

  5. Side-gate graphene field-effect transistors with high transconductance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hähnlein, B.; Händel, B.; Pezoldt, J.; Töpfer, H.; Granzner, R.; Schwierz, F.

    2012-08-01

    We have fabricated epitaxial side-gate graphene field-effect transistors (FETs) with high transconductance. A side-gate graphene FET with 55 × 60 nm2 active channel dimensions and a lateral gate-channel separation of 95 nm showing a high transconductance of 590 mS/mm is presented. An estimation of the electrostatic gate-channel capacitance of epitaxial side-gate graphene FETs shows that it is in the same order as the electrostatic gate capacitance of common top-gate graphene MOSFETs justifying the high transconductances of our devices. The results of the present paper demonstrate the potential of the side-gate architecture for graphene transistors.

  6. Effect of Polymer Side Chains on Charge Generation and Disorder in PBDTTPD Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Constantinou, Iordania; Lai, Tzung-Han; Klump, Erik D; Goswami, Subhadip; Schanze, Kirk S; So, Franky

    2015-12-09

    The effect of polymer side chains on device performance was investigated for PBDT(EtHex)-TPD(Oct):PC70BM and PBDT(EtHex)-TPD(EtHex):PC70BM BHJ solar cells. Going from a linear side chain on the polymer's acceptor moiety to a branched side chain was determined to have a negative impact on the overall device efficiency, because of significantly reduced short-circuit current (J(sc)) and fill factor (FF) values. Sub-bandgap external quantum efficiency (EQE) and transient photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed more-efficient carrier generation for the polymer with linear side chains, because of a higher degree of charge-transfer (CT) state delocalization, leading to more-efficient exciton dissociation. Furthermore, the increase in π-π stacking distance and disorder for the bulkier ethylhexyl side chain were shown to result in a lower hole mobility, a higher bimolecular recombination, and a higher energetic disorder. The use of linear side chains on the polymer's acceptor moiety was shown to promote photogeneration, because of more-effective CT states and favorable carrier transport resulting in improved solar cell performance.

  7. Managing the oral side-effects of medications used to treat multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Cockburn, N; Pateman, K; Taing, M W; Pradhan, A; Ford, P J

    2017-09-01

    Many medications used to manage multiple sclerosis (MS) affect oral health. This review aimed to identify the oral side-effects of the current drugs recommended in Australia to treat MS and make dental practitioners aware of the range of symptoms. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat MS. For each medication, the generic name, class, route of administration, dosage and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMs) database. Meyler's Side-effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify any additional oral adverse reactions to medications used to treat MS. Fourteen drugs were identified for the treatment of MS progression and 13 drugs for the treatment of MS symptoms. For these medications, 18 oral side-effects were documented: xerostomia was the most common, followed by dysgeusia, dysphagia, mouth ulceration and sinusitis. Anticholinergic drugs caused xerostomia while immunosuppressants resulted in more infection-related side-effects. Dental practitioners should be aware of the range of symptoms likely to be reported by this population. Clinicians are encouraged to continue providing dental care for their patients who develop MS and refer complex cases to specialists. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  8. Side-effects of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evolution and predictive factors.

    PubMed

    Guehl, D; Cuny, E; Benazzouz, A; Rougier, A; Tison, F; Machado, S; Grabot, D; Gross, C; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P

    2006-09-01

    Chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an alternative treatment for disabling forms of Parkinson's disease when on-off fluctuations and levodopa-induced dyskinesias compromise patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of side-effects during the first year of follow-up and search for clinical predictive factors accounting for their occurrence. We compared the frequency of side-effects at 3 and 12 months after surgery in a cohort of 44 patients. The off-medication scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II, III, axial symptoms, disease duration and age at surgery were retained for correlation analysis. Dysarthria/hypophonia, weight gain and postural instability were the most frequent chronic side-effects. Whereas dysarthria/hypophonia remained stable over time, weight gain and postural instability increased during the first year post-op. High axial and UPDRS II scores at surgery were predictive of dysarthria/hypophonia. Age and axial score at surgery were positively correlated with postural instability. Despite the occurrence of side-effects, the benefit/side-effects ratio of STN stimulation was largely positive during the first year of follow-up. Age, intensity of axial symptoms and UDPRS II off-medication score before surgery are predictive factors of dysarthria/hypophonia and postural instability after surgery.

  9. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    PubMed Central

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  10. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-10-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach.

  11. Physical long-term side-effects in young adult cancer survivors: germ cell tumors model.

    PubMed

    Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Klastersky, Jean A

    2017-07-01

    After the important advances in the treatment of germ cell tumors (GCTs) leading to high cure rates, physical long-term side-effects represent an important cause of death in these young adult survivors. Highlighting these physical long-term side-effects, their monitoring and their prevention modalities is necessary for a better management of these cancer survivors. Impaired fertility, increased risk of developing a second cancer, cardiac, pulmonary, renal and neural toxicity, hearing and vision impairment are the major physical side-effects in young adult cancer survivors. Long-term cardiac toxicity, next to second malignancies, represents life-threatening conditions in testicular cancer survivors. The long-term nephrotoxity in testicular GCTs survivors is most frequently associated to the treatment either in those treated with cisplatin-based chemotherapy, mainly Bleomycine, Etoposide, Cisplatin, or those receiving infradiaphragmatic radiation therapy, whereas pulmonary toxicity is mainly attributed to bleomycin related toxicities. There are no clear and comprehensive data concerning the monitoring and prevention of long-term side-effects in testicular cancer survivors. Physical activity and interventions in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors and lifestyles may reduce the incidence of long-term side-effects in these cancer survivors.

  12. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    PubMed

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  13. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    PubMed

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; P< 0·001), nervousness (13·2 v. 0 %; P= 0·002) and activeness (16·9 v. 3·9 %; P= 0·007) than the placebo energy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  14. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation. PMID:26157675

  15. Movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with and without intellectual disability: UK population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Rory; Horsfall, Laura; Strydom, André; Osborn, David; Walters, Kate; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-08-03

    To measure the incidence of movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with intellectual disability and compare rates with adults without intellectual disability. Cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network. UK primary care. Adults with intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs matched to a control group of adults without intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs. New records of movement side effect including acute dystonias, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinaesia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 9013 adults with intellectual disability and a control cohort of 34 242 adults without intellectual disability together contributed 148 709 person-years data. The overall incidence of recorded movement side effects was 275 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 256 to 296) in the intellectual disability group and 248 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 237 to 260) in the control group. The incidence of any recorded movement side effect was significantly greater in people with intellectual disability compared with those without (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.42, p<0.001, after adjustment for potential confounders), with parkinsonism and akathisia showing the greatest difference between the groups. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, although occurring infrequently, was three times more common in people with intellectual disability-prescribed antipsychotic drugs (incidence rate ratio 3.03, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.30, p=0.013). Differences in rates of movement side effects between the groups were not due to differences in the proportions prescribed first and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. This study provides evidence to substantiate the long-held assumption that people with intellectual disability are more susceptible to movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Assessment for movement side effects should be integral to antipsychotic drug monitoring in people with intellectual disability. Regular medication

  16. Managing patients with side effects and adverse events to immunoglobulin therapy.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Asgardoon, Mohammad Hossein; Shaghaghi, Shiva; Negahdari, Babak; Mohammadi, Javad; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy has not only served as a lifesaving approach for the prevention and treatment of infections in primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, but has also been used as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and to provide passive immunity for some infectious diseases. Most of the adverse effects associated with immunoglobulin therapy are mild, transient and self-limiting. However, serious side effects also occur. Therefore, to minimize the adverse events of immunoglobulin therapy, specialist review of patient clinical status and immunoglobulin products, in addition to selection of appropriate treatment strategy for the management of patients with associated side effects and adverse events, are crucial.

  17. Study of the intravaginal insert (IVI): acceptability, side effects, and post-coital spermicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, M; Asch, R H

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe their experience with a group of 49 sexually active, already protected women in order to evaluate the acceptability, side effects and post-coital spermicidal activity of a new vaginal contraceptive. The intravaginal insert (IVI) consists of a polyester resin plug (sponge) containing a 5% solution of nonoxynol-9 bound in a cold formation process, and having a cotton loop attached to the lower end. The results of this study indicate that this new vaginal contraceptive is free of major side effects, is well accepted by users, and has strong spermicidal and mechanical activity. Future clinical testing in order to try its anti-conceptive effectiveness is warranted.

  18. Exercise for the Management of Side Effects and Quality of Life among Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mustian, Karen M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Palesh, Oxana G.; Peppone, Luke J.; Janelsins, Michelle C.; Mohile, Supriya G.; Carroll, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity may play an important role in the rehabilitation of cancer survivors during and following treatment. Current research suggests numerous beneficial outcomes are experienced in cancer survivors undergoing exercise interventions during or following cancer treatment. Exercise not only plays a role in managing side effects but also improves functional capacity and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the oncology literature supporting the use of exercise as an effective intervention for improving cancer-related fatigue, other side effects, functional capacity, and quality of life among cancer survivors. PMID:19904073

  19. “So far it’s been choosing which side effects I want or I can deal with”: A grounded theory of HIV treatment side effects among people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Dave

    2016-01-01

    Despite the availability of new antiretroviral drugs and the simplification of treatment options, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. In this paper, we present the findings of a grounded theory study designed to gain a critical understanding of the experience of side effects. Three main categories emerged from the data: the side effects, the experience, and the connections. The first category suggests that we need to change how we think about side effects in order to take into account the context in which they are experienced as well as the types and nature of side effects. The second category puts forward the idea that the experience of side effects is composed of three interrelated processes: becoming with, living with, and dealing with. Finally, the third category points to new connections that are formed with people, things and systems in the presence of side effects. PMID:27867446

  20. Effect of Increased Rear Row Occupancy on Injury to Seat Belt Restrained Children in Side Impact Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Matthew R.; Chen, Irene G.; Arbogast, Kristy B.

    2005-01-01

    Previous work identified a similar risk of injury for children seated on the struck side and center rear in side impact crashes in passenger cars. In order to further explain this finding, we investigated the effect of sharing the rear row with other occupants on injury risk and delineated differences in injury patterns among the seat positions. These analyses, conducted from a large child specific crash surveillance system, included: children 4–15 years old, rear seated, seat belt restrained, in a passenger car, and in a side impact crash. Injury risk was compared among each rear seat position stratified by the presence of other occupants on the rear row. Occupants are at an increased risk of injury if they sit alone on their row as compared to sitting with other occupants. Patterns of injuries distinct to each seat position were delineated. PMID:16179151

  1. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  2. Developing nations and the compulsory license: maximizing access to essential medicines while minimizing investment side effects.

    PubMed

    Bird, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    This manuscript addresses how developing countries can maximize access to essential medicines and minimize unwanted side-effects within the legal environment of a compulsory license regime. While compulsory licensing can play a role in improving public health, external social and political conditions must be considered in order to make licensing an effective practice.

  3. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  4. Brain stem as a target site for the metabolic side effects of olanzapine.

    PubMed

    Anwar, Imran J; Miyata, Kayoko; Zsombok, Andrea

    2016-03-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder despite causing undesirable metabolic side effects. A variety of mechanisms and brain sites have been proposed as contributors to the side effects; however, the role of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), which plays a crucial role in the regulation of subdiaphragmatic organs and thus governs energy and glucose homeostasis, is largely unknown. Identifying the effect of olanzapine on the excitability of DMV neurons in both sexes is thus crucial to understanding possible underlying mechanisms. Whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings were conducted in stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons identified with retrograde viral tracers and in random DMV neurons. The effect of olanzapine on the neuronal excitability of DMV neurons both in male and female mice was established. Our data demonstrate that olanzapine hyperpolarizes the DMV neurons in both sexes and this effect is reversible. The hyperpolarization is associated with decreased firing rate and input resistance. Olanzapine also decreases the excitability of a subset of stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons. Our study demonstrates that olanzapine has a powerful effect on DMV neurons in both sexes, indicating its ability to reduce vagal output to the subdiaphragmatic organs, which likely contributes to the metabolic side effects observed in both humans and experimental models. These findings suggest that the metabolic side effects of olanzapine may partially originate in the DMV. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Brain stem as a target site for the metabolic side effects of olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Imran J.; Miyata, Kayoko

    2015-01-01

    Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic, is widely prescribed for the treatment of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder despite causing undesirable metabolic side effects. A variety of mechanisms and brain sites have been proposed as contributors to the side effects; however, the role of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), which plays a crucial role in the regulation of subdiaphragmatic organs and thus governs energy and glucose homeostasis, is largely unknown. Identifying the effect of olanzapine on the excitability of DMV neurons in both sexes is thus crucial to understanding possible underlying mechanisms. Whole cell patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings were conducted in stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons identified with retrograde viral tracers and in random DMV neurons. The effect of olanzapine on the neuronal excitability of DMV neurons both in male and female mice was established. Our data demonstrate that olanzapine hyperpolarizes the DMV neurons in both sexes and this effect is reversible. The hyperpolarization is associated with decreased firing rate and input resistance. Olanzapine also decreases the excitability of a subset of stomach- and liver-related DMV neurons. Our study demonstrates that olanzapine has a powerful effect on DMV neurons in both sexes, indicating its ability to reduce vagal output to the subdiaphragmatic organs, which likely contributes to the metabolic side effects observed in both humans and experimental models. These findings suggest that the metabolic side effects of olanzapine may partially originate in the DMV. PMID:26719086

  6. Cytokine Release Syndrome: Inpatient Care for Side Effects of CAR T-Cell Therapy
.

    PubMed

    Smith, Laura; Venella, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia are more often being treated with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. As with any new therapy, the management of this patient population has a unique set of challenges. The side effects of this therapy can range from mild to severe, with cytokine release syndrome being the most common reason for hospitalization.
. This article presents common side effects, treatments, and challenges of caring for hospitalized patients who have received CAR T-cell therapy.
. A case study is used to illustrate a patient's inpatient hospitalization course after receiving CAR T-cell therapy, including the management of treatment-related toxicities.
. As treatments emerge, nurses will be challenged with learning the associated side effects and toxicities. CAR T-cell therapy can result in a unique trajectory of potential symptoms and the potential for complete resolution of disease.

  7. Side effects of antibiotics during bacterial infection: mitochondria, the main target in host cell.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rochika; Sripada, Lakshmi; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-05-01

    Antibiotics are frontline therapy against microbial infectious diseases. Many antibiotics are known to cause several side effects in humans. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is the main target of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis. According to the endosymbiont theory, mitochondrion is of bacterial origin and their molecular and structural components of the protein expression system are almost similar. It has been observed that the rate of mutations in mitochondrial rRNA is higher as compared to that of nuclear rRNA. The presence of these mutations may mimic prokaryotic rRNA structure and bind to antibiotics targeted to ribosomes of bacteria. Mitochondrial functions are compromised hence may be one of the major causes of side effects observed during antibiotic therapy. The current review had summarized the studies on the role of antibiotics on mitochondrial functions and its relevance to the observed side effects in physiological and pathological conditions.

  8. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  9. Effect of side by side interactions on the thermodynamic properties of adsorbed CO molecules on the Ni(111) surface: a cluster model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamkhali, Amir N.; Parsafar, Gholamabbas

    2010-05-01

    The effect of electrostatic interactions on vibrational frequencies and thermodynamic properties of CO adsorbate on the Ni(111) surface is calculated by taking the first and second nearest-neighbour interactions into account. In order to obtain reasonable results, the cluster model of various surface adsorption sites with CO adsorbate is partially optimized, using Density Functional Theory and also the MP2 method for the hcp site. Comparison between DFT and MP2 results shows that DFT results are more reliable for this system. The stretching and bending frequencies of CO adsorbate are calculated using both Partial Hessian Analysis and Cluster-Adsorbate Coupling methods. Stretching and bending frequencies are both shifted by the side by side interactions. The coupling of surface phonons and adsorbate vibrations reduces the side effects. The largest side effects on the vibrational internal energy, isochoric heat capacity, entropy and total Helmholtz free energy of adsorbed CO molecule calculated using the CAC method are found for 0.5 ML coverage. The results of the CAC method are better, but the PHA method can be used as a simple upper bound estimation. The adsorptive phase acts as an intelligent material in such a way that it changes its configuration in order to reduce the side effects.

  10. Practical issues in laser cleaning of stone and painted artefacts: optimisation procedures and side effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta

    2012-02-01

    In the last twenty years lasers have acquired an important role in the study and the preservation of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects and Monuments, as they have effectively illuminated a number of complex diagnostic and restoration problems. Their unique properties have enabled their use in a wide range of conservation applications, since they ensure interventions with precise control, material selectivity and immediate feedback. Surface cleaning, based on laser ablation, is a delicate, critical and irreversible process, which, given the multitude of materials that may be present on a CH object and the often fragile or precarious condition of the original surfaces, is fraught with many potential complications. Therefore it is crucial to choose the best possible laser cleaning methodology for each individual case, which involves optimising the laser parameters according to material properties, as well as the thorough knowledge of the ablation mechanisms involved. In this context the systematic investigation and elucidation of potential damage or side effects occurring upon cleaning is essential, as it delineates the possibilities and limitations of laser ablation and allows the fine-tuning of the operating parameters for a successful cleaning intervention. This paper is an overview of studies investigating the mechanisms which are responsible for the laser-induced discoloration effects. Emphasis is given on the yellowing coloration observed on stonework upon inf