Sample records for sidecar asic readout

  1. Controller and data acquisition system for SIDECAR ASIC driven HAWAII detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaprakash, Anamparambu; Burse, Mahesh; Chordia, Pravin; Chillal, Kalpesh; Kohok, Abhay; Mestry, Vilas; Punnadi, Sujit; Sinha, Sakya

    2010-07-01

    SIDECAR is an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC), which can be used for control and data acquisition from near-IR HAWAII detectors offered by Teledyne Imaging Sensors (TIS), USA. The standard interfaces provided by Teledyne are COM API and socket servers running under MS Windows platform. These interfaces communicate to the ASIC (and the detector) through an intermediate card called JWST ASIC Drive Electronics (JADE2). As part of an ongoing programme of several years, for developing astronomical focal plane array (CCDs, CMOS and Hybrid) controllers and data acquisition systems (CDAQs), IUCAA is currently developing the next generation controllers employing Virtex-5 family FPGA devices. We present here the capabilities which are built into these new CDAQs for handling HAWAII detectors. In our system, the computer which hosts the application programme, user interface and device drivers runs on a Linux platform. It communicates through a hot-pluggable USB interface (with an optional optical fibre extender) to the FPGA-based card which replaces the JADE2. The FPGA board in turn, controls the SIDECAR ASIC and through it a HAWAII-2RG detector, both of which are located in a cryogenic test Dewar set up which is liquid nitrogen cooled. The system can acquire data over 1, 4, or 32 readout channels, with or without binning, at different speeds, can define sub-regions for readout, offers various readout schemes like Fowler sampling, up-theramp etc. In this paper, we present the performance results obtained from a prototype system.

  2. Evaluating noise performance of the IUCAA sidecar drive electronics controller (ISDEC) based system for TMT on-instrument wavefront sensing (OIWFS) application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burse, Mahesh; Chattopadhyay, Sabyasachi; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Sinha, Sakya; Prabhudesai, Swapnil; Punnadi, Sujit; Chordia, Pravin; Kohok, Abhay

    2016-07-01

    As a part of a design study for the On-Instrument Low Order Wave-front Sensor (OIWFS) for the TMT Infra-Red Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we recently evaluated the noise performance of a detector control system consisting of IUCAA SIDECAR DRIVE ELECRONICS CONTROLLER (ISDEC), SIDECAR ASIC and HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) MUX. To understand and improve the performance of this system to serve as a near infrared wavefront sensor, we implemented new read out modes like multiple regions of interest with differential multi-accumulate readout schemes for the HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) detector. In this system, the firmware running in SIDECAR ASIC programs the detector for ROI readout, reads the detector, processes the detector output and writes the digitized data into its internal memory. ISDEC reads the digitized data from ASIC, performs the differential multi-accumulate operations and then sends the processed data to a PC over a USB interface. A special loopback board was designed and used to measure and reduce the noise from SIDECAR ASIC DC biases2. We were able to reduce the mean r.m.s read noise of this system down to 1-2 e. for any arbitrary window frame of 4x4 size at frame rates below about 200 Hz.

  3. Performance and Calibration of H2RG Detectors and SIDECAR ASICs for the RATIR Camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, Ori D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Rapchun, David A.; Klein, Christopher R.; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Bloom, Josh; de Diego, Jos A.; Simn Farah, Alejandro D.; Gehrels, Neil A.; Georgiev, Leonid; hide

    2012-01-01

    The Reionization And Transient Infra,.Red (RATIR) camera has been built for rapid Gamma,.Ray Burst (GRE) followup and will provide simultaneous optical and infrared photometric capabilities. The infrared portion of this camera incorporates two Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG detectors, controlled by Teledyne's SIDECAR ASICs. While other ground-based systems have used the SIDECAR before, this system also utilizes Teledyne's JADE2 interface card and IDE development environment. Together, this setup comprises Teledyne's Development Kit, which is a bundled solution that can be efficiently integrated into future ground-based systems. In this presentation, we characterize the system's read noise, dark current, and conversion gain.

  4. Software solution for autonomous observations with H2RG detectors and SIDECAR ASICs for the RATIR camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Christopher R.; Kubánek, Petr; Butler, Nathaniel R.; Fox, Ori D.; Kutyrev, Alexander S.; Rapchun, David A.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Farah, Alejandro; Gehrels, Neil; Georgiev, Leonid; González, J. Jesús; Lee, William H.; Lotkin, Gennadiy N.; Moseley, Samuel H.; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Richer, Michael G.; Robinson, Frederick D.; Román-Zúñiga, Carlos; Samuel, Mathew V.; Sparr, Leroy M.; Tucker, Corey; Watson, Alan M.

    2012-07-01

    The Reionization And Transients InfraRed (RATIR) camera has been built for rapid Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) followup and will provide quasi-simultaneous imaging in ugriZY JH. The optical component uses two 2048 × 2048 pixel Finger Lakes Imaging ProLine detectors, one optimized for the SDSS u, g, and r bands and one optimized for the SDSS i band. The infrared portion incorporates two 2048 × 2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG detectors, one with a 1.7-micron cutoff and one with a 2.5-micron cutoff. The infrared detectors are controlled by Teledyne's SIDECAR (System for Image Digitization Enhancement Control And Retrieval) ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits). While other ground-based systems have used the SIDECAR before, this system also utilizes Teledyne's JADE2 (JWST ASIC Drive Electronics) interface card and IDE (Integrated Development Environment). Here we present a summary of the software developed to interface the RATIR detectors with Remote Telescope System, 2nd Version (RTS2) software. RTS2 is an integrated open source package for remote observatory control under the Linux operating system and will autonomously coordinate observatory dome, telescope pointing, detector, filter wheel, focus stage, and dewar vacuum compressor operations. Where necessary we have developed custom interfaces between RTS2 and RATIR hardware, most notably for cryogenic focus stage motor drivers and temperature controllers. All detector and hardware interface software developed for RATIR is freely available and open source as part of the RTS2 distribution.

  5. Latest generation of ASICs for photodetector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2013-08-01

    The OMEGA microelectronics group has designed a new generation of multichannel integrated circuits, the "ROC" family, in AustrianMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology to read out signals from various families of photodetectors. The chip named MAROC (standing for Multi Anode ReadOut Chip) has been designed to read out MultiAnode Photomultipliers (MAPMT), Photomultiplier ARray In SiGe ReadOut Chip (PARISROC) to read out Photomultipliers (PMTs) and SiPM Integrated ReadOut Chip (SPIROC) to readout Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM) detectors and which was the first ASIC to do so. The three of them fulfill the stringent requirements of the future photodetectors, in particular in terms of low noise, radiation hardness, large dynamic range, high density and high speed while keeping low power thanks to the SiGe technology. These multi-channel ASICs are real System on Chip (SoC) as they provide charge, time and photon-counting information which are digitized internally. Their complexity and versatility enable innovative frontier detectors and also cover spin off of these detectors in adjacent fields such as medical or material imaging as well as smart detectors. In this presentation, the three ASIC architectures and test results will be described to give a general panorama of the "ROC" chips.

  6. SPIDR, a general-purpose readout system for pixel ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, B.; Visser, J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Kulis, S.; Munneke, B.; Schreuder, F.

    2017-02-01

    The SPIDR (Speedy PIxel Detector Readout) system is a flexible general-purpose readout platform that can be easily adapted to test and characterize new and existing detector readout ASICs. It is originally designed for the readout of pixel ASICs from the Medipix/Timepix family, but other types of ASICs or front-end circuits can be read out as well. The SPIDR system consists of an FPGA board with memory and various communication interfaces, FPGA firmware, CPU subsystem and an API library on the PC . The FPGA firmware can be adapted to read out other ASICs by re-using IP blocks. The available IP blocks include a UDP packet builder, 1 and 10 Gigabit Ethernet MAC's and a "soft core" CPU . Currently the firmware is targeted at the Xilinx VC707 development board and at a custom board called Compact-SPIDR . The firmware can easily be ported to other Xilinx 7 series and ultra scale FPGAs. The gap between an ASIC and the data acquisition back-end is bridged by the SPIDR system. Using the high pin count VITA 57 FPGA Mezzanine Card (FMC) connector only a simple chip carrier PCB is required. A 1 and a 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface handle the connection to the back-end. These can be used simultaneously for high-speed data and configuration over separate channels. In addition to the FMC connector, configurable inputs and outputs are available for synchronization with other detectors. A high resolution (≈ 27 ps bin size) Time to Digital converter is provided for time stamping events in the detector. The SPIDR system is frequently used as readout for the Medipix3 and Timepix3 ASICs. Using the 10 Gigabit Ethernet interface it is possible to read out a single chip at full bandwidth or up to 12 chips at a reduced rate. Another recent application is the test-bed for the VeloPix ASIC, which is developed for the Vertex Detector of the LHCb experiment. In this case the SPIDR system processes the 20 Gbps scrambled data stream from the VeloPix and distributes it over four 10 Gigabit

  7. A Radiation Hardened by Design CMOS ASIC for Thermopile Readouts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, G.; Aslam, S.; DuMonthier, J.

    2012-01-01

    A radiation hardened by design (RHBD) mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) has been designed for a thermopile readout for operation in the harsh Jovian orbital environment. The multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC includes 18 low noise amplifier channels which have tunable gain/filtering coefficients, a 16-bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The 18 channels, SDADC and controller were designed to operate with immunity to single event latchup (SEL) and to at least 10 Mrad total ionizing dose (TID). The ASIC also contains a radiation tolerant 16-bit 20 MHz Nyquist ADC for general purpose instrumentation digitizer needs. The ASIC is currently undergoing fabrication in a commercial 180 nm CMOS process. Although this ASIC was designed specifically for the harsh radiation environment of the NASA led JEO mission it is suitable for integration into instrumentation payloads 011 the ESA JUICE mission where the radiation hardness requirements are slightly less stringent.

  8. Implementation of the Timepix ASIC in the Scalable Readout System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupberger, M.; Desch, K.; Kaminski, J.

    2016-09-01

    We report on the development of electronics hardware, FPGA firmware and software to provide a flexible multi-chip readout of the Timepix ASIC within the framework of the Scalable Readout System (SRS). The system features FPGA-based zero-suppression and the possibility to read out up to 4×8 chips with a single Front End Concentrator (FEC). By operating several FECs in parallel, in principle an arbitrary number of chips can be read out, exploiting the scaling features of SRS. Specifically, we tested the system with a setup consisting of 160 Timepix ASICs, operated as GridPix devices in a large TPC field cage in a 1 T magnetic field at a DESY test beam facility providing an electron beam of up to 6 GeV. We discuss the design choices, the dedicated hardware components, the FPGA firmware as well as the performance of the system in the test beam.

  9. Development of cryogenic CMOS Readout ASICs for the Point-Contact HPGe Detectors for Dark Matter Search and Neutrino Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Zhi; He, Li; Liu, Feng; Liu, Yinong; Xue, Tao; Li, Yulan; Yue, Qian

    2017-05-01

    The paper presents the developments of two cryogenic readout ASICs for the point-contact HPGe detectors for dark matter search and neutrino experiments. Extremely low noise readout electronics were demanded and the capability of working at cryogenic temperatures may bring great advantages. The first ASIC was a monolithic CMOS charge sensitive preamplifier with its noise optimized for ∼1 pF input capacitance. The second ASIC was a waveform recorder based on switched capacitor array. These two ASICs were fabricated in CMOS 350 nm and 180 nm processes respectively. The prototype chips were tested and showed promising results. Both ASICs worked well at low temperature. The preamplifier had achieved ENC of 10.3 electrons with 0.7 pF input capacitance and the SCA chip could run at 9 bit effective resolution and 25 MSPS sampling rate.

  10. Design of a Multi-Channel Low-Noise Readout ASIC for CdZnTe-Based X-Ray and γ-Ray Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, W.; Zheng, R.; Hu, Y.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we report on the recent development of a 32-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) X-ray and γ-ray detectors. Each readout channel includes a charge sensitive amplifier, a CR-RC shaping amplifier and an analog output buffer. The readout ASIC is implemented using TSMC 0.35 - μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.2 mm ×4.8 mm. At room temperature, the equivalent noise level of a typical channel reaches 133 e- (rms) with the input parasitic capacitance of 0 pF for the average power consumption of 2.8 mW per channel. The linearity error is less than ±2% and the input energy dynamic range of the readout ASIC is from 10 keV to 1 MeV. The crosstalk between the channels is less than 0.4%. By connecting the readout ASIC to a CdZnTe detector, we obtained a γ-ray spectrum, the energy resolution is 1.8% at the 662-keV line of 137Cs source.

  11. Design and Measurement of a Low-Noise 64-Channels Front-End Readout ASIC for CdZnTe Detectors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gan, Bo; Wei, Tingcun; Gao, Wu

    Cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors, as one of the principal detectors for the next-generation X-ray and γ-ray imagers, have high energy resolution and supporting electrode patterning in the radiation environment at room-temperature. In the present, a number of internationally renowned research institutions and universities are actively using these detector systems to carry out researches of energy spectrum analysis, medical imaging, materials characterization, high-energy physics, nuclear plant monitoring, and astrophysics. As the most important part of the readout system for the CdZnTe detector, the front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) would have an important impact on the performances of themore » whole detector system. In order to ensure the small signal to noise ratio (SNR) and sufficient range of the output signal, it is necessary to design a front-end readout ASIC with very low noise and very high dynamic range. In addition, radiation hardness should be considered when the detectors are utilized in the space applications and high energy physics experiments. In this paper, we present measurements and performances of a novel multi-channel radiation-hardness low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors. The readout circuits in each channel consist of charge sensitive amplifier, leakage current compensation circuit (LCC), CR-RC shaper, S-K filter, inverse proportional amplifier, peak detect and hold circuit (PDH), discriminator and trigger logic, time sequence control circuit and driving buffer. All of 64 readout channels' outputs enter corresponding inputs of a 64 channel multiplexer. The output of the mux goes directly out of the chip via the output buffer. The 64-channel readout ASIC is implemented using the TSMC 0.35 μm mixed-signal CMOS technology. The die size of the prototype chip is 2.7 mm x 8 mm. At room temperature, the equivalent noise level of a typical channel reaches 66 e{sup -} (rms) at zero farad for

  12. Readout ASICs and Electronics for the 144-channel HAPDs for the Aerogel RICH at Belle II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, S.; Adachi, I.; Ikeda, H.; Hara, K.; Iijima, T.; Iwata, S.; Korpar, S.; Križan, P.; Kuroda, E.; Pestotnik, R.; Seljak, A.; Sumiyoshi, T.; Takagaki, H.

    The particle identification (PID) device in the endcap of the Belle detector will be upgraded to a ring imaging Cherenkov counter (RICH) using aerogel as a radiator at the Belle II experiment. We develop the electronics to read out the 70,000 channels of hit information from the 144-channel hybrid avalanche photodetectors (HAPD), of the aerogel RICH detector. A readout ASIC is developed to digitize the HAPD signals, and was used in a beam test with the prototype detector. The performance and plan of the ASIC is reported in this study. We have also designed the readout electronics for the aerogel RICH, which consist of front-end boards with the ASICs merger boards to collect data from the front-end boards. A front-end board that fits in the actual available space for the aerogel RICH electronics was produced.

  13. Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA): the readout ASIC for the pixel-strip (PS) module of the CMS outer tracker at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceresa, D.; Marchioro, A.; Kloukinas, K.; Kaplon, J.; Bialas, W.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Gaioni, L.; Ratti, L.

    2014-11-01

    The CMS tracker at HL-LHC is required to provide prompt information on particles with high transverse momentum to the central Level 1 trigger. For this purpose, the innermost part of the outer tracker is based on a combination of a pixelated sensor with a short strip sensor, the so-called Pixel-Strip module (PS). The readout of these sensors is carried out by distinct ASICs, the Strip Sensor ASIC (SSA), for the strip layer, and the Macro Pixel ASIC (MPA) for the pixel layer. The processing of the data directly on the front-end module represents a design challenge due to the large data volume (30720 pixels and 1920 strips per module) and the limited power budget. This is the reason why several studies have been carried out to find the best compromise between ASICs performance and power consumption. This paper describes the current status of the MPA ASIC development where the logic for generating prompt information on particles with high transverse momentum is implemented. An overview of the readout method is presented with particular attention on the cluster reduction, position encoding and momentum discrimination logic. Concerning the architectural studies, a software test bench capable of reading physics Monte-Carlo generated events has been developed and used to validate the MPA design and to evaluate the MPA performance. The MPA-Light is scheduled to be submitted for fabrication this year and will include the full analog functions and a part of the digital logic of the final version in order to qualify the chosen VLSI technology for the analog front-end, the module assembly and the low voltage digital supply.

  14. Integrated input protection against discharges for Micro Pattern Gas Detectors readout ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.; Koperny, S.; Wiącek, P.

    2017-02-01

    Immunity against possible random discharges inside active detector volume of MPGDs is one of the key aspects that should be addressed in the design of the front-end electronics. This issue becomes particularly critical for systems with high channel counts and high density readout employing the front-end electronics built as multichannel ASICs implemented in modern CMOS technologies, for which the breakdown voltages are in the range of a few Volts. The paper presents the design of various input protection structures integrated in the ASIC manufactured in a 350 nm CMOS process and test results using an electrical circuit to mimic discharges in the detectors.

  15. Triroc: A Multi-Channel SiPM Read-Out ASIC for PET/PET-ToF Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Salleh; Fleury, Julien; de la Taille, Christophe; Seguin-Moreau, Nathalie; Dulucq, Frederic; Martin-Chassard, Gisele; Callier, Stephane; Thienpont, Damien; Raux, Ludovic

    2015-06-01

    Triroc is the latest addition to SiPM readout ASICs family developed at Weeroc, a start-up company from the Omega microelectronics group of IN2P3/CNRS. This chip is developed under the framework TRIMAGE European project which is aimed for building a cost effective tri-modal PET/MR/EEG brain scan. To ensure the flexibility and compatibility with any SiPM in the market, the ASIC is designed to be capable of accepting negative and positive polarity input signals. This 64-channel ASIC, is suitable for SiPM readout which requires high accuracy timing and charge measurements. Targeted applications would be PET prototyping with time-of-flight capability. Main features of Triroc includes high dynamic range ADC up to 2500 photoelectrons and TDC fine time binning of 40 ps. Triroc requires very minimal external components which means it is a good contender for compact multichannel PET prototyping. Triroc is designed by using AMS 0.35 μm SiGe technology and it was submitted in March 2014. The detail design of this chip will be presented.

  16. Development of a compact radiation-hardened low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CZT-based hard X-ray imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Gan, B.; Li, X.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we present the development and performances of a radiation-hardened front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CZT detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel consists of a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), a CR-RC shaper, a fast shaper, a discriminator and a driving buffer. With the additional digital filtering, the readout channel can achieve very low noise performances and low power dissipation. An eight-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The energy range of the detected X-rays is evaluated as 1.45 keV to 281 keV. The gain is larger than 100 mV/fC. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the ASIC is 53 e- at zero farad plus 10 e- per picofarad. The power dissipation is less than 4.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement with a CZT detector, the energy resolution is less than 3.45 keV (FWHM) under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments indicate that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad (Si).

  17. A front end readout electronics ASIC chip for position sensitive solid state detectors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Kravis, S.D.; Tuemer, T.O.; Visser, G.J.

    1998-12-31

    A mixed signal Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip for front end readout electronics of position sensitive solid state detectors has been manufactured. It is called RENA (Readout Electronics for Nuclear Applications). This chip can be used for both medical and industrial imaging of X-rays and gamma rays. The RENA chip is a monolithic integrated circuit and has 32 channels with low noise high input impedance charge sensitive amplifiers. It works in pulse counting mode with good energy resolution. It also has a self triggering output which is essential for nuclear applications when the incident radiation arrives at random. Different,more » externally selectable, operational modes that includes a sparse readout mode is available to increase data throughput. It also has externally selectable shaping (peaking) times.« less

  18. Design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Gan; Tingcun, Wei; Wu, Gao; Yongcai, Hu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and performances of a low-noise and radiation-hardened front-end readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to CdZnTe detectors for a hard X-ray imager in space applications. The readout channel is comprised of a charge sensitive amplifier, a CR-RC shaping amplifier, an analog output buffer, a fast shaper, and a discriminator. An 8-channel prototype ASIC is designed and fabricated in TSMC 0.35-μm mixed-signal CMOS technology, the die size of the prototype chip is 2.2 × 2.2 mm2. The input energy range is from 5 to 350 keV. For this 8-channel prototype ASIC, the measured electrical characteristics are as follows: the overall gain of the readout channel is 210 V/pC, the linearity error is less than 2%, the crosstalk is less than 0.36%, The equivalent noise charge of a typical channel is 52.9 e- at zero farad plus 8.2 e- per picofarad, and the power consumption is less than 2.4 mW/channel. Through the measurement together with a CdZnTe detector, the energy resolution is 5.9% at the 59.5-keV line under the irradiation of the radioactive source 241Am. The radiation effect experiments show that the proposed ASIC can resist the total ionization dose (TID) irradiation of higher than 200 krad(Si). Project supported by the National Key Scientific Instrument and Equipment Development Project (No. 2011YQ040082), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11475136, 11575144, 61176094), and the Shaanxi Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 2015JM1016).

  19. Linearity enhancement design of a 16-channel low-noise front-end readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huiming; Wei, Tingcun; Wang, Jia

    2017-03-01

    A 16-channel front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) with linearity enhancement design for cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe) detectors is presented in this paper. The resistors in the slow shaper are realized using a high-Z circuit to obtain constant resistance value instead of using only a metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor, thus the shaping time of the slow shaper can be kept constant for different amounts of input energies. As a result, the linearity of conversion gain is improved significantly. The ASIC was designed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process with a die size of 2.60 mm×3.53 mm. The tested results show that a typical channel provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of 109.7e-+16.3e-/pF with a power consumption of 4 mW and achieves a conversion gain of 87 mV/fC with a nonlinearity of <0.4%. The linearity of conversion gain is improved by at least 86.6% as compared with the traditional approaches using the same front-end readout architecture and manufacture process. Moreover, the inconsistency among channels is <0.3%. An energy resolution of 2.975 keV (FWHM) for gamma rays of 59.5 keV was measured by connecting the ASIC to a 5 mm×5 mm ×2 mm CdZnTe detector at room temperature. The front-end readout ASIC presented in this paper achieves an outstanding linearity performance without compromising the noise, power consumption, and chip size performances.

  20. Development of n+-in-p planar pixel quadsensor flip-chipped with FE-I4 readout ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Y.; Kamada, S.; Yamamura, K.; Yamamoto, H.; Hanagaki, K.; Hori, R.; Ikegami, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Takubo, Y.; Takashima, R.; Tojo, J.; Kono, T.; Nagai, R.; Saito, S.; Sugibayashi, K.; Hirose, M.; Jinnouchi, O.; Sato, S.; Sawai, H.; Hara, K.; Sato, Kz.; Sato, Kj.; Iwabuchi, S.; Suzuki, J.

    2017-01-01

    We have developed flip-chip modules applicable to the pixel detector for the HL-LHC. New radiation-tolerant n+-in-p planar pixel sensors of a size of four FE-I4 application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) are laid out in a 6-in wafer. Variation in readout connection for the pixels at the boundary of ASICs is implemented in the design of quadsensors. Bump bonding technology is developed for four ASICs onto one quadsensor. Both sensors and ASICs are thinned to 150 μm before bump bonding, and are held flat with vacuum chucks. Using lead-free SnAg solder bumps, we encounter deficiency with large areas of disconnected bumps after thermal stress treatment, including irradiation. Surface oxidation of the solder bumps is identified as a critical source of this deficiency after bump bonding trials, using SnAg bumps with solder flux, indium bumps, and SnAg bumps with a newly-introduced hydrogen-reflow process. With hydrogen-reflow, we establish flux-less bump bonding technology with SnAg bumps, appropriate for mass production of the flip-chip modules with thin sensors and thin ASICs.

  1. Performance of CATIROC: ASIC for smart readout of large photomultiplier arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, S.; Callier, S.; Conforti Di Lorenzo, S.; Dulucq, F.; De La Taille, C.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Seguin-Moreau, N.

    2017-03-01

    CATIROC (Charge And Time Integrated Read Out Chip) is a complete read-out chip manufactured in AustriaMicroSystem (AMS) SiGe 0.35 μm technology, designed to read arrays of 16 photomultipliers (PMTs). It is an upgraded version of PARISROC2 [1] designed in 2010 in the context of the PMm2 (square meter PhotoMultiplier) project [2]. CATIROC is a SoC (System on Chip) that processes analog signals up to the digitization and sparsification to reduce the cost and cable number. The ASIC is composed of 16 independent channels that work in triggerless mode, auto-triggering on the single photo-electron. It provides a charge measurement up to 400 photoelectrons (70 pC) on two scales of 10 bits and a timing information with an accuracy of 200 ps rms. The ASIC was sent for fabrication in February 2015 and then received in September 2015. It is a good candidate for two Chinese projects (LHAASO and JUNO). The architecture and the measurements will be detailed in the paper.

  2. Development of a dedicated readout ASIC for TPC based X-ray polarimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongyan; Deng, Zhi; Li, Hong; Liu, Yinong; Feng, Hua

    2016-07-01

    X-ray polarimetry with time projection chambers was firstly proposed by JK Black in 2007 and has been greatly developed since then. It measured two dimensional photoelectron tracks with one dimensional strip and the other dimension was estimated by the drift time from the signal waveforms. A readout ASIC, APV25, originally developed for CMS silicon trackers was used and has shown some limitations such as waveform sampling depth. A dedicated ASIC was developed for TPC based X-ray polarimeters in this paper. It integrated 32 channel circuits and each channel consisted of an analog front-end and a waveform sampler based on switched capacitor array. The analog front-end has a charge sensitive preamplifier with a gain of 25 mV/fC, a CR-RC shaper with a peaking time of 25 ns, a baseline holder and a discriminator for self-triggering. The SCA has a buffer latency of 3.2 μs with 64 cells operating at 20 MSPS. The ASIC was fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The equivalent noise charge (ENC) of the analog front-end was measured to be 274.8 e+34.6 e/pF. The effective resolution of the SCA was 8.8 bits at sampling rate up to 50 MSPS. The total power consumption was 2.8 mW per channel. The ASIC was also tested with real TPC detectors and two dimensional photoelectron tracks have been successfully acquired. More tests and analysis on the sensitivity to the polarimetry are undergoing and will be presented in this paper.

  3. MuTRiG: a mixed signal Silicon Photomultiplier readout ASIC with high timing resolution and gigabit data link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H.; Briggl, K.; Eckert, P.; Harion, T.; Munwes, Y.; Shen, W.; Stankova, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.

    2017-01-01

    MuTRiG is a mixed signal Silicon Photomultiplier readout ASIC designed in UMC 180 nm CMOS technology for precise timing and high event rate applications in high energy physics experiments and medical imaging. It is dedicated to the readout of the scintillating fiber detector and the scintillating tile detector of the Mu3e experiment. The MuTRiG chip extends the excellent timing performance of the STiCv3 chip with a fast digital readout for high rate applications. The high timing performance of the fully differential SiPM readout channels and 50 ps time binning TDCs are complemented by an upgraded digital readout logic and a 1.28 Gbps LVDS serial data link. The design of the chip and the characterization results of the analog front-end, TDC and the LVDS data link are presented.

  4. A 64ch readout module for PPD/MPPC/SiPM using EASIROC ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Isamu; Ishijima, N.; Hanagaki, K.; Yoshimura, K.; Nakai, Y.; Ueno, K.

    2015-07-01

    A readout module for PPD/MPPC/GAPD/SiPM is developed using EASIROC ASIC. The module can handle 64 PPDs and has on-board bias power supply, ADC for energy measurement, 1 ns TDC on FPGA as well as 64ch Logic output for external trigger. Controls and data transfer are through SiTCP technology implemented in FPGA. The module has NIM format for convenience, but can be operated without crate with 5 V AC/DC converter. Basic performance of production module was tested and the results are presented in the poster.

  5. Front End Spectroscopy ASIC for Germanium Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulf, Eric

    Large-area, tracking, semiconductor detectors with excellent spatial and spectral resolution enable exciting new access to soft (0.2-5 MeV) gamma-ray astrophysics. The improvements from semiconductor tracking detectors come with the burden of high density of strips and/or pixels that require high-density, low-power, spectroscopy quality readout electronics. CMOS ASIC technologies are a natural fit to this requirement and have led to high-quality readout systems for all current semiconducting tracking detectors except for germanium detectors. The Compton Spectrometer and Imager (COSI), formerly NCT, at University of California Berkeley and the Gamma-Ray Imager/Polarimeter for Solar flares (GRIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center utilize germanium cross-strip detectors and are on the forefront of NASA's Compton telescope research with funded missions of long duration balloon flights. The development of a readout ASIC for germanium detectors would allow COSI to replace their discrete electronics readout and would enable the proposed Gamma-Ray Explorer (GRX) mission utilizing germanium strip-detectors. We propose a 3-year program to develop and test a germanium readout ASIC to TRL 5 and to integrate the ASIC readout onto a COSI detector allowing a TRL 6 demonstration for the following COSI balloon flight. Our group at NRL led a program, sponsored by another government agency, to produce and integrate a cross-strip silicon detector ASIC, designed and fabricated by Dr. De Geronimo at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The ASIC was designed to handle the large (>30 pF) capacitance of three 10 cm^2 detectors daisy-chained together. The front-end preamplifier, selectable inverter, shaping times, and gains make this ASIC compatible with a germanium cross-strip detector as well. We therefore have the opportunity and expertise to leverage the previous investment in the silicon ASIC for a new mission. A germanium strip detector ASIC will also require precise timing of the signals at

  6. Design of a Multichannel Low-Noise Front-End Readout ASIC Dedicated to CZT Detectors for PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Gan, B.; Wei, T.; Gao, D.; Hu, Y.

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we present the design and preliminary results of a novel low-noise front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for a PET imaging system whose objective is to achieve the following performances: the spatial resolution of 1 mm3, the detection efficiency of 15% and the time resolution of 1 ns. A cascode amplifier based on the PMOS input transistor is selected to realize the charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) for the sake of good noise performances. The output of the CSA is split into two branches. One is connected to a slow shaper for energy measurements. The other is connected to a fast shaper for time acquisition. A novel monostable circuits is designed to adjust the time delay of the trigger signals so that the peak value of the shaped voltages can be sampled and stored. An eight-channel front-end readout prototype chip is designed and implemented in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The die size is 2.286 mm ×2.282 mm. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000 e- to 180000 e-, reflecting to the energy level of the gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 1 MeV. The gain of the readout channel is 65 mV/fC. The tested result of ENC is 86.5 e- at zero farad plus 9.3 e- per picofarad. The nonlinearity is less than 3%. The crosstalk is less than 2%. The power dissipation is about 3 mW/channel.

  7. IDeF-X ECLAIRs: A CMOS ASIC for the Readout of CdTe and CdZnTe Detectors for High Resolution Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevin, Olivier; Baron, Pascal; Coppolani, Xavier; Daly, FranÇois; Delagnes, Eric; Limousin, Olivier; Lugiez, Francis; Meuris, Aline; Pinsard, FrÉdÉric; Renaud, Diana

    2009-08-01

    The very last member of the IDeF-X ASIC family is presented: IDeF-X ECLAIRs is a 32-channel front end ASIC designed for the readout of Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) and Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CdZnTe) Detectors. Thanks to its noise performance (Equivalent Noise Charge floor of 33 e- rms) and to its radiation hardened design (Single Event Latchup Linear Energy Transfer threshold of 56 MeV.cm2.mg-1), the chip is well suited for soft X-rays energy discrimination and high energy resolution, ldquospace proof,rdquo hard X-ray spectroscopy. We measured an energy low threshold of less than 4 keV with a 10 pF input capacitor and a minimal reachable sensitivity of the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) to input capacitance of less than 7 e-/pF obtained with a 6 mus peak time. IDeF-X ECLAIRs will be used for the readout of 6400 CdTe Schottky monopixel detectors of the 2D coded mask imaging telescope ECLAIRs aboard the SVOM satellite. IDeF-X ECLAIRs (or IDeF-X V2) has also been designed for the readout of a pixelated CdTe detector in the miniature spectro-imager prototype Caliste 256 that is currently foreseen for the high energy detector module of the Simbol-X mission.

  8. Development of a low-noise, 4th-order readout ASIC for CdZnTe detectors in gamma spectrometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia; Su, Lin; Wei, Xiaomin; Zheng, Ran; Hu, Yann

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents an ASIC readout circuit development, which aims to achieve low noise. In order to compensate the leakage current and improve gain, a dual-stage CSA has been utilized. A 4th-order high-linearity shaper is proposed to obtain a Semi-Gaussian wave and further decrease the noise induced by the leakage current. The ASIC has been designed and fabricated in a standard commercial 2P4M 0.35 μm CMOS process. Die area of one channel is about 1190 μm×147 μm. The input charge range is 1.8 fC. The peaking time can be adjusted from 1 μs to 3 μs. Measured ENC is about 55e- (rms) at input capacitor of 0 F. The gain is 271 mV/fC at the peaking time of 1 μs.

  9. 8-channel prototype of SALT readout ASIC for Upstream Tracker in the upgraded LHCb experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abellan Beteta, C.; Bugiel, S.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kane, C.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Wang, J.

    2017-02-01

    SALT is a new 128-channel readout ASIC for silicon strip detectors in the upgraded Upstream Tracker of the LHCb experiment. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the sensor, perform digital processing and transmit serial output data. SALT is designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of an analogue front-end and an ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) fast (40 MSps) sampling 6-bit ADC in each channel. An 8-channel prototype (SALT8), comprising all important functionalities was designed, fabricated and tested. A full 128-channel version was also submitted. The design and test results of the SALT8 prototype are presented showing its full functionality.

  10. ASIC Readout Circuit Architecture for Large Geiger Photodiode Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasile, Stefan; Lipson, Jerold

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new class of readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays to be operated with Geiger avalanche photodiode (GPD) arrays, by integrating multiple functions at the pixel level (smart-pixel or active pixel technology) in 250-nm CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) processes. In order to pack a maximum of functions within a minimum pixel size, the ROIC array is a full, custom application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) design using a mixed-signal CMOS process with compact primitive layout cells. The ROIC array was processed to allow assembly in bump-bonding technology with photon-counting infrared detector arrays into 3-D imaging cameras (LADAR). The ROIC architecture was designed to work with either common- anode Si GPD arrays or common-cathode InGaAs GPD arrays. The current ROIC pixel design is hardwired prior to processing one of the two GPD array configurations, and it has the provision to allow soft reconfiguration to either array (to be implemented into the next ROIC array generation). The ROIC pixel architecture implements the Geiger avalanche quenching, bias, reset, and time to digital conversion (TDC) functions in full-digital design, and uses time domain over-sampling (vernier) to allow high temporal resolution at low clock rates, increased data yield, and improved utilization of the laser beam.

  11. JWST Near-Infrared Detectors: Latest Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Erin C.; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Chiao, Meng; Clemons, Brian L.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; hide

    2009-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope, an infrared-optimized space telescope being developed by NASA for launch in 2013, will utilize cutting-edge detector technology in its investigation of fundamental questions in astrophysics. JWST's near infrared spectrograph, NIRSpec utilizes two 2048 x 2048 HdCdTe arrays with Sidecar ASIC readout electronics developed by Teledyne to provide spectral coverage from 0.6 microns to 5 microns. We present recent test and calibration results for the NIRSpec flight arrays as well as data processing routines for noise reduction and cosmic ray rejection.

  12. MUSIC: An 8 channel readout ASIC for SiPM arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Sergio; Gascón, David; Fernández, Gerard; Sanuy, Andreu; Mauricio, Joan; Graciani, Ricardo; Sanchez, David

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents an 8 channel ASIC for SiPM anode readout based on a novel low input impedance current conveyor (under patent1). This Multiple Use SiPM Integrated Circuit (MUSIC) has been designed to serve several purposes, including, for instance, the readout of SiPM arrays for some of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) cameras. The current division scheme at the very front end part of the circuit splits the input current into differently scaled copies which are connected to independent current mirrors. The circuit contains a tunable pole zero cancellation of the SiPM recovery time constant to deal with sensors from different manufacturers. Decay times up to 100 ns are supported covering most of the available SiPM devices in the market. MUSIC offers three main features: (1) differential output of the sum of the individual input channels; (2) 8 individual single ended analog outputs and; (3) 8 individual binary outputs. The digital outputs encode the amount of collected charge in the duration of the digital signal using a time over threshold technique. For each individual channel, the user must select the analog or digital output. Each functionality, the signal sum and the 8 A/D outputs, include a selectable dual-gain configuration. Moreover, the signal sum implements dual-gain output providing a 15 bit dynamic range. Full die simulation results of the MUSIC designed using AMS 0.35 µm SiGe technology are presented: total die size of 9 mm2, 500 MHz bandwidth for channel sum and 150 MHz bandwidth for A/D channels, low input impedance (≍32 Ω), single photon output pulse width at half maximum (FWHM) between 5 and 10 ns and with a power consumption of ≍ 30 mW/ch plus ≍ 200 mW for the 8 ch sum. Encapsulated prototype samples of the MUSIC are expected by March 2016.

  13. Net-Centric Sensors and Data Sources (N-CSDS) GEODSS Sidecar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, D.

    2012-09-01

    Vast amounts of Space Situational Sensor data is collected each day on closed, legacy systems. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Lincoln Laboratory (MIT/LL) developed a Net-Centric approach to expose this data under the Extended Space Sensors Architecture (ESSA) Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (ACTD). The Net-Centric Sensors and Data Sources (N-CSDS) Ground-based Electro Optical Deep Space Surveillance (GEODSS) Sidecar is the next generation that moves the ESSA ACTD engineering tools to an operational baseline. The N-CSDS GEODSS sidecar high level architecture will be presented, highlighting the features that supports deployment at multiple diverse sensor sites. Other key items that will be covered include: 1) The Web Browser interface to perform searches of historical data 2) The capabilities of the deployed Web Services and example service request/responses 3) Example data and potential user applications will be highlighted 4) Specifics regarding the process to gain access to the N-CSDS GEODSS sensor data in near real time 5) Current status and future deployment plans (Including plans for deployment to the Maui GEODSS Site)

  14. Asic developments for radiation imaging applications: The medipix and timepix family

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballabriga, Rafael; Campbell, Michael; Llopart, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Hybrid pixel detectors were developed to meet the requirements for tracking in the inner layers at the LHC experiments. With low input capacitance per channel (10-100 fF) it is relatively straightforward to design pulse processing readout electronics with input referred noise of ∼ 100 e-rms and pulse shaping times consistent with tagging of events to a single LHC bunch crossing providing clean 'images' of the ionising tracks generated. In the Medipix Collaborations the same concept has been adapted to provide practically noise hit free imaging in a wide range of applications. This paper reports on the development of three generations of readout ASICs. Two distinctive streams of development can be identified: the Medipix ASICs which integrate data from multiple hits on a pixel and provide the images in the form of frames and the Timepix ASICs who aim to send as much information about individual interactions as possible off-chip for further processing. One outstanding circumstance in the use of these devices has been their numerous successful applications, thanks to a large and active community of developers and users. That process has even permitted new developments for detectors for High Energy Physics. This paper reviews the ASICs themselves and details some of the many applications.

  15. An application specific integrated circuit based multi-anode microchannel array readout system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smeins, Larry G.; Stechman, John M.; Cole, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Size reduction of two new multi-anode microchannel array (MAMA) readout systems is described. The systems are based on two analog and one digital application specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The new readout systems reduce volume over previous discrete designs by 80 percent while improving electrical performance on virtually every significant parameter. Emphasis is made on the packaging used to achieve the volume reduction. Surface mount technology (SMT) is combined with modular construction for the analog portion of the readout. SMT reliability concerns and the board area impact of MIL SPEC SMT components is addressed. Package selection for the analog ASIC is discussed. Future sytems will require even denser packaging and the volume reduction progression is shown.

  16. VMM - An ASIC for Micropattern Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iakovidis, George

    2018-02-01

    The VMM is a custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) that can be used in a variety of charge interpolating tracking detectors. It is designed to be used with the resistive strip micromegas and sTGC detectors in the New Small Wheel upgrade of the ATLAS Muon spectrometer. The ASIC is designed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and fabricated in the 130 nm Global Foundries 8RF-DM process. It is packaged in a Ball Grid Array with outline dimensions of 21×21 mm2. It integrates 64 channels, each providing charge amplification, discrimination, neighbour logic, amplitude and timing measurements, analog-to-digital conversions, and either direct output for trigger or multiplexed readout. The front-end amplifier can operate with a wide range of input capacitances, has adjustable polarity, gain and peaking time. The VMM1 and VMM2 are the first two versions of the VMM ASIC family fabricated in 2012 and 2014 respectively. The design, tests and qualification of the VMM1, VMM2 and roadmap to VMM3 are described.

  17. A comparative study of the time performance between NINO and FlexToT ASICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarasola, I.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Gundacker, S.; Sánchez, D.; Gascón, D.; Rato, P.; Marín, J.; Auffray, E.

    2017-04-01

    Universitat de Barcelona (UB) and CIEMAT have designed the FlexToT ASIC for the front-end readout of SiPM-based scintillator detectors. This ASIC is aimed at time of flight (ToF) positron emission tomography (PET) applications. In this work we have evaluated the time performance of the FlexToT v2 ASIC compared to the NINO ASIC, a fast ASIC developped at CERN. NINO electronics give 64 ps sigma for single-photon time resolution (SPTR) and 93 ps FWHM for coincidence time resolution (CTR) with 2 × 2 × 5 mm3 LSO:Ce,Ca crystals and S13360-3050CS SiPMs. Using the same SiPMs and crystals, the FlexToT v2 ASIC yields 91 ps sigma for SPTR and 123 ps FWHM for CTR. Despite worse time performace than NINO, FlexToT v2 features lower power consumption (11 vs. 27 mW/ch) and linear ToT energy measurement.

  18. Test set up description and performances for HAWAII-2RG detector characterization at ESTEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouzet, P.-E.; ter Haar, J.; de Wit, F.; Beaufort, T.; Butler, B.; Smit, H.; van der Luijt, C.; Martin, D.

    2012-07-01

    In the frame work of the European Space Agency's Cosmic Vision program, the Euclid mission has the objective to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies will be observed in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths by an imaging and spectroscopic channel. For the Near Infrared Spectrometer instrument (NISP), the state-of-the-art HAWAII-2RG detectors will be used, associated with the SIDECAR ASIC readout electronic which will perform the image frame acquisitions. To characterize and validate the performance of these detectors, a test bench has been designed, tested and validated. This publication describes the pre-tests performed to build the set up dedicated to dark current measurements and tests requiring reasonably uniform light levels (such as for conversion gain measurements). Successful cryogenic and vacuum tests on commercial LEDs and photodiodes are shown. An optimized feed through in stainless steel with a V-groove to pot the flex cable connecting the SIDECAR ASIC to the room temperature board (JADE2) has been designed and tested. The test set up for quantum efficiency measurements consisting of a lamp, a monochromator, an integrating sphere and set of cold filters, and which is currently under construction will ensure a uniform illumination across the detector with variations lower than 2%. A dedicated spot projector for intra-pixel measurements has been designed and built to reach a spot diameter of 5 μm at 920nm with 2nm of bandwidth [1].

  19. Design and performance of a custom ASIC digitizer for wire chamber readout in 65 nm CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, M. J.; Brown, D. N.; Chang, J. K.; Ding, D.; Gnani, D.; Grace, C. R.; Jones, J. A.; Kolomensky, Y. G.; von der Lippe, H.; Mcvittie, P. J.; Stettler, M. W.; Walder, J.-P.

    2015-06-01

    We present the design and performance of a prototype ASIC digitizer for integrated wire chamber readout, implemented in 65 nm commercial CMOS technology. Each channel of the 4-channel prototype is composed of two 16-bit Time-to-Digital Converters (TDCs), one 8-bit Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC), a front-end preamplifier and shaper, plus digital and analog buffers that support a variety of digitization chains. The prototype has a multiplexed digital backend that executes a state machine, distributes control and timing signals, and buffers data for serial output. Laboratory bench tests measure the absolute TDC resolution between 74 ps and 480 ps, growing with the absolute delay, and a relative time resolution of 19 ps. Resolution outliers due to cross-talk between clock signals and supply or reference voltages are seen. After calibration, the ADC displays good linearity and noise performance, with an effective number of bits of 6.9. Under normal operating conditions the circuit consumes 32 mW per channel. Potential design improvements to address the resolution drift and tails are discussed.

  20. A fast, low power and low noise charge sensitive amplifier ASIC for a UV imaging single photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2017-04-01

    NASA has funded, through their Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, the development of a cross strip (XS) microchannel plate (MCP) detector with the intention to increase its technology readiness level (TRL), enabling prototyping for future NASA missions. One aspect of the development is to convert the large and high powered laboratory Parallel Cross Strip (PXS) readout electronics into application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) to decrease their mass, volume, and power consumption (all limited resources in space) and to make them more robust to the environments of rocket launch and space. The redesign also foresees to increase the overall readout event rate, and decrease the noise contribution of the readout system. This work presents the design and verification of the first stage for the new readout system, the 16 channel charge sensitive amplifier ASIC, called the CSAv3. The single channel amplifier is composed of a charge sensitive amplifier (pre-amplifier), a pole zero cancellation circuit and a shaping amplifier. An additional output stage buffer allows polarity selection of the output analog signal. The operation of the amplifier is programmable via serial bus. It provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e^- and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The full scale pulse shaped output signal is confined within 100 ns, without long recovery tails, enabling up to 10 MHz periodic event rates without signal pile up. This ASIC was designed and fabricated in 130 nm, TSMC CMOS 1.2 V technology. In addition, we briefly discuss the construction of the readout system and plans for the future work.

  1. Development of 4-Sides Buttable CdTe-ASIC Hybrid Module for X-ray Flat Panel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamaki, Mitsuru; Mito, Yoshio; Shuto, Yasuhiro; Kiyuna, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Masaya; Sagae, Kenichi; Kina, Tooru; Koizumi, Tatsuhiro; Ohno, Ryoichi

    2009-08-01

    A 4-sides buttable CdTe-ASIC hybrid module suitable for use in an X-ray flat panel detector (FPD) has been developed by applying through silicon via (TSV) technology to the readout ASIC. The ASIC has 128 times 256 channels of charge integration type readout circuitry and an area of 12.9 mm times 25.7 mm. The CdTe sensor of 1 mm thickness, having the same area and pixel of 100 mum pitch, was fabricated from the Cl-doped CdTe single crystal grown by traveling heater method (THM). Then the CdTe pixel sensor was hybridized with the ASIC using the bump-bonding technology. The basic performance of this 4-sides buttable module was evaluated by taking X-ray images, and it was compared with that of a commercially available indirect type CsI(Tl) FPD. A prototype CdTe FPD was made by assembling 9 pieces of the 4-sides buttable modules into 3 times 3 arrays in which the neighboring modules were mounted on the interface board. The FPD covers an active area of 77 mm times 39 mm. The results showed the great potential of this 4-sides buttable module for the new real time X-ray FPD with high spatial resolution.

  2. A custom readout electronics for the BESIII CGEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Rocha Rolo, M.; Alexeev, M.; Amoroso, A.; Baldini Ferroli, R.; Bertani, M.; Bettoni, D.; Bianchi, F.; Bugalho, R.; Calcaterra, A.; Canale, N.; Capodiferro, M.; Carassiti, V.; Cerioni, S.; Chai, J. Y.; Chiozzi, S.; Cibinetto, G.; Cossio, F.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Di Francesco, A.; Dong, J.; Evangelisti, F.; Farinelli, R.; Fava, L.; Felici, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Gatta, M.; Greco, M.; Lavezzi, L.; Leng, C. Y.; Li, H.; Maggiora, M.; Malaguti, R.; Marcello, S.; Marciniewski, P.; Melchiorri, M.; Mezzadri, G.; Mignone, M.; Morello, G.; Pacetti, S.; Patteri, P.; Pellegrino, J.; Pelosi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Savrié, M.; Scodeggio, M.; Soldani, E.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Tskhadadze, E.; Varela, J.; Verma, S.; Wheadon, R.; Yan, L.

    2017-07-01

    For the upgrade of the inner tracker of the BESIII spectrometer, planned for 2018, a lightweight tracker based on an innovative Cylindrical Gas Electron Multiplier (CGEM) detector is now under development. The analogue readout of the CGEM enables the use of a charge centroid algorithm to improve the spatial resolution to better than 130 μm while loosening the pitch strip to 650 μm, which allows to reduce the total number of channels to about 10 000. The channels are readout by 160 dedicated integrated 64-channel front-end ASICs, providing a time and charge measurement and featuring a fully-digital output. The energy measurement is extracted either from the time-over-threshold (ToT) or the 10-bit digitisation of the peak amplitude of the signal. The time of the event is generated by quad-buffered low-power TDCs, allowing for rates in excess of 60 kHz per channel. The TDCs are based on analogue interpolation techniques and produce a time stamp (or two, if working in ToT mode) of the event with a time resolution better than 50 ps. The front-end noise, based on a CSA and a two-stage complex conjugated pole shapers, dominate the channel intrinsic time jitter, which is less than 5 ns r.m.s. The time information of the hit can be used to reconstruct the track path, operating the detector as a small TPC and hence improving the position resolution when the distribution of the cloud, due to large incident angle or magnetic field, is very broad. Event data is collected by an off-detector motherboard, where each GEM-ROC readout card handles 4 ASIC carrier FEBs (512 channels). Configuration upload and data readout between the off-detector electronics and the VME-based data collector cards are managed by bi-directional fibre optical links. This paper covers the design of a custom front-end electronics for the readout of the new inner tracker of the BESIII experiment, addressing the relevant design aspects of the detector electronics and the front-end ASIC for the CGEM readout

  3. Cryogenic low noise and low dissipation multiplexing electronics, using HEMT+SiGe ASICs, for the readout of high impedance sensors: New version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Broïse, Xavier; Lugiez, Francis; Bounab, Ayoub; Le Coguie, Alain

    2015-07-01

    High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), optimized by CNRS/LPN laboratory for ultra-low noise at very low temperature, have demonstrated their capacity to be used in place of Si JFETs when working temperatures below 100 K are required. We associated them with specific SiGe ASICs that we developed, to implement a complete readout channel able to read highly segmented high impedance detectors within a framework of very low thermal dissipation. Our electronics is dimensioned to read 4096 detection channels, of typically 1 MΩ impedance, and performs 32:1 multiplexing and amplifying, dissipating only 6 mW at 2.5 K and 100 mW at 15 K thanks to high impedance commuting of input stage, with a typical noise of 1 nV/√Hz at 1 kHz.

  4. Prototype readout system for a multi Mpixels UV single-photon imaging detector capable of space flight operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seljak, A.; Cumming, H. S.; Varner, G.; Vallerga, J.; Raffanti, R.; Virta, V.

    2018-02-01

    Our collaboration works on the development of a large aperture, high resolution, UV single-photon imaging detector, funded through NASA's Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program. The detector uses a microchannel plate for charge multiplication, and orthogonal cross strip (XS) anodes for charge readout. Our target is to make an advancement in the technology readiness level (TRL), which enables real scale prototypes to be tested for future NASA missions. The baseline detector has an aperture of 50×50 mm and requires 160 low-noise charge-sensitive channels, in order to extrapolate the incoming photon position with a spatial resolution of about 20 μm FWHM. Technologies involving space flight require highly integrated electronic systems operating at very low power. We have designed two ASICs which enable the construction of such readout system. First, a charge sensitive amplifier (CSAv3) ASIC provides an equivalent noise charge (ENC) of around 600 e-, and a baseline gain of 10 mV/fC. The second, a Giga Sample per Second (GSPS) ASIC, called HalfGRAPH, is a 12-bit analog to digital converter. Its architecture is based on waveform sampling capacitor arrays and has about 8 μs of analog storage memory per channel. Both chips encapsulate 16 measurement channels. Using these chips, a small scale prototype readout system has been constructed on a FPGA Mezzanine Board (FMC), equipped with 32 measurement channels for system evaluation. We describe the construction of HalfGRAPH ASIC, detector's readout system concept and obtained results from the prototype system. As part of the space flight qualification, these chips were irradiated with a Cobalt gamma-ray source, to verify functional operation under ionizing radiation exposure.

  5. LSST camera readout chip ASPIC: test tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bailly, Ph; Jeglot, J.; Juramy, C.; Lebbolo, H.; Martin, D.; Moniez, M.; Tocut, V.; Wicek, F.

    2012-02-01

    The LSST camera will have more than 3000 video-processing channels. The readout of this large focal plane requires a very compact readout chain. The correlated ''Double Sampling technique'', which is generally used for the signal readout of CCDs, is also adopted for this application and implemented with the so called ''Dual Slope integrator'' method. We have designed and implemented an ASIC for LSST: the Analog Signal Processing asIC (ASPIC). The goal is to amplify the signal close to the output, in order to maximize signal to noise ratio, and to send differential outputs to the digitization. Others requirements are that each chip should process the output of half a CCD, that is 8 channels and should operate at 173 K. A specific Back End board has been designed especially for lab test purposes. It manages the clock signals, digitizes the analog differentials outputs of ASPIC and stores data into a memory. It contains 8 ADCs (18 bits), 512 kwords memory and an USB interface. An FPGA manages all signals from/to all components on board and generates the timing sequence for ASPIC. Its firmware is written in Verilog and VHDL languages. Internals registers permit to define various tests parameters of the ASPIC. A Labview GUI allows to load or update these registers and to check a proper operation. Several series of tests, including linearity, noise and crosstalk, have been performed over the past year to characterize the ASPIC at room and cold temperature. At present, the ASPIC, Back-End board and CCD detectors are being integrated to perform a characterization of the whole readout chain.

  6. Validation of a highly integrated SiPM readout system with a TOF-PET demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknejad, T.; Setayeshi, S.; Tavernier, S.; Bugalho, R.; Ferramacho, L.; Di Francesco, A.; Leong, C.; Rolo, M. D.; Shamshirsaz, M.; Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Silveira, M.; Zorraquino, C.; Varela, J.

    2016-12-01

    We have developed a highly integrated, fast and compact readout electronics for Silicon Photomultiplier (SiPM) based Time of Flight Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET) scanners. The readout is based on the use of TOP-PET Application Specific Integrated Circuit (PETsys TOFPET1 ASIC) with 64 channels, each with its amplifier, discriminator, Time to Digital Converter (TDC) and amplitude determination using Time Over Threshold (TOT). The ASIC has 25 ps r.m.s. intrinsic time resolution and fully digital output. The system is optimised for high rates, good timing, low power consumption and low cost. For validating the readout electronics, we have built a technical PET scanner, hereafter called ``demonstrator'', with 2'048 SiPM channels. The PET demonstrator has 16 compact Detector Modules (DM). Each DM has two ASICs reading 128 SiPM pixels in one-to-one coupling to 128 Lutetium Yttrium Orthosilicate (LYSO) crystals measuring 3.1 × 3.1 × 15 mm3 each. The data acquisition system for the demonstrator has two Front End Boards type D (FEB/D), each collecting the data of 1'024 channels (8 DMs), and transmitting assembled data frames through a serial link (4.8 Gbps), to a single Data Acquisition (DAQ) board plugged into the Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe) bus of the data acquisition PC. Results obtained with this PET demonstrator are presented.

  7. SiGe Integrated Circuit Developments for SQUID/TES Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prêle, D.; Voisin, F.; Beillimaz, C.; Chen, S.; Piat, M.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.

    2018-03-01

    SiGe integrated circuits dedicated to the readout of superconducting bolometer arrays for astrophysics have been developed since more than 10 years at APC. Whether for Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) observations with the QUBIC ground-based experiment (Aumont et al. in astro-ph.IM, 2016. arXiv:1609.04372) or for the Hot and Energetic Universe science theme with the X-IFU instrument on-board of the ATHENA space mission (Barret et al. in SPIE 9905, space telescopes & instrumentation 2016: UV to γ Ray, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2232432), several kinds of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) (Irwin and Hilton, in ENSS (ed) Cryogenic particle detection, Springer, Berlin, 2005) arrays have been investigated. To readout such superconducting detector arrays, we use time or frequency domain multiplexers (TDM, FDM) (Prêle in JINST 10:C08015, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1088/1748-0221/10/08/C08015) with Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUID). In addition to the SQUID devices, low-noise biasing and amplification are needed. These last functions can be obtained by using BiCMOS SiGe technology in an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). ASIC technology allows integration of highly optimised circuits specifically designed for a unique application. Moreover, we could reach very low-noise and wide band amplification using SiGe bipolar transistor either at room or cryogenic temperatures (Cressler in J Phys IV 04(C6):C6-101, 1994. https://doi.org/10.1051/jp4:1994616). This paper discusses the use of SiGe integrated circuits for SQUID/TES readout and gives an update of the last developments dedicated to the QUBIC telescope and to the X-IFU instrument. Both ASIC called SQmux128 and AwaXe are described showing the interest of such SiGe technology for SQUID multiplexer controls.

  8. IMOTEPAD: A mixed-signal 64-channel front-end ASIC for small-animal PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Xiaochao; Ollivier-Henry, Nicolas; Gao, Wu; Hu-Guo, Christine; Colledani, Claude; Humbert, Bernard; Brasse, David; Hu, Yann

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design and characteristics of a mixed-signal 64-channel front-end readout ASIC called IMOTEPAD dedicated to multi-channel plate (MCP) photodetector coupled to LYSO scintillating crystals for small-animal PET imaging. In our configuration, the crystals are oriented in the axial direction readout on both sides by individual photodetector channels allowing the spatial resolution and the detection efficiency to be independent of each other. As a result, both energy signals and timing triggers from the photodetectors are required to be read out by the front-end ASIC. This dedicated ASIC IMOTEPAD comprises two parts: the analog part IMOTEPA and the digital part IMOTEPD. The IMOTEPA is dedicated to energy measurement. And the timing information is digitized by the IMOTEPD in which the key principal element is a time-to-digital converter (TDC) based on a delay-locked loop (DLL) with 32 delay cells. The chip is designed and fabricated in 0.35 μm CMOS process. The measurements show that for the analog part IMOTEPA, the energy gain is 13.1 mV/pC while the peak time of a CR-RC pulse shaper is 280 ns. The SNR is 39 dB and the RMS noise is 300 μV. The nonlinearity is less than 3%. The crosstalk is less than 0.2%. For the IMOTEPD, the bin size of the TDC is 625 ps with a reference clock of 50 MHz. The RMS jitter of the DLL is less than 42 ps. The DNL of the TDC is equal to about 0.17 LSB and the INL is equal to 0.31 LSB. The power dissipation of each channel is less than 16.8 mW. The design of the ASIC, especially for TDC and the measurement results of the IMOTEPAD will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  9. MICROROC: MICRO-mesh gaseous structure Read-Out Chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Blaha, J.; Chefdeville, M.; Dalmaz, A.; Drancourt, C.; Dulucq, F.; Espargilière, A.; Gaglione, R.; Geffroy, N.; Jacquemier, J.; Karyotakis, Y.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Prast, J.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; de La Taille, Ch; Vouters, G.

    2012-01-01

    MICRO MEsh GAseous Structure (MICROMEGAS) and Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) detectors are two candidates for the active medium of a Digital Hadronic CALorimeter (DHCAL) as part of a high energy physics experiment at a future linear collider (ILC/CLIC). Physics requirements lead to a highly granular hadronic calorimeter with up to thirty million channels with probably only hit information (digital readout calorimeter). To validate the concept of digital hadronic calorimetry with such small cell size, the construction and test of a cubic meter technological prototype, made of 40 planes of one square meter each, is necessary. This technological prototype would contain about 400 000 electronic channels, thus requiring the development of front-end ASIC. Based on the experience gained with previous ASIC that were mounted on detectors and tested in particle beams, a new ASIC called MICROROC has been developped. This paper summarizes the caracterisation campaign that was conducted on this new chip as well as its integration into a large area Micromegas chamber of one square meter.

  10. A CMOS ASIC Design for SiPM Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Samrat; Banks, Lushon; Chen, Shaw-Pin; Xu, Wenbin; Lewellen, Thomas K.; Miyaoka, Robert S.; Rudell, Jacques C.

    2012-01-01

    Our lab has previously reported on novel board-level readout electronics for an 8×8 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) array featuring row/column summation technique to reduce the hardware requirements for signal processing. We are taking the next step by implementing a monolithic CMOS chip which is based on the row-column architecture. In addition, this paper explores the option of using diagonal summation as well as calibration to compensate for temperature and process variations. Further description of a timing pickoff signal which aligns all of the positioning (spatial channels) pulses in the array is described. The ASIC design is targeted to be scalable with the detector size and flexible to accommodate detectors from different vendors. This paper focuses on circuit implementation issues associated with the design of the ASIC to interface our Phase II MiCES FPGA board with a SiPM array. Moreover, a discussion is provided for strategies to eventually integrate all the analog and mixed-signal electronics with the SiPM, on either a single-silicon substrate or multi-chip module (MCM). PMID:24825923

  11. Readout electronics for LGAD sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso, O.; Franch, N.; Canals, J.; Palacio, F.; López, M.; Vilà, A.; Diéguez, A.; Carulla, M.; Flores, D.; Hidalgo, S.; Merlos, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Quirion, D.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, an ASIC fabricated in 180 nm CMOS technology from AMS with the very front-end electronics used to readout LGAD sensors is presented as well as its experimental results. The front-end has the typical architecture for Si-strip readout, i.e., preamplification stage with a Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) followed by a CR-RC shaper. Both amplifiers are based on a folded cascode structure with a PMOS input transistor and the shaper only uses passive elements for the feedback stage. The CSA has programmable gain and a configurable input stage in order to adapt to the different input capacitance of the LGAD sensors (pixelated, short and long strips) and to the different input signal (depending on the gain of the LGAD). The fabricated prototype has an area of 0.865 mm × 0.965 mm and includes the biasing circuit for the CSA and the shaper, 4 analog channels (CSA+shaper) and programmable charge injection circuits included for testing purposes. Noise and power analysis performed during simulation fixed the size of the input transistor to W/L = 860 μm/0.2 μm. The shaping time is fixed by design at 1 us and, in this ASIC version, the feedback elements of the shaper are passive, which means that the area of the shaper can be reduced using active elements in future versions. Finally, the different gains of the CSA have been selected to maintain an ENC below 400 electrons for a detector capacitor of 20 pF, with a power consumption of 150 μ W per channel.

  12. Prototype readout electronics and silicon strip detector study for the silicon tracking system at compressed baryonic matter experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasiński, Krzysztof; Szczygieł, Robert; Gryboś, Paweł

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents the prototype detector readout electronics for the STS (Silicon Tracking System) at CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) experiment at FAIR, GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH) in Germany. The emphasis has been put on the strip detector readout chip and its interconnectivity with detector. Paper discusses the impact of the silicon strip detector and interconnection cable construction on the overall noise of the system and architecture of the TOT02 readout ASIC. The idea and problems of the double-sided silicon detector usage are also presented.

  13. Reliable and redundant FPGA based read-out design in the ATLAS TileCal Demonstrator

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Akerstedt, Henrik; Muschter, Steffen; Drake, Gary

    The Tile Calorimeter at ATLAS [1] is a hadron calorimeter based on steel plates and scintillating tiles read out by PMTs. The current read-out system uses standard ADCs and custom ASICs to digitize and temporarily store the data on the detector. However, only a subset of the data is actually read out to the counting room. The on-detector electronics will be replaced around 2023. To achieve the required reliability the upgraded system will be highly redundant. Here the ASICs will be replaced with Kintex-7 FPGAs from Xilinx. This, in addition to the use of multiple 10 Gbps optical read-out links,more » will allow a full read-out of all detector data. Due to the higher radiation levels expected when the beam luminosity is increased, opportunities for repairs will be less frequent. The circuitry and firmware must therefore be designed for sufficiently high reliability using redundancy and radiation tolerant components. Within a year, a hybrid demonstrator including the new readout system will be installed in one slice of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. This will allow the proposed upgrade to be thoroughly evaluated well before the planned 2023 deployment in all slices, especially with regard to long term reliability. Different firmware strategies alongside with their integration in the demonstrator are presented in the context of high reliability protection against hardware malfunction and radiation induced errors.« less

  14. Localization and Behaviors in Null Mice Suggest that ASIC1 and ASIC2 Modulate Responses to Aversive Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Price, Margaret P.; Gong, Huiyu; Parsons, Meredith G.; Kundert, Jacob R.; Reznikov, Leah R.; Bernardinelli, Luisa; Chaloner, Kathryn; Buchanan, Gordon F.; Wemmie, John A.; Richerson, George B.; Cassell, Martin D.; Welsh, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) generate H+-gated Na+ currents that contribute to neuronal function and animal behavior. Like ASIC1, ASIC2 subunits are expressed in the brain and multimerize with ASIC1 to influence acid-evoked currents and facilitate ASIC1 localization to dendritic spines. To better understand how ASIC2 contributes to brain function, we localized the protein and tested the behavioral consequences of ASIC2 gene disruption. For comparison, we also localized ASIC1 and studied ASIC1−/− mice. ASIC2 was prominently expressed in areas of high synaptic density, and with a few exceptions, ASIC1 and ASIC2 localization exhibited substantial overlap. Loss of ASIC1 or ASIC2 decreased freezing behavior in contextual and auditory cue fear conditioning assays, in response to predator odor, and in response to CO2 inhalation. In addition, loss of ASIC1 or ASIC2 increased activity in a forced swim assay. These data suggest that ASIC2, like ASIC1, plays a key role in determining the defensive response to aversive stimuli. They also raise the question of whether gene variations in both ASIC1 and ASIC2 might affect fear and panic in humans. PMID:24256442

  15. The GBT-SCA, a radiation tolerant ASIC for detector control and monitoring applications in HEP experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratelli, A.; Bonacini, S.; Kloukinas, K.; Marchioro, A.; Moreira, P.; De Oliveira, R.; Paillard, C.

    2015-03-01

    The future upgrades of the LHC experiments will increase the beam luminosity leading to a corresponding growth of the amounts of data to be treated by the data acquisition systems. To address these needs, the GBT (Giga-Bit Transceiver optical link [1,2]) architecture was developed to provide the simultaneous transfer of readout data, timing and trigger signals as well as slow control and monitoring data. The GBT-SCA ASIC, part of the GBT chip-set, has the purpose to distribute control and monitoring signals to the on-detector front-end electronics and perform monitoring operations of detector environmental parameters. In order to meet the requirements of different front-end ASICs used in the experiments, it provides various user-configurable interfaces capable to perform simultaneous operations. It is designed employing radiation tolerant design techniques to ensure robustness against SEUs and TID radiation effects and is implemented in a commercial 130 nm CMOS technology. This work presents the GBT-SCA architecture, the ASIC interfaces, the data transfer protocol, and its integration with the GBT optical link.

  16. A fast embedded readout system for large-area Medipix and Timepix systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogna, A. S.; Balzer, M.; Smale, S.; Hartmann, J.; Bormann, D.; Hamann, E.; Cecilia, A.; Zuber, M.; Koenig, T.; Zwerger, A.; Weber, M.; Fiederle, M.; Baumbach, T.

    2014-05-01

    In this work we present a novel readout electronics for an X-ray sensor based on a Si crystal bump-bonded to an array of 3 × 2 Medipix ASICs. The pixel size is 55 μm × 55 μm with a total number of ~ 400k pixels and a sensitive area of 42 mm × 28 mm. The readout electronics operate Medipix-2 MXR or Timepix ASICs with a clock speed of 125 MHz. The data acquisition system is centered around an FPGA and each of the six ASICs has a dedicated I/O port for simultaneous data acquisition. The settings of the auxiliary devices (ADCs and DACs) are also processed in the FPGA. Moreover, a high-resolution timer operates the electronic shutter to select the exposure time from 8 ns to several milliseconds. A sophisticated trigger is available in hardware and software to synchronize the acquisition with external electro-mechanical motors. The system includes a diagnostic subsystem to check the sensor temperature and to control the cooling Peltier cells and a programmable high-voltage generator to bias the crystal. A network cable transfers the data, encapsulated into the UDP protocol and streamed at 1 Gb/s. Therefore most notebooks or personal computers are able to process the data and to program the system without a dedicated interface. The data readout software is compatible with the well-known Pixelman 2.x running both on Windows and GNU/Linux. Furthermore the open architecture encourages users to write their own applications. With a low-level interface library which implements all the basic features, a MATLAB or Python script can be implemented for special manipulations of the raw data. In this paper we present selected images taken with a microfocus X-ray tube to demonstrate the capability to collect the data at rates up to 120 fps corresponding to 0.76 Gb/s.

  17. The front-end data conversion and readout electronics for the CMS ECAL upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, G.; Cometti, S.

    2018-03-01

    The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will require a significant upgrade of the readout electronics for the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter (ECAL). The Very Front-End (VFE) output signal will be sampled at 160 MS/s (i.e. four times the current sampling rate) with a 13 bits resolution. Therefore, a high-speed, high-resolution ADC is required. Moreover, each readout channel will produce 2.08 Gb/s, thus requiring a fast data transmission circuitry. A new readout architecture, based on two 12 bit, 160 MS/s ADCs, lossless data compression algorithms and fast serial links have been developed for the ECAL upgrade. These functions will be integrated in a single ASIC which is currently under design in a commercial CMOS 65 nm technology using radiation damage mitigation techniques.

  18. System-level considerations for the front-end readout ASIC in the CBM experiment from the power supply perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Koczon, P.; Ayet, S.; Löchner, S.; Schmidt, C. J.

    2017-03-01

    New fixed target experiments using high intensity beams with energy up to 10 AGeV from the SIS100 synchrotron presently being constructed at FAIR/GSI are under preparation. Most of the readout electronics and power supplies are expected to be exposed to a very high flux of nuclear reaction products and have to be radiation tolerant up to 3 MRad (TID) and sustain up to 1014/cm2 of 1 MeV neutron equivalent in their life time. Moreover, the mostly minimum ionising particles under investigation leave very little signal in the sensors. Therefore very low noise level amplitude measurements are required by the front-end electronics for effective tracking. Sensor and interconnecting micro-cable capacitance and series resistance in conjunction with intrinsic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier are dominant noise sources in the system. However, the single-ended architecture of the amplifiers employed for the charge processing channels implies a potential problem with noise contributions from power supply sources. Strict system-level constraints leave very little freedom in selecting a power supply structure optimal with respect to: power efficiency, cooling capabilities and power density on modules, but also noise injection to the front-end via the power supply lines. Design of the power supply and distribution system of the Silicon Tracking System in the CBM experiment together with details on the front-end ASICs (STS -XYTER2) and measurement results of power supply and conditioning electronics (selected DC/DC converter and LDO regulators) are presented.

  19. The Panda Strip Asic: Pasta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, A.

    2018-01-01

    PASTA is the 64 channel front-end chip, designed in a 110 nm CMOS technology to read out the strip sensors of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PANDA experiment. This chip provides high resolution timestamp and deposited charge information by means of the time-over-threshold technique. Its working principle is based on a predecessor, the TOFPET ASIC, that was designed for medical applications. A general restructuring of the architecture was needed, in order to meet the specific requirements imposed by the physics programme of PANDA, especially in terms of radiation tolerance, spatial constraints, and readout in absence of a first level hardware trigger. The first revision of PASTA is currently under evaluation at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, where a data acquisition system dedicated to the MVD prototypes has been developed. This paper describes the main aspect of the chip design, gives an overview of the data acquisition system used for the verification, and shows the first results regarding the performance of PASTA.

  20. Low-noise analog readout channel for SDD in X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkin, E.; Gusev, A.; Krivchenko, A.; Levin, V.; Malankin, E.; Normanov, D.; Rotin, A.; Sagdiev, I.; Samsonov, V.

    2016-01-01

    A low-noise analog readout channel optimized for operation with the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) with built-in JFET is presented. The Charge Sensitive Amplifier (CSA) operates in a pulse reset mode using the reset diode built-in the SDD detector. The shaper is a 6th order semi-Gaussian filter with switchable discrete shaping times. The readout channel provides the Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of 12e- (simulation) and input dynamic range of 30 keV . The measured energy resolution at the 5,89 keV line of a 55Fe X-ray source is 336 eV (FWHM). The channel was prototyped via Europractice in the AMS 350 nm process as miniASIC. The simulation and first measurement results are presented in the paper.

  1. Command Interface ASIC - Analog Interface ASIC Chip Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruiz, Baldes; Jaffe, Burton; Burke, Gary; Lung, Gerald; Pixler, Gregory; Plummer, Joe; Katanyoutanant,, Sunant; Whitaker, William

    2003-01-01

    A command interface application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and an analog interface ASIC have been developed as a chip set for remote actuation and monitoring of a collection of switches, which can be used to control generic loads, pyrotechnic devices, and valves in a high-radiation environment. The command interface ASIC (CIA) can be used alone or in combination with the analog interface ASIC (AIA). Designed primarily for incorporation into spacecraft control systems, they are also suitable for use in high-radiation terrestrial environments (e.g., in nuclear power plants and facilities that process radioactive materials). The primary role of the CIA within a spacecraft or other power system is to provide a reconfigurable means of regulating the power bus, actuating all valves, firing all pyrotechnic devices, and controlling the switching of power to all switchable loads. The CIA is a mixed-signal (analog and digital) ASIC that includes an embedded microcontroller with supporting fault-tolerant switch control and monitoring circuitry that is capable of connecting to a redundant set of interintegrated circuit (I(sup 2)C) buses. Commands and telemetry requests are communicated to the CIA. Adherence to the I(sup 2)C bus standard helps to reduce development costs by facilitating the use of previously developed, commercially available components. The AIA is a mixed-signal ASIC that includes the analog circuitry needed to connect the CIA to a custom higher powered version of the I(sup 2)C bus. The higher-powered version is designed to enable operation with bus cables longer than those contemplated in the I(sup 2)C standard. If there are multiple higher-power I(sup 2)C-like buses, then there must an AIA between the CIA and each such bus. The AIA includes two identical interface blocks: one for the side-A I(sup 2)C clock and data buses and the other for the side B buses. All the AIAs on each side are powered from a common power converter module (PCM). Sides A and B

  2. KLauS: an ASIC for silicon photomultiplier readout and its application in a setup for production testing of scintillating tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggl, K.; Dorn, M.; Hagdorn, R.; Harion, T.; Schultz-Coulon, H. C.; Shen, W.

    2014-02-01

    KLauS is an ASIC produced in the AMS 0.35 μm SiGe process to read out the charge signals from silicon photomultipliers. Developed as an analog front-end for future calorimeters with high granularity as pursued by the AHCAL concept in the CALICE collaboration, the ASIC is designed to measure the charge signal of the sensors in a large dynamic range and with low electronic noise contributions. In order to tune the operation voltage of each sensor individually, an 8-bit DAC to tune the voltage at the input terminal within a range of 2V is implemented. Using an integrated fast comparator with low jitter, the time information can be measured with sub-nanosecond resolution. The low power consumption of the ASIC can be further decreased using power gating techniques. Future versions of KLauS are under development and will incorporate an ADC with a resolution of up to 12-bits and blocks for digital data transmission. The chip is used in a setup for mass testing and characterization of scintillator tiles for the AHCAL test beam program.

  3. Dedicated multichannel readout ASIC coupled with single crystal diamond for dosimeter application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, A.; Falco, M. D.; De Notaristefani, F.; Galasso, M.; Marinelli, M.; Orsolini Cencelli, V.; Tortora, L.; Verona, C.; Verona Rinati, G.

    2013-02-01

    This paper reports on the tests of a low-noise, multi-channel readout integrated circuit used as a readout electronic front-end for a diamond multi-pixel dosimeter. The system is developed for dose distribution measurement in radiotherapy applications. The first 10-channel prototype chip was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 um CMOS process. Every channel includes a charge integrator with a 10 pF capacitor and a double slope A/D converter. The diamond multi-pixel detector, based on CVD synthetic single crystal diamond Schottky diodes, is made by a 3 × 3 sensor matrix. The overall device has been tested under irradiation with 6 MeV radio therapeutic photon beams at the Policlinico ``Tor Vergata'' (PTV) hospital. Measurements show a 20 fA RMS leakage current from the front-end input stage and a negligible dark current from the diamond detector, a stable temporal response and a good linear behaviour as a function of both dose and dose rate. These characteristics were common to each tested channel.

  4. Rad-Hard Structured ASIC Body of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heidecker, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Structured Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) technology is a platform between traditional ASICs and Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA). The motivation behind structured ASICs is to combine the low nonrecurring engineering costs (NRE) costs of FPGAs with the high performance of ASICs. This report provides an overview of the structured ASIC platforms that are radiation-hardened and intended for space application

  5. Design and characterization of the ePix10k: a high dynamic range integrating pixel ASIC for LCLS detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Nishimura, K.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Blaj, G.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.; Hasi, J.; Carini, G.; Kenney, C.; Haller, G.

    2015-05-01

    ePix10k is a variant of a novel class of integrating pixel ASICs architectures optimized for the processing of signals in second generation LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-Ray cameras. The ASIC is optimized for high dynamic range application requiring high spatial resolution and fast frame rates. ePix ASICs are based on a common platform composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog to digital converters per column. The ePix10k variant has 100um×100um pixels arranged in a 176×192 matrix, a resolution of 140e- r.m.s. and a signal range of 3.5pC (10k photons at 8keV). In its final version it will be able to sustain a frame rate of 2kHz. A first prototype has been fabricated and characterized. Performance in terms of noise, linearity, uniformity, cross-talk, together with preliminary measurements with bump bonded sensors are reported here.

  6. Development of slew-rate-limited time-over-threshold (ToT) ASIC for a multi-channel silicon-based ion detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenomachi, M.; Orita, T.; Shimazoe, K.; Takahashi, H.; Ikeda, H.; Tsujita, K.; Sekiba, D.

    2018-01-01

    High-resolution Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HERDA), which consists of a 90o sector magnetic spectrometer and a position-sensitive detector (PSD), is a method of quantitative hydrogen analysis. In order to increase sensitivity, a HERDA system using a multi-channel silicon-based ion detector has been developed. Here, as a parallel and fast readout circuit from a multi-channel silicon-based ion detector, a slew-rate-limited time-over-threshold (ToT) application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was designed, and a new slew-rate-limited ToT method is proposed. The designed ASIC has 48 channels and each channel consists of a preamplifier, a slew-rate-limited shaping amplifier, which makes ToT response linear, and a comparator. The measured equivalent noise charges (ENCs) of the preamplifier, the shaper, and the ToT on no detector capacitance were 253±21, 343±46, and 560±56 electrons RMS, respectively. The spectra from a 241Am source measured using a slew-rate-limited ToT ASIC are also reported.

  7. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  8. An optical fiber-based flexible readout system for micro-pattern gas detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, C.; Feng, C. Q.; Zhu, D. Y.; Liu, S. B.; An, Q.

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents an optical fiber-based readout system that is intended to provide a general purpose multi-channel readout solution for various Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors (MPGDs). The proposed readout system is composed of several front-end cards (FECs) and a data collection module (DCM). The FEC exploits the capability of an existing 64-channel generic TPC readout ASIC chip, named AGET, to implement 256 channels readout. AGET offers FEC a large flexibility in gain range (4 options from 120 fC to 10 pC), peaking time (16 options from 50 ns to 1 us) and sampling freqency (100 MHz max.). The DCM contains multiple 1 Gbps optical fiber serial link interfaces that allow the system scaling up to 1536 channels with 6 FECs and 1 DCM. Further scaling up is possible through cascading of multiple DCMs, by configuring one DCM as a master while other DCMs in slave mode. This design offers a rapid readout solution for different application senario. Tests indicate that the nonlinearity of each channel is less than 1%, and the equivalent input noise charge is typically around 0.7 fC in RMS (root mean square), with a noise slope of about 0.01 fC/pF. The system level trigger rate limit is about 700 Hz in all channel readout mode. When in hit channel readout mode, supposing that typically 10 percent of channels are fired, trigger rate can go up to about 7 kHz. This system has been tested with Micromegas detector and GEM detector, confirming its capability in MPGD readout. Details of hardware and FPGA firmware design, as well as system performances, are described in the paper.

  9. Proton and non-proton activation of ASIC channels

    PubMed Central

    Gautschi, Ivan; van Bemmelen, Miguel Xavier; Schild, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The Acid-Sensing Ion Channels (ASIC) exhibit a fast desensitizing current when activated by pH values below 7.0. By contrast, non-proton ligands are able to trigger sustained ASIC currents at physiological pHs. To analyze the functional basis of the ASIC desensitizing and sustained currents, we have used ASIC1a and ASIC2a mutants with a cysteine in the pore vestibule for covalent binding of different sulfhydryl reagents. We found that ASIC1a and ASIC2a exhibit two distinct currents, a proton-induced desensitizing current and a sustained current triggered by sulfhydryl reagents. These currents differ in their pH dependency, their sensitivity to the sulfhydryl reagents, their ionic selectivity and their relative magnitude. We propose a model for ASIC1 and ASIC2 activity where the channels can function in two distinct modes, a desensitizing mode and a sustained mode depending on the activating ligands. The pore vestibule of the channel represents a functional site for binding non-proton ligands to activate ASIC1 and ASIC2 at neutral pH and to prevent channel desensitization. PMID:28384246

  10. A 32-channel front-end ASIC for GEM detectors used in beam monitoring applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciciriello, F.; Altieri, P. R.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Lorusso, L.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-11-01

    A multichannel, mixed-signal, front-end ASIC for GEM detectors, intended for beam monitoring in hadron therapy applications, has been designed and prototyped in a standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology. The analog channels are based on the classic CSA + shaper processing chain, followed by a peak detector which can work as an analog memory, to simplifiy the analog-to-digital conversion of the peak voltage of the output pulse, proportional to the energy of the detected event. The available hardware resources include an 8-bit A/D converter and a standard-cell digital part, which manages the read-out procedure, in sparse or serial mode. The ASIC is self-triggered and transfers energy and address data to the external DAQ via a fast 100 MHz LVDS link. Preliminary characterization results show that the non-linearity error is limited to 5% for a maximum input charge of about 70 fC, the measured ENC is about 1400e- and the time jitter of the trigger signal generated in response to an injected charge of 60 fC is close to 200 ps.

  11. Characteristics of a multichannel low-noise front-end ASIC for CZT-based small animal PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, W.; Liu, H.; Gan, B.; Hu, Y.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we present the design and characteristics of a novel low-noise front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit dedicated to CdZnTe (CZT) detectors for a small animal PET imaging system. A low-noise readout method based on the charge integration and the delayed peak detection is proposed. An eight-channel front-end readout prototype chip is designed and implemented in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. The die size is 2.3 mm ×2.3 mm. The prototype chip is tested in different methods including electronic test, energy spectrum test and irradiation test. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000e- to 180,000e-, reflecting the energy of the gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 1 MeV. The gain of the readout channel is 65 mV/fC at the shaping time of 1 μs. The best test result of the equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 58.9 e- at zero farad plus 5.4 e- per picofarad. The nonlinearity and the crosstalk are less than 3% and less than 2%, respectively, at the room temperature. The static power dissipation is about 3 mW/channel.

  12. The readout chain for the bar PANDA MVD strip detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnell, R.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Di Pietro, V.; Kleines, H.; Goerres, A.; Riccardi, A.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Sohlbach, H.; Zaunick, H.-G.

    2015-02-01

    The bar PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt) experiment will study the strong interaction in annihilation reactions between an antiproton beam and a stationary gas jet target. The detector will comprise different sub-detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. The Micro-Vertex Detector (MVD) as the innermost part of the tracking system will allow precise tracking and detection of secondary vertices. For the readout of the double-sided silicon strip sensors a custom-made ASIC is being developed, employing the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique for digitization and utilize time-to-digital converters (TDC) to provide a high-precision time stamp of the hit. A custom-made Module Data Concentrator ASIC (MDC) will multiplex the data of all front-ends of one sensor towards the CERN-developed GBT chip set (GigaBit Transceiver). The MicroTCA-based MVD Multiplexer Board (MMB) at the off-detector site will receive and concentrate the data from the GBT links and transfer it to FPGA-based compute nodes for global event building.

  13. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; Michel, J.; Storms, S.; Dallmann, N.; Coupland, D. D. S.; Stein, P.; Weller, S.; Borges, L.; Proicou, M.; Duran, G.; Kamto, J.

    2015-09-01

    A new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurable to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.

  14. Seizure Termination by Acidosis Depends on ASIC1a

    PubMed Central

    Ziemann, Adam E.; Schnizler, Mikael K.; Albert, Gregory W.; Severson, Meryl A.; Howard, Matthew A.; Welsh, Michael J.; Wemmie, John A.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Most seizures stop spontaneously. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Earlier observations that seizures reduce brain pH and that acidosis inhibits seizures indicated that acidosis halts epileptic activity. Because acid–sensing ion channel–1a (ASIC1a) shows exquisite sensitivity to extracellular pH and regulates neuron excitability, we hypothesized that acidosis might activate ASIC1a to terminate seizures. Disrupting mouse ASIC1a increased the severity of chemoconvulsant–induced seizures, whereas overexpressing ASIC1a had the opposite effect. ASIC1a did not affect seizure threshold or onset, but shortened seizure duration and prevented progression. CO2 inhalation, long known to lower brain pH and inhibit seizures, also required ASIC1a to interrupt tonic–clonic seizures. Acidosis activated inhibitory interneurons through ASIC1a, suggesting that ASIC1a might limit seizures by increasing inhibitory tone. These findings identify ASIC1a as a key element in seizure termination when brain pH falls. The results suggest a molecular mechanism for how the brain stops seizures and suggest new therapeutic strategies. PMID:18536711

  15. MAROC, a generic photomultiplier readout chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blin, S.; Barrillon, P.; de La Taille, C.

    2010-12-01

    The MAROC ASICs family is dedicated to the readout of 64-channel Multi Anode PMT and similar detectors. Its main roles are to correct the gain spread of MAPMT channels thanks to an individual variable gain preamplifier and to discriminate the input signals (from 50fC i.e 1/3 photo-electron) in order to produce 64 trigger outputs. A multiplexed analog charge output is also available with a dynamic range around 10 pe ( ~ 1.6 pC) and a 12 bit Wilkinson ADC is embedded. Three versions of this chip have been submitted. MAROC 2 is the production version for the ATLAS luminometer and MAROC3 is a version with lower dissipation and significant improvements concerning the charge (30 pe: ~ 5 pC) and trigger (discrimination from 10fC). This third version showed very good characteristics that are presented here.

  16. Abnormal cardiac autonomic regulation in mice lacking ASIC3.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ching-Feng; Kuo, Terry B J; Chen, Wei-Nan; Lin, Chao-Chieh; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Integration of sympathetic and parasympathetic outflow is essential in maintaining normal cardiac autonomic function. Recent studies demonstrate that acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a sensitive acid sensor for cardiac ischemia and prolonged mild acidification can open ASIC3 and evoke a sustained inward current that fires action potentials in cardiac sensory neurons. However, the physiological role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic regulation is not known. In this study, we elucidate the role of ASIC3 in cardiac autonomic function using Asic3(-/-) mice. Asic3(-/-) mice showed normal baseline heart rate and lower blood pressure as compared with their wild-type littermates. Heart rate variability analyses revealed imbalanced autonomic regulation, with decreased sympathetic function. Furthermore, Asic3(-/-) mice demonstrated a blunted response to isoproterenol-induced cardiac tachycardia and prolonged duration to recover to baseline heart rate. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sensory ganglia and heart revealed that no gene compensation for muscarinic acetylcholines receptors and beta-adrenalin receptors were found in Asic3(-/-) mice. In summary, we unraveled an important role of ASIC3 in regulating cardiac autonomic function, whereby loss of ASIC3 alters the normal physiological response to ischemic stimuli, which reveals new implications for therapy in autonomic nervous system-related cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Performance overview of the Euclid infrared focal plane detector subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waczynski, A.; Barbier, R.; Cagiano, S.; Chen, J.; Cheung, S.; Cho, H.; Cillis, A.; Clémens, J.-C.; Dawson, O.; Delo, G.; Farris, M.; Feizi, A.; Foltz, R.; Hickey, M.; Holmes, W.; Hwang, T.; Israelsson, U.; Jhabvala, M.; Kahle, D.; Kan, Em.; Kan, Er.; Loose, M.; Lotkin, G.; Miko, L.; Nguyen, L.; Piquette, E.; Powers, T.; Pravdo, S.; Runkle, A.; Seiffert, M.; Strada, P.; Tucker, C.; Turck, K.; Wang, F.; Weber, C.; Williams, J.

    2016-07-01

    In support of the European space agency (ESA) Euclid mission, NASA is responsible for the evaluation of the H2RG mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) detectors and electronics assemblies fabricated by Teledyne imaging systems. The detector evaluation is performed in the detector characterization laboratory (DCL) at the NASA Goddard space flight center (GSFC) in close collaboration with engineers and scientists from the jet propulsion laboratory (JPL) and the Euclid project. The Euclid near infrared spectrometer and imaging photometer (NISP) will perform large area optical and spectroscopic sky surveys in the 0.9-2.02 μm infrared (IR) region. The NISP instrument will contain sixteen detector arrays each coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The focal plane will operate at 100K and the SIDECAR ASIC will be in close proximity operating at a slightly higher temperature of 137K. This paper will describe the test configuration, performance tests and results of the latest engineering run, also known as pilot run 3 (PR3), consisting of four H2RG detectors operating simultaneously. Performance data will be presented on; noise, spectral quantum efficiency, dark current, persistence, pixel yield, pixel to pixel uniformity, linearity, inter pixel crosstalk, full well and dynamic range, power dissipation, thermal response and unit cell input sensitivity.

  18. SFERA: An Integrated Circuit for the Readout of X and gamma -Ray Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schembari, Filippo; Quaglia, Riccardo; Bellotti, Giovanni; Fiorini, Carlo

    2016-06-01

    In this work we present SFERA, a low-noise fully-programmable 16 channel readout ASIC designed for both Xand y-ray spectroscopy and imaging applications. The chip is designed to process signals coming from solid-state detectors and CMOS preamplifiers. The design has been guided by the use of Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) and CUBE charge sensitive amplifiers (CSAs), although we consider the ASIC sufficiently versatile to be used with other types of detectors. Five different gains are implemented, namely 2800 e-, 4400 e-, 10000 e-, 14000 e- and 20000 e-, considering the input connected to a 25 fF feedback capacitance CMOS preamplifier. Filter peaking times (tP) are also programmable among 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 μs. Each readout channel is the cascade of a 9th order semi-Gaussian shaping-amplifier (SA) and a peak detector (PKS), followed by a dedicated pile-up rejection (PUR) digital logic. Three data multiplexing strategies are implemented: the so-called polling X, intended for high-rate X-ray applications, the polling y, for scintillation light detection and the sparse, for signals derandomization. The spectroscopic characterization has shown an energy resolution of 122.1 eV FWHM on the Mn-Ku line of an 55Fe X-ray source using a 10 mm2 SDD cooled at -35 °C at 4 μs filter peaking time. The measured resolution is 130 eV at the peaking time of 500 ns. At 1 Mcps input count rate and 500 ns peaking time, we have measured 42% of processed events at the output of the ASIC after the PUR selection. Output data can be digitized on-chip by means of an embedded 12-bit successive-approximation ADC. The effective resolution of the data converter is 10.75-bit when operated at 4.5 MS/s. The chosen technology is the AMS 0.35 μm CMOS and the chip area occupancy is 5 × 5 mm2.

  19. Characterization of the ePix100 prototype: a front-end ASIC for second-generation LCLS integrating hybrid pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caragiulo, P.; Dragone, A.; Markovic, B.; Herbst, R.; Nishimura, K.; Reese, B.; Herrmann, S.; Hart, P.; Blaj, G.; Segal, J.; Tomada, A.; Hasi, J.; Carini, G.; Kenney, C.; Haller, G.

    2014-09-01

    ePix100 is the first variant of a novel class of integrating pixel ASICs architectures optimized for the processing of signals in second generation LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-Ray cameras. ePix100 is optimized for ultra-low noise application requiring high spatial resolution. ePix ASICs are based on a common platform composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog to digital converters per column. The ePix100 variant has 50μmx50μm pixels arranged in a 352x384 matrix, a resolution of 50e- r.m.s. and a signal range of 35fC (100 photons at 8keV). In its final version it will be able to sustain a frame rate of 1kHz. A first prototype has been fabricated and characterized and the measurement results are reported here.

  20. The design and development of low- and high-voltage ASICs for space-borne CCD cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waltham, N.; Morrissey, Q.; Clapp, M.; Bell, S.; Jones, L.; Torbet, M.

    2017-12-01

    The CCD remains the pre-eminent visible and UV wavelength image sensor in space science, Earth and planetary remote sensing. However, the design of space-qualified CCD readout electronics is a significant challenge with requirements for low-volume, low-mass, low-power, high-reliability and tolerance to space radiation. Space-qualified components are frequently unavailable and up-screened commercial components seldom meet project or international space agency requirements. In this paper, we describe an alternative approach of designing and space-qualifying a series of low- and high-voltage mixed-signal application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), the ongoing development of two low-voltage ASICs with successful flight heritage, and two new high-voltage designs. A challenging sub-system of any CCD camera is the video processing and digitisation electronics. We describe recent developments to improve performance and tolerance to radiation-induced single event latchup of a CCD video processing ASIC originally developed for NASA's Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory and Solar Dynamics Observatory. We also describe a programme to develop two high-voltage ASICs to address the challenges presented with generating a CCD's bias voltages and drive clocks. A 0.35 μm, 50 V tolerant, CMOS process has been used to combine standard low-voltage 3.3 V transistors with high-voltage 50 V diffused MOSFET transistors that enable output buffers to drive CCD bias drains, gates and clock electrodes directly. We describe a CCD bias voltage generator ASIC that provides 24 independent and programmable 0-32 V outputs. Each channel incorporates a 10-bit digital-to-analogue converter, provides current drive of up to 20 mA into loads of 10 μF, and includes current-limiting and short-circuit protection. An on-chip telemetry system with a 12-bit analogue-to-digital converter enables the outputs and multiple off-chip camera voltages to be monitored. The ASIC can drive one or more CCDs and

  1. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in the taste buds of adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Viña, E; Parisi, V; Cabo, R; Laurà, R; López-Velasco, S; López-Muñiz, A; García-Suárez, O; Germanà, A; Vega, J A

    2013-03-01

    In detecting chemical properties of food, different molecules and ion channels are involved including members of the acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) family. Consistently ASICs are present in sensory cells of taste buds of mammals. In the present study the presence of ASICs (ASIC1, ASIC2, ASIC3 and ASIC4) was investigated in the taste buds of adult zebrafish (zASICs) using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. zASIC1 and zASIC3 were regularly absent from taste buds, whereas faint zASIC2 and robust zASIC4 immunoreactivities were detected in sensory cells. Moreover, zASIC2 also immunolabelled nerves supplying taste buds. The present results demonstrate for the first time the presence of zASICs in taste buds of teleosts, with different patterns to that occurring in mammals, probably due to the function of taste buds in aquatic environment and feeding. Nevertheless, the role of zASICs in taste remains to be demonstrated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Handheld readout electronics to fully exploit the particle discrimination capabilities of elpasolite scintillators

    DOE PAGES

    Budden, B. S.; Stonehill, L. C.; Warniment, A.; ...

    2015-06-10

    In this study, a new class of elpasolite scintillators has garnered recent attention due to the ability to perform as simultaneous gamma spectrometers and thermal neutron detectors. Such a dual-mode capability is made possible by pulse-shape discrimination (PSD), whereby the emission waveform profiles of gamma and neutron events are fundamentally unique. To take full advantage of these materials, we have developed the Compact Advanced Readout Electronics for Elpasolites (CAREE). This handheld instrument employs a multi-channel PSD-capable ASIC, custom micro-processor board, front-end electronics, power supplies, and a 2 in. photomultiplier tube for readout of the scintillator. The unit is highly configurablemore » to allow for performance optimization amongst a wide sample of elpasolites which provide PSD in fundamentally different ways. We herein provide an introduction to elpasolites, then describe the motivation for the work, mechanical and electronic design, and preliminary performance results.« less

  3. SALT, a dedicated readout chip for high precision tracking silicon strip detectors at the LHCb Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugiel, Sz.; Dasgupta, R.; Firlej, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Kuczynska, M.; Moron, J.; Swientek, K.; Szumlak, T.

    2016-02-01

    The Upstream Tracker (UT) silicon strip detector, one of the central parts of the tracker system of the modernised LHCb experiment, will use a new 128-channel readout ASIC called SALT. It will extract and digitise analogue signals from the UT sensors, perform digital signal processing and transmit a serial output data. The SALT is being designed in CMOS 130 nm process and uses a novel architecture comprising of analog front-end and fast (40 MSps) ultra-low power (<0.5 mW) 6-bit ADC in each channel. The prototype ASICs of important functional blocks, like analogue front-end, 6-bit SAR ADC, PLL, and DLL, were designed, fabricated and tested. A prototype of an 8-channel version of the SALT chip, comprising all important functionalities was also designed and fabricated. The architecture and design of the SALT, together with the selected preliminary tests results, are presented.

  4. ASIC1A in neurons is critical for fear-related behaviors.

    PubMed

    Taugher, R J; Lu, Y; Fan, R; Ghobbeh, A; Kreple, C J; Faraci, F M; Wemmie, J A

    2017-11-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have been implicated in fear-, addiction- and depression-related behaviors in mice. While these effects have been attributed to ASIC1A in neurons, it has been reported that ASICs may also function in nonneuronal cells. To determine if ASIC1A in neurons is indeed required, we generated neuron-specific knockout (KO) mice with floxed Asic1a alleles disrupted by Cre recombinase driven by the neuron-specific synapsin I promoter (SynAsic1a KO mice). We confirmed that Cre expression occurred in neurons, but not all neurons, and not in nonneuronal cells including astrocytes. Consequent loss of ASIC1A in some but not all neurons was verified by western blotting, immunohistochemistry and electrophysiology. We found ASIC1A was disrupted in fear circuit neurons, and SynAsic1a KO mice exhibited prominent deficits in multiple fear-related behaviors including Pavlovian fear conditioning to cue and context, predator odor-evoked freezing and freezing responses to carbon dioxide inhalation. In contrast, in the nucleus accumbens ASIC1A expression was relatively normal in SynAsic1a KO mice, and consistent with this observation, cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) was normal. Interestingly, depression-related behavior in the forced swim test, which has been previously linked to ASIC1A in the amygdala, was also normal. Together, these data suggest neurons are an important site of ASIC1A action in fear-related behaviors, whereas other behaviors likely depend on ASIC1A in other neurons or cell types not targeted in SynAsic1a KO mice. These findings highlight the need for further work to discern the roles of ASICs in specific cell types and brain sites. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  5. X-ray and gamma ray detector readout system

    DOEpatents

    Tumer, Tumay O; Clajus, Martin; Visser, Gerard

    2010-10-19

    A readout electronics scheme is under development for high resolution, compact PET (positron emission tomography) imagers based on LSO (lutetium ortho-oxysilicate, Lu.sub.2SiO.sub.5) scintillator and avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays. The key is to obtain sufficient timing and energy resolution at a low power level, less than about 30 mW per channel, including all required functions. To this end, a simple leading edge level crossing discriminator is used, in combination with a transimpedance preamplifier. The APD used has a gain of order 1,000, and an output noise current of several pA/ Hz, allowing bipolar technology to be used instead of CMOS, for increased speed and power efficiency. A prototype of the preamplifier and discriminator has been constructed, achieving timing resolution of 1.5 ns FWHM, 2.7 ns full width at one tenth maximum, relative to an LSO/PMT detector, and an energy resolution of 13.6% FWHM at 511 keV, while operating at a power level of 22 mW per channel. Work is in progress towards integration of this preamplifier and discriminator with appropriate coincidence logic and amplitude measurement circuits in an ASIC suitable for a high resolution compact PET instrument. The detector system and/or ASIC can also be used for many other applications for medical to industrial imaging.

  6. First results of the front-end ASIC for the strip detector of the PANDA MVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quagli, T.; Brinkmann, K.-T.; Calvo, D.; Di Pietro, V.; Lai, A.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Wheadon, R.; Zambanini, A.

    2017-03-01

    PANDA is a key experiment of the future FAIR facility and the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) is the innermost part of its tracking system. PASTA (PAnda STrip ASIC) is the readout chip for the strip part of the MVD. The chip is designed to provide high resolution timestamp and charge information with the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. Its architecture is based on Time to Digital Converters with analog interpolators, with a time bin width of 50 ps. The chip implements Single Event Upset (SEU) protection techniques for its digital parts. A first full-size prototype with 64 channels was produced in a commercial 110 nm CMOS technology and the first characterizations of the prototype were performed.

  7. Interface and protocol development for STS read-out ASIC in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, Krzysztof; Zabolotny, Wojciech; Szczygiel, Robert

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents a proposal of a protocol for communication between the read-out integrated circuit for the STS (Silicon Tracking System) and the Data Processing Board (DPB) at CBM (Compressed Baryonic Matter) experiment at FAIR, GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH) in Germany. The application background, objectives and proposed solution is presented.

  8. Readout architecture based on the use of Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM, or MMPC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-04-01

    The DIAPHANE project is pluri-disciplinary collaboration between particle physicists and geophysicists to perform the tomography of large geological structure mainly devoted to the study of active volcanoes. The detector used for this tomography, hereafter referred to as telescope, uses a standard, robust, cost-effective and well-known technology based on solid plastic scintillator readout by photomultiplier(s). The first generation of those telescopes, presently running in the Mont-Terri underground laboratory (St-Ursanne, Switzerland) and on the active volcano of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France), uses Hamamatsu H8804-200mod photomultipliers. We present an upgrade of the readout architecture based on the use of Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM, or MMPC) which allows to simplify the optical connections w.r.t. the present design and to benefit from the high photo-dectection efficiency of the SiPM. To ensure an effective increase in the muon detection efficiency one has to optimize the first trigger level and find the best compromise between photostatistics and the tails of the dark noise contributions. Several readout architectures, based or not on dedicated ASICs, are discussed and compared in this article.

  9. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  10. NIR camera and spectrograph SWIMS for TAO 6.5m telescope: array control system and its performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terao, Yasunori; Motohara, Kentaro; Konishi, Masahiro; Takahashi, Hidenori; Kato, Natsuko M.; Kitagawa, Yutaro; Kobayakawa, Yutaka; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Tateuchi, Ken; Todo, Soya

    2016-08-01

    SWIMS (Simultaneous-color Wide-field Infrared Multi-object Spectrograph) is a near-infrared imager and multi-object spectrograph as one of the first generation instruments for the University of Tokyo Atacama Observatory (TAO) 6.5m telescope. In this paper, we describe an array control system of SWIMS and results of detector noise performance evaluation. SWIMS incorporates four (and eight in future) HAWAII-2RG focal plane arrays for detectors, each driven by readout electronics components: a SIDECAR ASIC and a JADE2 Card. The readout components are controlled by a HAWAII-2RG Testing Software running on a virtual Windows machine on a Linux PC called array control PC. All of those array control PCs are then supervised by a SWIMS control PC. We have developed an "array control software system", which runs on the array control PC to control the HAWAII-2RG Testing Software, and consists of a socket client and a dedicated server called device manager. The client runs on the SWIMS control PC, and the device manager runs on the array control PC. An exposure command, issued by the client on the SWIMS control PC, is sent to the multiple device managers on the array control PCs, and then multiple HAWAII-2RGs are driven simultaneously. Using this system, we evaluate readout noise performances of the detectors, both in a test dewar and in a SWIMS main dewar. In the test dewar, we confirm the readout noise to be 4.3 e- r.m.s. by 32 times multiple sampling when we operate only a single HAWAII-2RG, whereas in the case of simultaneous driving of two HAWAII-2RGs, we still obtain sufficiently low readout noise of 10 e- r.m.s. In the SWIMS main dewar, although there are some differences between the detectors, the readout noise is measured to be 4:1-4:6 e- r.m.s. with simultaneous driving by 64 times multiple sampling, which meets the requirement for background-limited observations in J band of 14 e- r.m.s..

  11. Evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 in sensory mechanotransduction in proprioceptors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shing-Hong; Cheng, Yuan-Ren; Banks, Robert W.; Min, Ming-Yuan; Bewick, Guy S.; Chen, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is involved in acid nociception, but its possible role in neurosensory mechanotransduction is disputed. We report here the generation of Asic3-knockout/eGFPf-knockin mice and subsequent characterization of heterogeneous expression of ASIC3 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). ASIC3 is expressed in parvalbumin (Pv+) proprioceptor axons innervating muscle spindles. We further generate a floxed allele of Asic3 (Asic3f/f) and probe the role of ASIC3 in mechanotransduction in neurite-bearing Pv+ DRG neurons through localized elastic matrix movements and electrophysiology. Targeted knockout of Asic3 disrupts spindle afferent sensitivity to dynamic stimuli and impairs mechanotransduction in Pv+ DRG neurons because of substrate deformation-induced neurite stretching, but not to direct neurite indentation. In behavioural tasks, global knockout (Asic3−/−) and Pv-Cre::Asic3f/f mice produce similar deficits in grid and balance beam walking tasks. We conclude that, at least in mouse, ASIC3 is a molecular determinant contributing to dynamic mechanosensitivity in proprioceptors. PMID:27161260

  12. Burst Mode ASIC-Based Modem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is sponsoring the Advanced Communication Technology Insertion (ACTION) for Commercial Space Applications program. The goal of the program is to expedite the development of new technology with a clear path towards productization and enhancing the competitiveness of U.S. manufacturers. The industry has made significant investment in developing ASIC-based modem technology for continuous-mode applications and has made investigations into East, reliable acquisition of burst-mode digital communication signals. With rapid advances in analog and digital communications ICs, it is expected that more functions will be integrated onto these parts in the near future. In addition custom ASIC's can also be developed to address the areas not covered by the other IC's. Using the commercial chips and custom ASIC's, lower-cost, compact, reliable, and high-performance modems can be built for demanding satellite communication application. This report outlines a frequency-hop burst modem design based on commercially available chips.

  13. The readout electronics for Plastic Scintillator Detector of DAMPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Jie; Yang, Haibo; Zhao, Hongyun; Su, Hong; Sun, Zhiyu; Yu, Yuhong; JingZhe, Zhang; Wang, XiaoHui; Liu, Jie; Xiao, Guoqing; Ma, Xinwen

    2016-07-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) satellite, which launched in December 2015, is designed to find the evidence of the existence of dark matter particles in the universe via the detection of the high-energy electrons and gamma-ray particles produced possibly by the annihilation of dark matter particles. Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) is one of major part of the satellite payload, which is comprised of a crossed pair of layers with 41 plastic scintillator-strips, each read out from both ends by the same Hamamatsu R4443MOD2 photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs). In order to extend linear dynamic range of detector, PMTs read out each plastic scintillator-strip separately with two dynode pickoffs. Therefore, the readout electronics system comprises of four Front-end boards to receive the pulses from 328 PMTs and implement charge measurement, which is based on the Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) chip VA160, 16 bits ADC and FPGA. The electronics of the detector has been designed following stringent requirements on mechanical and thermal stability, power consumption, radiation hardness and double redundancy. Various experiments are designed and implemented to check the performance of the electronics, some excellent results has been achieved.According to experimental results analysis, it is proved that the readout electronics works well.

  14. SAMPA Chip: the New 32 Channels ASIC for the ALICE TPC and MCH Upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adolfsson, J.; Ayala Pabon, A.; Bregant, M.; Britton, C.; Brulin, G.; Carvalho, D.; Chambert, V.; Chinellato, D.; Espagnon, B.; Hernandez Herrera, H. D.; Ljubicic, T.; Mahmood, S. M.; Mjörnmark, U.; Moraes, D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Noël, G.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Pilyar, A.; Read, K.; Ruette, A.; Russo, P.; Sanches, B. C. S.; Severo, L.; Silvermyr, D.; Suire, C.; Tambave, G. J.; Tun-Lanoë, K. M. M.; van Noije, W.; Velure, A.; Vereschagin, S.; Wanlin, E.; Weber, T. O.; Zaporozhets, S.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the test results of the second prototype of SAMPA, the ASIC designed for the upgrade of read-out front end electronics of the ALICE Time Projection Chamber (TPC) and Muon Chamber (MCH). SAMPA is made in a 130 nm CMOS technology with 1.25 V nominal voltage supply and provides 32 channels, with selectable input polarity, and three possible combinations of shaping time and sensitivity. Each channel consists of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier, a semi-Gaussian shaper and a 10-bit ADC; a Digital Signal Processor provides digital filtering and compression capability. In the second prototype run both full chip and single test blocks were fabricated, allowing block characterization and full system behaviour studies. Experimental results are here presented showing agreement with requirements for both the blocks and the full chip.

  15. ASICs for the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation on NASA's New Horizons mission to Pluto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paschalidis, Nicholas; McNutt, Ralph

    One of the most critical challenges of the Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Inves-tigation (PEPSSI) was to meet the science requirements with a total mass and power of ¡1.5 kg and ¡2.5 W, respectively. A key, enabling technology to achieve these goals was the exten-sive use of high-performance, low-power, application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for the miniaturization of the 12-channel solid state detector (SSD) readout system, the time-of-flight (TOF) system, and the power supply and housekeeping systems. The PEPSSI instrument is a TOF-versus-energy, compact particle spectrometer that provides measurements of ions and electrons from 20keV to 1MeV in a 160 x 12 solid angle field of view divided into six dual-channel sectors. TOF, constant fraction discriminator (CFD), energy, peak detector, and temperature, remote input/output (TRIO, housekeeping) ASICs were all used synergistically in the instrument enabling the high science performance within the resource constraints. The ASICs were space qualified in accord with military specifications (Class S) for total radiation dose and single-event effects (SEEs), and, most importantly, for a 2000-hour life test to increase the reliability for the long duration of the mission. PEPSSI flies on-board the New Horizons NASA spacecraft to measure pick-up ions from the Pluto's outgassing atmosphere. The space-craft was launched 19 Jan 2006 and presently is en route to Pluto, having passed Jupiter in early 2007. Closest approach to Pluto will occur in mid-July 2015. The instrument has already produced excellent measurements in interplanetary space and during the traversal of Jupiter's magnetotail in 2007.

  16. Back-end and interface implementation of the STS-XYTER2 prototype ASIC for the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, K.; Szczygiel, R.; Zabolotny, W.

    2016-11-01

    Each front-end readout ASIC for the High-Energy Physics experiments requires robust and effective hit data streaming and control mechanism. A new STS-XYTER2 full-size prototype chip for the Silicon Tracking System and Muon Chamber detectors in the Compressed Baryonic Matter experiment at Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR, Germany) is a 128-channel time and amplitude measuring solution for silicon microstrip and gas detectors. It operates at 250 kHit/s/channel hit rate, each hit producing 27 bits of information (5-bit amplitude, 14-bit timestamp, position and diagnostics data). The chip back-end implements fast front-end channel read-out, timestamp-wise hit sorting, and data streaming via a scalable interface implementing the dedicated protocol (STS-HCTSP) for chip control and hit transfer with data bandwidth from 9.7 MHit/s up to 47 MHit/s. It also includes multiple options for link diagnostics, failure detection, and throttling features. The back-end is designed to operate with the data acquisition architecture based on the CERN GBTx transceivers. This paper presents the details of the back-end and interface design and its implementation in the UMC 180 nm CMOS process.

  17. Front-end ASICs for high-energy astrophysics in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevin, O.; Limousin, O.; Meuris, A.

    2016-07-01

    In most of embedded imaging systems for space applications, high granularity and increasing size of focal planes justify an almost systematic use of integrated circuits. . To fulfill challenging requirements for excellent spatial and energy resolution, integrated circuits must fit the sensors perfectly and interface the system such a way to optimize simultaneously noise, geometry and architecture. Moreover, very low power consumption and radiation tolerance are mandatory to envision a use onboard a payload in space. Consequently, being part of an optimized detection system for space, the integrated circuit is specifically designed for each application and becomes an Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). The paper focuses on mixed analog and digital signal ASICs for spectro-imaging systems in the keVMeV energy band. The first part of the paper summarizes the main advantages conferred by the use of front-end ASICs for highenergy astrophysics instruments in space mission. Space qualification of ASICs requires the chip to be radiation hard. The paper will shortly describe some of the typical hardening techniques and give some guidelines that an ASIC designer should follow to choose the most efficient technology for his project. The first task of the front-end electronics is to convert the charge coming from the detector into a voltage. For most of the Silicon detectors (CCD, DEPFET, SDD) this is conversion happens in the detector itself. For other sensor materials, charge preamplifiers operate the conversion. The paper shortly describes the different key parameters of charge preamplifiers and the binding parameters for the design. Filtering is generally mandatory in order to increase the signal to noise ratio or to reduce the duration of the signal. After a brief review on the main noise sources, the paper reviews noise-filtering techniques that are commonly used in Integrated circuits designs. The way sensors and ASICs are interconnected together plays a

  18. A time-based front-end ASIC for the silicon micro strip sensors of the bar PANDA Micro Vertex Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Pietro, V.; Brinkmann, K.-Th.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; Stockmanns, T.; Zambanini, A.

    2016-03-01

    The bar PANDA (Antiproton Annihilation at Darmstadt) experiment foresees many detectors for tracking, particle identification and calorimetry. Among them, the innermost is the MVD (Micro Vertex Detector) responsible for a precise tracking and the reconstruction of secondary vertices. This detector will be built from both hybrid pixel (two inner barrels and six forward disks) and double-sided micro strip (two outer barrels and outer rim of the last two disks) silicon sensors. A time-based approach has been chosen for the readout ASIC of the strip sensors. The PASTA (bar PANDA Strip ASIC) chip aims at high resolution time-stamping and charge information through the Time over Threshold (ToT) technique. It benefits from a Time to Digital Converter (TDC) allowing a time bin width down to 50 ps. The analog front-end was designed to serve both n-type and p-type strips and the performed simulations show remarkable performances in terms of linearity and electronic noise. The TDC consists of an analog interpolator, a digital local controller, and a digital global controller as the common back-end for all of the 64 channels.

  19. Detector Control and Data Acquisition for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) with a Custom ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian S.; Loose, Markus; Alkire, Greg; Joshi, Atul; Kelly, Daniel; Siskind, Eric; Rossetti, Dino; Mah, Jonathan; Cheng, Edward; Miko, Laddawan; hide

    2016-01-01

    The Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) will have the largest near-IR focal plane ever flown by NASA, a total of 18 4K x 4K devices. The project has adopted a system-level approach to detector control and data acquisition where 1) control and processing intelligence is pushed into components closer to the detector to maximize signal integrity, 2) functions are performed at the highest allowable temperatures, and 3) the electronics are designed to ensure that the intrinsic detector noise is the limiting factor for system performance. For WFIRST, the detector arrays operate at 90 to 100 K, the detector control and data acquisition functions are performed by a custom ASIC at 150 to 180 K, and the main data processing electronics are at the ambient temperature of the spacecraft, notionally approx.300 K. The new ASIC is the main interface between the cryogenic detectors and the warm instrument electronics. Its single-chip design provides basic clocking for most types of hybrid detectors with CMOS ROICs. It includes a flexible but simple-to-program sequencer, with the option of microprocessor control for more elaborate readout schemes that may be data-dependent. All analog biases, digital clocks, and analog-to-digital conversion functions are incorporated and are connected to the nearby detectors with a short cable that can provide thermal isolation. The interface to the warm electronics is simple and robust through multiple LVDS channels. It also includes features that support parallel operation of multiple ASICs to control detectors that may have more capability or requirements than can be supported by a single chip.

  20. Science Enabling ASICs and FEEs for the JUICE and JEO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschalidis, Nicholas; Sittler, Ed; Cooper, John; Christian, Eric; Moore, Tom

    2011-01-01

    A family of science enabling radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs), Front End Electronics (FEEs) and Event Processing Systems, with flight heritage on many NASA missions, is presented. These technologies play an important role in the miniaturization of instruments -and spacecraft systems- at the same time increasing performance and reducing power. The technologies target time of flight, position sensing, and energy measurements as well as standard housekeeping and telemetry functions for particle and fields instruments, but find applications in other instrument categories too. More specifically the technologies include: the TOF chip, 1D and 2D Delay Lines with MCP detectors, for high precision fast and low power time of flight and position sensing; the Energy chip for multichannel SSD readout with time over threshold and standard voltage read out for TDC and ADC digitization; Fast multi channel read out chip with commandable thresholds; the TRIO chip for multiplexed ADC and housekeeping etc. It should be mentioned that the ASICs include basic trigger capabilities to enable random event processing in a heavy background of penetrators and UV foreground. Typical instruments include time of flight versus energy and look angle particle analyzers such as: plasma composition, energetic particle, neutral atom imaging as well as fast plasma and deltaE/E ion/electron telescopes. Flight missions include: Cassini/LEMMS, IMAGE/HENA, MESSENGER/EPPS/MLA/X-ray/MLA, STEREO, PLUTO-NH/PEPSSI/LORI, IBEX-Lo, JUNO/JEDI, RBSP/RBSPICE, MMS/HPCA/EPD, SO/SIS. Given the proven capability on heavy radiation missions such as JUNO, MMS and RBSB, as well diverse long duration missions such as MESSENGER, PLUTO and Cassini, it is expected that these technologies will play an important role in the particle and fields (at least) instruments on the upcoming JUICE and JEO missions.

  1. ISDEC-2 and ISDEC-3 controllers for HAWAII detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burse, Mahesh; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Chordia, Pravinkumar; Punnadi, Sujit; Chillal, Kalpesh; Mestri, Vilas; Bharti, Rupali; Sinha, Sakya; Kohok, Abhay

    2016-07-01

    ISDEC-2 - IUCAA1 SIDECAR Drive Electronics Controller is an alternative for Teledyne make JADE2 based controller for HAWAII detectors. It is a ready to use complete package and has been developed keeping in mind general astronomical requirements and widely used observatory set-ups like preferred OS-Linux , multi-extension fits output with fully populated headers (with detector as well as telescope and observation specific information), etc. Actual exposure time is measured for each frame to a few tens of microsecond accuracy and put in the fits header. It also caters to several application specific requirements like fast resets, strip mode, multiple region readout with on board co-adding, etc. ISDEC-2 is designed to work at -40 deg. and is already in use at observatories worldwide. ISDEC-3 is an Artix-7 FPGA based SIDECAR Drive Electronics Controller currently being developed at IUCAA. It will retain all the functionality supported by ISDEC-2 and will also support the operation of H2RG in continuos, fast (32 output, 5 MSPS, 12 bit) mode. It will have a 5 Gbps USB 3.0 PC interface and 1 Gbps Ethernet interface for image data transfer from SIDECAR to host PC. Additionally, the board will have DDR-3 memory for on-board storage and processing. ISDEC-3 will be capable of handling two SIDECARs simultaneously (in sync) for H2RG slow modes.

  2. Role of ASIC1a in Aβ-induced synaptic alterations in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Mango, D; Nisticò, R

    2018-05-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the mammalian central nervous system where they play a key role in synaptic transmission and in specific forms of memory. On the other hand, ASICs can be persistently active under pathological conditions contributing to neuronal damage in ischemic stroke, brain trauma, epilepsy and Parkinson's disease. However, to date no experimental evidence has linked ASICs to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aim of the present work was to investigate, in CA1 pyramidal neurons, the possible involvement of ASIC1a in the Aβ-mediated effect on metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptor dependent transmission. We found that, in slices pretreated with Aβ, the pharmacological blockade of ASIC1a restored the increased intrinsic excitability following group I mGlu receptor activation. This suggests that, under certain conditions, ASIC1a might further contribute to the Aβ-related depolarizing response. We have recently demonstrated that ASIC1a is also involved long-term depression (LTD) induced either by low-frequency stimulation or by application of the group I mGlu receptor agonist DHPG. Here, we have shown that psalmotoxin-1, a selective blocker of ASIC1a, rescued the DHPG-LTD facilitation associated with genetic and non-genetic models of AD. Overall, these results suggest that a functional coupling between ASIC1a and mGlu receptors occurs and might contribute to the synaptic alterations associated with AD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The use of low resistivity substrates for optimal noise reduction, ground referencing, and current conduction in mixed signal ASICs

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Zimmerman, T.

    1997-12-01

    This paper is distilled from a talk given at the 3rd International Meeting on Front End Electronics in Taos, N.M. on Nov. 7,1997. It is based on experience gained by designing and testing the SVX3 128 channel silicon strip detector readout chip. The SVX3 chip organization is shown in Fig. 1. The Front End section consists of an integrator and analog pipeline designed at Fermilab, and the Back End section is an ADC plus sparsification and readout logic designed at LBL. SVX3 is a deadtimeless readout chip, which means that the front end is acquiring low level analog signals whilemore » the back end is digitizing and reading out digital signals. It is thus a true mixed signal chip, and demands close attention to avoid disastrous coupling from the digital to the analog sections. SVX3 is designed in a bulk CMOS process (i.e., the circuits sit in a silicon substrate). In such a process, the substrate becomes a potential coupling path. This paper discusses the effect of the substrate resistivity on coupling, and also goes into a more general discussion of grounding and referencing in mixed signal designs and how low resistivity substrates can be used to advantage. Finally, an alternative power supply current conduction method for ASICs is presented as an additional advantage which can be obtained with low resistivity substrates. 1 ref., 13 figs., 1 tab.« less

  4. A front-end readout mixed chip for high-efficiency small animal PET imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollivier-Henry, N.; Berst, J. D.; Colledani, C.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Mbow, N. A.; Staub, D.; Guyonnet, J. L.; Hu, Y.

    2007-02-01

    Today, the main challenge of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems dedicated to small animal imaging is to obtain high detection efficiency and a highly accurate localization of radioisotopes. If we focus only on the PET characteristics such as the spatial resolution, its accuracy depends on the design of detector and on the electronics readout system as well. In this paper, we present a new design of such readout system with full custom submicrometer CMOS implementation. The front end chip consists of two main blocks from which the energy information and the time stamp with subnanosecond resolution can be obtained. In our A Multi-Modality Imaging System for Small Animal (AMISSA) PET system design, a matrix of LYSO crystals has to be read at each end by a 64 channels multianode photomultiplier tube. A specific readout electronic has been developed at the Hubert Curien Multidisciplinary Institute (IPHC, France). The architecture of this readout for the energy information detection is composed of a low-noise preamplifier, a CR-RC shaper and an analogue memory. In order to obtain the required dynamic range from 15 to 650 photoelectrons with good linearity, a current mode approach has been chosen for the preamplifier. To detect the signal with a temporal resolution of 1 ns, a comparator with a very low threshold (˜0.3 photoelectron) has been implemented. It gives the time reference of arrival signal coming from the detector. In order to obtain the time coincidence with a temporal resolution of 1 ns, a Time-to-Digital Converter (TDC) based on a Delay-Locked-Loop (DLL) has been designed. The chip is fabricated with AMS 0.35 μm process. The ASIC architecture and some simulation results will be presented in the paper.

  5. ASIC3 Channels Integrate Agmatine and Multiple Inflammatory Signals through the Nonproton Ligand Sensing Domain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) have long been known to sense extracellular protons and contribute to sensory perception. Peripheral ASIC3 channels represent natural sensors of acidic and inflammatory pain. We recently reported the use of a synthetic compound, 2-guanidine-4-methylquinazoline (GMQ), to identify a novel nonproton sensing domain in the ASIC3 channel, and proposed that, based on its structural similarity with GMQ, the arginine metabolite agmatine (AGM) may be an endogenous nonproton ligand for ASIC3 channels. Results Here, we present further evidence for the physiological correlation between AGM and ASIC3. Among arginine metabolites, only AGM and its analog arcaine (ARC) activated ASIC3 channels at neutral pH in a sustained manner similar to GMQ. In addition to the homomeric ASIC3 channels, AGM also activated heteromeric ASIC3 plus ASIC1b channels, extending its potential physiological relevance. Importantly, the process of activation by AGM was highly sensitive to mild acidosis, hyperosmolarity, arachidonic acid (AA), lactic acid and reduced extracellular Ca2+. AGM-induced ASIC3 channel activation was not through the chelation of extracellular Ca2+ as occurs with increased lactate, but rather through a direct interaction with the newly identified nonproton ligand sensing domain. Finally, AGM cooperated with the multiple inflammatory signals to cause pain-related behaviors in an ASIC3-dependent manner. Conclusions Nonproton ligand sensing domain might represent a novel mechanism for activation or sensitization of ASIC3 channels underlying inflammatory pain-sensing under in vivo conditions. PMID:21143836

  6. The SIRIUS mixed analog-digital ASIC developed for the LOFT LAD and WFM instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, A.; Rambaud, D.; Moutaye, E.; Ravera, L.; Barret, D.; Caïs, P.; Clédassou, R.; Bodin, P.; Seyler, J. Y.; Bonzo, A.; Feroci, M.; Labanti, C.; Evangelista, Y.; Favre, Y.

    2014-07-01

    We report on the development and characterization of the low-noise, low power, mixed analog-digital SIRIUS ASICs for both the LAD and WFM X-ray instruments of LOFT. The ASICs we developed are reading out large area silicon drift detectors (SDD). Stringent requirements in terms of noise (ENC of 17 e- to achieve an energy resolution on the LAD of 200 eV FWHM at 6 keV) and power consumption (650 μW per channel) were basis for the ASICs design. These SIRIUS ASICs are developed to match SDD detectors characteristics: 16 channels ASICs adapted for the LAD (970 microns pitch) and 64 channels for the WFM (145 microns pitch) will be fabricated. The ASICs were developed with the 180nm mixed technology of TSMC.

  7. ASIC-dependent LTP at multiple glutamatergic synapses in amygdala network is required for fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Po-Han; Chien, Ta-Chun; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Lien, Cheng-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants in the human ortholog of acid-sensing ion channel-1a subunit (ASIC1a) gene are associated with panic disorder and amygdala dysfunction. Both fear learning and activity-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortico-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synapses are impaired in ASIC1a-null mice, suggesting a critical role of ASICs in fear memory formation. In this study, we found that ASICs were differentially expressed within the amygdala neuronal population, and the extent of LTP at various glutamatergic synapses correlated with the level of ASIC expression in postsynaptic neurons. Importantly, selective deletion of ASIC1a in GABAergic cells, including amygdala output neurons, eliminated LTP in these cells and reduced fear learning to the same extent as that found when ASIC1a was selectively abolished in BLA glutamatergic neurons. Thus, fear learning requires ASIC-dependent LTP at multiple amygdala synapses, including both cortico-BLA input synapses and intra-amygdala synapses on output neurons. PMID:25988357

  8. Mongoose ASIC microcontroller programming guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Brian S.

    1993-09-01

    The 'Mongoose' ASIC microcontroller is a radiation-hard implementation of the R3000 microprocessor. This document describes the internals of the microcontroller in a level of detail necessary for someone implementing a software design.

  9. Mongoose ASIC microcontroller programming guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian S.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Mongoose' ASIC microcontroller is a radiation-hard implementation of the R3000 microprocessor. This document describes the internals of the microcontroller in a level of detail necessary for someone implementing a software design.

  10. Development of a flight qualified 100 x 100 mm MCP UV detector using advanced cross strip anodes and associated ASIC electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; McPhate, Jason; Tremsin, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Raffanti, Rick; Cumming, Harley; Seljak, Andrej; Virta, Vihtori; Varner, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last three decades (e.g. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.) and been mentioned for instruments on future large telescopes in space such as LUVOIR14. Using cross strip anodes, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. A crossed strip anode MCP readout starts with a set of orthogonal conducting strips (e.g. 80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital converter (ADC). All of the ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T) and pass this information to a downstream computer. Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of 1ns. In 2012 our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a NASA Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) grant to raise the TRL of a cross strip detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass, and volume requirements of the detector electronics. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration

  11. CWICOM: A Highly Integrated & Innovative CCSDS Image Compression ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupat, Jean-Luc; Vitulli, Raffaele

    2013-08-01

    The space market is more and more demanding in terms of on image compression performances. The earth observation satellites instrument resolution, the agility and the swath are continuously increasing. It multiplies by 10 the volume of picture acquired on one orbit. In parallel, the satellites size and mass are decreasing, requiring innovative electronic technologies reducing size, mass and power consumption. Astrium, leader on the market of the combined solutions for compression and memory for space application, has developed a new image compression ASIC which is presented in this paper. CWICOM is a high performance and innovative image compression ASIC developed by Astrium in the frame of the ESA contract n°22011/08/NLL/LvH. The objective of this ESA contract is to develop a radiation hardened ASIC that implements the CCSDS 122.0-B-1 Standard for Image Data Compression, that has a SpaceWire interface for configuring and controlling the device, and that is compatible with Sentinel-2 interface and with similar Earth Observation missions. CWICOM stands for CCSDS Wavelet Image COMpression ASIC. It is a large dynamic, large image and very high speed image compression ASIC potentially relevant for compression of any 2D image with bi-dimensional data correlation such as Earth observation, scientific data compression… The paper presents some of the main aspects of the CWICOM development, such as the algorithm and specification, the innovative memory organization, the validation approach and the status of the project.

  12. In situ hybridization evidence for the coexistence of ASIC and TRPV1 within rat single sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ugawa, Shinya; Ueda, Takashi; Yamamura, Hisao; Shimada, Shoichi

    2005-05-20

    The activation of nociceptors by protons plays a crucial role in the initiation and maintenance of acidosis-linked pain. Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) and transient receptor potential/vanilloid receptor subtype-1 (TRPV1) encode proton-activated cation channels expressed by nociceptors and the opening of these channels results in nociceptor excitation. Histological relations among ASIC clones and the colocalization of each ASIC subunit and TRPV1 within single sensory neurons were examined on serial sections of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) using in situ hybridization histochemistry. ASIC1a transcripts were expressed in 20-25% of the DRG neurons, and most of the neurons had small (<30 microm)-diameter cell bodies. ASIC1b transcripts and ASIC3 transcripts were expressed in approximately 10% and 30-35% of the DRG neurons, respectively, and the greater part of each population was located in small-to-medium (30-50 microm)-diameter cells. The ASIC1a transcripts and ASIC1b transcripts were basically localized in the distinct populations of the DRG neurons, while approximately 20% of the ASIC1a-positive neurons and approximately 10% of the ASIC1b-positive neurons expressed ASIC3 transcripts. TRPV1 transcripts were expressed in 35-40% of the DRG neurons, and most of the TRPV1-positive neurons had small-diameter cell bodies. Intense expression signals for ASIC1a transcripts were detected in 40-45% of the TRPV1-positive neurons. Neurons expressing both ASIC1b and TRPV1 transcripts were barely detected in the DRG. Approximately 30% of the TRPV1-positive neurons expressed ASIC3 transcripts, and the double-labeled neurons were comprised of both small-diameter and medium-diameter cells. Approximately 13% of the TRPV1-positive neurons expressed both ASIC1a and ASIC3 transcripts.

  13. The Whipple Mission: Design and development of the focal plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenter, A.; Kraft, R.; Murray, S. S.; Gauron, T.; Alcock, C.; Vrtilek, J.

    2014-12-01

    Whipple is a proposed space borne mission intended to detect and characterize thesize and spatial distribution of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) using the ``blind'' occultation technique. This technique measures the size of, and distance to, a TNO by discerning features of the Fresnel diffraction pattern that is produced when a TNO intercepts the light path between a distant star and the observatory. As the observatory transects the diffraction pattern, it resolves that pattern as a light curve using a differential photometer. The light curve decrement is relatively large (few percent) and the temporal duration is short. For a TNO in the Kuiper Belt the duration is a fraction of a second. For objects in the Oort cloud the duration is ~ a few seconds. Since a blind occultation event is rare, tens of thousands of stars need to be observed simultaneously over several years to accumulate sufficient statistics. Stars need to be observed at cadences up to 40 Hz with a read noise <20e rms (post CDS)Though this is beyond the capability of CCDs, such a high speed, low noise, multi-object differential photometer instrument can be implemented with CMOS imaging technology. The proposed focal plane for the Whipple photometer consists of nine Teledyne HyVISI Silicon hybrid CMOS detectors behind a 77cm F1.34 optic. The detectors consist of 1k by 1k 36 micron pitch pixels and each detector is connected to its own SIDECAR ASIC. Due to the high cadence required, the detectors are operatedin window readout mode. Approximately 700 stars per detector, each in a 2x2 pixel window, will be read out at 40Hz. Progressively more stars can be observed as the cadence decreases, until the limit of the SIDECAR memory is reached at about 4,000 windows The lack of atmospheric turbulence combined with the large field of view and high, speed low noise performance of the focal plane will provide the Whipple mission with unprecedented capability in exploring our Solar System.

  14. Development of Thermal Infrared Sensor to Supplement Operational Land Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Peter; Waczynski, Augustyn; Kan, Emily; Wen, Yiting; Rosenberry, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The thermal infrared sensor (TIRS) is a quantum well infrared photodetector (QWIP)-based instrument intended to supplement the Operational Land Imager (OLI) for the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM). The TIRS instrument is a far-infrared imager operating in the pushbroom mode with two IR channels: 10.8 and 12 m. The focal plane will contain three 640 512 QWIP arrays mounted onto a silicon substrate. The readout integrated circuit (ROIC) addresses each pixel on the QWIP arrays and reads out the pixel value (signal). The ROIC is controlled by the focal plane electronics (FPE) by means of clock signals and bias voltage value. The means of how the FPE is designed to control and interact with the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA) is the basis for this work. The technology developed under the FPE is for the TIRS focal plane assembly (FPA). The FPE must interact with the FPA to command and control the FPA, extract analog signals from the FPA, and then convert the analog signals to digital format and send them via a serial link (USB) to a computer. The FPE accomplishes the described functions by converting electrical power from generic power supplies to the required bias power that is needed by the FPA. The FPE also generates digital clocking signals and shifts the typical transistor-to-transistor logic (TTL) to }5 V required by the FPA. The FPE also uses an application- specific integrated circuit (ASIC) named System Image, Digitizing, Enhancing, Controlling, And Retrieving (SIDECAR) from Teledyne Corp. to generate the clocking patterns commanded by the user. The uniqueness of the FPE for TIRS lies in that the TIRS FPA has three QWIP detector arrays, and all three detector arrays must be in synchronization while in operation. This is to avoid data skewing while observing Earth flying in space. The observing scenario may be customized by uploading new control software to the SIDECAR.

  15. Cross strip anode readouts for microchannel plate detectors: developing flight qualified prototypes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallerga, John; Cooney, M.; Raffanti, R.; Varner, G.; Siegmund, O.; McPhate, J. B.; Tremsin, A.

    2014-01-01

    Photon counting microchannel plate (MCP) imagers have been the detector of choice for most UV astronomical missions over the last two decades (eg. EUVE, FUSE, COS on Hubble etc.). Over this duration, improvements in the MCP laboratory readout technology have resulted in better spatial resolution (x10), temporal resolution (x 1000) and output event rate (x100), all the while operating at lower gain (x 10) resulting in lower high voltage requirements and longer MCP lifetimes. One such technology is the parallel cross strip (PXS) readout. The PXS anode is a set of orthogonal conducting strips (80 x 80), typically spaced at a 635 micron pitch onto which charge clouds from MCP amplified events land. Each strip has its own charge sensitive amplifier that is sampled continuously by a dedicated analog to digital (ADC) converter at 50MHz. All of the 160 ADC digital output lines are fed into a field programmable gate array (FGPA) which can detect charge events landing on the strips, measure the peak amplitudes of those charge events and calculate their spatial centroid along with their time of arrival (X,Y,T). Laboratory versions of these electronics have demonstrated < 20 microns FWHM spatial resolution, count rates on the order of 2 MHz, and temporal resolution of ~ 1ns. In 2012 the our group at U.C. Berkeley, along with our partners at the U. Hawaii, received a Strategic Astrophysics Technology grant to raise the TRL of the PXS detector from 4 to 6 by replacing most of the 19" rack mounted, high powered electronics with application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) which will lower the power, mass and volume requirements of the PXS detector. We were also tasked to design and fabricate a "standard" 50mm square active area MCP detector incorporating these electronics that can be environmentally qualified for flight (temperature, vacuum, vibration). This detector design could then be modified for individual flight opportunities with a higher level of confidence than

  16. Fabrication Security and Trust of Domain-Specific ASIC Processors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-30

    embedded in the design. For example , an ASIC processor potentially has a 10-1,000X performance advantage over its FPGA and GPP counterparts, but...paper by summarizing our lessons learned from this project and suggests a few research directions. II. DOMAIN-SPECIFIC ASIC PROCESSORS As Figure 1 has...sponsored by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract #FA8721-05-C-0002. Opinions, interpretations

  17. A multi-purpose readout electronics for CdTe and CZT detectors for x-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X. B.; Deng, Z.; Xing, Y. X.; Liu, Y. N.

    2017-09-01

    A multi-purpose readout electronics based on the DPLMS digital filter has been developed for CdTe and CZT detectors for X-ray imaging applications. Different filter coefficients can be synthesized optimized either for high energy resolution at relatively low counting rate or for high rate photon-counting with reduced energy resolution. The effects of signal width constraints, sampling rate and length were numerical studied by Mento Carlo simulation with simple CRRC shaper input signals. The signal width constraint had minor effect and the ENC was only increased by 6.5% when the signal width was shortened down to 2 τc. The sampling rate and length depended on the characteristic time constants of both input and output signals. For simple CR-RC input signals, the minimum number of the filter coefficients was 12 with 10% increase in ENC when the output time constant was close to the input shaping time. A prototype readout electronics was developed for demonstration, using a previously designed analog front ASIC and a commercial ADC card. Two different DPLMS filters were successfully synthesized and applied for high resolution and high counting rate applications respectively. The readout electronics was also tested with a linear array CdTe detector. The energy resolutions of Am-241 59.5 keV peak were measured to be 6.41% in FWHM for the high resolution filter and to be 13.58% in FWHM for the high counting rate filter with 160 ns signal width constraint.

  18. Extracellular Spermine Exacerbates Ischemic Neuronal Injury through Sensitization of ASIC1a Channels to Extracellular Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Bo; Wang, Yi-Zhi; Yang, Tao; Chu, Xiang-Ping; Yu, Ye; Huang, Yu; Cao, Hui; Hansen, Jillian; Simon, Roger P.; Zhu, Michael X.; Xiong, Zhi-Gang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is a major problem associated with stroke. It has been increasingly recognized that acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) contribute significantly to ischemic neuronal damage, but the underlying mechanism has remained elusive. Here, we show that extracellular spermine, one of the endogenous polyamines, exacerbates ischemic neuronal injury through sensitization of ASIC1a channels to extracellular acidosis. Pharmacological blockade of ASIC1a or deletion of the ASIC1 gene greatly reduces the enhancing effect of spermine in ischemic neuronal damage both in cultures of dissociated neurons and in a mouse model of focal ischemia. Mechanistically, spermine profoundly reduces desensitization of ASIC1a by slowing down desensitization in the open state, shifting steady-state desensitization to more acidic pH, and accelerating recovery between repeated periods of acid stimulation. Spermine-mediated potentiation of ASIC1a activity is occluded by PcTX1 (psalmotoxin 1), a specific ASIC1a inhibitor binding to its extracellular domain. Functionally, the enhanced channel activity is accompanied by increased acid-induced neuronal membrane depolarization and cytoplasmic Ca2+ overload, which may partially explain the exacerbated neuronal damage caused by spermine. More importantly, blocking endogenous spermine synthesis significantly attenuates ischemic brain injury mediated by ASIC1a but not that by NMDA receptors. Thus, extracellular spermine contributes significantly to ischemic neuronal injury through enhancing ASIC1a activity. Our data suggest new neuroprotective strategies for stroke patients via inhibition of polyamine synthesis and subsequent spermine–ASIC interaction. PMID:21307247

  19. Optimization and performance of the Robert Stobie Spectrograph Near-InfraRed detector system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosby, Gregory; Indahl, Briana; Eggen, Nathan; Wolf, Marsha; Hooper, Eric; Jaehnig, Kurt; Thielman, Don; Burse, Mahesh

    2018-01-01

    At the University of Wisconsin-Madison, we are building and testing the near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph for the Southern African Large Telescope-RSS-NIR. RSS-NIR will be an enclosed cooled integral field spectrograph. The RSS-NIR detector system uses a HAWAII-2RG (H2RG) HgCdTe detector from Teledyne controlled by the SIDECAR ASIC and an Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics (IUCCA) ISDEC card. We have successfully characterized and optimized the detector system and report on the optimization steps and performance of the system. We have reduced the CDS read noise to ˜20 e- for 200 kHz operation by optimizing ASIC settings. We show an additional factor of 3 reduction of read noise using Fowler sampling techniques and a factor of 2 reduction using up-the-ramp group sampling techniques. We also provide calculations to quantify the conditions for sky-limited observations using these sampling techniques.

  20. JPIC-Rad-Hard JPEG2000 Image Compression ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, Nikos; Ginosar, Ran; Broyde, Amitai; Alon, Dov

    2010-08-01

    JPIC is a rad-hard high-performance image compression ASIC for the aerospace market. JPIC implements tier 1 of the ISO/IEC 15444-1 JPEG2000 (a.k.a. J2K) image compression standard [1] as well as the post compression rate-distortion algorithm, which is part of tier 2 coding. A modular architecture enables employing a single JPIC or multiple coordinated JPIC units. JPIC is designed to support wide data sources of imager in optical, panchromatic and multi-spectral space and airborne sensors. JPIC has been developed as a collaboration of Alma Technologies S.A. (Greece), MBT/IAI Ltd (Israel) and Ramon Chips Ltd (Israel). MBT IAI defined the system architecture requirements and interfaces, The JPEG2K-E IP core from Alma implements the compression algorithm [2]. Ramon Chips adds SERDES interfaces and host interfaces and integrates the ASIC. MBT has demonstrated the full chip on an FPGA board and created system boards employing multiple JPIC units. The ASIC implementation, based on Ramon Chips' 180nm CMOS RadSafe[TM] RH cell library enables superior radiation hardness.

  1. Application of large area SiPMs for the readout of a plastic scintillator based timing detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betancourt, C.; Blondel, A.; Brundler, R.; Dätwyler, A.; Favre, Y.; Gascon, D.; Gomez, S.; Korzenev, A.; Mermod, P.; Noah, E.; Serra, N.; Sgalaberna, D.; Storaci, B.

    2017-11-01

    In this study an array of eight 6 mm × 6 mm area SiPMs was coupled to the end of a long plastic scintillator counter which was exposed to a 2.5 GeV/c muon beam at the CERN PS. Timing characteristics of bars with dimensions 150 cm × 6 cm × 1 cm and 120 cm × 11 cm × 2.5 cm have been studied. An 8-channel SiPM anode readout ASIC (MUSIC R1) based on a novel low input impedance current conveyor has been used to read out and amplify SiPMs independently and sum the signals at the end. Prospects for applications in large-scale particle physics detectors with timing resolution below 100 ps are provided in light of the results.

  2. A High-Performance Deformable Mirror with Integrated Driver ASIC for Space Based Active Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelton, Chris

    Direct imaging of exoplanets is key to fully understanding these systems through spectroscopy and astrometry. The primary impediment to direct imaging of exoplanets is the extremely high brightness ratio between the planet and its parent star. Direct imaging requires a technique for contrast suppression, which include coronagraphs, and nulling interferometers. Deformable mirrors (DMs) are essential to both of these techniques. With space missions in mind, Microscale is developing a novel DM with direct integration of DM and its electronic control functions in a single small envelope. The Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) is key to the shrinking of the electronic control functions to a size compatible with direct integration with the DM. Through a NASA SBIR project, Microscale, with JPL oversight, has successfully demonstrated a unique deformable mirror (DM) driver ASIC prototype based on an ultra-low power switch architecture. Microscale calls this the Switch-Mode ASIC, or SM-ASIC, and has characterized it for a key set of performance parameters, and has tested its operation with a variety of actuator loads, such as piezo stack and unimorph, and over a wide temperature range. These tests show the SM-ASIC's capability of supporting active optics in correcting aberrations of a telescope in space. Microscale has also developed DMs to go with the SM-ASIC driver. The latest DM version produced uses small piezo stack elements in an 8x8 array, bonded to a novel silicon facesheet structure fabricated monolithically into a polished mirror on one side and mechanical linkage posts that connect to the piezoelectric stack actuators on the other. In this Supporting Technology proposal we propose to further develop the ASIC-DM and have assembled a very capable team to do so. It will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in Adaptive Optics systems, with high-contrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions, and with designing DM driver

  3. The role of periodontal ASIC3 in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiya; Long, Hu; Ma, Wenqiang; Liao, Lina; Yang, Xin; Zhou, Yang; Shan, Di; Huang, Renhuan; Jian, Fan; Wang, Yan; Lai, Wenli

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to clarify the roles of Acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in orofacial pain following experimental tooth movement. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the experimental group (40g, n = 30) and the sham group (0g, n = 30). Closed coil springs were ligated between maxillary incisor and molars to achieve experimental tooth movement. Rat grimace scale (RGS) scores were assessed at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14 days after the placement of the springs. ASIC3 immunostaining was performed and the expression levels of ASIC3 were measured through integrated optical density/area in Image-Pro Plus 6.0. Moreover, 18 rats were divided into APETx2 group (n = 6), amiloride group (n = 6), and vehicle group (n = 6), and RGS scores were obtained compared among them to verify the roles of ASIC3 in orofacial pain following tooth movement. ASIC3 expression levels became significantly higher in the experimental group than in sham group on 1, 3, and 5 days and became similar on 7 and 14 days. Pain levels (RGS scores) increased in both groups and were significantly higher in the experimental group on 1, 3, 5, and 7 days and were similar on 14 days. Periodontal ASIC3 expression levels were correlated with orofacial pain levels following experimental tooth movement. Periodontal administrations of ASIC3 antagonists (APETx2 and amiloride) could alleviate pain. This study needs to be better evidenced by RNA interference of ASIC3 in periodontal tissues in rats following experimental tooth movement. Moreover, we hope further studies would concentrate on the pain perception of ASIC3 knockout (ASIC3 -/- ) mice. Our results suggest that periodontal ASIC3 plays an important role in orofacial pain induced by experimental tooth movement. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Human ASIC3 channel dynamically adapts its activity to sense the extracellular pH in both acidic and alkaline directions.

    PubMed

    Delaunay, Anne; Gasull, Xavier; Salinas, Miguel; Noël, Jacques; Friend, Valérie; Lingueglia, Eric; Deval, Emmanuel

    2012-08-07

    In rodent sensory neurons, acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) has recently emerged as a particularly important sensor of nonadaptive pain associated with tissue acidosis. However, little is known about the human ASIC3 channel, which includes three splice variants differing in their C-terminal domain (hASIC3a, hASIC3b, and hASIC3c). hASIC3a transcripts represent the main mRNAs expressed in both peripheral and central neuronal tissues (dorsal root ganglia [DRG], spinal cord, and brain), where a small proportion of hASIC3c transcripts is also detected. We show that hASIC3 channels (hASIC3a, hASIC3b, or hASIC3c) are able to directly sense extracellular pH changes not only during acidification (up to pH 5.0), but also during alkalization (up to pH 8.0), an original and inducible property yet unknown. When the external pH decreases, hASIC3 display a transient acid mode with brief activation that is relevant to the classical ASIC currents, as previously described. On the other hand, an external pH increase activates a sustained alkaline mode leading to a constitutive activity at resting pH. Both modes are inhibited by the APETx2 toxin, an ASIC3-type channel inhibitor. The alkaline sensitivity of hASIC3 is an intrinsic property of the channel, which is supported by the extracellular loop and involves two arginines (R68 and R83) only present in the human clone. hASIC3 is thus able to sense the extracellular pH in both directions and therefore to dynamically adapt its activity between pH 5.0 and 8.0, a property likely to participate in the fine tuning of neuronal membrane potential and to neuron sensitization in various pH environments.

  5. A Low-Power ASIC Signal Processor for a Vestibular Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Töreyin, Hakan; Bhatti, Pamela T

    2016-06-01

    A low-power ASIC signal processor for a vestibular prosthesis (VP) is reported. Fabricated with TI 0.35 μm CMOS technology and designed to interface with implanted inertial sensors, the digitally assisted analog signal processor operates extensively in the CMOS subthreshold region. During its operation the ASIC encodes head motion signals captured by the inertial sensors as electrical pulses ultimately targeted for in-vivo stimulation of vestibular nerve fibers. To achieve this, the ASIC implements a coordinate system transformation to correct for misalignment between natural sensors and implanted inertial sensors. It also mimics the frequency response characteristics and frequency encoding mappings of angular and linear head motions observed at the peripheral sense organs, semicircular canals and otolith. Overall the design occupies an area of 6.22 mm (2) and consumes 1.24 mW when supplied with ± 1.6 V.

  6. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-01-01

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm2. The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively. PMID:27792131

  7. A Low Noise CMOS Readout Based on a Polymer-Coated SAW Array for Miniature Electronic Nose.

    PubMed

    Wu, Cheng-Chun; Liu, Szu-Chieh; Chiu, Shih-Wen; Tang, Kea-Tiong

    2016-10-25

    An electronic nose (E-Nose) is one of the applications for surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensors. In this paper, we present a low-noise complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) based on an SAW sensor array for achieving a miniature E-Nose. The center frequency of the SAW sensors was measured to be approximately 114 MHz. Because of interference between the sensors, we designed a low-noise CMOS frequency readout circuit to enable the SAW sensor to obtain frequency variation. The proposed circuit was fabricated in Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) 0.18 μm 1P6M CMOS process technology. The total chip size was nearly 1203 × 1203 μm². The chip was operated at a supply voltage of 1 V for a digital circuit and 1.8 V for an analog circuit. The least measurable difference between frequencies was 4 Hz. The detection limit of the system, when estimated using methanol and ethanol, was 0.1 ppm. Their linearity was in the range of 0.1 to 26,000 ppm. The power consumption levels of the analog and digital circuits were 1.742 mW and 761 μW, respectively.

  8. Differential regulation of ASICs and TRPV1 by zinc in rat bronchopulmonary sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Vysotskaya, Zhanna V; Moss, Charles R; Gu, Qihai

    2014-12-01

    Zinc has been known to act as a signaling molecule that regulates a variety of neuronal functions. In this study, we aimed to study the effect of zinc on two populations of acid-sensitive ion channels, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), and transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor-1 (TRPV1), in vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. Rat vagal sensory neurons innervating lungs and airways were retrogradely labeled with a fluorescent tracer. Whole-cell perforated patch-clamp recordings were carried out in primarily cultured bronchopulmonary sensory neurons. The acid-evoked ASIC and TRPV1 currents were measured and compared between before and after the zinc pretreatment. ASIC currents were induced by a pH drop from 7.4 to 6.8 or 6.5 in the presence of capsazepine (10 µM), a specific TRPV1 antagonist. Pretreatment with zinc (50 or 300 µM, 2 min) displayed different effects on the two distinct phenotypes of ASIC currents: a marked potentiation on ASIC channels with fast kinetics of activation and inactivation or no significant effect on ASIC currents with slow activation and inactivation. On the other hand, pretreatment with zinc significantly inhibited the acid (pH 5.5 or 5.3)-induced TRPV1 currents. The inhibition was abolished by intracellular chelation of zinc by TPEN (25 µM), indicating that intracellular accumulation of zinc was likely required for its inhibitory effect on TRPV1 channels. Our study showed that zinc differentially regulates the activities of ASICs and TRPV1 channels in rat vagal bronchopulmonary sensory neurons.

  9. A Low-Power ASIC Signal Processor for a Vestibular Prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Töreyin, Hakan; Bhatti, Pamela T.

    2017-01-01

    A low-power ASIC signal processor for a vestibular prosthesis (VP) is reported. Fabricated with TI 0.35 μm CMOS technology and designed to interface with implanted inertial sensors, the digitally assisted analog signal processor operates extensively in the CMOS subthreshold region. During its operation the ASIC encodes head motion signals captured by the inertial sensors as electrical pulses ultimately targeted for in-vivo stimulation of vestibular nerve fibers. To achieve this, the ASIC implements a coordinate system transformation to correct for misalignment between natural sensors and implanted inertial sensors. It also mimics the frequency response characteristics and frequency encoding mappings of angular and linear head motions observed at the peripheral sense organs, semicircular canals and otolith. Overall the design occupies an area of 6.22 mm2 and consumes 1.24 mW when supplied with ± 1.6 V. PMID:26800546

  10. Driver ASIC Environmental Testing and Performance Optimization for SpaceBased Active Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia Prada, Camilo

    Direct imaging of Earth-like planets requires techniques for light suppression, such as coronagraphs or nulling interferometers, in which deformable mirrors (DM) are a principal component. On ground-based systems, DMs are used to correct for turbulence in the Earth’s atmosphere in addition to static aberrations in the optics. For space-based observations, DMs are used to correct for static and quasi- static aberrations in the optical train. State-of-the-art, high-actuator count deformable mirrors suffer from external heavy and bulky electronics in which electrical connections are made through thousands of wires. We are instead developing Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) capable of direct integration with the DM in a single small package. This integrated ASIC-DM is ideal for space missions, where it offers significant reduction in mass, power and complexity, and performance compatible with high-contrast observations of exoplanets. We have successfully prototyped and tested a 32x32 format Switch-Mode (SM) ASIC which consumes only 2mW static power (total, not per-actuator). A number of constraints were imposed on key parameters of this ASIC design, including sub-picoamp levels of leakage across turned-off switches and from switch-to-substrate, control resolution of 0.04 mV, satisfactory rise/fall times, and a near-zero on-chip crosstalk over a useful range of operating temperatures. This driver ASIC technology is currently at TRL 4. This Supporting Technology proposal will further develop the ASIC technology to TRL 5 by carrying on environmental tests and further optimizing performance, with the end goal of making ASICs suitable for space-based deployment. The effort will be led by JPL, which has considerable expertise with DMs used in highcontrast imaging systems for exoplanet missions and in adaptive optic systems, and in design of DM driver electronics. Microscale, which developed the prototype of the ASICDM, will continue its development. We

  11. An Efficient, FPGA-Based, Cluster Detection Algorithm Implementation for a Strip Detector Readout System in a Time Projection Chamber Polarimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Kyle J.; Hill, Joanne E. (Editor); Black, J. Kevin; Baumgartner, Wayne H.; Jahoda, Keith

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental challenge in a spaceborne application of a gas-based Time Projection Chamber (TPC) for observation of X-ray polarization is handling the large amount of data collected. The TPC polarimeter described uses the APV-25 Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) to readout a strip detector. Two dimensional photoelectron track images are created with a time projection technique and used to determine the polarization of the incident X-rays. The detector produces a 128x30 pixel image per photon interaction with each pixel registering 12 bits of collected charge. This creates challenging requirements for data storage and downlink bandwidth with only a modest incidence of photons and can have a significant impact on the overall mission cost. An approach is described for locating and isolating the photoelectron track within the detector image, yielding a much smaller data product, typically between 8x8 pixels and 20x20 pixels. This approach is implemented using a Microsemi RT-ProASIC3-3000 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), clocked at 20 MHz and utilizing 10.7k logic gates (14% of FPGA), 20 Block RAMs (17% of FPGA), and no external RAM. Results will be presented, demonstrating successful photoelectron track cluster detection with minimal impact to detector dead-time.

  12. Readout Electronics for the ATLAS LAr Calorimeter at HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hucheng; ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter Group

    The ATLAS Liquid Argon (LAr) calorimeters are high precision, high sensitivity and high granularity detectors designed to provide precision measurements of electrons, photons, jets and missing transverse energy. ATLAS and its LAr calorimeters have been operating and collecting proton-proton collisions at LHC since 2009. The current front-end electronics of the LAr calorimeters need to be upgraded to sustain the higher radiation levels and data rates expected at the upgraded high luminosity LHC machine (HL-LHC), which will have 5 times more luminosity than the LHC in its ultimate configuration. The complexity of the present electronics and the obsolescence of some of components of which it is made, will not allow a partial replacement of the system. A completely new readout architecture scheme is under study and many components are being developed in various R&D programs of the LAr Calorimeter Group.The new front-end readout electronics will send data continuously at each bunch crossing through high speed radiation resistant optical links. The data will be processed real-time with the possibility of implementing trigger algorithms for clusters and electron/photon identification at a higher granularity than that which is currently implemented. The new architecture will eliminate the intrinsic limitation presently existing on Level-1 trigger acceptance. This article is an overview of the R&D activities which covers architectural design aspects of the new electronics as well as some detailed progress on the development of several ASICs needed, and preliminary studies with FPGAs to cover the backend functions including part of the Level-1 trigger requirements. A recently proposed staged upgrade with hybrid Tower Builder Board (TBB) is also described.

  13. An Energy-Efficient ASIC for Wireless Body Sensor Networks in Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Xiaoyu Zhang; Hanjun Jiang; Lingwei Zhang; Chun Zhang; Zhihua Wang; Xinkai Chen

    2010-02-01

    An energy-efficient application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) featured with a work-on-demand protocol is designed for wireless body sensor networks (WBSNs) in medical applications. Dedicated for ultra-low-power wireless sensor nodes, the ASIC consists of a low-power microcontroller unit (MCU), a power-management unit (PMU), reconfigurable sensor interfaces, communication ports controlling a wireless transceiver, and an integrated passive radio-frequency (RF) receiver with energy harvesting ability. The MCU, together with the PMU, provides quite flexible communication and power-control modes for energy-efficient operations. The always-on passive RF receiver with an RF energy harvesting block offers the sensor nodes the capability of work-on-demand with zero standby power. Fabricated in standard 0.18-¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology, the ASIC occupies a die area of 2 mm × 2.5 mm. A wireless body sensor network sensor-node prototype using this ASIC only consumes < 10-nA current under the passive standby mode, and < 10 ¿A under the active standby mode, when supplied by a 3-V battery.

  14. A Wireless Capsule Endoscope System With Low-Power Controlling and Processing ASIC.

    PubMed

    Xinkai Chen; Xiaoyu Zhang; Linwei Zhang; Xiaowen Li; Nan Qi; Hanjun Jiang; Zhihua Wang

    2009-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule endoscope system. The proposed system is mainly composed of a CMOS image sensor, a RF transceiver and a low-power controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC). Several design challenges involving system power reduction, system miniaturization and wireless wake-up method are resolved by employing optimized system architecture, integration of an area and power efficient image compression module, a power management unit (PMU) and a novel wireless wake-up subsystem with zero standby current in the ASIC design. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18-mum CMOS technology with a die area of 3.4 mm * 3.3 mm. The digital baseband can work under a power supply down to 0.95 V with a power dissipation of 1.3 mW. The prototype capsule based on the ASIC and a data recorder has been developed. Test result shows that proposed system architecture with local image compression lead to an average of 45% energy reduction for transmitting an image frame.

  15. Study of the VMM1 read-out chip in a neutron irradiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexopoulos, T.; Fanourakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Kokkoris, M.; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A.; Papageorgiou, K.; Tsipolitis, G.

    2016-05-01

    Within 2015, the LHC operated close to the design energy of √s = 13-14 TeV delivering instantaneous luminosities up to Script L = 5 × 1033 cm-2s-1. The ATLAS Phase-I upgrade in 2018/19 will introduce the MicroMEGAS detectors in the area of the small wheel at the end caps. Accompanying new electronics are designed and built such as the VMM front end ASIC, which provides energy, timing and triggering information and allows fast data read-out. The first VMM version (VMM1) has been widely produced and tested in various test beams, whilst the second version (VMM2) is currently being tested. This paper focuses on the VMM1 single event upset studies and more specifically on the response of the configuration registers under harsh radiation environments. Similar conditions are expected at Run III with Script L = 2 × 1034 cm-2s-1 and a mean of 55 interactions per bunch crossing. Two VMM1s were exposed in a neutron irradiation environment using the TANDEM Van Der Graaff accelerator at NSCR Demokritos, Athens, Greece. The results showed a rate of SEU occurrences at a measured cross section of (4.1±0.8)×10-14 cm2/bit for each VMM. Consequently, when extrapolating this value to the luminosity expected in Run III, the occurrence is roughly 6 SEUs/min in all the read-out system comprising 40,000 VMMs installed during the Phase-I upgrade.

  16. Knockdown of acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) suppresses disease phenotype in SCA1 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Vig, Parminder J S; Hearst, Scoty M; Shao, Qingmei; Lopez, Maripar E

    2014-08-01

    The mutated ataxin-1 protein in spinocerebellar ataxia 1 (SCA1) targets Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellum and causes progressive ataxia due to loss of PCs and neurons of the brainstem. The exact mechanism of this cellular loss is still not clear. Currently, there are no treatments for SCA1; however, understanding of the mechanisms that regulate SCA1 pathology is essential for devising new therapies for SCA1 patients. We previously established a connection between the loss of intracellular calcium-buffering and calcium-signalling proteins with initiation of neurodegeneration in SCA1 transgenic (Tg) mice. Recently, acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) have been implicated in calcium-mediated toxicity in many brain disorders. Here, we report generating SCA1 Tg mice in the ASIC1a knockout (KO) background and demonstrate that the deletion of ASIC1a gene expression causes suppression of the SCA1 disease phenotype. Loss of the ASIC1a channel in SCA1/ASIC1a KO mice resulted in the improvement of motor deficit and decreased PC degeneration. Interestingly, the expression of the ASIC1 variant, ASIC1b, was upregulated in the cerebellum of both SCA1/ASIC1a KO and ASIC1a KO animals as compared to the wild-type (WT) and SCA1 Tg mice. Further, these SCA1/ASIC1a KO mice exhibited translocation of PC calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k from the nucleus to the cytosol in young animals, which otherwise have both cytosolic and nuclear localization. Furthermore, in addition to higher expression of calcium-buffering protein parvalbumin, PCs of the older SCA1/ASIC1a KO mice showed a decrease in morphologic abnormalities as compared to the age-matched SCA1 animals. Our data suggest that ASIC1a may be a mediator of SCA1 pathogenesis and targeting ASIC1a could be a novel approach to treat SCA1.

  17. A Prototype PZT Matrix Transducer With Low-Power Integrated Receive ASIC for 3-D Transesophageal Echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Raghunathan, Shreyas B; Yu, Zili; Shabanimotlagh, Maysam; Chen, Zhao; Chang, Zu-yao; Blaak, Sandra; Prins, Christian; Ponte, Jacco; Noothout, Emile; Vos, Hendrik J; Bosch, Johan G; Verweij, Martin D; de Jong, Nico; Pertijs, Michiel A P

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design, fabrication, and experimental evaluation of a prototype lead zirconium titanate (PZT) matrix transducer with an integrated receive ASIC, as a proof of concept for a miniature three-dimensional (3-D) transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) probe. It consists of an array of 9 ×12 piezoelectric elements mounted on the ASIC via an integration scheme that involves direct electrical connections between a bond-pad array on the ASIC and the transducer elements. The ASIC addresses the critical challenge of reducing cable count, and includes front-end amplifiers with adjustable gains and micro-beamformer circuits that locally process and combine echo signals received by the elements of each 3 ×3 subarray. Thus, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the number of receive channels is achieved. Dedicated circuit techniques are employed to meet the strict space and power constraints of TEE probes. The ASIC has been fabricated in a standard 0.18-μm CMOS process and consumes only 0.44 mW/channel. The prototype has been acoustically characterized in a water tank. The ASIC allows the array to be presteered across ±37° while achieving an overall dynamic range of 77 dB. Both the measured characteristics of the individual transducer elements and the performance of the ASIC are in good agreement with expectations, demonstrating the effectiveness of the proposed techniques.

  18. Teledyne H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG Noise Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the near-infrared detector system noise generator (NG) that we wrote for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec). NG simulates many important noise components including; (1) white "read noise", (2) residual bias drifts, (3) pink 1/f noise, (4) alternating column noise, and (5) picture frame noise. By adjusting the input parameters, NG can simulate noise for Teledyne's H1RG, H2RG, and H4RG detectors with and without Teledyne's SIDECAR ASIC IR array controller. NG can be used as a starting point for simulating astronomical scenes by adding dark current, scattered light, and astronomical sources into the results from NG. NG is written in Python-3.4.

  19. ASIC1a Deficient Mice Show Unaltered Neurodegeneration in the Subacute MPTP Model of Parkinson Disease.

    PubMed

    Komnig, Daniel; Imgrund, Silke; Reich, Arno; Gründer, Stefan; Falkenburger, Björn H

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation contributes to the death of dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson disease and can be accompanied by acidification of extracellular pH, which may activate acid-sensing ion channels (ASIC). Accordingly, amiloride, a non-selective inhibitor of ASIC, was protective in an acute 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of Parkinson disease. To complement these findings we determined MPTP toxicity in mice deficient for ASIC1a, the most common ASIC isoform in neurons. MPTP was applied i.p. in doses of 30 mg per kg on five consecutive days. We determined the number of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, assayed by stereological counting 14 days after the last MPTP injection, the number of Nissl positive neurons in the substantia nigra, and the concentration of catecholamines in the striatum. There was no difference between ASIC1a-deficient mice and wildtype controls. We are therefore not able to confirm that ASIC1a are involved in MPTP toxicity. The difference might relate to the subacute MPTP model we used, which more closely resembles the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, or to further targets of amiloride.

  20. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bertulani, Carlos A.

    2016-01-12

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japanmore » and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are required to extract the information from the experiments that is needed to determine the stellar reaction rates. The tools developed through this part of the work will be made freely available for general use.« less

  1. Characterization of low-mass deformable mirrors and ASIC drivers for high-contrast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia Prada, Camilo; Yao, Li; Wu, Yuqian; Roberts, Lewis C.; Shelton, Chris; Wu, Xingtao

    2017-09-01

    The development of compact, high performance Deformable Mirrors (DMs) is one of the most important technological challenges for high-contrast imaging on space missions. Microscale Inc. has fabricated and characterized piezoelectric stack actuator deformable mirrors (PZT-DMs) and Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) drivers for direct integration. The DM-ASIC system is designed to eliminate almost all cables, enabling a very compact optical system with low mass and low power consumption. We report on the optical tests used to evaluate the performance of the DM and ASIC units. We also compare the results to the requirements for space-based high-contrast imaging of exoplanets.

  2. Trigger readout electronics upgrade for the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkespiler, B.

    2017-09-01

    The upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) scheduled for the 2019-2020 shut-down period, referred to as Phase-I upgrade, will increase the instantaneous luminosity to about three times the design value. Since the current ATLAS trigger system does not allow sufficient increase of the trigger rate, an improvement of the trigger system is required. The Liquid Argon (LAr) Calorimeter read-out will therefore be modified to deliver digital trigger signals with a higher spatial granularity in order to improve the identification efficiencies of electrons, photons, tau, jets and missing energy, at high background rejection rates at the Level-1 trigger. The new trigger signals will be arranged in 34000 so-called Super Cells which achieves 5-10 times better granularity than the trigger towers currently used and allows an improved background rejection. The readout of the trigger signals will process the signal of the Super Cells at every LHC bunch-crossing at 12-bit precision and a frequency of 40 MHz. The data will be transmitted to the Back End using a custom serializer and optical converter and 5.12 Gb/s optical links. In order to verify the full functionality of the future Liquid Argon trigger system, a demonstrator set-up has been installed on the ATLAS detector and is operated in parallel to the regular ATLAS data taking during the LHC Run-2 in 2015 and 2016. Noise level and linearity on the energy measurement have been verified to be within our requirements. In addition, we have collected data from 13 TeV proton collisions during the LHC 2015 and 2016 runs, and have observed real pulses from the detector through the demonstrator system. The talk will give an overview of the Phase-I Upgrade of the ATLAS Liquid Argon Calorimeter readout and present the custom developed hardware including their role in real-time data processing and fast data transfer. This contribution will also report on the performance of the newly developed ASICs including their radiation tolerance

  3. Effects of high-energy particle showers on the embedded front-end electronics of an electromagnetic calorimeter for a future lepton collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adloff, C.; Francis, K.; Repond, J.; Smith, J.; Trojand, D.; Xia, L.; Baldolemar, E.; Li, J.; Park, S. T.; Sosebee, M.; White, A. P.; Yu, J.; Mikami, Y.; Watson, N. K.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Thomson, M. A.; Ward, D. R.; Yan, W.; Benchekroun, D.; Hoummada, A.; Khoulaki, Y.; Benyamna, M.; Cârloganu, C.; Fehr, F.; Gay, P.; Manen, S.; Royer, L.; Blazey, G. C.; Dyshkant, A.; Zutshi, V.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Morin, L.; Cornett, U.; David, D.; Fabbri, R.; Falley, G.; Gadow, K.; Garutti, E.; Göttlicher, P.; Günter, C.; Karstensen, S.; Krivan, F.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lu, S.; Lutz, B.; Marchesini, I.; Meyer, N.; Morozov, S.; Morgunov, V.; Reinecke, M.; Sefkow, F.; Smirnov, P.; Terwort, M.; Vargas-Trevino, A.; Wattimena, N.; Wendt, O.; Feege, N.; Haller, J.; Richter, S.; Samson, J.; Eckert, P.; Kaplan, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-Ch.; Shen, W.; Stamen, R.; Tadday, A.; Bilki, B.; Norbeck, E.; Onel, Y.; Kawagoe, K.; Uozumi, S.; Dauncey, P. D.; Magnan, A.-M.; Bartsch, V.; Salvatore, F.; Laktineh, I.; Calvo Alamillo, E.; Fouz, M.-C.; Puerta-Pelayo, J.; Frey, A.; Kiesling, C.; Simon, F.; Bonis, J.; Bouquet, B.; Callier, S.; Cornebise, P.; Doublet, Ph.; Dulucq, F.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Fleury, J.; Li, H.; Martin-Chassard, G.; Richard, F.; de La Taille, Ch.; Pöschl, R.; Raux, L.; Seguin-Moreau, N.; Wicek, F.; Anduze, M.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; Jeans, D.; Mora de Freitas, P.; Musat, G.; Reinhard, M.; Ruan, M.; Videau, H.; Marcisovsky, M.; Sicho, P.; Vrba, V.; Zalesak, J.; Belhorma, B.; Ghazlane, H.; Calice Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    Application Specific Integrated Circuits, ASICs, similar to those envisaged for the readout electronics of the central calorimeters of detectors for a future lepton collider have been exposed to high-energy electromagnetic showers. A salient feature of these calorimeters is that the readout electronics will be embedded into the calorimeter layers. In this article it is shown that interactions of shower particles in the volume of the readout electronics do not alter the noise pattern of the ASICs. No signal at or above the MIP level has been observed during the exposure. The upper limit at the 95% confidence level on the frequency of fake signals is smaller than 1×10-5 for a noise threshold of about 60% of a MIP. For ASICs with similar design to those which were tested, it can thus be largely excluded that the embedding of the electronics into the calorimeter layers compromises the performance of the calorimeters.

  4. ASIC For Complex Fixed-Point Arithmetic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petilli, Stephen G.; Grimm, Michael J.; Olson, Erlend M.

    1995-01-01

    Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) performs 24-bit, fixed-point arithmetic operations on arrays of complex-valued input data. High-performance, wide-band arithmetic logic unit (ALU) designed for use in computing fast Fourier transforms (FFTs) and for performing ditigal filtering functions. Other applications include general computations involved in analysis of spectra and digital signal processing.

  5. Data encryption standard ASIC design and development report.

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Pierson, Lyndon George; Witzke, Edward L.

    2003-10-01

    This document describes the design, fabrication, and testing of the SNL Data Encryption Standard (DES) ASIC. This device was fabricated in Sandia's Microelectronics Development Laboratory using 0.6 {micro}m CMOS technology. The SNL DES ASIC was modeled using VHDL, then simulated, and synthesized using Synopsys, Inc. software and finally IC layout was performed using Compass Design Automation's CAE tools. IC testing was performed by Sandia's Microelectronic Validation Department using a HP 82000 computer aided test system. The device is a single integrated circuit, pipelined realization of DES encryption and decryption capable of throughputs greater than 6.5 Gb/s. Several enhancements accommodate ATMmore » or IP network operation and performance scaling. This design is the latest step in the evolution of DES modules.« less

  6. pMUT+ASIC integrated platform for wide range ultrasonic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillak, J.; Saeed, N.; Khazaaleh, S.; Viegas, J.; Yoo, J.

    2017-03-01

    We propose an integrated platform of Aluminum Nitrate (AlN) based Piezoelectric Micromachined Ultrasonic Transducer (pMUT) phased array with Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) for medical imaging and industrial diagnosis. The ASIC provides wide driving range for frequencies between 100 kHz and 5 MHz and channelscalable, programmable application adaptive transmitting beamformer. The system supports operation in various media, including gasses, liquids and biological tissue. The scan resolution for 5 MHz operation is 68 μm in air. The beamformer covers a test volume from -30° to +30° with a step of 3° and scan depth of 10 cm. The ASIC system features low noise receiver electronics, power saving transmission circuitry, and high-voltage drive of large capacitance transducer (up to 500 pF). Integrated pMUT phased array consists of 4 channels of single-membrane ultrasonic transducer of 400 nm deflection and 20 pF feed-thru capacitance, which produce 15 Pa pressure at 500 μm distance from the surface of the transducers. The active area of the ASIC is (700×1490) μm2, which includes channel scalable TX, 8-channale low noise RX, digital back end with autonomous beamformer and power management unit. The system is battery powered with 3.3V-5V standard supply, representing a truly portable solution for ultrasonic applications. Given the CMOS-compatible fabrication process for the AlN pMUTs, dense, miniaturized arrays are possible. Furthermore the smooth surface of dielectric AlN renders optical quality MEMS surfaces for integration in miniaturized photonic + ultrasound microsystems.

  7. [Evaluation of Image Quality of Readout Segmented EPI with Readout Partial Fourier Technique].

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yuuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyahara, Kanae

    Readout segmented EPI (readout segmentation of long variable echo-trains: RESOLVE) segmented k-space in the readout direction. By using the partial Fourier method in the readout direction, the imaging time was shortened. However, the influence on image quality due to insufficient data sampling is concerned. The setting of the partial Fourier method in the readout direction in each segment was changed. Then, we examined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), and distortion ratio for changes in image quality due to differences in data sampling. As the number of sampling segments decreased, SNR and CNR showed a low value. In addition, the distortion ratio did not change. The image quality of minimum sampling segments is greatly different from full data sampling, and caution is required when using it.

  8. The future of automation for high-volume wafer fabrication and ASIC manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Randall A.; Shott, John D.

    1986-12-01

    A framework is given to analyze the future trends in semiconductor manufacturing automation systems, focusing specifically on the needs of ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit) or custom integrated circuit manufacturing. Advances in technologies such as gate arrays and standard cells now make it significantly easier to obtain system cost and performance advantages by integrating nonstandard functions on silicon. ASICs are attractive to U.S. manufacturers because they place a premium on sophisticated design tools, familiarity with customer needs and applications, and fast turn-around fabrication. These are areas where U.S. manufacturers believe they have an advantage and, consequently, will not suffer from the severe price/manufacturing competition encountered in conventional high-volume semiconductor products. Previously, automation was often considered viable only for high-volume manufacturing, but automation becomes a necessity in the new ASIC environment.

  9. Characterization of the VEGA ASIC coupled to large area position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, R.; Evangelista, Y.; Fuschino, F.; Ahangarianabhari, M.; Macera, D.; Bertuccio, G.; Grassi, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Malcovati, P.; Rachevski, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Andreani, L.; Baldazzi, G.; Del Monte, E.; Favre, Y.; Feroci, M.; Muleri, F.; Rashevskaya, I.; Vacchi, A.; Ficorella, F.; Giacomini, G.; Picciotto, A.; Zuffa, M.

    2014-08-01

    Low-noise, position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) are particularly useful for experiments in which a good energy resolution combined with a large sensitive area is required, as in the case of X-ray astronomy space missions and medical applications. This paper presents the experimental characterization of VEGA, a custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) used as the front-end electronics for XDXL-2, a large-area (30.5 cm2) SDD prototype. The ASICs were integrated on a specifically developed PCB hosting also the detector. Results on the ASIC noise performances, both stand-alone and bonded to the large area SDD, are presented and discussed.

  10. Lignan from Thyme Possesses Inhibitory Effect on ASIC3 Channel Current*

    PubMed Central

    Dubinnyi, Maxim A.; Osmakov, Dmitry I.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Zakaryan, Naira A.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitry A.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    A novel compound was identified in the acidic extract of Thymus armeniacus collected in the Lake Sevan region of Armenia. This compound, named “sevanol,” to our knowledge is the first low molecular weight natural molecule that has a reversible inhibition effect on both the transient and the sustained current of human ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Sevanol completely blocked the transient component (IC50 353 ± 23 μm) and partially (∼45%) inhibited the amplitude of the sustained component (IC50 of 234 ± 53 μm). Other types of acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) channels were intact to sevanol application, except ASIC1a, which showed more than six times less affinity to it as compared with the inhibitory action on the ASIC3 channel. To elucidate the structure of sevanol, the set of NMR spectra in two solvents (d6-DMSO and D2O) was collected, and the complete chemical structure was confirmed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization (LC-ESI+-MS) fragmentation. This compound is a new lignan built up of epiphyllic acid and two isocitryl esters in positions 9 and 10. In vivo administration of sevanol (1–10 mg/kg) significantly reversed thermal hyperalgesia induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection and reduced response to acid in a writhing test. Thus, we assume the probable considerable role of sevanol in known analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of thyme. PMID:22854960

  11. Active counter electrode in a-SiC electrochemical metallization memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, K. A.; Fan, J.; Huang, R.; Zhong, L.; Gowers, R.; Ou, J. Y.; Jiang, L.; De Groot, C. H.

    2017-08-01

    Cu/amorphous-SiC (a-SiC) electrochemical metallization memory cells have been fabricated with two different counter electrode (CE) materials, W and Au, in order to investigate the role of CEs in a non-oxide semiconductor switching matrix. In a positive bipolar regime with Cu filaments forming and rupturing, the CE influences the OFF state resistance and minimum current compliance. Nevertheless, a similarity in SET kinetics is seen for both CEs, which differs from previously published SiO2 memories, confirming that CE effects are dependent on the switching layer material or type. Both a-SiC memories are able to switch in the negative bipolar regime, indicating Au and W filaments. This confirms that CEs can play an active role in a non-oxide semiconducting switching matrix, such as a-SiC. By comparing both Au and W CEs, this work shows that W is superior in terms of a higher R OFF/R ON ratio, along with the ability to switch at lower current compliances making it a favourable material for future low energy applications. With its CMOS compatibility, a-SiC/W is an excellent choice for future resistive memory applications.

  12. New APETx-like peptides from sea anemone Heteractis crispa modulate ASIC1a channels.

    PubMed

    Kalina, Rimma; Gladkikh, Irina; Dmitrenok, Pavel; Chernikov, Oleg; Koshelev, Sergey; Kvetkina, Aleksandra; Kozlov, Sergey; Kozlovskaya, Emma; Monastyrnaya, Margarita

    2018-06-01

    Sea anemones are an abundant source of various biologically active peptides. The hydrophobic 20% ethanol fraction of tropical sea anemone Heteractis crispa was shown to contain at least 159 peptide compounds including neurotoxins, proteinase and α-amylase inhibitors, as well as modulators of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). The three new peptides, π-AnmTX Hcr 1b-2, -3, and -4 (41 aa) (short names Hcr 1b-2, -3, -4), identified by a combination of reversed-phase liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were found to belong to the class 1b sea anemone neurotoxins. The amino acid sequences of these peptides were determined by Edman degradation and tandem mass spectrometry. The percent of identity of Hcr 1b-2, -3, and -4 with well-known ASIC3 inhibitors Hcr 1b-1 from H. crispa and APETx2 from Anthopleura elegantissima is 95-78% and 46-49%, respectively. Electrophysiological experiments on homomeric ASIC channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes establish that these peptides are the first inhibitors of ASIC1a derived from sea anemone venom. The major peptide, Hcr 1b-2, inhibited both rASIC1a (IC 50 4.8 ± 0.3 μM; nH 0.92 ± 0.05) and rASIC3 (IC 50 15.9 ± 1.1 μM; nH 1.0 ± 0.05). The maximum inhibition at saturating peptide concentrations reached 64% and 81%, respectively. In the model of acid-induced muscle pain Hcr 1b-2 was also shown to exhibit an antihyperalgesic effect, significantly reducing of the pain threshold of experimental animals. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A Complete Readout Chain of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter for the HL-LHC: from FATALIC Front-End Electronics to Signal Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkin, Sergey

    2018-01-01

    The ATLAS Collaboration has started a vast programme of upgrades in the context of high-luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) foreseen in 2024. We present here one of the frontend readout options, an ASIC called FATALIC, proposed for the high-luminosity phase LHC upgrade of the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter. Based on a 130 nm CMOS technology, FATALIC performs the complete signal processing, including amplification, shaping and digitisation. We describe the full characterisation of FATALIC and also the Optimal Filtering signal reconstruction method adapted to fully exploit the FATALIC three-range layout. Additionally we present the resolution performance of the whole chain measured using the charge injection system designed for calibration. Finally we discuss the results of the signal reconstruction used on real data collected during a preliminary beam test at CERN.

  14. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Dragone, A; /SLAC; Pratte, J.F.

    An ASIC for the readout of signals from X-ray Active Matrix Pixel Sensor (XAMPS) detectors to be used at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is presented. The X-ray Pump Probe (XPP) instrument, for which the ASIC has been designed, requires a large input dynamic range on the order of 104 photons at 8 keV with a resolution of half a photon FWHM. Due to the size of the pixel and the length of the readout line, large input capacitance is expected, leading to stringent requirement on the noise optimization. Furthermore, the large number of pixels needed for a goodmore » position resolution and the fixed LCLS beam period impose limitations on the time available for the single pixel readout. Considering the periodic nature of the LCLS beam, the ASIC developed for this application is a time-variant system providing low-noise charge integration, filtering and correlated double sampling. In order to cope with the large input dynamic range a charge pump scheme implementing a zero-balance measurement method has been introduced. It provides an on chip 3-bit coarse digital conversion of the integrated charge. The residual charge is sampled using correlated double sampling into analog memory and measured with the required resolution. The first 64 channel prototype of the ASIC has been fabricated in TSMC CMOS 0.25 {micro}m technology. In this paper, the ASIC architecture and performances are presented.« less

  15. A Muscle Fibre Conduction Velocity Tracking ASIC for Local Fatigue Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Koutsos, Ermis; Cretu, Vlad; Georgiou, Pantelis

    2016-12-01

    Electromyography analysis can provide information about a muscle's fatigue state by estimating Muscle Fibre Conduction Velocity (MFCV), a measure of the travelling speed of Motor Unit Action Potentials (MUAPs) in muscle tissue. MFCV better represents the physical manifestations of muscle fatigue, compared to the progressive compression of the myoelectic Power Spectral Density, hence it is more suitable for a muscle fatigue tracking system. This paper presents a novel algorithm for the estimation of MFCV using single threshold bit-stream conversion and a dedicated application-specified integrated circuit (ASIC) for its implementation, suitable for a compact, wearable and easy to use muscle fatigue monitor. The presented ASIC is implemented in a commercially available AMS 0.35 [Formula: see text] CMOS technology and utilizes a bit-stream cross-correlator that estimates the conduction velocity of the myoelectric signal in real time. A test group of 20 subjects was used to evaluate the performance of the developed ASIC, achieving good accuracy with an error of only 3.2% compared to Matlab.

  16. Design of a Multi-Channel Front-End Readout ASIC With Low Noise and Large Dynamic Input Range for APD-Based PET Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X. C.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Ollivier-Henry, N.; Brasse, D.; Hu, Y.

    2010-06-01

    This paper represents the design of a low-noise, wide band multi-channel readout integrated circuit (IC) used as front end readout electronics of avalanche photo diodes (APD) dedicated to a small animal positron emission tomography (PET) system. The first ten-channel prototype chip (APD-Chip) of the analog parts has been designed and fabricated in a 0.35 μm CMOS process. Every channel of the APD_Chip includes a charge-sensitive preamplifier (CSA), a CR-(RC)2 shaper, and an analog buffer. In a channel, the CSA reads charge signals (10 bits dynamic range) from an APD array having 10 pF of capacitance per pixel. A linearized degenerated differential pair which ensures high linearity in all dynamical range is used as the high feedback resistor for preventing pile up of signals. The designed CSA has the capability of compensating automatically up to 200 nA leakage current from the detector. The CR-(RC)2 shaper filters and shapes the output signal of the CSA. An equivalent input noise charge obtained from test is 275 e -+ 10 e-/pF. In this paper the prototype is presented for both its theoretical analysis and its test results.

  17. Genetic variation in the ASIC3 gene influences blood pressure levels in Taiwanese.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yu-Lin; Hsu, Lung-An; Wu, Semon; Teng, Ming-Sheng; Chang, Hsien-Hsun; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Cheng, Ching-Feng

    2008-11-01

    The acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) is a ligand-gated cation channel activated by extracellular protons, and is associated with an exercise-induced pressor reflex and possibly autonomic imbalance. To test the statistical association between genetic polymorphisms of the ASIC3 gene and blood pressure (BP) variations in Taiwanese, 551 unrelated individuals (286 men and 265 women) were recruited from a routine health examination. The participants had no prior history of cardiovascular disease or medication use for hypertension. Six ASIC3 gene polymorphisms were genotyped; three were polymorphic, and only the rs2288646 polymorphism was associated with variations in BP among participants. Significantly higher systolic, diastolic, and mean BP were observed in participants carrying the rs2288646-A allele (P=0.034, 0.023, and 0.010, respectively). Significantly higher frequencies of the rs2288646-A-containing genotype were observed in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subgroups (P for trend=0.026); and in those with higher systolic and diastolic BPs (P for trend=0.005 and P for trend=0.002, respectively). The association between the rs2288646-A allele and BP persisted even after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and other metabolic factors. When a second independent group of 403 individuals was combined with the first group of 551 (n=954), a significantly higher frequency of the rs2288646-A-containing genotype was observed in participants with hypertension (9.7 vs. 4.0%, P=0.003). Our data showed an independent association between an ASIC3 genetic polymorphism and BP variations in Taiwanese. These results suggest that the ASIC3 may be involved in BP regulation.

  18. Resveratrol attenuates bone cancer pain through regulating the expression levels of ASIC3 and activating cell autophagy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haili; Ding, Jieqiong; Wu, Ji; Liu, Tingting; Liang, Jing; Tang, Qiong; Jiao, Ming

    2017-11-01

    Bone cancer pain (BCP) is one of the most common pains in patients with malignant cancers. The mechanism underlying BCP is largely unknown. Our previous studies and the increasing evidence both have shown that acid-sensing ion channels 3 (ASIC3) is an important protein in the pathological pain state in some pain models. We hypothesized that the expression change of ASIC3 might be one of the factors related to BCP. In this study, we established the BCP model through intrathecally injecting rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (MRMT-1) into the left tibia of Sprague-Dawley female rats, and found that the BCP rats showed bone destruction, increased mechanical pain sensitivities and up-regulated ASIC3 protein expression levels in L4-L6 dorsal root ganglion. Then, resveratrol, which was intraperitoneally injected into the BCP rats on post-operative Day 21, dose-dependently increased the paw withdrawal threshold of BCP rats, reversed the pain behavior, and had an antinociceptive effect on BCP rats. In ASIC3-transfected SH-SY5Y cells, the ASIC3 protein expression levels were regulated by resveratrol in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Meanwhile, resveratrol also had an antinociceptive effect in ASIC3-mediated pain rat model. Furthermore, resveratrol also enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPK, SIRT1, and LC3-II levels in ASIC3-transfected SH-SY5Y cells, indicating that resveratrol could activate the AMPK-SIRT1-autophagy signal pathway in ASIC3-transfected SH-SY5Y cells. In BCP rats, SIRT1 and LC3-II were also down-regulated. These findings provide new evidence for the use of resveratrol as a therapeutic treatment during BCP states. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Breakup of loosely bound nuclei at intermediate energies for nuclear astrophysics and the development of a position sensitive microstrip detector system and its readout electronics using ASICs technologies

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Tribble, Robert E.; Sobotka, Lee G.; Blackmon, Jeff C.

    2015-12-29

    The work performed under this grant has led to the development of a detection system that will be used to measure reaction rates for proton or neutron capture reactions at stellar energies on radioactive ions far from stability. The reaction rates are needed to better understand the physics of nucleosynthesis in explosive stellar processes such as supernovae and x-ray burst events. The radioactive ions will be produced at the Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (RIBF) at RIKEN near Tokyo, Japan. During the course of this work, the group involved in this project has expanded by several institutions in Europe and Japanmore » and now involves collaborators from the U.S., Japan, Hungary, Romania, Germany, Spain, Italy, China, and South Korea. As part of the project, a novel design based on large-area silicon detectors has been built and tested and the performance characterized in a series of tests using particle beams with a variety of atomic numbers at the Cyclotron Institute of Texas A&M University and the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba facility (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan. The work has involved mechanical construction of a special purpose vacuum chamber, with a precision mounting system for the silicon detectors, development of a new ASICs readout system that has applications with a wide variety of silicon detector systems, and the development of a data acquisition system that is integrated into the computer system being used at RIBF. The parts noted above that are needed to carry out the research program are completed and ready for installation. Several approved experiments that will use this system will be carried out in the near future. The experimental work has been delayed due to a large increase in the cost and availability of electrical power for RIBF that occurred following the massive earthquake and tsunami that hit Japan in the spring of 2011. Another component of the research carried out with this grant involved developing the theoretical tools that are

  20. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    De Geronimo, G.; Fried, J.; Rehak, P.

    We present an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for high-resolution x-ray spectrometers (XRS). The ASIC reads out signals from pixelated silicon drift detectors (SDDs). The pixel does not have an integrated field effect transistor (FET); rather, readout is accomplished by wire-bonding the anodes to the inputs of the ASIC. The ASIC dissipates 32 mW, and offers 16 channels of low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with baseline stabilization, discrimination, a novel pile-up rejector, and peak detection with an analog memory. The readout is sparse and based on custom low-power tristatable low-voltage differential signaling (LPT-LVDS). A unit of 64 SDD pixels, read outmore » by four ASICs, covers an area of 12.8 cm{sup 2} and dissipates with the sensor biased about 15 mW/cm{sup 2}. As a tile-based system, the 64-pixel units cover a large detection area. Our preliminary measurements at -44 C show a FWHM of 145 eV at the 5.9 keV peak of a {sup 55}Fe source, and less than 80 eV on a test-pulse line at 200 eV.« less

  1. The instrument control software package for the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Chad F.; Robertson, Paul; Stefansson, Gudmundur Kari; Monson, Andrew; Anderson, Tyler; Halverson, Samuel; Hearty, Frederick; Levi, Eric; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Nelson, Matthew; Ramsey, Larry; Roy, Arpita; Schwab, Christian; Shetrone, Matthew; Terrien, Ryan

    2016-08-01

    We describe the Instrument Control Software (ICS) package that we have built for The Habitable-Zone Planet Finder (HPF) spectrometer. The ICS controls and monitors instrument subsystems, facilitates communication with the Hobby-Eberly Telescope facility, and provides user interfaces for observers and telescope operators. The backend is built around the asynchronous network software stack provided by the Python Twisted engine, and is linked to a suite of custom hardware communication protocols. This backend is accessed through Python-based command-line and PyQt graphical frontends. In this paper we describe several of the customized subsystem communication protocols that provide access to and help maintain the hardware systems that comprise HPF, and show how asynchronous communication benefits the numerous hardware components. We also discuss our Detector Control Subsystem, built as a set of custom Python wrappers around a C-library that provides native Linux access to the SIDECAR ASIC and Hawaii-2RG detector system used by HPF. HPF will be one of the first astronomical instruments on sky to utilize this native Linux capability through the SIDECAR Acquisition Module (SAM) electronics. The ICS we have created is very flexible, and we are adapting it for NEID, NASA's Extreme Precision Doppler Spectrometer for the WIYN telescope; we will describe this adaptation, and describe the potential for use in other astronomical instruments.

  2. The function and regulation of acid‐sensing ion channels (ASICs) and the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC): IUPHAR Review 19

    PubMed Central

    Boscardin, Emilie; Alijevic, Omar; Hummler, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Acid‐sensing ion channels (ASICs) and the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) are both members of the ENaC/degenerin family of amiloride‐sensitive Na+ channels. ASICs act as proton sensors in the nervous system where they contribute, besides other roles, to fear behaviour, learning and pain sensation. ENaC mediates Na+ reabsorption across epithelia of the distal kidney and colon and of the airways. ENaC is a clinically used drug target in the context of hypertension and cystic fibrosis, while ASIC is an interesting potential target. Following a brief introduction, here we will review selected aspects of ASIC and ENaC function. We discuss the origin and nature of pH changes in the brain and the involvement of ASICs in synaptic signalling. We expose how in the peripheral nervous system, ASICs cover together with other ion channels a wide pH range as proton sensors. We introduce the mechanisms of aldosterone‐dependent ENaC regulation and the evidence for an aldosterone‐independent control of ENaC activity, such as regulation by dietary K+. We then provide an overview of the regulation of ENaC by proteases, a topic of increasing interest over the past few years. In spite of the profound differences in the physiological and pathological roles of ASICs and ENaC, these channels share many basic functional and structural properties. It is likely that further research will identify physiological contexts in which ASICs and ENaC have similar or overlapping roles. PMID:27278329

  3. Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) mediates trafficking of acid sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) via PSD-95.

    PubMed

    Excoffon, Katherine J D A; Kolawole, Abimbola O; Kusama, Nobuyoshi; Gansemer, Nicholas D; Sharma, Priyanka; Hruska-Hageman, Alesia M; Petroff, Elena; Benson, Christopher J

    2012-08-17

    We have previously shown that the Coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) can interact with post-synaptic density 95 (PSD-95) and localize PSD-95 to cell-cell junctions. We have also shown that activity of the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC3), a H(+)-gated cation channel that plays a role in mechanosensation and pain signaling, is negatively modulated by PSD-95 through a PDZ-based interaction. We asked whether CAR and ASIC3 simultaneously interact with PSD-95, and if so, whether co-expression of these proteins alters their cellular distribution and localization. Results indicate that CAR and ASIC3 co-immunoprecipitate only when co-expressed with PSD-95. CAR also brings both PSD-95 and ASIC3 to the junctions of heterologous cells. Moreover, CAR rescues PSD-95-mediated inhibition of ASIC3 currents. These data suggest that, in addition to activity as a viral receptor and adhesion molecule, CAR can play a role in trafficking proteins, including ion channels, in a PDZ-based scaffolding complex. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. TOFPET2: a high-performance ASIC for time and amplitude measurements of SiPM signals in time-of-flight applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Francesco, A.; Bugalho, R.; Oliveira, L.; Pacher, L.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M.; Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Varela, J.

    2016-03-01

    We present a readout and digitization ASIC featuring low-noise and low-power for time-of flight (TOF) applications using SiPMs. The circuit is designed in standard CMOS 110 nm technology, has 64 independent channels and is optimized for time-of-flight measurement in Positron Emission Tomography (TOF-PET). The input amplifier is a low impedance current conveyor based on a regulated common-gate topology. Each channel has quad-buffered analogue interpolation TDCs (time binning 20 ps) and charge integration ADCs with linear response at full scale (1500 pC). The signal amplitude can also be derived from the measurement of time-over-threshold (ToT). Simulation results show that for a single photo-electron signal with charge 200 (550) fC generated by a SiPM with 320 pF capacitance the circuit has 24 (30) dB SNR, 75(39) ps r.m.s. resolution, and 4(8) mW power consumption. The event rate is 600 kHz per channel, with up to 2 MHz dark counts rejection.

  5. On-board data processing for the near infrared spectrograph and photometer instrument (NISP) of the EUCLID mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonoli, Carlotta; Balestra, Andrea; Bortoletto, Favio; D'Alessandro, Maurizio; Farinelli, Ruben; Medinaceli, Eduardo; Stephen, John; Borsato, Enrico; Dusini, Stefano; Laudisio, Fulvio; Sirignano, Chiara; Ventura, Sandro; Auricchio, Natalia; Corcione, Leonardo; Franceschi, Enrico; Ligori, Sebastiano; Morgante, Gianluca; Patrizii, Laura; Sirri, Gabriele; Trifoglio, Massimo; Valenziano, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The Near Infrared Spectrograph and Photometer (NISP) is one of the two instruments on board the EUCLID mission now under implementation phase; VIS, the Visible Imager is the second instrument working on the same shared optical beam. The NISP focal plane is based on a detector mosaic deploying 16x, 2048x2048 pixels^2 HAWAII-II HgCdTe detectors, now in advanced delivery phase from Teledyne Imaging Scientific (TIS), and will provide NIR imaging in three bands (Y, J, H) plus slit-less spectroscopy in the range 0.9÷2.0 micron. All the NISP observational modes will be supported by different parametrization of the classic multi-accumulation IR detector readout mode covering the specific needs for spectroscopic, photometric and calibration exposures. Due to the large number of deployed detectors and to the limited satellite telemetry available to ground, a consistent part of the data processing, conventionally performed off-line, will be accomplished on board, in parallel with the flow of data acquisitions. This has led to the development of a specific on-board, HW/SW, data processing pipeline, and to the design of computationally performing control electronics, suited to cope with the time constraints of the NISP acquisition sequences during the sky survey. In this paper we present the architecture of the NISP on-board processing system, directly interfaced to the SIDECAR ASICs system managing the detector focal plane, and the implementation of the on-board pipe-line allowing all the basic operations of input frame averaging, final frame interpolation and data-volume compression before ground down-link.

  6. Enhanced maximal exercise capacity, vasodilation to electrical muscle contraction, and hind limb vascular density in ASIC1a null mice.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Heather A; Xiang, Lusha; Chade, Alejandro R; Hester, Robert

    2017-08-01

    Acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) proteins form extracellular proton-gated, cation-selective channels in neurons and vascular smooth muscle cells and are proposed to act as extracellular proton sensors. However, their importance to vascular responses under conditions associated with extracellular acidosis, such as strenuous exercise, is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if one ASIC protein, ASIC1a, contributes to extracellular proton-gated vascular responses and exercise tolerance. To determine if ASIC1a contributes to exercise tolerance, we determined peak oxygen (O 2 ) uptake in conscious ASIC1a -/- mice during exhaustive treadmill running. Loss of ASIC1a was associated with a greater peak running speed (60 ± 2 vs. 53 ± 3 m·min -1 , P  = 0.049) and peak oxygen (O 2 ) uptake during exhaustive treadmill running (9563 ± 120 vs. 8836 ± 276 mL·kg -1 ·h -1 , n  = 6-7, P  = 0.0082). There were no differences in absolute or relative lean body mass, as determined by EchoMRI. To determine if ASIC1a contributes to vascular responses during muscle contraction, we measured femoral vascular conductance (FVC) during a stepwise electrical stimulation (0.5-5.0 Hz at 3 V for 60 sec) of the left major hind limb muscles. FVC increased to a greater extent in ASIC1a -/- versus ASIC1a +/+ mice (0.44 ± 0.03 vs. 0.30 ± 0.04 mL·min -1 ·100 g hind limb mass -1 · mmHg -1 , n  = 5 each, P  = 0.0009). Vasodilation following local application of external protons in the spinotrapezius muscle increased the duration, but not the magnitude, of the vasodilatory response in ASIC1a -/- mice. Finally, we examined hind limb vascular density using micro-CT and found increased density of 0-80  μ m vessels ( P  <   0.05). Our findings suggest an increased vascular density and an enhanced vasodilatory response to local protons, to a lesser degree, may contribute to the enhanced vascular conductance and increased peak exercise capacity

  7. Readout for phase qubits without Josephson junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Matthias; Kumar, Shwetank; DiVincenzo, David; Keefe, George; Ketchen, Mark; Rothwell, Mary Beth; Rozen, Jim

    2010-03-01

    We present a readout scheme for phase qubits which eliminates the read-out superconducting quantum interference device so that the entire qubit and measurement circuitry only require a single Josephson junction. Our scheme capacitively couples the phase qubit directly to a transmission line and detects its state after the measurement pulse by determining a frequency shift observable in the forward scattering parameter of the readout microwaves. This readout is extendable to multiple phase qubits coupled to a common readout line and can in principle be used for other flux biased qubits having two quasistable readout configurations.

  8. Small Microprocessor for ASIC or FPGA Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleyner, Igor; Katz, Richard; Blair-Smith, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    A small microprocessor, suitable for use in applications in which high reliability is required, was designed to be implemented in either an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) or a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The design is based on commercial microprocessor architecture, making it possible to use available software development tools and thereby to implement the microprocessor at relatively low cost. The design features enhancements, including trapping during execution of illegal instructions. The internal structure of the design yields relatively high performance, with a significant decrease, relative to other microprocessors that perform the same functions, in the number of microcycles needed to execute macroinstructions. The problem meant to be solved in designing this microprocessor was to provide a modest level of computational capability in a general-purpose processor while adding as little as possible to the power demand, size, and weight of a system into which the microprocessor would be incorporated. As designed, this microprocessor consumes very little power and occupies only a small portion of a typical modern ASIC or FPGA. The microprocessor operates at a rate of about 4 million instructions per second with clock frequency of 20 MHz.

  9. The IBL readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dopke, J.; Falchieri, D.; Flick, T.; Gabrielli, A.; Kugel, A.; Mättig, P.; Morettini, P.; Polini, A.; Schroer, N.

    2011-01-01

    The first upgrade for the ATLAS Pixel Detector will be an additional layer, which is called IBL (Insertable B-Layer). To readout this new layer, built from new electronics, an update of the readout electronics is necessary. The aim is to develop a system which is capable to read out at a higher bandwidth, but also compatible with the existing system to be integrated into it. This paper describes the necessary development to reach a new readout system, concentrating on the requirements of a newly designed Back of Crate card as the optical interface in the counting room.

  10. Performance study of SKIROC2/A ASIC for ILD Si-W ECAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suehara, T.; Sekiya, I.; Callier, S.; Balagura, V.; Boudry, V.; Brient, J.-C.; de la Taille, C.; Kawagoe, K.; Irles, A.; Magniette, F.; Nanni, J.; Pöschl, R.; Yoshioka, T.

    2018-03-01

    The ILD Si-W ECAL is a sampling calorimeter with tungsten absorber and highly segmented silicon layers for the International Large Detector (ILD), one of the two detector concepts for the International Linear Collider. SKIROC2 is an ASIC for the ILD Si-W ECAL. To investigate the issues found in prototype detectors, we prepared dedicated ASIC evaluation boards with either BGA sockets or directly soldered SKIROC2. We report a performance study with the evaluation boards, including signal-to-noise ratio and TDC performance with comparing SKIROC2 and an updated version, SKIROC2A.

  11. Cryogenic and radiation hard ASIC design for large format NIR/SWIR detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Dupont, Benoit; Dierickx, Bart; Müller, Eric; Verbruggen, Geert; Gielis, Stijn; Valvekens, Ramses

    2014-10-01

    An ASIC is developed to control and data quantization for large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays. Both cryogenic and space radiation environment issue are considered during the design. Therefore it can be integrated in the cryogenic chamber, which reduces significantly the vast amount of long wires going in and out the cryogenic chamber, i.e. benefits EMI and noise concerns, as well as the power consumption of cooling system and interfacing circuits. In this paper, we will describe the development of this prototype ASIC for image sensor driving and signal processing as well as the testing in both room and cryogenic temperature.

  12. Knockout of the ASIC2 channel in mice does not impair cutaneous mechanosensation, visceral mechanonociception and hearing

    PubMed Central

    Roza, Carolina; Puel, Jean-Luc; Kress, Michaela; Baron, Anne; Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel; Waldmann, Rainer

    2004-01-01

    Mechanosensitive cation channels are thought to be crucial for different aspects of mechanoperception, such as hearing and touch sensation. In the nematode C. elegans, the degenerins MEC-4 and MEC-10 are involved in mechanosensation and were proposed to form mechanosensitive cation channels. Mammalian degenerin homologues, the H+-gated ASIC channels, are expressed in sensory neurones and are therefore interesting candidates for mammalian mechanosensors. We investigated the effect of an ASIC2 gene knockout in mice on hearing and on cutaneous mechanosensation and visceral mechanonociception. However, our data do not support a role of ASIC2 in those facets of mechanoperception. PMID:15169849

  13. Detector Arrays for the James Webb Space Telescope Near-Infrared Spectrograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauscher, Bernard J.; Alexander, David; Brambora, Clifford K.; Derro, Rebecca; Engler, Chuck; Fox, Ori; Garrison, Matthew B.; Henegar, Greg; Hill, robert J.; Johnson, Thomas; hide

    2007-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope's (JWST) Near Infrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) incorporates two 5 micron cutoff (lambda(sub co) = 5 microns) 2048x2048 pixel Teledyne HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG sensor chip assemblies. These detector arrays, and the two Teledyne SIDECAR application specific integrated circuits that control them, are operated in space at T approx. 37 K. In this article, we provide a brief introduction to NIRSpec, its detector subsystem (DS), detector readout in the space radiation environment, and present a snapshot of the developmental status of the NIRSpec DS as integration and testing of the engineering test unit begins.

  14. Design of a video capsule endoscopy system with low-power ASIC for monitoring gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Yan, Guozheng; Zhu, Bingquan; Lu, Li

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, wireless capsule endoscopy (WCE) has been a state-of-the-art tool to examine disorders of the human gastrointestinal tract painlessly. However, system miniaturization, enhancement of the image-data transfer rate and power consumption reduction for the capsule are still key challenges. In this paper, a video capsule endoscopy system with a low-power controlling and processing application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is designed and fabricated. In the design, these challenges are resolved by employing a microimage sensor, a novel radio frequency transmitter with an on-off keying modulation rate of 20 Mbps, and an ASIC structure that includes a clock management module, a power-efficient image compression module and a power management unit. An ASIC-based prototype capsule, which measures Φ11 mm × 25 mm, has been developed here. Test results show that the designed ASIC consumes much less power than most of the other WCE systems and that its total power consumption per frame is the least. The image compression module can realize high near-lossless compression rate (3.69) and high image quality (46.2 dB). The proposed system supports multi-spectral imaging, including white light imaging and autofluorescence imaging, at a maximum frame rate of 24 fps and with a resolution of 400 × 400. Tests and in vivo trials in pigs have proved the feasibility of the entire system, but further improvements in capsule control and compression performance inside the ASIC are needed in the future.

  15. An update on the development of IO:I: a NIR imager for the Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnsley, R. M.; Steele, I. A.; Bates, S. D.; Mottram, C. J.

    2014-07-01

    IO:I is a new instrument in development for the Liverpool Telescope, extending current imaging capabilities beyond the optical and into the near infrared. Cost has been minimised by use of a previously decommissioned instrument's dewar as the base for a prototype, and retrofitting it with a 1.7μm cutoff Hawaii-2RG HgCdTe detector, SIDECAR ASIC controller and JADE2 interface card. Development of this prototype is nearing completion and will be operational mid 2014. In this paper, the mechanical, electronic and cryogenic facets of the dewar retrofitting process will be discussed together with a description of the instrument control system software/hardware setup. Finally, a brief overview of some initial testing undertaken on the engineering grade array will be given, along with future commissioning plans for the instrument.

  16. A design of a valid signal selecting and position decoding ASIC for PET using silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.; Lim, K.-t.; Kim, H.; Yeom, J.-y.; Kim, J.; Lee, C.; Choi, H.; Cho, G.

    2017-01-01

    In most cases, a PET system has numerous electrical components and channel circuits and thus it would rather be a bulky product. Also, most existing systems receive analog signals from detectors which make them vulnerable to signal distortions. For these reasons, channel reduction techniques are important. In this work, an ASIC for PET module is being proposed. An ASIC chip for 16 PET detector channels, VSSPDC, has been designed and simulated. The main function of the chip is 16-to-1 channel reduction, i.e., finding the position of only the valid signals, signal timing, and magnitudes in all 16 channels at every recorded event. The ASIC comprises four of 4-channel modules and a 2nd 4-to-1 router. A single channel module comprises a transimpedance amplifier for the silicon photomultipliers, dual comparators with high and low level references, and a logic circuitry. While the high level reference was used to test the validity of the signal, the low level reference was used for the timing. The 1-channel module of the ASIC produced an energy pulse by time-over-threshold method and it also produced a time pulse with a fixed delayed time. Since the ASIC chip outputs only a few digital pulses and does not require an external clock, it has an advantage over noise properties. The cadence simulation showed the good performance of the chip as designed.

  17. Evidence that activation of ASIC1a by acidosis increases osteoclast migration and adhesion by modulating integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Ye, J-X; Xu, M-H; Zhao, M-D; Yuan, F-L

    2017-07-01

    Activated acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is involved in acid-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating activation of the transcription factor NFATc1. These results indicated that ASIC1a activation by extracellular acid may cause osteoclast migration and adhesion through Ca 2+ -dependent integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway. Osteoclast adhesion and migration are responsible for osteoporotic bone loss. Acidic conditions promote osteoclastogenesis. ASIC1a in osteoclasts is associated with acid-induced osteoclastogenesis through modulating transcription factor NFATc1 activation. However, the influence and the detailed mechanism of ASIC1a in regulating osteoclast adhesion and migration, in response to extracellular acid, are not well characterized. In this study, knockdown of ASIC1a was achieved in bone marrow macrophage cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The adhesion and migration abilities of osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts were determined by adhesion and migration assays, in vitro. Bone resorption was performed to measure osteoclast function. Cytoskeletal changes were assessed by F-actin ring formation. αvβ3 integrin expression in osteoclasts was measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to measure alterations in integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway. Our results showed that blockade of ASIC1a using ASIC1a-siRNA inhibited acid-induced osteoclast precursor migration and adhesion, as well as osteoclast adhesion and bone resorption; we also demonstrated that inhibition of ASIC1a decreased the cell surface αvβ3 integrin and β3 protein expression. Moreover, blocking of ASIC1a inhibited acidosis-induced actin ring formation and reduced Pyk2 and Src phosphorylation in osteoclasts and also inhibited the acid-induced association of the αvβ3 integrin/Src/Pyk2. Together, these results highlight a key functional role of ASIC1a/αvβ3 integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway in migration and adhesion of osteoclasts.

  18. Fast, high-fidelity readout of multiple qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronn, N. T.; Abdo, B.; Inoue, K.; Lekuch, S.; Córcoles, A. D.; Hertzberg, J. B.; Takita, M.; Bishop, L. S.; Gambetta, J. M.; Chow, J. M.

    2017-05-01

    Quantum computing requires a delicate balance between coupling quantum systems to external instruments for control and readout, while providing enough isolation from sources of decoherence. Circuit quantum electrodynamics has been a successful method for protecting superconducting qubits, while maintaining the ability to perform readout [1, 2]. Here, we discuss improvements to this method that allow for fast, high-fidelity readout. Specifically, the integration of a Purcell filter, which allows us to increase the resonator bandwidth for fast readout, the incorporation of a Josephson parametric converter, which enables us to perform high-fidelity readout by amplifying the readout signal while adding the minimum amount of noise required by quantum mechanics, and custom control electronics, which provide us with the capability of fast decision and control.

  19. CLARO: an ASIC for high rate single photon counting with multi-anode photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baszczyk, M.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dorosz, P.; Fiorini, M.; Gotti, C.; Kucewicz, W.; Malaguti, R.; Pessina, G.

    2017-08-01

    The CLARO is a radiation-hard 8-channel ASIC designed for single photon counting with multi-anode photomultiplier tubes. Each channel outputs a digital pulse when the input signal from the photomultiplier crosses a configurable threshold. The fast return to baseline, typically within 25 ns, and below 50 ns in all conditions, allows to count up to 107 hits/s on each channel, with a power consumption of about 1 mW per channel. The ASIC presented here is a much improved version of the first 4-channel prototype. The threshold can be precisely set in a wide range, between 30 ke- (5 fC) and 16 Me- (2.6 pC). The noise of the amplifier with a 10 pF input capacitance is 3.5 ke- (0.6 fC) RMS. All settings are stored in a 128-bit configuration and status register, protected against soft errors with triple modular redundancy. The paper describes the design of the ASIC at transistor-level, and demonstrates its performance on the test bench.

  20. High Rate Digital Demodulator ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghuman, Parminder; Sheikh, Salman; Koubek, Steve; Hoy, Scott; Gray, Andrew

    1998-01-01

    The architecture of High Rate (600 Mega-bits per second) Digital Demodulator (HRDD) ASIC capable of demodulating BPSK and QPSK modulated data is presented in this paper. The advantages of all-digital processing include increased flexibility and reliability with reduced reproduction costs. Conventional serial digital processing would require high processing rates necessitating a hardware implementation in other than CMOS technology such as Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) which has high cost and power requirements. It is more desirable to use CMOS technology with its lower power requirements and higher gate density. However, digital demodulation of high data rates in CMOS requires parallel algorithms to process the sampled data at a rate lower than the data rate. The parallel processing algorithms described here were developed jointly by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The resulting all-digital receiver has the capability to demodulate BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, and DQPSK at data rates in excess of 300 Mega-bits per second (Mbps) per channel. This paper will provide an overview of the parallel architecture and features of the HRDR ASIC. In addition, this paper will provide an over-view of the implementation of the hardware architectures used to create flexibility over conventional high rate analog or hybrid receivers. This flexibility includes a wide range of data rates, modulation schemes, and operating environments. In conclusion it will be shown how this high rate digital demodulator can be used with an off-the-shelf A/D and a flexible analog front end, both of which are numerically computer controlled, to produce a very flexible, low cost high rate digital receiver.

  1. Cryogenic and radiation-hard asic for interfacing large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peng; Dupont, Benoit; Dierickx, Bart; Müller, Eric; Verbruggen, Geert; Gielis, Stijn; Valvekens, Ramses

    2017-11-01

    For scientific and earth observation space missions, weight and power consumption is usually a critical factor. In order to obtain better vehicle integration, efficiency and controllability for large format NIR/SWIR detector arrays, a prototype ASIC is designed. It performs multiple detector array interfacing, power regulation and data acquisition operations inside the cryogenic chambers. Both operation commands and imaging data are communicated via the SpaceWire interface which will significantly reduce the number of wire goes in and out the cryogenic chamber. This "ASIC" prototype is realized in 0.18um CMOS technology and is designed for radiation hardness.

  2. Development of a Position Decoding ASIC for SPECT using Silicon Photomultiplier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.; Kim, H.; Lim, K. T.; Cho, G.

    2016-01-01

    Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography(SPECT) is a widely used diagnosis modality for detecting metabolic diseases. In general, SPECT system is consisted of a sensor, a pre-amplifier, position decoding circuits(PDC) and a data acquisition(DAQ) system. Due to such complexity, it is quite costly to assemble SPECT system by putting discrete components together. Moreover, using discrete components would make the system rather bulky. In this work, we designed a channel module ASIC for SPECT system. This system was composed of a transimpedance amplifier(TIA), comparators and digital logics. In this particular module, a TIA was selected as a preamplifier because the decay time and the rise time are shorter than that of other preamplifier topologies. In the proposed module, the amplified pulse from the TIA was split into two separate signals and each signal was then fed into two comparators with different reference levels, e.g., a low and high level. Then an XOR gate combined the comparator outputs and the output of XOR gate was sent to the suceeding digital logic. Furthermore, the output of each component in the module is composed of a signal packet. The packet includes the information on the energy, the time and the position of the incident photon. The energy and position information of a detected radiation can be derived from the output of the D-flipflop(DFF) in the module via time-over-threshold(TOT). The timing information was measured using a delayed rising edge from the low-level referenced comparator. There are several advantages in developing the channel module ASIC. First of all, the ASIC has only digital outputs and thus a correction circuit for analog signal distortion can be neglected. In addition, it is possible to cut down the system production cost because the volume of the system can be reduced due to the compactness of ASIC. The benefits of channel module is not only limited to SPECT but also beneficial to many other radiation detecting systems.

  3. Development of a 32-channel ASIC for an X-ray APD detector onboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, Makoto; Harita, Shohei; Sugita, Satoshi; Yatsu, Yoichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Tomida, Hiroshi; Isobe, Naoki; Ueno, Shiro; Mihara, Tatehiro; Serino, Motoko; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Takanori; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Hatori, Satoshi; Kume, Kyo; Hasegawa, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We report on the design and performance of a mixed-signal application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated to avalanche photodiodes (APDs) in order to detect hard X-ray emissions in a wide energy band onboard the International Space Station. To realize wide-band detection from 20 keV to 1 MeV, we use Ce:GAGG scintillators, each coupled to an APD, with low-noise front-end electronics capable of achieving a minimum energy detection threshold of 20 keV. The developed ASIC has the ability to read out 32-channel APD signals using 0.35 μm CMOS technology, and an analog amplifier at the input stage is designed to suppress the capacitive noise primarily arising from the large detector capacitance of the APDs. The ASIC achieves a performance of 2099 e- + 1.5 e-/pF at root mean square (RMS) with a wide 300 fC dynamic range. Coupling a reverse-type APD with a Ce:GAGG scintillator, we obtain an energy resolution of 6.7% (FWHM) at 662 keV and a minimum detectable energy of 20 keV at room temperature (20 °C). Furthermore, we examine the radiation tolerance for space applications by using a 90 MeV proton beam, confirming that the ASIC is free of single-event effects and can operate properly without serious degradation in analog and digital processing.

  4. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    DE GERONIMO,G.; CHEN, W.; FRIED, J.

    We present an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for high-resolution x-ray spectrometers. The ASIC is designed to read out signals from a pixelated silicon drift detector (SDD). Each hexagonal pixel has an area of 15 mmz and an anode capacitance of less than 100 fF. There is no integrated Field Effect transistor (FET) in the pixel, rather, the readout is done by wirebonding the anodes to the inputs of the ASIC. The ASIC provides 14 channels of low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with baseline stabilization, and peak detection with analog memory. The readout is sparse and based on low voltagemore » differential signaling. An interposer provides all the interconnections required to bias and operate the system. The channel dissipates 1.6 mW. The complete 14-pixel unit covers an area of 210 mm{sup 2}, dissipates 12 mW cm{sup -2}, and can be tiled to cover an arbitrarily large detection area. We measured a preliminary resolution of 172 eV at -35 C on the 6 keV peak of a {sup 55}Fe source.« less

  5. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Britton, C.L.; Jagadish, U.; Bryan, W.L.

    An Integrated Circuit (IC) readout chip with four channels arranged so as to receive input charge from the corners of the chip was designed for use with 5- to 7-mm pixel detectors. This Application Specific IC (ASIC) can be used for cold neutron imaging, for study of structural order in materials using cold neutron scattering or for particle physics experiments. The ASIC is fabricated in a 0.5-{micro}m n-well AMI process. The design of the ASIC and the test measurements made is reported. Noise measurements are also reported.

  6. An Integrated Thermal Compensation System for MEMS Inertial Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Sheng-Ren; Teng, Li-Tao; Chao, Jen-Wei; Sue, Chung-Yang; Lin, Chih-Hsiou; Chen, Hong-Ren; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2014-01-01

    An active thermal compensation system for a low temperature-bias-drift (TBD) MEMS-based gyroscope is proposed in this study. First, a micro-gyroscope is fabricated by a high-aspect-ratio silicon-on-glass (SOG) process and vacuum packaged by glass frit bonding. Moreover, a drive/readout ASIC, implemented by the 0.25 μm 1P5M standard CMOS process, is designed and integrated with the gyroscope by directly wire bonding. Then, since the temperature effect is one of the critical issues in the high performance gyroscope applications, the temperature-dependent characteristics of the micro-gyroscope are discussed. Furthermore, to compensate the TBD of the micro-gyroscope, a thermal compensation system is proposed and integrated in the aforementioned ASIC to actively tune the parameters in the digital trimming mechanism, which is designed in the readout ASIC. Finally, some experimental results demonstrate that the TBD of the micro-gyroscope can be compensated effectively by the proposed compensation system. PMID:24599191

  7. α-Dendrotoxin inhibits the ASIC current in dorsal root ganglion neurons from rat.

    PubMed

    Báez, Adriana; Salceda, Emilio; Fló, Martín; Graña, Martín; Fernández, Cecilia; Vega, Rosario; Soto, Enrique

    2015-10-08

    Dendrotoxins are a group of peptide toxins purified from the venom of several mamba snakes. α-Dendrotoxin (α-DTx, from the Eastern green mamba Dendroaspis angusticeps) is a well-known blocker of voltage-gated K(+) channels and specifically of K(v)1.1, K(v)1.2 and K(v)1.6. In this work we show that α-DTx inhibited the ASIC currents in DRG neurons (IC50=0.8 μM) when continuously perfused during 25 s (including a 5 s pulse to pH 6.1), but not when co-applied with the pH drop. Additionally, we show that α-DTx abolished a transient component of the outward current that, in some experiments, appeared immediately after the end of the acid pulse. Our data indicate that α-DTx inhibits ASICs in the high nM range while some Kv are inhibited in the low nM range. The α-DTx selectivity and its potential interaction with ASICs should be taken in consideration when DTx is used in the high nM range. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. PAR-2 activation enhances weak acid-induced ATP release through TRPV1 and ASIC sensitization in human esophageal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liping; Oshima, Tadayuki; Shan, Jing; Sei, Hiroo; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ohda, Yoshio; Fukui, Hirokazu; Watari, Jiro; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-10-15

    Esophageal visceral hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the pathogenesis of heartburn sensation in nonerosive reflux disease. Protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) is expressed in human esophageal epithelial cells and is believed to play a role in inflammation and sensation. PAR-2 activation may modulate these responses through adenosine triphosphate (ATP) release, which is involved in transduction of sensation and pain. The transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are both acid-sensitive nociceptors. However, the interaction among these molecules and the mechanisms of heartburn sensation are still not clear. We therefore examined whether ATP release in human esophageal epithelial cells in response to acid is modulated by TRPV1 and ASICs and whether PAR-2 activation influences the sensitivity of TRPV1 and ASICs. Weak acid (pH 5) stimulated the release of ATP from primary human esophageal epithelial cells (HEECs). This effect was significantly reduced after pretreatment with 5-iodoresiniferatoxin (IRTX), a TRPV1-specific antagonist, or with amiloride, a nonselective ASIC blocker. TRPV1 and ASIC3 small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection also decreased weak acid-induced ATP release. Pretreatment of HEECs with trypsin, tryptase, or a PAR-2 agonist enhanced weak acid-induced ATP release. Trypsin treatment led to the phosphorylation of TRPV1. Acid-induced ATP release enhancement by trypsin was partially blocked by IRTX, amiloride, or a PAR-2 antagonist. Conversely, acid-induced ATP release was augmented by PAR-2 activation through TRPV1 and ASICs. These findings suggested that the pathophysiology of heartburn sensation or esophageal hypersensitivity may be associated with the activation of PAR-2, TRPV1, and ASICs. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Report of the sensor readout electronics panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R.; Carson, J.; Kleinhans, W.; Kosonocky, W.; Kozlowski, L.; Pecsalski, A.; Silver, A.; Spieler, H.; Woolaway, J.

    1991-01-01

    The findings of the Sensor Readout Electronics Panel are summarized in regard to technology assessment and recommended development plans. In addition to two specific readout issues, cryogenic readouts and sub-electron noise, the panel considered three advanced technology areas that impact the ability to achieve large format sensor arrays. These are mega-pixel focal plane packaging issues, focal plane to data processing module interfaces, and event driven readout architectures. Development in each of these five areas was judged to have significant impact in enabling the sensor performance desired for the Astrotech 21 mission set. Other readout issues, such as focal plane signal processing or other high volume data acquisition applications important for Eos-type mapping, were determined not to be relevant for astrophysics science goals.

  10. Chemical synthesis, 3D structure, and ASIC binding site of the toxin mambalgin-2.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Christina I; Rash, Lachlan D; Vila-Farrés, Xavier; Rosengren, K Johan; Mobli, Mehdi; King, Glenn F; Alewood, Paul F; Craik, David J; Durek, Thomas

    2014-01-20

    Mambalgins are a novel class of snake venom components that exert potent analgesic effects mediated through the inhibition of acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs). The 57-residue polypeptide mambalgin-2 (Ma-2) was synthesized by using a combination of solid-phase peptide synthesis and native chemical ligation. The structure of the synthetic toxin, determined using homonuclear NMR, revealed an unusual three-finger toxin fold reminiscent of functionally unrelated snake toxins. Electrophysiological analysis of Ma-2 on wild-type and mutant ASIC1a receptors allowed us to identify α-helix 5, which borders on the functionally critical acidic pocket of the channel, as a major part of the Ma-2 binding site. This region is also crucial for the interaction of ASIC1a with the spider toxin PcTx1, thus suggesting that the binding sites for these toxins substantially overlap. This work lays the foundation for structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies and further development of this promising analgesic peptide. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Test systems of the STS-XYTER2 ASIC: from wafer-level to in-system verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinski, Krzysztof; Zubrzycka, Weronika

    2016-09-01

    The STS/MUCH-XYTER2 ASIC is a full-size prototype chip for the Silicon Tracking System (STS) and Muon Chamber (MUCH) detectors in the new fixed-target experiment Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) at FAIR-center, Darmstadt, Germany. The STS assembly includes more than 14000 ASICs. The complicated, time-consuming, multi-step assembly process of the detector building blocks and tight quality assurance requirements impose several intermediate testing to be performed for verifying crucial assembly steps (e.g. custom microcable tab-bonding before wire-bonding to the PCB) and - if necessary - identifying channels or modules for rework. The chip supports the multi-level testing with different probing / contact methods (wafer probe-card, pogo-probes, in-system tests). A huge number of ASICs to be tested restricts the number and kind of tests possible to be performed within a reasonable time. The proposed architectures of test stand equipment and a brief summary of methodologies are presented in this paper.

  12. Toward VIP-PIX: A Low Noise Readout ASIC for Pixelated CdTe Gamma-Ray Detectors for Use in the Next Generation of PET Scanners.

    PubMed

    Macias-Montero, Jose-Gabriel; Sarraj, Maher; Chmeissani, Mokhtar; Puigdengoles, Carles; Lorenzo, Gianluca De; Martínez, Ricardo

    2013-08-01

    VIP-PIX will be a low noise and low power pixel readout electronics with digital output for pixelated Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) detectors. The proposed pixel will be part of a 2D pixel-array detector for various types of nuclear medicine imaging devices such as positron-emission tomography (PET) scanners, Compton gamma cameras, and positron-emission mammography (PEM) scanners. Each pixel will include a SAR ADC that provides the energy deposited with 10-bit resolution. Simultaneously, the self-triggered pixel which will be connected to a global time-to-digital converter (TDC) with 1 ns resolution will provide the event's time stamp. The analog part of the readout chain and the ADC have been fabricated with TSMC 0.25 μ m mixed-signal CMOS technology and characterized with an external test pulse. The power consumption of these parts is 200 μ W from a 2.5 V supply. It offers 4 switchable gains from ±10 mV/fC to ±40 mV/fC and an input charge dynamic range of up to ±70 fC for the minimum gain for both polarities. Based on noise measurements, the expected equivalent noise charge (ENC) is 65 e - RMS at room temperature.

  13. An ASIC memory buffer controller for a high speed disk system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.; Campbell, Steve

    1993-01-01

    The need for large capacity, high speed mass memory storage devices has become increasingly evident at NASA during the past decade. High performance mass storage systems are crucial to present and future NASA systems. Spaceborne data storage system requirements have grown in response to the increasing amounts of data generated and processed by orbiting scientific experiments. Predictions indicate increases in the volume of data by orders of magnitude during the next decade. Current predictions are for storage capacities on the order of terabits (Tb), with data rates exceeding one gigabit per second (Gbps). As part of the design effort for a state of the art mass storage system, NASA Langley has designed a 144 CMOS ASIC to support high speed data transfers. This paper discusses the system architecture, ASIC design and some of the lessons learned in the development process.

  14. Development of a beam test telescope based on the Alibava readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco-Hernández, R.

    2011-01-01

    A telescope for a beam test have been developed as a result of a collaboration among the University of Liverpool, Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica (CNM) of Barcelona and Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC) of Valencia. This system is intended to carry out both analogue charge collection and spatial resolution measurements with different types of microstrip or pixel silicon detectors in a beam test environment. The telescope has four XY measurement as well as trigger planes (XYT board) and it can accommodate up to twelve devices under test (DUT board). The DUT board uses two Beetle ASICs for the readout of chilled silicon detectors. The board could operate in a self-triggering mode. The board features a temperature sensor and it can be mounted on a rotary stage. A peltier element is used for cooling the DUT. Each XYT board measures the track space points using two silicon strip detectors connected to two Beetle ASICs. It can also trigger on the particle tracks in the beam test. The board includes a CPLD which allows for the synchronization of the trigger signal to a common clock frequency, delaying and implementing coincidence with other XYT boards. An Alibava mother board is used to read out and to control each XYT/DUT board from a common trigger signal and a common clock signal. The Alibava board has a TDC on board to have a time stamp of each trigger. The data collected by each Alibava board is sent to a master card by means of a local data/address bus following a custom digital protocol. The master board distributes the trigger, clock and reset signals. It also merges the data streams from up to sixteen Alibava boards. The board has also a test channel for testing in a standard mode a XYT or DUT board. This board is implemented with a Xilinx development board and a custom patch board. The master board is connected with the DAQ software via 100M Ethernet. Track based alignment software has also been developed for the data obtained with the DAQ software.

  15. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Gao, W.; Yin, J.; Li, C.

    This paper presents a novel front-end electronics based on a front-end ASIC with post digital filtering and calibration dedicated to CZT detectors for PET imaging. A cascade amplifier based on split-leg topology is selected to realize the charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) for the sake of low noise performances and the simple scheme of the power supplies. The output of the CSA is connected to a variable-gain amplifier to generate the compatible signals for the A/D conversion. A multi-channel single-slope ADC is designed to sample multiple points for the digital filtering and shaping. The digital signal processing algorithms are implemented by amore » FPGA. To verify the proposed scheme, a front-end readout prototype ASIC is designed and implemented in 0.35 μm CMOS process. In a single readout channel, a CSA, a VGA, a 10-bit ADC and registers are integrated. Two dummy channels, bias circuits, and time controller are also integrated. The die size is 2.0 mm x 2.1 mm. The input range of the ASIC is from 2000 e{sup -} to 100000 e{sup -}, which is suitable for the detection of the X-and gamma ray from 11.2 keV to 550 keV. The linearity of the output voltage is less than 1 %. The gain of the readout channel is 40.2 V/pC. The static power dissipation is about 10 mW/channel. The above tested results show that the electrical performances of the ASIC can well satisfy PET imaging applications. (authors)« less

  16. Performance study of large area encoding readout MRPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. L.; Wang, Y.; Chen, G.; Han, D.; Wang, X.; Zeng, M.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Guo, B.

    2018-02-01

    Muon tomography system built by the 2-D readout high spatial resolution Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detector is a project of Tsinghua University. An encoding readout method based on the fine-fine configuration has been used to minimize the number of the readout electronic channels resulting in reducing the complexity and the cost of the system. In this paper, we provide a systematic comparison of the MRPC detector performance with and without fine-fine encoding readout. Our results suggest that the application of the fine-fine encoding readout leads us to achieve a detecting system with slightly worse spatial resolution but dramatically reduce the number of electronic channels.

  17. A wireless capsule system with ASIC for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fei; Yan, Guozheng; Zhao, Kai; Lu, Li; Gao, Jinyang; Liu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the design of a wireless capsule system for monitoring the physiological signals of the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The primary components of the system include a wireless capsule, a portable data recorder, and a workstation. Temperature, pH, and pressure sensors; an RF transceiver; a controlling and processing application specific integrated circuit (ASIC); and batteries were applied in a wireless capsule. Decreasing capsule size, improving sensor precision, and reducing power needs were the primary challenges; these were resolved by employing micro sensors, optimized architecture, and an ASIC design that include power management, clock management, a programmable gain amplifier (PGA), an A/D converter (ADC), and a serial peripheral interface (SPI) communication unit. The ASIC has been fabricated in 0.18- μm CMOS technology with a die area of 5.0 mm × 5.0 mm. The wireless capsule integrating the ASIC controller measures Φ 11 mm × 26 mm. A data recorder and a workstation were developed, and 20 cases of human experiments were conducted in hospitals. Preprocessing in the workstation can significantly improve the quality of the data, and 76 original features were determined by mathematical statistics. Based on the 13 optimal features achieved in the evaluation of the features, the clustering algorithm can identify the patients who lack GI motility with a recognition rate reaching 83.3%.

  18. A 0.18 micrometer CMOS Thermopile Readout ASIC Immune to 50 MRAD Total Ionizing Dose (SI) and Single Event Latchup to 174MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quilligan, Gerard T.; Aslam, Shahid; Lakew, Brook; DuMonthier, Jeffery J.; Katz, Richard B.; Kleyner, Igor

    2014-01-01

    Radiation hardened by design (RHBD) techniques allow commercial CMOS circuits to operate in high total ionizing dose and particle fluence environments. Our radiation hard multi-channel digitizer (MCD) ASIC (Figure 1) is a versatile analog system on a chip (SoC) fabricated in 180nm CMOS. It provides 18 chopper stabilized amplifier channels, a 16- bit sigma-delta analog-digital converter (SDADC) and an on-chip controller. The MCD was evaluated at Goddard Space Flight Center and Texas A&M University's radiation effects facilities and found to be immune to single event latchup (SEL) and total ionizing dose (TID) at 174 MeV-cm(exp 2)/mg and 50 Mrad (Si) respectively.

  19. Replication of Space-Shuttle Computers in FPGAs and ASICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Roscoe C.

    2008-01-01

    A document discusses the replication of the functionality of the onboard space-shuttle general-purpose computers (GPCs) in field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) and application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs). The purpose of the replication effort is to enable utilization of proven space-shuttle flight software and software-development facilities to the extent possible during development of software for flight computers for a new generation of launch vehicles derived from the space shuttles. The replication involves specifying the instruction set of the central processing unit and the input/output processor (IOP) of the space-shuttle GPC in a hardware description language (HDL). The HDL is synthesized to form a "core" processor in an FPGA or, less preferably, in an ASIC. The core processor can be used to create a flight-control card to be inserted into a new avionics computer. The IOP of the GPC as implemented in the core processor could be designed to support data-bus protocols other than that of a multiplexer interface adapter (MIA) used in the space shuttle. Hence, a computer containing the core processor could be tailored to communicate via the space-shuttle GPC bus and/or one or more other buses.

  20. Focal plane infrared readout circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An infrared imager, such as a spectrometer, includes multiple infrared photodetectors and readout circuits for reading out signals from the photodetectors. Each readout circuit includes a buffered direct injection input circuit including a differential amplifier with active feedback provided through an injection transistor. The differential amplifier includes a pair of input transistors, a pair of cascode transistors and a current mirror load. Photocurrent from a photodetector can be injected onto an integration capacitor in the readout circuit with high injection efficiency at high speed. A high speed, low noise, wide dynamic range linear infrared multiplexer array for reading out infrared detectors with large capacitances can be achieved even when short exposure times are used. The effect of image lag can be reduced.

  1. Coarse Grain Reconfigurable ASIC through Multiplexer Based Switches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-15

    chip area (0.5 mm2), and from simulation their power consumption is negligible (0.002% from simulation, too small to measure in physical system...performing implementation that is also flexible. REFERENCES [1] I. Kuon and J. Rose, “ Measuring the gap between FPGAs and ASICs,” IEEE Trans...A 3GPP- LTE Example," Solid-State Circuits, IEEE Journal of , vol.47, no.3, pp.757,768, March 2012. [5] Agarwal, A.; Hassanieh, H.; Abari, O

  2. Half-State Readout In Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.; Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.

    1994-01-01

    Potentially narrow margins of chirality-based chopping of magnetic stripes avoided. Half-state readout is experimental method of readout in Vertical-Bloch-Line (VBL) memory. Based on differential deflections of magnetic stripe domains in which data bits stored. To give meaning to explanation of half-state readout, see "Vertical-Bloch-Line Memory" (NPO-18467).

  3. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Dahlon D.; Thelen, Jr., Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems.

  4. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOEpatents

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  5. IO:I, a near-infrared camera for the Liverpool Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnsley, Robert M.; Jermak, Helen E.; Steele, Iain A.; Smith, Robert J.; Bates, Stuart D.; Mottram, Chris J.

    2016-01-01

    IO:I is a new instrument that has recently been commissioned for the Liverpool Telescope, extending current imaging capabilities beyond the optical and into the near-infrared. Cost has been minimized by the use of a previously decommissioned instrument's cryostat as the base for a prototype and retrofitting it with Teledyne's 1.7-μm cutoff Hawaii-2RG HgCdTe detector, SIDECAR ASIC controller, and JADE2 interface card. The mechanical, electronic, and cryogenic aspects of the cryostat retrofitting process will be reviewed together with a description of the software/hardware setup. This is followed by a discussion of the results derived from characterization tests, including measurements of read noise, conversion gain, full well depth, and linearity. The paper closes with a brief overview of the autonomous data reduction process and the presentation of results from photometric testing conducted on on-sky, pipeline processed data.

  6. The PAUCam readout electronics system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez, Jorge; Illa, José M.; Cardiel-Sas, Laia; de Vicente, Juan; Castilla, Javier; Casas, Ricard

    2016-08-01

    The PAUCam is an optical camera with a wide field of view of 1 deg x 1 deg and up to 46 narrow and broad band filters. The camera is already installed on the William Herschel Telescope (WHT) in the Canary Islands, Spain and successfully commissioned during the first period of 2015. The paper presents the main results from the readout electronics commissioning tests and include an overview of the whole readout electronics system, its configuration and current performance.

  7. An Electronic-Nose Sensor Node Based on a Polymer-Coated Surface Acoustic Wave Array for Wireless Sensor Network Applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K2 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications. PMID:22163865

  8. An electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave array for wireless sensor network applications.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kea-Tiong; Li, Cheng-Han; Chiu, Shih-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study developed an electronic-nose sensor node based on a polymer-coated surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor array. The sensor node comprised an SAW sensor array, a frequency readout circuit, and an Octopus II wireless module. The sensor array was fabricated on a large K(2) 128° YX LiNbO3 sensing substrate. On the surface of this substrate, an interdigital transducer (IDT) was produced with a Cr/Au film as its metallic structure. A mixed-mode frequency readout application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) was fabricated using a TSMC 0.18 μm process. The ASIC output was connected to a wireless module to transmit sensor data to a base station for data storage and analysis. This sensor node is applicable for wireless sensor network (WSN) applications.

  9. Osthole, a herbal compound, alleviates nucleus pulposus-evoked nociceptive responses through the suppression of overexpression of acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) in rat dorsal root ganglion

    PubMed Central

    He, Qiu-Lan; Chen, Yuling; Qin, Jian; Mo, Sui-Lin; Wei, Ming; Zhang, Jin-Jun; Li, Mei-Na; Zou, Xue-Nong; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Chen, Xiao-Wu; Sun, Lai-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Osthole (Ost), a natural coumarin derivative, has been shown to inhibit many pro-inflammatory mediators and block voltage-gated Na+ channels. During inflammation, acidosis is an important pain inducer which activates nociceptors by gating depolarizing cationic channels, such as acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of Ost on nucleus pulposus-evoked nociceptive responses and ASIC3 over-expression in the rat dorsal root ganglion, and to investigate the possible mechanism. Material/Methods Radicular pain was generated with application of nucleus pulposus (NP) to nerve root. Mechanical allodynia was evaluated using von Frey filaments with logarithmically incremental rigidity to calculate the 50% probability thresholds for mechanical paw withdrawal. ASIC3 protein expression in dorsal root ganglions (DRGs) was assessed with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Membrane potential (MP) shift of DRG neurons induced by ASIC3-sensitive acid (pH6.5) was determined by DiBAC4 (3) fluorescence intensity (F.I.). Results The NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia model showed allodynia for 3 weeks, and ASIC3 expression was up-regulated in DRG neurons, reaching peak on Day 7. Epidural administration of Ost induced a remarkable and prolonged antinociceptive effect, accompanied by an inhibition of over-expressed ASIC3 protein and of abnormal shift of MP. Amiloride (Ami), an antagonist of ASIC3, strengthened the antinociceptive effect of Ost. Conclusions Up-regulation of ASIC3 expression may be associated with NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia. A single epidural injection of Ost decreased ASIC3 expression in DGR neurons and the pain in the NP-evoked mechanical hyperalgesia model. Osthole may be of great benefit for preventing chronic pain status often seen in lumbar disc herniation (LDH). PMID:22648244

  10. Stability of the Baseline Holder in Readout Circuits For Radiation Detectors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y.; Cui, Y.; O’Connor, P.; Seo, Y.; Camarda, G. S.; Hossain, A.; Roy, U.; Yang, G.; James, R. B.

    2016-01-01

    Baseline holder (BLH) circuits are used widely to stabilize the analog output of application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for high-count-rate applications. The careful design of BLH circuits is vital to the overall stability of the analog-signal-processing chain in ASICs. Recently, we observed self-triggered fluctuations in an ASIC in which the shaping circuits have a BLH circuit in the feedback loop. In fact, further investigations showed that methods of enhancing small-signal stabilities cause an even worse situation. To resolve this problem, we used large-signal analyses to study the circuit’s stability. We found that a relatively small gain for the error amplifier and a small current in the non-linear stage of the BLH are required to enhance stability in large-signal analysis, which will compromise the properties of the BLH. These findings were verified by SPICE simulations. In this paper, we present our detailed analysis of the BLH circuits, and propose an improved version of them that have only minimal self-triggered fluctuations. We summarize the design considerations both for the stability and the properties of the BLH circuits. PMID:27182081

  11. Fabrication techniques for superconducting readout loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payne, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures for the fabrication of superconducting readout loops out of niobium on glass substrates were developed. A computer program for an existing fabrication system was developed. Both positive and negative resist procedures for the production of the readout loops were investigated. Methods used to produce satisfactory loops are described and the various parameters affecting the performance of the loops are analyzed.

  12. A 160 μA biopotential acquisition IC with fully integrated IA and motion artifact suppression.

    PubMed

    Van Helleputte, Nick; Kim, Sunyoung; Kim, Hyejung; Kim, Jong Pal; Van Hoof, Chris; Yazicioglu, Refet Firat

    2012-12-01

    This paper proposes a 3-channel biopotential monitoring ASIC with simultaneous electrode-tissue impedance measurements which allows real-time estimation of motion artifacts on each channel using an an external μC. The ASIC features a high performance instrumentation amplifier with fully integrated sub-Hz HPF rejecting rail-to-rail electrode-offset voltages. Each readout channel further has a programmable gain amplifier and programmable 4th order low-pass filter. Time-multiplexed 12 b SAR-ADCs are used to convert all the analog data to digital. The ASIC achieves >; 115 dB of CMRR (at 50/60 Hz), a high input impedance of >; 1 GΩ and low noise (1.3 μVrms in 100 Hz). Unlike traditional methods, the ASIC is capable of actual motion artifact suppression in the analog domain before final amplification. The complete ASIC core operates from 1.2 V with 2 V digital IOs and consumes 200 μW when all 3 channels are active.

  13. Principal Components Analysis of a JWST NIRSpec Detector Subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arendt, Richard G.; Fixsen, D. J.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Lander, Matthew; Lindler, Don; Loose, Markus; Moseley, S. H.; Mott, D. Brent; Rauscher, Bernard J.; Wen, Yiting; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present principal component analysis (PCA) of a flight-representative James Webb Space Telescope NearInfrared Spectrograph (NIRSpec) Detector Subsystem. Although our results are specific to NIRSpec and its T - 40 K SIDECAR ASICs and 5 m cutoff H2RG detector arrays, the underlying technical approach is more general. We describe how we measured the systems response to small environmental perturbations by modulating a set of bias voltages and temperature. We used this information to compute the systems principal noise components. Together with information from the astronomical scene, we show how the zeroth principal component can be used to calibrate out the effects of small thermal and electrical instabilities to produce cosmetically cleaner images with significantly less correlated noise. Alternatively, if one were designing a new instrument, one could use a similar PCA approach to inform a set of environmental requirements (temperature stability, electrical stability, etc.) that enabled the planned instrument to meet performance requirements

  14. Characterization and optimization for detector systems of IGRINS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Ueejeong; Chun, Moo-Young; Oh, Jae Sok; Park, Chan; Yuk, In-Soo; Oh, Heeyoung; Kim, Kang-Min; Ko, Kyeong Yeon; Pavel, Michael D.; Yu, Young Sam; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    IGRINS (Immersion GRating INfrared Spectrometer) is a high resolution wide-band infrared spectrograph developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) and the University of Texas at Austin (UT). This spectrograph has H-band and K-band science cameras and a slit viewing camera, all three of which use Teledyne's λc~2.5μm 2k×2k HgCdTe HAWAII-2RG CMOS detectors. The two spectrograph cameras employ science grade detectors, while the slit viewing camera includes an engineering grade detector. Teledyne's cryogenic SIDECAR ASIC boards and JADE2 USB interface cards were installed to control those detectors. We performed experiments to characterize and optimize the detector systems in the IGRINS cryostat. We present measurements and optimization of noise, dark current, and referencelevel stability obtained under dark conditions. We also discuss well depth, linearity and conversion gain measurements obtained using an external light source.

  15. A multiball read-out for the spherical proportional counter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giganon, A.; Giomataris, I.; Gros, M.; Katsioulas, I.; Navick, X. F.; Tsiledakis, G.; Savvidis, I.; Dastgheibi-Fard, A.; Brossard, A.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel concept of proportional gas amplification for the read-out of the spherical proportional counter. The standard single-ball read-out presents limitations for large diameter spherical detectors and high-pressure operations. We have developed a multi-ball read-out system which consists of several balls placed at a fixed distance from the center of the spherical vessel. Such a module can tune the volume electric field at the desired value and can also provide detector segmentation with individual ball read-out. In the latter case, the large volume of the vessel becomes a spherical time projection chamber with 3D capabilities.

  16. A pixelated charge readout for Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asaadi, J.; Auger, M.; Ereditato, A.; Goeldi, D.; Hänni, R.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Lorca, D.; Luethi, M.; von Rohr, C. Rudolf; Sinclair, J.; Stocker, F.; Tognina, C.; Weber, M.

    2018-02-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers (LArTPCs) are ideally suited to perform long-baseline neutrino experiments aiming to measure CP violation in the lepton sector, and determine the ordering of the three neutrino mass eigenstates. LArTPCs have used projective wire readouts for charge detection since their conception in 1977. However, wire readouts are notoriously fragile and therefore a limiting factor in the design of any large mass detectors. Furthermore, a wire readout also introduces intrinsic ambiguities in event reconstruction. Within the ArgonCube concept—the liquid argon component of the DUNE near detector—we are developing a pixelated charge readout for LArTPCs. Pixelated charge readout systems represent the single largest advancement in the sensitivity of LArTPCs. They are mechanically robust and provide direct 3D readout, serving to minimise reconstruction ambiguities, enabling more advanced triggers, further reducing event pile-up and improving background rejection. This article presents first results from a pixelated LArTPC prototype built and operated in Bern.

  17. Robust Multivariable Optimization and Performance Simulation for ASIC Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DuMonthier, Jeffrey; Suarez, George

    2013-01-01

    Application-specific-integrated-circuit (ASIC) design for space applications involves multiple challenges of maximizing performance, minimizing power, and ensuring reliable operation in extreme environments. This is a complex multidimensional optimization problem, which must be solved early in the development cycle of a system due to the time required for testing and qualification severely limiting opportunities to modify and iterate. Manual design techniques, which generally involve simulation at one or a small number of corners with a very limited set of simultaneously variable parameters in order to make the problem tractable, are inefficient and not guaranteed to achieve the best possible results within the performance envelope defined by the process and environmental requirements. What is required is a means to automate design parameter variation, allow the designer to specify operational constraints and performance goals, and to analyze the results in a way that facilitates identifying the tradeoffs defining the performance envelope over the full set of process and environmental corner cases. The system developed by the Mixed Signal ASIC Group (MSAG) at the Goddard Space Flight Center is implemented as a framework of software modules, templates, and function libraries. It integrates CAD tools and a mathematical computing environment, and can be customized for new circuit designs with only a modest amount of effort as most common tasks are already encapsulated. Customization is required for simulation test benches to determine performance metrics and for cost function computation.

  18. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1375 - Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. 154..., Construction and Equipment Instrumentation § 154.1375 Readout for temperature measuring device: Marking. Each readout under § 154.1340 for a device that measures temperature in a cargo tank must be marked with the...

  3. Postnatal Unit Bassinet Types When Rooming-In After Cesarean Birth: Implications for Breastfeeding and Infant Safety

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Kristin P.; Ball, Helen L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Postnatal unit rooming-in promotes breastfeeding. Previous research indicates that side-cars (three-sided bassinets that lock onto the maternal bed-frame) faciliate breastfeeding after vaginal birth more than stand-alone bassinets (standard rooming-in). No study has previously investigated side-car bassinet use after cesarean, despite the constraints on maternal-infant interactions that are inherent in recovery from this birth mode. Objective To test the effect of the side-car bassinet on postnatal unit breastfeeding frequency and other maternal-infant behaviors compared to a stand-alone bassinet following cesarean birth. Methods Participants were recruited and prenatally randomized to receive the side-car or stand-alone bassinet for their postnatal unit stay between January 2007 and March 2009 in Northeast England. Mother-infant interactions were filmed over the second postpartum night. Participants completed face-to-face interviews before and after filming. The main outcome measures were infant location, bassinet acceptability, and breastfeeding frequency. Other outcomes assessed were breastfeeding effort, maternal-infant contact, sleep states, midwife presence, and infant risk. Results Differences in breastfeeding frequency, maternal-infant sleep overlap, and midwife presence were not statistically significant. The 20 dyads allocated to side-car bassinets breastfed a median of 0.6 bouts/ hour compared to 0.4 bouts/hour for the 15 stand-alone bassinet dyads. Participants expressed overwhelming preference for the side-car bassinets. Bedsharing was equivalent between the groups, although the motivation for this practice may have differed. Infant handling was compromised with stand-alone bassinet use, including infants positioned on pillows while bedsharing with their sleeping mothers. Conclusions Women preferred the side-car but differences in breastfeeding frequency were not significant. More infant risks were observed with stand-alone bassinet use

  4. TES Detector Noise Limited Readout Using SQUID Multiplexers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staguhn, J. G.; Benford, D. J.; Chervenak, J. A.; Khan, S. A.; Moseley, S. H.; Shafer, R. A.; Deiker, S.; Grossman, E. N.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.

    2004-01-01

    The availability of superconducting Transition Edge Sensors (TES) with large numbers of individual detector pixels requires multiplexers for efficient readout. The use of multiplexers reduces the number of wires needed between the cryogenic electronics and the room temperature electronics and cuts the number of required cryogenic amplifiers. We are using an 8 channel SQUID multiplexer to read out one-dimensional TES arrays which are used for submillimeter astronomical observations. We present results from test measurements which show that the low noise level of the SQUID multiplexers allows accurate measurements of the TES Johnson noise, and that in operation, the readout noise is dominated by the detector noise. Multiplexers for large number of channels require a large bandwidth for the multiplexed readout signal. We discuss the resulting implications for the noise performance of these multiplexers which will be used for the readout of two dimensional TES arrays in next generation instruments.

  5. Readout of the upgraded ALICE-ITS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepankiewicz, A.; ALICE Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The ALICE experiment will undergo a major upgrade during the second long shutdown of the CERN LHC. As part of this program, the present Inner Tracking System (ITS), which employs different layers of hybrid pixels, silicon drift and strip detectors, will be replaced by a completely new tracker composed of seven layers of monolithic active pixel sensors. The upgraded ITS will have more than twelve billion pixels in total, producing 300 Gbit/s of data when tracking 50 kHz Pb-Pb events. Two families of pixel chips realized with the TowerJazz CMOS imaging process have been developed as candidate sensors: the ALPIDE, which uses a proprietary readout and sparsification mechanism and the MISTRAL-O, based on a proven rolling shutter architecture. Both chips can operate in continuous mode, with the ALPIDE also supporting triggered operations. As the communication IP blocks are shared among the two chip families, it has been possible to develop a common Readout Electronics. All the sensor components (analog stages, state machines, buffers, FIFOs, etc.) have been modelled in a system level simulation, which has been extensively used to optimize both the sensor and the whole readout chain design in an iterative process. This contribution covers the progress of the R&D efforts and the overall expected performance of the ALICE-ITS readout system.

  6. Readout and DAQ for Pixel Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platkevic, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Data readout and acquisition control of pixel detectors demand the transfer of significantly a large amounts of bits between the detector and the computer. For this purpose dedicated interfaces are used which are designed with focus on features like speed, small dimensions or flexibility of use such as digital signal processors, field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and USB communication ports. This work summarizes the readout and DAQ system built for state-of-the-art pixel detectors of the Medipix family.

  7. The AGILE silicon tracker: an innovative /γ-ray instrument for space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prest, M.; Barbiellini, G.; Bordignon, G.; Fedel, G.; Liello, F.; Longo, F.; Pontoni, C.; Vallazza, E.

    2003-03-01

    AGILE (Light Imager for Gamma-ray Astrophysics) is the first small scientific mission of ASI, the Italian Space Agency. It is a light (100kg for the scientific instrument) satellite for the detection of /γ-ray sources in the energy range 30MeV-50GeV within a large field of view (1/4 of the sky). It is planned to be operational in the years 2003-2006, a period in which no other gamma-ray mission in the same energy range is foreseen. AGILE is made of a silicon tungsten tracker, a CsI(Tl) minicalorimeter (1.5X0), an anticoincidence system of segmented plastic scintillators and a X-ray imaging detector sensitive in the 10-40keV range. The tracker consists of 14 planes, each of them made of two layers of 16 single-sided, AC coupled, 410μm thick, 9.5×9.5cm2 silicon detectors with a readout pitch of 242μm and a floating strip. The readout ASIC is the TAA1, an analog-digital, low noise, self-triggering ASIC used in a very low power configuration (<400μW/channel) with full analog readout. The trigger of the satellite is given by the tracker. The total number of readout channels is around 43000. We present a detailed description of the tracker, its trigger and readout logic, its assembly procedures and the prototype performance in several testbeam periods at the CERN PS.

  8. High-voltage pixel sensors for ATLAS upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perić, I.; Kreidl, C.; Fischer, P.; Bompard, F.; Breugnon, P.; Clemens, J.-C.; Fougeron, D.; Liu, J.; Pangaud, P.; Rozanov, A.; Barbero, M.; Feigl, S.; Capeans, M.; Ferrere, D.; Pernegger, H.; Ristic, B.; Muenstermann, D.; Gonzalez Sevilla, S.; La Rosa, A.; Miucci, A.; Nessi, M.; Iacobucci, G.; Backhaus, M.; Hügging, Fabian; Krüger, H.; Hemperek, T.; Obermann, T.; Wermes, N.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Quadt, A.; Weingarten, J.; George, M.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Rieger, J.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Buttar, C.; Hynds, D.

    2014-11-01

    The high-voltage (HV-) CMOS pixel sensors offer several good properties: a fast charge collection by drift, the possibility to implement relatively complex CMOS in-pixel electronics and the compatibility with commercial processes. The sensor element is a deep n-well diode in a p-type substrate. The n-well contains CMOS pixel electronics. The main charge collection mechanism is drift in a shallow, high field region, which leads to a fast charge collection and a high radiation tolerance. We are currently evaluating the use of the high-voltage detectors implemented in 180 nm HV-CMOS technology for the high-luminosity ATLAS upgrade. Our approach is replacing the existing pixel and strip sensors with the CMOS sensors while keeping the presently used readout ASICs. By intelligence we mean the ability of the sensor to recognize a particle hit and generate the address information. In this way we could benefit from the advantages of the HV sensor technology such as lower cost, lower mass, lower operating voltage, smaller pitch, smaller clusters at high incidence angles. Additionally we expect to achieve a radiation hardness necessary for ATLAS upgrade. In order to test the concept, we have designed two HV-CMOS prototypes that can be readout in two ways: using pixel and strip readout chips. In the case of the pixel readout, the connection between HV-CMOS sensor and the readout ASIC can be established capacitively.

  9. A reconfigurable image tube using an external electronic image readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapington, J. S.; Howorth, J. R.; Milnes, J. S.

    2005-08-01

    We have designed and built a sealed tube microchannel plate (MCP) intensifier for optical/NUV photon counting applications suitable for 18, 25 and 40 mm diameter formats. The intensifier uses an electronic image readout to provide direct conversion of event position into electronic signals, without the drawbacks associated with phosphor screens and subsequent optical detection. The Image Charge technique is used to remove the readout from the intensifier vacuum enclosure, obviating the requirement for additional electrical vacuum feedthroughs and for the readout pattern to be UHV compatible. The charge signal from an MCP intensifier is capacitively coupled via a thin dielectric vacuum window to the electronic image readout, which is external to the sealed intensifier tube. The readout pattern is a separate item held in proximity to the dielectric window and can be easily detached, making the system easily reconfigurable. Since the readout pattern detects induced charge and is external to the tube, it can be constructed as a multilayer, eliminating the requirement for narrow insulator gaps and allowing it to be constructed using standard PCB manufacturing tolerances. We describe two readout patterns, the tetra wedge anode (TWA), an optimized 4 electrode device similar to the wedge and strip anode (WSA) but with a factor 2 improvement in resolution, and an 8 channel high speed 50 ohm device, both manufactured as multilayer PCBs. We present results of the detector imaging performance, image resolution, linearity and stability, and discuss the development of an integrated readout and electronics device based on these designs.

  10. A Radiation Hard Multi-Channel Digitizer ASIC for Operation in the Harsh Jovian Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, Shahid; Aslam, S.; Akturk, A.; Quilligan, G.

    2011-01-01

    ultimately impact the surface of Europa after the mission is completed. The current JEO mission concept includes a range of instruments on the payload, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiters atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. The payload includes a low mass (3.7 Kg) and low power (< 5 W) Thermal Instrument (TI) concept for measuring possible warm thermal anomalies on Europa s cold surface caused by recent (< 10,000 years) eruptive activity. Regions of anomalously high heat flow will be identified by thermal mapping using a nadir pointing, push-broom filter radiometer that provides far-IR imagery in two broad band spectral wavelength regions, 8-20 m and 20-100 m, for surface temperature measurements with better than a 2 K accuracy and a spatial resolution of 250 m/pixel obtained from a 100 Km orbit. The temperature accuracy permits a search for elevated temperatures when combined with albedo information. The spatial resolution is sufficient to resolve Europa's larger cracks and ridge axial valleys. In order to accomplish the thermal mapping, the TI uses sensitive thermopile arrays that are readout by a custom designed low-noise Multi-Channel Digitizer (MCD) ASIC that resides very close to the thermopile linear array outputs. Both the thermopile array and the MCD ASIC will need to show full functionality within the harsh Jovian radiation environment, operating at cryogenic temperatures, typically 150 K to 170 K. In the following, a radiation mitigation strategy together with a low risk Radiation-Hardened-By-Design (RHBD) methodology using commercial foundry processes is given for the design and manufacture of a MCD ASIC that will meet this challenge.

  11. Characterisation of the high dynamic range Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and its use at X-ray free electron laser sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veale, M. C.; Adkin, P.; Booker, P.; Coughlan, J.; French, M. J.; Hart, M.; Nicholls, T.; Schneider, A.; Seller, P.; Pape, I.; Sawhney, K.; Carini, G. A.; Hart, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have delivered the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) for MHz frame rate imaging at the European XFEL. The detector system has an active area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m and consists of a million pixels on a 500 μm pitch. Sensors have been produced from 500 μm thick Hammamatsu silicon tiles that have been bump bonded to the readout ASIC using a silver epoxy and gold stud technique. Each pixel of the detector system is capable of measuring 105 12 keV photons per image readout at 4.5 MHz. In this paper results from the testing of these detectors at the Diamond Light Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are presented. The performance of the detector in terms of linearity, spatial uniformity and the performance of the different ASIC gain stages is characterised.

  12. Quantum Algorithmic Readout in Multi-Ion Clocks.

    PubMed

    Schulte, M; Lörch, N; Leroux, I D; Schmidt, P O; Hammerer, K

    2016-01-08

    Optical clocks based on ensembles of trapped ions promise record frequency accuracy with good short-term stability. Most suitable ion species lack closed transitions, so the clock signal must be read out indirectly by transferring the quantum state of the clock ions to cotrapped logic ions of a different species. Existing methods of quantum logic readout require a linear overhead in either time or the number of logic ions. Here we describe a quantum algorithmic readout whose overhead scales logarithmically with the number of clock ions in both of these respects. The scheme allows a quantum nondemolition readout of the number of excited clock ions using a single multispecies gate operation which can also be used in other areas of ion trap technology such as quantum information processing, quantum simulations, metrology, and precision spectroscopy.

  13. A low power biomedical signal processor ASIC based on hardware software codesign.

    PubMed

    Nie, Z D; Wang, L; Chen, W G; Zhang, T; Zhang, Y T

    2009-01-01

    A low power biomedical digital signal processor ASIC based on hardware and software codesign methodology was presented in this paper. The codesign methodology was used to achieve higher system performance and design flexibility. The hardware implementation included a low power 32bit RISC CPU ARM7TDMI, a low power AHB-compatible bus, and a scalable digital co-processor that was optimized for low power Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) calculations. The co-processor could be scaled for 8-point, 16-point and 32-point FFTs, taking approximate 50, 100 and 150 clock circles, respectively. The complete design was intensively simulated using ARM DSM model and was emulated by ARM Versatile platform, before conducted to silicon. The multi-million-gate ASIC was fabricated using SMIC 0.18 microm mixed-signal CMOS 1P6M technology. The die area measures 5,000 microm x 2,350 microm. The power consumption was approximately 3.6 mW at 1.8 V power supply and 1 MHz clock rate. The power consumption for FFT calculations was less than 1.5 % comparing with the conventional embedded software-based solution.

  14. A tripolar current-steering stimulator ASIC for field shaping in deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Valente, Virgilio; Demosthenous, Andreas; Bayford, Richard

    2012-06-01

    A significant problem with clinical deep brain stimulation (DBS) is the high variability of its efficacy and the frequency of side effects, related to the spreading of current beyond the anatomical target area. This is the result of the lack of control that current DBS systems offer on the shaping of the electric potential distribution around the electrode. This paper presents a stimulator ASIC with a tripolar current-steering output stage, aiming at achieving more selectivity and field shaping than current DBS systems. The ASIC was fabricated in a 0.35-μ m CMOS technology occupying a core area of 0.71 mm(2). It consists of three current sourcing/sinking channels. It is capable of generating square and exponential-decay biphasic current pulses with five different time constants up to 28 ms and delivering up to 1.85 mA of cathodic current, in steps of 4 μA, from a 12 V power supply. Field shaping was validated by mapping the potential distribution when injecting current pulses through a multicontact DBS electrode in saline.

  15. An universal read-out controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manz, S.; Abel, N.; Gebelein, J.; Kebschull, U.

    2010-11-01

    Since 2007 we design and develop a ROC (read-out controller) for FAIR's data-acquisition. While our first implementation solely focused on the nXYTER, today we are also designing and implementing readout logic for the GET4 which is supposed to be part of the ToF detector. Furthermore, we fully support both Ethernet and Optical transport as two transparent solutions. The usage of a strict modularization of the Read Out Controller enables us to provide an Universal ROC where front-end specific logic and transport logic can be combined in a very flexible way. Fault tolerance techniques are only required for some of those modules and hence are only implemented there.

  16. Dispersive Readout of Adiabatic Phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Sigmund

    2017-11-01

    We propose a protocol for the measurement of adiabatic phases of periodically driven quantum systems coupled to an open cavity that enables dispersive readout. It turns out that the cavity transmission exhibits peaks at frequencies determined by a resonance condition that involves the dynamical and the geometric phase. Since these phases scale differently with the driving frequency, one can determine them by fitting the peak positions to the theoretically expected behavior. For the derivation of the resonance condition and for a numerical study, we develop a Floquet theory for the dispersive readout of ac driven quantum systems. The feasibility is demonstrated for two test cases that generalize Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference to two-parameter driving.

  17. A radiation-tolerant electronic readout system for portal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Östling, J.; Brahme, A.; Danielsson, M.; Iacobaeus, C.; Peskov, V.

    2004-06-01

    A new electronic portal imaging device, EPID, is under development at the Karolinska Institutet and the Royal Institute of Technology. Due to considerable demands on radiation tolerance in the radiotherapy environment, a dedicated electronic readout system has been designed. The most interesting aspect of the readout system is that it allows to read out ˜1000 pixels in parallel, with all electronics placed outside the radiation beam—making the detector more radiation resistant. In this work we are presenting the function of a small prototype (6×100 pixels) of the electronic readout board that has been tested. Tests were made with continuous X-rays (10-60 keV) and with α particles. The results show that, without using an optimised gas mixture and with an early prototype only, the electronic readout system still works very well.

  18. Recent developments for the upgrade of the LHCb readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cachemiche, J. P.; Y Duval, P.; Hachon, F.; Le Gac, R.; Réthoré, F.

    2013-02-01

    The upgraded LHCb readout system aims at a trigger-free readout of the entire detector at the bunch-crossing rate. This implies a major architectural change for the readout system that must capture the data at 40 MHz instead of 1 MHz. One of the key components of this upgrade system is the readout board. The LHCb collaboration has chosen to evaluate the ATCA architecture as form-factor for the readout board. The readout system architecture relies on a unique board able to satisfy all the requirements for data transmission, timing and fast control as well as experiment control system. A generic ATCA carrier board has been developped. It is equipped with four dense AMC mezzanines able to interface a total of 144 bidirectional optical links at up to 10 Gbits/s. This board embeds 4 high end Stratix V GX devices for data processing and a programmable set of commutation functions allowing to reconfigure the connectivity of the system in a flexible way. The overall architecture will be presented and how the cards map over each functionality. First results and measurements will be described in particular those related to the use of new highly integrated optical devices. At last we will present the incremental development methodology used in this project.

  19. Read-out electronics for DC squid magnetic measurements

    DOEpatents

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R.; Snapp, Lowell D.

    2002-01-01

    Read-out electronics for DC SQUID sensor systems, the read-out electronics incorporating low Johnson noise radio-frequency flux-locked loop circuitry and digital signal processing algorithms in order to improve upon the prior art by a factor of at least ten, thereby alleviating problems caused by magnetic interference when operating DC SQUID sensor systems in magnetically unshielded environments.

  20. Quantum nondemolition readout using a Josephson bifurcation amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulant, N.; Ithier, G.; Meeson, P.; Nguyen, F.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Siddiqi, I.; Vijay, R.; Rigetti, C.; Pierre, F.; Devoret, M.

    2007-07-01

    We report an experiment on the determination of the quantum nondemolition (QND) nature of a readout scheme of a quantum electrical circuit. The circuit is a superconducting quantum bit measured by microwave reflectometry using a Josephson bifurcation amplifier. We perform a series of two subsequent measurements, record their values and correlation, and quantify the QND character of this readout.

  1. Online readout and control unit for high-speed/high resolution readout of silicon tracking detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürger, J.; Hansen, K.; Lange, W.; Nowak, T.; Prell, S.; Zimmermann, W.

    1997-02-01

    We are describing a high speed VME readout and control module developed and presently working at the H1 experiment at DESY in Hamburg. It has the capability to read out 4 × 2048 analogue data channels at sampling rates up to 10 MHz with a dynamic input range of 1 V. The nominal resolution of the A/D converters can be adjusted between 8 and 12 bit. At the latter resolution we obtain signal-to-noise ratio better than 61.4 dB at a conversion rate of 5 MSps. At this data rate all 8192 detector channels can be read out to the internal raw data memory and VME interface within about 410 μs and 510 μs, respectively. The pedestal subtracted signals can be analyzed on-line. At a raw data hit occupation of 10%, the VME readout time is 50 μs per module. Each module provides four complementary CMOS signals to control the front-end electronics and four independent sets of power supplies for analogue and digital voltages (10 V, 100 mA) to drive the front-end electronics and for the bias voltage (100 V, 1.2 mA) to assure the full functionality of the detectors and the readout.

  2. Dual-readout calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sehwook; Livan, Michele; Wigmans, Richard

    2018-04-01

    In the past 20 years, dual-readout calorimetry has emerged as a technique for measuring the properties of high-energy hadrons and hadron jets that offers considerable advantages compared with the instruments that are currently used for this purpose in experiments at the high-energy frontier. The status of this experimental technique and the challenges faced for its further development are reviewed.

  3. The charge pump PLL clock generator designed for the 1.56 ns bin size time-to-digital converter pixel array of the Timepix3 readout ASIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Y.; Brezina, C.; Desch, K.; Poikela, T.; Llopart, X.; Campbell, M.; Massimiliano, D.; Gromov, V.; Kluit, R.; van Beauzekom, M.; Zappon, F.; Zivkovic, V.

    2014-01-01

    Timepix3 is a newly developed pixel readout chip which is expected to be operated in a wide range of gaseous and silicon detectors. It is made of 256 × 256 pixels organized in a square pixel-array with 55 μm pitch. Oscillators running at 640 MHz are distributed across the pixel-array and allow for a highly accurate measurement of the arrival time of a hit. This paper concentrates on a low-jitter phase locked loop (PLL) that is located in the chip periphery. This PLL provides a control voltage which regulates the actual frequency of the individual oscillators, allowing for compensation of process, voltage, and temperature variations.

  4. Centroid Position as a Function of Total Counts in a Windowed CMOS Image of a Point Source

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wurtz, R E; Olivier, S; Riot, V

    2010-05-27

    We obtained 960,200 22-by-22-pixel windowed images of a pinhole spot using the Teledyne H2RG CMOS detector with un-cooled SIDECAR readout. We performed an analysis to determine the precision we might expect in the position error signals to a telescope's guider system. We find that, under non-optimized operating conditions, the error in the computed centroid is strongly dependent on the total counts in the point image only below a certain threshold, approximately 50,000 photo-electrons. The LSST guider camera specification currently requires a 0.04 arcsecond error at 10 Hertz. Given the performance measured here, this specification can be delivered with a singlemore » star at 14th to 18th magnitude, depending on the passband.« less

  5. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bolotnikov, A. E., E-mail: bolotnik@bnl.gov; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm{sup 3} detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We presentmore » the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.« less

  6. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras.

    PubMed

    Bolotnikov, A E; Ackley, K; Camarda, G S; Cherches, C; Cui, Y; De Geronimo, G; Fried, J; Hodges, D; Hossain, A; Lee, W; Mahler, G; Maritato, M; Petryk, M; Roy, U; Salwen, C; Vernon, E; Yang, G; James, R B

    2015-07-01

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors coupled to a front-end readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6 × 6 × 15 mm(3) detectors grouped into 3 × 3 sub-arrays of 2 × 2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readout electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays' performance and reduction of their cost are possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.

  7. Characterisation of the high dynamic range Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and its use at X-ray free electron laser sources

    DOE PAGES

    Veale, M. C.; Adkin, P.; Booker, P.; ...

    2017-12-04

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have delivered the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) for MHz frame rate imaging at the European XFEL. The detector system has an active area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m and consists of a million pixels on a 500 μm pitch. Sensors have been produced from 500 μm thick Hammamatsu silicon tiles that have been bump bonded to the readout ASIC using a silver epoxy and gold stud technique. Each pixel of the detector system is capable of measuring 10 5 12 keV photons per image readout at 4.5 MHz. In this paper results from themore » testing of these detectors at the Diamond Light Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are presented. As a result, the performance of the detector in terms of linearity, spatial uniformity and the performance of the different ASIC gain stages is characterised.« less

  8. ePix: a class of architectures for second generation LCLS cameras

    DOE PAGES

    Dragone, A.; Caragiulo, P.; Markovic, B.; ...

    2014-03-31

    ePix is a novel class of ASIC architectures, based on a common platform, optimized to build modular scalable detectors for LCLS. The platform architecture is composed of a random access analog matrix of pixel with global shutter, fast parallel column readout, and dedicated sigma-delta analog-to-digital converters per column. It also implements a dedicated control interface and all the required support electronics to perform configuration, calibration and readout of the matrix. Based on this platform a class of front-end ASICs and several camera modules, meeting different requirements, can be developed by designing specific pixel architectures. This approach reduces development time andmore » expands the possibility of integration of detector modules with different size, shape or functionality in the same camera. The ePix platform is currently under development together with the first two integrating pixel architectures: ePix100 dedicated to ultra low noise applications and ePix10k for high dynamic range applications.« less

  9. Characterisation of the high dynamic range Large Pixel Detector (LPD) and its use at X-ray free electron laser sources

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Veale, M. C.; Adkin, P.; Booker, P.

    The STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory have delivered the Large Pixel Detector (LPD) for MHz frame rate imaging at the European XFEL. The detector system has an active area of 0.5 m × 0.5 m and consists of a million pixels on a 500 μm pitch. Sensors have been produced from 500 μm thick Hammamatsu silicon tiles that have been bump bonded to the readout ASIC using a silver epoxy and gold stud technique. Each pixel of the detector system is capable of measuring 10 5 12 keV photons per image readout at 4.5 MHz. In this paper results from themore » testing of these detectors at the Diamond Light Source and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) are presented. As a result, the performance of the detector in terms of linearity, spatial uniformity and the performance of the different ASIC gain stages is characterised.« less

  10. Focal plane infrared readout circuit with automatic background suppression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata (Inventor); Yang, Guang (Inventor); Sun, Chao (Inventor); Shaw, Timothy J. (Inventor); Wrigley, Chris J. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A circuit for reading out a signal from an infrared detector includes a current-mode background-signal subtracting circuit having a current memory which can be enabled to sample and store a dark level signal from the infrared detector during a calibration phase. The signal stored by the current memory is subtracted from a signal received from the infrared detector during an imaging phase. The circuit also includes a buffered direct injection input circuit and a differential voltage readout section. By performing most of the background signal estimation and subtraction in a current mode, a low gain can be provided by the buffered direct injection input circuit to keep the gain of the background signal relatively small, while a higher gain is provided by the differential voltage readout circuit. An array of such readout circuits can be used in an imager having an array of infrared detectors. The readout circuits can provide a high effective handling capacity.

  11. Digital radiography using amorphous selenium: photoconductively activated switch (PAS) readout system.

    PubMed

    Reznik, Nikita; Komljenovic, Philip T; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, John A

    2008-03-01

    A new amorphous selenium (a-Se) digital radiography detector is introduced. The proposed detector generates a charge image in the a-Se layer in a conventional manner, which is stored on electrode pixels at the surface of the a-Se layer. A novel method, called photoconductively activated switch (PAS), is used to read out the latent x-ray charge image. The PAS readout method uses lateral photoconduction at the a-Se surface which is a revolutionary modification of the bulk photoinduced discharge (PID) methods. The PAS method addresses and eliminates the fundamental weaknesses of the PID methods--long readout times and high readout noise--while maintaining the structural simplicity and high resolution for which PID optical readout systems are noted. The photoconduction properties of the a-Se surface were investigated and the geometrical design for the electrode pixels for a PAS radiography system was determined. This design was implemented in a single pixel PAS evaluation system. The results show that the PAS x-ray induced output charge signal was reproducible and depended linearly on the x-ray exposure in the diagnostic exposure range. Furthermore, the readout was reasonably rapid (10 ms for pixel discharge). The proposed detector allows readout of half a pixel row at a time (odd pixels followed by even pixels), thus permitting the readout of a complete image in 30 s for a 40 cm x 40 cm detector with the potential of reducing that time by using greater readout light intensity. This demonstrates that a-Se based x-ray detectors using photoconductively activated switches could form a basis for a practical integrated digital radiography system.

  12. Splitter board for steamer tube readout at the SLD

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Castro, A.

    1989-10-01

    This paper presents a controller board designed as a part of the data acquisition system for the readout of limited streamer tube strips in the warm iron calorimeter for the SLD detector. The board controls the data readout and allows for remote setting and diagnostic of the system.

  13. Optimal CCD readout by digital correlated double sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandri, C.; Abusleme, A.; Guzman, D.; Passalacqua, I.; Alvarez-Fontecilla, E.; Guarini, M.

    2016-01-01

    Digital correlated double sampling (DCDS), a readout technique for charge-coupled devices (CCD), is gaining popularity in astronomical applications. By using an oversampling ADC and a digital filter, a DCDS system can achieve a better performance than traditional analogue readout techniques at the expense of a more complex system analysis. Several attempts to analyse and optimize a DCDS system have been reported, but most of the work presented in the literature has been experimental. Some approximate analytical tools have been presented for independent parameters of the system, but the overall performance and trade-offs have not been yet modelled. Furthermore, there is disagreement among experimental results that cannot be explained by the analytical tools available. In this work, a theoretical analysis of a generic DCDS readout system is presented, including key aspects such as the signal conditioning stage, the ADC resolution, the sampling frequency and the digital filter implementation. By using a time-domain noise model, the effect of the digital filter is properly modelled as a discrete-time process, thus avoiding the imprecision of continuous-time approximations that have been used so far. As a result, an accurate, closed-form expression for the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the readout system is reached. This expression can be easily optimized in order to meet a set of specifications for a given CCD, thus providing a systematic design methodology for an optimal readout system. Simulated results are presented to validate the theory, obtained with both time- and frequency-domain noise generation models for completeness.

  14. On readout of vibrational qubits using quantum beats

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shyshlov, Dmytro; Babikov, Dmitri, E-mail: Dmitri.Babikov@mu.edu; Berrios, Eduardo

    2014-12-14

    Readout of the final states of qubits is a crucial step towards implementing quantum computation in experiment. Although not scalable to large numbers of qubits per molecule, computational studies show that molecular vibrations could provide a significant (factor 2–5 in the literature) increase in the number of qubits compared to two-level systems. In this theoretical work, we explore the process of readout from vibrational qubits in thiophosgene molecule, SCCl{sub 2}, using quantum beat oscillations. The quantum beats are measured by first exciting the superposition of the qubit-encoding vibrational states to the electronically excited readout state with variable time-delay pulses. Themore » resulting oscillation of population of the readout state is then detected as a function of time delay. In principle, fitting the quantum beat signal by an analytical expression should allow extracting the values of probability amplitudes and the relative phases of the vibrational qubit states. However, we found that if this procedure is implemented using the standard analytic expression for quantum beats, a non-negligible phase error is obtained. We discuss the origin and properties of this phase error, and propose a new analytical expression to correct the phase error. The corrected expression fits the quantum beat signal very accurately, which may permit reading out the final state of vibrational qubits in experiments by combining the analytic fitting expression with numerical modelling of the readout process. The new expression is also useful as a simple model for fitting any quantum beat experiments where more accurate phase information is desired.« less

  15. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  16. Spectral contents readout of birefringent sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redner, Alex S.

    1989-01-01

    The technical objective of this research program was to develop a birefringent sensor, capable of measuring strain/stress up to 2000 F and a readout system based on Spectral Contents analysis. As a result of the research work, a data acquisition system was developed, capable of measuring strain birefringence in a sensor at 2000 F, with multi-point static and dynamic capabilities. The system uses a dedicated spectral analyzer for evaluation of stress-birefringence and a PC-based readout. Several sensor methods were evaluated. Fused silica was found most satisfactory. In the final evaluation, measurements were performed up to 2000 F and the system performance exceeded expectations.

  17. Infrared readout electronics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Apr. 21, 22, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    The present volume on IR readout electronics discusses cryogenic readout using silicon devices, cryogenic readout using III-V and LTS devices, multiplexers for higher temperatures, and focal-plane signal processing electronics. Attention is given to the optimization of cryogenic CMOS processes for sub-10-K applications, cryogenic measurements of aerojet GaAs n-JFETs, inP-based heterostructure device technology for ultracold readout applications, and a three-terminal semiconductor-superconductor transimpedance amplifier. Topics addressed include unfulfilled needs in IR astronomy focal-plane readout electronics, IR readout integrated circuit technology for tactical missile systems, and radiation-hardened 10-bit A/D for FPA signal processing. Also discussed are the implementation of a noise reduction circuit for spaceflight IR spectrometers, a real-time processor for staring receivers, and a fiber-optic link design for INMOS transputers.

  18. Hyper Suprime-Cam: development of the CCD readout electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Hidehiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Miyatake, Hironao; Fujimori, Hiroki; Mineo, Sogo; Aihara, Hiroaki; Furusawa, Hisanori; Kamata, Yukiko; Karoji, Hiroshi; Kawanomoto, Satoshi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Morokuma, Tomoki; Obuchi, Yoshiyuki; Okura, Yuki; Tanaka, Manobu; Tanaka, Yoko; Uraguchi, Fumihiro; Utsumi, Yosuke

    2010-07-01

    Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) employs 116 of 2k×4k CCDs with 464 signal outputs in total. The image size exceeds 2 GBytes, and the data can be readout every 10 seconds which results in the data rate of 210 Mbytes / sec. The data is digitized to 16-bit. The readout noise of the electronics at the readout time of 20 seconds is ~0.9 ADU, and the one with CCD is ~1.5 ADU which corresponds to ~4.5 e. The linearity error fits within +/- 0.5 % up to 150,000 e. The CCD readout electronics for HSC was newly developed based on the electronics for Suprime-Cam. The frontend electronics (FEE) is placed in the vacuum dewar, and the backend electronics (BEE) is mounted on the outside of the dewar on the prime focus unit. The FEE boards were designed to minimize the outgas and to maximize the heat transfer efficiency to keep the vacuum of the dewar. The BEE boards were designed to be simple and small as long as to achieve the readout time within 10 seconds. The production of the system has been finished, and the full set of the boards are being tested with several CCDs installed in the HSC dewar. We will show the system design, performance, and the current status of the development.

  19. CMOS Active-Pixel Image Sensor With Intensity-Driven Readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langenbacher, Harry T.; Fossum, Eric R.; Kemeny, Sabrina

    1996-01-01

    Proposed complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated-circuit image sensor automatically provides readouts from pixels in order of decreasing illumination intensity. Sensor operated in integration mode. Particularly useful in number of image-sensing tasks, including diffractive laser range-finding, three-dimensional imaging, event-driven readout of sparse sensor arrays, and star tracking.

  20. Comparison of two optimized readout chains for low light CIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhayma, A.; Peizerat, A.; Dupret, A.; Enz, C.

    2014-03-01

    We compare the noise performance of two optimized readout chains that are based on 4T pixels and featuring the same bandwidth of 265kHz (enough to read 1Megapixel with 50frame/s). Both chains contain a 4T pixel, a column amplifier and a single slope analog-to-digital converter operating a CDS. In one case, the pixel operates in source follower configuration, and in common source configuration in the other case. Based on analytical noise calculation of both readout chains, an optimization methodology is presented. Analytical results are confirmed by transient simulations using 130nm process. A total input referred noise bellow 0.4 electrons RMS is reached for a simulated conversion gain of 160μV/e-. Both optimized readout chains show the same input referred 1/f noise. The common source based readout chain shows better performance for thermal noise and requires smaller silicon area. We discuss the possible drawbacks of the common source configuration and provide the reader with a comparative table between the two readout chains. The table contains several variants (column amplifier gain, in-pixel transistor sizes and type).

  1. Improved On-Chip Measurement of Delay in an FPGA or ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Burke, Gary; Sheldon, Douglas

    2007-01-01

    An improved design has been devised for on-chip-circuitry for measuring the delay through a chain of combinational logic elements in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) or application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). In the improved design, the delay chain does not include input and output buffers and is not configured as an oscillator. Instead, the delay chain is made part of the signal chain of an on-chip pulse generator. The duration of the pulse is measured on-chip and taken to equal the delay.

  2. Accounting for Dark Current Accumulated during Readout of Hubble's ACS/WFC Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryon, Jenna E.; Grogin, Norman A.; Coe, Dan A.; ACS Team

    2018-06-01

    We investigate the properties of excess dark current accumulated during the 100-second full-frame readout of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Wide Field Channel (WFC) detectors. This excess dark current, called "readout dark", gives rise to ambient background gradients and hot columns in each ACS/WFC image. While readout dark signal is removed from science images during the bias correction step in CALACS, the additional noise from the readout dark is currently not taken into account. We develop a method to estimate the readout dark noise properties in ACS/WFC observations. We update the error (ERR) extensions of superbias images to include the appropriate noise from the ambient readout dark gradient and stable hot columns. In recent data, this amounts to about 5 e-/pixel added variance in the rows farthest from the WFC serial registers, and about 7 to 30 e-/pixel added variance along the stable hot columns. We also flag unstable hot columns in the superbias data quality (DQ) extensions. The new reference file pipeline for ACS/WFC implements these updates to our superbias creation process.

  3. PFM2: a 32 × 32 processor for X-ray diffraction imaging at FELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manghisoni, M.; Fabris, L.; Re, V.; Traversi, G.; Ratti, L.; Grassi, M.; Lodola, L.; Malcovati, P.; Vacchi, C.; Pancheri, L.; Benkechcache, M. E. A.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Xu, H.; Verzellesi, G.; Ronchin, S.; Boscardin, M.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Casarosa, G.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M.; Paladino, A.; Paoloni, E.; Rizzo, G.; Morsani, F.

    2016-11-01

    This work is concerned with the design of a readout chip for application to experiments at the next generation X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FEL). The ASIC, named PixFEL Matrix (PFM2), has been designed in a 65 nm CMOS technology and consists of 32 × 32 pixels. Each cell covers an area of 110 × 110 μm2 and includes a low-noise charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) with dynamic signal compression, a time-variant shaper used to process the preamplifier output signal, a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and digital circuitry for channel control and data readout. Two different solutions for the readout channel, based on different versions of the time-variant filter, have been integrated in the chip. Both solutions can be operated in such a way to cope with the high frame rate (exceeding 1 MHz) foreseen for future X-ray FEL machines. The ASIC will be bump bonded to a slim/active edge pixel sensor to form the first demonstrator for the PixFEL X-ray imager. This work has been carried out in the frame of the PixFEL project funded by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Italy.

  4. Microwave SQUID Multiplexer for the Readout of Metallic Magnetic Calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kempf, S.; Gastaldo, L.; Fleischmann, A.; Enss, C.

    2014-06-01

    We have realized a frequency-domain multiplexing technique for the readout of large metallic magnetic calorimeter detector arrays. It is based on non-hysteretic single-junction SQUIDs and allows for a simultaneous readout of hundreds or thousands of detectors by using a single cryogenic high electron mobility transistor amplifier and two coaxial cables that are routed from room-temperature to the detector array. We discuss the working principle of the multiplexer and present details about our prototype multiplexer design. We show that fabricated devices are fully operational and that characteristic SQUID parameters such as the input sensitivity of the SQUID or the resonance frequency of the readout circuit can be predicted with confidence. Our best device so far has shown a magnetic flux white noise level of 1.4 m which can in future be reduced by an optimization of the fabrication processes as well as an improved microwave readout system.

  5. A PCIe Gen3 based readout for the LHCb upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellato, M.; Collazuol, G.; D'Antone, I.; Durante, P.; Galli, D.; Jost, B.; Lax, I.; Liu, G.; Marconi, U.; Neufeld, N.; Schwemmer, R.; Vagnoni, V.

    2014-06-01

    The architecture of the data acquisition system foreseen for the LHCb upgrade, to be installed by 2018, is devised to readout events trigger-less, synchronously with the LHC bunch crossing rate at 40 MHz. Within this approach the readout boards act as a bridge between the front-end electronics and the High Level Trigger (HLT) computing farm. The baseline design for the LHCb readout is an ATCA board requiring dedicated crates. A local area standard network protocol is implemented in the on-board FPGAs to read out the data. The alternative solution proposed here consists in building the readout boards as PCIe peripherals of the event-builder servers. The main architectural advantage is that protocol and link-technology of the event-builder can be left open until very late, to profit from the most cost-effective industry technology available at the time of the LHC LS2.

  6. Embedded controller for GEM detector readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabołotny, Wojciech M.; Byszuk, Adrian; Chernyshova, Maryna; Cieszewski, Radosław; Czarski, Tomasz; Dominik, Wojciech; Jakubowska, Katarzyna L.; Kasprowicz, Grzegorz; Poźniak, Krzysztof; Rzadkiewicz, Jacek; Scholz, Marek

    2013-10-01

    This paper describes the embedded controller used for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector. The controller is based on the embedded Mini ITX mainboard, running the GNU/Linux operating system. The controller offers two interfaces to communicate with the FPGA based readout system. FPGA configuration and diagnostics is controlled via low speed USB based interface, while high-speed setup of the readout parameters and reception of the measured data is handled by the PCI Express (PCIe) interface. Hardware access is synchronized by the dedicated server written in C. Multiple clients may connect to this server via TCP/IP network, and different priority is assigned to individual clients. Specialized protocols have been implemented both for low level access on register level and for high level access with transfer of structured data with "msgpack" protocol. High level functionalities have been split between multiple TCP/IP servers for parallel operation. Status of the system may be checked, and basic maintenance may be performed via web interface, while the expert access is possible via SSH server. System was designed with reliability and flexibility in mind.

  7. Role of peripheral sigma-1 receptors in ischaemic pain: Potential interactions with ASIC and P2X receptors.

    PubMed

    Kwon, S G; Roh, D H; Yoon, S Y; Choi, S R; Choi, H S; Moon, J Y; Kang, S Y; Kim, H W; Han, H J; Beitz, A J; Oh, S B; Lee, J H

    2016-04-01

    The role of peripheral sigma-1 receptors (Sig-1Rs) in normal nociception and in pathologically induced pain conditions has not been thoroughly investigated. Since there is mounting evidence that Sig-1Rs modulate ischaemia-induced pathological conditions, we investigated the role of Sig-1Rs in ischaemia-induced mechanical allodynia (MA) and addressed their possible interaction with acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and P2X receptors at the ischaemic site. We used a rodent model of hindlimb thrombus-induced ischaemic pain (TIIP) to investigate their role. Western blot was performed to observe changes in Sig-1R expression in peripheral nervous tissues. MA was measured after intraplantar (i.pl.) injections of antagonists for the Sig-1, ASIC and P2X receptors in TIIP rats or agonists of each receptor in naïve rats. Sig-1R expression significantly increased in skin, sciatic nerve and dorsal root ganglia at 3 days post-TIIP surgery. I.pl. injections of the Sig-1R antagonist, BD-1047 on post-operative days 0-3 significantly attenuated the development of MA during the induction phase, but had no effect on MA when given during the maintenance phase (days 3-6 post-surgery). BD-1047 synergistically increased amiloride (an ASICs blocker)- and TNP-ATP (a P2X antagonist)-induced analgesic effects in TIIP rats. In naïve rats, i.pl. injection of Sig-1R agonist PRE-084 alone did not produce MA; but it did induce MA when co-administered with either an acidic pH solution or a sub-effective dose of αβmeATP. Peripheral Sig-1Rs contribute to the induction of ischaemia-induced MA via facilitation of ASICs and P2X receptors. Thus, peripheral Sig-1Rs represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of ischaemic pain. © 2015 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  8. Frequency division multiplexed readout of TES detectors with baseband feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    den Hartog, R.; Audley, M. D.; Beyer, J.; Bruijn, M. P.; de Korte, P.; Gottardi, L.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Nieuwenhuizen, A.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B.-J.; Van Loon, D.

    2012-09-01

    SRON is developing an electronic system for the multiplexed read-out of an array of transition edge sensors (TES) by combining the techniques of frequency domain multiplexing (FDM) with base-band feedback (BBFB). The astronomical applications are the read-out of soft X-ray microcalorimeters and the far-infrared bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In this paper we derive the requirements for the read-out system regarding noise and dynamic range in the context of the SAFARI instrument, and demonstrate that the current experimental prototype is capable of simultaneously locking 57 channels and complies with these requirements.

  9. Cavity-Enhanced Optical Readout of a Single Solid-State Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuo; Kim, Hyochul; Solomon, Glenn S.; Waks, Edo

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate optical readout of a single spin using cavity quantum electrodynamics. The spin is based on a single trapped electron in a quantum dot that has a poor branching ratio of 0.43. Selectively coupling one of the optical transitions of the quantum dot to the cavity mode results in a spin-dependent cavity reflectivity that enables spin readout by monitoring the reflected intensity of an incident optical field. Using this approach, we demonstrate spin-readout fidelity of 0.61. Achieving this fidelity using resonance fluorescence from a bare dot would require 43 times improvement in photon collection efficiency.

  10. Sources of noise in magneto-optical readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mansuripur, M.

    1991-01-01

    The various sources of noise which are often encountered in magneto-optical readout systems are analyzed. Although the focus is on magneto-optics, most sources of noise are common among the various optical recording systems and one can easily adapt the results to other media and systems. A description of the magneto-optical readout system under consideration is given, and the standard methods and the relevant terminology of signal and noise measurement are described. The characteristics of thermal noise, which originates in the electronic circuitry of the readout system, are described. The most fundamental of all sources of noise, the shot noise, is considered, and a detailed account of its statistical properties is given. Shot noise, which is due to random fluctuations in photon arrival times, is an ever-present noise in optical detection. Since the performance of magneto-optical recording devices in use today is approaching the limit imposed by the shot noise, it is important that the reader have a good grasp of this particular source of noise. A model for the laser noise is described, and measurement results which yield numerical values for the strength of the laser power fluctuations are presented. Spatial variations of the disk reflectivity and random depolarization phenomena also contribute to the overall level of noise in readout; these and related issues are treated. Numerical simulation results describing some of the more frequently encountered sources of noise which accompany the recorded waveform itself, namely, jitter noise and signal-amplitude fluctuation noise are presented.

  11. The Philosophy and Feasibility of Dual Readout Calorimetry

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Hauptman, John

    2006-10-27

    I will discuss the general physical ideas behind dual-readout calorimetry, their implementation in DREAM (Dual REAdout Module) with exact separation of scintillation and Cerenkov light, implementation with mixed light in DREAM fibers, anticipated implementation in PbWO4 crystals with applications to the 4th Concept detector and to CMS, use in high energy gamma-ray and cosmic ray astrophysics with Cerenkov and N2 fluorescent light, and implementation in the 4th Concept detector for muon identification.

  12. ASIC-based architecture for the real-time computation of 2D convolution with large kernel size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Rui; Zhong, Sheng; Yan, Luxin

    2015-12-01

    Bidimensional convolution is a low-level processing algorithm of interest in many areas, but its high computational cost constrains the size of the kernels, especially in real-time embedded systems. This paper presents a hardware architecture for the ASIC-based implementation of 2-D convolution with medium-large kernels. Aiming to improve the efficiency of storage resources on-chip, reducing off-chip bandwidth of these two issues, proposed construction of a data cache reuse. Multi-block SPRAM to cross cached images and the on-chip ping-pong operation takes full advantage of the data convolution calculation reuse, design a new ASIC data scheduling scheme and overall architecture. Experimental results show that the structure can achieve 40× 32 size of template real-time convolution operations, and improve the utilization of on-chip memory bandwidth and on-chip memory resources, the experimental results show that the structure satisfies the conditions to maximize data throughput output , reducing the need for off-chip memory bandwidth.

  13. A Concept for Power Cycling the Electronics of CALICE-AHCAL with the Train Structure of ILC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Göottlicher, Peter; The Calice-Collaboration

    Particle flow algorithm calorimetry requires high granularity three-dimensional readout. The tight power requirement of 40 μW/channel is reached by enabling readout ASIC currents only during beam delivery, corresponding to a 1% duty cycle. EMI noise caused by current switching needs to be minimized by the power system and this paper presents ideas, simulations and first measurements for minimizing disturbances. A carefully design of circuits, printed circuit boards, grounding scheme and use of floating supplies allows current loops to be closed locally, stabilized voltages and minimal currents in the metal structures.

  14. Design of the Readout Electronics for the BGO Calorimeter of DAMPE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Changqing; Zhang, Deliang; Zhang, Junbin; Gao, Shanshan; Yang, Di; Zhang, Yunlong; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Shubin; An, Qi

    2015-12-01

    The DAMPE (DArk Matter Particle Explorer) is a scientific satellite being developed in China, aimed at cosmic ray study, gamma ray astronomy, and searching for the clue of dark matter particles in the near future. The BGO (Bismuth Germanate Oxide) Calorimeter, which consists of 616 PMTs (photomultiplier tubes) and 1848 dynode signals, is a crucial part of the DAMPE payload for measuring the energy of cosmic ray particles, distinguishing interesting particles from background, and providing trigger information. An electronics system, which consists of 16 FEE (Front End Electronics) modules with a total power consumption of about 26 W, has been developed. Its main functions are based on the low power, 32-channel VA160 and VATA160 ASICs (Application Specific Integrated Circuits) for precisely measuring the charge of PMT signals and providing“hit”signals as well. To assure the long-term reliability in harsh space environment, a series of critical issues such as the radiation hardness, thermal design, components and board level quality control, etc., are taken into consideration. Test result showed that the system level ENC (equivalent noise charge) for each channel is about 10 fC in RMS (root mean square), and the timing uncertainty of the hit signals is about 300 ns, both of which satisfy the physics requirements of the detector. Experiments with 60Co radioactive source proved that 20 krad(Si) TID (Total Ionizing Dose) level is achieved, while the heavy ion beam and laser beam tests indicated that its SEL (Single Event Latch-up) and SEU (Single Event Upset) performance in orbit will be acceptable by taking some hardness measures. All the readout modules successfully passed the board-level screening, the sub-system level and finally the satellite system level environmental tests, and behave well in the beam test at CERN (European Organisation for Nuclear Research).

  15. O-space with high resolution readouts outperforms radial imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haifeng; Tam, Leo; Kopanoglu, Emre; Peters, Dana C; Constable, R Todd; Galiana, Gigi

    2017-04-01

    While O-Space imaging is well known to accelerate image acquisition beyond traditional Cartesian sampling, its advantages compared to undersampled radial imaging, the linear trajectory most akin to O-Space imaging, have not been detailed. In addition, previous studies have focused on ultrafast imaging with very high acceleration factors and relatively low resolution. The purpose of this work is to directly compare O-Space and radial imaging in their potential to deliver highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts, as needed for diagnostic applications. We report that the greatest advantages to O-Space imaging are observed with extended data acquisition readouts. A sampling strategy that uses high resolution readouts is presented and applied to compare the potential of radial and O-Space sequences to generate high resolution images at high undersampling factors. Simulations and phantom studies were performed to investigate whether use of extended readout windows in O-Space imaging would increase k-space sampling and improve image quality, compared to radial imaging. Experimental O-Space images acquired with high resolution readouts show fewer artifacts and greater sharpness than radial imaging with equivalent scan parameters. Radial images taken with longer readouts show stronger undersampling artifacts, which can cause small or subtle image features to disappear. These features are preserved in a comparable O-Space image. High resolution O-Space imaging yields highly undersampled images of high resolution and minimal artifacts. The additional nonlinear gradient field improves image quality beyond conventional radial imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, Ted

    1982-01-01

    A measuring system is disclosed for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principal use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse or fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  17. Automatic readout micrometer

    DOEpatents

    Lauritzen, T.

    A measuring system is described for surveying and very accurately positioning objects with respect to a reference line. A principle use of this surveying system is for accurately aligning the electromagnets which direct a particle beam emitted from a particle accelerator. Prior art surveying systems require highly skilled surveyors. Prior art systems include, for example, optical surveying systems which are susceptible to operator reading errors, and celestial navigation-type surveying systems, with their inherent complexities. The present invention provides an automatic readout micrometer which can very accurately measure distances. The invention has a simplicity of operation which practically eliminates the possibilities of operator optical reading error, owning to the elimination of traditional optical alignments for making measurements. The invention has an extendable arm which carries a laser surveying target. The extendable arm can be continuously positioned over its entire length of travel by either a coarse of fine adjustment without having the fine adjustment outrun the coarse adjustment until a reference laser beam is centered on the target as indicated by a digital readout. The length of the micrometer can then be accurately and automatically read by a computer and compared with a standardized set of alignment measurements. Due to its construction, the micrometer eliminates any errors due to temperature changes when the system is operated within a standard operating temperature range.

  18. Preliminary Assessment of Microwave Readout Multiplexing Factor

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Croce, Mark Philip; Koehler, Katrina Elizabeth; Rabin, Michael W.

    2017-01-23

    Ultra-high resolution microcalorimeter gamma spectroscopy is a new non-destructive assay technology for measurement of plutonium isotopic composition, with the potential to reduce total measurement uncertainty to a level competitive with destructive analysis methods [1-4]. Achieving this level of performance in practical applications requires not only the energy resolution now routinely achieved with transition-edge sensor microcalorimeter arrays (an order of magnitude better than for germanium detectors) but also high throughput. Microcalorimeter gamma spectrometers have not yet achieved detection efficiency and count rate capability that is comparable to germanium detectors, largely because of limits from existing readout technology. Microcalorimeter detectors must bemore » operated at low temperature to achieve their exceptional energy resolution. Although the typical 100 mK operating temperatures can be achieved with reliable, cryogen-free systems, the cryogenic complexity and heat load from individual readout channels for large sensor arrays is prohibitive. Multiplexing is required for practical systems. The most mature multiplexing technology at present is time-division multiplexing (TDM) [3, 5-6]. In TDM, the sensor outputs are switched by applying bias current to one SQUID amplifier at a time. Transition-edge sensor (TES) microcalorimeter arrays as large as 256 pixels have been developed for X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy using TDM technology. Due to bandwidth limits and noise scaling, TDM is limited to a maximum multiplexing factor of approximately 32-40 sensors on one readout line [8]. Increasing the size of microcalorimeter arrays above the kilopixel scale, required to match the throughput of germanium detectors, requires the development of a new readout technology with a much higher multiplexing factor.« less

  19. Note: Readout of a micromechanical magnetometer for the ITER fusion reactor.

    PubMed

    Rimminen, H; Kyynäräinen, J

    2013-05-01

    We present readout instrumentation for a MEMS magnetometer, placed 30 m away from the MEMS element. This is particularly useful when sensing is performed in high-radiation environment, where the semiconductors in the readout cannot survive. High bandwidth transimpedance amplifiers are used to cancel the cable capacitances of several nanofarads. A frequency doubling readout scheme is used for crosstalk elimination. Signal-to-noise ratio in the range of 60 dB was achieved and with sub-percent nonlinearity. The presented instrument is intended for the steady-state magnetic field measurements in the ITER fusion reactor.

  20. Tunneling Statistics for Analysis of Spin-Readout Fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorman, S. K.; He, Y.; House, M. G.; Keizer, J. G.; Keith, D.; Fricke, L.; Hile, S. J.; Broome, M. A.; Simmons, M. Y.

    2017-09-01

    We investigate spin and charge dynamics of a quantum dot of phosphorus atoms coupled to a radio-frequency single-electron transistor (SET) using full counting statistics. We show how the magnetic field plays a role in determining the bunching or antibunching tunneling statistics of the donor dot and SET system. Using the counting statistics, we show how to determine the lowest magnetic field where spin readout is possible. We then show how such a measurement can be used to investigate and optimize single-electron spin-readout fidelity.

  1. The nuMOIRCS project: detector upgrade overview and early commissioning results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walawender, Josh; Wung, Matthew; Fabricius, Maximilian; Tanaka, Ichi; Arimoto, Nobuo; Cook, David; Elms, Brian; Hashiba, Yasuhito; Hu, Yen-Sang; Iwata, Ikuru; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Omata, Koji; Takato, Naruhisa; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Weber, Mark

    2016-08-01

    In 2014 and 2015 the Multi-Object InfraRed Camera and Spectrograph (MOIRCS) instrument at the Subaru Telescope on Maunakea is underwent a significant modernization and upgrade project. We upgraded the two Hawaii2 detectors to Hawaii2-RG models, modernized the cryogenic temperature control system, and rewrote much of the instrument control software. The detector upgrade replaced the Hawaii2 detectors which use the Tohoku University Focal Plane Array Controller (TUFPAC) electronics with Hawaii2-RG detectors using SIDECAR ASIC (a fully integrated FPA controller system-on-a-chip) and a SAM interface card. We achieved an improvement in read noise by a factor of about 2 with this detector and electronics upgrade. The cryogenic temperature control upgrade focused on modernizing the components and making the procedures for warm up and cool down of the instrument safer. We have moved PID control loops out of the instrument control software and into Lakeshore model 336 cryogenic temperature controllers and have added interlocks on the warming systems to prevent overheating of the instrument. Much of the instrument control software has also been re-written. This was necessitated by the different interface to the detector electronics (ASIC and SAM vs. TUFPAC) and by the desire to modernize the interface to the telescope control software which has been updated to Subaru's "Gen2" system since the time of MOIRCS construction and first light. The new software is also designed to increase reliability of operation of the instrument, decrease overheads, and be easier for night time operators and support astronomers to use.

  2. ChromAIX2: A large area, high count-rate energy-resolving photon counting ASIC for a Spectral CT Prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steadman, Roger; Herrmann, Christoph; Livne, Amir

    2017-08-01

    Spectral CT based on energy-resolving photon counting detectors is expected to deliver additional diagnostic value at a lower dose than current state-of-the-art CT [1]. The capability of simultaneously providing a number of spectrally distinct measurements not only allows distinguishing between photo-electric and Compton interactions but also discriminating contrast agents that exhibit a K-edge discontinuity in the absorption spectrum, referred to as K-edge Imaging [2]. Such detectors are based on direct converting sensors (e.g. CdTe or CdZnTe) and high-rate photon counting electronics. To support the development of Spectral CT and show the feasibility of obtaining rates exceeding 10 Mcps/pixel (Poissonian observed count-rate), the ChromAIX ASIC has been previously reported showing 13.5 Mcps/pixel (150 Mcps/mm2 incident) [3]. The ChromAIX has been improved to offer the possibility of a large area coverage detector, and increased overall performance. The new ASIC is called ChromAIX2, and delivers count-rates exceeding 15 Mcps/pixel with an rms-noise performance of approximately 260 e-. It has an isotropic pixel pitch of 500 μm in an array of 22×32 pixels and is tile-able on three of its sides. The pixel topology consists of a two stage amplifier (CSA and Shaper) and a number of test features allowing to thoroughly characterize the ASIC without a sensor. A total of 5 independent thresholds are also available within each pixel, allowing to acquire 5 spectrally distinct measurements simultaneously. The ASIC also incorporates a baseline restorer to eliminate excess currents induced by the sensor (e.g. dark current and low frequency drifts) which would otherwise cause an energy estimation error. In this paper we report on the inherent electrical performance of the ChromAXI2 as well as measurements obtained with CZT (CdZnTe)/CdTe sensors and X-rays and radioactive sources.

  3. Readout Electronics for the Forward Vertex Detector at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Michael

    2010-11-01

    The PHENIX experiment at RHIC at Brookhaven National Laboratory has been providing high quality physics data for over 10 years. The current PHENIX physics program will be significantly enhanced by addition of the Forward Silicon Vertex upgrade detector (FVTX) in the acceptance of existing muon arm detectors. The proposed tracker is planned to be put into operation in 2012. Each arm of the FVTX detector consist of 4 discs of silicon strip sensors combined with FPHX readout chips, designed at FNAL. The full detector consists of over 1 million active mini-strip channels with instantaneous bandwidth topping 3.4 Tb/s. The FPHX chip utilizes data push architecture with 2 serial output streams at 200 MHz. The readout electronics design consists of Read-Out Cards (ROC) located in the vicinity of the detector and Front End Modules (FEM) located in the Counting House. ROC boards combine the data from several chips, synchronizes data streams and send them to FEM over a Fiber Optics Link. The data are buffered in the FEM and then sent to a standard PHENIX DAQ interface upon Level-1 trigger request. We will present the current status of the readout electronics development and testing, including tests with data from production wedges.

  4. VEGA: A low-power front-end ASIC for large area multi-linear X-ray silicon drift detectors: Design and experimental characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahangarianabhari, Mahdi; Macera, Daniele; Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Malcovati, Piero; Grassi, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present the design and the first experimental characterization of VEGA, an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) designed to read out large area monolithic linear Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD's). VEGA consists of an analog and a digital/mixed-signal section to accomplish all the functionalities and specifications required for high resolution X-ray spectroscopy in the energy range between 500 eV and 50 keV. The analog section includes a charge sensitive preamplifier, a shaper with 3-bit digitally selectable shaping times from 1.6 μs to 6.6 μs and a peak stretcher/sample-and-hold stage. The digital/mixed-signal section includes an amplitude discriminator with coarse and fine threshold level setting, a peak discriminator and a logic circuit to fulfill pile-up rejection, signal sampling, trigger generation, channel reset and the preamplifier and discriminators disabling functionalities. A Serial Peripherical Interface (SPI) is integrated in VEGA for loading and storing all configuration parameters in an internal register within few microseconds. The VEGA ASIC has been designed and manufactured in 0.35 μm CMOS mixed-signal technology in single and 32 channel versions with dimensions of 200 μm×500 μm per channel. A minimum intrinsic Equivalent Noise Charge (ENC) of 12 electrons r.m.s. at 3.6 μs peaking time and room temperature is measured and the linearity error is between -0.9% and +0.6% in the whole input energy range. The total power consumption is 481 μW and 420 μW per channel for the single and 32 channels version, respectively. A comparison with other ASICs for X-ray SDD's shows that VEGA has a suitable low noise and offers high functionality as ADC-ready signal processing but at a power consumption that is a factor of four lower than other similar existing ASICs.

  5. Readout systems for inner detectors at the LHC and SLHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Issever, Cigdem

    2006-12-01

    A general overview of the optoelectronic readout and control systems of the ATLAS and CMS inner detectors is given. The talk will also cover challenges and issues of future optoelectronic readout systems at the upgraded LHC (SLHC). First results of radiation tests of VCSELs and optical fibres which were irradiated up to SLHC fluences will be presented.

  6. General-purpose readout electronics for white neutron source at China Spallation Neutron Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Cao, P.; Qi, X.; Yu, T.; Ji, X.; Xie, L.; An, Q.

    2018-01-01

    The under-construction White Neutron Source (WNS) at China Spallation Neutron Source is a facility for accurate measurements of neutron-induced cross section. Seven spectrometers are planned at WNS. As the physical objectives of each spectrometer are different, the requirements for readout electronics are not the same. In order to simplify the development of the readout electronics, this paper presents a general method for detector signal readout. This method has advantages of expansibility and flexibility, which makes it adaptable to most detectors at WNS. In the WNS general-purpose readout electronics, signals from any kinds of detectors are conditioned by a dedicated signal conditioning module corresponding to this detector, and then digitized by a common waveform digitizer with high speed and high precision (1 GSPS at 12-bit) to obtain the full waveform data. The waveform digitizer uses a field programmable gate array chip to process the data stream and trigger information in real time. PXI Express platform is used to support the functionalities of data readout, clock distribution, and trigger information exchange between digitizers and trigger modules. Test results show that the performance of the WNS general-purpose readout electronics can meet the requirements of the WNS spectrometers.

  7. Silicon technologies for the CLIC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spannagel, S.

    2017-06-01

    CLIC is a proposed linear e+e- collider designed to provide particle collisions at center-of-mass energies of up to 3 TeV. Precise measurements of the properties of the top quark and the Higgs boson, as well as searches for Beyond the Standard Model physics require a highly performant CLIC detector. In particular the vertex detector must provide a single point resolution of only a few micrometers while not exceeding the envisaged material budget of around 0.2% X0 per layer. Beam-beam interactions and beamstrahlung processes impose an additional requirement on the timestamping capabilities of the vertex detector of about 10 ns. These goals can only be met by using novel techniques in the sensor and ASIC design as well as in the detector construction. The R&D program for the CLIC vertex detector explores various technologies in order to meet these demands. The feasibility of planar sensors with a thickness of 50-150 μm, including different active edge designs, are evaluated using Timepix3 ASICs. First prototypes of the CLICpix readout ASIC, implemented in 65 nm CMOS technology and with a pixel size of 25×25μm 2, have been produced and tested in particle beams. An updated version of the ASIC with a larger pixel matrix and improved precision of the time-over-threshold and time-of-arrival measurements has been submitted. Different hybridization concepts have been developed for the interconnection between the sensor and readout ASIC, ranging from small-pitch bump bonding of planar sensors to capacitive coupling of active HV-CMOS sensors. Detector simulations based on Geant 4 and TCAD are compared with experimental results to assess and optimize the performance of the various designs. This contribution gives an overview of the R&D program undertaken for the CLIC vertex detector and presents performance measurements of the prototype detectors currently under investigation.

  8. Fast Low-Cost Multiple Sensor Readout System

    DOEpatents

    Carter-Lewis, David; Krennich, Frank; Le Bohec, Stephane; Petry, Dirk; Sleege, Gary

    2004-04-06

    A low resolution data acquisition system is presented. The data acquisition system has a plurality of readout modules serially connected to a controller. Each readout module has a FPGA in communication with analog to digital (A/D) converters, which are connected to sensors. The A/D converter has eight bit or lower resolution. The FPGA detects when a command is addressed to it and commands the A/D converters to convert analog sensor data into digital data. The digital data is sent on a high speed serial communication bus to the controller. A graphical display is used in one embodiment to indicate if a sensor reading is outside of a predetermined range.

  9. Downsampling Photodetector Array with Windowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patawaran, Ferze D.; Farr, William H.; Nguyen, Danh H.; Quirk, Kevin J.; Sahasrabudhe, Adit

    2012-01-01

    In a photon counting detector array, each pixel in the array produces an electrical pulse when an incident photon on that pixel is detected. Detection and demodulation of an optical communication signal that modulated the intensity of the optical signal requires counting the number of photon arrivals over a given interval. As the size of photon counting photodetector arrays increases, parallel processing of all the pixels exceeds the resources available in current application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and gate array (GA) technology; the desire for a high fill factor in avalanche photodiode (APD) detector arrays also precludes this. Through the use of downsampling and windowing portions of the detector array, the processing is distributed between the ASIC and GA. This allows demodulation of the optical communication signal incident on a large photon counting detector array, as well as providing architecture amenable to algorithmic changes. The detector array readout ASIC functions as a parallel-to-serial converter, serializing the photodetector array output for subsequent processing. Additional downsampling functionality for each pixel is added to this ASIC. Due to the large number of pixels in the array, the readout time of the entire photodetector is greater than the time between photon arrivals; therefore, a downsampling pre-processing step is done in order to increase the time allowed for the readout to occur. Each pixel drives a small counter that is incremented at every detected photon arrival or, equivalently, the charge in a storage capacitor is incremented. At the end of a user-configurable counting period (calculated independently from the ASIC), the counters are sampled and cleared. This downsampled photon count information is then sent one counter word at a time to the GA. For a large array, processing even the downsampled pixel counts exceeds the capabilities of the GA. Windowing of the array, whereby several subsets of pixels are designated

  10. On the dynamic readout characteristic of nonlinear super-resolution optical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jingsong

    2013-03-01

    Researchers have developed nonlinear super-resolution optical storage for the past twenty years. However, several concerns remain, including (1) the presence of readout threshold power; (2) the increase of threshold power with the reduction of the mark size, and (3) the increase of the carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) at the initial stage and then decrease with the increase of readout laser power or laser irradiation time. The present work calculates and analyzes the super-resolution spot formed by the thin film masks and the readout threshold power characteristic according to the derived formula and based on the nonlinear saturable absorption characteristic and threshold of structural change. The obtained theoretical calculation and experimental data answer the concerns regarding the dynamic readout threshold characteristic and CNR dependence on laser power and irradiation time. The near-field optical spot scanning experiment further verifies the super-resolution spot formation produced through the nonlinear thin film masks.

  11. Investigation of Readout RF Pulse Impact on the Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Sheng-Min; Jan, Meei-Ling; Liang, Hsin-Chin; Chang, Chia-Hao; Wu, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Shang-Yueh; Wang, Fu-Nien

    2015-01-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer magnetic resonance imaging (CEST-MRI) is capable of both microenvironment and molecular imaging. The optimization of scanning parameters is important since the CEST effect is sensitive to factors such as saturation power and field homogeneity. The aim of this study was to determine if the CEST effect would be altered by changing the length of readout RF pulses. Both theoretical computer simulation and phantom experiments were performed to examine the influence of readout RF pulses. Our results showed that the length of readout RF pulses has unremarkable impact on the Z-spectrum and CEST effect in both computer simulation and phantom experiment. Moreover, we demonstrated that multiple refocusing RF pulses used in rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (RARE) sequence induced no obvious saturation transfer contrast. Therefore, readout RF pulse has negligible effect on CEST Z-spectrum and the optimization of readout RF pulse length can be disregarded in CEST imaging protocol. PMID:26455576

  12. Optoelectronic associative recall using motionless-head parallel readout optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchand, P. J.; Krishnamoorthy, A. V.; Ambs, P.; Esener, S. C.

    1990-12-01

    High data rates, low retrieval times, and simple implementation are presently shown to be obtainable by means of a motionless-head 2D parallel-readout system for optical disks. Since the optical disk obviates mechanical head motions for access, focusing, and tracking, addressing is performed exclusively through the disk's rotation. Attention is given to a high-performance associative memory system configuration which employs a parallel readout disk.

  13. Common Readout Unit (CRU) - A new readout architecture for the ALICE experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, J.; Khan, S. A.; Mukherjee, S.; Paul, R.

    2016-03-01

    The ALICE experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is presently going for a major upgrade in order to fully exploit the scientific potential of the upcoming high luminosity run, scheduled to start in the year 2021. The high interaction rate and the large event size will result in an experimental data flow of about 1 TB/s from the detectors, which need to be processed before sending to the online computing system and data storage. This processing is done in a dedicated Common Readout Unit (CRU), proposed for data aggregation, trigger and timing distribution and control moderation. It act as common interface between sub-detector electronic systems, computing system and trigger processors. The interface links include GBT, TTC-PON and PCIe. GBT (Gigabit transceiver) is used for detector data payload transmission and fixed latency path for trigger distribution between CRU and detector readout electronics. TTC-PON (Timing, Trigger and Control via Passive Optical Network) is employed for time multiplex trigger distribution between CRU and Central Trigger Processor (CTP). PCIe (Peripheral Component Interconnect Express) is the high-speed serial computer expansion bus standard for bulk data transport between CRU boards and processors. In this article, we give an overview of CRU architecture in ALICE, discuss the different interfaces, along with the firmware design and implementation of CRU on the LHCb PCIe40 board.

  14. High-Fidelity Single-Shot Readout for a Spin Qubit via an Enhanced Latching Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; D'Anjou, Benjamin; Rudolph, Martin; Jacobson, N. Tobias; Dominguez, Jason; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.; Wendt, Joel R.; Pluym, Tammy; Lilly, Michael P.; Coish, William A.; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel; Carroll, Malcolm S.

    2018-04-01

    The readout of semiconductor spin qubits based on spin blockade is fast but suffers from a small charge signal. Previous work suggested large benefits from additional charge mapping processes; however, uncertainties remain about the underlying mechanisms and achievable fidelity. In this work, we study the single-shot fidelity and limiting mechanisms for two variations of an enhanced latching readout. We achieve average single-shot readout fidelities greater than 99.3% and 99.86% for the conventional and enhanced readout, respectively, the latter being the highest to date for spin blockade. The signal amplitude is enhanced to a full one-electron signal while preserving the readout speed. Furthermore, layout constraints are relaxed because the charge sensor signal is no longer dependent on being aligned with the conventional (2,0)-(1,1) charge dipole. Silicon donor-quantum-dot qubits are used for this study, for which the dipole insensitivity substantially relaxes donor placement requirements. One of the readout variations also benefits from a parametric lifetime enhancement by replacing the spin-relaxation process with a charge-metastable one. This provides opportunities to further increase the fidelity. The relaxation mechanisms in the different regimes are investigated. This work demonstrates a readout that is fast, has a one-electron signal, and results in higher fidelity. It further predicts that going beyond 99.9% fidelity in a few microseconds of measurement time is within reach.

  15. Cryogenic readout techniques for germanium detectors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Benato, G.; Cattadori, C.; Di Vacri, A.

    High Purity Germanium detectors are used in many applications, from nuclear and astro-particle physics, to homeland security or environment protection. Although quite standard configurations are often used, with cryostats, charge sensitive amplifiers and analog or digital acquisition systems all commercially available, it might be the case that a few specific applications, e.g. satellites, portable devices, cryogenic physics experiments, etc. also require the development of a few additional or complementary techniques. An interesting case is for sure GERDA, the Germanium Detector Array experiment, searching for neutrino-less double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory of INFN -more » Italy. In GERDA the entire detector array, composed of semi-coaxial and BEGe naked crystals, is operated suspended inside a cryostat filled with liquid argon, that acts not only as cooling medium and but also as an active shield, thanks to its scintillation properties. These peculiar circumstances, together with the additional requirement of a very low radioactive background from all the materials adjacent to the detectors, clearly introduce significant constraints on the design of the Ge front-end readout electronics. All the Ge readout solutions developed within the framework of the GERDA collaboration, for both Phase I and Phase II, will be briefly reviewed, with their relative strength and weakness compared together and with respect to ideal Ge readout. Finally, the digital processing techniques developed by the GERDA collaboration for energy estimation of Ge detector signals will be recalled. (authors)« less

  16. Construction of a photometer to detect stellar occultations by outer solar system bodies for the Whipple mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraft, Ralph P.; Kenter, Almus T.; Alcock, Charles; Murray, Stephen S.; Loose, Markus; Gauron, Thomas; Germain, Gregg; Peregrim, Lawrence

    2014-08-01

    The Whipple mission was a proposal submitted to the NASA Discovery AO in 2010 to study the solid bodies of the Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud via a blind occultation survey. Though not accepted for flight, the proposal was awarded funding for technology development. Detecting a significant number of Trans Neptunian Objects (TNOs) via a blind occultation survey requires a low noise, wide field of view, multi object differential photometer. The light curve decrement is typically a few percent over timescales of tenths of seconds or seconds for Kuiper Belt and Oort cloud objects, respectively. To obtain a statistically interesting number of detections, this photometer needs to observe many thousands of stars over several years since the rate of occultation for a single star given the space density of the TNOs is low. The light curves from these stars must be monitored with a sensor with a temporal resolution of rv 25-50 ms and with a read noise of< 20 e- rms. Since these requirements are outside the capability of CCDs, the Whipple mission intends to use Teledyne H2RG HyViSI Silicon Hybrid CMOS detectors operating in "window" read mode. The full Whipple focal plane consists of a 3x3 array of these sensors, with each sensor comprised of 1024x 1024 36/μm pixels. Combined with the telescope optic, the Whipple focal plane provides a FOV of rv36 deg2 . In operation, each HyViSI detector, coupled to a Teledyne SIDECAR ASIC, monitors the flux from 650 stars at 40 Hz. The ASIC digitizes the data at the required cadence and an FPGA provides preliminary occultation event selection. The proposed 2010 Whipple mission utilized a spacecraft in a a "drift-away" orbit which signifi­ cantly limited the available telemetry data rate. Most of the light curve processing is required to be on-board the satellite so only candidate occultation events are telemetered to the ground. Occul­ tation light curves must be processed in real time on the satellite by an Field Programmable Gate Array

  17. Development of a Crosstalk Suppression Algorithm for KID Readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Ishitsuka, H.; Oguri, S.; Suzuki, J.; Tajima, O.; Tomita, N.; Won, Eunil; Yoshida, M.

    2018-06-01

    The GroundBIRD telescope aims to detect B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background radiation using the kinetic inductance detector array as a polarimeter. For the readout of the signal from detector array, we have developed a frequency division multiplexing readout system based on a digital down converter method. These techniques in general have the leakage problems caused by the crosstalks. The window function was applied in the field programmable gate arrays to mitigate the effect of these problems and tested it in algorithm level.

  18. Superconducting thin-film gyroscope readout for Gravity Probe-B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockhart, James M.; Cheung, W. Stephen; Gill, Dale K.

    1987-01-01

    The high-resolution gyroscope readout system for the Stanford Gravity Probe-B experiment, whose purpose is to measure two general relativistic precessions of gyroscopes in earth orbit, is described. In order to achieve the required resolution in angle (0.001 arcsec), the readout system combines high-precision mechanical fabrication and measurement techniques with superconducting thin-film technology, ultralow magnetic fields, and SQUID detectors. The system design, performance limits achievable with current technology, and the results of fabrication and laboratory testing to date are discussed.

  19. Development of readout electronics for POLARBEAR-2 cosmic microwave background experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Hattori, K.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; ...

    2016-01-06

    The readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers with a large multiplexing factor is key for the next generation cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiment, Polarbear-2, having 7588 TES bolometers. To enable the large arrays, we have been developing a readout system with a multiplexing factor of 40 in the frequency domain. Extending that architecture to 40 bolometers requires an increase in the bandwidth of the SQUID electronics, above 4 MHz. This paper focuses on cryogenic readout and shows how it affects cross talk and the responsivity of the TES bolometers. A series resistance, such as equivalent series resistance of capacitors formore » LC filters, leads to non-linear response of the bolometers. A wiring inductance modulates a voltage across the bolometers and causes cross talk. They should be controlled well to reduce systematic errors in CMB observations. As a result, we have been developing a cryogenic readout with a low series impedance and have tuned bolometers in the middle of their transition at a high frequency (>3 MHz).« less

  20. Readout technologies for directional WIMP Dark Matter detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Irastorza, I. G.; Aleksandrov, A.; Asada, T.; Baracchini, E.; Billard, J.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Bouvier, J.; Buonaura, A.; Burdge, K.; Cebrián, S.; Colas, P.; Consiglio, L.; Dafni, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Deaconu, C.; De Lellis, G.; Descombes, T.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Di Marco, N.; Druitt, G.; Eggleston, R.; Ferrer-Ribas, E.; Fusayasu, T.; Galán, J.; Galati, G.; García, J. A.; Garza, J. G.; Gentile, V.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Giomataris, Y.; Guerrero, N.; Guillaudin, O.; Guler, A. M.; Harton, J.; Hashimoto, T.; Hedges, M. T.; Iguaz, F. J.; Ikeda, T.; Jaegle, I.; Kadyk, J. A.; Katsuragawa, T.; Komura, S.; Kubo, H.; Kuge, K.; Lamblin, J.; Lauria, A.; Lee, E. R.; Lewis, P.; Leyton, M.; Loomba, D.; Lopez, J. P.; Luzón, G.; Mayet, F.; Mirallas, H.; Miuchi, K.; Mizumoto, T.; Mizumura, Y.; Monacelli, P.; Monroe, J.; Montesi, M. C.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nishimura, H.; Ochi, A.; Papevangelou, T.; Parker, J. D.; Phan, N. S.; Pupilli, F.; Richer, J. P.; Riffard, Q.; Rosa, G.; Santos, D.; Sawano, T.; Sekiya, H.; Seong, I. S.; Snowden-Ifft, D. P.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Sugiyama, A.; Taishaku, R.; Takada, A.; Takeda, A.; Tanaka, M.; Tanimori, T.; Thorpe, T. N.; Tioukov, V.; Tomita, H.; Umemoto, A.; Vahsen, S. E.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yoshimoto, M.; Zayas, E.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the direction of WIMP-induced nuclear recoils is a compelling but technologically challenging strategy to provide an unambiguous signature of the detection of Galactic dark matter. Most directional detectors aim to reconstruct the dark-matter-induced nuclear recoil tracks, either in gas or solid targets. The main challenge with directional detection is the need for high spatial resolution over large volumes, which puts strong requirements on the readout technologies. In this paper we review the various detector readout technologies used by directional detectors. In particular, we summarize the challenges, advantages and drawbacks of each approach, and discuss future prospects for these technologies.

  1. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-01-01

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm2. In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time. PMID:28914799

  2. Resonance Frequency Readout Circuit for a 900 MHz SAW Device.

    PubMed

    Liu, Heng; Zhang, Chun; Weng, Zhaoyang; Guo, Yanshu; Wang, Zhihua

    2017-09-15

    A monolithic resonance frequency readout circuit with high resolution and short measurement time is presented for a 900 MHz RF surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor. The readout circuit is composed of a fractional-N phase-locked loop (PLL) as the stimulus source to the SAW device and a phase-based resonance frequency detecting circuit using successive approximation (SAR). A new resonance frequency searching strategy has been proposed based on the fact that the SAW device phase-frequency response crosses zero monotonically around the resonance frequency. A dedicated instant phase difference detecting circuit is adopted to facilitate the fast SAR operation for resonance frequency searching. The readout circuit has been implemented in 180 nm CMOS technology with a core area of 3.24 mm². In the experiment, it works with a 900 MHz SAW resonator with a quality factor of Q = 130. Experimental results show that the readout circuit consumes 7 mW power from 1.6 V supply. The frequency resolution is 733 Hz, and the relative accuracy is 0.82 ppm, and it takes 0.48 ms to complete one measurement. Compared to the previous results in the literature, this work has achieved the shortest measurement time with a trade-off between measurement accuracy and measurement time.

  3. An efficient ASIC implementation of 16-channel on-line recursive ICA processor for real-time EEG system.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wai-Chi; Huang, Kuan-Ju; Chou, Chia-Ching; Chang, Jui-Chung; Cauwenberghs, Gert; Jung, Tzyy-Ping

    2014-01-01

    This is a proposal for an efficient very-large-scale integration (VLSI) design, 16-channel on-line recursive independent component analysis (ORICA) processor ASIC for real-time EEG system, implemented with TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology. ORICA is appropriate to be used in real-time EEG system to separate artifacts because of its highly efficient and real-time process features. The proposed ORICA processor is composed of an ORICA processing unit and a singular value decomposition (SVD) processing unit. Compared with previous work [1], this proposed ORICA processor has enhanced effectiveness and reduced hardware complexity by utilizing a deeper pipeline architecture, shared arithmetic processing unit, and shared registers. The 16-channel random signals which contain 8-channel super-Gaussian and 8-channel sub-Gaussian components are used to analyze the dependence of the source components, and the average correlation coefficient is 0.95452 between the original source signals and extracted ORICA signals. Finally, the proposed ORICA processor ASIC is implemented with TSMC 40 nm CMOS technology, and it consumes 15.72 mW at 100 MHz operating frequency.

  4. Proposed differential-frequency-readout system by hysteretic Josephson junctions

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wang, L.Z.; Duncan, R.V.

    1992-10-01

    The Josephson relation {ital V}={ital nh}{nu}/2{ital e} has been verified experimentally to 3 parts in 10{sup 19} (A. K. Jain, J. E. Lukens, and J.-S. Tsai, Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1165 (1987)). Motivated by this result, we propose a differential-frequency-readout system by two sets of hysteretic Josephson junctions rf biased at millimeter wavelengths. Because of the Josephson relation, the proposed differential-frequency-readout system is not limited by photon fluctuation, which limits most photon-detection schemes. In the context of the Stewart-McCumber model (W. C. Stewart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 277 (1968); D. E. McCumber, J. Appl. Phys. 39, 3113 (1968)) of Josephsonmore » junctions, we show theoretically that the differential frequency of the two milliwave biases can be read out by the proposed system to unprecedented accuracy. The stability of the readout scheme is also discussed. The measurement uncertainty of the readout system resulting from the intrinsic thermal noise in the hysteretic junctions is shown to be insignificant. The study of two single junctions can be extended to two sets of Josephson junctions connected in series (series array) in this measurement scheme provided that junctions are separated by at least 10 {mu}m (D. W. Jillie, J. E. Lukens, and Y. H. Kao, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 915 (1977)). The sensitivity for the differential frequency detection may be increased by biasing both series arrays to a higher constant-voltage step.« less

  5. Looking at Earth from space: Direct readout from environmental satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Direct readout is the capability to acquire information directly from meteorological satellites. Data can be acquired from NASA-developed, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-operated satellites, as well as from other nations' meteorological satellites. By setting up a personal computer-based ground (Earth) station to receive satellite signals, direct readout may be obtained. The electronic satellite signals are displayed as images on the computer screen. The images can display gradients of the Earth's topography and temperature, cloud formations, the flow and direction of winds and water currents, the formation of hurricanes, the occurrence of an eclipse, and a view of Earth's geography. Both visible and infrared images can be obtained. This booklet introduces the satellite systems, ground station configuration, and computer requirements involved in direct readout. Also included are lists of associated resources and vendors.

  6. Improved quality of intrafraction kilovoltage images by triggered readout of unexposed frames

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Poulsen, Per Rugaard, E-mail: per.poulsen@rm.dk; Jonassen, Johnny; Jensen, Carsten

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The gantry-mounted kilovoltage (kV) imager of modern linear accelerators can be used for real-time tumor localization during radiation treatment delivery. However, the kV image quality often suffers from cross-scatter from the megavoltage (MV) treatment beam. This study investigates readout of unexposed kV frames as a means to improve the kV image quality in a series of experiments and a theoretical model of the observed image quality improvements. Methods: A series of fluoroscopic images were acquired of a solid water phantom with an embedded gold marker and an air cavity with and without simultaneous radiation of the phantom with amore » 6 MV beam delivered perpendicular to the kV beam with 300 and 600 monitor units per minute (MU/min). An in-house built device triggered readout of zero, one, or multiple unexposed frames between the kV exposures. The unexposed frames contained part of the MV scatter, consequently reducing the amount of MV scatter accumulated in the exposed frames. The image quality with and without unexposed frame readout was quantified as the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the gold marker and air cavity for a range of imaging frequencies from 1 to 15 Hz. To gain more insight into the observed CNR changes, the image lag of the kV imager was measured and used as input in a simple model that describes the CNR with unexposed frame readout in terms of the contrast, kV noise, and MV noise measured without readout of unexposed frames. Results: Without readout of unexposed kV frames, the quality of intratreatment kV images decreased dramatically with reduced kV frequencies due to MV scatter. The gold marker was only visible for imaging frequencies ≥3 Hz at 300 MU/min and ≥5 Hz for 600 MU/min. Visibility of the air cavity required even higher imaging frequencies. Readout of multiple unexposed frames ensured visibility of both structures at all imaging frequencies and a CNR that was independent of the kV frame rate. The image lag was 12

  7. Single software platform used for high speed data transfer implementation in a 65k pixel camera working in single photon counting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maj, P.; Kasiński, K.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.; Kozioł, A.

    2015-12-01

    Integrated circuits designed for specific applications generally use non-standard communication methods. Hybrid pixel detector readout electronics produces a huge amount of data as a result of number of frames per seconds. The data needs to be transmitted to a higher level system without limiting the ASIC's capabilities. Nowadays, the Camera Link interface is still one of the fastest communication methods, allowing transmission speeds up to 800 MB/s. In order to communicate between a higher level system and the ASIC with a dedicated protocol, an FPGA with dedicated code is required. The configuration data is received from the PC and written to the ASIC. At the same time, the same FPGA should be able to transmit the data from the ASIC to the PC at the very high speed. The camera should be an embedded system enabling autonomous operation and self-monitoring. In the presented solution, at least three different hardware platforms are used—FPGA, microprocessor with real-time operating system and the PC with end-user software. We present the use of a single software platform for high speed data transfer from 65k pixel camera to the personal computer.

  8. Sour Ageusia in Two Individuals Implicates Ion Channels of the ASIC and PKD Families in Human Sour Taste Perception at the Anterior Tongue

    PubMed Central

    Huque, Taufiqul; Cowart, Beverly J.; Dankulich-Nagrudny, Luba; Pribitkin, Edmund A.; Bayley, Douglas L.; Spielman, Andrew I.; Feldman, Roy S.; Mackler, Scott A.; Brand, Joseph G.

    2009-01-01

    Background The perception of sour taste in humans is incompletely understood at the receptor cell level. We report here on two patients with an acquired sour ageusia. Each patient was unresponsive to sour stimuli, but both showed normal responses to bitter, sweet, and salty stimuli. Methods and Findings Lingual fungiform papillae, containing taste cells, were obtained by biopsy from the two patients, and from three sour-normal individuals, and analyzed by RT-PCR. The following transcripts were undetectable in the patients, even after 50 cycles of amplification, but readily detectable in the sour-normal subjects: acid sensing ion channels (ASICs) 1a, 1β, 2a, 2b, and 3; and polycystic kidney disease (PKD) channels PKD1L3 and PKD2L1. Patients and sour-normals expressed the taste-related phospholipase C-β2, the δ-subunit of epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and the bitter receptor T2R14, as well as β-actin. Genomic analysis of one patient, using buccal tissue, did not show absence of the genes for ASIC1a and PKD2L1. Immunohistochemistry of fungiform papillae from sour-normal subjects revealed labeling of taste bud cells by antibodies to ASICs 1a and 1β, PKD2L1, phospholipase C-β2, and δ-ENaC. An antibody to PKD1L3 labeled tissue outside taste bud cells. Conclusions These data suggest a role for ASICs and PKDs in human sour perception. This is the first report of sour ageusia in humans, and the very existence of such individuals (“natural knockouts”) suggests a cell lineage for sour that is independent of the other taste modalities. PMID:19812697

  9. Compact pulse width modulation circuitry for silicon photomultiplier readout.

    PubMed

    Bieniosek, M F; Olcott, P D; Levin, C S

    2013-08-07

    The adoption of solid-state photodetectors for positron emission tomography (PET) system design and the interest in 3D interaction information from PET detectors has lead to an increasing number of readout channels in PET systems. To handle these additional readout channels, PET readout electronics should be simplified to reduce the power consumption, cost, and size of the electronics for a single channel. Pulse-width modulation (PWM), where detector pulses are converted to digital pulses with width proportional to the detected photon energy, promises to simplify PET readout by converting the signals to digital form at the beginning of the processing chain, and allowing a single time-to-digital converter to perform the data acquisition for many channels rather than routing many analogue channels and digitizing in the back end. Integrator based PWM systems, also known as charge-to-time converters (QTCs), are especially compact, reducing the front-end electronics to an op-amp integrator with a resistor discharge, and a comparator. QTCs, however, have a long dead-time during which dark count noise is integrated, reducing the output signal-to-noise ratio. This work presents a QTC based PWM circuit with a gated integrator that shows performance improvements over existing QTC based PWM. By opening and closing an analogue switch on the input of the integrator, the circuit can be controlled to integrate only the portions of the signal with a high signal-to-noise ratio. It also allows for multiplexing different detectors into the same PWM circuit while avoiding uncorrelated noise propagation between photodetector channels. Four gated integrator PWM circuits were built to readout the spatial channels of two position sensitive solid-state photomultiplier (PS-SSPM). Results show a 4 × 4 array 0.9 mm × 0.9 mm × 15 mm of LYSO crystals being identified on the 5 mm × 5 mm PS-SSPM at room temperature with no degradation for twofold multiplexing. In principle, much larger

  10. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: photoinduced discharge (PID) readout for digital general radiography.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M

    1995-12-01

    Digital radiographic systems based on photoconductive layers with the latent charge image readout by photoinduced discharge (PID) are investigated theoretically. Previously, a number of different systems have been proposed using sandwiched photoconductor and insulator layers and readout using a scanning laser beam. These systems are shown to have the general property of being very closely coupled (i.e., optimization of one imaging characteristic usually impacts negatively on others). The presence of a condensed state insulator between the photoconductor surface and the readout electrode does, however, confer a great advantage over systems using air gaps with their relatively low breakdown field. The greater breakdown field of condensed state dielectrics permits the modification of the electric field during the period between image formation and image readout. The trade-off between readout speed and noise makes this system suitable for instant general radiography and even rapid sequence radiography, however, the system is unsuitable for the low exposure rates used in fluoroscopy.

  11. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P Y

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10(-7) Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  12. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    2015-03-01

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10-7 Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beam current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.

  13. Delay grid multiplexing: simple time-based multiplexing and readout method for silicon photomultipliers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jun Yeon; Ko, Guen Bae; Lee, Jae Sung

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a fully time-based multiplexing and readout method that uses the principle of the global positioning system. Time-based multiplexing allows simplifying the multiplexing circuits where the only innate traces that connect the signal pins of the silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) channels to the readout channels are used as the multiplexing circuit. Every SiPM channel is connected to the delay grid that consists of the traces on a printed circuit board, and the inherent transit times from each SiPM channel to the readout channels encode the position information uniquely. Thus, the position of each SiPM can be identified using the time difference of arrival (TDOA) measurements. The proposed multiplexing can also allow simplification of the readout circuit using the time-to-digital converter (TDC) implemented in a field-programmable gate array (FPGA), where the time-over-threshold (ToT) is used to extract the energy information after multiplexing. In order to verify the proposed multiplexing method, we built a positron emission tomography (PET) detector that consisted of an array of 4  ×  4 LGSO crystals, each with a dimension of 3  ×  3  ×  20 mm3, and one- to-one coupled SiPM channels. We first employed the waveform sampler as an initial study, and then replaced the waveform sampler with an FPGA-TDC to further simplify the readout circuits. The 16 crystals were clearly resolved using only the time information obtained from the four readout channels. The coincidence resolving times (CRTs) were 382 and 406 ps FWHM when using the waveform sampler and the FPGA-TDC, respectively. The proposed simple multiplexing and readout methods can be useful for time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanners.

  14. Implementation and assessment of diffusion-weighted partial Fourier readout-segmented echo-planar imaging.

    PubMed

    Frost, Robert; Porter, David A; Miller, Karla L; Jezzard, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Single-shot echo-planar imaging has been used widely in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging due to the difficulties in correcting motion-induced phase corruption in multishot data. Readout-segmented EPI has addressed the multishot problem by introducing a two-dimensional nonlinear navigator correction with online reacquisition of uncorrectable data to enable acquisition of high-resolution diffusion data with reduced susceptibility artifact and T*(2) blurring. The primary shortcoming of readout-segmented EPI in its current form is its long acquisition time (longer than similar resolution single-shot echo-planar imaging protocols by approximately the number of readout segments), which limits the number of diffusion directions. By omitting readout segments at one side of k-space and using partial Fourier reconstruction, readout-segmented EPI imaging times could be reduced. In this study, the effects of homodyne and projection onto convex sets reconstructions on estimates of the fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and diffusion orientation in fiber tracts and raw T(2)- and trace-weighted signal are compared, along with signal-to-noise ratio results. It is found that projections onto convex sets reconstruction with 3/5 segments in a 2 mm isotropic diffusion tensor image acquisition and 9/13 segments in a 0.9 × 0.9 × 4.0 mm(3) diffusion-weighted image acquisition provide good fidelity relative to the full k-space parameters. This allows application of readout-segmented EPI to tractography studies, and clinical stroke and oncology protocols. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. An energy-efficient readout circuit for resonant sensors based on ring-down measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Z.; Pertijs, M. A. P.; Karabacak, D. M.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents an energy-efficient readout circuit for resonant sensors that operates based on a transient measurement method. The resonant sensor is driven at a frequency close to its resonance frequency by an excitation source that can be intermittently disconnected, causing the sensor to oscillate at its resonance frequency with exponentially decaying amplitude. By counting the zero crossings of this ring-down response, the interface circuit can detect the resonance frequency. In contrast with oscillator-based readout, the presented readout circuit is readily able to detect quality factor (Q) of the resonator from the envelope of the ring-down response, and can be used even in the presence of large parasitic capacitors. A prototype of the readout circuit has been integrated in 0.35 μm CMOS technology, and consumes only 36 μA from a 3.3 V supply during a measurement time of 2 ms. The resonance frequency and quality factor of a micro-machined SiN resonator obtained using this prototype are in good agreement with results obtained using impedance analysis. Furthermore, a clear transient response is observed to ethanol flow using the presented readout, demonstrating the use of this technique in sensing applications.

  16. Analog front-end design of the STS/MUCH-XYTER2—full size prototype ASIC for the CBM experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleczek, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    The design of the analog front-end of the STS/MUCH-XYTER2 ASIC, a full-size prototype chip for the Silicon Tracking System (STS, based on double-sided silicon strip sensors) and Muon Chamber (MUCH, based on gas sensors) detectors is presented. The ASIC contains 128 charge processing channels, each built of a charge sensitive amplifier, a polarity selection circuit and two pulse shaping amplifiers forming two parallel signal paths. The first path is used for timing measurement with a fast discriminator. The second path allows low-noise amplitude measurement with a 5-bit continuous-time flash ADC. Different operating conditions and constraints posed by two target detectors' applications require front-end electronics flexibility to meet extended system-wise requirements. The presented circuit implements switchable shaper peaking time, gain switching and trimming, input amplifier pulsed reset circuit, fail-safe measures. The power consumption is scalable (for the STS and the MUCH modes), but limited to 10 mW/channel.

  17. Single Event Effects Test Results for the Actel ProASIC Plus and Altera Stratix-II Field Programmable Gate Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Gregory R.; Swift, Gary M.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes radiation testing of Actel's ProASIC Plus and Altera's Stratix-II FPGAs. The Actel Device Under Test (DUT) was a ProASIC Plus APA300-PQ208 nonvolatile, field reprogrammable device which is based on a 0.22micron flash-based LVCMOS technology. Limited investigation has taken place into flash based FPGA technologies, therefore this test served as a preliminary reference point for various SEE behaviors. The Altera DUT was a Stratix-II EP2S60F1020C4. Single Event Upset (SEU) and Single Event Latchup (SEL) were the focus of these studies. For the Actel, a latchup test was done at an effective LET of 75.0 MeV-sq cm/mg at room temperature, and no latchup was detected when irradiated to a total fluence of 1 x 10(exp 7) particles/sq cm. The Altera part was shown to latchup at room temperature.

  18. Code-division-multiplexed readout of large arrays of TES microcalorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, K. M.; Alpert, B. K.; Bennett, D. A.; Denison, E. V.; Doriese, W. B.; Fowler, J. W.; Gard, J. D.; Hilton, G. C.; Irwin, K. D.; Joe, Y. I.; O'Neil, G. C.; Reintsema, C. D.; Schmidt, D. R.; Ullom, J. N.; Swetz, D. S.

    2016-09-01

    Code-division multiplexing (CDM) offers a path to reading out large arrays of transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters with excellent energy and timing resolution. We demonstrate the readout of X-ray TESs with a 32-channel flux-summed code-division multiplexing circuit based on superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) amplifiers. The best detector has energy resolution of 2.28 ± 0.12 eV FWHM at 5.9 keV and the array has mean energy resolution of 2.77 ± 0.02 eV over 30 working sensors. The readout channels are sampled sequentially at 160 ns/row, for an effective sampling rate of 5.12 μs/channel. The SQUID amplifiers have a measured flux noise of 0.17 μΦ0/√Hz (non-multiplexed, referred to the first stage SQUID). The multiplexed noise level and signal slew rate are sufficient to allow readout of more than 40 pixels per column, making CDM compatible with requirements outlined for future space missions. Additionally, because the modulated data from the 32 SQUID readout channels provide information on each X-ray event at the row rate, our CDM architecture allows determination of the arrival time of an X-ray event to within 275 ns FWHM with potential benefits in experiments that require detection of near-coincident events.

  19. γEpithelial Na(+) Channel (γENaC) and the Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1 (ASIC1) expression in the urothelium of patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity.

    PubMed

    Traini, Chiara; Del Popolo, Giulio; Lazzeri, Massimo; Mazzaferro, Katia; Nelli, Federico; Calosi, Laura; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the expression of two types of cation channels, γEpithelial Na(+) Channel (γENaC) and the Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 1 (ASIC1), in the urothelium of controls and in patients affected by neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO). In parallel, urodynamic parameters were collected and correlated to the immunohistochemical results. Four controls and 12 patients with a clinical diagnosis of NDO and suprasacral spinal cord lesion underwent urodynamic measurements and cystoscopy. Cold-cup biopsies were frozen and processed for immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. Spearman's correlation coefficient between morphological and urodynamic data was applied. One-way anova followed by Newman-Keuls multiple comparison post hoc test was applied for Western Blot results. In the controls, γENaC and ASIC1 were expressed in the urothelium with differences in their cell distribution and intensity. In patients with NDO, both markers showed consistent changes either in cell distribution and labelling intensity compared with the controls. A significant correlation between a higher intensity of γENaC expression in the urothelium of patients with NDO and lower values of bladder compliance was detected. The present findings show important changes in the expression of γENaC and ASIC1 in NDO human urothelium. Notably, while the changes in γENaC might impair the mechanosensory function of the urothelium, the increase of ASIC1 might represent an attempt to compensate for the excess in local sensitivity. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Robustifying twist-and-turn entanglement with interaction-based readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkhalaf, Safoura S.; Nolan, Samuel P.; Haine, Simon A.

    2018-05-01

    The use of multiparticle entangled states has the potential to drastically increase the sensitivity of atom interferometers and atomic clocks. The twist-and-turn (TNT) Hamiltonian can create multiparticle entanglement much more rapidly than the ubiquitous one-axis twisting Hamiltonian in the same spin system. In this paper, we consider the effects of detection noise—a key limitation in current experiments—on the metrological usefulness of nonclassical states generated under TNT dynamics. We also consider a variety of interaction-based readouts to maximize their performance. Interestingly, the optimum interaction-based readout is not the obvious case of perfect time reversal.

  1. Optical elements design of optical pick-up with characteristics of read-out spot for high density optical storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lihua; Ma, Jianshe; Liu, Lin; Pan, Longfa; Zhang, Jianyong; Lu, Junhui

    2005-09-01

    It is well known that the optical pick-up (OPU) plays a very important role in optical storage system. And the quality of OPU can be measured by the characteristics of OPU read-out spot for high density optical storage. Therefore this paper mainly designs an OPU model for high density optical storage to study the characteristics of OPU read-out spot. Firstly it analyses the optical read-out principle in OPU and contrives an optical read-out system based on the hereinbefore theory. In this step it chiefly designs the grating, splitter, collimator lens and objective lens. Secondly based on the aberrations analysis and theory involved by the splitter, the collimator lens and the optical lens, the paper uses the software CODE V to calculate the aberrations and to optimize the optical read-out system. Then the author can receive an ideal OPU read-out spot for high density optical storage and obtain the characteristics of the ideal OPU read-out spot. At the same time this paper analyses some influence factors which can directly affect the characteristics of the OPU read-out spot. Thirdly according to the up data the author practically manufactures a real optical pick-up to validate the hereinbefore designed optical read-out system. And it uses the Optical Spot Analyzer to get the image of the read-out spot. Comparing the ideal image to the actual image of the designed optical read-out system, the author finds out that the upwards analyses and design is suitable for high density storage and can be used in the actual production. And the author also receives the conclusion that the mostly influences on characteristics of OPU read-out spot for high density optical storage factors is not only the process of designing the grating, splitter, collimator lens and objective lens, but also the assembling work precision

  2. Silicon pixel R&D for CLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Challenging detector requirements are imposed by the physics goals at the future multi-TeV e+ e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC). A single point resolution of 3 μm for the vertex detector and 7 μm for the tracker is required. Moreover, the CLIC vertex detector and tracker need to be extremely light weighted with a material budget of 0.2% X0 per layer in the vertex detector and 1-2% X0 in the tracker. A fast time slicing of 10 ns is further required to suppress background from beam-beam interactions. A wide range of sensor and readout ASIC technologies are investigated within the CLIC silicon pixel R&D effort. Various hybrid planar sensor assemblies with a pixel size of 25×25 μm2 and 55×55 μm2 have been produced and characterised by laboratory measurements and during test-beam campaigns. Experimental and simulation results for thin (50 μm-500 μm) slim edge and active-edge planar, and High-Voltage CMOS sensors hybridised to various readout ASICs (Timepix, Timepix3, CLICpix) are presented.

  3. A free-running, time-based readout method for particle detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goerres, A.; Bugalho, R.; Di Francesco, A.; Gastón, C.; Gonçalves, F.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Di Pietro, V.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; da Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Stockmanns, T.; Varela, J.; Veckalns, V.; Wheadon, R.

    2014-03-01

    For the EndoTOFPET-US experiment, the TOFPET ASIC has been developed as a front-end chip to read out data from silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) [1]. It introduces a time of flight information into the measurement of a PET scanner and hence reduces radiation exposure of the patient [2]. The chip is designed to work with a high event rate up to 100 kHz and a time resolution of 50 ps LSB. Using two threshold levels, it can measure the leading edge of the event pulse precisely while successfully suppressing dark counts from the SiPM. This also enables a time over threshold determination, leading to a charge measurement of the signal's pulse. The same, time-based concept is chosen for the PASTA chip used in the PANDA experiment. This high-energy particle detector contains sub-systems for specific measurement goals. The innermost of these is the Micro Vertex Detector, a silicon-based tracking system. The PASTA chip's approach is much like the TOFPET ASIC with some differences. The most significant ones are a changed amplifying part for different input signals as well as protection for radiation effects of the high-radiation environment. Apart from that, the simple and general concept combined with a small area and low power consumption support the choice for using this approach.

  4. Design of a wideband CMOS impedance spectroscopy ASIC analog front-end for multichannel biosensor interfaces.

    PubMed

    Valente, Virgilio; Dai Jiang; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents the preliminary design and simulation of a flexible and programmable analog front-end (AFE) circuit with current and voltage readout capabilities for electric impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The AFE is part of a fully integrated multifrequency EIS platform. The current readout comprises of a transimpedance stage and an automatic gain control (AGC) unit designed to accommodate impedance changes larger than 3 order of magnitude. The AGC is based on a dynamic peak detector that tracks changes in the input current over time and regulates the gain of a programmable gain amplifier in order to optimise the signal-to-noise ratio. The system works up to 1 MHz. The voltage readout consists of a 2 stages of fully differential current-feedback instrumentation amplifier which provide 100 dB of CMRR and a programmable gain up to 20 V/V per stage with a bandwidth in excess of 10MHz.

  5. Ionization Readout Electronics for SuperCDMS SNOLAB Employing a HEMT Front-End

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partridge, R.

    2014-09-01

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment seeks to deploy 200 kg of cryogenic Ge detectors employing phonon and ionization readout to identify dark matter interactions. One of the design challenges for the experiment is to provide amplification of the high impedance ionization signal while minimizing power dissipation and noise. This paper describes the design and expected performance of the ionization readout being developed for an engineering model of the SuperCDMS SNOLAB Ge Tower System. The readout features the use of a low-noise HEMT front end transistor operating at 4 K to achieve a power dissipation of 100 W per channel, local grounding to minimize noise injection, and biasing circuitry that allows precise control of the HEMT operating point.

  6. Radiation Hardened Structured ASIC Platform with Compensation of Delay for Temperature and Voltage Variations for Multiple Redundant Temporal Voting Latch Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardalan, Sasan (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    The invention relates to devices and methods of maintaining the current starved delay at a constant value across variations in voltage and temperature to increase the speed of operation of the sequential logic in the radiation hardened ASIC design.

  7. Design issues of a low cost lock-in amplifier readout circuit for an infrared detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheepers, L.; Schoeman, J.

    2014-06-01

    In the past, high resolution thermal sensors required expensive cooling techniques making the early thermal imagers expensive to operate and cumbersome to transport, limiting them mainly to military applications. However, the introduction of uncooled microbolometers has overcome many of earlier problems and now shows great potential for commercial optoelectric applications. The structure of uncooled microbolometer sensors, especially their smaller size, makes them attractive in low cost commercial applications requiring high production numbers with relatively low performance requirements. However, the biasing requirements of these microbolometers cause these sensors to generate a substantial amount of noise on the output measurements due to self-heating. Different techniques to reduce this noise component have been attempted, such as pulsed biasing currents and the use of blind bolometers as common mode reference. These techniques proved to either limit the performance of the microbolometer or increase the cost of their implementation. The development of a low cost lock-in amplifier provides a readout technique to potentially overcome these challenges. High performance commercial lock-in amplifiers are very expensive. Using this as a readout circuit for a microbolometer will take away from the low manufacturing cost of the detector array. Thus, the purpose of this work was to develop a low cost readout circuit using the technique of phase sensitive detection and customizing this as a readout circuit for microbolometers. The hardware and software of the readout circuit was designed and tested for improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the microbolometer signal. An optical modulation system was also developed in order to effectively identify the desired signal from the noise with the use of the readout circuit. A data acquisition and graphical user interface sub system was added in order to display the signal recovered by the readout circuit. The readout

  8. Antagonists to TRPV1, ASICs and P2X have a potential role to prevent the triggering of regional bone metabolic disorder and pain-like behavior in tail-suspended mice.

    PubMed

    Hanaka, Megumi; Iba, Kousuke; Dohke, Takayuki; Kanaya, Kumiko; Okazaki, Shunichiro; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2018-05-01

    Our recent studies demonstrated that regional bone loss in the unloaded hind limbs of tail-suspended mice triggered pain-like behaviors due to the acidic environment in the bone induced by osteoclast activation. The aims of the present study were to examine whether TRPV1, ASIC and P2X (known as nociceptors) are expressed in bone, and whether the antagonists to those receptors affect the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulators, and prevent the triggering of not only pain-like behaviors but also high bone turnover conditions in tail-suspension model mice. The hind limb-unloaded mice were subjected to tail suspension with the hind limbs elevated for 14days. The effects of the TRPV1, ASIC3, P2X2/3 antagonists on pain-like behaviors as assessed by the von Frey test, paw flick test and spontaneous pain scale; the expressions of TRPV1, ASICs, and P2X2 in the bone; and the effects of those antagonists on osteoblast and osteoclast regulators were examined. In addition, we evaluated the preventive effect of continuous treatment with a TRPV1 antagonist on the trigger for pain-like behavior and bone loss in tail-suspended mice. Pain-like behaviors were significantly improved by the treatment with TRPV1, ASIC, P2X antagonists; TRPV1, ASICs and P2X were expressed in the bone tissues; and the antagonists to these receptors down-regulated the expression of osteoblast and osteoclast regulators in tail-suspended mice. In addition, continuous treatment with a TRPV1 antagonist during tail-suspension prevented the induction of pain-like behaviors and regional bone loss in the unloaded hind limbs. We, therefore, believe that those receptor antagonists have a potential role in preventing the triggering of skeletal pain with associated regional bone metabolic disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. High-fidelity projective read-out of a solid-state spin quantum register.

    PubMed

    Robledo, Lucio; Childress, Lilian; Bernien, Hannes; Hensen, Bas; Alkemade, Paul F A; Hanson, Ronald

    2011-09-21

    Initialization and read-out of coupled quantum systems are essential ingredients for the implementation of quantum algorithms. Single-shot read-out of the state of a multi-quantum-bit (multi-qubit) register would allow direct investigation of quantum correlations (entanglement), and would give access to further key resources such as quantum error correction and deterministic quantum teleportation. Although spins in solids are attractive candidates for scalable quantum information processing, their single-shot detection has been achieved only for isolated qubits. Here we demonstrate the preparation and measurement of a multi-spin quantum register in a low-temperature solid-state system by implementing resonant optical excitation techniques originally developed in atomic physics. We achieve high-fidelity read-out of the electronic spin associated with a single nitrogen-vacancy centre in diamond, and use this read-out to project up to three nearby nuclear spin qubits onto a well-defined state. Conversely, we can distinguish the state of the nuclear spins in a single shot by mapping it onto, and subsequently measuring, the electronic spin. Finally, we show compatibility with qubit control: we demonstrate initialization, coherent manipulation and single-shot read-out in a single experiment on a two-qubit register, using techniques suitable for extension to larger registers. These results pave the way for a test of Bell's inequalities on solid-state spins and the implementation of measurement-based quantum information protocols. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  10. A cylindrical SPECT camera with de-centralized readout scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habte, F.; Stenström, P.; Rillbert, A.; Bousselham, A.; Bohm, C.; Larsson, S. A.

    2001-09-01

    An optimized brain single photon emission computed tomograph (SPECT) camera is being designed at Stockholm University and Karolinska Hospital. The design goal is to achieve high sensitivity, high-count rate and high spatial resolution. The sensitivity is achieved by using a cylindrical crystal, which gives a closed geometry with large solid angles. A de-centralized readout scheme where only a local environment around the light excitation is readout supports high-count rates. The high resolution is achieved by using an optimized crystal configuration. A 12 mm crystal plus 12 mm light guide combination gave an intrinsic spatial resolution better than 3.5 mm (140 keV) in a prototype system. Simulations show that a modified configuration can improve this value. A cylindrical configuration with a rotating collimator significantly simplifies the mechanical design of the gantry. The data acquisition and control system uses early digitization and subsequent digital signal processing to extract timing and amplitude information, and monitors the position of the collimator. The readout system consists of 12 or more modules each based on programmable logic and a digital signal processor. The modules send data to a PC file server-reconstruction engine via a Firewire (IEEE-1394) network.

  11. An integrated wire harp and readout electronics inside vacuum

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Chatterjee, Mou; Nabhiraj, P. Y.

    A wire harp is a well known instrument used in ion beam profile measurement and beam diagnostics. Till date, for beam instrumentation, the harp is placed inside the vacuum chamber or beam line in direct exposure to the beam profile to be measured, whereas the related readout electronics is placed outside somewhere at a convenient place. Here, a harp has been developed along with the readout electronics as an integrated part of it and both were placed inside the beam line vacuum (order of 10{sup −7} Torr) to make the system much simpler, easy to operate, and measure small beammore » current more accurately. The entire signal conversion and processing is done inside the vacuum unlike other systems; hence, the electronics is kept inside. This results in a lesser number (only 4 pin) of electrical connections (feedthrough) including power which otherwise would have required 32 feedthrough pins only for signal readout for a 13 × 13 (X × Y) channel harp. This paper describes a completely new approach to the design of a conventional beam harp widely used for beam instrumentation.« less

  12. New Subarray Readout Patterns for the ACS Wide Field Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golimowski, D.; Anderson, J.; Arslanian, S.; Chiaberge, M.; Grogin, N.; Lim, Pey Lian; Lupie, O.; McMaster, M.; Reinhart, M.; Schiffer, F.; Serrano, B.; Van Marshall, M.; Welty, A.

    2017-04-01

    At the start of Cycle 24, the original CCD-readout timing patterns used to generate ACS Wide Field Channel (WFC) subarray images were replaced with new patterns adapted from the four-quadrant readout pattern used to generate full-frame WFC images. The primary motivation for this replacement was a substantial reduction of observatory and staff resources needed to support WFC subarray bias calibration, which became a new and challenging obligation after the installation of the ACS CCD Electronics Box Replacement during Servicing Mission 4. The new readout patterns also improve the overall efficiency of observing with WFC subarrays and enable the processing of subarray images through stages of the ACS data calibration pipeline (calacs) that were previously restricted to full-frame WFC images. The new readout patterns replace the original 512×512, 1024×1024, and 2048×2046-pixel subarrays with subarrays having 2048 columns and 512, 1024, and 2048 rows, respectively. Whereas the original square subarrays were limited to certain WFC quadrants, the new rectangular subarrays are available in all four quadrants. The underlying bias structure of the new subarrays now conforms with those of the corresponding regions of the full-frame image, which allows raw frames in all image formats to be calibrated using one contemporaneous full-frame "superbias" reference image. The original subarrays remain available for scientific use, but calibration of these image formats is no longer supported by STScI.

  13. Low-Power, 8-Channel EEG Recorder and Seizure Detector ASIC for a Subdermal Implantable System.

    PubMed

    Do Valle, Bruno G; Cash, Sydney S; Sodini, Charles G

    2016-12-01

    EEG remains the mainstay test for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. Unfortunately, ambulatory EEG systems are far from ideal for patients who have infrequent seizures. These systems only last up to 3 days and if a seizure is not captured during the recordings, a definite diagnosis of the patient's condition cannot be given. This work aims to address this need by proposing a subdermal implantable, eight-channel EEG recorder and seizure detector that has two modes of operation: diagnosis and seizure counting. In the diagnosis mode, EEG is continuously recorded until a number of seizures are recorded. In the seizure counting mode, the system uses a low-power algorithm to track the number of seizures a patient has, providing doctors with a reliable count to help determine medication efficacy or other clinical endpoint. An ASIC that implements the EEG recording and seizure detection algorithm was designed and fabricated in a 0.18 μm CMOS process. The ASIC includes eight EEG channels and is designed to minimize the system's power and size. The result is a power-efficient analog front end that requires 2.75 μW per channel in diagnosis mode and 0.84 μW per channel in seizure counting mode. Both modes have an input referred noise of approximately 1.1 μVrms.

  14. Novel microwave readout for phase qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Shwetank; Steffen, Matthias; Rothwell, Mary-Beth; Rozen, James; Keefe, George; Ketchen, Mark

    2010-03-01

    We present a novel microwave based readout for a phase qubit which circumvents loss mechanisms that have been shown to impact qubit coherence times. Additionally, this new technique facilitates multiplexing of qubits thereby reducing the number of cryogenic wires required for operating the qubits. The basic operation of the circuit will be discussed and compared with experimental data.

  15. Central FPGA-based destination and load control in the LHCb MHz event readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobsson, R.

    2012-10-01

    The readout strategy of the LHCb experiment is based on complete event readout at 1 MHz. A set of 320 sub-detector readout boards transmit event fragments at total rate of 24.6 MHz at a bandwidth usage of up to 70 GB/s over a commercial switching network based on Gigabit Ethernet to a distributed event building and high-level trigger processing farm with 1470 individual multi-core computer nodes. In the original specifications, the readout was based on a pure push protocol. This paper describes the proposal, implementation, and experience of a non-conventional mixture of a push and a pull protocol, akin to credit-based flow control. An FPGA-based central master module, partly operating at the LHC bunch clock frequency of 40.08 MHz and partly at a double clock speed, is in charge of the entire trigger and readout control from the front-end electronics up to the high-level trigger farm. One FPGA is dedicated to controlling the event fragment packing in the readout boards, the assignment of the farm node destination for each event, and controls the farm load based on an asynchronous pull mechanism from each farm node. This dynamic readout scheme relies on generic event requests and the concept of node credit allowing load control and trigger rate regulation as a function of the global farm load. It also allows the vital task of fast central monitoring and automatic recovery in-flight of failing nodes while maintaining dead-time and event loss at a minimum. This paper demonstrates the strength and suitability of implementing this real-time task for a very large distributed system in an FPGA where no random delays are introduced, and where extreme reliability and accurate event accounting are fundamental requirements. It was in use during the entire commissioning phase of LHCb and has been in faultless operation during the first two years of physics luminosity data taking.

  16. SPD very front end electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luengo, S.; Gascón, D.; Comerma, A.; Garrido, L.; Riera, J.; Tortella, S.; Vilasís, X.

    2006-11-01

    The Scintillator Pad Detector (SPD) is part of the LHCb calorimetry system [D. Breton, The front-end electronics for LHCb calorimeters, Tenth International Conference on Calorimetry in Particle Physics, CALOR, Pasadena, 2002] that provides high-energy hadron, electron and photon candidates for the first level trigger. The SPD is designed to distinguish electrons from photons. It consists of a plastic scintillator layer, divided into about 6000 cells of different size to obtain better granularity near the beam [S. Amato, et al., LHCb technical design report, CERN/LHCC/2000-0036, 2000]. Charged particles will produce, and photons will not, ionization in the scintillator. This ionization generates a light pulse that is collected by a WaveLength Shifting (WLS) fiber that is coiled inside the scintillator cell. The light is transmitted through a clear fiber to the readout system that is placed at the periphery of the detector. Due to space constraints, and in order to reduce costs, these 6000 cells are divided in groups using a MAPMT [Z. Ajaltouni, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 504 (2003) 9] of 64 channels that provides information to the VFE readout electronics. The SPD signal has rather large statistical fluctuations because of the low number (20-30) of photoelectrons per MIP. Therefore the signal is integrated over the whole bunch crossing length of 25 ns in order to have the maximum value. Since in average about 85% of the SPD signal is within 25 ns, 15% of a sample is subtracted from the following one using an operational amplifier. The SPD VFE readout system that will be presented consists of the following components. A specific ASIC [D. Gascon, et al., Discriminator ASIC for the VFE SPD of the LHCb Calorimeter, LHCB Technical Note, LHCB 2004-xx] integrates the signal, makes the signal-tail subtraction, and compares the level obtained to a programmable threshold (to distinguish electrons from photons). A FPGA programmes the ASIC threshold and the value for

  17. Improved Signal Chains for Readout of CMOS Imagers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pain, Bedabrata; Hancock, Bruce; Cunningham, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    An improved generic design has been devised for implementing signal chains involved in readout from complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors and for other readout integrated circuits (ICs) that perform equivalent functions. The design applies to any such IC in which output signal charges from the pixels in a given row are transferred simultaneously into sampling capacitors at the bottoms of the columns, then voltages representing individual pixel charges are read out in sequence by sequentially turning on column-selecting field-effect transistors (FETs) in synchronism with source-follower- or operational-amplifier-based amplifier circuits. The improved design affords the best features of prior source-follower-and operational- amplifier-based designs while overcoming the major limitations of those designs. The limitations can be summarized as follows: a) For a source-follower-based signal chain, the ohmic voltage drop associated with DC bias current flowing through the column-selection FET causes unacceptable voltage offset, nonlinearity, and reduced small-signal gain. b) For an operational-amplifier-based signal chain, the required bias current and the output noise increase superlinearly with size of the pixel array because of a corresponding increase in the effective capacitance of the row bus used to couple the sampled column charges to the operational amplifier. The effect of the bus capacitance is to simultaneously slow down the readout circuit and increase noise through the Miller effect.

  18. High-Fidelity Rapid Initialization and Read-Out of an Electron Spin via the Single Donor D(-) Charge State.

    PubMed

    Watson, T F; Weber, B; House, M G; Büch, H; Simmons, M Y

    2015-10-16

    We demonstrate high-fidelity electron spin read-out of a precision placed single donor in silicon via spin selective tunneling to either the D(+) or D(-) charge state of the donor. By performing read-out at the stable two electron D(0)↔D(-) charge transition we can increase the tunnel rates to a nearby single electron transistor charge sensor by nearly 2 orders of magnitude, allowing faster qubit read-out (1 ms) with minimum loss in read-out fidelity (98.4%) compared to read-out at the D(+)↔D(0) transition (99.6%). Furthermore, we show that read-out via the D(-) charge state can be used to rapidly initialize the electron spin qubit in its ground state with a fidelity of F(I)=99.8%.

  19. Feasibility study using MRI and two optical CT scanners for readout of polymer gel and PresageTM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, H.; Skyt, P. S.; Ceberg, S.; Doran, S.; Muren, L. P.; Balling, P.; Petersen, J. B. B.; Bäck, S. Å. J.

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the conventional combination of three-dimensional dosimeter (nPAG gel) and readout method (MRI) with other combinations of three-dimensional dosimeters (nPAG gel/PresageTM) and readout methods (optical CT scanners). In the first experiment, the dose readout of a gel irradiated with a four field-box technique was performed with both an Octopus IQ scanner and MRI. It was seen that the MRI readout agreed slightly better to the TPS. In another experiment, a gel and a PresageTM sample were irradiated with a VMAT field and read out using MRI and a fast laser scanner, respectively. A comparison between the TPS and the volumes revealed that the MRI/gel readout had closer resemblance to the TPS than the optical CT/PresageTM readout. There are clearly potential in the evaluated optical CT scanners, but more time has to be invested in the particular scanning scenario than was possible in this study.

  20. Simultaneous single-shot readout of multi-qubit circuits using a traveling-wave parametric amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Kevin

    Observing and controlling the state of ever larger quantum systems is critical for advancing quantum computation. Utilizing a Josephson traveling wave parametric amplifier (JTWPA), we demonstrate simultaneous multiplexed single shot readout of 10 transmon qubits in a planar architecture. We employ digital image sideband rejection to eliminate noise at the image frequencies. We quantify crosstalk and infidelity due to simultaneous readout and control of multiple qubits. Based on current amplifier technology, this approach can scale to simultaneous readout of at least 20 qubits. This work was supported by the Army Research Office.

  1. Integrated readout electronics for Belle II pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper describes the readout components for Belle II that have been designed as integrated circuits. The ICs are connected to DEPFET sensor by bump bonding. Three types of ICs have been developed: SWITCHER for pixel matrix control, DCD for readout and digitizing of sensor signals and DHP for digital data processing. The ICs are radiation tolerant and use several novel features, such as the multiple-input differential amplifiers and the fast and radiation hard high-voltage drivers. SWITCHER and DCD have been developed at University of Heidelberg, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and DHP at Bonn University. The IC-development started in 2009 and was accomplished in 2016 with the submissions of final designs. The final ICs for Belle II pixel detector and the related measurement results will be presented in this contribution.

  2. A frequency-sensing readout using piezoelectric sensors for sensing of physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Buxi, Dilpreet; Redouté, Jean-Michel; Yuce, Mehmet Rasit

    2014-01-01

    Together with a charge or voltage amplifier, piezoelectric sensors are commonly used to pick up physiological vibrations from the body. As an alternative to chopper or auto-zero amplifiers, frequency sensing is known in literature to provide advantages of noise immunity, interfacing to digital readout systems as well as tunable range of sensing. A frequency-sensing readout circuit for sensing low voltage signals from piezoelectric sensors is successfully developed and tested in this work. The output voltage of a piezoelectric sensor is fed to a varactor, which is part of an Colpitts LC oscillator. The oscillation frequency is converted into a voltage using a phase locked loop. The circuit is compared to a reference design in terms of linearity, noise and transfer function. The readout has a input-referred noise voltage of 2.24μV/√Hz and consumes 15 mA at 5V supply. Arterial pulse wave signals and the cardiac vibrations from the chest are measured from one subject to show the proof of concept of the proposed readout. The results of this work are intended to contribute towards alternative low noise analog front end designs for piezoelectric sensors.

  3. Fast Readout Architectures for Large Arrays of Digital Pixels: Examples and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gabrielli, A.

    2014-01-01

    Modern pixel detectors, particularly those designed and constructed for applications and experiments for high-energy physics, are commonly built implementing general readout architectures, not specifically optimized in terms of speed. High-energy physics experiments use bidimensional matrices of sensitive elements located on a silicon die. Sensors are read out via other integrated circuits bump bonded over the sensor dies. The speed of the readout electronics can significantly increase the overall performance of the system, and so here novel forms of readout architectures are studied and described. These circuits have been investigated in terms of speed and are particularly suited for large monolithic, low-pitch pixel detectors. The idea is to have a small simple structure that may be expanded to fit large matrices without affecting the layout complexity of the chip, while maintaining a reasonably high readout speed. The solutions might be applied to devices for applications not only in physics but also to general-purpose pixel detectors whenever online fast data sparsification is required. The paper presents also simulations on the efficiencies of the systems as proof of concept for the proposed ideas. PMID:24778588

  4. Intensity-based readout of resonant-waveguide grating biosensors: Systems and nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulsen, Moritz; Jahns, Sabrina; Gerken, Martina

    2017-09-01

    Resonant waveguide gratings (RWG) - also called photonic crystal slabs (PCS) - have been established as reliable optical transducers for label-free biochemical assays as well as for cell-based assays. Current readout systems are based on mechanical scanning and spectrometric measurements with system sizes suitable for laboratory equipment. Here, we review recent progress in compact intensity-based readout systems for point-of-care (POC) applications. We briefly introduce PCSs as sensitive optical transducers and introduce different approaches for intensity-based readout systems. Photometric measurements have been realized with a simple combination of a light source and a photodetector. Recently a 96-channel, intensity-based readout system for both biochemical interaction analyses as well as cellular assays was presented employing the intensity change of a near cut-off mode. As an alternative for multiparametric detection, a camera system for imaging detection has been implemented. A portable, camera-based system of size 13 cm × 4.9 cm × 3.5 cm with six detection areas on an RWG surface area of 11 mm × 7 mm has been demonstrated for the parallel detection of six protein binding kinetics. The signal-to-noise ratio of this system corresponds to a limit of detection of 168 M (24 ng/ml). To further improve the signal-to-noise ratio advanced nanostructure designs are investigated for RWGs. Here, results on multiperiodic and deterministic aperiodic nanostructures are presented. These advanced nanostructures allow for the design of the number and wavelengths of the RWG resonances. In the context of intensity-based readout systems they are particularly interesting for the realization of multi-LED systems. These recent trends suggest that compact point-of-care systems employing disposable test chips with RWG functional areas may reach market in the near future.

  5. Readout architecture for sub-nanosecond resolution TDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marteau, J.; Carlus, B.; Gardien, S.; Girerd, C.; Ianigro, J.-C.; Montorio, J.-L.; Gibert, D.; Nicollin, F.

    2012-04-01

    The DIAPHANE project is pluri-disciplinary collaboration between particle physicists and geophysicists to perform the tomography of large geological structure mainly devoted to the study of active volcanoes. The detector used for this tomography, hereafter referred to as telescope, uses a standard, robust, cost-effective and well-known technology based on solid plastic scintillator readout by photomultiplier(s) (either multichannel pixelized PM or silicon PM). The electronics system is built on the concept of autonomous, triggerless, smart sensor directly connected on a standard fast Ethernet network. First radiographies have been performed on the Mont-Terri underground laboratory (St-Ursanne, Switzerland) and on the active volcano of La Soufrière (Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, France). We present an upgrade of the readout architecture allowing to embed a sub-nanosecond resolution TDC within the existing programmable logic to help in the background rejection (rear flux, random coincidences) and to improve the detection purity and the radiography quality. First results obtained are also presented and briefly discussed.

  6. An encoding readout method used for Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs) for muon tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, X.; Zeng, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.; Zeng, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Cheng, J.

    2014-09-01

    A muon tomography facility has been built in Tsinghua University. Because of the low flux of cosmic muon, an encoding readout method, based on the fine-fine configuration, was implemented for the 2880 channels induced signals from the Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) detectors. With the encoding method, the number of the readout electronics was dramatically reduced and thus the complexity and the cost of the facility was reduced, too. In this paper, the details of the encoding method, and the overall readout system setup in the muon tomography facility are described. With the commissioning of the facility, the readout method works well. The spatial resolution of all MRPC detectors are measured with cosmic muon and the preliminary imaging result are also given.

  7. A High Stability Time Difference Readout Technique of RTD-Fluxgate Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Na; Cheng, Defu; Wang, Yanzhang

    2017-01-01

    The performance of Residence Times Difference (RTD)-fluxgate sensors is closely related to the time difference readout technique. The noise of the induction signal affects the quality of the output signal of the following circuit and the time difference detection, so the stability of the sensor is limited. Based on the analysis of the uncertainty of the RTD-fluxgate using the Bidirectional Magnetic Saturation Time Difference (BMSTD) readout scheme, the relationship between the saturation state of the magnetic core and the target (DC) magnetic field is studied in this article. It is proposed that combining the excitation and induction signals can provide the Negative Magnetic Saturation Time (NMST), which is a detection quantity used to measure the target magnetic field. Also, a mathematical model of output response between NMST and the target magnetic field is established, which analyzes the output NMST and sensitivity of the RTD-fluxgate sensor under different excitation conditions and is compared to the BMSTD readout scheme. The experiment results indicate that this technique can effectively reduce the noise influence. The fluctuation of time difference is less than ±0.1 μs in a target magnetic field range of ±5 × 104 nT. The accuracy and stability of the sensor are improved, so the RTD-fluxgate using the readout technique of high stability time difference is suitable for detecting weak magnetic fields. PMID:29023409

  8. A low-power CMOS readout IC design for bolometer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galioglu, Arman; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Shafique, Atia; Ceylan, Ömer; Yazici, Melik; Kaynak, Mehmet; Durmaz, Emre C.; Arsoy, Elif Gul; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-02-01

    A prototype of a readout IC (ROIC) designed for use in high temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) SiGe microbolometers is presented. The prototype ROIC architecture implemented is based on a bridge with active and blind bolometer pixels with a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) input stage and column parallel integration with serial readout. The ROIC is designed for use in high (>= 4 %/K) TCR and high detector resistance Si/SiGe microbolometers with 17x17 μm2 pixel sizes in development. The prototype has been designed and fabricated in 0.25- μm SiGe:C BiCMOS process.

  9. A microfabricated fringing field capacitive pH sensor with an integrated readout circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arefin, Md Shamsul; Bulut Coskun, M.; Alan, Tuncay; Redoute, Jean-Michel; Neild, Adrian; Rasit Yuce, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    This work presents a microfabricated fringe-field capacitive pH sensor using interdigitated electrodes and an integrated modulation-based readout circuit. The changes in capacitance of the sensor result from the permittivity changes due to pH variations and are converted to frequency shifts using a crossed-coupled voltage controlled oscillator readout circuit. The shift in resonant frequency of the readout circuit is 30.96 MHz for a change in pH of 1.0-5.0. The sensor can be used for the measurement of low pH levels, such as gastric acid, and can be integrated with electronic pills. The measurement results show high repeatability, low noise, and a stable output.

  10. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN "Giga Bit Transceiver''

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Schambach, Joachim; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. Furthermore, this contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  11. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN "Giga Bit Transceiver''

    DOE PAGES

    Schambach, Joachim; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; ...

    2016-12-28

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. Furthermore, this contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  12. General method for extracting the quantum efficiency of dispersive qubit readout in circuit QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bultink, C. C.; Tarasinski, B.; Haandbæk, N.; Poletto, S.; Haider, N.; Michalak, D. J.; Bruno, A.; DiCarlo, L.

    2018-02-01

    We present and demonstrate a general three-step method for extracting the quantum efficiency of dispersive qubit readout in circuit QED. We use active depletion of post-measurement photons and optimal integration weight functions on two quadratures to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio of the non-steady-state homodyne measurement. We derive analytically and demonstrate experimentally that the method robustly extracts the quantum efficiency for arbitrary readout conditions in the linear regime. We use the proven method to optimally bias a Josephson traveling-wave parametric amplifier and to quantify different noise contributions in the readout amplification chain.

  13. ALICE inner tracking system readout electronics prototype testing with the CERN ``Giga Bit Transceiver''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambach, J.; Rossewij, M. J.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonora, M.; Ferencei, J.; Giubilato, P.; Vanat, T.

    2016-12-01

    The ALICE Collaboration is preparing a major detector upgrade for the LHC Run 3, which includes the construction of a new silicon pixel based Inner Tracking System (ITS). The ITS readout system consists of 192 readout boards to control the sensors and their power system, receive triggers, and deliver sensor data to the DAQ. To prototype various aspects of this readout system, an FPGA based carrier board and an associated FMC daughter card containing the CERN Gigabit Transceiver (GBT) chipset have been developed. This contribution describes laboratory and radiation testing results with this prototype board set.

  14. On-ground characterization of the Euclid's CCD273-based readout chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szafraniec, Magdalena; Azzollini, R.; Cropper, M.; Pottinger, S.; Khalil, A.; Hailey, M.; Hu, D.; Plana, C.; Cutts, A.; Hunt, T.; Kohley, R.; Walton, D.; Theobald, C.; Sharples, R.; Schmoll, J.; Ferrando, P.

    2016-07-01

    Euclid is a medium class European Space Agency mission scheduled for launch in 2020. The goal of the survey is to examine the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. One of the cosmological probes used to analyze Euclid's data, the weak lensing technique, measures the distortions of galaxy shapes and this requires very accurate knowledge of the system point spread function (PSF). Therefore, to ensure that the galaxy shape is not affected, the detector chain of the telescope's VISible Instrument (VIS) needs to meet specific performance performance requirements. Each of the 12 VIS readout chains consisting of 3 CCDs, readout electronics (ROE) and a power supply unit (RPSU) will undergo a rigorous on-ground testing to ensure that these requirements are met. This paper reports on the current status of the warm and cold testing of the VIS Engineering Model readout chain. Additionally, an early insight to the commissioning of the Flight Model calibration facility and program is provided.

  15. Inspecting Engineering Samples

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-12-08

    Goddard's Ritsko Wins 2011 SAVE Award The winner of the 2011 SAVE Award is Matthew Ritsko, a Goddard financial manager. His tool lending library would track and enable sharing of expensive space-flight tools and hardware after projects no longer need them. This set of images represents the types of tools used at NASA. To read more go to: www.nasa.gov/topics/people/features/ritsko-save.html Dr. Doug Rabin (Code 671) and PI La Vida Cooper (Code 564) inspect engineering samples of the HAS-2 imager which will be tested and readout using a custom ASIC with a 16-bit ADC (analog to digital converter) and CDS (correlated double sampling) circuit designed by the Code 564 ASIC group as a part of an FY10 IRAD. The purpose of the IRAD was to develop and high resolution digitizer for Heliophysics applications such as imaging. Future goals for the collaboration include characterization testing and eventually a sounding rocket flight of the integrated system. *ASIC= Application Specific Integrated Circuit NASA/GSFC/Chris Gunn

  16. Low-power low-noise mixed-mode VLSI ASIC for infinite dynamic range imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turchetta, Renato; Hu, Y.; Zinzius, Y.; Colledani, C.; Loge, A.

    1998-11-01

    Solid state solutions for imaging are mainly represented by CCDs and, more recently, by CMOS imagers. Both devices are based on the integration of the total charge generated by the impinging radiation, with no processing of the single photon information. The dynamic range of these devices is intrinsically limited by the finite value of noise. Here we present the design of an architecture which allows efficient, in-pixel, noise reduction to a practically zero level, thus allowing infinite dynamic range imaging. A detailed calculation of the dynamic range is worked out, showing that noise is efficiently suppressed. This architecture is based on the concept of single-photon counting. In each pixel, we integrate both the front-end, low-noise, low-power analog part and the digital part. The former consists of a charge preamplifier, an active filter for optimal noise bandwidth reduction, a buffer and a threshold comparator, and the latter is simply a counter, which can be programmed to act as a normal shift register for the readout of the counters' contents. Two different ASIC's based on this concept have been designed for different applications. The first one has been optimized for silicon edge-on microstrips detectors, used in a digital mammography R and D project. It is a 32-channel circuit, with a 16-bit binary static counter.It has been optimized for a relatively large detector capacitance of 5 pF. Noise has been measured to be equal to 100 + 7*Cd (pF) electron rms with the digital part, showing no degradation of the noise performances with respect to the design values. The power consumption is 3.8mW/channel for a peaking time of about 1 microsecond(s) . The second circuit is a prototype for pixel imaging. The total active area is about (250 micrometers )**2. The main differences of the electronic architecture with respect to the first prototype are: i) different optimization of the analog front-end part for low-capacitance detectors, ii) in- pixel 4-bit comparator

  17. Tunable mechanical monolithic sensor with interferometric readout for low frequency seismic noise measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acernese, F.; De Rosa, R.; Giordano, G.; Romano, R.; Barone, F.

    2008-03-01

    This paper describes a mechanical monolithic sensor for geophysical applications developed at the University of Salerno. The instrument is basically a monolithic tunable folded pendulum, shaped with precision machining and electric-discharge-machining, that can be used both as seismometer and, in a force-feedback configuration, as accelerometer. The monolithic mechanical design and the introduction of laser interferometric techniques for the readout implementation make it a very compact instrument, very sensitive in the low-frequency seismic noise band, with a very good immunity to environmental noises. Many changes have been produced since last version (2007), mainly aimed to the improvement of the mechanics and of the optical readout of the instrument. In fact, we have developed and tested a prototype with elliptical hinges and mechanical tuning of the resonance frequency together with a laser optical lever and a new laser interferometer readout system. The theoretical sensitivity curve both for both laser optical lever and laser interferometric readouts, evaluated on the basis of suitable theoretical models, shows a very good agreement with the experimental measurements. Very interesting scientific result, for example, is that the measured natural resonance frequency of the instrument is 70 mHz with a Q = 140 in air without thermal stabilization, demonstrating the feasibility of a monolithic FP sensor with a natural resonance frequency of the order of mHz with a more refined mechanical tuning. Results on the readout system based on polarimetric homodyne Michelson interferometer is discussed.

  18. InSb arrays with CCD readout for 1.0- to 5.5-microns infrared applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, J. D.; Scorso, J. B.; Thom, R. D.

    1976-01-01

    There were two approaches for fabricating indium antimonide (InSb) arrays with CCD readout discussed. The hybrid approach integrated InSb detectors and silicon CCDs in a modular assembly via an advanced interconnection technology. In the monolithic approach, the InSb infrared detectors and the CCD readout were integrated on the same InSb chip. Both approaches utilized intrinsic (band-to-band) photodetection with the attendant advantages over extrinsic detectors. The status of each of these detector readout concepts, with pertinent performance characteristics, was presented.

  19. Large Area Coverage of a TPC Endcap with GridPix Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminski, Jochen

    2018-02-01

    The Large Prototype TPC at DESY, Hamburg, was built by the LCTPC collaboration as a testbed for new readout technologies of Time Projection Chambers. Up to seven modules of about 400 cm2 each can be placed in the endcap. Three of these modules were equipped with a total of 160 GridPix detectors. This is a combination of a highly pixelated readout ASIC and a Micromegas built on top. GridPix detectors have a very high efficiency of detecting primary electrons, which leads to excellent spatial and energy resolutions. For the first time a large number of GridPix detectors has been operated and long segments of tracks have been recorded with excellent precision.

  20. Detuned surface plasmon resonance scattering of gold nanorods for continuous wave multilayered optical recording and readout.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Adam B; Kim, Jooho; Chon, James W M

    2012-02-27

    In a multilayered structure of absorptive optical recording media, continuous-wave laser operation is highly disadvantageous due to heavy beam extinction. For a gold nanorod based recording medium, the narrow surface plasmon resonance (SPR) profile of gold nanorods enables the variation of extinction through mulilayers by a simple detuning of the readout wavelength from the SPR peak. The level of signal extinction through the layers can then be greatly reduced, resulting more efficient readout at deeper layers. The scattering signal strength may be decreased at the detuned wavelength, but balancing these two factors results an optimal scattering peak wavelength that is specific to each layer. In this paper, we propose to use detuned SPR scattering from gold nanorods as a new mechanism for continuous-wave readout scheme on gold nanorod based multilayered optical storage. Using this detuned scattering method, readout using continuous-wave laser is demonstrated on a 16 layer optical recording medium doped with heavily distributed, randomly oriented gold nanorods. Compared to SPR on-resonant readout, this method reduced the required readout power more than one order of magnitude, with only 60 nm detuning from SPR peak. The proposed method will be highly beneficial to multilayered optical storage applications as well as applications using a continuous medium doped heavily with plasmonic nanoparticles.

  1. HREXI prototype for 4piXIO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, Jonathan

    We propose to complete our development of the High Resolution Energetic X-ray Imager (HREXI) and to build and test a full Engineering Model of a detector and telescope system for a 12U Cubesat that will be proposed for a test flight. This will enable a future SMEX (or MIDEX) proposal for a 4piXIO mission: a constellation of Cubesats (or Smallsats) that would dramatically increase the sensitivity, source location precision and especially number of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) to explore the Early Universe. Over the past two years of our current APRA grant, we have developed the world's first (to our knowledge) readout of a high-level imaging detector that is entirely three dimensional so that imaging detectors can then be tiled in close-packed arrays of arbitrary total area. This important new technology is achieved by replacing the external lateral readout of an ASIC, which reads out data from (for example) a 2 x 2 cm imaging detector through "wire bonds" to external circuits in the same plane but beyond the detector, with a vertical readout through the ASIC itself to external circuits directly below. This new technology greatly simplifies the assembly of the large area, tiled arrays of such detectors and their readout ASICs used for coded aperture wide-field telescopes that are uniquely able to discover and study X-ray (and low energy gamma-ray) transients and bursts that are key to understanding the physics and evolution of black holes. The first actual fabrication of such 3D-readout of close-tiled HREXI imaging detectors is underway and will be demonstrated in this third and final year of the current APRA grant. This proposal takes the HREXI detector concept a major step further. By incorporating this technology into the design and fabrication of a complete Engineering Model of a HREXI detector and coded aperture telescope that would fit, with comfortable margins, in a 12U Cubesat, it opens the way for a future low-cost constellation of 25 such 12U Cubesats to

  2. Readout Circuits for Noise Compensation in ISFET Sensory System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. P.; Bhuyan, M.; Talukdar, C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents two different noise reduction techniques for ion sensitive field effect transistor (ISFET) readout configuration and their comparison. The proposed circuit configurations are immune to the noise generated from the ISFET sensory system and particularly to the low frequency pH dependent 1/ f electrochemical noise. The methods used under this study are compensation of noise by differential OPAMP based and Wheatstone bridge circuit, where two identical commercial ISFET sensors were used. The statistical and frequency analysis of the data generated by this two methods were compared for different pH value ranging from pH 2 to 10 at room temperature, and it is found that the readout circuits are able to compensate the noise to a great extent.

  3. Indium phosphide-based monolithically integrated PIN waveguide photodiode readout for resonant cantilever sensors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Siwak, N. P.; Laboratory for the Physical Sciences, 8050 Greenmead Drive, College Park, Maryland 20740; Fan, X. Z.

    2014-10-06

    An integrated photodiode displacement readout scheme for a microelectromechanical cantilever waveguide resonator sensing platform is presented. III-V semiconductors are used to enable the monolithic integration of passive waveguides with active optical components. This work builds upon previously demonstrated results by measuring the displacement of cantilever waveguide resonators with on-chip waveguide PIN photodiodes. The on-chip integration of the readout provides an additional 70% improvement in mass sensitivity compared to off-chip photodetector designs due to measurement stability and minimized coupling loss. In addition to increased measurement stability, reduced packaging complexity is achieved due to the simplicity of the readout design. We havemore » fabricated cantilever waveguides with integrated photodetectors and experimentally characterized these cantilever sensors with monolithically integrated PIN photodiodes.« less

  4. Responses of glomus cells to hypoxia and acidosis are uncoupled, reciprocal and linked to ASIC3 expression: selectivity of chemosensory transduction

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yongjun; Whiteis, Carol A; Sluka, Kathleen A; Chapleau, Mark W; Abboud, François M

    2013-01-01

    Carotid body glomus cells are the primary sites of chemotransduction of hypoxaemia and acidosis in peripheral arterial chemoreceptors. They exhibit pronounced morphological heterogeneity. A quantitative assessment of their functional capacity to differentiate between these two major chemical signals has remained undefined. We tested the hypothesis that there is a differential sensory transduction of hypoxia and acidosis at the level of glomus cells. We measured cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in individual glomus cells, isolated in clusters from rat carotid bodies, in response to hypoxia ( mmHg) and to acidosis at pH 6.8. More than two-thirds (68%) were sensitive to both hypoxia and acidosis, 19% were exclusively sensitive to hypoxia and 13% exclusively sensitive to acidosis. Those sensitive to both revealed significant preferential sensitivity to either hypoxia or to acidosis. This uncoupling and reciprocity was recapitulated in a mouse model by altering the expression of the acid-sensing ion channel 3 (ASIC3) which we had identified earlier in glomus cells. Increased expression of ASIC3 in transgenic mice increased pH sensitivity while reducing cyanide sensitivity. Conversely, deletion of ASIC3 in the knockout mouse reduced pH sensitivity while the relative sensitivity to cyanide or to hypoxia was increased. In this work, we quantify functional differences among glomus cells and show reciprocal sensitivity to acidosis and hypoxia in most glomus cells. We speculate that this selective chemotransduction of glomus cells by either stimulus may result in the activation of different afferents that are preferentially more sensitive to either hypoxia or acidosis, and thus may evoke different and more specific autonomic adjustments to either stimulus. PMID:23165770

  5. X-ray imaging using amorphous selenium: a photoinduced discharge readout method for digital mammography.

    PubMed

    Rowlands, J A; Hunter, D M; Araj, N

    1991-01-01

    A new digital image readout method for electrostatic charge images on photoconductive plates is described. The method can be used to read out images on selenium plates similar to those used in xeromammography. The readout method, called the air-gap photoinduced discharge method (PID), discharges the latent image pixel by pixel and measures the charge. The PID readout method, like electrometer methods, is linear. However, the PID method permits much better resolution than scanning electrometers while maintaining quantum limited performance at high radiation exposure levels. Thus the air-gap PID method appears to be uniquely superior for high-resolution digital imaging tasks such as mammography.

  6. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62fm/√Hz.

  7. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62 fm / √{ Hz } .

  8. Combined readout of a triple-GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antochi, V. C.; Baracchini, E.; Cavoto, G.; Di Marco, E.; Marafini, M.; Mazzitelli, G.; Pinci, D.; Renga, F.; Tomassini, S.; Voena, C.

    2018-05-01

    Optical readout of GEM based devices by means of high granularity and low noise CMOS sensors allows to obtain very interesting tracking performance. Space resolution of the order of tens of μm were measured on the GEM plane along with an energy resolution of 20%÷30%. The main limitation of CMOS sensors is represented by their poor information about time structure of the event. In this paper, the use of a concurrent light readout by means of a suitable photomultiplier and the acquisition of the electric signal induced on the GEM electrode are exploited to provide the necessary timing informations. The analysis of the PMT waveform allows a 3D reconstruction of each single clusters with a resolution on z of 100 μm. Moreover, from the PMT signals it is possible to obtain a fast reconstruction of the energy released within the detector with a resolution of the order of 25% even in the tens of keV range useful, for example, for triggering purpose.

  9. A position- and time-sensitive photon-counting detector with delay- line read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagutzki, Ottmar; Dangendorf, Volker; Lauck, Ronald; Czasch, Achim; Milnes, James

    2007-05-01

    We have developed image intensifier tubes with delay-anode read-out for time- and position-sensitive photon counting. The timing precision is better than 1 ns with 1000x1000 pixels position resolution and up to one megacounts/s processing rate. Large format detectors of 40 and 75 mm active diameter with internal helical-wire delay-line anodes have been produced and specified. A different type of 40 and 25 mm tubes with semi-conducting screen for image charge read-out allow for an economic and robust tube design and for placing the read-out anodes outside the sealed housing. Two types of external delay-line anodes, i.e. pick-up electrodes for the image charge, have been tested. We present tests of the detector and anode performance. Due to the low background this technique is well suited for applications with very low light intensity and especially if a precise time tagging for each photon is required. As an example we present the application of scintillator read-out in time-of-flight (TOF) neutron radiography. Further applications so far are Fluorescence Life-time Microscopy (FLIM) and Astronomy.

  10. BAW sensor readout circuit based on Pierce oscillator architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yang; Yin, Xi-Yang; Han, Bin; Wang, Yu-Hang

    2017-10-01

    Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonators (BAWRs) have been well developed both as filters and as high sensitivity sensors in recent years. In contrast to traditional megahertz quartz resonators, BAWRs offer significant increases in resonant frequency, typically operating in gigahertz regimes. This translates into a potential sensitivity increase of more than three orders of magnitude over traditional QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) devices. Given the micrometer-scale size of BAW sensor-head, read-out circuitry can monolithic integrated with this GHz transducer is urgently needed to produce small, robust, and inexpensive sensor systems. A BAW sensor read-out circuit prototype based on Pierce oscillator architecture is fulfilled in this paper. Based on the differential measurement scheme, two uniform BAWRs are used to constitute two BAW oscillators as a reference and a measurement branch respectively. The resonant frequency shift caused by the measurand is obtained by mixing and filtering the two oscillator signals. Then, the intermediate signal is amplified, shaped and converted to a digital one. And a FPGA is used for frequency detection. Taking 2 GHz BAW mass sensor as a case study, deign procedure are given in details. Simulation and experimental results reveal a 0-99 MHz frequency shift measurement range. Main factors affecting phase noise of the BAW oscillator (i.e. mainly frequency stability of the BAW sensor readout circuit) are also discussed for further optimizations.

  11. Ultrasonic Fingerprint Sensor With Transmit Beamforming Based on a PMUT Array Bonded to CMOS Circuitry.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoyue; Tang, Hao-Yen; Lu, Yipeng; Ng, Eldwin J; Tsai, Julius M; Boser, Bernhard E; Horsley, David A

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, we present a single-chip 65 ×42 element ultrasonic pulse-echo fingerprint sensor with transmit (TX) beamforming based on piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers directly bonded to a CMOS readout application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The readout ASIC was realized in a standard 180-nm CMOS process with a 24-V high-voltage transistor option. Pulse-echo measurements are performed column-by-column in sequence using either one column or five columns to TX the ultrasonic pulse at 20 MHz. TX beamforming is used to focus the ultrasonic beam at the imaging plane where the finger is located, increasing the ultrasonic pressure and narrowing the 3-dB beamwidth to [Formula: see text], a factor of 6.4 narrower than nonbeamformed measurements. The surface of the sensor is coated with a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer to provide good acoustic impedance matching to skin. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry of the PDMS surface was used to map the ultrasonic pressure field at the imaging surface, demonstrating the expected increase in pressure, and reduction in beamwidth. Imaging experiments were conducted using both PDMS phantoms and real fingerprints. The average image contrast is increased by a factor of 1.5 when beamforming is used.

  12. Development of the hard x-ray monitor onboard WF-MAXI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimoto, Makoto; Yatsu, Yoichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ikeda, Hirokazu; Harayama, Atsushi; Takeda, Shin'ichiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Tomida, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Kimura, Masashi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Serino, Motoko; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Sakamoto, Takanori; Kohmura, Tadayoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Ueda, Yoshihiro

    2014-07-01

    WF-MAXI is a mission to detect and localize X-ray transients with short-term variability as gravitational-wave (GW) candidates including gamma-ray bursts, supernovae etc. We are planning on starting observations by WF-MAXI to be ready for the initial operation of the next generation GW telescopes (e.g., KAGRA, Advanced LIGO etc.). WF-MAXI consists of two main instruments, Soft X-ray Large Solid Angle Camera (SLC) and Hard X-ray Monitor (HXM) which totally cover 0.7 keV to 1 MeV band. HXM is a multi-channel array of crystal scintillators coupled with APDs observing photons in the hard X-ray band with an effective area of above 100 cm2. We have developed an analog application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) dedicated for the readout of 32-channel APDs' signals using 0.35 μm CMOS technology based on Open IP project and an analog amplifier was designed to achieve a low-noise readout. The developed ASIC showed a low-noise performance of 2080 e- + 2.3 e-/pF at root mean square and with a reverse-type APD coupled to a Ce:GAGG crystal a good FWHM energy resolution of 6.9% for 662 keV -rays.

  13. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana

    The Vertically Integrated Photon Imaging Chip - Large, (VIPIC-L), is a large area, small pixel (65μm), 3D integrated, photon counting ASIC with zero-suppressed or full frame dead-time-less data readout. It features data throughput of 14.4 Gbps per chip with a full frame readout speed of 56kframes/s in the imaging mode. VIPIC-L contain 192 x 192 pixel array and the total size of the chip is 1.248cm x 1.248cm with only a 5μm periphery. It contains about 120M transistors. A 1.3M pixel camera module will be developed by arranging a 6 x 6 array of 3D VIPIC-L’s bonded to a largemore » area silicon sensor on the analog side and to a readout board on the digital side. The readout board hosts a bank of FPGA’s, one per VIPIC-L to allow processing of up to 0.7 Tbps of raw data produced by the camera.« less

  14. Characterisation of capacitively coupled HV/HR-CMOS sensor chips for the CLIC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremastiotis, I.

    2017-12-01

    The capacitive coupling between an active sensor and a readout ASIC has been considered in the framework of the CLIC vertex detector study. The CLICpix Capacitively Coupled Pixel Detector (C3PD) is a High-Voltage CMOS sensor chip produced in a commercial 180 nm HV-CMOS process for this purpose. The sensor was designed to be connected to the CLICpix2 readout chip. It therefore matches the dimensions of the readout chip, featuring a matrix of 128×128 square pixels with 25μm pitch. The sensor chip has been produced with the standard value for the substrate resistivity (~20 Ωcm) and it has been characterised in standalone testing mode, before receiving and testing capacitively coupled assemblies. The standalone measurement results show a rise time of ~20 ns for a power consumption of 5μW/pixel. Production of the C3PD HV-CMOS sensor chip with higher substrate resistivity wafers (~20, 80, 200 and 1000 Ωcm) is foreseen. The expected benefits of the higher substrate resistivity will be studied using future assemblies with the readout chip.

  15. Double-differential recording and AGC using microcontrolled variable gain ASIC.

    PubMed

    Rieger, Robert; Deng, Shin-Liang

    2013-01-01

    Low-power wearable recording of biopotentials requires acquisition front-ends with high common-mode rejection for interference suppression and adjustable gain to provide an optimum signal range to a cascading analogue-to-digital stage. A microcontroller operated double-differential (DD) recording setup and automatic gain control circuit (AGC) are discussed which reject common-mode interference and provide tunable gain, thus compensating for imbalance and variation in electrode interface impedance. Custom-designed variable gain amplifiers (ASIC) are used as part of the recording setup. The circuit gain and balance is set by the timing of microcontroller generated clock signals. Measured results are presented which confirm that improved common-mode rejection is achieved compared to a single differential amplifier in the presence of input network imbalance. Practical measured examples further validate gain control suitable for biopotential recording and power-line rejection for wearable ECG and EMG recording. The prototype front-end consumes 318 μW including amplifiers and microcontroller.

  16. Position Sensitive Proximity Charge Sensing Readout of HPGe Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priest, Anders Peterson

    Electrode segmentation is a necessity to achieve position sensitivity in semicon- ductor radiation detectors. Traditional segmentation requires decreasing electrode sizes while increasing channel numbers to achieve very fine position resolution. These electrodes can be complicated to fabricate, and many electrodes with individual electronic channels are required to instrument large detector areas. To simplify the fabrication process, we have moved the readout electrodes onto a printed circuit board that is positioned above the ionization type detection material. In this scheme, charge from radiation interactions will be shared amongst several electrodes, allowing for position interpolation. Because events can be reconstructed in between electrodes, fewer electrodes are needed to instrument large detector areas. The proximity charge sensing method of readout promises to simplify detector fabrication while maintaining the position resolution that is required by fields such as homeland security, astrophysics, environmental remediation, nuclear physics, and medical imaging. We performed scanning measurements on a proof of principle detector that we fabricated at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). These measurements showed that position resolution much finer than the strip pitch was achievable using the proximity charge readout method. We performed analytic calculations and Monte Carlo modeling to optimize the readout electrode geometry for a larger detector to test the limits of this technology. We achieved an average position resolution of 288 microm with eight proximity electrodes at a 5 mm pitch and 1 mm strip width, set 100 microm away from the detector surface by a Kapton spacer. To achieve this resolution using standard technologies, 300 microm pitch strips are necessary, and would require 100 channels to instrument the same area. Through our optimization calculations, we found that there is a trade-off between position resolution and energy resolution

  17. Lithographed Superconducting Resonator Development for Next-Generation Frequency Multiplexing Readout of Transition-Edge Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faramarzi, F.; De Haan, T.; Kusaka, A.; Lee, A.; Neuhauser, B.; Plambeck, R.; Raum, C.; Suzuki, A.; Westbrook, B.

    2018-03-01

    Ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments are undergoing a period of exponential growth. Current experiments are observing with 1000-10,000 detectors, and the next-generation experiment (CMB stage 4) is proposing to deploy approximately 500,000 detectors. This order of magnitude increase in detector count will require a new approach for readout electronics. We have developed superconducting resonators for next-generation frequency-domain multiplexing (fMUX) readout architecture. Our goal is to reduce the physical size of resonators, such that resonators and detectors can eventually be integrated on a single wafer. To reduce the size of these resonators, we have designed spiral inductors and interdigitated capacitors that resonate around 10-100 MHz, an order of magnitude higher frequency compared to current fMUX readout systems. The higher frequency leads to a wider bandwidth and would enable higher multiplexing factor than the current ˜ 50 detectors per readout channel. We will report on the simulation, fabrication method, characterization technique, and measurement of quality factor of these resonators.

  18. Subelectron readout noise focal plane arrays for space imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, Gene; Wadsworth, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Readout noise levels of under 1 electron have long been a goal for the FPA community. In the quest to enhance the FPA sensitivity, various approaches have been attempted ranging from the exotic Photo-multiplier tubes, Image Intensifier tubes, Avalanche photo diodes, and now the on-chip avalanche charge amplification technologies from the CCD manufacturers. While these techniques reduce the readout noise, each offers a set of compromises that negatively affect the overall performance of the sensor in parameters such as power dissipation, dynamic range, uniformity or system complexity. In this work, we overview the benefits and tradeoffs of each approach, and introduce a new technique based on ImagerLabs" exclusive HIT technology which promises sub-electron read noise and other benefits without the tradeoffs of the other noise reduction techniques.

  19. A 4×8-Gbps VCSEL array driver ASIC and integration with a custom array transmitter module for the LHC front-end transmission

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Guo, Di; Liu, Chonghan; Chen, Jinghong

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and experiment results of a 4×8-Gbps Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array driver ASIC with the adjustable active-shunt peaking technique and the novel balanced output structure under the Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process, and a custom array optical transmitter module, featuring a compact size of 10 mm×15 mm×5.3 mm. Both the array driver ASIC and the module have been fully tested after integration as a complete parallel transmitter. Optical eye diagram of each channel passes the eye mask at 8 Gbps/ch with adjacent channel working simultaneously with a power consumption of 150 mW/ch. As a result, themore » optical transmission of Bit-Error Rate (BER) less than 10E-12 is achieved at an aggregated data rate of 4×8-Gbps.« less

  20. A 4×8-Gbps VCSEL array driver ASIC and integration with a custom array transmitter module for the LHC front-end transmission

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Di; Liu, Chonghan; Chen, Jinghong; ...

    2016-03-21

    This paper describes the design, fabrication and experiment results of a 4×8-Gbps Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (VCSEL) array driver ASIC with the adjustable active-shunt peaking technique and the novel balanced output structure under the Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process, and a custom array optical transmitter module, featuring a compact size of 10 mm×15 mm×5.3 mm. Both the array driver ASIC and the module have been fully tested after integration as a complete parallel transmitter. Optical eye diagram of each channel passes the eye mask at 8 Gbps/ch with adjacent channel working simultaneously with a power consumption of 150 mW/ch. As a result, themore » optical transmission of Bit-Error Rate (BER) less than 10E-12 is achieved at an aggregated data rate of 4×8-Gbps.« less

  1. FITPix COMBO—Timepix detector with integrated analog signal spectrometric readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holik, M.; Kraus, V.; Georgiev, V.; Granja, C.

    2016-02-01

    The hybrid semiconductor pixel detector Timepix has proven a powerful tool in radiation detection and imaging. Energy loss and directional sensitivity as well as particle type resolving power are possible by high resolution particle tracking and per-pixel energy and quantum-counting capability. The spectrometric resolving power of the detector can be further enhanced by analyzing the analog signal of the detector common sensor electrode (also called back-side pulse). In this work we present a new compact readout interface, based on the FITPix readout architecture, extended with integrated analog electronics for the detector's common sensor signal. Integrating simultaneous operation of the digital per-pixel information with the common sensor (called also back-side electrode) analog pulse processing circuitry into one device enhances the detector capabilities and opens new applications. Thanks to noise suppression and built-in electromagnetic interference shielding the common hardware platform enables parallel analog signal spectroscopy on the back side pulse signal with full operation and read-out of the pixelated digital part, the noise level is 600 keV and spectrometric resolution around 100 keV for 5.5 MeV alpha particles. Self-triggering is implemented with delay of few tens of ns making use of adjustable low-energy threshold of the particle analog signal amplitude. The digital pixelated full frame can be thus triggered and recorded together with the common sensor analog signal. The waveform, which is sampled with frequency 100 MHz, can be recorded in adjustable time window including time prior to the trigger level. An integrated software tool provides control, on-line display and read-out of both analog and digital channels. Both the pixelated digital record and the analog waveform are synchronized and written out by common time stamp.

  2. The PANDA Endcap Disc DIRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Föhl, K.; Ali, A.; Belias, A.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Kalicy, G.; Krebs, M.; Lehmann, D.; Nerling, F.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Böhm, M.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kreutzfeld, K.; Merle, O.; Rieke, J.; Schmidt, M.; Wasem, T.; Achenbach, P.; Cardinali, M.; Hoek, M.; Lauth, W.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.

    2018-02-01

    Positively identifying charged kaons in the PANDA forward endcap solid angle range can be achieved with the Endcap Disc DIRC, allowing kaon-pion separation from 1 up to 4 GeV/c with a separation power of at least 3 standard deviations. Design, performance, and components of this DIRC are given, including the recently introduced TOFPET-ASIC based read-out. Results of a prototype operated in a test beam at DESY in 2016 are shown.

  3. A new non-destructive readout by using photo-recovered surface potential contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Le; Jin, Kui-Juan; Gu, Jun-Xing; Ma, Chao; He, Xu; Zhang, Jiandi; Wang, Can; Feng, Yu; Wan, Qian; Shi, Jin-An; Gu, Lin; He, Meng; Lu, Hui-Bin; Yang, Guo-Zhen

    2014-11-01

    Ferroelectric random access memory is still challenging in the feature of combination of room temperature stability, non-destructive readout and high intensity storage. As a non-contact and non-destructive information readout method, surface potential has never been paid enough attention because of the unavoidable decay of the surface potential contrast between oppositely polarized domains. That is mainly due to the recombination of the surface movable charges around the domain walls. Here, by introducing a laser beam into the combination of piezoresponse force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy, we demonstrate that the surface potential contrast of BiFeO3 films can be recovered under light illumination. The recovering mechanism is understood based on the redistribution of the photo-induced charges driven by the internal electric field. Furthermore, we have created a 12-cell memory pattern based on BiFeO3 films to show the feasibility of such photo-assisted non-volatile and non-destructive readout of the ferroelectric memory.

  4. Dispersive Readout of a Superconducting Flux Qubit Using a Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. E.; Hoskinson, E. M.; Macklin, C.; Siddiqi, I.; Clarke, John

    2011-03-01

    Dispersive techniques for the readout of superconducting qubits offer the possibility of high repetition-rate, quantum non-demolition measurement by avoiding dissipation close to the qubit. To achieve dispersive readout, we couple our three-junction aluminum flux qubit inductively to a 1-2 GHz non-linear oscillator formed by a capacitively shunted DC SQUID. The frequency of this resonator is modulated by the state of the qubit via the flux-dependent inductance of the SQUID. Readout is performed by probing the resonator in the linear (weak drive) regime with a microwave tone and monitoring the phase of the reflected signal. A microstrip SQUID amplifier (MSA) is used to increase the sensitivity of the measurement over that of a HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) amplifier. We report measurements of the performance of our amplification chain. Increased fidelity and reduced measurement backaction resulting from the implementation of the MSA will also be discussed. This work was funded in part by the U.S. Government and by BBN Technologies.

  5. An asynchronous data-driven readout prototype for CEPC vertex detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ping; Sun, Xiangming; Huang, Guangming; Xiao, Le; Gao, Chaosong; Huang, Xing; Zhou, Wei; Ren, Weiping; Li, Yashu; Liu, Jianchao; You, Bihui; Zhang, Li

    2017-12-01

    The Circular Electron Positron Collider (CEPC) is proposed as a Higgs boson and/or Z boson factory for high-precision measurements on the Higgs boson. The precision of secondary vertex impact parameter plays an important role in such measurements which typically rely on flavor-tagging. Thus silicon CMOS Pixel Sensors (CPS) are the most promising technology candidate for a CEPC vertex detector, which can most likely feature a high position resolution, a low power consumption and a fast readout simultaneously. For the R&D of the CEPC vertex detector, we have developed a prototype MIC4 in the Towerjazz 180 nm CMOS Image Sensor (CIS) process. We have proposed and implemented a new architecture of asynchronous zero-suppression data-driven readout inside the matrix combined with a binary front-end inside the pixel. The matrix contains 128 rows and 64 columns with a small pixel pitch of 25 μm. The readout architecture has implemented the traditional OR-gate chain inside a super pixel combined with a priority arbiter tree between the super pixels, only reading out relevant pixels. The MIC4 architecture will be introduced in more detail in this paper. It will be taped out in May and will be characterized when the chip comes back.

  6. Low-power priority Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder data-driven readout for Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors for tracker system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, P.; Aglieri, G.; Cavicchioli, C.; Chalmet, P. L.; Chanlek, N.; Collu, A.; Gao, C.; Hillemanns, H.; Junique, A.; Kofarago, M.; Keil, M.; Kugathasan, T.; Kim, D.; Kim, J.; Lattuca, A.; Marin Tobon, C. A.; Marras, D.; Mager, M.; Martinengo, P.; Mazza, G.; Mugnier, H.; Musa, L.; Puggioni, C.; Rousset, J.; Reidt, F.; Riedler, P.; Snoeys, W.; Siddhanta, S.; Usai, G.; van Hoorne, J. W.; Yi, J.

    2015-06-01

    Active Pixel Sensors used in High Energy Particle Physics require low power consumption to reduce the detector material budget, low integration time to reduce the possibilities of pile-up and fast readout to improve the detector data capability. To satisfy these requirements, a novel Address-Encoder and Reset-Decoder (AERD) asynchronous circuit for a fast readout of a pixel matrix has been developed. The AERD data-driven readout architecture operates the address encoding and reset decoding based on an arbitration tree, and allows us to readout only the hit pixels. Compared to the traditional readout structure of the rolling shutter scheme in Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS), AERD can achieve a low readout time and a low power consumption especially for low hit occupancies. The readout is controlled at the chip periphery with a signal synchronous with the clock, allows a good digital and analogue signal separation in the matrix and a reduction of the power consumption. The AERD circuit has been implemented in the TowerJazz 180 nm CMOS Imaging Sensor (CIS) process with full complementary CMOS logic in the pixel. It works at 10 MHz with a matrix height of 15 mm. The energy consumed to read out one pixel is around 72 pJ. A scheme to boost the readout speed to 40 MHz is also discussed. The sensor chip equipped with AERD has been produced and characterised. Test results including electrical beam measurement are presented.

  7. QLog Solar-Cell Mode Photodiode Logarithmic CMOS Pixel Using Charge Compression and Readout.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yang

    2018-02-14

    In this paper, we present a new logarithmic pixel design currently under development at New Imaging Technologies SA (NIT). This new logarithmic pixel design uses charge domain logarithmic signal compression and charge-transfer-based signal readout. This structure gives a linear response in low light conditions and logarithmic response in high light conditions. The charge transfer readout efficiently suppresses the reset (KTC) noise by using true correlated double sampling (CDS) in low light conditions. In high light conditions, thanks to charge domain logarithmic compression, it has been demonstrated that 3000 electrons should be enough to cover a 120 dB dynamic range with a mobile phone camera-like signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over the whole dynamic range. This low electron count permits the use of ultra-small floating diffusion capacitance (sub-fF) without charge overflow. The resulting large conversion gain permits a single photon detection capability with a wide dynamic range without a complex sensor/system design. A first prototype sensor with 320 × 240 pixels has been implemented to validate this charge domain logarithmic pixel concept and modeling. The first experimental results validate the logarithmic charge compression theory and the low readout noise due to the charge-transfer-based readout.

  8. Electronic readout system for the Belle II imaging Time-Of-Propagation detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchetkov, Dmitri

    2017-07-01

    The imaging Time-Of-Propagation (iTOP) detector, constructed for the Belle II experiment at the SuperKEKB e+e- collider, is an 8192-channel high precision Cherenkov particle identification detector with timing resolution below 50 ps. To acquire data from the iTOP, a novel front-end electronic readout system was designed, built, and integrated. Switched-capacitor array application-specific integrated circuits are used to sample analog signals. Triggering, digitization, readout, and data transfer are controlled by Xilinx Zynq-7000 system on a chip devices.

  9. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, B.; Norton, T. J.; Haas, P.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution for the readout while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest or by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  10. Monte Carlo calculations of PET coincidence timing: single and double-ended readout

    PubMed Central

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2016-01-01

    We present Monte Carlo computational methods for estimating the coincidence resolving time (CRT) of scintillator detector pairs in positron emission tomography (PET) and present results for Lu2SiO5 : Ce (LSO), LaBr3 : Ce, and a hypothetical ultra-fast scintillator with a 1 ns decay time. The calculations were applied to both single-ended and double-ended photodetector readout with constant-fraction triggering. They explicitly include (1) the intrinsic scintillator properties (luminosity, rise time, decay time, and index of refraction), (2) the exponentially distributed depths of interaction, (3) the optical photon transport efficiency, delay, and time dispersion, (4) the photodetector properties (fill factor, quantum efficiency, transit time jitter, and single electron response), and (5) the determination of the constant fraction trigger level that minimizes the CRT. The calculations for single-ended readout include the delayed photons from the opposite reflective surface. The calculations for double-ended readout include (1) the simple average of the two photodetector trigger times, (2) more accurate estimators of the annihilation photon entrance time using the pulse height ratio to estimate the depth of interaction and correct for annihilation photon, optical photon, and trigger delays, and (3) the statistical lower bound for interactions at the center of the crystal. For time-of-flight (TOF) PET we combine stopping power and TOF information in a figure of merit equal to the sensitivity gain relative to whole-body non-TOF PET using LSO. For LSO crystals 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm, a decay time of 37 ns, a total photoelectron count of 4000, and a photodetector with 0.2 ns full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) timing jitter, single-ended readout has a CRT of 0.16 ns fwhm and double-ended readout has a CRT of 0.111 ns fwhm. For LaBr3 : Ce crystals 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm, a rise time of 0.2 ns, a decay time of 18 ns, and a total of 7600 photoelectrons the CRT numbers are 0

  11. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  12. MKID digital readout tuning with deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodkins, R.; Mahashabde, S.; O'Brien, K.; Thatte, N.; Fruitwala, N.; Walter, A. B.; Meeker, S. R.; Szypryt, P.; Mazin, B. A.

    2018-04-01

    Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detector (MKID) devices offer inherent spectral resolution, simultaneous read out of thousands of pixels, and photon-limited sensitivity at optical wavelengths. Before taking observations the readout power and frequency of each pixel must be individually tuned, and if the equilibrium state of the pixels change, then the readout must be retuned. This process has previously been performed through manual inspection, and typically takes one hour per 500 resonators (20 h for a ten-kilo-pixel array). We present an algorithm based on a deep convolution neural network (CNN) architecture to determine the optimal bias power for each resonator. The bias point classifications from this CNN model, and those from alternative automated methods, are compared to those from human decisions, and the accuracy of each method is assessed. On a test feed-line dataset, the CNN achieves an accuracy of 90% within 1 dB of the designated optimal value, which is equivalent accuracy to a randomly selected human operator, and superior to the highest scoring alternative automated method by 10%. On a full ten-kilopixel array, the CNN performs the characterization in a matter of minutes - paving the way for future mega-pixel MKID arrays.

  13. A high efficiency readout architecture for a large matrix of pixels.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielli, A.; Giorgi, F.; Villa, M.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we present a fast readout architecture for silicon pixel matrix sensors that has been designed to sustain very high rates, above 1 MHz/mm2 for matrices greater than 80k pixels. This logic can be implemented within MAPS (Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors), a kind of high resolution sensor that integrates on the same bulk the sensor matrix and the CMOS logic for readout, but it can be exploited also with other technologies. The proposed architecture is based on three main concepts. First of all, the readout of the hits is performed by activating one column at a time; all the fired pixels on the active column are read, sparsified and reset in parallel in one clock cycle. This implies the use of global signals across the sensor matrix. The consequent reduction of metal interconnections improves the active area while maintaining a high granularity (down to a pixel pitch of 40 μm). Secondly, the activation for readout takes place only for those columns overlapping with a certain fired area, thus reducing the sweeping time of the whole matrix and reducing the pixel dead-time. Third, the sparsification (x-y address labeling of the hits) is performed with a lower granularity with respect to single pixels, by addressing vertical zones of 8 pixels each. The fine-grain Y resolution is achieved by appending the zone pattern to the zone address of a hit. We show then the benefits of this technique in presence of clusters. We describe this architecture from a schematic point of view, then presenting the efficiency results obtained by VHDL simulations.

  14. Repetitive readout of a single electronic spin via quantum logic with nuclear spin ancillae.

    PubMed

    Jiang, L; Hodges, J S; Maze, J R; Maurer, P; Taylor, J M; Cory, D G; Hemmer, P R; Walsworth, R L; Yacoby, A; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D

    2009-10-09

    Robust measurement of single quantum bits plays a key role in the realization of quantum computation and communication as well as in quantum metrology and sensing. We have implemented a method for the improved readout of single electronic spin qubits in solid-state systems. The method makes use of quantum logic operations on a system consisting of a single electronic spin and several proximal nuclear spin ancillae in order to repetitively readout the state of the electronic spin. Using coherent manipulation of a single nitrogen vacancy center in room-temperature diamond, full quantum control of an electronic-nuclear system consisting of up to three spins was achieved. We took advantage of a single nuclear-spin memory in order to obtain a 10-fold enhancement in the signal amplitude of the electronic spin readout. We also present a two-level, concatenated procedure to improve the readout by use of a pair of nuclear spin ancillae, an important step toward the realization of robust quantum information processors using electronic- and nuclear-spin qubits. Our technique can be used to improve the sensitivity and speed of spin-based nanoscale diamond magnetometers.

  15. Photonic content-addressable memory system that uses a parallel-readout optical disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, Ashok V.; Marchand, Philippe J.; Yayla, Gökçe; Esener, Sadik C.

    1995-11-01

    We describe a high-performance associative-memory system that can be implemented by means of an optical disk modified for parallel readout and a custom-designed silicon integrated circuit with parallel optical input. The system can achieve associative recall on 128 \\times 128 bit images and also on variable-size subimages. The system's behavior and performance are evaluated on the basis of experimental results on a motionless-head parallel-readout optical-disk system, logic simulations of the very-large-scale integrated chip, and a software emulation of the overall system.

  16. A fully-active fine-grained detector with three readout views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Fedotov, S.; Khabibullin, M.; Khotjantsev, A.; Korzenev, A.; Kostin, A.; Kudenko, Y.; Longhin, A.; Mefodiev, A.; Mermod, P.; Mineev, O.; Noah, E.; Sgalaberna, D.; Smirnov, A.; Yershov, N.

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes a novel idea of a fine-grained fully-active plastic scintillator detector made of many optically independent 1×1×1 cm3 cubes with readout on three orthogonal projections by wavelength shifting fibers. The original purpose of this detector is to serve as an active neutrino target for the detection, measurement and identification of the final state particles down to a few tenths MeV kinetic energies. The three readout views as well as the fine granularity ensure powerful localization and measurement of the deposited energy combined with good timing properties and isotropic acceptance. The possible application as a new active target for the T2K near detector, initial simulation studies and R&D test results are reported.

  17. Tolerance of the High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology ASIC to potentially destructive radiation processes in Earth-orbit-equivalent environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, D. F.; Baumgartner, W. H.; Wilson, M.; Benmoussa, A.; Campola, M.; Christe, S. D.; Gissot, S.; Jones, L.; Newport, J.; Prydderch, M.; Richards, S.; Seller, P.; Shih, A. Y.; Thomas, S.

    2018-02-01

    The High Energy X-ray Imaging Technology (HEXITEC) ASIC is designed on a 0.35 μm CMOS process to read out CdTe or CZT detectors and hence provide fine-pixellated spectroscopic imaging in the range 2-200 keV. In this paper, we examine the tolerance of HEXITEC to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event radiation effects. Bare ASICs are irradiated with X-rays up to a total ionising dose (TID) of 1 Mrad (SiO2) and bombarded with heavy ions with linear energy transfer (LET) up to 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. HEXITEC is shown to operate reliably below a TID of 150 krad, have immunity to fatal single event latchup (SEL) and have high tolerance to non-fatal SEL up to LETs of at least 88.3 MeV mg-1 cm-2. The results are compared to predictions of TID and SELs for various Earth-orbits and aluminium shielding thicknesses. It is found that HEXITEC's radiation tolerance to both potentially destructive cumulative and single event effects is sufficient to reliably operate in these environments with moderate shielding.

  18. Method for producing a hybridization of detector array and integrated circuit for readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fossum, Eric R. (Inventor); Grunthaner, Frank J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process is explained for fabricating a detector array in a layer of semiconductor material on one substrate and an integrated readout circuit in a layer of semiconductor material on a separate substrate in order to select semiconductor material for optimum performance of each structure, such as GaAs for the detector array and Si for the integrated readout circuit. The detector array layer is lifted off its substrate, laminated on the metallized surface on the integrated surface, etched with reticulating channels to the surface of the integrated circuit, and provided with interconnections between the detector array pixels and the integrated readout circuit through the channels. The adhesive material for the lamination is selected to be chemically stable to provide electrical and thermal insulation and to provide stress release between the two structures fabricated in semiconductor materials that may have different coefficients of thermal expansion.

  19. Readout electronics for the GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasprowicz, G.; Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Czyrkowski, H.; Dabrowski, R.; Dominik, W.; Jakubowska, K.; Karpinski, L.; Kierzkowski, K.; Kudla, I. M.; Pozniak, K.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Salapa, Z.; Scholz, M.; Zabolotny, W.

    2011-10-01

    A novel approach to the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector readout is presented. Unlike commonly used methods, based on discriminators[2],[3] and analogue FIFOs[1], the method developed uses simultaneously sampling high speed ADCs and advanced FPGA-based processing logic to estimate the energy of every single photon. Such method is applied to every GEM strip signal. It is especially useful in case of crystal-based spectrometers for soft X-rays, where higher order reflections need to be identified and rejected[5].

  20. Multiplexing readout channels in proportional counters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caristi, James

    1991-01-01

    Proportional counters are important instruments used in sensing hard x-rays. The possibility is described of doubling the number of readout channels in the detector without increasing the electronics needed to amplify channel signals. This suggests that it should be possible, conversely, to reduce the number of amplifiers, thereby reducing the weight and energy budget of the instrument. Various numerical multiplexing schemes are analyzed, and a computer program is presented that can reconstruct multiplexed channel outputs with very good accuracy.

  1. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Fahim Farah, Fahim Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array withoutmore » any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.« less

  2. Design methodology: edgeless 3D ASICs with complex in-pixel processing for pixel detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahim, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz W.; Hoff, James R.; Mohseni, Hooman

    2015-08-01

    The design methodology for the development of 3D integrated edgeless pixel detectors with in-pixel processing using Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools is presented. A large area 3 tier 3D detector with one sensor layer and two ASIC layers containing one analog and one digital tier, is built for x-ray photon time of arrival measurement and imaging. A full custom analog pixel is 65μm x 65μm. It is connected to a sensor pixel of the same size on one side, and on the other side it has approximately 40 connections to the digital pixel. A 32 x 32 edgeless array without any peripheral functional blocks constitutes a sub-chip. The sub-chip is an indivisible unit, which is further arranged in a 6 x 6 array to create the entire 1.248cm x 1.248cm ASIC. Each chip has 720 bump-bond I/O connections, on the back of the digital tier to the ceramic PCB. All the analog tier power and biasing is conveyed through the digital tier from the PCB. The assembly has no peripheral functional blocks, and hence the active area extends to the edge of the detector. This was achieved by using a few flavors of almost identical analog pixels (minimal variation in layout) to allow for peripheral biasing blocks to be placed within pixels. The 1024 pixels within a digital sub-chip array have a variety of full custom, semi-custom and automated timing driven functional blocks placed together. The methodology uses a modified mixed-mode on-top digital implementation flow to not only harness the tool efficiency for timing and floor-planning but also to maintain designer control over compact parasitically aware layout. The methodology uses the Cadence design platform, however it is not limited to this tool.

  3. Demonstration of Time Domain Multiplexed Readout for Magnetically Coupled Calorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porst, J.-P.; Adams, J. S.; Balvin, M.; Bandler, S.; Beyer, J.; Busch, S. E.; Drung, D.; Seidel, G. M.; Smith, S. J.; Stevenson, T. R.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetically coupled calorimeters (MCC) have extremely high potential for x-ray applications due to the inherent high energy resolution capability and being non-dissipative. Although very high energy-resolution has been demonstrated, until now there has been no demonstration of multiplexed read-out. We report on the first realization of a time domain multiplexed (TDM) read-out. While this has many similarities with TDM of transition-edge-sensors (TES), for MGGs the energy resolution is limited by the SQUID read-out noise and requires the well established scheme to be altered in order to minimize degradation due to noise aliasing effects. In cur approach, each pixel is read out by a single first stage SQUID (SQ1) that is operated in open loop. The outputs of the SQ1 s are low-pass filtered with an array of low cross-talk inductors, then fed into a single-stage SQUID TD multiplexer. The multiplexer is addressed from room temperature and read out through a single amplifier channel. We present results achieved with a new detector platform. Noise performance is presented and compared to expectations. We have demonstrated multiplexed X-ray spectroscopy at 5.9keV with delta_FWHM=10eV. In an optimized setup, we show it is possible to multiplex 32 detectors without significantly degrading the Intrinsic detector resolution.

  4. 3D reconstruction of nuclear reactions using GEM TPC with planar readout

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bihałowicz, Jan Stefan

    2015-02-24

    The research program of the Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics (ELI-NP) laboratory under construction in Magurele, Romania facilities the need of developing a gaseous active-target detector providing 3D reconstruction of charged products of nuclear reactions induced by gamma beam. The monoenergetic, high-energy (E{sub γ} > 19 MeV) gamma beam of intensity 10{sup 13}γ/s allows studying nuclear reactions in astrophysics. A Time Projection Chamber with crossed strip readout (eTPC) is proposed as one of the imaging detectors. The special feature of the readout electrode structure is a 2D reconstruction based on the information read out simultaneously from three arrays ofmore » strips that form virtual pixels. It is expected to reach similar spatial resolution as for pixel readout at largely reduced cost of electronics. The paper presents the current progress and first results of the small scale prototype TPC which is a one of implementation steps towards eTPC detector proposed in the Technical Design Report of Charged Particles Detection at ELI-NP.« less

  5. A novel readout integrated circuit for ferroelectric FPA detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Piji; Li, Lihua; Ji, Yulong; Zhang, Jia; Li, Min; Liang, Yan; Hu, Yanbo; Li, Songying

    2017-11-01

    Uncooled infrared detectors haves some advantages such as low cost light weight low power consumption, and superior reliability, compared with cryogenically cooled ones Ferroelectric uncooled focal plane array(FPA) are being developed for its AC response and its high reliability As a key part of the ferroelectric assembly the ROIC determines the performance of the assembly. A top-down design model for uncooled ferroelectric readout integrated circuit(ROIC) has been developed. Based on the optical thermal and electrical properties of the ferroelectric detector the RTIA readout integrated circuit is designed. The noise bandwidth of RTIA readout circuit has been developed and analyzed. A novel high gain amplifier, a high pass filter and a low pass filter circuits are designed on the ROIC. In order to improve the ferroelectric FPA package performance and decrease of package cost a temperature sensor is designed on the ROIC chip At last the novel RTIA ROIC is implemented on 0.6μm 2P3M CMOS silicon techniques. According to the experimental chip test results the temporal root mean square(RMS)noise voltage is about 1.4mV the sensitivity of the on chip temperature sensor is 0.6 mV/K from -40°C to 60°C the linearity performance of the ROIC chip is better than 99% Based on the 320×240 RTIA ROIC, a 320×240 infrared ferroelectric FPA is fabricated and tested. Test results shows that the 320×240 RTIA ROIC meets the demand of infrared ferroelectric FPA.

  6. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Vernon, E.; De Geronimo, G.; Ackley, K.

    We report on the development of an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) for 3D position sensitive detectors (3D PSD). The ASIC is designed to operate with pixelated wide bandgap sensors like Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride (CZT), Mercuric Iodide (Hgl2) and Thallium Bromide (TIBr). It measures the amplitudes and timings associated with an ionizing event on 128 anodes, the anode grid, and the cathode. Each channel provides low-noise charge amplification, high-order shaping with peaking time adjustable from 250 ns to 12 {micro}s, gain adjustable to 20 mV/fC or 120 mV/fC (for a dynamic range of 3.2 MeV and 530 keV in CZT), amplitude discriminationmore » with 5-bit trimming, and positive and negative peak and timing detections. The readout can be full or sparse, based on a flag and single- or multi-cycle token passing. All channels, triggered channels only, or triggered with neighbors can be read out thus increasing the rate capability of the system to more than 10 kcps. The ASIC dissipates 330 mW which corresponds to about 2.5 mW per channel.« less

  7. ASIC or PIC? Implantable stimulators based on semi-custom CMOS technology or low-power microcontroller architecture.

    PubMed

    Salmons, S; Gunning, G T; Taylor, I; Grainger, S R; Hitchings, D J; Blackhurst, J; Jarvis, J C

    2001-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the effects of chronic stimulation on mammalian muscles we needed to generate patterns of greater variety and complexity than simple constant-frequency or burst patterns. We describe here two approaches to the design of implantable neuromuscular stimulators that can satisfy these requirements. Devices of both types were developed and used in long-term experiments. The first device was based on a semi-custom Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). This approach has the advantage that the circuit can be completely tested at every stage of development and production, assuring a high degree of reliability. It has the drawback of inflexibility: the patterns are produced by state machines implemented in silicon, so each new set of patterns requires a fresh production run, which is costly and time-consuming. The second device was based on a commercial microcontroller (Microchip PIC16C84). The functionality of this type of circuit is specified in software rather than in silicon hardware, allowing a single device to be programmed for different functions. With the use of features designed to improve fault-tolerance we found this approach to be as reliable as that based on ASICs. The encapsulated devices can easily be accommodated subcutaneously on the flank of a rabbit and a recent version is small enough to implant into the peritoneal cavity of rats. The current devices are programmed with a predetermined set of 12 patterns before assembly; the desired pattern is selected after implantation with an electronic flash gun. The operating current drain is less than 40 microA.

  8. First results of the silicon telescope using an 'artificial retina' for fast track finding

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Neri, N.; Abba, A.; Caponio, F.

    We present the first results of the prototype of a silicon tracker with trigger capabilities based on a novel approach for fast track finding. The working principle of the 'artificial retina' is inspired by the processing of visual images by the brain and it is based on extensive parallelization of data distribution and pattern recognition. The algorithm has been implemented in commercial FPGAs in three main logic modules: a switch for the routing of the detector hits, a pool of engines for the digital processing of the hits, and a block for the calculation of the track parameters. The architecturemore » is fully pipelined and allows the reconstruction of real-time tracks with a latency less then 100 clock cycles, corresponding to 0.25 microsecond at 400 MHz clock. The silicon telescope consists of 8 layers of single-sided silicon strip detectors with 512 strips each. The detector size is about 10 cm x 10 cm and the strip pitch is 183 μm. The detectors are read out by the Beetle chip, a custom ASICs developed for LHCb, which provides the measurement of the hit position and pulse height of 128 channels. The 'artificial retina' algorithm has been implemented on custom data acquisition boards based on FPGAs Xilinx Kintex 7 lx160. The parameters of the tracks detected are finally transferred to host PC via USB 3.0. The boards manage the read-out ASICs and the sampling of the analog channels. The read-out is performed at 40 MHz on 4 channels for each ASIC that corresponds to a decoding of the telescope information at 1.1 MHz. We report on the first results of the fast tracking device and compare with simulations. (authors)« less

  9. Positioning of centrioles is a conserved readout of Frizzled planar cell polarity signalling

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling is a well-conserved developmental pathway regulating cellular orientation during development. An evolutionarily conserved pathway readout is not established and, moreover, it is thought that PCP mediated cellular responses are tissue-specific. A key PCP function in vertebrates is to regulate coordinated centriole/cilia positioning, a function that has not been associated with PCP in Drosophila. Here we report instructive input of Frizzled-PCP (Fz/PCP) signalling into polarized centriole positioning in Drosophila wings. We show that centrioles are polarized in pupal wing cells as a readout of PCP signalling, with both gain and loss-of-function Fz/PCP signalling affecting centriole polarization. Importantly, loss or gain of centrioles does not affect Fz/PCP establishment, implicating centriolar positioning as a conserved PCP-readout, likely downstream of PCP-regulated actin polymerization. Together with vertebrate data, these results suggest a unifying model of centriole/cilia positioning as a common downstream effect of PCP signalling from flies to mammals. PMID:27021213

  10. Positioning of centrioles is a conserved readout of Frizzled planar cell polarity signalling.

    PubMed

    Carvajal-Gonzalez, Jose Maria; Roman, Angel-Carlos; Mlodzik, Marek

    2016-03-29

    Planar cell polarity (PCP) signalling is a well-conserved developmental pathway regulating cellular orientation during development. An evolutionarily conserved pathway readout is not established and, moreover, it is thought that PCP mediated cellular responses are tissue-specific. A key PCP function in vertebrates is to regulate coordinated centriole/cilia positioning, a function that has not been associated with PCP in Drosophila. Here we report instructive input of Frizzled-PCP (Fz/PCP) signalling into polarized centriole positioning in Drosophila wings. We show that centrioles are polarized in pupal wing cells as a readout of PCP signalling, with both gain and loss-of-function Fz/PCP signalling affecting centriole polarization. Importantly, loss or gain of centrioles does not affect Fz/PCP establishment, implicating centriolar positioning as a conserved PCP-readout, likely downstream of PCP-regulated actin polymerization. Together with vertebrate data, these results suggest a unifying model of centriole/cilia positioning as a common downstream effect of PCP signalling from flies to mammals.

  11. The 160 TES bolometer read-out using FDM for SAFARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hijmering, R. A.; den Hartog, R. H.; van der Linden, A. J.; Ridder, M.; Bruijn, M. P.; van der Kuur, J.; van Leeuwen, B. J.; van Winden, P.; Jackson, B.

    2014-07-01

    For the read out of the Transition Edge Sensors (TES) bolometer arrays of the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese background-limited far-IR SPICA mission SRON is developing a Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) read-out system. The next step after the successful demonstration of the read out of 38 TES bolometers using FDM was to demonstrate the FDM readout of the required 160 TES bolometers. Of the 160 LC filter and TES bolometer chains 151 have been connected and after cooldown 148 of the resonances could be identified. Although initial operation and locking of the pixels went smoothly the experiment revealed several complications. In this paper we describe the 160 pixel FDM set-up, show the results and discuss the issues faced during operation of the 160 pixel FDM experiment.

  12. CMOS Integrated Lock-in Readout Circuit for FET Terahertz Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingues, Suzana; Perenzoni, Daniele; Perenzoni, Matteo; Stoppa, David

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, a switched-capacitor readout circuit topology integrated with a THz antenna and field-effect transistor detector is analyzed, designed, and fabricated in a 0.13-μm standard CMOS technology. The main objective is to perform amplification and filtering of the signal, as well as subtraction of background in case of modulated source, in order to avoid the need for an external lock-in amplifier, in a compact implementation. A maximum responsivity of 139.7 kV/W, and a corresponding minimum NEP of 2.2 nW/√Hz, was obtained with a two-stage readout circuit at 1 kHz modulation frequency. The presented switched-capacitor circuit is suitable for implementation in pixel arrays due to its compact size and power consumption (0.014 mm2 and 36 μW).

  13. Readout electronics for CBM-TOF super module quality evaluation based on 10 Gbps ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, D.; Cao, P.; Huang, X.; Zheng, J.; Wang, Q.; Li, B.; Li, J.; Liu, S.; An, Q.

    2017-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter-Time of Flight (CBM-TOF) wall uses high performance of Multi-gap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPC) assembled in super modules to identify charged particles with high channel density and high measurement precision at high event rate. Electronics meet the challenge for reading data out from a super module at high speed of about 6 Gbps in real time. In this paper, the readout electronics for CBM-TOF super module quality evaluation is proposed based on 10 Gigabit Ethernet. The digitized TOF data from one super module will be concentrated at the front-end electronics residing on the side of the super module and transmitted to an extreme speed readout module (XSRM) housed in the backend crate through the PCI Express (PCIe) protocol via optic channels. Eventually, the XSRM transmits data to the data acquisition (DAQ) system through four 10 Gbps Ethernet ports in real time. This readout structure has advantages of high performance and expansibility. Furthermore, it is easy to operate. Test results on the prototype show that the overall data readout performance for each XSRM can reach up to 28.8 Gbps, which means XSRM can meet the requirement of reading data out from 4 super modules with 1280 channels in real time.

  14. QLog Solar-Cell Mode Photodiode Logarithmic CMOS Pixel Using Charge Compression and Readout

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new logarithmic pixel design currently under development at New Imaging Technologies SA (NIT). This new logarithmic pixel design uses charge domain logarithmic signal compression and charge-transfer-based signal readout. This structure gives a linear response in low light conditions and logarithmic response in high light conditions. The charge transfer readout efficiently suppresses the reset (KTC) noise by using true correlated double sampling (CDS) in low light conditions. In high light conditions, thanks to charge domain logarithmic compression, it has been demonstrated that 3000 electrons should be enough to cover a 120 dB dynamic range with a mobile phone camera-like signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) over the whole dynamic range. This low electron count permits the use of ultra-small floating diffusion capacitance (sub-fF) without charge overflow. The resulting large conversion gain permits a single photon detection capability with a wide dynamic range without a complex sensor/system design. A first prototype sensor with 320 × 240 pixels has been implemented to validate this charge domain logarithmic pixel concept and modeling. The first experimental results validate the logarithmic charge compression theory and the low readout noise due to the charge-transfer-based readout. PMID:29443903

  15. Monte Carlo calculations of PET coincidence timing: single and double-ended readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W.

    2015-09-01

    We present Monte Carlo computational methods for estimating the coincidence resolving time (CRT) of scintillator detector pairs in positron emission tomography (PET) and present results for Lu2SiO5 : Ce (LSO), LaBr3 : Ce, and a hypothetical ultra-fast scintillator with a 1 ns decay time. The calculations were applied to both single-ended and double-ended photodetector readout with constant-fraction triggering. They explicitly include (1) the intrinsic scintillator properties (luminosity, rise time, decay time, and index of refraction), (2) the exponentially distributed depths of interaction, (3) the optical photon transport efficiency, delay, and time dispersion, (4) the photodetector properties (fill factor, quantum efficiency, transit time jitter, and single electron response), and (5) the determination of the constant fraction trigger level that minimizes the CRT. The calculations for single-ended readout include the delayed photons from the opposite reflective surface. The calculations for double-ended readout include (1) the simple average of the two photodetector trigger times, (2) more accurate estimators of the annihilation photon entrance time using the pulse height ratio to estimate the depth of interaction and correct for annihilation photon, optical photon, and trigger delays, and (3) the statistical lower bound for interactions at the center of the crystal. For time-of-flight (TOF) PET we combine stopping power and TOF information in a figure of merit equal to the sensitivity gain relative to whole-body non-TOF PET using LSO. For LSO crystals 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  30 mm, a decay time of 37 ns, a total photoelectron count of 4000, and a photodetector with 0.2 ns full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) timing jitter, single-ended readout has a CRT of 0.16 ns fwhm and double-ended readout has a CRT of 0.111 ns fwhm. For LaBr3 : Ce crystals 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  30 mm, a rise time of 0.2 ns, a decay time of 18

  16. Monte Carlo calculations of PET coincidence timing: single and double-ended readout.

    PubMed

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2015-09-21

    We present Monte Carlo computational methods for estimating the coincidence resolving time (CRT) of scintillator detector pairs in positron emission tomography (PET) and present results for Lu2SiO5 : Ce (LSO), LaBr3 : Ce, and a hypothetical ultra-fast scintillator with a 1 ns decay time. The calculations were applied to both single-ended and double-ended photodetector readout with constant-fraction triggering. They explicitly include (1) the intrinsic scintillator properties (luminosity, rise time, decay time, and index of refraction), (2) the exponentially distributed depths of interaction, (3) the optical photon transport efficiency, delay, and time dispersion, (4) the photodetector properties (fill factor, quantum efficiency, transit time jitter, and single electron response), and (5) the determination of the constant fraction trigger level that minimizes the CRT. The calculations for single-ended readout include the delayed photons from the opposite reflective surface. The calculations for double-ended readout include (1) the simple average of the two photodetector trigger times, (2) more accurate estimators of the annihilation photon entrance time using the pulse height ratio to estimate the depth of interaction and correct for annihilation photon, optical photon, and trigger delays, and (3) the statistical lower bound for interactions at the center of the crystal. For time-of-flight (TOF) PET we combine stopping power and TOF information in a figure of merit equal to the sensitivity gain relative to whole-body non-TOF PET using LSO. For LSO crystals 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  30 mm, a decay time of 37 ns, a total photoelectron count of 4000, and a photodetector with 0.2 ns full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) timing jitter, single-ended readout has a CRT of 0.16 ns fwhm and double-ended readout has a CRT of 0.111 ns fwhm. For LaBr3 : Ce crystals 3 mm  ×  3 mm  ×  30 mm, a rise time of 0.2 ns, a decay time of 18

  17. Single-shot readout of accumulation mode Si/SiGe spin qubits using RF reflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Christian; Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    Spin qubits based on gate-defined quantum dots are promising systems for realizing quantum computation. Due to their low concentration of nuclear-spin-carrying isotopes, Si/SiGe heterostructures are of particular interest. While high fidelities have been reported for single-qubit and two-qubit gate operations, qubit initialization and measurement times are relatively slow. In order to develop fast read-out techniques compatible with the operation of spin qubits, we characterize double and triple quantum dots confined in undoped Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures using accumulation and depletion gates and a nearby RF charge sensor dot. We implement a RF reflectometry technique that allows single-shot charge read-out at integration times on the order of a few μs. We show our recent advancement towards implementing spin qubits in these structures, including spin-selective single-shot read-out.

  18. Nanosecond monolithic CMOS readout cell

    DOEpatents

    Souchkov, Vitali V.

    2004-08-24

    A pulse shaper is implemented in monolithic CMOS with a delay unit formed of a unity gain buffer. The shaper is formed of a difference amplifier having one input connected directly to an input signal and a second input connected to a delayed input signal through the buffer. An elementary cell is based on the pulse shaper and a timing circuit which gates the output of an integrator connected to the pulse shaper output. A detector readout system is formed of a plurality of elementary cells, each connected to a pixel of a pixel array, or to a microstrip of a plurality of microstrips, or to a detector segment.

  19. Optimization of high count rate event counting detector with Microchannel Plates and quad Timepix readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremsin, A. S.; Vallerga, J. V.; McPhate, J. B.; Siegmund, O. H. W.

    2015-07-01

    Many high resolution event counting devices process one event at a time and cannot register simultaneous events. In this article a frame-based readout event counting detector consisting of a pair of Microchannel Plates and a quad Timepix readout is described. More than 104 simultaneous events can be detected with a spatial resolution of 55 μm, while >103 simultaneous events can be detected with <10 μm spatial resolution when event centroiding is implemented. The fast readout electronics is capable of processing >1200 frames/sec, while the global count rate of the detector can exceed 5×108 particles/s when no timing information on every particle is required. For the first generation Timepix readout, the timing resolution is limited by the Timepix clock to 10-20 ns. Optimization of the MCP gain, rear field voltage and Timepix threshold levels are crucial for the device performance and that is the main subject of this article. These devices can be very attractive for applications where the photon/electron/ion/neutron counting with high spatial and temporal resolution is required, such as energy resolved neutron imaging, Time of Flight experiments in lidar applications, experiments on photoelectron spectroscopy and many others.

  20. Development of Formulations for a-SiC and Manganese CMP and Post-CMP Cleaning of Cobalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagudu, Uma Rames Krishna

    We have investigated the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) of amorphous SiC (a-SiC) and Mn and Post CMP cleaning of cobalt for various device applications. During the manufacture of copper interconnects using the damascene process the polishing of copper is followed by the polishing of the barrier material (Co, Mn, Ru and their alloys) and its post CMP cleaning. This is followed by the a-SiC hard mask CMP. Silicon carbide thin films, though of widespread use in microelectronic engineering, are difficult to process by CMP because of their hardness and chemical inertness. The earlier part of the SiC work discusses the development of slurries based on silica abrasives that resulted in high a-SiC removal rates (RRs). The ionic strength of the silica dispersion was found to play a significant role in enhancing material removal rate, while also providing very good post-polish surface-smoothness. For example, the addition of 50 mM potassium nitrate to a pH 8 aqueous slurry consisting of 10 wt % of silica abrasives and 1.47 M hydrogen peroxide increased the RR from about 150 nm/h to about 2100 nm/h. The role of ionic strength in obtaining such high RRs was investigated using surface zeta-potentials measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Evidently, hydrogen peroxide promoted the oxidation of Si and C to form weakly adhered species that were subsequently removed by the abrasive action of the silica particles. The effect of potassium nitrate in increasing material removal is attributed to the reduction in the electrostatic repulsion between the abrasive particles and the SiC surface because of screening of surface charges by the added electrolyte. We also show that transition metal compounds when used as additives to silica dispersions enhance a-SiC removal rates (RRs). Silica slurries containing potassium permanganate gave RRs as high as 2000 nm/h at pH 4. Addition of copper sulfate to this slurry further enhanced the RRs to ˜3500 nm/h at pH 6

  1. Design and Assembly of SPT-3G Cold Readout Hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avva, J. S.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Thakur, R. Basu; Barron, D.; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carter, F. W.; Cecil, T.; Chang, C. L.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Denison, E. V.; de Haan, T.; Ding, J.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Elleflot, T.; Everett, W.; Foster, A.; Gannon, R. N.; Gilbert, A.; Groh, J. C.; Halverson, N. W.; Harke-Hosemann, A. H.; Harrington, N. L.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O. B.; Jonas, M.; Khaire, T.; Kofman, A. M.; Korman, M.; Kubik, D.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Lowitz, A. E.; Meyer, S. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Nishino, H.; Noble, G. I.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Rotermund, K.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saunders, L. J.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J. A.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L. R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, M. R.

    2018-05-01

    The third-generation upgrade to the receiver on the South Pole Telescope, SPT-3G, was installed at the South Pole during the 2016-2017 austral summer to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background. Increasing the number of detectors by a factor of 10 to ˜ 16,000 required the multiplexing factor to increase to 68 and the bandwidth of the frequency-division readout electronics to span 1.6-5.2 MHz. This increase necessitates low-thermal conductance, low-inductance cryogenic wiring. Our cold readout system consists of planar thin-film aluminum inductive-capacitive resonators, wired in series with the detectors, summed together, and connected to 4K SQUIDs by 10-μm -thick niobium-titanium (NbTi) broadside-coupled striplines. Here, we present an overview of the cold readout electronics for SPT-3G, including assembly details and characterization of electrical and thermal properties of the system. We report, for the NbTi striplines, values of R ≤ 10^{-4} Ω , L = 21 ± 1 nH , and C = 1.47± .02 nF . Additionally, the striplines' thermal conductivity is described by kA = 6.0± 0.3 T^{0.92 ± 0.04} μW mm K^{-1} . Finally, we provide projections for cross talk induced by parasitic impedances from the stripline and find that the median value of percentage cross talk from leakage current is 0.22 and 0.09% from wiring impedance.

  2. A rack-mounted precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator with an absolute electronic readout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    A coaxial precision waveguide-below-cutoff attenuator is described which uses an absolute (unambiguous) electronic digital readout of displacement in inches in addition to the usual gear driven mechanical counter-dial readout in decibels. The attenuator is rack-mountable and has the input and output RF connectors in a fixed position. The attenuation rate for 55, 50, and 30 MHz operation is given along with a discussion of sources of errors. In addition, information is included to aid the user in making adjustments on the attenuator should it be damaged or disassembled for any reason.

  3. Digital radiology using active matrix readout: amplified pixel detector array for fluoroscopy.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, N; Zhao, W; Huang, Z; Rowlands, J A

    1999-05-01

    Active matrix array technology has made possible the concept of flat panel imaging systems for radiography. In the conventional approach a thin-film circuit built on glass contains the necessary switching components (thin-film transistors or TFTs) to readout an image formed in either a phosphor or photoconductor layer. Extension of this concept to real time imaging--fluoroscopy--has had problems due to the very low noise required. A new design strategy for fluoroscopic active matrix flat panel detectors has therefore been investigated theoretically. In this approach, the active matrix has integrated thin-film amplifiers and readout electronics at each pixel and is called the amplified pixel detector array (APDA). Each amplified pixel consists of three thin-film transistors: an amplifier, a readout, and a reset TFT. The performance of the APDA approach compared to the conventional active matrix was investigated for two semiconductors commonly used to construct active matrix arrays--hydrogenated amorphous silicon and polycrystalline silicon. The results showed that with amplification close to the pixel, the noise from the external charge preamplifiers becomes insignificant. The thermal and flicker noise of the readout and the amplifying TFTs at the pixel become the dominant sources of noise. The magnitude of these noise sources is strongly dependent on the TFT geometry and its fabrication process. Both of these could be optimized to make the APDA active matrix operate at lower noise levels than is possible with the conventional approach. However, the APDA cannot be made to operate ideally (i.e., have noise limited only by the amount of radiation used) at the lowest exposure rate required in medical fluoroscopy.

  4. Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. Final Report

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Wigmans, Richard; Nural, Akchurin

    2013-09-01

    This document constitutes the final report on the project Dual-Readout Calorimetry for High-Quality Energy Measurements. The project was carried out by a consortium of US and Italian physicists, led by Dr. Richard Wigmans (Texas tech University). This consortium built several particle detectors and tested these at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland. The idea arose to use scintillating crystals as dual-readout calorimeters. Such crystals were of course already known to provide excellent energy resolution for the detection of particles developing electromagnetic (em) showers. The efforts to separate the signals from scintillating crystals into scintillation and Cerenkovmore » components led to four different methods by which this could be accomplished. These methods are based on a) the directionality, b) spectral differences, c) the time structure, and d) the polarization of the signals.« less

  5. "DNA Origami Traffic Lights" with a Split Aptamer Sensor for a Bicolor Fluorescence Readout.

    PubMed

    Walter, Heidi-Kristin; Bauer, Jens; Steinmeyer, Jeannine; Kuzuya, Akinori; Niemeyer, Christof M; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2017-04-12

    A split aptamer for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was embedded as a recognition unit into two levers of a nanomechanical DNA origami construct by extension and modification of selected staple strands. An additional optical module in the stem of the split aptamer comprised two different cyanine-styryl dyes that underwent an energy transfer from green (donor) to red (acceptor) emission if two ATP molecules were bound as target molecule to the recognition module and thereby brought the dyes in close proximity. As a result, the ATP as a target triggered the DNA origami shape transition and yielded a fluorescence color change from green to red as readout. Conventional atomic force microscopy (AFM) images confirmed the topology change from the open form of the DNA origami in the absence of ATP into the closed form in the presence of the target molecule. The obtained closed/open ratios in the absence and presence of target molecules tracked well with the fluorescence color ratios and thereby validated the bicolor fluorescence readout. The correct positioning of the split aptamer as the functional unit farthest away from the fulcrum of the DNA origami was crucial for the aptasensing by fluorescence readout. The fluorescence color change allowed additionally to follow the topology change of the DNA origami aptasensor in real time in solution. The concepts of fluorescence energy transfer for bicolor readout in a split aptamer in solution, and AFM on surfaces, were successfully combined in a single DNA origami construct to obtain a bimodal readout. These results are important for future custom DNA devices for chemical-biological and bioanalytical purposes because they are not only working as simple aptamers but are also visible by AFM on the single-molecule level.

  6. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choong, W.-S.; Peng, Q.; Vu, C. Q.; Turko, B. T.; Moses, W. W.

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr3 crystals respectively.

  7. High-performance electronics for time-of-flight PET systems.

    PubMed

    Choong, W-S; Peng, Q; Vu, C Q; Turko, B T; Moses, W W

    2013-01-01

    We have designed and built a high-performance readout electronics system for time-of-flight positron emission tomography (TOF PET) cameras. The electronics architecture is based on the electronics for a commercial whole-body PET camera (Siemens/CPS Cardinal electronics), modified to improve the timing performance. The fundamental contributions in the electronics that can limit the timing resolution include the constant fraction discriminator (CFD), which converts the analog electrical signal from the photo-detector to a digital signal whose leading edge is time-correlated with the input signal, and the time-to-digital converter (TDC), which provides a time stamp for the CFD output. Coincident events are identified by digitally comparing the values of the time stamps. In the Cardinal electronics, the front-end processing electronics are performed by an Analog subsection board, which has two application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs), each servicing a PET block detector module. The ASIC has a built-in CFD and TDC. We found that a significant degradation in the timing resolution comes from the ASIC's CFD and TDC. Therefore, we have designed and built an improved Analog subsection board that replaces the ASIC's CFD and TDC with a high-performance CFD (made with discrete components) and TDC (using the CERN high-performance TDC ASIC). The improved Analog subsection board is used in a custom single-ring LSO-based TOF PET camera. The electronics system achieves a timing resolution of 60 ps FWHM. Prototype TOF detector modules are read out with the electronics system and give coincidence timing resolutions of 259 ps FWHM and 156 ps FWHM for detector modules coupled to LSO and LaBr 3 crystals respectively.

  8. A Structural Perspective on Readout of Epigenetic Histone and DNA Methylation Marks

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dinshaw J.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This article outlines the protein modules that target methylated lysine histone marks and 5mC DNA marks, and the molecular principles underlying recognition. The article focuses on the structural basis underlying readout of isolated marks by single reader molecules, as well as multivalent readout of multiple marks by linked reader cassettes at the histone tail and nucleosome level. Additional topics addressed include the role of histone mimics, cross talk between histone marks, technological developments at the genome-wide level, advances using chemical biology approaches, the linkage between histone and DNA methylation, the role for regulatory lncRNAs, and the promise of chromatin-based therapeutic modalities. PMID:26931326

  9. A discrete component low-noise preamplifier readout for a linear (1×16) SiC photodiode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Federico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-09-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1×16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analog signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  10. A Discrete Component Low-Noise Preamplifier Readout for a Linear (1x16) SiC Photodiode Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahle, Duncan; Aslam, Shahid; Herrero, Frederico A.; Waczynski, Augustyn

    2016-01-01

    A compact, low-noise and inexpensive preamplifier circuit has been designed and fabricated to optimally readout a common cathode (1x16) channel 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode array for use in ultraviolet experiments. The readout uses an operational amplifier with 10 pF capacitor in the feedback loop in parallel with a low leakage switch for each of the channels. This circuit configuration allows for reiterative sample, integrate and reset. A sampling technique is given to remove Johnson noise, enabling a femtoampere level readout noise performance. Commercial-off-the-shelf acquisition electronics are used to digitize the preamplifier analogue signals. The data logging acquisition electronics has a different integration circuit, which allows the bandwidth and gain to be independently adjusted. Using this readout, photoresponse measurements across the array between spectral wavelengths 200 nm and 370 nm are made to establish the array pixels external quantum efficiency, current responsivity and noise equivalent power.

  11. Advanced readout methods for superheated emulsion detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Errico, F.; Di Fulvio, A.

    2018-05-01

    Superheated emulsions develop visible vapor bubbles when exposed to ionizing radiation. They consist in droplets of a metastable liquid, emulsified in an inert matrix. The formation of a bubble cavity is accompanied by sound waves. Evaporated bubbles also exhibit a lower refractive index, compared to the inert gel matrix. These two physical phenomena have been exploited to count the number of evaporated bubbles and thus measure the interacting radiation flux. Systems based on piezoelectric transducers have been traditionally used to acquire the acoustic (pressure) signals generated by bubble evaporation. Such systems can operate at ambient noise levels exceeding 100 dB; however, they are affected by a significant dead time (>10 ms). An optical readout technique relying on the scattering of light by neutron-induced bubbles has been recently improved in order to minimize measurement dead time and ambient noise sensitivity. Beams of infra-red light from light-emitting diode (LED) sources cross the active area of the detector and are deflected by evaporated bubbles. The scattered light correlates with bubble density. Planar photodiodes are affixed along the detector length in optimized positions, allowing the detection of scattered light from the bubbles and minimizing the detection of direct light from the LEDs. A low-noise signal-conditioning stage has been designed and realized to amplify the current induced in the photodiodes by scattered light and to subtract the background signal due to intrinsic scattering within the detector matrix. The proposed amplification architecture maximizes the measurement signal-to-noise ratio, yielding a readout uncertainty of 6% (±1 SD), with 1000 evaporated bubbles in a detector active volume of 150 ml (6 cm detector diameter). In this work, we prove that the intensity of scattered light also relates to the bubble size, which can be controlled by applying an external pressure to the detector emulsion. This effect can be exploited

  12. Information technology equipment cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2014-06-10

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools warm air generated by the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat from the rack of information technology equipment.

  13. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Camera Electronics Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Hiroyasu; Buckley, J.; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Falcone, A.; Funk, S.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Ong, R.; Swordy, S.; Wagner, R.; Wakely, S.; Williams, D.; Camera Electronics Working Group; AGIS Collaboration

    2008-03-01

    AGIS, a next generation of atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays, aims to achieve a sensitivity level of a milliCrab for gamma-ray observations in in the energy band of 40 GeV to 100 TeV. Such improvement requires cost reduction of individual components with high reliability in order to equip the order of 100 telescopes necessary to achieve the sensitivity goal. We are exploring several design concepts to reduce the cost of camera electronics while improving their performance. These design concepts include systems based on multi-channel waveform sampling ASIC optimized for AGIS, a system based on IIT (image intensifier tube) for large channel (order of 1 million channels) readout as well as a multiplexed FADC system based on the current VERITAS readout design. Here we present trade-off studies of these design concepts.

  14. Particle tracking with a Timepix based triple GEM detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, S. P.; Murtas, F.; Alozy, J.; Curioni, A.; Rosenfeld, A. B.; Silari, M.

    2015-11-01

    This paper details the response of a triple GEM detector with a 55 μmetre pitch pixelated ASIC for readout. The detector is operated as a micro TPC with 9.5 cm3 sensitive volume and characterized with a mixed beam of 120 GeV protons and positive pions. A process for reconstruction of incident particle tracks from individual ionization clusters is described and scans of the gain and drift fields are performed. The angular resolution of the measured tracks is characterized. Also, the readout was operated in a mixed mode where some pixels measure drift time and others charge. This was used to measure the energy deposition in the detector and the charge cloud size as a function of interaction depth. The future uses of the device, including in microdosimetry are discussed.

  15. Analysis of read-out heating rate effects on the glow peaks of TLD-100 using WinGCF software

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bauk, Sabar, E-mail: sabar@usm.my; Hussin, Siti Fatimah; Alam, Md. Shah

    This study was done to analyze the effects of the read-out heating rate on the LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) glow peaks using WinGCF computer software. The TLDs were exposed to X-ray photons with a potential difference of 72 kVp and 200 mAs in air and were read-out using a Harshaw 3500 TLD reader. The TLDs were read-out using four read-out heating rates at 10, 7, 4 and 1 °C s{sup −1}. It was observed that lowering the heating rate could separate more glow peaks. The activation energy for peak 5 was found to be lower than that for peakmore » 4. The peak maximum temperature and the integral value of the main peak decreased as the heating rate decreases.« less

  16. MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR CONTROL ROOM WITH CONTROL CONSOLE AND STATUS READOUTS ALONG WALL. WORKERS MAKE ELECTRICAL AND OTHER CONNECTIONS. INL NEGATIVE NO. 4289. Unknown Photographer, 2/26/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Catch-Disperse-Release Readout for Superconducting Qubits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    adiabatic, a fast high-fidelity qubit readout is possible even in the strongly nonlinear dispersive regime. Interestingly, the Jaynes - Cummings nonlinearity...will be included later) and describe the system by the Jaynes - Cummings (JC) Hamiltonian [7] with a microwave drive (we use ~ = 1) H = ωq(t)σ+σ− + ωra...λeff,0 rotates on the phase plane faster than in the two-level approximation , while λeff,1 rotates slower (some- times even in the opposite

  18. Enhancements to a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) Multiplexer Readout and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forgione, J.; Benford, D. J.; Buchanan, E. D.; Moseley, S. H.; Rebar, J.; Shafer, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark 111 system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided hooks in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark 111 system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  19. Enhancements to a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexer readout and control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forgione, Joshua B.; Benford, Dominic J.; Buchanan, Ernest D.; Moseley, S. H., Jr.; Rebar, Joyce; Shafer, Richard A.

    2004-10-01

    Far-infrared detector arrays such as the 16x32 superconducting bolometer array for the SAFIRE instrument (flying on the SOFIA airborne observatory) require systems of readout and control electronics to provide translation between a user-driven, digital PC and the cold, analog world of the cryogenic detector. In 2001, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) developed their Mark III electronics for purposes of control and readout of their 1x32 SQUID Multiplexer chips. We at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center acquired a Mark III system and subsequently designed upgrades to suit our and our collaborators' purposes. We developed an arbitrary, programmable multiplexing system that allows the user to cycle through rows in a SQUID array in an infinite number of combinations. We provided 'hooks' in the Mark III system to allow readout of signals from outside the Mark III system, such as telescope status information. Finally, we augmented the heart of the system with a new feedback algorithm implementation, flexible diagnostic tools, and informative telemetry.

  20. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Braga, D.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Davinson, T.

    We have designed a read-out ASIC for nuclear decay spectroscopy as part of the AIDA project - the Advanced Implantation Detector Array. AIDA will be installed in experiments at the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in GSI, Darmstadt. The AIDA ASIC will measure the signals when unstable nuclei are implanted into the detector, followed by the much smaller signals when the nuclei subsequently decay. Implant energies can be as high as 20 GeV; decay products need to be measured down to 25 keV within just a few microseconds of the initial implants. The ASIC uses two amplifiers per detectormore » channel, one covering the 20 GeV dynamic range, the other selectable over a 20 MeV or 1 GeV range. The amplifiers are linked together by bypass transistors which are normally switched off. The arrival of a large signal causes saturation of the low-energy amplifier and a fluctuation of the input voltage, which activates the link to the high-energy amplifier. The bypass transistors switch on and the input charge is integrated by the high-energy amplifier. The signal is shaped and stored by a peak-hold, then read out on a multiplexed output. Control logic resets the amplifiers and bypass circuit, allowing the low-energy amplifier to measure the subsequent decay signal. We present simulations and test results, demonstrating the AIDA ASIC operation over a wide range of input signals. (authors)« less

  1. Resistive-strips micromegas detectors with two-dimensional readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byszewski, M.; Wotschack, J.

    2012-02-01

    Micromegas detectors show very good performance for charged particle tracking in high rate environments as for example at the LHC. It is shown that two coordinates can be extracted from a single gas gap in these detectors. Several micromegas chambers with spark protection by resistive strips and two-dimensional readout have been tested in the context of the R&D work for the ATLAS Muon System upgrade.

  2. Reusable conductimetric array of interdigitated microelectrodes for the readout of low-density microarrays.

    PubMed

    Mallén, Maria; Díaz-González, María; Bonilla, Diana; Salvador, Juan P; Marco, María P; Baldi, Antoni; Fernández-Sánchez, César

    2014-06-17

    Low-density protein microarrays are emerging tools in diagnostics whose deployment could be primarily limited by the cost of fluorescence detection schemes. This paper describes an electrical readout system of microarrays comprising an array of gold interdigitated microelectrodes and an array of polydimethylsiloxane microwells, which enabled multiplexed detection of up to thirty six biological events on the same substrate. Similarly to fluorescent readout counterparts, the microarray can be developed on disposable glass slide substrates. However, unlike them, the presented approach is compact and requires a simple and inexpensive instrumentation. The system makes use of urease labeled affinity reagents for developing the microarrays and is based on detection of conductivity changes taking place when ionic species are generated in solution due to the catalytic hydrolysis of urea. The use of a polydimethylsiloxane microwell array facilitates the positioning of the measurement solution on every spot of the microarray. Also, it ensures the liquid tightness and isolation from the surrounding ones during the microarray readout process, thereby avoiding evaporation and chemical cross-talk effects that were shown to affect the sensitivity and reliability of the system. The performance of the system is demonstrated by carrying out the readout of a microarray for boldenone anabolic androgenic steroid hormone. Analytical results are comparable to those obtained by fluorescent scanner detection approaches. The estimated detection limit is 4.0 ng mL(-1), this being below the threshold value set by the World Anti-Doping Agency and the European Community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A High-Speed, Event-Driven, Active Pixel Sensor Readout for Photon-Counting Microchannel Plate Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimble, Randy A.; Pain, Bedabrata; Norton, Timothy J.; Haas, J. Patrick; Oegerle, William R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Silicon array readouts for microchannel plate intensifiers offer several attractive features. In this class of detector, the electron cloud output of the MCP intensifier is converted to visible light by a phosphor; that light is then fiber-optically coupled to the silicon array. In photon-counting mode, the resulting light splashes on the silicon array are recognized and centroided to fractional pixel accuracy by off-chip electronics. This process can result in very high (MCP-limited) spatial resolution while operating at a modest MCP gain (desirable for dynamic range and long term stability). The principal limitation of intensified CCD systems of this type is their severely limited local dynamic range, as accurate photon counting is achieved only if there are not overlapping event splashes within the frame time of the device. This problem can be ameliorated somewhat by processing events only in pre-selected windows of interest of by using an addressable charge injection device (CID) for the readout array. We are currently pursuing the development of an intriguing alternative readout concept based on using an event-driven CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. APS technology permits the incorporation of discriminator circuitry within each pixel. When coupled with suitable CMOS logic outside the array area, the discriminator circuitry can be used to trigger the readout of small sub-array windows only when and where an event splash has been detected, completely eliminating the local dynamic range problem, while achieving a high global count rate capability and maintaining high spatial resolution. We elaborate on this concept and present our progress toward implementing an event-driven APS readout.

  4. Monitoring the CMS strip tracker readout system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersi, S.; Bainbridge, R.; Baulieu, G.; Bel, S.; Cole, J.; Cripps, N.; Delaere, C.; Drouhin, F.; Fulcher, J.; Giassi, A.; Gross, L.; Hahn, K.; Mirabito, L.; Nikolic, M.; Tkaczyk, S.; Wingham, M.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker at the LHC comprises a sensitive area of approximately 200 m2 and 10 million readout channels. Its data acquisition system is based around a custom analogue front-end chip. Both the control and the readout of the front-end electronics are performed by off-detector VME boards in the counting room, which digitise the raw event data and perform zero-suppression and formatting. The data acquisition system uses the CMS online software framework to configure, control and monitor the hardware components and steer the data acquisition. The first data analysis is performed online within the official CMS reconstruction framework, which provides many services, such as distributed analysis, access to geometry and conditions data, and a Data Quality Monitoring tool based on the online physics reconstruction. The data acquisition monitoring of the Strip Tracker uses both the data acquisition and the reconstruction software frameworks in order to provide real-time feedback to shifters on the operational state of the detector, archiving for later analysis and possibly trigger automatic recovery actions in case of errors. Here we review the proposed architecture of the monitoring system and we describe its software components, which are already in place, the various monitoring streams available, and our experiences of operating and monitoring a large-scale system.

  5. Performance of 20:1 multiplexer for large area charge readouts in directional dark matter TPC detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Robinson, M.; Robinson, N.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Yuriev, L.

    2018-02-01

    More target mass is required in current TPC based directional dark matter detectors for improved detector sensitivity. This can be achieved by scaling up the detector volumes, but this results in the need for more analogue signal channels. A possible solution to reducing the overall cost of the charge readout electronics is to multiplex the signal readout channels. Here, we present a multiplexer system in expanded mode based on LMH6574 chips produced by Texas Instruments, originally designed for video processing. The setup has a capability of reducing the number of readouts in such TPC detectors by a factor of 20. Results indicate that the important charge distribution asymmetry along an ionization track is retained after multiplexed signals are demultiplexed.

  6. MEMS capacitive pressure sensor monolithically integrated with CMOS readout circuit by using post CMOS processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Munseon; Yun, Kwang-Seok

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, we presents a MEMS pressure sensor integrated with a readout circuit on a chip for an on-chip signal processing. The capacitive pressure sensor is formed on a CMOS chip by using a post-CMOS MEMS processes. The proposed device consists of a sensing capacitor that is square in shape, a reference capacitor and a readout circuitry based on a switched-capacitor scheme to detect capacitance change at various environmental pressures. The readout circuit was implemented by using a commercial 0.35 μm CMOS process with 2 polysilicon and 4 metal layers. Then, the pressure sensor was formed by wet etching of metal 2 layer through via hole structures. Experimental results show that the MEMS pressure sensor has a sensitivity of 11 mV/100 kPa at the pressure range of 100-400 kPa.

  7. Faraday Cup Array Integrated with a Readout IC and Method for Manufacture Thereof

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Dorota (Inventor); Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Hedgepath Gilchrist, Kristin (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and includes a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charge particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from said collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. The array includes a plurality of readout circuits disposed on a side of the substrate opposite openings to the collectors. The readout circuits are configured to read charge collection signals from respective ones of the plurality of collectors.

  8. High-Fidelity Single-Shot Singlet-Triplet Readout of Precision-Placed Donors in Silicon.

    PubMed

    Broome, M A; Watson, T F; Keith, D; Gorman, S K; House, M G; Keizer, J G; Hile, S J; Baker, W; Simmons, M Y

    2017-07-28

    In this work we perform direct single-shot readout of the singlet-triplet states in exchange coupled electrons confined to precision-placed donor atoms in silicon. Our method takes advantage of the large energy splitting given by the Pauli-spin blockaded (2,0) triplet states, from which we can achieve a single-shot readout fidelity of 98.4±0.2%. We measure the triplet-minus relaxation time to be of the order 3 s at 2.5 T and observe its predicted decrease as a function of magnetic field, reaching 0.5 s at 1 T.

  9. Authenticated communication from quantum readout of PUFs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Škorić, Boris; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.

    2017-08-01

    Quantum readout of physical unclonable functions (PUFs) is a recently introduced method for remote authentication of objects. We present an extension of the protocol to enable the authentication of data: A verifier can check if received classical data were sent by the PUF holder. We call this modification QR-d or, in the case of the optical-PUF implementation, QSA-d. We discuss how QSA-d can be operated in a parallel way. We also present a protocol for authenticating quantum states.

  10. Qualification of a rapid readout biological indicator with moist heat sterilization.

    PubMed

    McCormick, Patrick; Finocchario, Catherine; Manchester, Robert; Glasgow, Louis; Costanzo, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    Biological indicators are recognized as an important component in the validation and routine monitoring of moist heat (steam) sterilization processes. Due to the need to allow for the recovery and outgrowth of test organisms that may have been sub-lethally injured, between 2-5 days of incubation are typically required before the outcome of sterilization processing can be reliably interpreted. Rapid readout biological indicators that incorporate the response of a heat resistant enzyme provide a means for assessing the efficacy of moist heat sterilization within hours of processing. This study describes the qualification of the 3M Attest 1292 Rapid Readout Biological Indicator with moist heat sterilization according to the procedures described in the PDA Technical Report No. 33, "Evaluation, Validation and Implementation of New Microbiological Testing Methods".

  11. Atom-Based Sensing of Weak Radio Frequency Electric Fields Using Homodyne Readout

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Santosh; Fan, Haoquan; Kübler, Harald; Sheng, Jiteng; Shaffer, James P.

    2017-01-01

    We utilize a homodyne detection technique to achieve a new sensitivity limit for atom-based, absolute radio-frequency electric field sensing of 5 μV cm−1 Hz−1/2. A Mach-Zehnder interferometer is used for the homodyne detection. With the increased sensitivity, we investigate the dominant dephasing mechanisms that affect the performance of the sensor. In particular, we present data on power broadening, collisional broadening and transit time broadening. Our results are compared to density matrix calculations. We show that photon shot noise in the signal readout is currently a limiting factor. We suggest that new approaches with superior readout with respect to photon shot noise are needed to increase the sensitivity further. PMID:28218308

  12. A Hybrid Readout Solution for GaN-Based Detectors Using CMOS Technology.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Preethi; Hancock, Bruce; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, L Douglas; Kroep, Kees; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-02-03

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its alloys are becoming preferred materials for ultraviolet (UV) detectors due to their wide bandgap and tailorable out-of-band cutoff from 3.4 eV to 6.2 eV. GaN based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are particularly suitable for their high photon sensitivity and quantum efficiency in the UV region and for their inherent insensitivity to visible wavelengths. Challenges exist however for practical utilization. With growing interests in such photodetectors, hybrid readout solutions are becoming prevalent with CMOS technology being adopted for its maturity, scalability, and reliability. In this paper, we describe our approach to combine GaN APDs with a CMOS readout circuit, comprising of a linear array of 1 × 8 capacitive transimpedance amplifiers (CTIAs), implemented in a 0.35 µm high voltage CMOS technology. Further, we present a simple, yet sustainable circuit technique to allow operation of APDs under high reverse biases, up to ≈80 V with verified measurement results. The readout offers a conversion gain of 0.43 µV/e - , obtaining avalanche gains up to 10³. Several parameters of the CTIA are discussed followed by a perspective on possible hybridization, exploiting the advantages of a 3D-stacked technology.

  13. Silicon pixel-detector R&D for CLIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nürnberg, A.

    2016-11-01

    The physics aims at the future CLIC high-energy linear e+e- collider set very high precision requirements on the performance of the vertex and tracking detectors. Moreover, these detectors have to be well adapted to the experimental conditions, such as the time structure of the collisions and the presence of beam-induced backgrounds. The principal challenges are: a point resolution of a few μm, ultra-low mass (~ 0.2%X0 per layer for the vertex region and ~ 1%X0 per layer for the outer tracker), very low power dissipation (compatible with air-flow cooling in the inner vertex region) and pulsed power operation, complemented with ~ 10 ns time stamping capabilities. A highly granular all-silicon vertex and tracking detector system is under development, following an integrated approach addressing simultaneously the physics requirements and engineering constraints. For the vertex-detector region, hybrid pixel detectors with small pitch (25 μm) and analog readout are explored. For the outer tracking region, both hybrid concepts and fully integrated CMOS sensors are under consideration. The feasibility of ultra-thin sensor layers is validated with Timepix3 readout ASICs bump bonded to active edge planar sensors with 50 μm to 150 μm thickness. Prototypes of CLICpix readout ASICs implemented in 6525 nm CMOS technology with 25 μm pixel pitch have been produced. Hybridisation concepts have been developed for interconnecting these chips either through capacitive coupling to active HV-CMOS sensors or through bump-bonding to planar sensors. Recent R&D achievements include results from beam tests with all types of hybrid assemblies. Simulations based on Geant4 and TCAD are used to validate the experimental results and to assess and optimise the performance of various detector designs.

  14. Evaluation of an Integrated Read-Out Layer Prototype

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abu-Ajamieh, Fayez

    2011-07-01

    This thesis presents evaluation results of an Integrated Read-out Layer (IRL), a proposed concept in scintillator-based calorimetry intended to meet the exceptional calorimetric requirements of the envisaged International Linear Collider (ILC). This study presents a full characterization of the prototype IRL, including exploration of relevant parameters, calibration performance, and the uniformity of response. The study represents proof of the IRL concept. Finally, proposed design enhancements are presented.

  15. Evaluation of an Integrated Read-Out Layer Prototype

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Abu-Ajamieh, Fayez; /NIU

    2011-08-18

    This thesis presents evaluation results of an Integrated Read-out Layer (IRL), a proposed concept in scintillator-based calorimetry intended to meet the exceptional calorimetric requirements of the envisaged International Linear Collider (ILC). This study presents a full characterization of the prototype IRL, including exploration of relevant parameters, calibration performance, and the uniformity of response. The study represents proof of the IRL concept. Finally, proposed design enhancements are presented.

  16. Ultralow-noise readout circuit with an avalanche photodiode: toward a photon-number-resolving detector.

    PubMed

    Tsujino, Kenji; Akiba, Makoto; Sasaki, Masahide

    2007-03-01

    The charge-integration readout circuit was fabricated to achieve an ultralow-noise preamplifier for photoelectrons generated in an avalanche photodiode with linear mode operation at 77 K. To reduce the various kinds of noise, the capacitive transimpedance amplifier was used and consisted of low-capacitance circuit elements that were cooled with liquid nitrogen. As a result, the readout noise is equal to 3.0 electrons averaged for a period of 40 ms. We discuss the requirements for avalanche photodiodes to achieve photon-number-resolving detectors below this noise level.

  17. The New APD Based Readout for the Crystal Barrel Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, M.; Honisch, Ch; Steinacher, M.; CBELSA/TAPS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    The CBELSA/TAPS experiment at ELSA measures double polarization observables in meson photoproduction off protons and neutrons. To be able to measure purely neutral reactions off polarized neutrons with high efficiency, the main calorimeter has to be integrated into the first level trigger. This requires to exchange the existing PIN photo diode by a new avalanche photo diode (APD) readout. The newly developed readout electronics will provide an energy resolution compatible to the previous set-up and a fast trigger signal down to 10 MeV energy deposit per crystal. After the successful final tests with a 3x3 CsI crystal matrix in Bonn at ELSA and in Mainz at MAMI all front-end electronics were produced in fall 2013. Automated test routines for the front-end electronics were developed and the characterization measurements of all APDs were successfully accomplished in Bonn. The project is supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (SFB/TR16) and Schweizerischer Nationalfonds.

  18. AC Read-Out Circuits for Single Pixel Characterization of TES Microcalorimeters and Bolometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; van de Kuur, J.; Bandler, S.; Bruijn, M.; de Korte, P.; Gao, J. R.; den Hartog, R.; Hijmering, R. A.; Hoevers, H.; Koshropanah, P.; hide

    2011-01-01

    SRON is developing Frequency Domain Multiplexing (FDM) for the read-out of transition edge sensor (TES) soft x-ray microcalorimeters for the XMS instrument of the International X-ray Observatory and far-infrared bolometers for the SAFARI instrument on the Japanese mission SPICA. In FDM the TESs are AC voltage biased at frequencies from 0.5 to 6 MHz in a superconducting LC resonant circuit and the signal is read-out by low noise and high dynamic range SQUIDs amplifiers. The TES works as an amplitude modulator. We report on several AC bias experiments performed on different detectors. In particular, we discuss the results on the characterization of Goddard Space Flight Center x-ray pixels and SRON bolometers. The paper focuses on the analysis of different read-out configurations developed to optimize the noise and the impedance matching between the detectors and the SQUID amplifier. A novel feedback network electronics has been developed to keep the SQUID in flux locked loop, when coupled to superconducting high Q circuits, and to optimally tune the resonant bias circuit. The achieved detector performances are discussed in view of the instrument requirement for the two space missions.

  19. Wireless miniature implantable devices and ASICs for monitoring, treatment, and study of glaucoma and cardiac disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Eric Y.

    Glaucoma affects about 65 million people and is the second leading cause of blindness in the world. Although the condition is irreversible and incurable, early detection is vital to slowing and even stopping the progression of the disease. Our work focuses on the design, fabrication, and assembly of a continuous active glaucoma intraocular pressure (IOP) monitor that provides clinicians with the necessary data to more accurately diagnose and treat patients. Major benefits of an active monitoring device include the potential to develop a closed-loop treatment system and to operate independently for extended periods of time. The fully wireless operation uses gigahertzfrequency electromagnetic wave propagation, which allows for an orientation independent transfer of power and data over reasonable distances. Our system is comprised of a MEMS capacitive sensor, capacitive power storage array, ASIC, and monopole antenna assembled into a biocompatible liquid crystal polymer (LCP) package. We have performed in vivo trials on rabbits, both chronic and acute, to validate system functionality, fully wireless feasibility, and biocompatibility. Heart failure (HF) affects approximately 2% of the adult population in developed countries and 6-10% of people over the age of 65. Continuous monitoring of blood pressure, flow, and chemistry from a minimally invasive device can serve as a diagnostic and early-warning system for cardiac health. We developed a miniaturized system attached to the outer surface of an FDA approved stent, used as both the antenna for wireless telemetry/powering and structural support. The system comprises of a MEMS pressure sensor, ASIC for the sensor interface and wireless capabilities, LCP substrate, and FDA approved stent. In vivo studies on pigs validated functionality and fully wireless operation and demonstrate the feasibility of a stent-based wireless implant for continuous monitoring of blood pressure as well as other parameters including oxygen, flow

  20. Simulation environment based on the Universal Verification Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiergolski, A.

    2017-01-01

    Universal Verification Methodology (UVM) is a standardized approach of verifying integrated circuit designs, targeting a Coverage-Driven Verification (CDV). It combines automatic test generation, self-checking testbenches, and coverage metrics to indicate progress in the design verification. The flow of the CDV differs from the traditional directed-testing approach. With the CDV, a testbench developer, by setting the verification goals, starts with an structured plan. Those goals are targeted further by a developed testbench, which generates legal stimuli and sends them to a device under test (DUT). The progress is measured by coverage monitors added to the simulation environment. In this way, the non-exercised functionality can be identified. Moreover, the additional scoreboards indicate undesired DUT behaviour. Such verification environments were developed for three recent ASIC and FPGA projects which have successfully implemented the new work-flow: (1) the CLICpix2 65 nm CMOS hybrid pixel readout ASIC design; (2) the C3PD 180 nm HV-CMOS active sensor ASIC design; (3) the FPGA-based DAQ system of the CLICpix chip. This paper, based on the experience from the above projects, introduces briefly UVM and presents a set of tips and advices applicable at different stages of the verification process-cycle.

  1. Histone Modifications in a Mouse Model of Early Adversities and Panic Disorder: Role for Asic1 and Neurodevelopmental Genes.

    PubMed

    Cittaro, Davide; Lampis, Valentina; Luchetti, Alessandra; Coccurello, Roberto; Guffanti, Alessandro; Felsani, Armando; Moles, Anna; Stupka, Elia; D' Amato, Francesca R; Battaglia, Marco

    2016-04-28

    Hyperventilation following transient, CO2-induced acidosis is ubiquitous in mammals and heritable. In humans, respiratory and emotional hypersensitivity to CO2 marks separation anxiety and panic disorders, and is enhanced by early-life adversities. Mice exposed to the repeated cross-fostering paradigm (RCF) of interference with maternal environment show heightened separation anxiety and hyperventilation to 6% CO2-enriched air. Gene-environment interactions affect CO2 hypersensitivity in both humans and mice. We therefore hypothesised that epigenetic modifications and increased expression of genes involved in pH-detection could explain these relationships. Medullae oblongata of RCF- and normally-reared female outbred mice were assessed by ChIP-seq for H3Ac, H3K4me3, H3K27me3 histone modifications, and by SAGE for differential gene expression. Integration of multiple experiments by network analysis revealed an active component of 148 genes pointing to the mTOR signalling pathway and nociception. Among these genes, Asic1 showed heightened mRNA expression, coherent with RCF-mice's respiratory hypersensitivity to CO2 and altered nociception. Functional enrichment and mRNA transcript analyses yielded a consistent picture of enhancement for several genes affecting chemoception, neurodevelopment, and emotionality. Particularly, results with Asic1 support recent human findings with panic and CO2 responses, and provide new perspectives on how early adversities and genes interplay to affect key components of panic and related disorders.

  2. Information technology equipment cooling method

    DOEpatents

    Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-20

    According to one embodiment, a system for removing heat from a rack of information technology equipment may include a sidecar indoor air to liquid heat exchanger that cools air utilized by the rack of information technology equipment to cool the rack of information technology equipment. The system may also include a liquid to liquid heat exchanger and an outdoor heat exchanger. The system may further include configurable pathways to connect and control fluid flow through the sidecar heat exchanger, the liquid to liquid heat exchanger, the rack of information technology equipment, and the outdoor heat exchanger based upon ambient temperature and/or ambient humidity to remove heat generated by the rack of information technology equipment.

  3. Leakage current-induced effects in the silicon microstrip and gas electron multiplier readout chain and their compensation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubrzycka, W.; Kasinski, K.

    2018-04-01

    Leakage current flowing into the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a common issue in many radiation detection systems as it can increase overall system noise, shift a DC baseline or even lead a recording channel to instability. The commonly known leakage current contributor is a detector, however other system components like wires or an input protection circuit may become a serious problem. Compensation of the leakage current resulting from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuit by properly sizing its components is possible only for a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current from external sources can be significantly larger. Many applications, especially High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, require a fast baseline restoration for high input hit rates by applying either a low-value feedback resistor or a high feedback resistance combined with a pulsed reset circuit. Leakage current flowing in the feedback in conjunction with a large feedback resistance supplied with a pulsed reset results in a significant voltage offset between the CSA input and output which can cause problems (e.g. fake hits or instability). This paper shows an issue referred to the leakage current of the ESD protection circuit flowing into the input amplifier. The following analysis and proposed solution is a result of the time and energy readout ASIC project realization for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Germany. This chip is purposed to work with microstrip and gaseous detectors, with high average input pulses frequencies (250 kHit/s per channel) and the possibility to process input charge of both polarities. We present measurements of the test structure fabricated in UMC 180 nm technology and propose a solution addressing leakage current related issues. This work combines the leakage current compensation capabilities at the CSA level with high, controllable value of the amplifier

  4. Dual-Readout Immunochromatographic Assay by Utilizing MnO 2 Nanoflowers as the Unique Colorimetric/Chemiluminescent Probe

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Ouyang, Hui; Lu, Qian; Wang, Wenwen

    Manganese dioxide nanoflowers (MnO2 NFs) were synthesized and utilized as a dual readout probe to develop a novel immunochromatographic test strip (ITS) for detecting pesticide residues using chlorpyrifos as the model analyte. MnO2 NFs-labeled antibody for chlorpyrifos was employed as the signal tracer for conducting the ITS. After 10-min competitive immunoreaction, the tracer antibody was captured by the immobilized immunogen on test line in the test strip, resulting in the accumulation of MnO2 NFs. The accumulation of MnO2 NFs led to the appearance of brown color on the test line, which could be easily observed by the naked eye asmore » a qualitative readout. Moreover, MnO2 NFs showed a remarkably enhancing effect on the luminol-H2O2 chemiluminescent (CL) system. Unlike peroxidase-like nanomaterials, the enhancing mechanism of MnO2 NFs was based on its oxidant activity to decompose H2O2 for forming reactive oxygen species. After initiating the CL system in the test zone, strong CL signal was collected as a quantitative readout to sensitively detect chlorpyrifos. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of chlorpyrifos was 0.1–50 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.033 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The reliability of the dual-readout ITS was successfully demonstrated by the application on traditional Chinese medicine and environmental water samples. Due to the simultaneous rapid-qualitative and sensitive-quantitative detection, the dual-readout protocol provides a promising strategy for rapid screening and field assay on various areas such as environmental monitoring, food safety and point-of-care testing.« less

  5. Double side read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects in PbWO 4 crystals

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Auffray, E.; Benaglia, A.

    Test beam results of a calorimetric module based on 3×3×22 cm 3 PbWO 4 crystals, identical to those used in the CMS ECAL Endcaps, read out by a pair of photodetectors coupled to the two opposite sides (front and rear) of each crystal are presented. Nine crystals with different level of induced absorption, from 0 to 20 m -1, have been tested using electrons in the 50–200 GeV energy range. Photomultiplier tubes have been chosen as photodetectors to allow for a precise measurement of highly damaged crystals. The information provided by this double side read-out configuration allows to correct formore » event-by-event fluctuations of the longitudinal development of electromagnetic showers. By strongly mitigating the effect of non-uniform light collection efficiency induced by radiation damage, the double side read-out technique significantly improves the energy resolution with respect to a single side read-out configuration. The non-linearity of the response arising in damaged crystals is also corrected by a double side read-out configuration and the response linearity of irradiated crystals is restored. In high radiation environments at future colliders, as it will be the case for detectors operating during the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, defects can be created inside the scintillator volume leading to a non-uniform response of the calorimetric cell. As a result, the double side read-out technique presented in this study provides a valuable way to improve the performance of calorimeters based on scintillators whose active volumes are characterized by high aspect ratio cells similar to those used in this study.« less

  6. Double side read-out technique for mitigation of radiation damage effects in PbWO 4 crystals

    DOE PAGES

    Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Auffray, E.; Benaglia, A.; ...

    2016-04-18

    Test beam results of a calorimetric module based on 3×3×22 cm 3 PbWO 4 crystals, identical to those used in the CMS ECAL Endcaps, read out by a pair of photodetectors coupled to the two opposite sides (front and rear) of each crystal are presented. Nine crystals with different level of induced absorption, from 0 to 20 m -1, have been tested using electrons in the 50–200 GeV energy range. Photomultiplier tubes have been chosen as photodetectors to allow for a precise measurement of highly damaged crystals. The information provided by this double side read-out configuration allows to correct formore » event-by-event fluctuations of the longitudinal development of electromagnetic showers. By strongly mitigating the effect of non-uniform light collection efficiency induced by radiation damage, the double side read-out technique significantly improves the energy resolution with respect to a single side read-out configuration. The non-linearity of the response arising in damaged crystals is also corrected by a double side read-out configuration and the response linearity of irradiated crystals is restored. In high radiation environments at future colliders, as it will be the case for detectors operating during the High Luminosity phase of the Large Hadron Collider, defects can be created inside the scintillator volume leading to a non-uniform response of the calorimetric cell. As a result, the double side read-out technique presented in this study provides a valuable way to improve the performance of calorimeters based on scintillators whose active volumes are characterized by high aspect ratio cells similar to those used in this study.« less

  7. Investigation of image distortion due to MCP electronic readout misalignment and correction via customized GUI application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitucci, G.; Minniti, T.; Tremsin, A. S.; Kockelmann, W.; Gorini, G.

    2018-04-01

    The MCP-based neutron counting detector is a novel device that allows high spatial resolution and time-resolved neutron radiography and tomography with epithermal, thermal and cold neutrons. Time resolution is possible by the high readout speeds of ~ 1200 frames/sec, allowing high resolution event counting with relatively high rates without spatial resolution degradation due to event overlaps. The electronic readout is based on a Timepix sensor, a CMOS pixel readout chip developed at CERN. Currently, a geometry of a quad Timepix detector is used with an active format of 28 × 28 mm2 limited by the size of the Timepix quad (2 × 2 chips) readout. Measurements of a set of high-precision micrometers test samples have been performed at the Imaging and Materials Science & Engineering (IMAT) beamline operating at the ISIS spallation neutron source (U.K.). The aim of these experiments was the full characterization of the chip misalignment and of the gaps between each pad in the quad Timepix sensor. Such misalignment causes distortions of the recorded shape of the sample analyzed. We present in this work a post-processing image procedure that considers and corrects these effects. Results of the correction will be discussed and the efficacy of this method evaluated.

  8. A feasibility study of a data acquisition system for a silicon strip detector with a digital readout scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Hirokazu; Ikeda, Mitsuo; Inaba, Susumu; Tanaka, Manobu

    1993-06-01

    We describe a prototype data acquisition system for a silicon strip detector, which has been developed in terms of a digital readout scheme. The system consists of a master timing generator, readout controller, and a detector emulator card on which we use custom VLSI shift registers with operating clock frequency of 30 MHz.

  9. DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors coupled to a front-end readout ASIC for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6x6x15 mm 3 detectors grouped into 3x3 sub-arrays of 2x2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readoutmore » electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are made possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.« less

  10. An array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe detectors and a front-end application-specific integrated circuit for large-area position-sensitive gamma-ray cameras

    DOE PAGES

    Bolotnikov, A. E.; Ackley, K.; Camarda, G. S.; ...

    2015-07-28

    We developed a robust and low-cost array of virtual Frisch-grid CdZnTe (CZT) detectors coupled to a front-end readout ASIC for spectroscopy and imaging of gamma rays. The array operates as a self-reliant detector module. It is comprised of 36 close-packed 6x6x15 mm 3 detectors grouped into 3x3 sub-arrays of 2x2 detectors with the common cathodes. The front-end analog ASIC accommodates up to 36 anode and 9 cathode inputs. Several detector modules can be integrated into a single- or multi-layer unit operating as a Compton or a coded-aperture camera. We present the results from testing two fully assembled modules and readoutmore » electronics. The further enhancement of the arrays’ performance and reduction of their cost are made possible by using position-sensitive virtual Frisch-grid detectors, which allow for accurate corrections of the response of material non-uniformities caused by crystal defects.« less

  11. Silicon photomultipliers for scintillating trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabaioli, S.; Berra, A.; Bolognini, D.; Bonvicini, V.; Bosisio, L.; Ciano, S.; Iugovaz, D.; Lietti, D.; Penzo, A.; Prest, M.; Rashevskaya, I.; Reia, S.; Stoppani, L.; Vallazza, E.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) have been proposed as a new kind of readout device for scintillating detectors in many experiments. A SiPM consists of a matrix of parallel-connected pixels, which are independent photon counters working in Geiger mode with very high gain (∼106). This contribution presents the use of an array of eight SiPMs (manufactured by FBK-irst) for the readout of a scintillating bar tracker (a small size prototype of the Electron Muon Ranger detector for the MICE experiment). The performances of the SiPMs in terms of signal to noise ratio, efficiency and time resolution will be compared to the ones of a multi-anode photomultiplier tube (MAPMT) connected to the same bars. Both the SiPMs and the MAPMT are interfaced to a VME system through a 64 channel MAROC ASIC.

  12. The Advanced Gamma-ray Imaging System (AGIS): Camera Electronics Designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, H.; Buckley, J.; Byrum, K.; Drake, G.; Falcone, A.; Funk, S.; Holder, J.; Horan, D.; Krawczynski, H.; Ong, R.; Swordy, S.; Wagner, R.; Williams, D.

    2008-04-01

    AGIS, a next generation of atmospheric Cherenkov telescope arrays, aims to achieve a sensitivity level of a milliCrab for gamma-ray observations in the energy band of 40 GeV to 100 TeV. Such improvement requires cost reduction of individual components with high reliability in order to equip the order of 100 telescopes necessary to achieve the sensitivity goal. We are exploring several design concepts to reduce the cost of camera electronics while improving their performance. These design concepts include systems based on multi-channel waveform sampling ASIC optimized for AGIS, a system based on IIT (image intensifier tube) for large channel (order of 1 million channels) readout as well as a multiplexed FADC system based on the current VERITAS readout design. Here we present trade-off in the studies of these design concepts.

  13. Sliding-slab three-dimensional TSE imaging with a spiral-In/Out readout.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dinghui; Robison, Ryan K; Zwart, Nicholas R; Schär, Michael; Karis, John P; Pipe, James G

    2016-02-01

    T2 -weighted imaging is of great diagnostic value in neuroimaging. Three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian turbo spin echo (TSE) scans provide high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contiguous slice coverage. The purpose of this preliminary work is to implement a novel 3D spiral TSE technique with image quality comparable to 2D/3D Cartesian TSE. The proposed technique uses multislab 3D TSE imaging. To mitigate the slice boundary artifacts, a sliding-slab method is extended to spiral imaging. A spiral-in/out readout is adopted to minimize the artifacts that may be present with the conventional spiral-out readout. Phase errors induced by B0 eddy currents are measured and compensated to allow for the combination of the spiral-in and spiral-out images. A nonuniform slice encoding scheme is used to reduce the truncation artifacts while preserving the SNR performance. Preliminary results show that each of the individual measures contributes to the overall performance, and the image quality of the results obtained with the proposed technique is, in general, comparable to that of 2D or 3D Cartesian TSE. 3D sliding-slab TSE with a spiral-in/out readout provides good-quality T2 -weighted images, and, therefore, may become a promising alternative to Cartesian TSE. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. JPSS Science Data Services for the Direct Readout Community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chander, Gyanesh; Lutz, Bob

    2014-01-01

    The Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) and Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) High Rate Data (HRD) link provides Direct Broadcast data to users in real-time, utilizing their own remote field terminals. The Field Terminal Support (FTS) provides the resources needed to support the Direct Readout communities by providing software, documentation, and periodic updates to enable them to produce data products from SNPP and JPSS. The FTS distribution server will also provide the necessary ancillary and auxiliary data needed for processing the broadcasts, as well as making orbital data available to assist in locating the satellites of interest. In addition, the FTS provides development support for the algorithm and software through GSFC Direct Readout Laboratory (DRL) International Polar Orbiter Processing Package (IPOPP) and University of Wisconsin (UWISC) Community Satellite Processing Package (CSPP), to enable users to integrate the algorithms into their remote terminals. The support the JPSS Program provides to the institutions developing and maintaining these two software packages, will demonstrate the ability to produce ready-to-use products from the HRD link and provide risk reduction effort at a minimal cost. This paper discusses the key functions and system architecture of FTS.

  15. Development of a multiplexed readout with high position resolution for positron emission tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sangwon; Choi, Yong; Kang, Jihoon; Jung, Jin Ho

    2017-04-01

    Detector signals for positron emission tomography (PET) are commonly multiplexed to reduce the number of digital processing channels so that the system can remain cost effective while also maintaining imaging performance. In this work, a multiplexed readout combining Anger position estimation algorithm and position decoder circuit (PDC) was developed to reduce the number of readout channels by a factor of 24, 96-to-4. The data acquisition module consisted of a TDC (50 ps resolution), 4-channel ADCs (12 bit, 105 MHz sampling rate), 2 GB SDRAM and USB3.0. The performance of the multiplexed readout was assessed with a high-resolution PET detector block composed of 2×3 detector modules, each consisting of an 8×8 array of 1.52×1.52×6 mm3 LYSO, a 4×4 array of 3×3 mm2 silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) and 13.4×13.4 mm2 light guide with 0.7 mm thickness. The acquired flood histogram showed that all 384 crystals could be resolved. The average energy resolution at 511 keV was 13.7±1.6% full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) and the peak-to-valley ratios of the flood histogram on the horizontal and vertical lines were 18.8±0.8 and 22.8±1.3, respectively. The coincidence resolving time of a pair of detector blocks was 6.2 ns FWHM. The reconstructed phantom image showed that rods down to a diameter of 1.6 mm could be resolved. The results of this study indicate that the multiplexed readout would be useful in developing a PET with a spatial resolution less than the pixel size of the photosensor, such as a SiPM array.

  16. Optical transmission modules for multi-channel superconducting quantum interference device readouts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong

    2013-12-01

    We developed an optical transmission module consisting of 16-channel analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-noise filter, and one-line serial transmitter, which transferred Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) readout data to a computer by a single optical cable. A 16-channel ADC sent out SQUID readouts data with 32-bit serial data of 8-bit channel and 24-bit voltage data at a sample rate of 1.5 kSample/s. A digital-noise filter suppressed digital noises generated by digital clocks to obtain SQUID modulation as large as possible. One-line serial transmitter reformed 32-bit serial data to the modulated data that contained data and clock, and sent them through a single optical cable. When the optical transmission modules were applied to 152-channel SQUID magnetoencephalography system, this system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz.

  17. A Hybrid Readout Solution for GaN-Based Detectors Using CMOS Technology †

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Bruce; Nikzad, Shouleh; Bell, L. Douglas; Kroep, Kees; Charbon, Edoardo

    2018-01-01

    Gallium nitride (GaN) and its alloys are becoming preferred materials for ultraviolet (UV) detectors due to their wide bandgap and tailorable out-of-band cutoff from 3.4 eV to 6.2 eV. GaN based avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are particularly suitable for their high photon sensitivity and quantum efficiency in the UV region and for their inherent insensitivity to visible wavelengths. Challenges exist however for practical utilization. With growing interests in such photodetectors, hybrid readout solutions are becoming prevalent with CMOS technology being adopted for its maturity, scalability, and reliability. In this paper, we describe our approach to combine GaN APDs with a CMOS readout circuit, comprising of a linear array of 1 × 8 capacitive transimpedance amplifiers (CTIAs), implemented in a 0.35 µm high voltage CMOS technology. Further, we present a simple, yet sustainable circuit technique to allow operation of APDs under high reverse biases, up to ≈80 V with verified measurement results. The readout offers a conversion gain of 0.43 µV/e−, obtaining avalanche gains up to 103. Several parameters of the CTIA are discussed followed by a perspective on possible hybridization, exploiting the advantages of a 3D-stacked technology. PMID:29401655

  18. Temporal Noise Analysis of Charge-Domain Sampling Readout Circuits for CMOS Image Sensors.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiaoliang; Theuwissen, Albert J P

    2018-02-27

    This paper presents a temporal noise analysis of charge-domain sampling readout circuits for Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors. In order to address the trade-off between the low input-referred noise and high dynamic range, a Gm-cell-based pixel together with a charge-domain correlated-double sampling (CDS) technique has been proposed to provide a way to efficiently embed a tunable conversion gain along the read-out path. Such readout topology, however, operates in a non-stationery large-signal behavior, and the statistical properties of its temporal noise are a function of time. Conventional noise analysis methods for CMOS image sensors are based on steady-state signal models, and therefore cannot be readily applied for Gm-cell-based pixels. In this paper, we develop analysis models for both thermal noise and flicker noise in Gm-cell-based pixels by employing the time-domain linear analysis approach and the non-stationary noise analysis theory, which help to quantitatively evaluate the temporal noise characteristic of Gm-cell-based pixels. Both models were numerically computed in MATLAB using design parameters of a prototype chip, and compared with both simulation and experimental results. The good agreement between the theoretical and measurement results verifies the effectiveness of the proposed noise analysis models.

  19. USB 3.0 readout and time-walk correction method for Timepix3 detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turecek, D.; Jakubek, J.; Soukup, P.

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid particle counting pixel detectors of Medipix family are well known. In this contribution we present new USB 3.0 based interface AdvaDAQ for Timepix3 detector. The AdvaDAQ interface is designed with a maximal emphasis to the flexibility. It is successor of FitPIX interface developed in IEAP CTU in Prague. Its modular architecture supports all Medipix/Timepix chips and all their different readout modes: Medipix2, Timepix (serial and parallel), Medipix3 and Timepix3. The high bandwidth of USB 3.0 permits readout of 1700 full frames per second with Timepix or 8 channel data acquisition from Timepix3 at frequency of 320 MHz. The control and data acquisition is integrated in a multiplatform PiXet software (MS Windows, Mac OS, Linux). In the second part of the publication a new method for correction of the time-walk effect in Timepix3 is described. Moreover, a fully spectroscopic X-ray imaging with Timepix3 detector operated in the ToT mode (Time-over-Threshold) is presented. It is shown that the AdvaDAQ's readout speed is sufficient to perform spectroscopic measurement at full intensity of radiographic setups equipped with nano- or micro-focus X-ray tubes.

  20. Dual-Readout Immunochromatographic Assay by Utilizing MnO2 Nanoflowers as the Unique Colorimetric/Chemiluminescent Probe.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Lu, Qian; Wang, Wenwen; Song, Yang; Tu, Xinman; Zhu, Chengzhou; Smith, Jordan N; Du, Dan; Fu, Zhifeng; Lin, Yuehe

    2018-04-17

    Manganese dioxide nanoflowers (MnO 2 NFs) were synthesized and used as a dual readout probe to develop a novel immunochromatographic test strip (ITS) for detecting pesticide residues using chlorpyrifos as the model analyte. MnO 2 NFs-labeled antibody for chlorpyrifos was employed as the signal tracer for conducting the ITS. After 10 min competitive immunoreaction, the tracer antibody was captured by the immobilized immunogen in the test strip, resulting in the captured MnO 2 NFs on test line. The captured MnO 2 NFs led to the appearance of brown color on the test line, which could be easily observed by the naked eye as a qualitative readout. Due to the very slight colorimetric difference of chlorpyrifos at trace concentrations, the semiquantitative readout by naked eyes could not meet the demand of quantitative analysis. MnO 2 NFs showed a significant effect on the luminol-H 2 O 2 chemiluminescent (CL) system, and the CL signal driven by MnO 2 NFs were used to detect the trace concentration of chlorpyrifos quantitatively. 1,3-Diphenylisobenzofuran quenching studies and TMB-H 2 O 2 coloration assays were conducted for studying the enhancing mechanism of MnO 2 NFs, which was based on the oxidant activity to decompose H 2 O 2 for forming reactive oxygen species. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of chlorpyrifos was 0.1-50 ng/mL with a low detection limit of 0.033 ng/mL (S/N = 3). The reliability of the dual-readout ITS was successfully demonstrated by the application on traditional Chinese medicine and environmental water samples. Due to the simultaneous rapid-qualitative and sensitive-quantitative detection, the dual-readout protocol provides a promising strategy for rapid screening and field assay on various areas such as environmental monitoring and food safety.

  1. Design of a CMOS readout circuit on ultra-thin flexible silicon chip for printed strain gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsobky, Mourad; Mahsereci, Yigit; Keck, Jürgen; Richter, Harald; Burghartz, Joachim N.

    2017-09-01

    Flexible electronics represents an emerging technology with features enabling several new applications such as wearable electronics and bendable displays. Precise and high-performance sensors readout chips are crucial for high quality flexible electronic products. In this work, the design of a CMOS readout circuit for an array of printed strain gauges is presented. The ultra-thin readout chip and the printed sensors are combined on a thin Benzocyclobutene/Polyimide (BCB/PI) substrate to form a Hybrid System-in-Foil (HySiF), which is used as an electronic skin for robotic applications. Each strain gauge utilizes a Wheatstone bridge circuit, where four Aerosol Jet® printed meander-shaped resistors form a full-bridge topology. The readout chip amplifies the output voltage difference (about 5 mV full-scale swing) of the strain gauge. One challenge during the sensor interface circuit design is to compensate for the relatively large dc offset (about 30 mV at 1 mA) in the bridge output voltage so that the amplified signal span matches the input range of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The circuit design uses the 0. 5 µm mixed-signal GATEFORESTTM technology. In order to achieve the mechanical flexibility, the chip fabrication is based on either back thinned wafers or the ChipFilmTM technology, which enables the manufacturing of silicon chips with a thickness of about 20 µm. The implemented readout chip uses a supply of 5 V and includes a 5-bit digital-to-analog converter (DAC), a differential difference amplifier (DDA), and a 10-bit successive approximation register (SAR) ADC. The circuit is simulated across process, supply and temperature corners and the simulation results indicate excellent performance in terms of circuit stability and linearity.

  2. MiniDSS: a low-power and high-precision miniaturized digital sun sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boer, B. M.; Durkut, M.; Laan, E.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Theuwissen, A.; Xie, N.; Leijtens, J. L.; Urquijo, E.; Bruins, P.

    2017-11-01

    A high-precision and low-power miniaturized digital sun sensor has been developed at TNO. The single-chip sun sensor comprises an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) on which an active pixel sensor (APS), read-out and processing circuitry as well as communication circuitry are combined. The design was optimized for low recurrent cost. The sensor is albedo insensitive and the prototype combines an accuracy in the order of 0.03° with a mass of just 72 g and a power consumption of only 65 mW.

  3. The SAFIR experiment: Concept, status and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Robert; Buck, Alfred; Casella, Chiara; Dissertori, Günther; Fischer, Jannis; Howard, Alexander; Ito, Mikiko; Khateri, Parisa; Lustermann, Werner; Oliver, Josep F.; Röser, Ulf; Warnock, Geoffrey; Weber, Bruno

    2017-02-01

    The SAFIR development represents a novel Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector, conceived for preclinical fast acquisitions inside the bore of a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner. The goal is hybrid and simultaneous PET/MRI dynamic studies at unprecedented temporal resolutions of a few seconds. The detector relies on matrices of scintillating LSO-based crystals coupled one-to-one with SiPM arrays and readout by fast ASICs with excellent timing resolution and high rate capabilities. The paper describes the detector concept and the initial results in terms of simulations and characterisation measurements.

  4. Side readout of long scintillation crystal elements with digital SiPM for TOF-DOI PET.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Jung Yeol; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S

    2014-12-01

    Side readout of scintillation light from crystal elements in positron emission tomography (PET) is an alternative to conventional end-readout configurations, with the benefit of being able to provide accurate depth-of-interaction (DOI) information and good energy resolution while achieving excellent timing resolution required for time-of-flight PET. This paper explores different readout geometries of scintillation crystal elements with the goal of achieving a detector that simultaneously achieves excellent timing resolution, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and photon sensitivity. The performance of discrete LYSO scintillation elements of different lengths read out from the end/side with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPMs) has been assessed. Compared to 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) LYSO crystals read out from their ends with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 162 ± 6 ps FWHM and saturated energy spectra, a side-readout configuration achieved an excellent CRT of 144 ± 2 ps FWHM after correcting for timing skews within the dSiPM and an energy resolution of 11.8% ± 0.2% without requiring energy saturation correction. Using a maximum likelihood estimation method on individual dSiPM pixel response that corresponds to different 511 keV photon interaction positions, the DOI resolution of this 3 × 3 × 20 mm(3) crystal side-readout configuration was computed to be 0.8 mm FWHM with negligible artifacts at the crystal ends. On the other hand, with smaller 3 × 3 × 5 mm(3) LYSO crystals that can also be tiled/stacked to provide DOI information, a timing resolution of 134 ± 6 ps was attained but produced highly saturated energy spectra. The energy, timing, and DOI resolution information extracted from the side of long scintillation crystal elements coupled to dSiPM have been acquired for the first time. The authors conclude in this proof of concept study that such detector configuration has the potential to enable outstanding detector performance in terms of timing

  5. Side readout of long scintillation crystal elements with digital SiPM for TOF-DOI PET

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Yeom, Jung Yeol, E-mail: yeomjy@kumoh.ac.kr, E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu; Vinke, Ruud; Levin, Craig S., E-mail: yeomjy@kumoh.ac.kr, E-mail: cslevin@stanford.edu

    Purpose: Side readout of scintillation light from crystal elements in positron emission tomography (PET) is an alternative to conventional end-readout configurations, with the benefit of being able to provide accurate depth-of-interaction (DOI) information and good energy resolution while achieving excellent timing resolution required for time-of-flight PET. This paper explores different readout geometries of scintillation crystal elements with the goal of achieving a detector that simultaneously achieves excellent timing resolution, energy resolution, spatial resolution, and photon sensitivity. Methods: The performance of discrete LYSO scintillation elements of different lengths read out from the end/side with digital silicon photomultipliers (dSiPMs) has been assessed.more » Results: Compared to 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals read out from their ends with a coincidence resolving time (CRT) of 162 ± 6 ps FWHM and saturated energy spectra, a side-readout configuration achieved an excellent CRT of 144 ± 2 ps FWHM after correcting for timing skews within the dSiPM and an energy resolution of 11.8% ± 0.2% without requiring energy saturation correction. Using a maximum likelihood estimation method on individual dSiPM pixel response that corresponds to different 511 keV photon interaction positions, the DOI resolution of this 3 × 3 × 20 mm{sup 3} crystal side-readout configuration was computed to be 0.8 mm FWHM with negligible artifacts at the crystal ends. On the other hand, with smaller 3 × 3 × 5 mm{sup 3} LYSO crystals that can also be tiled/stacked to provide DOI information, a timing resolution of 134 ± 6 ps was attained but produced highly saturated energy spectra. Conclusions: The energy, timing, and DOI resolution information extracted from the side of long scintillation crystal elements coupled to dSiPM have been acquired for the first time. The authors conclude in this proof of concept study that such detector configuration has the potential to

  6. Integrated performance of a frequency domain multiplexing readout in the SPT-3G receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, A. N.; Ade, P. A. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Avva, J.; Ahmed, Z.; Arnold, K.; Austermann, J. E.; Basu Thakur, R.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Byrum, K.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Carter, F. W.; Chang, C. L.; Cho, H. M.; Cliche, J. F.; Crawford, T. M.; Cukierman, A.; Czaplewski, D. A.; Ding, J.; Divan, R.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Gilbert, A.; Groh, J. C.; Guyser, R.; Halverson, N. W.; Harke-Hosemann, A.; Harrington, N. L.; Hattori, K.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O.; Khaire, T.; Korman, M.; Kubik, D.; Kuo, C. L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Lendinez, S.; Meyer, S. S.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Shariff, J. A.; Shirley, Ian; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.

    2016-07-01

    The third generation receiver for the South Pole Telescope, SPT-3G, will make extremely deep, arcminuteresolution maps of the temperature and polarization of the cosmic microwave background. The SPT-3G maps will enable studies of the B-mode polarization signature, constraining primordial gravitational waves as well as the effect of massive neutrinos on structure formation in the late universe. The SPT-3G receiver will achieve exceptional sensitivity through a focal plane of 16,000 transition-edge sensor bolometers, an order of magnitude more than the current SPTpol receiver. SPT-3G uses a frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) scheme to read out the focal plane, combining the signals from 64 bolometers onto a single pair of wires. The fMux readout facilitates the large number of detectors in the SPT-3G focal plane by limiting the thermal load due to readout wiring on the 250 millikelvin cryogenic stage. A second advantage of the fMux system is that the operation of each bolometer can be optimized. In addition to these benefits, the fMux readout introduces new challenges into the design and operation of the receiver. The bolometers are operated at a range of frequencies up to 5 MHz, requiring control of stray reactances over a large bandwidth. Additionally, crosstalk between multiplexed detectors will inject large false signals into the data if not adequately mitigated. SPT-3G is scheduled to deploy to the South Pole Telescope in late 2016. Here, we present the pre-deployment performance of the fMux readout system with the SPT-3G focal plane.

  7. Micromachined piezoresistive inclinometer with oscillator-based integrated interface circuit and temperature readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalola, Simone; Ferrari, Vittorio; Marioli, Daniele

    2012-03-01

    In this paper a dual-chip system for inclination measurement is presented. It consists of a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) piezoresistive accelerometer manufactured in silicon bulk micromachining and a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) ASIC (application specific integrated circuit) interface designed for resistive-bridge sensors. The sensor is composed of a seismic mass symmetrically suspended by means of four flexure beams that integrate two piezoresistors each to detect the applied static acceleration, which is related to inclination with respect to the gravity vector. The ASIC interface is based on a relaxation oscillator where the frequency and the duty cycle of a rectangular-wave output signal are related to the fractional bridge imbalance and the overall bridge resistance of the sensor, respectively. The latter is a function of temperature; therefore the sensing element itself can be advantageously used to derive information for its own thermal compensation. DC current excitation of the sensor makes the configuration unaffected by wire resistances and parasitic capacitances. Therefore, a modular system results where the sensor can be placed remotely from the electronics without suffering accuracy degradation. The inclination measurement system has been characterized as a function of the applied inclination angle at different temperatures. At room temperature, the experimental sensitivity of the system results in about 148 Hz/g, which corresponds to an angular sensitivity around zero inclination angle of about 2.58 Hz deg-1. This is in agreement with finite element method simulations. The measured output fluctuations at constant temperature determine an equivalent resolution of about 0.1° at midrange. In the temperature range of 25-65 °C the system sensitivity decreases by about 10%, which is less than the variation due to the microsensor alone thanks to thermal compensation provided by the current excitation of the bridge and the positive

  8. Drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afanasyev, L.; Karpukhin, V.

    2002-10-01

    A drift chamber readout system of the DIRAC experiment at CERN is presented. The system is intended to read out the signals from planar chambers operating in a high current mode. The sense wire signals are digitized in the 16-channel time-to-digital converter boards which are plugged in the signal plane connectors. This design results in a reduced number of modules, a small number of cables and high noise immunity. The system has been successfully operating in the experiment since 1999.

  9. Time and position sensitive single photon detector for scintillator read-out

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schössler, S.; Bromberger, B.; Brandis, M.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Tittelmeier, K.; Czasch, A.; Dangendorf, V.; Jagutzki, O.

    2012-02-01

    We have developed a photon counting detector system for combined neutron and γ radiography which can determine position, time and intensity of a secondary photon flash created by a high-energy particle or photon within a scintillator screen. The system is based on a micro-channel plate photomultiplier concept utilizing image charge coupling to a position- and time-sensitive read-out anode placed outside the vacuum tube in air, aided by a standard photomultiplier and very fast pulse-height analyzing electronics. Due to the low dead time of all system components it can cope with the high throughput demands of a proposed combined fast neutron and dual discrete energy γ radiography method (FNDDER). We show tests with different types of delay-line read-out anodes and present a novel pulse-height-to-time converter circuit with its potential to discriminate γ energies for the projected FNDDER devices for an automated cargo container inspection system (ACCIS).

  10. A prototype optical-CT system for PRESAGE 3D dosimeter readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Devin; Yoon, Paul; Kodra, Jacob; Adamovics, John; Oldham, Mark

    2017-05-01

    This work introduces the Duke Integrated-lens Optical Scanner (DIOS), a prototype optical-CT system designed for convenient and low-cost readout of PRESAGE 3D dosimeters. A key novelty of the DIOS is the incorporation of a multi-purpose light-collimating tank (the LC-tank). The LC-tank collimates light from a point source, maintains parallel ray geometry through a dosimeter mounted inside the tank, and refocuses emergent light onto a CCD detector. A second purpose is to dramatically reduce the amount of refractive matched fluid required in prior optical-CT scanners. This is achieved by substituting large quantities of refractive-matched fluid with solid RI-matched polyurethane. The advantages of DIOS include eliminating the need for expensive telecentric lenses, and eliminating the impracticality of large volumes of RI matched fluid. The DIOS is potentially more susceptible to stray-light artifacts. Preliminary phantom testing shows promising agreement between PRESAGE/DIOS readout and prior commissioned optical-CT scanners, as well as with Eclipse dose calculations.

  11. Scene-based nonuniformity correction technique that exploits knowledge of the focal-plane array readout architecture.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, Balaji; Hardie, Russell C; Muse, Robert A

    2005-06-10

    Spatial fixed-pattern noise is a common and major problem in modern infrared imagers owing to the nonuniform response of the photodiodes in the focal plane array of the imaging system. In addition, the nonuniform response of the readout and digitization electronics, which are involved in multiplexing the signals from the photodiodes, causes further nonuniformity. We describe a novel scene based on a nonuniformity correction algorithm that treats the aggregate nonuniformity in separate stages. First, the nonuniformity from the readout amplifiers is corrected by use of knowledge of the readout architecture of the imaging system. Second, the nonuniformity resulting from the individual detectors is corrected with a nonlinear filter-based method. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm by applying it to simulated imagery and real infrared data. Quantitative results in terms of the mean absolute error and the signal-to-noise ratio are also presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed algorithm. One advantage of the proposed algorithm is that it requires only a few frames to obtain high-quality corrections.

  12. Development of a cylindrical tracking detector with multichannel scintillation fibers and pixelated photon detector readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akazawa, Y.; Miwa, K.; Honda, R.; Shiozaki, T.; Chiga, N.

    2015-07-01

    We are developing a cylindrical tracking detector for a Σp scattering experiment in J-PARC with scintillation fibers and the Pixelated Photon Detector (PPD) readout, which is called as cylindrical fiber tracker (CFT), in order to reconstruct trajectories of charged particles emitted inside CFT. CFT works not only as a tracking detector but also a particle identification detector from energy deposits. A prototype CFT consisting of two straight layers and one spiral layer was constructed. About 1100 scintillation fibers with a diameter of 0.75 mm (Kuraray SCSF-78 M) were used. Each fiber signal was read by Multi-Pixel Photon Counter (MPPC, HPK S10362-11-050P, 1×1 mm2, 400 pixels) fiber by fiber. MPPCs were handled with Extended Analogue Silicon Photomultipliers Integrated ReadOut Chip (EASIROC) boards, which were developed for the readout of a large number of MPPCs. The energy resolution of one layer was 28% for a 70 MeV proton where the energy deposit in fibers was 0.7 MeV.

  13. High-fidelity readout and control of a nuclear spin qubit in silicon.

    PubMed

    Pla, Jarryd J; Tan, Kuan Y; Dehollain, Juan P; Lim, Wee H; Morton, John J L; Zwanenburg, Floris A; Jamieson, David N; Dzurak, Andrew S; Morello, Andrea

    2013-04-18

    Detection of nuclear spin precession is critical for a wide range of scientific techniques that have applications in diverse fields including analytical chemistry, materials science, medicine and biology. Fundamentally, it is possible because of the extreme isolation of nuclear spins from their environment. This isolation also makes single nuclear spins desirable for quantum-information processing, as shown by pioneering studies on nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond. The nuclear spin of a (31)P donor in silicon is very promising as a quantum bit: bulk measurements indicate that it has excellent coherence times and silicon is the dominant material in the microelectronics industry. Here we demonstrate electrical detection and coherent manipulation of a single (31)P nuclear spin qubit with sufficiently high fidelities for fault-tolerant quantum computing. By integrating single-shot readout of the electron spin with on-chip electron spin resonance, we demonstrate quantum non-demolition and electrical single-shot readout of the nuclear spin with a readout fidelity higher than 99.8 percent-the highest so far reported for any solid-state qubit. The single nuclear spin is then operated as a qubit by applying coherent radio-frequency pulses. For an ionized (31)P donor, we find a nuclear spin coherence time of 60 milliseconds and a one-qubit gate control fidelity exceeding 98 percent. These results demonstrate that the dominant technology of modern electronics can be adapted to host a complete electrical measurement and control platform for nuclear-spin-based quantum-information processing.

  14. X-ray fluorescence imaging system for fast mapping of pigment distributions in cultural heritage paintings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielińska, A.; Dąbrowski, W.; Fiutowski, T.; Mindur, B.; Wiącek, P.; Wróbel, P.

    2013-10-01

    Conventional X-ray fluorescence imaging technique uses a focused X-ray beam to scan through the sample and an X-ray detector with high energy resolution but no spatial resolution. The spatial resolution of the image is then determined by the size of the exciting beam, which can be obtained either from a synchrotron source or from an X-ray tube with a micro-capillary lens. Such a technique based on a pixel-by-pixel measurement is very slow and not suitable for imaging large area samples. The goal of this work is to develop a system capable of simultaneous imaging of large area samples by using a wide field uniform excitation X-ray beam and a position sensitive and energy dispersive detector. The development is driven by possible application of such a system to imaging of distributions of hidden pigments containing specific elements in cultural heritage paintings, which is of great interest for the cultural heritage research. The fluorescence radiation from the area of 10 × 10 cm2 is projected through a pinhole camera on the Gas Electron Multiplier detector of the same area. The detector is equipped with two sets of orthogonal readout strips. The strips are read out by the GEMROC Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC)s, which deliver time and amplitude information for each hit. This ASIC architecture combined with a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based readout system allows us to reconstruct the position and the total energy of each detected photon for high count rates up to 5 × 106 cps. Energy resolution better than 20% FWHM for the 5.9 keV line and spatial resolution of 1 mm FWHM have been achieved for the prototype system. Although the energy resolution of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector is, by principle, not competitive with that of specialised high energy resolution semiconductor detectors, it is sufficient for a number of applications. Compared to conventional micro-XRF techniques the developed system allows shortening of the

  15. Quantum Time Evolution in a Qubit Readout Process with a Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Hayato; Saito, Shiro; Semba, Kouichi; Takayanagi, Hideaki

    2009-06-01

    We analyzed the Josephson bifurcation amplifier (JBA) readout process of a superconducting qubit quantum mechanically by calculating the dynamics of the density operator of a driven nonlinear oscillator and a qubit coupled system during the measurement process. In purely quantum cases, bifurcation is impossible. Introducing decoherence enables us to reproduce the bifurcation with a finite hysteresis. When a qubit is initially in a superposition state, we have observed the qubit-probe (JBA) entangled state, and it is divided into two separable states at the moment the JBA transition begins. This corresponds to “projection.” To readout the measurement result, however, we must wait until the two JBA states are macroscopically well separated. The waiting time is determined by the strength of the decoherence in the JBA.

  16. Readout signals calculated for near-field optical pickups with land and groove recording.

    PubMed

    Saito, K; Kishima, K; Ichimura, I

    2000-08-10

    Optical disk readout signals with a solid immersion lens (SIL) and the land-groove recording technique are calculated by use of a simplified vector-diffraction theory. In this method the full vector-diffraction theory is applied to calculate the diffracted light from the initial state of the disk, and the light scattered from the recorded marks is regarded as a perturbation. Using this method, we confirmed that the land-groove recording technique is effective as a means of cross-talk reduction even when the numerical aperture is more than 1. However, the top surface of the disk under the SIL must be flat, or the readout signal from marks recorded on a groove decays when the optical depth of the groove is greater than lambda/8.

  17. Readout Electronics for the Central Drift Chamber of the Belle-II Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Tomohisa; Taniguchi, Takashi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iwasaki, Yoshihito; Saito, Masatoshi; Shimazaki, Shoichi; Tanaka, Manobu M.; Taniguchi, Nanae; Uno, Shoji

    2015-08-01

    We have developed readout electronics for the central drift chamber (CDC) of the Belle-II detector. The space near the endplate of the CDC for installation of the electronics was limited by the detector structure. Due to the large amounts of data generated by the CDC, a high-speed data link, with a greater than one gigabit transfer rate, was required to transfer the data to a back-end computer. A new readout module was required to satisfy these requirements. This module processes 48 signals from the CDC, converts them to digital data and transfers it directly to the computer. All functions that transfer digital data via the high speed link were implemented on the single module. We have measured its electrical characteristics and confirmed that the results satisfy the requirements of the Belle-II experiment.

  18. Hodoscope readout system

    DOEpatents

    Lee, L.Y.

    1973-12-01

    A readout system has been provided for reading out a radiation multidetector device with a reduced number of signal sensors. A radiation hodoscope, such as an array of scintillation counters, multiwire proportional counter array, or a set of multidetectors which do not receive signals simultaneously, is divided into equal numbered groups. A first group of signal terminals is connected to the equal numbered groups of detectors so that a signal from any one of the detectors of a group will be fed to one of the first group of terminals. A second group of signal terminals is connected to the detector groups so that a signal from a particular numbered detector of each of the detector groups is connected to one of the second group of terminals. Both groups of signal terminals are, in turn, coupled to signal sensors so that when a signal is simultaneously observed in one of the first group of terminals and one of the second group of tenniinals the specific detector detecting a radiation event is determined. The sensors are arranged in such a manner that a binary code is developed from their outputs which can be stored in a digital storage means according to the location of the event in the multidetector device. (Official Gazette)

  19. MO-F-CAMPUS-J-03: Development of a Human Brain PET for On-Line Proton Beam-Range Verification

    DOE Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI.GOV)

    Shao, Yiping

    Purpose: To develop a prototype PET for verifying proton beam-range before each fractionated therapy that will enable on-line re-planning proton therapy. Methods: Latest “edge-less” silicon photomultiplier arrays and customized ASIC readout electronics were used to develop PET detectors with depth-of-interaction (DOI) measurement capability. Each detector consists of one LYSO array with each end coupled to a SiPM array. Multiple detectors can be seamlessly tiled together to form a large detector panel. Detectors with 1.5×1.5 and 2.0×2.0 mm crystals at 20 or 30 mm lengths were studied. Readout of individual SiPM or signal multiplexing was used to transfer 3D interaction position-codedmore » analog signals through flexible-print-circuit cables or PCB board to dedicated ASIC front-end electronics to output digital timing pulses that encode interaction information. These digital pulses can be transferred to, through standard LVDS cables, and decoded by a FPGA-based data acquisition of coincidence events and data transfer. The modular detector and scalable electronics/data acquisition will enable flexible PET system configuration for different imaging geometry. Results: Initial detector performance measurement shows excellent crystal identification even with 30 mm long crystals, ∼18% and 2.8 ns energy and timing resolutions, and around 2–3 mm DOI resolution. A small prototype PET scanner with one detector ring has been built and evaluated, validating the technology and design. A large size detector panel has been fabricated by scaling up from modular detectors. Different designs of resistor and capacitor based signal multiplexing boards were tested and selected based on optimal crystal identification and timing performance. Stackable readout electronics boards and FPGA-based data acquisition boards were developed and tested. A brain PET is under construction. Conclusion: Technology of large-size DOI detector based on SiPM array and advanced readout has been

  20. Digital frequency domain multiplexing readout electronics for the next generation of millimeter telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Amy N.; Cliche, Jean-François; de Haan, Tijmen; Dobbs, Matt A.; Gilbert, Adam J.; Montgomery, Joshua; Rowlands, Neil; Smecher, Graeme M.; Smith, Ken; Wilson, Andrew

    2014-07-01

    Frequency domain multiplexing (fMux) is an established technique for the readout of transition-edge sensor (TES) bolometers in millimeter-wavelength astrophysical instrumentation. In fMux, the signals from multiple detectors are read out on a single pair of wires reducing the total cryogenic thermal loading as well as the cold component complexity and cost of a system. The current digital fMux system, in use by POLARBEAR, EBEX, and the South Pole Telescope, is limited to a multiplexing factor of 16 by the dynamic range of the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device pre-amplifier and the total system bandwidth. Increased multiplexing is key for the next generation of large format TES cameras, such as SPT-3G and POLARBEAR2, which plan to have on the of order 15,000 detectors. Here, we present the next generation fMux readout, focusing on the warm electronics. In this system, the multiplexing factor increases to 64 channels per module (2 wires) while maintaining low noise levels and detector stability. This is achieved by increasing the system bandwidth, reducing the dynamic range requirements though active feedback, and digital synthesis of voltage biases with a novel polyphase filter algorithm. In addition, a version of the new fMux readout includes features such as low power consumption and radiation-hard components making it viable for future space-based millimeter telescopes such as the LiteBIRD satellite.