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Sample records for siem reap cambodia

  1. Soils under conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Smallholder vegetable farmers in Siem Reap, Cambodia experienced declining crop productivity. It could be a result of a mixture of factors such as nutrient and pest problems and extreme weather events such as droughts and/or heavy rains. The no-till, continuous mulch and diverse species principles o...

  2. Mental health survey among landmine survivors in Siem Reap province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lopes Cardozo, Barbara; Blanton, Curtis; Zalewski, Tami; Tor, Svang; McDonald, Laura; Lavelle, James; Brooks, Robert; Anderson, Mark; Mollica, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Many survivors of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia and the subsequent war with Vietnam have now returned to Cambodia. In this two-stage household cluster survey in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia, we explored the mental health consequences on 166 landmine injury survivors selected from 1000 household in 50 clusters and an oversample of all landmine survivors. We found a prevalence of anxiety of 62% for all respondents, 74% for depression, and 34% for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). These prevalences were statistically significantly higher than among the adult population who had not been injured by landmines. These data underscore the importance of providing mental health care services for the people in Siem Reap Province in Cambodia who have been injured by landmines.

  3. Intestinal Parasite Infections in Symptomatic Children Attending Hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID

  4. Dynamics of soil carbon, nitrogen and soil respiration in farmer’s field with conservation agriculture Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The years of intensive tillage in many countries, including Cambodia, have caused significant decline in agriculture’s natural resources that could threaten the future of agricultural production and sustainability worldwide. Long-term tillage system and site-specific crop management can affect chang...

  5. Soil carbon and soil respiration in conservation agriculture with vegetables in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A balance between food production and environmental protection is required to sustainably feed a growing population. The resource saving concept of conservation agriculture aims to achieve this balance through implementing simultaneously three conservation practices; no-till, continuous soil cover, ...

  6. HIV/AIDS, beersellers and critical community health psychology in Cambodia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Lubek, Ian; Lee, Helen; Kros, Sarath; Wong, Mee Lian; Van Merode, Tiny; Liu, James; McCreanor, Tim; Idema, Roel; Campbell, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    This case study illustrates a participatory framework for confronting critical community health issues using 'grass-roots' research-guided community-defined interventions. Ongoing work in Cambodia has culturally adapted research, theory and practice for particular, local health-promotion responses to HIV/AIDS, alcohol abuse and other challenges in the community of Siem Reap. For resource-poor communities in Cambodia, we recycle such 'older' concepts as 'empowerment' and 'action research'. We re-imagine community health psychology, when confronted with 'critical', life-and-death issues, as adjusting its research and practices to local, particular ontological and epistemological urgencies of trauma, morbidity and mortality.

  7. The value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys of healthcare-associated infections for evaluating infection control interventions at Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Stoesser, N; Emary, K; Soklin, S; Peng An, K; Sophal, S; Chhomrath, S; Day, NPJ; Limmathurotsakul, D; Nget, P; Pangnarith, Y; Sona, S; Kumar, V; Moore, CE; Chanpheaktra, N; Parry, CM

    2013-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the epidemiology of paediatric healthcare-associated infection (HCAI) and infection control in low-income countries. We describe the value of intermittent point-prevalence surveys for monitoring HCAI and evaluating infection control interventions in a Cambodian paediatric hospital. Methods Hospital-wide, point-prevalence surveys were performed monthly in 2011. Infection control interventions introduced during this period included a hand hygiene programme and a ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) care bundle. Results Overall HCAI prevalence was 13.8/100 patients at-risk, with a significant decline over time. The highest HCAI rates (50%) were observed in critical care; the majority of HCAIs were respiratory (61%). Klebsiella pneumoniae was most commonly isolated and antimicrobial resistance was widespread. Hand hygiene compliance doubled to 51.6%, and total VAP cases/1000 patient-ventilator days fell from 30 to 10. Conclusion Rates of HCAI were substantial in our institution, and antimicrobial resistance a major concern. Point-prevalence surveys are effective for HCAI surveillance, and in monitoring trends in response to infection control interventions. PMID:23418156

  8. Cambodia.

    PubMed

    1987-04-01

    The population of Cambodia stood at 6.25 million in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.1%. Life expectancy is presently 42 years for men and 44.9 years for women. The government is currently disputed between resistance groups and Vietnamese-installed authorities in Phnom Penh. No single authority controls the entire country. The urban population increased sharply during the 1970-75 war, but after seizing power the Khmer Rouge forced most urban residents to return to rural areas as peasants. Massive numbers of people were executed for political reasons or died of starvation and disease during the Khmer Rouge period and after the dislocations caused by the Vietnamese invasion: an estimated 1.5-3 million people are estimated to have died out of a 1975 population of 7.3 million. The resistance forces have grown in size and effectiveness since 1985 and now challenge Vietnam's position in Cambodia. The Cambodian economy, badly damaged by the war and the Khmer Rouge regime, has only slowly begun to recover. Per capita gross national product (GNP) is estimated at less than US$100. The food situation remains precarious, with shortages of rice, meat, vegetables, sugar, flour, and dairy products. Extensive damage to the country's irrigation system, on which rice production depends, has only begun to be repaired. Basic services such as electricity and water are erratic. Although literacy and primary education campaigns have achieved success, health conditions remain poor.

  9. Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This is an image of the area around the city of Angkor, Cambodia. The city houses an ancient complex of more than 60 temples dating back to the 9th century. The principal complex, Angkor Wat, is the bright square just left of the center of the image. It is surrounded by a reservoir that appears in this image as a thick black line. The larger bright square above Angkor Wat is another temple complex called Angkor Thom. Archeologists studying this image believe the blue-purple area slightly north of Angkor Thom may be previously undiscovered structures. In the lower right is a bright rectangle surrounded by a dark reservoir, which houses the temple complex Chau Srei Vibol. In its heyday, Angkor had a population of 1 million residents and was the spiritual center for the Khmer people until it was abandoned in the 15th century. The image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 15th orbit of the space shuttle Endeavour on September 30, 1994. The image shows an area approximately 55 kilometers by 85 kilometers (34 miles by 53 miles) that is centered at 13.43 degrees north latitude and 103.9 degrees east longitude. The colors in this image were obtained using the following radar channels: red represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and received); green represents the L-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received); blue represents the C-band (horizontally transmitted and vertically received). The body of water in the south-southwest corner is Tonle Sap, Cambodia's great central lake. The urban area at the lower left of the image is the present-day town of Siem Reap. The adjoining lines are both modern and ancient roads and the remains of Angkor's vast canal system that was used for both irrigation and transportation. The large black rectangles are ancient reservoirs. Today the Angkor complex is hidden beneath a dense rainforest canopy, making it difficult for researchers on the ground to study

  10. The prevalence and molecular basis of hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Carnley, Benedict P; Prior, John F; Gilbert, Anne; Lim, Erna; Devenish, Robyn; Sing, Heng; Sarin, Eng; Guhadasan, Rathi; Sullivan, Sheena G; Wise, Cheryl A; Bittles, Alan H; Chan, Kaimin; Wong, Man-Sim; Chan, Vivian; Erber, Wendy N

    2006-01-01

    Blood counts, hemoglobin (Hb) high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and DNA analyses were performed on 260 children, aged 5 months to 16 years, at Siem Reap to assess the prevalence of thalassemia and other hemoglobinopathies in regional Cambodia. Hemoglobinopathies were present in 134 children (51.5%) with 20 abnormal genotypes identified. alpha-Thalassemia (thal) (35.4%) was the most prevalent disorder and the -alpha3.7 gene deletion was the most common alpha-globin gene abnormality. The - -SEA deletion and nondeletional forms of alpha-thal, Hb Constant Spring [Hb CS, alpha142, Term-->Gln, TAA-->CAA (alpha2)], Hb Paksé [alpha142, Term-->Tyr, TAA-->TAT (alpha2)] and triplicated alpha genes, were also present but at low frequencies. Hb E [beta26(B8)Glu-->Lys, GAG-->AAG] (28.8%) was the most common beta-globin gene abnormality, whilst beta-thal was only detected in two children (0.8% of cases). Although hemoglobinopathies were common, the majority of abnormalities detected (heterozygous -alpha3.7 and Hb E) were not clinically significant. On the basis of these findings, and with the majority of abnormalities being mild, it seems improbable that thalassemia represents a major health burden in this region of Cambodia.

  11. Prevalence of intestinal helminths among inhabitants of Cambodia (2006-2011).

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Soon-Hyung; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2014-12-01

    In order to investigate the status of intestinal helminthic infections in Cambodia, epidemiological surveys were carried out on a national scale, including 19 provinces. A total of 32,201 fecal samples were collected from schoolchildren and adults between 2006 and 2011 and examined once by the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. The overall egg positive rate of intestinal helminths was 26.2%. The prevalence of hookworms was the highest (9.6%), followed by that of Opisthorchis viverrini/minute intestinal flukes (Ov/MIF) (5.7%), Ascaris lumbricoides (4.6%), and Trichuris trichiura (4.1%). Other types of parasites detected were Enterobius vermicularis (1.1%), Taenia spp. (0.4%), and Hymenolepis spp. (0.2%). The northwestern regions such as the Siem Reap, Oddar Meanchey, and Banteay Meanchey Provinces showed higher prevalences (17.4-22.3%) of hookworms than the other localities. The southwestern areas, including Koh Kong and Preah Sihanouk Provinces showed higher prevalences of A. lumbricoides (17.5-19.2%) and T. trichiura (6.1-21.0%). Meanwhile, the central and southern areas, in particular, Takeo and Kampong Cham Provinces, showed high prevalences of Ov/MIF (23.8-24.0%). The results indicate that a considerably high prevalence of intestinal helminths has been revealed in Cambodia, and thus sustained national parasite control projects are necessary to reduce morbidity due to parasitic infections in Cambodia.

  12. The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Mollica, Richard F; Brooks, Robert; Tor, Svang; Lopes-Cardozo, Barbara; Silove, Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background No population-based studies have directly compared the long-term health and mental health outcomes of conflict- versus non-conflict-affected communities from the same ethnic background. Aims To identify and compare levels of psychiatric morbidity between a traumatized and non-traumatized civilian community; to investigate the long-term impact of mass violence. Methods Double-stratified community surveys in Siem Reap and Surin provinces were conducted by highly qualified Cambodian interviewers using culturally validated survey instruments with known psychometric properties. These included Cambodian versions of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25, the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form. Results Siem Reap and Surin respondents experienced 12,266 and 621 major trauma events, respectively; 745 (76.2%) Siem Reap respondents and six (0.6%) Surin respondents reported torture events; 499 (49.5%) Siem Reap respondents and 203 (19.7%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI 3.29–4.88); 204 (20.6%) Siem Reap respondents and 23 (2.2%) Surin respondents met the clinical threshold for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (OR 11.39, 95% CI 7.3–17.7).The MOS physical disability was higher in Siem Reap versus Surin respondents (74 (7.5%) vs 13 (1.3%), χ2 = 47.4 df = 1, p < .001). Health status was poorest among Siem Reap respondents when compared with Surin respondents (mean score 1.59 vs 0.59, respectively; t = 19.85 df = 2018, p < .001). Path analysis reveals that recent and past extreme violence are associated with the health and mental health status of the Siem Reap community. Conclusion After 25 years, the Khmer civilian population that experienced the Pol Pot genocide continues to suffer psychiatric morbidity and poor health. PMID:23396287

  13. Employing Replay Connectors for SIEM Operator Education

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EMPLOYING REPLAY ...Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE EMPLOYING REPLAY CONNECTORS FOR SIEM OPERATOR EDUCATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Wong Wai Keat 7. PERFORMING...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited EMPLOYING REPLAY CONNECTORS FOR SIEM OPERATOR EDUCATION Wong Wai Keat Captain, Singapore

  14. Emergence of Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Emma K.; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Kumar, Varun; Amornchai, Premjit; Wongdeethai, Nattavut; Chheng, Kheng; Chantratita, Narisara; Putchhat, Hor; Thaipadungpanit, Janjira; Day, Nicholas P.; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2011-01-01

    We previously described the first reported isolation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (a case series of pediatric community-associated MRSA infections) in Cambodia. We define the rate of pediatric MRSA carriage in the same population and characterize the associated bacterial genotypes by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing. A prospective cohort study of MRSA carriage conducted over one month at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, identified MRSA carriage in 87 (3.5%) of 2,485 children who came to the outpatient department, and 6 (4.1%) of 145 inpatients, including at least two with cases of nosocomial acquisition. Genotyping of all 93 MRSA isolates resolved 5 genotypes. Most (91%) isolates were assigned to sequence type 834. Only 28 (32%) of 87 MRSA carriers identified in the outpatient department had no history of recent healthcare contact. The study findings have important implications for healthcare in a setting where diagnostic microbiology and access to antimicrobial drugs with efficacy against MRSA are limited. PMID:21292906

  15. Application of integrated magnetic resonance sounding and resistivity methods for borehole implementation. A case study in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vouillamoz, Jean-Michel; Descloitres, Marc; Bernard, Jean; Fourcassier, Pierre; Romagny, Laurent

    2002-05-01

    A geophysical survey was conducted in Cambodia to measure the contribution of geophysics to a running drilling programme. The geology of the area (the province of Siem Reap) mainly consists of recent heterogeneous sediments of sand, silt and clay. The thickness of this formation ranges from 20 to 100 m and lies on Jurassic to Tertiary rocks. Surveys were done with direct current methods [one-dimensional vertical electrical sounding (1D VES), and two-dimensional (2D) electrical imaging], time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) sounding and proton magnetic resonance sounding (MRS). To validate the geophysical results, boreholes were drilled and tested with electrical logs and pumping tests. We found that: (1) The resistivity methods (VES, 2D electrical imaging and TDEM) are very sensitive to the groundwater electrical conductivity which is highly heterogeneous within the province. A preliminary relationship between measured groundwater conductivity and aquifer resistivity is proposed. (2) The MRS gives accurate information on groundwater occurrence for the 5- to 60-m-deep layers. A preliminary relationship between MRS data (aquifer transmissivity estimated from MRS field measurements) and hydrodynamic parameters (aquifer local transmissivity and borehole relative specific capacity estimated from borehole pumping tests) is proposed. (3) The resistivity methods and MRS are complementary, and a joint use is recommended. (4) At the survey scale, the borehole success rate was improved from 56% to 90% by the use of geophysics. Crossing the technical and cost analyses, we propose a geophysical methodology to implement boreholes in the province of Siem Reap. This methodology could both increase the borehole success rate and save money at the programme scale. It consists of the use of: MRS, TDEM and electrical methods jointly where the borehole success rate is less than 30%. MRS and TDEM jointly where the borehole success rate ranges from 30% to 50%. Electrical methods (VES and 2D

  16. Pediatric suppurative parotitis in Cambodia between 2007 and 2011.

    PubMed

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor P; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; 1 child developed facial nerve palsy.

  17. The Molecular and Spatial Epidemiology of Typhoid Fever in Rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Rabaa, Maia A; Sona, Soeng; Sopheary, Sun; Kumar, Varun; Moore, Catrin; Tran Vu Thieu, Nga; Wijedoru, Lalith; Holt, Kathryn E.; Wong, Vanessa; Pickard, Derek; Thwaites, Guy E.; Day, Nicholas; Dougan, Gordon; Turner, Paul; Parry, Christopher M.; Baker, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Typhoid fever, caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi, is an endemic cause of febrile disease in Cambodia. The aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of pediatric typhoid fever in Cambodia. We accessed routine blood culture data from Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap province between 2007 and 2014, and performed whole genome sequencing (WGS) on the isolated bacteria to characterize the S. Typhi population. The resulting phylogenetic information was combined with conventional epidemiological approaches to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of S. Typhi and population-level risk factors for reported disease. During the study period, there were 262 cases of typhoid within a 100 km radius of AHC, with a median patient age of 8.2 years (IQR: 5.1–11.5 years). The majority of infections occurred during the rainy season, and commune incidences as high as 11.36/1,000 in children aged <15 years were observed over the study period. A population-based risk factor analysis found that access to water within households and increasing distance from Tonle Sap Lake were protective. Spatial mapping and WGS provided additional resolution for these findings, and confirmed that proximity to the lake was associated with discrete spatiotemporal disease clusters. We confirmed the dominance of MDR H58 S. Typhi in this population, and found substantial evidence of diversification (at least seven sublineages) within this single lineage. We conclude that there is a substantial burden of pediatric typhoid fever in rural communes in Cambodia. Our data provide a platform for additional population-based typhoid fever studies in this location, and suggest that this would be a suitable setting in which to introduce a school-based vaccination programme with Vi conjugate vaccines. PMID:27331909

  18. HIV Prevalence and Risks Associated with HIV Infection among Transgender Individuals in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngak, Song; Srean, Chhim; Sansothy, Neth; Mills, Stephen; Ferradini, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Recognizing transgender individuals have a high risk of HIV acquisition, and to inform policies and programming, we conducted an HIV prevalence and risk behaviors survey among transgender individuals in Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional survey using a respondent driven sampling method with self-administered audio-computer assisted interviews. HIV testing was performed prior to the questionnaire with results available immediately after. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, identified as male at birth and self-identified/expressed as a different gender, and reported having sex with at least one male partner in past year. From six major urban centers of Cambodia, 891 transgender individuals were recruited. Results The majority of the 891 participants self-identified as third gender or female (94.5%), were young (median age 23, IQR [20–27]), had secondary education or higher (80.5%), not married (89.7%), and employed (90.2%). The majority had first sex before 18 years (66.8%), with a male (79.9%), 37.9% having been paid or paying for this first sex. The rate of HIV positivity among participants was found to be 4.15%. Consistent condom use with male and female partners was low with all partner types, but particularly low with male partners when paying for sex (20.3%). The majority of participants reported having experienced discrimination in their lifetime (54.8%) and 30.3% had been assaulted. Multivariate analysis revealed that older age (adjusted OR = 14.73 [4.20, 51.67] for age 35–44 and adjusted OR = 7.63 [2.55, 22.81] for age 30–34), only having a primary school education or no schooling at all (adjusted OR = 2.62 [1.18, 5.80], being a resident of Siem Reap (adjusted OR = 7.44 [2.37,23.29], receiving payment at first sex (adjusted OR = 2.26 [1.00, 5.11], having sex during/after using drugs (adjusted OR = 2.90 [1.09,7.73]), inconsistent condom use during last anal sex (adjusted OR = 3.84 [1.58, 9.33]), and reporting low self-esteem (adjusted OR

  19. Statistical assessment for spatio-temporal water quality in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ki, Seo Jin; Kang, Joo-Hyon; Lee, Young Geun; Lee, Yun Seok; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Joon Ha

    2009-01-01

    Comprehensive water quality monitoring was conducted to assess the water quality conditions and to determine the impact of urban infrastructure on ambient water quality in Angkor, Cambodia. During this study, surface water, groundwater, and sediment samples were collected for two distinctive seasons in 2006-2007 at 58 monitoring sites along and near the Siem Reap River, in Tole Sap Lake (TSL), and West Baray, the primary water resources in this region. To assess the seasonal and spatial variability of 27 water quality parameters, multivariate analysis of variance, hierarchical cluster analysis, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were conducted using the obtained data. Differences and relationships between the surface water and groundwater were also investigated using t-test and correlation analysis, respectively. The results of these tests showed that the bacterial indicators need special attention as the urban infrastructure of the downtown area caused increased levels of these bacterial indicators in both surface water and groundwater. However, for most parameters, though surface water showed strong seasonal variations, groundwater presented relatively stable conditions between seasons (p > 0.05) with site-specific geochemical conditions. Sediment quality illustrated that pollution levels of 10 trace metals were the highest in TSL because of its unique characteristic (river with backward flow), but did not reflect any potential enrichment from urban development. Overall, the results reveal that while the urban infrastructure in this region has not significantly affected most of the water quality parameters, bacteria and coliphages are still a main concern due to their contributions in widespread waterborne diseases. Thus, careful mitigation plans for reducing each pollutant source are needed in the Angkor area.

  20. Belize's REAP Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Zellynne

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) in Belize, a program which attempts to develop positive attitudes towards agriculture and influence young people to remain in rural Belize and engage in agricultural work. Examines factors that have contributed to the program's success. (GEA)

  1. Acceptability Study on HIV Self-Testing among Transgender Women, Men who Have Sex with Men, and Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia: A Qualitative Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Khuondyla; Ngin, Chanrith; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Ly, Cheaty; Chhim, Srean; Luong, Minh-Anh; Tatomir, Brent; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    Background In Cambodia, HIV prevalence is high while HIV testing rates remain low among transgender women (TG women), men who have sex with men (MSM), and female entertainment workers (FEW). Introducing self-testing for HIV to these key populations (KPs) could potentially overcome the under-diagnosis of HIV and significantly increase testing rates and receipt of the results, and thus could decrease transmission. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the acceptability of HIV self-testing (HIVST) among these three categories of KPs. Methods This study was conducted through focus group discussions (FGDs) with TG women, MSM, and FEW in Phnom Penh city, Kampong Cham, Battambang, and Siem Reap provinces of Cambodia. Convenience sampling was used to recruit the participants. Two FGDs (six participants in each FGD) were conducted in each target group in each study site, totaling 24 FGDs (144 participants). Thematic analysis was performed to identify common or divergent patterns across the target groups. Results Almost all participants among the three groups (TG women, MSM, and FEW) had not heard about HIVST, but all of them expressed willingness to try it. They perceived HIVST as confidential, convenient, time-saving, and high-tech. Barriers to obtaining HIVST included cost, access, administration technique, embarrassment, and fear of pain. The majority preferred counseling before and after testing. Conclusions Participants showed high willingness to use and acceptability of HIVST due to its confidentiality/privacy and convenience even if it is not linked to a confirmatory test or care and treatment. Notwithstanding, to increase HIVST, the target groups would need affordable self-test kits, education about how to perform HIVST and read results, assurance about accuracy and reliability of HIVST, and provision of post-test counseling and facilitation of linkage to care and treatment. PMID:27829064

  2. Factors Associated with Inconsistent Condom Use among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhoun, Pheak; Pal, Khuondyla; Tith, Khimuy; Brody, Carinne

    2015-01-01

    Background Compared to the general population, men who have sex with men (MSM) are at greater risk for HIV and less understood due to their more hidden and stigmatized nature. Moreover, the discrepancy in findings in the literature merits further investigations in MSM populations from different cultures and settings. We therefore conducted this study to explore factors associated with inconsistent condom use among high-risk MSM in Cambodia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 367 MSM randomly selected from Battembang and Siem Reap using a two-stage cluster sampling method. A structured questionnaire was used for face-to-face interviews to collect information on characteristics of respondents, HIV testing history, self-perception of HIV risk, substance use, sexual behaviors, mental disorders, and HIV knowledge. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors independently associated with inconsistent condom use. Results On average, 62.3% of respondents reported that they always used condoms over the past three months. The rates varied with types of sexual partners; the proportion of respondents who reported always using condoms was 55.1%, 64.2%, 75.9%, 73.0%, 78.1%, and 70.3%, for sexual partners who were girlfriends, boyfriends, female sex workers, male sex workers, female clients, or male clients, respectively. After adjustment, inconsistent condom use was significantly associated with age of ≥25 (AOR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.09–2.86), self-rated quality of life as good or very good (AOR = 4.37, 95% CI = 1.79–5.67), self-perception of higher HIV risk compared to the general population (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.35–4.17), illicit drug use in the past three months (AOR = 5.76, 95% CI = 1.65–10.09), and reported consistent lubricant use when selling anal sex to men in the past three months (AOR = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.07–8.12). Conclusions We found risky sexual behaviors to be considerably high among MSM in this

  3. Reaping benefits from intellectual capital.

    PubMed

    Weston, Marla J; Estrada, Nicolette A; Carrington, Jane

    2007-01-01

    The wealth and value of organizations are increasingly based on intellectual capital. Although acquiring talented individuals and investing in employee learning adds value to the organization, reaping the benefits of intellectual capital involves translating the wisdom of employees into reusable and sustained actions. This requires a culture that creates employee commitment, encourages learning, fosters sharing, and involves employees in decision making. An infrastructure to recognize and embed promising and best practices through social networks, evidence-based practice, customization of innovations, and use of information technology results in increased productivity, stronger financial performance, better patient outcomes, and greater employee and customer satisfaction.

  4. Education in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Southeast Asian Education, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes future education policy and strategic priorities in Cambodia for the new millennium, taking account of the labor market and the fiscal and institutional development outlooks. Also explored are access to education, gender issues, and financial aspects. Discusses some education efficiency issues and discusses their implications for public…

  5. Fires in Thailand and Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Many fires (red pixels) were seen burning across Thailand and Southern Cambodia on January 8, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Almost the entire countries of Thailand (center) and Cambodia (lower right) were remarkably cloud-free in this true-color scene. Thailand is bordered by the countries of Myanmar to the west, Laos to the north and east, and Cambodia to the southeast. Thailand's capital city of Bangkok sits on its southern shore, where the Chao Phraya River flows into the large bay in the northern Gulf of Thailand. Moving eastward from Bangkok, one can see the Tonle Sap-Cambodia's largest inland body of water. Waters from the Tonle Sap flow southeastward and converge with the mighty Mekong River, just east of Phnom Penh, Cambodia's capital. The Mekong River defines much of the border between Thailand and Laos. The captal of Laos-Viangchan-is situated just across the Mekong from Thailand's northern border. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  6. Oncology in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Eav, S; Schraub, S; Dufour, P; Taisant, D; Ra, C; Bunda, P

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, a country of 14 million inhabitants, was devastated during the Khmer Rouge period and thereafter. The resources of treatment are rare: only one radiotherapy department, renovated in 2003, with an old cobalt machine; few surgeons trained to operate on cancer patients; no hematology; no facilities to use intensive chemotherapy; no nuclear medicine department and no palliative care unit. Cervical cancer incidence is one of the highest in the world, while in men liver cancer ranks first (20% of all male cancers). Cancers are seen at stage 3 or 4 for 70% of patients. There is no prevention program - only a vaccination program against hepatitis B for newborns - and no screening program for cervical cancer or breast cancer. In 2010, oncology, recognized as a full specialty, was created to train the future oncologists on site at the University of Phnom Penh. A new National Cancer Center will be built in 2013 with modern facilities for radiotherapy, medical oncology, hematology and nuclear medicine. Cooperation with foreign countries, especially France, and international organizations has been established and is ongoing. Progress is occurring slowly due to the shortage of money for Cambodian institutions and the lay public.

  7. ALIS deployment in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2012-06-01

    Dual sensor is one of the most promising sensors for humanitarian demining operations. Conventional landmine detection depends on highly trained and focused human operators manually sweeping 1m2 plots with a metal detector and listening for characteristic audio signals indicating the presence of AP (Anti-personnel) landmines. In order to reduce the time of plodding detected objects, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. i.e., GPR(Ground Penetrating Radar). The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a real-time sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce ALIS systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. The performance of ALIS has been tested in Cambodia since 2009. More than 80 anti-personnel mines have been detected and removed from local agricultural area. ALIS has cleared more than 70,000 m2 area and returned it to local farmers.

  8. Mental health care in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Somasundaram, D. J.; van de Put, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    An effort is being made in Cambodia to involve grass-roots personnel in the integration of the care of the mentally ill into a broad framework of health services. This undertaking is examined with particular reference to the work of the Transcultural Psychosocial Organization. PMID:10212521

  9. The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP): Belize's New Approach to Rural Primary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Romeo M.

    The Rural Education and Agriculture Program (REAP) was initiated in response to perceived deficiencies in the rural primary schools of Belize. Since its inception in 1976, REAP has moved through two of its anticipated three phases (Pilot Phase, July 1976-June 1979; District-Level Phase, July 1979-June 1982). REAP integrates academic subjects with…

  10. The Relevant Education for Agriculture and Production (REAP) Nine-Year Evaluation: Implications for Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Romeo M.

    Belize's Relevant Education for Agriculture and Production (REAP) national primary school program is described in data from seven annual formative evaluations (1979-1985). The 1984-85 program/school evaluation included 54 rural REAP schools and utilized a 43-item questionnaire containing eight quality sub-variables. The quality of REAP schools…

  11. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  12. Health care clinics in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wollschlaeger, K

    1995-04-01

    Under the Pol Pot Khmer Rouge regime, most physicians with clinical experience were either killed or fled the country. The few practitioners who managed to survive were forced to hide their knowledge; much of that knowledge and experience is now lost. As part of a general process of national rehabilitation, Cambodia has trained since the 1980s hundreds of physicians and physician assistants. There were 700 physicians, 1300 physician assistants, and 4000 nurses in the country by 1992. Problems do, however, remain with medical education in Cambodia. In particular, the medical texts and lectures are in French, a language which very few of the younger generation speak; instructional texts are designed to meet the needs of developing nations, not a rehabilitating one like Cambodia; emphasis is upon curative health care, hospitals, and vertical programs instead of primary and preventive health care; Cambodian physicians are used to a system based upon the division of patients by ability to pay instead of by age, disease, or need; corruption has grown as the cost of living has outstripped the level of official salaries; and there is neither professional contact, feedback, nor program evaluation within health care programs. The authors is a resident in obstetrics and gynecology at the University of Chicago who worked at two clinics during a stay in Phnom Penh. She recommends that instead of simply training more doctors, these training-related problems should be addressed, including a revision of the curriculum to include both primary health care medicine and psychiatry. Moreover, people in Cambodia need to be taught the importance of preventive health care, which should then reduce the number of visits to physicians. This process will be accomplished more effectively with the cooperation of physicians, the government, nongovernmental organizations, and international organizations associated with health care.

  13. Revisiting Primary School Dropout in Rural Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    No, Fata; Sam, Chanphirun; Hirakawa, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies on school dropout in Cambodia often used data from subjects after they already dropped out or statistics from education-related institutions. Using data from children in two rural provinces before they dropped out, this study examines four main factors in order to identify their influence on primary school dropout in Cambodia.…

  14. Critical Literacy in Elementary Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    In, Vichea

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on a quest for insights into the introduction and negotiation of critical literacy in elementary education in Cambodia, whose recent past was scarred by devastating conflicts and wars. In this study, critical education is seen as a key to avoiding the reproduction of an unwanted past and minimizing social injustice in Cambodia.…

  15. Reaping the benefits of biomedical research: partnerships required.

    PubMed

    Portilla, Lili M; Alving, Barbara

    2010-06-09

    Reaping the benefits of investments in biomedical research can be achieved most efficiently through active collaboration among industry, academia, government, and nonprofit organizations. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are exploring multiple ways in which to increase the efficiency of the translational process. Investigators involved in the NIH-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards are developing public-private partnerships, addressing the barriers to collaboration, training the next generation of interdisciplinary team-oriented researchers, and producing open-source tools for collaboration. NIH is engaging with industry through the Foundation for the NIH and the Small Business Innovation Research Awards.

  16. An Investigation of the Reap Reading/Study Procedure: Its Rationale and Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eanet, Marilyn Gillis

    Six sections of a college reading and study skills class were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions in a study of the effects of a new teaching-learning strategy, REAP, a procedure for improving reading, writing, and study. One group received instruction and practice in REAP; one, in SQ3R; and one, in the regular study skills…

  17. Evaluation of Flexibility Under "No Child Left Behind": Volume III--The Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP Flex)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Gayle S.; Amerikaner, Ary; Klasik, Daniel; Cohodes, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This study focuses on flexibility provisions in the Rural Education Achievement Program (REAP) provision of NCLB. Specifically, it addresses REAP Flex, a program that allows rural districts additional control over how to spend portions of their federal funding. REAP Flex is part of a series of NCLB flexibility initiatives aimed at rural schools.…

  18. The Rocket Engine Advancement Program 2 (REAP2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Brent (Technical Monitor); Hawk, Clark W.

    2004-01-01

    The Rocket Engine Advancement Program (REAP) 2 program is being conducted by a university propulsion consortium consisting of the University of Alabama in Huntsville, Penn State University, Purdue University, Tuskegee University and Auburn University. It has been created to bring their combined skills to bear on liquid rocket combustion stability and thrust chamber cooling. The research team involves well established and known researchers in the propulsion community. The cure team provides the knowledge base, research skills, and commitment to achieve an immediate and continuing impact on present and future propulsion issues. through integrated research teams composed of analysts, diagnosticians, and experimentalists working together in an integrated multi-disciplinary program. This paper provides an overview of the program, its objectives and technical approaches. Research on combustion instability and thrust chamber cooling are being accomplished

  19. UNTAC, CEAT, other international actions and the restoration of Cambodia`s forestry policy

    SciTech Connect

    Mareth, M.; Vanderstighelen, D.; Bann, C.; Ngongi, M.I.; Aertgeerts, R.; Eav, B.B.

    1995-03-01

    Although no verifiable hard data regarding the rate of nation-wide deforestation in Cambodia exists, it is understood that on account of increasing logging activities, uncontrolled forest fires, increased demand for agricultural land and fuel wood for charcoal production and other domestic usage, the rates of deforestation and the degradation of existing forests will continue to be on the rise if no effective policy and management plans are established soon. There now seems to be international recognition and acceptance of the fact that unless the impact of human activities are incorporated into forestry management plans, the problems of deforestation in the world`s poorest regions will continue unabated. The depletion of this natural resource brings about complex changes in the environment which results in such phenomenon as global warming. Sound forest policies and management practices are central to the global warming solution. Without these, human survival remains, potentially, threatened. An essential key to the development of such policies and management practices lies in the identification of the problems related to the forests. In this process of identification and subsequent concrete actions in restoring Cambodia`s forest policies and management practices, the Royal government of Cambodia has been assisted and supported by the international community through organizations and agencies. The examine and appraisal of such assistance and the strategies and efforts of the Royal Government of Cambodia, is the main theme of this paper.

  20. Freshwater bryozoa of Tonle Sap, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hirose, Masato; Mawatari, Shunsuke F

    2007-06-01

    We identified a collection of freshwater bryozoans from Tonle Sap (meaning Tonle Lake), Cambodia, a body of water fed by the Mekong River and characterized by extreme fluctuations in water level between the wet and dry seasons. The collection also included specimens from the moat of Angkor Wat, located at the north end of the lake. We found four phylactolaemate species (Plumatella bombayensis, Plumatella casmiana, Plumatella vorstmani, Hyalinella lendenfeldi) and one ctenostome species (Hislopia cambodgiensis) from the lake, and only a single, additional phylactolaemate species (Plumatella javanica) from the moat. We provide brief descriptions of these species, photographs of colonies for some, and photomicrographs by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of statoblasts. None of the species encountered in this study is endemic to Cambodia, and the wide distributions of the species are possibly related to the dispersability of floatoblasts by birds. We briefly discuss some of the taxonomic problems surrounding Hislopia cambodgiensis.

  1. Decomposition of childhood malnutrition in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sunil, Thankam S; Sagna, Marguerite

    2015-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and in Cambodia, it is estimated that approximately 42% of the children are stunted, which is considered to be very high. In the present study, we examined the effects of proximate and socio-economic determinants on childhood malnutrition in Cambodia. In addition, we examined the effects of the changes in these proximate determinants on childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005. Our analytical approach included descriptive, logistic regression and decomposition analyses. Separate analyses are estimated for 2000 and 2005 survey. The primary component of the difference in stunting is attributable to the rates component, indicating that the decrease of stunting is due mainly to the decrease in stunting rates between 2000 and 2005. While majority of the differences in childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005 can be attributed to differences in the distribution of malnutrition determinants between 2000 and 2005, differences in their effects also showed some significance.

  2. Low Circulation of Zika Virus, Cambodia, 2007-2016.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; Leang, Rithea; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sowath; Mounier, Ugo; Ou, Teyputita; In, Saraden; Peng, Borin; Ken, Sreymom; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Horwood, Paul F; Dussart, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    We describe a retrospective study on circulation of Zika virus in Cambodia during 2007-2016 among patients with dengue-like symptoms and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our findings suggest that Zika virus in Cambodia belongs to the Asia genotype, is endemic, has low prevalence, and has had low-level impact on public health.

  3. A Multimedia Approach to ODL for Agricultural Training in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunfeld, Helena; Ng, Maria Lee Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Open distance learning (ODL) has long been an important option for formal and non-formal education (NFE) in most developed and developing countries, but less so in post-conflict countries, including Cambodia. However, in Cambodia there is now greater awareness that ODL can complement traditional face-to-face educational approaches, particularly as…

  4. Introduction of ICT and Multimedia into Cambodia's Teacher Training Centres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionys, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the integration of ICT in the teacher training centres of Cambodia. It focuses on the collaboration between the Teacher Training Department of the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports (MoEYS) of Cambodia and VVOB (Flemish Association for Development Cooperation and Technical Assistance), which is aimed at improving ICT…

  5. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2013-01-01

    From 1975 to 1978, Cambodia was ruled by the Khmer Rouge regime, which sought among other things to build a vast system of irrigation canals. These images show an area around Cambodia's capital city of Phnom Penh where such waterworks were built. Many areas east of the Mekong River show a gridwork of canals by 1985.

  6. Low Circulation of Zika Virus, Cambodia, 2007–2016

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; Leang, Rithea; Huy, Rekol; Ly, Sowath; Mounier, Ugo; Ou, Teyputita; In, Saraden; Peng, Borin; Ken, Sreymom; Buchy, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Horwood, Paul F.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a retrospective study on circulation of Zika virus in Cambodia during 2007–2016 among patients with dengue-like symptoms and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our findings suggest that Zika virus in Cambodia belongs to the Asia genotype, is endemic, has low prevalence, and has had low-level impact on public health. PMID:27875110

  7. 31 CFR 500.565 - Family remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Vietnam and Cambodia. 500.565 Section 500.565 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money... remittances to nationals of Vietnam and Cambodia. (a) The remittances specified in this section are authorized... relative is a national of Vietnam or Cambodia, is a resident of Vietnam, Cambodia, or a country to...

  8. Ground-water resources of Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, William Charles; Bradford, Gary M.

    1977-01-01

    Cambodia (now the Khmer Republic), in tropical, humid southeast Asia, has an area of 175,630 km and a population of about 5 million. The Mekong River, one of the world's largest rivers, flows through Cambodia. Also, the Tonle Sap (Grand Lac), a highly productive fresh-water lake, functions as a huge off-channel storage reservoir for flood flow of the Mekong River. Surfacewater discharge in streams and rivers of Cambodia is abundant during the wet season, mid-May through mid-November, when 85 percent of the precipitation falls, but is frequently deficient during the remainder of the year. Annual rainfall ranges from 1,370 mm in the central lowlands to more than 5,000 mm in the mountainous highlands. The mean annual temperature for the country is 27.5?C and the evaporation rate is high. During 1960-63, 1,103 holes were drilled in 16 of the 18 khets (provinces), of which 795 or approximately 72 percent, were productive wells at rates ranging from 1.1 to 2,967 l/min. The productive wells ranged in depth from 2 to 209.4 m and were 23.2 m deep on the average. Mr. Rasmussen ' studied the subsurface geology of Cambodia in considerable detail by examining drillers' logs and constructing nine geologic cross sections. The principal aquifer tapped by drilled wells in Cambodia is the Old Alluvium. In many places, however, dug wells and a few shallow drilled wells obtain water from the Young Alluvium. Sandstone of the Indosinias Formation yields moderate to small quantities of water to wells in a number of places. Also, wells tapping water-bearing basalt have a small to moderate yield. The quality of water is recorded in only a few analyses. The dissolved solids concentrations appear to be generally low so that the water is usable for most purposes without treatment. Some well waters, however, are high in iron and would have to be aerated and filtered before use. In this report, well records are tabulated, and the geology and hydrology is discussed by khets. The bulk of the

  9. Molecular Epidemiology of Hemoglobinopathies in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Munkongdee, Thongperm; Tanakulmas, Jatuporn; Butthep, Punnee; Winichagoon, Pranee; Main, Barbara; Yiannakis, Miriam; George, Joby; Devenish, Robyn; Fucharoen, Suthat; Svasti, Saovaros

    2016-06-01

    Determining the magnitude of the thalassemia problem in a country is important for implementing a national prevention and control program. In order to acquire accurate thalassemia prevalence data, the gene frequency of α- and β-thalassemia (α- and β-thal) in different regions of a country should be determined. The molecular basis of thalassemia in Cambodia was performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based techniques in a community-based cross-sectional survey of 1631 unrelated individuals from three regions, Battambang, Preah Vihear and Phnom Penh. Thalassemia mutations were detected in 62.7% of the three studied population of Cambodia. Hb E (HBB: c.79G > A) was the most common β-globin gene mutation with a frequency ranging from 0.139 to 0.331, while the most frequent α-globin gene mutation was the -α(3.7) (rightward) deletion (0.098-0.255). The other frequencies were 0.001-0.003 for β-thal, 0.008-0.011 for α-thal-1 (- -(SEA)), 0.003-0.008 for α-thal-2 [-α(4.2) (leftward deletion)], 0.021-0.044 for Hb Constant Spring (Hb CS, HBA2: c.427T > C) and 0.009-0.036 for Hb Paksé (HBA2: c.429A > T). A regional specific thalassemia gene frequency was observed. Preah Vihear had the highest prevalence of Hb E (55.9%), α-thal-2 (24.0%) and nondeletional α-thal (15.1%), whereas Phnom Penh had the lowest frequency of thalassemia genes. Interestingly, in Preah Vihear, the frequency of Hb Paksé was extremely high (0.036), almost equivalent to that of Hb CS (0.044). Our results indicate the importance of micromapping and epidemiology studies of thalassemia, which will assist in establishing the national prevention and control program in Cambodia.

  10. Reserve Educational Assistance Program (REAP), Chapter 1607 Title 10, U.S. Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Veterans Affairs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Reserve Education Assistance Program, or REAP (Chapter 1607 of title 10, U.S. Code), is a new benefit providing educational assistance to members of the reserve components--Selected Reserve (Sel Res) and Individual Ready Reserve (IRR)--who are called or ordered to active service in response to a war or national emergency, as declared by the…

  11. An Investigation of the REAP Reading/Study Procedure: Its Rationale and Efficacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eanet, Marilyn G.

    This study examined the value of the Read-Encode-Annotate-Ponder (REAP) procedure as a teaching/learning strategy, focusing on its use of written annotations designed to achieve specific learning objectives. Subjects were 105 students in six college reading/study skills classes who were assigned to one of three treatment conditions: the…

  12. Self-Assessment in the REAP Tutor: Knowledge, Interest, Motivation, & Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dela Rosa, Kevin; Eskenazi, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Self-assessment questionnaires have long been used in tutoring systems to help researchers measure and evaluate various aspects of a student's performance during learning activities. In this paper, we chronicle the efforts made in the REAP project, a language tutor developed to teach vocabulary to ESL students through reading activities, to…

  13. Mass fainting in garment factories in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Eisenbruch, Maurice

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports an ethnographic study of mass fainting among garment factory workers in Cambodia. Research was undertaken in 2010-2015 in 48 factories in Phnom Penh and 8 provinces. Data were collected in Khmer using nonprobability sampling. In participant observation with monks, factory managers, health workers, and affected women, cultural understandings were explored. One or more episodes of mass fainting occurred at 34 factories, of which 9 were triggered by spirit possession. Informants viewed the causes in the domains of ill-health/toxins and supernatural activities. These included "haunting" ghosts at factory sites in the wake of Khmer Rouge atrocities or recent fatal accidents and retaliating guardian spirits at sites violated by foreign owners. Prefigurative dreams, industrial accidents, or possession of a coworker heralded the episodes. Workers witnessing a coworker fainting felt afraid and fainted. When taken to clinics, some showed signs of continued spirit influence. Afterwards, monks performed ritual ceremonies to appease spirits, extinguish bonds with ghosts, and prevent recurrence. Decoded through its cultural motifs of fear and protest, contagion, forebodings, the bloody Khmer Rouge legacy, and trespass, mass fainting in Cambodia becomes less enigmatic.

  14. Space Radar Image of Phnom Phen, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This spaceborne radar image shows the city of Phnom Penh, the capital of Cambodia. Phnom Penh lies at the confluence of the Mekong River and the Basak Sab. The city was originally established in 1434 to succeed Angkor Thom as capital of the Khmer Nation. Phnom Penh is the bright blue and orange area west of the rivers, near the center of the image. The red, light blue and purple colors indicate differences in vegetation height and structure. Radar images like this one are being used by archaeologists to investigate ruins in the Angkor area in northern Cambodia. This image was acquired by Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour on April 15, 1994. The image is 27 kilometers by 27 kilometers (17 miles by 17 miles) and is centered at 11.5 degrees north latitude, 105.0 degrees East longitude. North is toward the upper right. The colors are assigned to different radar frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band, horizontally transmitted and received; green is L-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received; and blue is C-band, horizontally transmitted and vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian, and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth.

  15. The Genus Letrouitia (Letrouitiaceae: Lichenized Ascomycota) New to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Haixia; Qian, Zigang; Wang, Xinyu; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yanyun; Ye, Xin; Harada, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The genus Letrouitia is newly recorded for Cambodia, including the four species as L. domingensis, L. leprolytoides, L. sayeri, and L. subvulpina. A brief description and illustrations are provided. PMID:26190924

  16. Analysis of Radar Images of Angkor, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, Anthony; Hensley, Scott; Moore, Elizabeth

    2000-01-01

    During the 1996 AIRSAR Pacific Rim Deployment, data were collected over Angkor in Cambodia. The temples of Angkor date the succession of cities to the 9th-13th century AD, but little is known of its prehistoric habitation. A related area of archaeological debate has been the origin, spiritual meaning and use of the hydraulic constructions in the urban zone. The high resolution, multi-channel capability of AIRSAR, together with the unprecedentedly accurate topography provided by TOPSAR, offer identification and delineation of these features. Examples include previously unrecorded circular earthworks around circular village sites, detection of unrecorded earthwork dykes, reservoirs and canal features, and of temple sites located some distance from the main temple complex at Angkor.

  17. One-Parent Families in Contemporary Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Heuveline, Patrick; Hong, Savet

    2016-01-01

    Non-marital births and divorce remain rare in Cambodia. Due to dramatic levels of adult mortality reached during the late 1970s, growing up with a single parent is not. Using nationally representative, cross-sectional data, we estimate that about 12% of children under age 18 co-reside with only one of their biological parents. Using longitudinal data representative of the Mekong River Valley, we find this proportion to be declining. Nearly half of these children live in nuclear families (single parent with or without a step-parent), even though they live in multigenerational families more frequently than children who live with both their parents, especially, when young and not living with their mother. Last, we consider differences in socioeconomic conditions and child educational outcomes by number of co-residing parents. PMID:27695147

  18. Cambodia: the women want justice and peace.

    PubMed

    1999-01-01

    Refugees and internally displaced people are an unfortunate and inevitable consequence of war. Among these, women refugees are most vulnerable to sexual violence as they go through various stages of displacement. During the war in Cambodia, women refugees experienced sexual violence in the form of rape, gang rape, sexual exploitation, and forced prostitution. This report presents a summary of a testimony by Yi Leang Eng, a Cambodian woman refugee, on her experiences during the war. According to her, violations of rape happened inside and outside the refugee camps everyday, relegating the violence as a normal occurrence. In this regard, nongovernmental organizations and governments are urged to cooperate and insist that perpetrators of such crimes must be punished and such practices must be immediately stopped. In addition, the issue of supporting women survivors and ensuring that they are given justice should also be discussed. Moreover, for the women survivors themselves, the welfare of their families should be top priority.

  19. Collaborative Development of Anatomy Workshops for Medical and Dental Students in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Ivanusic, Jason J.; le Roux, Cara M.; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The…

  20. Avian influenza: the political economy of disease control in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ear, Sophal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In the wake of avian flu outbreaks in 2004, Cambodia received $45 million in commitments from international donors to help combat the spread of animal and human influenza, particularly avian influenza (H5N1). How countries leverage foreign aid to address the specific needs of donors and the endemic needs of the nation is a complex and nuanced issue throughout the developing world. Cambodia is a particularly compelling study in pandemic preparedness and the management of avian influenza because of its multilayered network of competing local, national, and global needs, and because the level of aid in Cambodia represents approximately $2.65 million per human case-a disproportionately high number when compared with neighbors Vietnam and Indonesia. This paper examines how the Cambodian government has made use of animal and human influenza funds to protect (or fail to protect) its citizens and the global community. It asks how effective donor and government responses were to combating avian influenza in Cambodia, and what improvements could be made at the local and international level to help prepare for and respond to future outbreaks. Based on original interviews, a field survey of policy stakeholders, and detailed examination of Cambodia's health infrastructure and policies, the findings illustrate that while pandemic preparedness has shown improvements since 2004, new outbreaks and human fatalities accelerated in 2011, and more work needs to be done to align the specific goals of funders with the endemic needs of developing nations.

  1. Reaping the benefits of an open systems approach: getting the commercial approach right

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Gavin; Dawe, Tony; Stubbs, Peter; Worthington, Olwen

    2016-05-01

    Critical to reaping the benefits of an Open System Approach within Defence, or any other sector, is the ability to design the appropriate commercial model (or framework). This paper reports on the development and testing of a commercial strategy decision support tool. The tool set comprises a number of elements, including a process model, and provides business intelligence insights into likely supplier behaviour. The tool has been developed by subject matter experts and has been tested with a number of UK Defence procurement teams. The paper will present the commercial model framework, the elements of the toolset and the results of testing.

  2. REAP Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Wyden, Ron [D-OR

    2009-05-20

    05/20/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5710-5711) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans, Cambodia, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Khim, Nimol; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kim, Saorin; Mueller, Tara; Fleischmann, Erna; Singh, Balbir; Divis, Paul Cliff Simon; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Duval, Linda; Bouchier, Christiane; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic; Menard, Didier

    2011-10-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans were identified in Cambodia by 3 molecular detection assays and sequencing. This finding confirms the widespread distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Further wide-scale studies are required to assess the public health relevance of this zoonotic malaria parasite.

  4. Plasmodium knowlesi Infection in Humans, Cambodia, 2007–2010

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Nimol; Siv, Sovannaroth; Kim, Saorin; Mueller, Tara; Fleischmann, Erna; Singh, Balbir; Divis, Paul Cliff Simon; Steenkeste, Nicolas; Duval, Linda; Bouchier, Christiane; Duong, Socheat; Ariey, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    Two cases of Plasmodium knowlesi infection in humans were identified in Cambodia by 3 molecular detection assays and sequencing. This finding confirms the widespread distribution of P. knowlesi malaria in humans in Southeast Asia. Further wide-scale studies are required to assess the public health relevance of this zoonotic malaria parasite. PMID:22000366

  5. French colonial medicine in Cambodia: reflections of governmentality.

    PubMed

    Trankell, Ing-Britt; Ovesen, Jan

    2004-04-01

    Studies of colonial medicine, mostly from former British colonies, have shown that colonial medical interventions mostly benefited the European colonisers and often had very little positive effects on the health of the native populations at large. A common assumption is that this was also the case for French colonial medicine in general, and for colonial medicine in Cambodia in particular, and that the unsatisfactory contemporary state of the medical services in the country may be partly explained by its colonial past. As a way to test this assumption, this paper presents an ethnography of colonial medicine in Cambodia in the first decades of the twentieth century. Documents in the Cambodian National Archives provided the primary sources, and their significance was assessed against the background of the authors' experience of medical anthropological research in contemporary Cambodia. Michel Foucault's concept of governmentality is used as the interpretative frame. Elements of colonial governmentality in the medical field included the promotion of modern medicine through the free dispensing of medicines and medical treatment and rudimentary medical training of members of the local population, as well as compulsory vaccinations and surveillance of the colonial subjects. It is concluded that both the idea of medicine as a 'tool of empire' and that of the colonial physician as a humanitarian hero are equally incomplete as general descriptions, and that specific ethnographies of medical policies and practices should be undertaken for particular colonial settings. This paper provides the first anthropological account of colonial medicine in Cambodia.

  6. The Teaching of Foreign Languages in Cambodia: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neau, Vira

    2003-01-01

    The teaching of foreign languages in Cambodia is examined in the light of its recent history. The paper describes the French colonial period, beginning in 1863, the emergence of the independent state under King Sihanouk (1953-70), the Khmer Republic (1970-75) and Democratic Kampuchea (1975-79), during which the infamous mass killings took place,…

  7. The Peoples and Cultures of Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Applied Linguistics, Washington, DC. Language and Orientation Resource Center.

    A handbook for those involved in Southeast Asian refugee assistance discusses some of the values and customs that refugee groups from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam may have in common and looks at the different countries and peoples of the region. A section on the shared values and customs of Indochinese refugees focuses on aspects of family life,…

  8. Fatal motorcycle crashes: a growing public health problem in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Roehler, Douglas R; Ear, Chariya; Parker, Erin M; Sem, Panhavuth; Ballesteros, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.

  9. The Effects of Duration of Exposure to the REAPS Model in Developing Students' General Creativity and Creative Problem Solving in Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhusaini, Abdulnasser Alashaal F.

    2016-01-01

    The Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general…

  10. How Does Science Learning Occur in the Classroom? Students' Perceptions of Science Instruction during the Implementation of REAPS Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Arizaga, Maria P.; Bahar, A. Kadir; Maker, C. June; Zimmerman, Robert; Pease, Randal

    2016-01-01

    In this qualitative study the researchers explored children's perceptions of their participation in a science class in which an elementary science curriculum, the Full Option Science System (FOSS), was combined with an innovative teaching model, Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS). The children were capable of articulating views…

  11. Capitalizing on Nigeria’s demographic dividend: reaping the benefits and diminishing the burdens

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Holly E.; Mberu, Blessing U.

    2015-01-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world, yet there is a dearth of published research about its demography. As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working-age population, it is critical to understand the demographic trends in the country. This paper examines the age and sex composition of Nigeria as it relates to various population characteristics using the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Nigeria (2003 and 2008), as well as some data from the 2006 Census. It also highlights Nigeria’s demographic composition and trends using United Nations population projection data, and its implications for the country reaping the demographic dividend. Finally, it draws some conclusions and makes some policy recommendations based on the findings. PMID:25705077

  12. Capitalizing on Nigeria's demographic dividend: reaping the benefits and diminishing the burdens.

    PubMed

    Reed, Holly E; Mberu, Blessing U

    2014-03-01

    Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world, yet there is a dearth of published research about its demography. As Nigeria enters a period of potentially rapid economic growth due to the increase in the working-age population, it is critical to understand the demographic trends in the country. This paper examines the age and sex composition of Nigeria as it relates to various population characteristics using the two most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Nigeria (2003 and 2008), as well as some data from the 2006 Census. It also highlights Nigeria's demographic composition and trends using United Nations population projection data, and its implications for the country reaping the demographic dividend. Finally, it draws some conclusions and makes some policy recommendations based on the findings.

  13. Microgomphus alani (Odonata, Gomphidae) sp. nov. from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2016-05-24

    Microgomphus alani sp. nov. is described from two males from the coastal southwestern foothills of the Cardamom Mts. in southwestern Cambodia (type locality: Cambodia, Koh Kong Province, 17 km ENE of Koh Kong, 'Macromia Rivulet', 11°40'17'' N, 103°07'28'' E, 296 m a.s.l., 3 vi 2014, RMNH). The species is characterised by its small size (hindwing 21-23 mm), cerci with outer angulations, truncated apices and crescent-shaped inner arms sprouting from their middle and not reaching their apices, synthorax with two parallel black lateral stripes and dorsal and collar yellow stripes fused in 7-like manner. Probably females of the same species were earlier reported from Phrae Province in northern Thailand.

  14. Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. (Odonata, Platycnemididae, Disparoneurinae) from eastern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-10-06

    Prodasineura hoffmanni sp. nov. is described from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, 4.2 km SE of Dak Dam village, 12°23'10-18'' N 107°19'22-30'' E, 877-878 m asl, 14. VI. 2014, RMNH). The species has a blue pattern, and the male is characterised by medium-broad blue stripes on synthorax and blue colour at the end of the abdomen confined to a tiny spot on S9, dorsum of S10 and cerci. A female of P. doisuthepensis Hoess, 2007 is described. Based on original descriptions, the following synonymy is proposed: Prodasineura fujianensis Xu, 2006 = Prodasineura huai Zhou et Zhou, 2007, syn. n.

  15. Evaluation test of ALIS in Cambodia for humanitarian demining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    2010-04-01

    ALIS is a hand-held dual sensor developed by Tohoku University, Japan since 2002. Dual sensor is a general name of sensor for humanitarian demining, which are equipped with metal detector and GPR. ALIS is only one hand-held dual sensor, which can record the sensor position with sensor signals. Therefore, the data can be processed after data acquisition, and can increase the imaging capability. ALIS has been tested in some mine affected courtiers including Afghanistan (2004), Egypt(2005), Croatia(2006-) and Cambodia(2007-). Mine fields at each country has different conditions and soil types. Therefore testes at the real mine fields are very important. ALIS has detected more than 30 AP-Mines in evaluation test in Cambodia held in 2009.

  16. Effectiveness of community forestry in Prey Long forest, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lambrick, Frances H; Brown, Nick D; Lawrence, Anna; Bebber, Daniel P

    2014-04-01

    Cambodia has 57% forest cover, the second highest in the Greater Mekong region, and a high deforestation rate (1.2%/year, 2005-2010). Community forestry (CF) has been proposed as a way to reduce deforestation and support livelihoods through local management of forests. CF is expanding rapidly in Cambodia. The National Forests Program aims to designate one million hectares of forest to CF by 2030. However, the effectiveness of CF in conservation is not clear due to a global lack of controlled comparisons, multiple meanings of CF, and the context-specific nature of CF implementation. We assessed the effectiveness of CF by comparing 9 CF sites with paired controls in state production forest in the area of Prey Long forest, Cambodia. We assessed forest condition in 18-20 randomly placed variable-radius plots and fixed-area regeneration plots. We surveyed 10% of households in each of the 9 CF villages to determine the proportion that used forest products, as a measure of household dependence on the forest. CF sites had fewer signs of anthropogenic damage (cut stems, stumps, and burned trees), higher aboveground biomass, more regenerating stems, and reduced canopy openness than control areas. Abundance of economically valuable species, however, was higher in control sites. We used survey results and geographic parameters to model factors affecting CF outcomes. Interaction between management type, CF or control, and forest dependence indicated that CF was more effective in cases where the community relied on forest products for subsistence use and income.

  17. Dental nurse training in Cambodia--a new approach.

    PubMed

    Mallow, P K; Klaipo, M; Durward, C S

    1997-06-01

    In 1993 a 4-5 month programme to train rural dental nurses in Cambodia was introduced. Courses have now been conducted in 12 of Cambodia's 22 provinces. The dental nurses are trained to provide simple treatment, including local anaesthetic, extractions, ART restorations, and scaling, for all age groups, and also learn how to introduce prevention and oral health promotion activities within their communities. On completion of training nurses are supplied with a set of basic instruments and some materials. Evaluation has shown the programme to be meeting the oral health needs of the rural people where there are no dentists and a number of unique strengths were identified. A recent planning workshop on oral health care in Cambodia to 2005 decided to set up a dental nurses training school in two provincial capitals, and to increase the number of nurses in training. At the same time the annual number of new dentists being trained will be limited to ten. The expansion of the dental nurses training programme will ensure that increasingly more of the population have access to basic preventive and curative dental care, and at a cost which the country can afford.

  18. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.21 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia... a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1)...

  19. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.21 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia... a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1)...

  20. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.21 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia... that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1)...

  1. 8 CFR 245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 245.21 Section 245.21 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.21 Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia... a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of Vietnam, Cambodia, or Laos who: (1)...

  2. 78 FR 56832 - Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-16

    ... Extension of Import Restrictions Imposed on Archaeological Material From Cambodia From the Bronze Age... material from Cambodia from the Bronze Age through the Khmer era. The restrictions, which were originally... archaeological material from the Bronze Age through the Khmer Era. Import restrictions listed in 19 CFR...

  3. The Problem of "Choice" and the Construction of the Demand for English in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses Cambodia as a case study to problematise the notion of choice in the spread of English. I explore specific historical contexts which were central to the construction of the demand for English and English language teaching (ELT) in Cambodia. The actions of a range of external agencies resulted in the close discursive articulation of…

  4. Highland Children's Education Project: A Pilot Project on Bilingual Education in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleborg, Jorn

    2005-01-01

    The report was produced by UNESCO in partnership with CARE International in Cambodia for the "Highland Children's Education Project" (HCEP) to show how bilingual primary education has been implemented among the Tampuen and Kreung ethnic minority groups in six remote villages in the northeastern province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Central…

  5. Ensuring Gender Equity in Education for All: Is Cambodia on Track?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velasco, Esther

    2004-01-01

    Gender-equity goals in Cambodia are intimately linked with socio-economic and cultural biases that are embedded in the very system of education and in the society as a whole. There are, however, strong indicators that the vicious cycle in Cambodia's education system could be broken, and here the commitment of key stakeholders and partnership modes…

  6. Is Something Better than Nothing? An Evaluation of Early Childhood Programs in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, Nirmala; Sun, Jin; Pearson, Veronica; Pearson, Emma; Liu, Hongyun; Constas, Mark A.; Engle, Patrice L.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the relative effectiveness of home-based, community-based, and state-run early childhood programs across Cambodia. A total of 880 five-year-olds (55% girls) from 6 rural provinces in Cambodia attending State Preschools, Community Preschools, Home-Based Programs, or no programs were assessed twice using the Cambodian…

  7. "A Frog in a Well": The Exclusion of Disabled People from Work in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartrell, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Based on ethnographic research conducted in north-west Cambodia in 2000-2001, this paper examines why disabled people experience systematic marginalisation in the labour market. Although there are no official data on the relationship between disability and employment status in Cambodia, this research suggests that disabled people are more likely…

  8. Unsystematic Technology Adoption in Cambodia: Students' Perceptions of Computer and Internet Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.; Nash, John B.; Flora, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to understand how upper secondary school students in Cambodia perceive the use of computers and the Internet. Data were collected from students in three urban upper secondary schools (n = 1,137) in Cambodia using questionnaires. The data indicate that the more exposure a Cambodian student had to computers and the Internet…

  9. Educational Cooperation between Thailand and Cambodia: Outcomes on Human Development, International Understanding and Future Prospect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kijtorntham, Wichuda; Ruangdej, Phumjit; Saisuwan, Chatchanog

    2015-01-01

    Thailand and Cambodia set up educational cooperation since 1996, before signed a Memorandum of Understanding on Cooperation in the Promotion of Education in 2003. This research aimed to investigate outcomes of educational cooperation projects on Cambodia human development and international understanding, process of participatory learning and…

  10. Becoming and Being Academic Women in Cambodia: Cultural and Other Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Nget, Sokhany; Am, Kunthy; Peou, Leakhna; You, Songly

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia's higher education is under development. This is the first study of the role of women teaching in a university in Cambodia. There has been many studies of academic women in western countries and these guided the 16 interviews in Khmer that were carried out by young female researchers, translated by them and then analysed with the…

  11. The unfinished health agenda: Neonatal mortality in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Rathmony; Ahn, Pauline Yongeun; Rathavy, Tung; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathavuth; Laillou, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Background Reduction of neonatal and under-five mortality rates remains a primary target in the achievement of universal health goals, as evident in renewed investments of Sustainable Development Goals. Various studies attribute declines in mortality to the combined effects of improvements in health care practices and changes in socio-economic factors. Since the early nineties, Cambodia has managed to evolve from a country devastated by war to a nation soon to enter the group of middle income countries. Cambodia's development efforts are reflected in some remarkable health outcomes such as a significant decline in child mortality rates and the early achievement of related Millennium Development Goals. An achievement acknowledged through the inclusion of Cambodia as one of the ten fast-track countries in the Partnership for Maternal, Newborn and Child Health. This study aims to highlight findings from the field so to provide evidence for future programming and policy efforts. It will be argued that to foster further advances in health, Cambodia will need to keep neonatal survival and health high on the agenda and tackle exacerbating inequities that arise from a pluralistic health system with considerable regional differences and socio-economic disparities. Methods/Findings Data was drawn from Demographic Health Surveys (2000, 2005, 2010, 2014). Information on a series of demographic and socio-economic household characteristics and on child anthropometry, feeding practices and child health were collected from nationally representative samples. To reach the required sample size, live-births that occurred over the past 10 years before the date of the interview were included. Demographic variables included: gender of the child, living area (urban or rural; four ecological regions (constructed by merging provinces and the capital), mother’s age at birth (<20, 20–35, 35+), birth interval (long, short) and birth order (1st, 2–3, 4–6, 7+). Socio-economic variables

  12. Clonal yeast biofilms can reap competitive advantages through cell differentiation without being obligatorily multicellular.

    PubMed

    Regenberg, Birgitte; Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Andersen, Kaj Scherz; Boomsma, Jacobus J

    2016-11-16

    How differentiation between cell types evolved is a fundamental question in biology, but few studies have explored single-gene phenotypes that mediate first steps towards division of labour with selective advantage for groups of cells. Here, we show that differential expression of the FLO11 gene produces stable fractions of Flo11(+) and Flo11(-) cells in clonal Saccharomyces cerevisiae biofilm colonies on medium with intermediate viscosity. Differentiated Flo11(+/-) colonies, consisting of adhesive and non-adhesive cells, obtain a fourfold growth advantage over undifferentiated colonies by overgrowing glucose resources before depleting them, rather than depleting them while they grow as undifferentiated Flo11(-) colonies do. Flo11(+/-) colonies maintain their structure and differentiated state by switching non-adhesive cells to adhesive cells with predictable probability. Mixtures of Flo11(+) and Flo11(-) cells from mutant strains that are unable to use this epigenetic switch mechanism produced neither integrated colonies nor growth advantages, so the condition-dependent selective advantages of differentiated FLO11 expression can only be reaped by clone-mate cells. Our results show that selection for cell differentiation in clonal eukaryotes can evolve before the establishment of obligate undifferentiated multicellularity, and without necessarily leading to more advanced organizational complexity.

  13. Reaping the benefits of meaningful work: The mediating versus moderating role of work engagement.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew J; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-09-20

    This study examined whether meaningful work may improve one's quality of life outside of the workplace (i.e., work-to-life enrichment). More importantly, we proposed and tested competing hypotheses regarding the role of work engagement in the relationship between meaningful work and work-to-life enrichment. Specifically, we investigated whether work engagement served as a mediator of this relationship, as suggested by the job demands-resources model, or instead a moderator, as suggested by conservation of resources theory. Two-wave survey data were collected from 194 respondents recruited via Amazon Mechanical Turk. Analyses showed that meaningful work was positively related to work-to-life enrichment over time (i.e., 3 months later). Additionally, work engagement mediated but did not moderate the relationship between meaningful work at Time 1 and work-to-life enrichment at Time 2. We suggest that organizations foster a sense of meaningfulness in employees to facilitate engagement and in turn enrich employees' lives beyond the workplace. Therefore, not only organizations, but individuals as well may reap the benefits of meaningful work.

  14. Iodized Salt in Cambodia: Trends from 2008 to 2014

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Mam, Borath; Oeurn, Sam; Chea, Chantum

    2015-01-01

    Though the consequences of nutritional iodine deficiency have been known for a long time, in Cambodia its elimination has only become a priority in the last 18 years. The Royal Government of Cambodia initiated the National Sub-Committee for Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders in 1996 to fight this problem. Using three different surveys providing information across all provinces, we examined the compliance of salt iodization in Cambodia over the last 6 years. Salt samples from the 24 provinces were collect at the household level in 2008 (n = 566) and 2011 (n = 1275) and at the market level in 2014 (n = 1862) and analysed through a wavelength spectrophotometer for iodine content. According to the samples collected, the median iodine content significantly dropped from 22 mg/kg (25th/75th percentile: 2/37 mg/kg) in 2011 to 0 mg/kg in 2014 (25th/75th percentile: 0/8.9 mg/kg) (p < 0.001). The proportion of non-iodized salt within our collected salt drastically increased from 22% in 2011 to 62% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Since the international organizations ceased to support the procurement of iodine, the prevalence of salt compliant with the Cambodian declined within our samples. To date, the current levels of iodine added to tested salt are unsatisfactory as 92% of those salts do not meet the government requirements (99.6% of the coarse salt and 82.4% of the fine salt). This inappropriate iodization could illustrate the lack of periodic monitoring and enforcement from government entities. Therefore, government quality inspection should be reinforced to reduce the quantity of salt not meeting the national requirement. PMID:26035245

  15. Water cycle observations in forest watersheds of Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimizu, A.; Tamai, K.; Kabeya, N.; Shimizu, T.; Iida, S. I.

    2015-12-01

    The Lower Mekong River flows through Cambodia, where forests cover ~60% of the country and are believed to have a marked effect on the water cycle. These tropical seasonal forests in the Cambodian flat lands are very precious in the Indochinese Peninsula as few forests of this type remain. However, few hydrological observations have been conducted in these areas. In Cambodia, deciduous and evergreen forests make up 42% and 33% of the total forest area, respectively. We established experimental watersheds both in deciduous and evergreen forests containing meteorological observation towers in Cambodia and collected various observational data since 2003 (O'Krieng, deciduous forest watershed including a 30-m-high observation tower, 2,245 km2; Stung Chinit, evergreen forest watershed including a 60-m-high observation tower, 3,700 km2 including three small watersheds). The basic data from these sites included various kinds of information related to the composition of vegetation, soil characteristics, etc. Hydrologic data was collected and linked to the above data; the main hydrologic research results follow. The water budget for each watershed was determined using an observational rainfall and runoff dataset. The evapotranspiration rate in an evergreen forest was obtained using various observational methods including the Bowen energy-balance ratio and the bandpass eddy covariance method. The annual evapotranspiration of evergreen forests, estimated using the Bowen energy-balance ratio method and water balance, was about 1100-1200 mm, corresponding to 70-80% of annual rainfall. While considering the importance of the presence of evergreen forest, we conducted sap flow measurements to analyze the transpiration process that maintains water uptake through root systems that reach to depths exceeding 8 m. Characteristics of the evaporation from the forest floor that form an important element of the evaporation system were estimated in both evergreen and deciduous forests.

  16. Rebuilding the ruins: dental services and manpower in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Durward, C S; Todd, R V

    1991-10-01

    Between 1975 and 1979 Cambodia suffered a massive destruction of its social structures under the Khmer Rouge. The dental profession was almost annihilated and the dental school in Phnom Penh stripped bare. Dental training has now begun again and the long process of restoration is in progress. The ratio of dentists to the population is still pitifully low and public services are concentrated in Phnom Penh and in provincial towns. Traditional dentists provide the only accessible dental care in many places. A primary oral health care system has yet to be developed.

  17. Collaborative development of anatomy workshops for medical and dental students in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Jennifer A; Ivanusic, Jason J; le Roux, Cara M; Hatzopoulos, Kate; Gonsalvez, David; Hong, Someth; Durward, Callum

    2011-01-01

    After Phnom Penh was liberated from the Khmer Rouge in 1979, health science education in Cambodia had to be completely rebuilt. In this article, the authors report the results of a teaching collaboration between the University of Melbourne (Australia), the International University (Cambodia), and the University of Health Sciences (Cambodia). The main objectives in this collaboration were to provide the opportunity for dental and medical students in Cambodia to attend resourced anatomy workshops and to provide an opportunity for anatomy teachers in Cambodia to gain experience in implementing anatomy workshops of the style that are routinely used in the medical and dental curricula at the University of Melbourne. Experienced anatomy educators from the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Melbourne, designed and resourced a series of workshops and then delivered these in collaboration with Cambodian teaching staff in Phnom Penh. The Cambodian students who participated in the workshops were incredibly engaged and enthusiastic. The students' evaluations (by questionnaire) indicated a very positive response to the workshops. All of the workshop resources were donated to the two universities so that the staff could continue to implement similar workshops, and plans were developed to continue our collaboration by developing more resourced workshops for this purpose in the future. Two staff members from Cambodia will travel to Melbourne to participate in anatomy workshops and dissection classes at the University of Melbourne. We hope that this extension of the collaboration provides further support and impetus for the development of anatomy education in Cambodia in the future.

  18. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    After catastrophic events in which people’s survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975–1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence. PMID:25653141

  19. Rodent-borne hantaviruses in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Blasdell, Kim; Cosson, Jean François; Chaval, Yannick; Herbreteau, Vincent; Douangboupha, Bounneuang; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Lundqvist, Ake; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Morand, Serge; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    In order to evaluate the circulation of hantaviruses present in southeast Asia, a large scale survey of small mammal species was carried out at seven main sites in the region (Cambodia, Lao People's Democratic Republic, and Thailand). Small scale opportunistic trapping was also performed at an eighth site (Cambodia). Using a standard IFA test, IgG antibodies reacting to Hantaan virus antigens were detected at six sites. Antibody prevalence at each site varied from 0 to 5.6% with antibodies detected in several rodent species (Bandicota indica, B. savilei, Maxomys surifer, Mus caroli, M. cookii, Rattus exulans, R. nitidius, R. norvegicus, and R. tanezumi). When site seroprevalence was compared with site species richness, seropositive animals were found more frequently at sites with lower species richness. In order to confirm which hantavirus species were present, a subset of samples was also subjected to RT-PCR. Hantaviral RNA was detected at a single site from each country. Sequencing confirmed the presence of two hantavirus species, Thailand and Seoul viruses, including one sample (from Lao PDR) representing a highly divergent strain of Seoul virus. This is the first molecular evidence of hantavirus in Lao PDR and the first reported L segment sequence data for Thailand virus.

  20. Calming the mind: Healing after mass atrocity in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Agger, Inger

    2015-08-01

    After catastrophic events in which people's survival has been threatened, as happened during the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia 1975-1979, some continue to suffer from painful mental symptoms. Surveys carried out in Cambodia based on Western diagnostic categories have found a high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and anxiety symptoms in the population. This study explored Cambodian approaches to healing trauma, examining the ways in which Cambodians appeal to elements of Buddhism in their efforts to calm their minds, situating this mode of coping in the context of broader Khmer Buddhist practice and understandings. Western psychology may have much to learn from local, contextualised methods of dealing with the aftermath of trauma, including Khmer understandings of distress and approaches to relief. Methods of assessment and treatment of distress cannot be transposed wholesale from one cultural setting to another but require considerable cultural adaptation. This kind of cultural interchange may give rise to innovative, hybrid discourses and methods that may have much to offer in the support of victims of organised violence.

  1. Assessment of the chemical quality of drinking water in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Peter R; Rosenboom, Jan-Willem; Saray, Mao; Navuth, Peng; Samnang, Chea; Iddings, Steven

    2007-03-01

    Most water supply programmes in Cambodia have focused on providing access to bacteriologically safe water, an approach which has led to an increasing reliance on ground water, especially in rural areas. However, there have been very few data collected on the chemical quality of the nation's drinking water sources, and few water supply programmes have the capacity to assess chemical quality. The study was designed to address this data gap by conducting a low-cost, rapid assessment of drinking water sources nationwide to determine whether there were any chemicals of concern in Cambodian water supply sources. Results of the assessment confirm that there are several parameters of health and aesthetic concern; dissolved arsenic is the most significant. Elevated arsenic levels (some exceeding 500 microgl(-1)) were detected in aquifers of moderate depth in several highly populated areas, confirming that further investigation of the occurrence of arsenic contamination in Cambodia is warranted. Other chemicals of health concern include nitrate, nitrite, fluoride and manganese. Additionally, many ground water sources are negatively impacted by parameters of aesthetic concern, such as iron, manganese, hardness and total dissolved solids. Elevated levels of these parameters have caused consumers to reject newly installed water supplies, often in favour of surface water sources that are bacteriologically unsafe.

  2. Low Urinary Iodine Concentration among Mothers and Children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Laillou, Arnaud; Sophonneary, Prak; Kuong, Khov; Hong, Rathavuth; Un, Samoeurn; Chamnan, Chhoun; Poirot, Etienne; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank

    2016-01-01

    A 2014 national assessment of salt iodization coverage in Cambodia found that 62% of samples were non-iodized, suggesting a significant decline in daily iodine intakes. The Cambodian Micronutrient Survey conducted in 2014 (CMNS-2014) permitted obtaining national data on urinary iodine concentrations (UIC) to assess iodine status and whether iodized salt use had an impact. Urine samples were collected from mothers (n = 736) and children (n = 950). The median UIC was 63 µg/L and 72 µg/L in mothers and children respectively. More than 60% of mothers and their children had a UIC < 100 µg/L, thereby indicating a serious public health problem. Iodine status was significantly lower among mothers and children living in rural areas, belonging to the poorest socioeconomic category, or living in a household not using iodized salt. The limited enforcement of the legislation for iodized salt has resulted in a major decrease in the prevalence of iodized salt, which in turn has compromised iodine status in Cambodia. It is essential for the government to enhance enforcement of the iodized salt legislation, and implement short term strategies, such as iodine supplementation, to prevent an increase of severe complications due to iodine deficiency in the Cambodian population. PMID:27058551

  3. Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. (Odonata, Gomphidae) from eastern Cambodia and southern Laos.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E; Yokoi, Naoto

    2016-04-11

    Asiagomphus reinhardti sp. nov. is described by two males from Annamense Mountains in eastern Cambodia (holotype: Cambodia, Mondulkiri Province, the left tributary of the main river downstream from Buu Sraa Waterfall, 12°34'01-19'' N 107°24'50''-25'03'' E, ca 450 m a.s.l., 15 vi 2014, RMNH) and southern Laos. The species is characterised by a large caudal lobe on S10 in males and a blunt medial lateroventral projection at cercus.

  4. Living arrangements and socio-demographic conditions of older adults in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Z; Kim, S K

    2001-01-01

    Since the takeover of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge in 1975, the social conditions within the country have been understudied. Only recently has dependable socio-demographic data become available. We use some these data to examine living arrangements and other socio-demographic conditions among Cambodia's older population. We compare results to those recently found in Thailand and Vietnam, two neighboring countries, in order to place Cambodia within a regional context. On balance, living arrangements in Cambodia are similar to those in neighboring countries. Older adults are likely to be living with a child and in a variety of diverse arrangements involving different family members. We attempt to get at gender preference for coresident children indirectly by adjusting living arrangement patterns for Cambodia's unique sex and marital status structure. We find a predominance of elders living with never married children of either sex and a slight daughter preference. Older adults in Cambodia may face particular challenges due to the influences of the past decades of instability and violence. We conclude our paper with a discussion of how future research might assist in developing a national policy for older adults.

  5. Cigarette smoking and tuberculosis in Cambodia: findings from a national sample

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodia has very high rates of tuberculosis and smoked tobacco use among adults. Efforts to control both tobacco use and tuberculosis in Cambodia need to be informed by nationally representative data. Our objective is to examine the relation between daily cigarette smoking and lifetime tuberculosis (TB) history in a national sample of adults in Cambodia. Methods In 2011, a multi-stage, cluster sample of 15,615 adults (ages 15 years and older) from all regions of Cambodia were administered the Global Adult Tobacco Survey by interviewers from the National Institute of Statistics of Cambodia. Results Our findings include: 1) among daily smokers, a significant positive relation between TB and number of cigarettes smoked per day (OR = 1.70 [95% CI 1.01, 2.87]) and pack-years of smoking (OR = 1.53 [95% CI 1.05, 2.25]) 2) a non-significant 58% increase in odds of ever having being diagnosed with TB among men who smoked manufactured cigarettes (OR = 1.58 [95% CI 0.97, 2.58]). Conclusion In Cambodia, manufactured cigarette smoking was associated with lifetime TB infection and the association was most evident among the heaviest smokers (> 1 pack per day, > 30 pack years). PMID:23537342

  6. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4) who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls) and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status) and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam. PMID:28282872

  7. Nonfatal Injuries and Psychosocial Correlates among Middle School Students in Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2017-03-08

    The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence and psychosocial correlates of nonfatal injury among middle school students in Cambodia and Vietnam. Cross-sectional data from 7137 school children (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 1.4) who were randomly sampled for participation in nationally representative Global School-based Health Surveys (GSHS) in Cambodia and Vietnam were analyzed. The proportion of school children reporting one or more serious injuries in the past year was 22.6% among boys and 17.5% among girls in Cambodia and 34.3% among boys and 25.1% among girls in Vietnam. The most prevalent cause of the most serious injury in Cambodia was traffic injuries (4.7% among boys and 4.3% among girls) and in Vietnam it was falls (10.0% among boys and 7.0% among girls). In multinomial logistic regression analyses, experiencing hunger (as an indicator for low socioeconomic status) and drug use were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months in Cambodia. In addition, poor mental health was associated with two or more injuries. In Vietnam, being male, experiencing hunger, current alcohol use, poor mental health and ever having had sex were associated with having sustained one injury and two or more injuries in the past 12 months. Several psychosocial variables were identified which could help in designing injury prevention strategies among middle school children in Cambodia and Vietnam.

  8. Multiple populations of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Miotto, Olivo; Almagro-Garcia, Jacob; Manske, Magnus; MacInnis, Bronwyn; Campino, Susana; Rockett, Kirk A; Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Anderson, Jennifer M; Duong, Socheat; Nguon, Chea; Chuor, Char Meng; Saunders, David; Se, Youry; Lon, Chantap; Fukuda, Mark M; Amenga-Etego, Lucas; Hodgson, Abraham VO; Asoala, Victor; Imwong, Mallika; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Nosten, Francois; Su, Xin-zhuan; Ringwald, Pascal; Ariey, Frédéric; Dolecek, Christiane; Hien, Tran Tinh; Boni, Maciej F; Thai, Cao Quang; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; Conway, David J; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Zongo, Issaka; Ouedraogo, Jean-Bosco; Alcock, Daniel; Drury, Eleanor; Auburn, Sarah; Koch, Oliver; Sanders, Mandy; Hubbart, Christina; Maslen, Gareth; Ruano-Rubio, Valentin; Jyothi, Dushyanth; Miles, Alistair; O’Brien, John; Gamble, Chris; Oyola, Samuel O; Rayner, Julian C; Newbold, Chris I; Berriman, Matthew; Spencer, Chris CA; McVean, Gilean; Day, Nicholas P; White, Nicholas J; Bethell, Delia; Dondorp, Arjen M; Plowe, Christopher V; Fairhurst, Rick M; Kwiatkowski, Dominic P

    2013-01-01

    We describe an analysis of genome variation in 825 Plasmodium falciparum samples from Asia and Africa that reveals an unusual pattern of parasite population structure at the epicentre of artemisinin resistance in western Cambodia. Within this relatively small geographical area we have discovered several distinct but apparently sympatric parasite subpopulations with extremely high levels of genetic differentiation. Of particular interest are three subpopulations, all associated with clinical resistance to artemisinin, which have skewed allele frequency spectra and remarkably high levels of haplotype homozygosity, indicative of founder effects and recent population expansion. We provide a catalogue of SNPs that show high levels of differentiation in the artemisinin-resistant subpopulations, including codon variants in various transporter proteins and DNA mismatch repair proteins. These data provide a population genetic framework for investigating the biological origins of artemisinin resistance and for defining molecular markers to assist its elimination. PMID:23624527

  9. Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

  10. [Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection: clinical trial under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Borand, Laurence; Pheng, Phearavin; Saman, Manil; Leng, Chanthy; Chea, Phalla; Sarady Ay, Sao; Suom, Sophea; Roat Men, Nimul; Nerrienet, Eric; Marcy, Olivier

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death among adults infected by HIV. The CAMELIA (ANRS 1295/CIPRA KH001) randomized clinical trial aimed to determine the optimal timing of ARV initiation after tuberculosis treatment onset to reduce mortality. Here, we describe the trial implementation in five hospitals in Cambodia under the coordination of the Institut Pasteur in Cambodia, its conduct, the challenges and public health benefits in Cambodia and beyond.

  11. Piperaquine population pharmacokinetics and cardiac safety in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vanachayangkul, Pattaraporn; Lon, Chanthap; Spring, Michele; Sok, Sommethy; Ta-Aksorn, Winita; Kodchakorn, Chanikarn; Pann, Sut-Thang; Chann, Soklyda; Ittiverakul, Mali; Sriwichai, Sabaithip; Buathong, Nillawan; Kuntawunginn, Worachet; So, Mary; Youdaline, Theng; Milner, Erin; Wojnarski, Mariusz; Lanteri, Charlotte; Manning, Jessica; Prom, Satharath; Haigney, Mark; Cantilena, Louis; Saunders, David

    2017-02-13

    Despite rising resistance, dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) remains a first line therapy for uncomplicated malaria in many parts of Cambodia. While generally well-tolerated as a 3-day regimen, compressed 2-day regimens were associated with treatment-limiting cardiac repolarization effects in a recent clinical trial. To better estimate the risks of piperaquine concentration on QT interval prolongation, we pooled data from 3 randomized clinical trials between 2010 and 2014 in northern Cambodia. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed to compare exposure-response relationships between 2-day (2DP) and 3-day (3DP) regimens while accounting for differences in regimen and sample collection times between studies. A 2-compartment model with 1(st) order absorption and elimination without covariates was the best fit of the data. The linear slope-intercept model in this largely male population predicted 0.05 ms QT prolongation per ng/ml of piperaquine (5 milliseconds per 100 ng/ml). Though plasma half-life was similar in both regimens, peak and total piperaquine exposure were higher in those treated with 2DP. Furthermore, the correlation between plasma piperaquine and QT interval prolongation was stronger in the 2DP population. Neither time since last meal nor baseline serum magnesium or potassium levels had additive effects on QT prolongation. As electrocardiographic monitoring is often non-existent in malaria endemic areas, 2DP regimens should be avoided, and 3DP carefully considered in settings where viable alternative therapies exist. When DP is employed, the risk of cardiotoxicity can be mitigated by combining a 3-day regimen, enforcing a 3 hour fast before and after administration, and avoiding concomitant QT-prolonging medications.

  12. Radar Image with Color as Height, Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Ancharn Kuy, Cambodia, was taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). The image depicts an area northwest of Angkor Wat. The radar has highlighted a number of circular village mounds in this region, many of which have a circular pattern of rice fields surrounding the slightly elevated site. Most of them have evidence of what seems to be pre-Angkor occupation, such as stone tools and potsherds. Most of them also have a group of five spirit posts, a pattern not found in other parts of Cambodia. The shape of the mound, the location in the midst of a ring of rice fields, the stone tools and the current practice of spirit veneration have revealed themselves through a unique 'marriage' of radar imaging, archaeological investigation, and anthropology.

    Ancharn Kuy is a small village adjacent to the road, with just this combination of features. The region gets slowly higher in elevation, something seen in the shift of color from yellow to blue as you move to the top of the image.

    The small dark rectangles are typical of the smaller water control devices employed in this area. While many of these in the center of Angkor are linked to temples of the 9th to 14th Century A.D., we cannot be sure of the construction date of these small village tanks. They may pre-date the temple complex, or they may have just been dug ten years ago!

    The image dimensions are approximately 4.75 by 4.3 kilometers (3 by 2.7 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color; that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again; corresponds to 10 meters (32.8 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif

  13. A Culture Under Siege: Post-Colonial Higher Education and Teacher Education in Cambodia from 1953 to 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Masson, Gildas; Fergusson, Lee C.

    1997-01-01

    Charts the 20-year rise and fall of higher education and teacher education in Cambodia beginning with political independence in 1953 and ending with the devastation wrought by the Khmer Rouge. Discusses the effects of political instability, civil war, and the Vietnam War on Cambodia's educational system. (MJP)

  14. A review of the genus Cyana Walker, 1854 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) from Cambodia, with description of new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-05-25

    Genus Cyana Walker, 1854, with 17 species in Cambodia, is reviewed. Among them, Cyana angkorensis Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to science and 7 species are newly recorded from Cambodia. A key to the Cambodian species of the genus Cyana with illustrations of adults and genitalia is presented.

  15. Coping Methods: Personal and Community Resources Used among Cambodians in Cambodia and Cambodian-Americans in Lowell, Massachusetts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    pierSath, Chath

    This qualitative research assesses mental health resources from the perspective of providers in Cambodia and in Lowell, Massachusetts. The research documents culturally relevant coping strategies available to Cambodians for combating the effects of trauma and stress. Interviews were conducted with 11 caregivers in Cambodia and with 6 providers in…

  16. 3 CFR - Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia Under Section 2(b)(2) of the Export-Import Bank Act of 1945, as amended Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Presidential Determination No. 2009-20 of June 12, 2009 Presidential Determination for the Kingdom of Cambodia...

  17. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The Service may adjust the status to that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of...

  18. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The Service may adjust the status to that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of...

  19. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The Service may adjust the status to that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of...

  20. 8 CFR 1245.21 - Adjustment of status of certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). 1245.21 Section 1245.21 Aliens... certain nationals of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos (section 586 of Public Law 106-429). (a) Eligibility. The Service may adjust the status to that of a lawful permanent resident, a native or citizen of...

  1. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    PubMed Central

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change. PMID:22215582

  2. The Holocene history and development of the Tonle Sap, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penny, Dan

    2006-02-01

    The Tonle Sap, the 'Great Lake' of central Cambodia, is the central component of wetland ecosystems in the lower Mekong River basin, and is of enormous conservation value. The lake's unusual hydraulic relationship with the Mekong River, and its consequent sensitivity to monsoon variability, makes the Tonle Sap sensitive to climate change. Exploring the dynamics and development of this system under different climate regimes of the past offers a perspective on possible future impacts, which is critical for sound management. Biostratigraphic and sedimentological data derived from cores of lake sediment indicate that during the period >7000 to ca. 5500 14C years Before Present the lake was less variable than present in terms of depth during the annual cycle of flood, and may have been strongly influenced by saline tidal waters associated with higher-than-present seas levels. As regional environments became drier and more seasonal in the late Holocene, more sediment was re-suspended during the increasingly marked dry season lake level minimum, lowering the effective sediment accumulation rate. Contrary to current interpretations of the history of the lake and associated wetland ecosystems, the data presented here imply that regional hydraulic connections between the lake and the Mekong River existed from at least the early Holocene.

  3. Evaluation of genetic variation among wild rice populations in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Orn, Chhourn; Shishido, Rieko; Akimoto, Masahiro; Ishikawa, Ryo; Htun, Than Myint; Nonomura, Ken-Ichi; Koide, Yohei; Sarom, Men; Vang, Seng; Sophany, Sakhan; Makara, Ouk; Ishii, Takashige

    2015-01-01

    A total of 448 samples in five natural populations of wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) were collected in Cambodia. They were examined using 12 SSR and two chloroplast markers to evaluate the degree of variation among populations and the genetic structure within populations. In the two annual populations, the number of plants with homozygous alleles at all 12 SSR loci were high (66.3% and 79.5%), suggesting that these plants propagate mainly through self-pollination. In the three perennial populations, no individuals had all homozygous genotypes, but redundant genotypes resulted from clonal propagation were observed. Percentages of the redundant genotypes were highly varied (3.6%, 29.2% and 86.0%). This may be due to the different stable levels of environmental conditions. As for chloroplast genome, most of the wild plants showed the same chloroplast types as most Indica-type cultivars have. However, plants with different chloroplast types were maintained, even in the same population. In tropical Asian countries, many wild rice populations were observed under similar ecological conditions examined in this study. Therefore, the present results concerning population structure will be important to further elucidate genetic features of wild rice, and will also give strong clues to utilize and conserve wild natural genetic resources. PMID:26719746

  4. Paleoenvironmental history of the West Baray, Angkor (Cambodia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, Mary Beth; Hodell, David A.; Brenner, Mark; Chapman, Hazel J.; Curtis, Jason H.; Kenney, William F.; Kolata, Alan L.; Peterson, Larry C.

    2012-01-01

    Angkor (Cambodia) was the seat of the Khmer Empire from the 9th to 15th century AD. The site is noted for its monumental architecture and complex hydro-engineering systems, comprised of canals, moats, embankments, and large reservoirs, known as barays. We infer a 1,000-y, 14C-dated paleoenvironmental record from study of an approximately 2-m sediment core taken in the largest Khmer reservoir, the West Baray. The baray was utilized and managed from the time of construction in the early 11th century, through the 13th century. During that time, the West Baray received relatively high rates of detrital input. In the 14th century, linear sedimentation rates diminished by an order of magnitude, yielding a condensed section that correlates temporally with episodes of regional monsoon failure during the late 14th and early 15th century, recorded in tree ring records from Vietnam. Our results demonstrate that changes in the water management system were associated with the decline of the Angkorian kingdom during that period. By the 17th century, the West Baray again functioned as a limnetic system. Ecologic and sedimentologic changes over the last millennium, detected in the baray deposits, are attributed to shifts in regional-scale Khmer water management, evolving land use practices in the catchment, and regional climate change.

  5. [Dermatology in Cambodia: Sustainable establishment of a medical discipline].

    PubMed

    Bendick, Ch

    2015-05-01

    After almost 25 years of dictatorship and civil war, in the mid 1990s, Cambodia was in dire need of improvement of its medical infrastructure on all levels. Attention had already been focused on establishing primary care services such as emergency surgery, paediatrics and gynaecology/obstetrics; however dermatovenereology services had so far not been addressed. Using a comprehensive approach aiming at sustainable development, German, French and Cambodian institutions worked together to identify four core areas in need of improvement: postgraduate training, development of skin clinics, quality management, and integration of dermatology services into the health insurance scheme. Since 2005, this "Masterplan Dermatology" was financially supported by the Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM) based in Frankfurt am Main and Else Kröner Fresenius-Stiftung (EKFS) based in Bad Homburg auf der Höhe. Significant improvements have been made due to the efforts of the above institutions with the support of the donors; however challenges of this complex endeavor still remain.

  6. Financial sustainability planning for immunization services in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Soeung, Sann Chan; Grundy, John; Maynard, Jim; Brooks, Alan; Boreland, Marian; Sarak, Duong; Jenkinson, Karl; Biggs, Beverley-Ann

    2006-07-01

    The expanded programme of immunization was established in Cambodia in 1986. In 2002, 67% of eligible children were immunized, despite significant health sector and macro-economic financial constraints. A financial sustainability planning process for immunization was introduced in 2002, in order to mobilize national and international resources in support of the achievement of child health objectives. The aim of this paper is to outline this process, describe its early impact as an advocacy tool and recommend additional strategies for mobilizing additional resources for health. The methods of financial sustainability planning are described, including the advocacy strategies that were applied. Analysis of financial sustainability planning results indicates rising programme costs associated with new vaccine introduction and new technologies. Despite this, the national programme has demonstrated important early successes in using financial sustainability planning to advocate for increased mobilization of national and international sources of funding for immunization. The national immunization programme nevertheless faces formidable system and financial challenges in the coming years associated with rising costs, potentially diminishing sources of international assistance, and the developing role of sub-national authorities in programme management and financing.

  7. Microbiological effectiveness of mineral pot filters in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Chai, Ratana; Wang, Alice; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-11-06

    Mineral pot filters (MPFs) are household water treatment (HWT) devices that are manufactured and distributed by the private sector, with millions of users in Southeast Asia. Their effectiveness in reducing waterborne microbes has not been previously investigated. We purchased three types of MPFs available on the Cambodian market for systematic evaluation of bacteria, virus, and protozoan surrogate microbial reduction in laboratory challenge experiments following WHO recommended performance testing protocols. Results over the total 1500 L testing period per filter indicate that the devices tested were highly effective in reducing Esherichia coli (99.99%+), moderately effective in reducing bacteriophage MS2 (99%+), and somewhat effective against Bacillus atrophaeus, a spore-forming bacterium we used as a surrogate for protozoa (88%+). Treatment mechanisms for all filters included porous ceramic and activated carbon filtration. Our results suggest that these commercially available filters may be at least as effective against waterborne pathogens as other, locally available treatment options such as ceramic pot filters or boiling. More research is needed on the role these devices may play as interim solutions to the problem of unsafe drinking water in Cambodia and globally.

  8. National estimation of children in residential care institutions in Cambodia: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Lindsay; Rubenstein, Beth L; Pak, Kimchoeun; Kosal, Sok

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to collect baseline data on the number of children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The secondary objective was to describe the characteristics of the children (eg, age, sex, duration of stay, education and health). The data were intended to guide recent efforts by the Government of Cambodia to reduce the number of children living in residential care institutions and increase the number of children growing up in supportive family environments. Setting Data were collected in Cambodia across 24 sites at the commune level. Communes—administrative divisions roughly equivalent to counties—were selected by the National Institute of Statistics using a two-stage sampling method. Design Government lists and key informant interviews were used to construct a complete roster of institutions across the 24 communes. All identified institutions were visited to count the number of children and gather data on their basic characteristics. The rate of children in residential care in the selected communes was calculated as a percentage of total population using a Poisson model. This rate was applied to all districts in Cambodia with at least one reported residential care institution. Participants A total of 3588 children were counted across 122 institutions. A child living in a residential care institution was defined as anyone under the age of 18 years who was sleeping in the institution for at least four nights per week during the data collection period. Results There are an estimated 48 775 children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The vast majority of children have a living parent and are school-aged. More than half are between 13 and 17 years of age. Conclusions Nearly 1 of every 100 children in Cambodia is living in residential care. This raises substantial concerns for child health, protection and national development. PMID:28093439

  9. Humanitarian military medical mission in a postconflict environment: lessons from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hubner, M E; Ditzler, Thomas F

    2004-09-01

    In the aftermath of a genocidal civil war, the Government of Cambodia is left with major deficiencies in its healthcare system. This article recounts a military medical mission to Cambodia; the authors describe the objectives of the mission and provide a summary of the lessons learned. Specific areas of concern include healthcare infrastructure, logistics, standards of care, social traditions, organizational issues and potential problems in civil-military collaboration. This report is offered as a heuristic device to illuminate some of the issues that can mediate the success of military medical missions in postconflict environments.

  10. Use of Camphor and Essential Oil Balms for Infants in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Var, Chivorn; Grossman, Francoise; Oberhelman, Richard A

    2017-02-01

    Balms and oils containing terpenic compounds, such as camphor, menthol and eucalyptus, are potentially toxic, and numerous reports of adverse events stemming from their use in infants and young children have been published. During qualitative research on newborn practices in rural Cambodia, these products were found to be commonly applied to the skin of newborns and infants and available in most households. Parents and caregivers of infants in Cambodia and other settings where use of camphor- and menthol-containing products are common should be educated on the risks of these to prevent child morbidity and potential mortality.

  11. Three new species of Stictane Hampson, 1900 (Erebidae, Arctiinae) from Cambodia, with Checklist of Stictane.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2015-07-03

    Genus Stictane Hampson is reviewed in Cambodia, with seven species treated. Of them, S. cambodiensis Bae & Bayarsaikhan, n. sp., S. khmerensis Bae & Bayarsaikhan, n. sp., and S. bokorensis Bayarsaikhan & Bae, n. sp. are described as new to science. S. pectinata Holloway, 2001, S. mlcochi Bucsek, 2012, and S. fuscus Bucsek, 2014, are newly recorded from Cambodia. Up to now unknown female of S. fuscus, is firstly described. The following three species are newly combined: S. munda (de Joannis, 1928) comb. nov.; S. paucilinea (de Joannis, 1928) comb. nov.; and S. umbrimedia (de Joannis, 1928) comb. nov. Illustrations of adults and genitalia are provided, with a checklist of the genus Stictane.

  12. Resistance and renewal: health sector reform and Cambodia's national tuberculosis programme.

    PubMed

    Hill, Peter S; Tan Eang, Mao

    2007-08-01

    Following the destruction of Cambodia's health infrastructure during the Khmer Rouge period (1975-1979) and the subsequent decade of United Nations sanctions, international development assistance has focused on reconstructing the country's health system. The recognition of Cambodia's heavy burden of tuberculosis (TB) and the lapse of TB control strategies during the transition to democracy prompted the national tuberculosis programme's relaunch in the mid-1990s as WHO-backed health sector reforms were introduced. This paper examines the conflicts that arose between health reforms and TB control programmes due to their different operating paradigms. It also discusses how these tensions were resolved during introduction of the DOTS strategy for TB treatment.

  13. Factors associated with caesarean sections in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Clémence; Sim, Kruy Leang; Petit, Véronique; Rany, Heng; Goyet, Sophie

    2016-11-01

    C-sections are an increasingly performed medical practice which can save lives but may also lead to major complications. Through a mixed methods study conducted in 2015 in Cambodia, we aimed to analyze the reasons for requesting a c-section and to explore factors that are associated with c-sections. 60% of the women in the cohort who gave birth by c-section reported having requested it. Through 31 in-depth interviews, we determined the reasons given by women for requesting a c-section before and during labour. Before labour, reasons for requesting a c-section were: choosing the delivery date; bringing luck and joy to the family; protecting the genitals, and the belief that c-section is safer for the mother and for the baby. Reasons given during labour were fear, pain, and having no more energy. We also observed two major factors driving the women's request for a c-section: family support for requesting a c-section, and the over-usage of ultrasound examinations. Our multivariate analysis of the interviews of 143 women before and after delivery showed that having a previous c-section, delivering in a private facility, being older than median at the time of sexual debut, residing outside of Phnom Penh and having the delivery costs covered by the family were all factors independently and significantly associated with a higher chance of c-section delivery. We conclude that women are not well informed to give consent for c-delivery, and that their request is often affected by false belief and poor knowledge.

  14. High prevalence of large trematode eggs in schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bless, Philipp J; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Kramme, Stefanie; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Odermatt, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Large trematode eggs (LTE) resembling Fasciola spp. eggs were reportedly found in the stools of schoolchildren in Kandal province, Cambodia. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of LTE in the stools of children attending the affected school, identify potential risk factors for infection and ascertain the trematode species. We performed a cross-sectional study involving an in-depth questionnaire administered to schoolchildren at the affected school, and examined cattle droppings in the surrounding area and the livers of slaughtered cattle. Three stool samples were examined per child, using Kato-Katz and formalin-ether concentration techniques. In addition, blood serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and coprological polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted for species clarification. Cattle droppings were examined by cup sedimentation and coprological ELISA. LTE were observed in the stools of 106 schoolchildren (46.5%). Two blood serum samples from schoolchildren were positive for Fasciola hepatica in a first ELISA but were negative in a confirmation immunofluorescence antibody test. Out of 221 PCR samples, only one tested positive for Fasciola spp. and none for Fasciolopsis buski. The consumption of raw aquatic plants (odds ratio (OR)=3.3) and fermented fish sauce (OR=2.1) were significantly associated with LTE in the stool. Fasciola spp. flukes were observed in 18.3% of 191 cattle livers. The prevalence of fascioliasis in cattle droppings was 88.8%. The low prevalence of schoolchildren that tested positive for Fasciola spp. with specific molecular diagnostics and who had no diagnostic evidence of F. buski strongly indicates that the majority of microscopically observed LTE are from Echinostoma spp. Fasciola spp. transmission from cattle to human is possible and public health services need to be alerted accordingly.

  15. The Ethics of Survival: Teaching the Traditional Arts to Disadvantaged Children in Post-Conflict Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallio, Alexis A.; Westerlund, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Cambodia's recent history of conflict and political instability has resulted in a recognized need to recover, regenerate, preserve and protect the nation's cultural heritage. Many education programmes catering for disadvantaged youth have implemented traditional Khmer music and dance lessons, suggesting that these programmes share the…

  16. Challenges of Adopting the Use of Technology in Less Developed Countries: The Case of Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Jayson W.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Everett Rogers's theory of the diffusion of innovations, this article identifies the barriers, challenges, and successes in the adoption of technology training by teacher trainers in Cambodia. The analysis was based on data collected from an open-ended survey, face-to-face interviews, and document analysis. Findings reveal that the…

  17. Cambodia: Summary Report. The Impact of Informal School Fees. Asia-South Pacific Education Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guzman, Sylvia

    2007-01-01

    A prior study of costs of education in Cambodia was undertaken by Mark Bray in 1999. In his study he suggests that: "... the scale of dropout from Cambodian primary schools has been demonstrated to be high. Costs appear to be an important factor for many households when making decisions to withdraw their children from school." In that…

  18. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

    This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

  19. Indochinese Refugee Experience. Refugees from Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia in Nova Scotia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngo, Xuong, Comp.; Guay, Marcel, Ed.

    Firsthand accounts by refugees from Laos, Cambodia, and Vietnam, telling how they escaped from Indochina and how they are adjusting to life in Canada (and particularly Nova Scotia), form the greater part of this book. Most of the accounts are by Vietnamese. Information is also provided on the history of the Canadian refugee program, and on the…

  20. Height, Zinc and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Schoolchildren: A Study in Cuba and Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D.; D’Haese, Patrick C.; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E.; Junco Díaz, Raquel; Angel Núñez, Fidel; Rojas Rivero, Lázara; Bonet Gorbea, Mariano; Doak, Colleen M.; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Wieringa, Frank T.; Polman, Katja

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:25903454

  1. Height, zinc and soil-transmitted helminth infections in schoolchildren: a study in Cuba and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Gier, Brechje; Mpabanzi, Liliane; Vereecken, Kim; van der Werff, Suzanne D; D'Haese, Patrick C; Fiorentino, Marion; Khov, Kuong; Perignon, Marlene; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Parker, Megan E; Díaz, Raquel Junco; Núñez, Fidel Angel; Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Gorbea, Mariano Bonet; Doak, Colleen M; Ponce, Maiza Campos; Wieringa, Frank T; Polman, Katja

    2015-04-20

    Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections and zinc deficiency are often found in low- and middle-income countries and are both known to affect child growth. However, studies combining data on zinc and STH are lacking. In two studies in schoolchildren in Cuba and Cambodia, we collected data on height, STH infection and zinc concentration in either plasma (Cambodia) or hair (Cuba). We analyzed whether STH and/or zinc were associated with height for age z-scores and whether STH and zinc were associated. In Cuba, STH prevalence was 8.4%; these were mainly Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections. In Cambodia, STH prevalence was 16.8%, mostly caused by hookworm. In Cuban children, STH infection had a strong association with height for age (aB-0.438, p = 0.001), while hair zinc was significantly associated with height for age only in STH uninfected children. In Cambodian children, plasma zinc was associated with height for age (aB-0.033, p = 0.029), but STH infection was not. Only in Cambodia, STH infection showed an association with zinc concentration (aB-0.233, p = 0.051). Factors influencing child growth differ between populations and may depend on prevalences of STH species and zinc deficiency. Further research is needed to elucidate these relationships and their underlying mechanisms.

  2. Situation Reports--Brasil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in six foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Brazil, Cambodia, Fiji, Malaysia (West), Thailand, and Uganda. Information is provided, where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning situation. General background…

  3. Review of the genus Chrysoscota in Cambodia (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae), with description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2016-08-23

    The genus Chrysoscota Hampson, 1900 in Cambodia is reviewed, with description of a new species, Chrysoscota kimsuni Bayarsaikhan & Bae, sp. n. is described as new to sciences, and C. cotriangulata Holloway, 2001 is reported as new for the country. Illustrations of adults and male and female genitalia are provided for both species, with a checklist of the genus Chrysoscota.

  4. The Development of Libraries in Cambodia: The Post-Khmer Rouge Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Amicantonio, John

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the recent development of libraries in Cambodia. Topics include rebuilding the infrastructure; restoring old libraries and opening new ones; government libraries; public libraries; academic libraries; cultural considerations; collections; staffing; support from the United Nations and other international organizations; and the lack of…

  5. Building the New Cambodia: Educational Destruction and Construction under the Khmer Rouge, 1975-1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the educational destruction and construction in Democratic Kampuchea (Cambodia) under the Khmer Rouge regime. Explains that in constructing the Democratic Kampuchea education system the Khmer Rouge sought to harness the power of education to their agenda of egalitarian, self-reliant, and agrarian socialism. (CMK)

  6. Perinatal consumption of thiamine-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia. A randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamine deficiency, is a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where thiamine-poor white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamine intake reduces breast milk thiamine placing breastfed infants at risk of beriberi. The objective wa...

  7. Perinatal consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce in rural Cambodia: a randomized controlled efficacy trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Importance: Infantile beriberi, a potentially fatal disease caused by thiamin deficiency, remains a public health concern in Cambodia and regions where B-vitamin poor, polished white rice is a staple food. Low maternal thiamin intake reduces breast milk thiamin concentrations, placing breastfed infa...

  8. Student Transition from Primary to Lower Secondary School in Cambodia: Narrative Insights into Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Zimmermann, Thomas; Sitha, Chhinh; Williams, James H.; Kitamura, Yuto

    2014-01-01

    This article has three purposes. First, it presents findings from a study of student retention and dropout in Cambodia, as pupils transition from primary to lower secondary school. Second, it aims to understand from an in-depth, emic perspective the dynamics of this process and the challenges that individual families and their students face around…

  9. Distance Education Policy and Public Awareness in Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vuth, Doung; Than, Chhuon Chan; Phanousith, Somphone; Phissamay, Phonpasit; Tai, Tran Thi

    2007-01-01

    The current project brings together academic and governmental specialists from Cambodia, Laos, and Viet Nam (CLV), in a collaborative study of the prospects for distance education (DE) in those countries. The study's overall objectives are to: (1) survey and take stock of existing educational scenarios and problems in CLV; (2) document the…

  10. Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Ilin; Samon, Nou; Uthaimongkol, Nichapat; Klungthong, Chonticha; Manasatienkij, Wudtichai; Thaisomboonsuk, Butsaya; Tyner, Stuart D.; Rith, Sareth; Horm, Viseth Srey; Jarman, Richard G.; Bethell, Delia; Chanarat, Nitima; Pavlin, Julie; Wongstitwilairoong, Tippa; Saingam, Piyaporn; El, But Sam; Fukuda, Mark M.; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; Fernandez, Stefan; Buchy, Philippe; Chanthap, Lon; Saunders, David

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1–77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light

  11. Genomic analysis of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A during an outbreak in Cambodia, 2013–2015

    PubMed Central

    Fawal, Nizar; Fabre, Laetitia; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Dufour, Muriel; Sar, Dara; Kham, Chun; Phe, Thong; Vlieghe, Erika; Bouchier, Christiane; Jacobs, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In 2013, an unusual increase in the number of Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi A (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infections was reported in patients in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and in European, American and Japanese travellers returning from Cambodia. Epidemiological investigations did not identify a common source of exposure. To analyse the population structure and genetic diversity of these Salmonella Paratyphi A isolates, we used whole-genome sequencing on 65 isolates collected from 1999 to 2014: 55 from infections acquired in Cambodia and 10 from infections acquired in other countries in Asia, Africa and Europe. Short-read sequences from 80 published genomes from around the world and from 13 published genomes associated with an outbreak in China were also included. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was performed on a subset of isolates. Genomic analyses were found to provide much more accurate information for tracking the individual strains than PFGE. All but 2 of the 36 isolates acquired in Cambodia during 2013–2014 belonged to the same clade, C5, of lineage C. This clade has been isolated in Cambodia since at least 1999. The Chinese outbreak isolates belonged to a different clade (C4) and were resistant to nalidixic acid, whereas the Cambodian outbreak isolates displayed pan-susceptibility to antibiotics. Since 2014, the total number of cases has decreased, but there has been an increase in the frequency with which nalidixic acid-resistant C5 isolates are isolated. The frequency of these isolates should be monitored over time, because they display decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, the first-choice antibiotic for treating paratyphoid fever. PMID:28348832

  12. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium. Paper No. 2: The AUTOFIT CAD/CAM System for Piping Engineering: Operational Experience and Development Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    INNOVATION MARINE INDUSTRY STANDARDS WELDING INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND TRAINING THE NATIONAL SHIPBUILDING RESEARCH PROGRAM September 1981 NSRP 0008...Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium Paper No. 2: The AUTOFIT CAD/CAM System for Piping Engineering: Operational Experience and... Piping Engineering: Operational Experience and Development Status 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  13. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.

    This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data

  14. Radar Image with Color as Height, Old Khmer Road, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image shows the Old Khmer Road (Inrdratataka-Bakheng causeway) in Cambodia extending from the 9th Century A.D. capitol city of Hariharalaya in the lower right portion of the image to the later 10th Century AD capital of Yasodharapura. This was located in the vicinity of Phnom Bakheng (not shown in image). The Old Road is believed to be more than 1000 years old. Its precise role and destination within the 'new' city at Angkor is still being studied by archeologists. But wherever it ended, it not only offered an immense processional way for the King to move between old and new capitols, it also linked the two areas, widening the territorial base of the Khmer King. Finally, in the past and today, the Old Road managed the waters of the floodplain. It acted as a long barrage or dam for not only the natural streams of the area but also for the changes brought to the local hydrology by Khmer population growth.

    The image was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Image brightness is from the P-band (68 cm wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back towards the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 m of elevation change, that is going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 20 m of elevation change. Image dimensions are approximately 3.4 km by 3.5 km with a pixel spacing of 5 m. North is at top.

    AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built, operated and managed by JPL, AIRSAR is part of NASA's Earth Science Enterprise program. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Transpiration characteristics of a rubber plantation in central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Lim, Tiva K; Mudd, Ryan G; Ziegler, Alan D; Giambelluca, Thomas W; Yin, Song

    2014-03-01

    The rapid and widespread expansion of rubber plantations in Southeast Asia necessitates a greater understanding of tree physiology and the impacts of water consumption on local hydrology. Sap flow measurements were used to study the intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) in a rubber stand in the low-elevation plain of central Cambodia. Mean stand sap flux density (JS) indicates that rubber trees actively transpire in the rainy season, but become inactive in the dry season. A sharp, brief drop in JS occurred simultaneously with leaf shedding in the middle of the dry season in January. Although the annual maxima of JS were approximately the same in the two study years, the maximum daily stand Et of ∼2.0 mm day(-1) in 2010 increased to ∼2.4 mm day(-1) in 2011. Canopy-level stomatal response was well explained by changes in solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and stem diameter. Rubber trees had a relatively small potential to transpire at the beginning of the study period, compared with average diffuse-porous species. After 2 years of growth in stem diameter, transpiration potential was comparable to other species. The sensitivity of canopy conductance (gc) to atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees. Modeling also predicted a relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and a rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. However, annual observations suggest the possibility of a change in leaf characteristics with tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The estimated annual stand Et was 469 mm year(-1) in 2010, increasing to 658 mm year(-1) in 2011. Diagnostic analysis using the derived gc model showed that inter-annual change in stand Et in the rapidly growing young rubber stand was determined mainly by tree growth rate, not by differences in air and soil variables in the surrounding environment. Future research should focus on the

  16. An Acinetobacter trimeric autotransporter adhesin reaped from cells exhibits its nonspecific stickiness via a highly stable 3D structure

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimoto, Shogo; Nakatani, Hajime; Iwasaki, Keita; Hori, Katsutoshi

    2016-01-01

    Trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), cell surface proteins of Gram-negative bacteria, mediate bacterial adhesion to host cells and extracellular matrix proteins. However, AtaA, a TAA in the nonpathogenic Acinetobacter sp. strain Tol 5, shows nonspecific, high adhesiveness to abiotic material surfaces as well as to biotic surfaces. AtaA is a homotrimer of polypeptides comprising 3,630 amino acids and forms long nanofibers; therefore, it is too large and structurally complex to be produced as a recombinant protein. In this study, we isolated AtaA’s passenger domain (AtaA PSD), which is translocated to the cell surface through the C-terminal transmembrane domain and exhibits biological functions, using a new method. We introduced a protease recognition site and reaped AtaA nanofibers 225 nm in length from the cell surface through proteolytic cleavage with a specific protease. Biochemical and biophysical analyses of the purified native AtaA PSD revealed that it has a stable structure under alkaline and acidic conditions. Temperatures above 80 °C, which disrupted AtaA’s higher-order structure but maintained the full-length AtaA polypeptide, inactivated AtaA’s nonspecific adhesiveness, suggesting that the stickiness of AtaA requires its 3D structure. This finding refutes the widespread but vague speculation that large unfolded polypeptides readily stick to various surfaces. PMID:27305955

  17. "Almost a role model of what we would like to do everywhere": British American Tobacco in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, R; Collin, J; Sopharo, C; Sopheap, Y

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To examine British American Tobacco's (BAT's) renewed interest in Cambodia from the early 1990s, reviewing negotiations to establish a joint venture and the subsequent conduct of BAT Cambodia (BATC). Methods: Analysis of previously confidential BAT documents relevant to the Cambodian market. Results: With the advent of comparative political stability in the early 1990s, BAT was quick to explore the possibilities for investment. The Cambodian government urgently required foreign investment, offering inducements and assistance to investors. In developing a joint venture, BAT saw a cost effective opportunity to dominate the local market and to defend its regional interests, Cambodia being viewed as strategically located to support smuggling. Given minimal advertising regulation, BATC have undertaken wide ranging promotions and sought to prevent advances in tobacco control. Conclusions: BATC is presented as a contribution to Cambodia's regeneration, but the documents highlight its exploitation of state incapacity and an escalating threat to public health. PMID:15564213

  18. Inequality in access to health care in Cambodia: socioeconomically disadvantaged women giving birth at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants.

    PubMed

    Hong, Rathavuth; Them, Rathnita

    2015-03-01

    Cambodia faces major challenges in its effort to provide access to health care for all. Although there is a sharp improvement in health and health care in Cambodia, 6 in 10 women still deliver at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. This practice is associated with higher maternal and infant deaths. This article analyzes the 2005 Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data to examine the relationship between socioeconomic inequality and deliveries at home assisted by unskilled birth attendants. It is evident that babies in poorer households are significantly more likely to be delivered at home by an unskilled birth attendant than those in wealthier households. Moreover, delivery at home by an unskilled attendant is associated with mothers who have no education, live in a rural residence, and are farmers, and with higher birth order children. Results from this analysis demonstrate that socioeconomic inequality is still a major factor contributing to ill health in Cambodia.

  19. Water-borne diseases and extreme weather events in Cambodia: review of impacts and implications of climate change.

    PubMed

    Davies, Grace I; McIver, Lachlan; Kim, Yoonhee; Hashizume, Masahiro; Iddings, Steven; Chan, Vibol

    2014-12-23

    Cambodia is prone to extreme weather events, especially floods, droughts and typhoons. Climate change is predicted to increase the frequency and intensity of such events. The Cambodian population is highly vulnerable to the impacts of these events due to poverty; malnutrition; agricultural dependence; settlements in flood-prone areas, and public health, governance and technological limitations. Yet little is known about the health impacts of extreme weather events in Cambodia. Given the extremely low adaptive capacity of the population, this is a crucial knowledge gap. A literature review of the health impacts of floods, droughts and typhoons in Cambodia was conducted, with regional and global information reviewed where Cambodia-specific literature was lacking. Water-borne diseases are of particular concern in Cambodia, in the face of extreme weather events and climate change, due to, inter alia, a high pre-existing burden of diseases such as diarrhoeal illness and a lack of improved sanitation infrastructure in rural areas. A time-series analysis under quasi-Poisson distribution was used to evaluate the association between floods and diarrhoeal disease incidence in Cambodian children between 2001 and 2012 in 16 Cambodian provinces. Floods were significantly associated with increased diarrhoeal disease in two provinces, while the analysis conducted suggested a possible protective effect from toilets and piped water. Addressing the specific, local pre-existing vulnerabilities is vital to promoting population health resilience and strengthening adaptive capacity to extreme weather events and climate change in Cambodia.

  20. The effects of duration of exposure to the REAPS model in developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhusaini, Abdulnasser Alashaal F.

    The Real Engagement in Active Problem Solving (REAPS) model was developed in 2004 by C. June Maker and colleagues as an intervention for gifted students to develop creative problem solving ability through the use of real-world problems. The primary purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the REAPS model on developing students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science with two durations as independent variables. The long duration of the REAPS model implementation lasted five academic quarters or approximately 10 months; the short duration lasted two quarters or approximately four months. The dependent variables were students' general creativity and creative problem solving in science. The second purpose of the study was to explore which aspects of creative problem solving (i.e., generating ideas, generating different types of ideas, generating original ideas, adding details to ideas, generating ideas with social impact, finding problems, generating and elaborating on solutions, and classifying elements) were most affected by the long duration of the intervention. The REAPS model in conjunction with Amabile's (1983; 1996) model of creative performance provided the theoretical framework for this study. The study was conducted using data from the Project of Differentiation for Diverse Learners in Regular Classrooms (i.e., the Australian Project) in which one public elementary school in the eastern region of Australia cooperated with the DISCOVER research team at the University of Arizona. All students in the school from first to sixth grade participated in the study. The total sample was 360 students, of which 115 were exposed to a long duration and 245 to a short duration of the REAPS model. The principal investigators used a quasi-experimental research design in which all students in the school received the treatment for different durations. Students in both groups completed pre- and posttests using the Test of Creative Thinking

  1. Radar Image with Color as Height, Hariharalaya, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hariharalaya, the ancient 9th Century A.D. capitol of the Khmer in Cambodia, is shown in the upper center portion of this NASA Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR) image. The image was acquired during the 1996 PACRIM mission with AIRSAR operating in the TOPSAR mode. At the center of the image is the terraced sandstone temple mountain of the King Indravarman, the Bakong. The smaller enclosed rectangular feature just to the north is Preah Ko. Further to the south are more rectangular features, temples and water reservoirs attributed to other kings in the earlier part of the 9th Century A.D. and maybe even earlier. Just visible at the top on the image is a long linear feature that forms the southern border of the immense water reservoir, at the center of which is the Lolei temple. The city was the first capitol of the Khmer after the 802 A.D. ceremony consecrating the king as 'Devaraja'. This usually translated as 'god who was king' or 'king who was god'. In the next century, the center of power shifted to the northwest, to the area known today as Angkor.

    Thus this early capital is unique both in being the first after the historical 'founding' of the Khmer Empire, and for being inhabited for a relatively short time. Although kings returned from Angkor in the 11th and 12th Centuries A.D. to build the temple known as the Lolei and to construct the tower in the center of Bakong, the city of Hariharalaya remained on the perimeter of royal power. It was revered, however, as part of a longstanding and important custom of ancestral veneration. This manifested itself in a complex set of rituals honoring one's forebears--also ensuring legitimacy for one's claim to the throne. So behind this seemingly simple patterning of rectangles on the radar image lies many layers of history, ritual and meaning for the Khmer people, past and present.

    Image dimensions are approximately 6 by 4.8 kilometers (3.7 by 3 miles) with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet). North is at

  2. Radar Image with Color as Height, Lovea, Cambodia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Lovea, Cambodia, was acquired by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR). Lovea, the roughly circular feature in the middle-right of the image, rises some 5 meters (16.4 feet) above the surrounding terrain. Lovea is larger than many of the other mound sites with a diameter of greater than 300 meters (984.3 feet). However, it is one of a number highlighted by the radar imagery. The present-day village of Lovea does not occupy all of the elevated area. However, at the center of the mound is an ancient spirit post honoring the legendary founder of the village. The mound is surrounded by earthworks and has vestiges of additional curvilinear features. Today, as in the past, these harnessed water during the rainy season, and conserved it during the long dry months of the year.

    The village of Lovea located on the mound was established in pre-Khmer times, probably before 500 A.D. In the lower left portion of the image is a large trapeng and square moat. These are good examples of construction during the historical 9th to 14th Century A.D. Khmer period; construction that honored and protected earlier circular villages. This suggests a cultural and technical continuity between prehistoric circular villages and the immense urban site of Angkor. This connection is one of the significant finds generated by NASA's radar imaging of Angkor. It shows that the city of Angkor was a particularly Khmer construction. The temple forms and water management structures of Angkor were the result of pre-existing Khmer beliefs and methods of water management.

    Image dimensions are approximately 6.3 by 4.7 kilometers (3.9 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the C-band (5.6 centimeters, or 2.2 inches wavelength) radar backscatter, which is a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 20 meters (65.6 feet) of elevation change; that is, going

  3. Infectious etiologies of acute febrile illness among patients seeking health care in south-central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Matthew R; Blair, Patrick J; Touch, Sok; Sokhal, Buth; Yasuda, Chadwick Y; Williams, Maya; Richards, Allen L; Burgess, Timothy H; Wierzba, Thomas F; Putnam, Shannon D

    2012-02-01

    The agents of human febrile illness can vary by region and country suggesting that diagnosis, treatment, and control programs need to be based on a methodical evaluation of area-specific etiologies. From December 2006 to December 2009, 9,997 individuals presenting with acute febrile illness at nine health care clinics in south-central Cambodia were enrolled in a study to elucidate the etiologies. Upon enrollment, respiratory specimens, whole blood, and serum were collected. Testing was performed for viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. Etiologies were identified in 38.0% of patients. Influenza was the most frequent pathogen, followed by dengue, malaria, and bacterial pathogens isolated from blood culture. In addition, 3.5% of enrolled patients were infected with more than one pathogen. Our data provide the first systematic assessment of the etiologies of acute febrile illness in south-central Cambodia. Data from syndromic-based surveillance studies can help guide public health responses in developing nations.

  4. The socio-demographic legacy of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    de Walque, Damien

    2006-07-01

    The study presented in this paper is an examination of the long-term impact of genocide during the period of the Khmer Rouge regime (1975-79) in Cambodia. The very high and selective mortality of the period had a major impact on the population structure of Cambodia. Fertility and marriage rates were both very low under the Khmer Rouge, but recovered immediately after the regime's collapse. Because of the shortage of eligible men, the age and education differences between partners tended to decline. The period also had a lasting impact on the educational attainment of the population. The school system collapsed during the period and therefore individuals -- especially men -- who were of school age at the time have a lower educational attainment than those from the preceding and subsequent birth cohorts.

  5. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  6. Knowledge and views regarding condom use among female garment factory workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail; Edwards, Nancy; Amaratunga, Carol; Graham, Ian D; Keane, Vincent; Ros, Socheat

    2010-05-01

    Cambodia is experiencing a generalized HIV epidemic; there is evidence some populations within Cambodia are particularly vulnerable to infection. A mixed methods study was conducted in 2006 on the vulnerability to contract HIV of rural-to-urban migrant Cambodian garment factory workers. This paper reports the views of these female migrant workers regarding the use of condoms in their sexual relationships. Semi-structured interviews were conducted among 20 workers about their knowledge and experiences regarding condom use. Both married and single women were knowledgeable about HIV transmission, but there was a spectrum of perspectives about condom use with their current or future partners. Some women insisted partners use condoms, while others did not expect partner compliance, and a third group avoided discussing condom use with their partners. HIV prevention programs should include male partners. For many of these migrant women, interventions focussing on education about HIV transmission and condom negotiation skills are insufficient since implementation requires male cooperation.

  7. The impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Mayumi; Yi, Siyan; Tuot, Sovannary; Suong, Samedy; Sron, Samrithea; Shibanuma, Akira; Jimba, Masamine

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological and social problems are major concerns in this era of successful antiretroviral therapy. Although livelihood programs have been implemented extensively to improve the daily living conditions of people living with HIV in Cambodia, no studies have yet investigated the impacts of these programs on the mental health of this vulnerable population. Therefore, we examined the impact of a livelihood program on depressive symptoms and associated factors among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Design A quasi-experimental, nonequivalent comparison group study was conducted in six provinces of Cambodia in 2014. Data were collected from an intervention group comprising 357 people living with HIV who had participated in the livelihood program and a comparison group comprising 328 people living with HIV who had not participated in this program. Multiple logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the association between livelihood-program participation and depressive symptoms as measured by the depressive symptoms subscale of the 25-item Cambodian version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist. A propensity score matching was used to examine the effect of the livelihood program on depressive symptoms while controlling for selection bias. Results Overall, 56.0% and 62.7% of the participants in the intervention and comparison groups, respectively, met the Hopkins Symptom Checklist threshold for depressive symptoms. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the participants in the intervention group had significantly lower odds of having depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.52–0.88). The analysis from propensity score matching indicated that the livelihood program helped mitigate depressive symptoms among the participants in the intervention group (T=−1.99). Conclusions The livelihood program appeared to help mitigate the burden of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in Cambodia. Thus

  8. Evidence of two distinct phylogenetic lineages of dog rabies virus circulating in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Mey, Channa; Metlin, Artem; Duong, Veasna; Ong, Sivuth; In, Sotheary; Horwood, Paul F; Reynes, Jean-Marc; Bourhy, Hervé; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    This first extensive retrospective study of the molecular epidemiology of dog rabies in Cambodia included 149 rabies virus (RABV) entire nucleoprotein sequences obtained from 1998-2011. The sequences were analyzed in conjunction with RABVs from other Asian countries. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed the South-East Asian phylogenetic clade comprising viruses from Cambodia, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos and Myanmar. The present study represents the first attempt to classify the phylogenetic lineages inside this clade, resulting in the confirmation that all the Cambodian viruses belonged to the South-East Asian (SEA) clade. Three distinct phylogenetic lineages in the region were established with the majority of viruses from Cambodia closely related to viruses from Thailand, Laos and Vietnam, forming the geographically widespread phylogenetic lineage SEA1. A South-East Asian lineage SEA2 comprised two viruses from Cambodia was identified, which shared a common ancestor with RABVs originating from Laos. Viruses from Myanmar formed separate phylogenetic lineages within the major SEA clade. Bayesian molecular clock analysis suggested that the time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of all Cambodian RABVs dated to around 1950. The TMRCA of the Cambodian SEA1 lineage was around 1964 and that of the SEA2 lineage was around 1953. The results identified three phylogenetically distinct and geographically separated lineages inside the earlier identified major SEA clade, covering at least five countries in the region. A greater understanding of the molecular epidemiology of rabies in South-East Asia is an important step to monitor progress on the efforts to control canine rabies in the region.

  9. Parental styles in second generation effects of genocide stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Om, Chariya; Kim, Thida; Vorn, Sin

    2011-11-01

    This study examined the impact of parental styles on second generation effects of trauma among adolescent offspring of survivors of the Khmer Rouge (KR) genocide in Cambodia. Two hundred high school students completed measures addressing their parents' trauma stemming from the KR regime, parental styles (role reversing, overprotective), depression and anxiety. Parents' role reversing parental style and mothers' overprotective parenting were shown to mediate the impact of their trauma symptoms on the child's depression and anxiety. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  10. Are Village Animal Health Workers Able to Assist in Strengthening Transboundary Animal Disease Control in Cambodia?

    PubMed

    Stratton, J; Toribio, J-A L M L; Suon, S; Young, J R; Cowled, B; Windsor, P A

    2017-04-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 445 Village Animal Health Workers (VAHWs) from 19 provinces in Cambodia was undertaken. The aim was to establish their levels of training, farm visit frequency, reasons for visits and disease reporting practices, enabling the strengths and weaknesses of the VAHW system in Cambodia to be determined, in providing both a fee-based smallholder livestock clinical service and a government partnership in transboundary animal disease (TAD) surveillance and control. The study used 'guided group interviews' and identified that VAHWs had good contact with farmers with 61.5% making more than one farm visit daily. However, incomes from services remained low, with 45% VAHWs obtaining between 20 and 40% of their household income from VAHW activities. VAHWs recorded relatively high rates of disease reporting, with 72% claiming they report diseases immediately and 74% undertaking monthly reporting to veterinary authorities. Logistic regression analysis revealed VAHW contact frequency with district and/or provincial officers was associated with more VAHW farm visits, and frequency of VAHW visits to smallholder farms was positively associated with average monthly expenditure on animal medication and equipment. This suggests that increased veterinary extension to VAHWs and access to veterinary equipment, vaccines and drugs may further increase VAHW-farmer engagement. VAHWs provide an accessible, market-based, animal health 'treatment and reporting' service linked to livestock smallholders across Cambodia. However, for improved TAD prevention and more efficient control of outbreaks, research that assesses provision of an animal health 'preventive-based' business model is urgently needed to reduce both the costs to farmers and the risks to the economy due to foot-and-mouth disease and other TADs in Cambodia.

  11. [Renaissance of training in general surgery in Cambodia: a unique experience or reproducible model].

    PubMed

    Dumurgier, C; Baulieux, J

    2005-01-01

    Is the new surgical training program at the University of Phom-Penh, Cambodia a unique experience or can it serve as a model for developing countries? This report describes the encouraging first results of this didactic and hands-on surgical program. Based on their findings the authors recommend not only continuing the program in Phom-Penh but also proposing slightly modified versions to new medical universities not currently offering specialization in surgery.

  12. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Cambodia's monks, nuns fill gap for AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    1997-12-01

    The UN has reported that Cambodia has one of Asia's most serious HIV epidemics, with 100,000-120,000 of the country's 10.5 million people infected with HIV and up to 1 million more people to be potentially infected over the next 10 years. Cambodia has the fastest growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in the region. The country's resources, however, are inadequate and health facilities have been unable to keep up with the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS. Poverty, lack of education, widespread prostitution, limited condom use, and a social breakdown after years of war have all contributed to the problem. 50% of adult men regularly have sex with prostitutes, but they see no need to practice safer sex if a woman looks healthy. Furthermore, little professional and family care is available for the infected and sick. While doctors are few and far between in Cambodia, almost every community has a religious institution and many religious leaders are wiling to help people with AIDS. People in the religious community such as Buddhist monks and the Sisters of Charity help people mainly through counseling, encouragement to keep on living, and accommodating those who have no place else to go.

  13. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Khun, Vuthy Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-22

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  14. Nuclear security policy in the context of counter-terrorism in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, Vuthy; Wongsawaeng, Doonyapong

    2016-01-01

    The risk of nuclear or dirty bomb attack by terrorists is one of the most urgent and threatening danger. The Cambodian national strategy to combat weapons of mass destruction (WMD) depicts a layered system of preventive measures ranging from securing materials at foreign sources to interdicting weapons or nuclear or other radioactive materials at ports, border crossings, and within the Cambodian institutions dealing with the nuclear security to manage the preventive programs. The aim of this study is to formulate guidance, to identify scenario of threat and risk, and to pinpoint necessary legal frameworks on nuclear security in the context of counterterrorism based on the International Atomic Energy Agency nuclear security series. The analysis of this study is guided by theoretical review, the review of international laws and politics, by identifying and interpreting applicable rules and norms establishing the nuclear security regime and how well enforcement of the regime is carried out and, what is the likelihood of the future reform might be. This study will examine the existing national legal frameworks of Cambodia in the context of counterterrorism to prevent acts of nuclear terrorism and the threat of a terrorist nuclear attack within the Cambodia territory. It will shed light on departmental lanes of national nuclear security responsibility, and provide a holistic perspective on the needs of additional resources and emphasis regarding nuclear security policy in the context of counterterrorism in Cambodia.

  15. A survey for potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and pigs in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Inpankaew, Tawin; Murrell, K Darwin; Pinyopanuwat, Nongnuch; Chhoun, Chamnan; Khov, Kuong; Sem, Tharin; Sorn, San; Muth, Sinuon; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2015-12-01

    There is little information available on parasites of zoonotic significance in Cambodia. In 2011, in an effort to obtain data on potentially zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites in domestic animals, 50 dogs and 30 pigs residing in 38 households located in Ang Svay Check village, Takeo province, Cambodia were examined for parasites from faecal samples. The samples were processed using the formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique (FECT). Hookworms were the most common zoonotic parasite found in dogs (80.0%) followed by Echinostomes (18.0%). While, in pigs, Fasciolopsis buski was the most common zoonotic parasite (30.0%) followed by Ascaris suum (13.3%). This study provides baseline data on gastrointestinal parasites in dogs and pigs from Cambodia and underscores the importance of domestic animals as reservoir hosts for human parasites for Cambodian veterinary and public health agencies. Follow-up studies are required to further taxonomically characterize these dog and pig parasites and to determine their role in human parasites in this community.

  16. Mental health services in Cambodia, challenges and opportunities in a post-conflict setting.

    PubMed

    Jegannathan, Bhoomikumar; Kullgren, Gunnar; Deva, Parameshvara

    2015-02-01

    Cambodia had suffered enormously due to war and internecine conflict during the latter half of the twentieth century, more so during the Vietnam War. Total collapse of education and health systems during the Pol Pot era continues to be a challenge for developing the necessary infrastructure and human resources to provide basic minimum mental health care which is compounded by the prevailing cultural belief and stigma over mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (MNSDs). The mental health research and services in Cambodia had been predominantly 'trauma focused', a legacy of war, and there is a need to move toward epidemiologically sound public health oriented mental health policy and service development. Integrating mental health program with primary health care services with specifically stated minimum package of activities at primary level and complementary package of activities at secondary level is an opportunity to meet the needs and rights of persons with mental, neurological and substance abuse disorders (PWMNSDs) in Cambodia, provided there is mental health leadership, government commitment and political will.

  17. Correlates of household food insecurity and low dietary diversity in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Christine M; McLean, Judy; Kroeun, Hou; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Green, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity in rural Cambodia. Trained interviewers administered a survey to 900 households in four rural districts of Prey Veng Province, Cambodia. The Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Household Dietary Diversity Score (HDDS) were used to assess household food insecurity and dietary diversity. Multivariate logistic regression models were constructed to identify independent correlates of household food insecurity and poor dietary diversity (HDDSCambodia, the prevalence of any degree of household food insecurity was very high and dietary diversity was generally low. Interventions to improve food security and dietary diversity should encompass income-generating activities and be targeted toward the poorest households.

  18. Enteric fever in Cambodian children is dominated by multidrug-resistant H58 Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi with intermediate susceptibility to ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Emary, Kate; Moore, Catrin E; Chanpheaktra, Ngoun; An, Khun Peng; Chheng, Kheng; Sona, Soeng; Duy, Pham Thanh; Nga, Tran Vu Thieu; Wuthiekanun, Vanaporn; Amornchai, Premjit; Kumar, Varun; Wijedoru, Lalith; Stoesser, Nicole E; Carter, Michael J; Baker, Stephen; Day, Nicholas P J; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-12-01

    Infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi isolates that are multidrug resistant (MDR: resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole) with intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility are widespread in Asia but there is little information from Cambodia. We studied invasive salmonellosis in children at a paediatric hospital in Siem Reap, Cambodia. Between 2007 and 2011 Salmonella was isolated from a blood culture in 162 children. There were 151 children with enteric fever, including 148 serovar Typhi and three serovar Paratyphi A infections, and 11 children with a non-typhoidal Salmonella infection. Of the 148 serovar Typhi isolates 126 (85%) were MDR and 133 (90%) had intermediate ciprofloxacin susceptibility. Inpatient antimicrobial treatment was ceftriaxone alone or initial ceftriaxone followed by a step-down to oral ciprofloxacin or azithromycin. Complications developed in 37/128 (29%) children admitted with enteric fever and two (1.6%) died. There was one confirmed relapse. In a sample of 102 serovar Typhi strains genotyped by investigation of a subset of single nucleotide polymorphisms, 98 (96%) were the H58 haplotype, the majority of which had the common serine to phenylalanine substitution at codon 83 in the DNA gyrase. We conclude that antimicrobial-resistant enteric fever is common in Cambodian children and therapeutic options are limited.

  19. Distribution of selected healthcare resources for influenza pandemic response in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Human influenza infection poses a serious public health threat in Cambodia, a country at risk for the emergence and spread of novel influenza viruses with pandemic potential. Prior pandemics demonstrated the adverse impact of influenza on poor communities in developing countries. Investigation of healthcare resource distribution can inform decisions regarding resource mobilization and investment for pandemic mitigation. Methods A health facility survey performed across Cambodia obtained data on availability of healthcare resources important for pandemic influenza response. Focusing on five key resources considered most necessary for treating severe influenza (inpatient beds, doctors, nurses, oseltamivir, and ventilators), resource distributions were analyzed at the Operational District (OD) and Province levels, refining data analysis from earlier studies. Resources were stratified by respondent type (hospital vs. District Health Office [DHO]). A summary index of distribution inequality was calculated using the Gini coefficient. Indices for local spatial autocorrelation were measured at the OD level using geographical information system (GIS) analysis. Finally, a potential link between socioeconomic status and resource distribution was explored by mapping resource densities against poverty rates. Results Gini coefficient calculation revealed variable inequality in distribution of the five key resources at the Province and OD levels. A greater percentage of the population resides in areas of relative under-supply (28.5%) than over-supply (21.3%). Areas with more resources per capita showed significant clustering in central Cambodia while areas with fewer resources clustered in the northern and western provinces. Hospital-based inpatient beds, doctors, and nurses were most heavily concentrated in areas of the country with the lowest poverty rates; however, beds and nurses in Non-Hospital Medical Facilities (NHMF) showed increasing concentrations at higher

  20. The National Shipbuilding Research Program. Proceedings of the REAPS Technical Symposium (4th) held in New Orleans, Louisiana on 21-22 June, 1977

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-06-01

    Institute PIPE DETAILING AND FABRICATION SYSTEMS G.P. Putnam , IIT Research Institute APPENDIX A: AGENDA...produce cost effective solu- problems. I I T R E S E A R C H I N S T I T U T E 11 REFERENCES 1. G. P. Putnam , “The REAPS Program -- A Concept for...April 5-7, 1972. Labus, T.J. and Hilaris , J.A., “An Experimental Investigation of an Underwater High Pressure Water Jet Metal Cutting Tool,” Naval

  1. REAP Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Gosar, Paul A. [R-AZ-4

    2013-11-20

    01/09/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Acute undifferentiated febrile illness in rural Cambodia: a 3-year prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Tara C; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects.

  3. Acute Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Rural Cambodia: A 3-Year Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Tara C.; Siv, Sovannaroth; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Fleischmann, Erna; Ariey, Frédéric; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; González, Iveth J.; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Abdur, Rashid; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Bell, David; Menard, Didier

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, malaria control has been successfully implemented in Cambodia, leading to a substantial decrease in reported cases. Wide-spread use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) has revealed a large burden of malaria-negative fever cases, for which no clinical management guidelines exist at peripheral level health facilities. As a first step towards developing such guidelines, a 3-year cross-sectional prospective observational study was designed to investigate the causes of acute malaria-negative febrile illness in Cambodia. From January 2008 to December 2010, 1193 febrile patients and 282 non-febrile individuals were recruited from three health centers in eastern and western Cambodia. Malaria RDTs and routine clinical examination were performed on site by health center staff. Venous samples and nasopharyngeal throat swabs were collected and analysed by molecular diagnostic tests. Blood cultures and blood smears were also taken from all febrile individuals. Molecular testing was applied for malaria parasites, Leptospira, Rickettsia, O. tsutsugamushi, Dengue- and Influenza virus. At least one pathogen was identified in 73.3% (874/1193) of febrile patient samples. Most frequent pathogens detected were P. vivax (33.4%), P. falciparum (26.5%), pathogenic Leptospira (9.4%), Influenza viruses (8.9%), Dengue viruses (6.3%), O. tsutsugamushi (3.9%), Rickettsia (0.2%), and P. knowlesi (0.1%). In the control group, a potential pathogen was identified in 40.4%, most commonly malaria parasites and Leptospira. Clinic-based diagnosis of malaria RDT-negative cases was poorly predictive for pathogen and appropriate treatment. Additional investigations are needed to understand their impact on clinical disease and epidemiology, and the possible role of therapies such as doxycycline, since many of these pathogens were seen in non-febrile subjects. PMID:24755844

  4. Current status of arsenic exposure and social implication in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Huoy, Laingshun; Phan, Samrach; Se, Soknim; Capon, Anthony Guy; Hashim, Jamal Hisham

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the current status of arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia, field interview along with urine sample collection was conducted in the arsenic-affected area of Kandal Province, Cambodia. Urine samples were analyzed for total arsenic concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. As a result, arsenicosis patients (n = 127) had As in urine (UAs) ranging from 3.76 to 373 µg L(-1) (mean = 78.7 ± 69.8 µg L(-1); median = 60.2 µg L(-1)). Asymptomatic villagers (n = 108) had UAs ranging from 5.93 to 312 µg L(-1) (mean = 73.0 ± 52.2 µg L(-1); median = 60.5 µg L(-1)). About 24.7 % of all participants had UAs greater than 100 µg L(-1) which indicated a recent arsenic exposure. A survey found that females and adults were more likely to be diagnosed with skin sign of arsenicosis than males and children, respectively. Education level, age, gender, groundwater drinking period, residence time in the village and amount of water drunk per day may influence the incidence of skin signs of arsenicosis. This study suggests that residents in Kandal study area are currently at risk of arsenic although some mitigation has been implemented. More commitment should be made to address this public health concern in rural Cambodia.

  5. Surveillance on chronic arsenic exposure in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia using different biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2011-12-01

    Thousands of Cambodia populations are currently at high risks of both toxic and carcinogenic effects through drinking arsenic-rich groundwater. In order to determine and assess the use of arsenic contents in different biological samples as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater in Cambodia, individual scalp hair, fingernail and toenail were collected from three different provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After washing and acid-digestion, digestate was analyzed for total arsenic by an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Chemical analysis of the acid-digested hair revealed that among 270 hair samples cut from Kandal, 78.1% had arsenic content in scalp hair (As(h)) greater than the typical As(h) (1.00 μg g(-1)), indicating possible arsenic toxicity. Concurrently, 1.2% and 0.6% were found elevated in Kratie (n=84) and Kampong Cham (n=173), respectively. Similarly, the upper end of the ranges for arsenic contents in fingernail (As(fn)) and toenail (As(tn)) clipped from Kandal (fingernail n=241; toenail n=187) were higher than the normal arsenic content in nail (0.43-1.08 μg g(-1)), however, none was observed elevated in both Kratie (fingernail n=76, toenail n=42) and Kampong Cham (fingernail n=83; toenail n=52). Significant positive intercorrelations between groundwater arsenic concentration (As(w)), average daily dose (ADD) of arsenic, As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) suggest that As(h), As(fn) and As(tn) can be used as biomarkers of chronic arsenic exposure from drinking arsenic-rich groundwater, in which As(h) is more favorable than As(fn) and As(tn) due to the ease of sample processing and analytical measurements, respectively.

  6. Beliefs about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults in Cambodia: findings from a national survey.

    PubMed

    Yel, Daravuth; Bui, Anthony; Job, Jayakaran S; Knutsen, Synnove; Singh, Pramil N

    2013-09-01

    There remains a very high rate of smoked and smokeless tobacco use in the Western Pacific Region. The most recent findings from national adult tobacco surveys indicate that very few daily users of tobacco intend to quit tobacco use. In Cambodia, a nation that is predominantly Buddhist, faith-based tobacco control programs have been implemented where, under the fifth precept of Buddhism that proscribes addictive behaviors, monks were encouraged to quit tobacco and temples have been declared smoke-free. In the present study, we included items on a large national tobacco survey to examine the relation between beliefs (faith-based, other) about tobacco, health, and addiction among adults (18 years and older). In a stratified, multistage cluster sample (n=13,988) of all provinces of Cambodia, we found that (1) 88-93% believe that Buddhist monks should not use tobacco, buy tobacco, or be offered tobacco during a religious ceremony; (2) 86-93% believe that the Wat (temple) should be a smoke-free area; (3) 93-95% believe that tobacco is addictive in the same way as habits (opium, gambling, alcohol) listed under the fifth precept of Buddhism; and (4) those who do not use tobacco are significantly more likely to cite a Buddhist principle as part of their anti-tobacco beliefs. These data indicate that anti-tobacco sentiments are highly prevalent in the Buddhist belief system of Cambodian adults and are especially evident among non-users of tobacco. Our findings indicate that faith-based initiatives could be an effective part of anti-tobacco campaigns in Cambodia.

  7. Reference values of hematology, biochemistry, and blood type in cynomolgus monkeys from cambodia origin.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kangmoo; Chang, Jaejin; Lee, Min-Jae; Wang, Seungsu; In, Kimhong; Galano-Tan, Wilhelm C; Jun, Sanghun; Cho, Kahee; Hwang, Yong-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ju; Park, Wanje

    2016-03-01

    Cynomolgus monkeys as nonhuman primates are valuable animal models because they have a high level of human gene homology. There are many reference values for hematology and biochemistry of Cynomolgus monkeys that are needed for proper clinical diagnosis and biomedical research conduct. The body weight information and blood type are also key success factors in allogeneic or xenogeneic models. Moreover, the biological parameters could be different according to the origin of the Cynomolgus monkey. However, there are limited references provided, especially of Cambodia origin. In this study, we measured average body weight of 2,518 Cynomolgus monkeys and analyzed hematology and serum biochemistry using 119 males, and determined blood types in 642 monkeys with Cambodia origin. The average body weight of male Cynomolgus monkeys were 2.56±0.345 kg and female group was 2.43±0.330 kg at the age from 2 to 3 years. The male group showed relatively sharp increased average body weight from the 3 to 4 age period compared to the female group. In hematology and biochemistry, it was found that most of the data was similar when compared to other references even though some results showed differences. The ABO blood type result showed that type A, B, AB, and O was approximately 15.6, 33.3, 44.2, and 6.9%, respectively. The main blood type in this facility was B and AB. These biological background references of Cambodia origin could be used to provide important information to researchers who are using them in their biomedical research.

  8. Gendered Motivations, Sociocultural Constraints, and Psychobehavioral Consequences of Transnational Partnerships in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoefinger, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Global flows of people, information and capital have created transnational spaces in Cambodia. Within those spaces exists the formation of complex and multilayered interpersonal relationships between people attempting to capitalize on the opportunities created by these flows. The purpose of this article is to describe these transnational relationships, namely between young women employed in the entertainment sectors in Phnom Penh, and their western male partners, while highlighting the racialized and gendered motivations of the global actors, the inevitable sociocultural conflicts/constraints/ misunderstandings that arise within the partnerships, and the resulting challenges and psychobehavioral consequences experienced by the mobile and differentiated individuals involved in these postcolonial relational formations. PMID:25221438

  9. Termitotrox venus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), a new blind, flightless termitophilous scarab from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kakizoe, Showtaro; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Termitotrox venus sp. n. is described from Cambodia and represents the second discovery of Termitotrox Reichensperger, 1915 from the Indo-Chinese subregion of the Indomalayan region. Most of the type series was collected from refuse dumps in fungus garden cells of Macrotermes cf. gilvus (Hagen, 1858). Macrotermes Holmgren, 1910 was previously an unknown host of Termitotrox species. The new species is easily distinguished from all known congeners by having wing-shaped trichomes on the elytra and the larger body size, at 2.5 mm in length. We also describe the mouthparts to complement the description of the genus Termitotrox. PMID:26257566

  10. Plasmodium falciparum Founder Populations in Western Cambodia Have Reduced Artemisinin Sensitivity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Amaratunga, Chanaki; Witkowski, Benoit; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Khim, Nimol; Miotto, Olivo

    2014-01-01

    Reduced Plasmodium falciparum sensitivity to short-course artemisinin (ART) monotherapy manifests as a long parasite clearance half-life. We recently defined three parasite founder populations with long half-lives in Pursat, western Cambodia, where reduced ART sensitivity is prevalent. Using the ring-stage survival assay, we show that these founder populations have reduced ART sensitivity in vitro at the early ring stage of parasite development and that a genetically admixed population contains subsets of parasites with normal or reduced ART sensitivity. PMID:24867977

  11. Termitotroxvenus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), a new blind, flightless termitophilous scarab from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kakizoe, Showtaro; Maruyama, Munetoshi

    2015-01-01

    Termitotroxvenus sp. n. is described from Cambodia and represents the second discovery of Termitotrox Reichensperger, 1915 from the Indo-Chinese subregion of the Indomalayan region. Most of the type series was collected from refuse dumps in fungus garden cells of Macrotermescf.gilvus (Hagen, 1858). Macrotermes Holmgren, 1910 was previously an unknown host of Termitotrox species. The new species is easily distinguished from all known congeners by having wing-shaped trichomes on the elytra and the larger body size, at 2.5 mm in length. We also describe the mouthparts to complement the description of the genus Termitotrox.

  12. Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted. PMID:24688208

  13. Do marriages forget their past? Marital stability in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Heuveline, Patrick; Poch, Bunnak

    2006-02-01

    This paper assesses the impact of three main destabilizing factors on marital stability in Cambodia: the radical reformation of marriage under the Khmers Rouges (KR); the imbalanced gender ratio among marriageable adults resulting from gendered mortality during the KR regime; and, after decades of isolation from the West, a period of rapid social change. Although there is evidence of declining marital stability in the most recent period, marriages contracted under the KR appear as stable as adjacent marriage cohorts. Thesefindings suggest that the conditions under which spouses were initially paired matter less for marital stability than does their contemporaneous environment.

  14. Reconciliation in Cambodia: thirty years after the terror of the Khmer Rouge regime.

    PubMed

    Bockers, Estelle; Stammel, Nadine; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2011-01-01

    During the Khmer Rouge regime one quarter of the Cambodian population was killed as a result of malnutrition, overwork and mass killings. Although the regime ended 30 years ago, its legacy continues to affect Cambodians. Mental health problems as well as feelings of anger and revenge resulting from traumatic events experienced during the Khmer Rouge regime are still common in Cambodia. These conditions continue to impede social coexistence and the peace-building process in society. Thirty years after the Khmer Rouge regime this article gives an overview on the status of the country's current reconciliation process and recommends potential future steps.

  15. Mitigating Financial Burden of Tuberculosis through Active Case Finding Targeting Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Fukushi; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Eang, Mao Tan; Saint, Saly; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite free TB services available in public health facilities, TB patients often face severe financial burden due to TB. WHO set a new global target that no TB-affected families experience catastrophic costs due to TB. To monitor the progress and strategize the optimal approach to achieve the target, there is a great need to assess baseline cost data, explore potential proxy indicators for catastrophic costs, and understand what intervention mitigates financial burden. In Cambodia, nationwide active case finding (ACF) targeting household and neighbourhood contacts was implemented alongside routine passive case finding (PCF). We analyzed household cost data from ACF and PCF to determine the financial benefit of ACF, update the baseline cost data, and explore whether any dissaving patterns can be a proxy for catastrophic costs in Cambodia. Methods In this cross-sectional comparative study, structured interviews were carried out with 108 ACF patients and 100 PCF patients. Direct and indirect costs, costs before and during treatment, costs as percentage of annual household income and dissaving patterns were compared between the two groups. Results The median total costs were lower by 17% in ACF than in PCF ($240.7 [IQR 65.5–594.6] vs $290.5 [IQR 113.6–813.4], p = 0.104). The median costs before treatment were significantly lower in ACF than in PCF ($5.1 [IQR 1.5–25.8] vs $22.4 [IQR 4.4–70.8], p<0.001). Indirect costs constituted the largest portion of total costs (72.3% in ACF and 61.5% in PCF). Total costs were equivalent to 11.3% and 18.6% of annual household income in ACF and PCF, respectively. ACF patients were less likely to dissave to afford TB-related expenses. Costs as percentage of annual household income were significantly associated with an occurrence of selling property (p = 0.02 for ACF, p = 0.005 for PCF). Conclusions TB-affected households face severe financial hardship in Cambodia. ACF has the great potential to mitigate the costs

  16. Reduced polymorphism in the Kelch propeller domain in Plasmodium vivax isolates from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Popovici, Jean; Kao, Sokheng; Eal, Leanghor; Bin, Sophalai; Kim, Saorin; Ménard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Polymorphism in the ortholog gene of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene was investigated in Plasmodium vivax isolates collected in Cambodia. All of them were Sal-1 wild-type alleles except two (2/284, 0.7%), and P. vivax K12 polymorphism was reduced compared to that of the P. falciparum K13 gene. Both mutant allele isolates had the same nonsynonymous mutation at codon 552 (V552I) and were from Ratanak Kiri province. These preliminary data should encourage additional studies for associating artemisinin or chloroquine resistance and K12 polymorphism.

  17. Reduced Polymorphism in the Kelch Propeller Domain in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Popovici, Jean; Kao, Sokheng; Eal, Leanghor; Bin, Sophalai; Kim, Saorin

    2014-01-01

    Polymorphism in the ortholog gene of the Plasmodium falciparum K13 gene was investigated in Plasmodium vivax isolates collected in Cambodia. All of them were Sal-1 wild-type alleles except two (2/284, 0.7%), and P. vivax K12 polymorphism was reduced compared to that of the P. falciparum K13 gene. Both mutant allele isolates had the same nonsynonymous mutation at codon 552 (V552I) and were from Ratanak Kiri province. These preliminary data should encourage additional studies for associating artemisinin or chloroquine resistance and K12 polymorphism. PMID:25385109

  18. Cardiologist in the shadow of Angkor Wat: A medical mission to Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, John Davis

    2014-04-01

    In a medical mission to Cambodia, our team of doctors, dentists, and nurses saw over 1000 patients during 4 days of clinics. The most common cardiovascular problems were hypertension (11%) and heart murmurs (3%). Obesity and a history of diabetes were very rare. Unlike the cardiac patients I typically see in my Atlanta office, the Cambodians were trim and muscular from their predominantly farming and, less often, construction jobs. They are a gentle, seemingly happy people, appreciative of whatever limited medical help we could offer. Tuberculosis was the most prevalent serious illness noted.

  19. Reduced artemisinin susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum ring stages in western Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, Benoit; Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile; Menard, Didier

    2013-02-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA.

  20. Reduced Artemisinin Susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum Ring Stages in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khim, Nimol; Chim, Pheaktra; Kim, Saorin; Ke, Sopheakvatey; Kloeung, Nimol; Chy, Sophy; Duong, Socheat; Leang, Rithea; Ringwald, Pascal; Dondorp, Arjen M.; Tripura, Rupam; Benoit-Vical, Françoise; Berry, Antoine; Gorgette, Olivier; Ariey, Frédéric; Barale, Jean-Christophe; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2013-01-01

    The declining efficacy of artemisinin derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum in western Cambodia is a major concern. The knowledge gap in the understanding of the mechanisms involved hampers designing monitoring tools. Here, we culture-adapted 20 isolates from Pailin and Ratanakiri (areas of artemisinin resistance and susceptibility in western and eastern Cambodia, respectively) and studied their in vitro response to dihydroartemisinin. No significant difference between the two sets of isolates was observed in the classical isotopic test. However, a 6-h pulse exposure to 700 nM dihydroartemisinin (ring-stage survival assay -RSA]) revealed a clear-cut geographic dichotomy. The survival rate of exposed ring-stage parasites (ring stages) was 17-fold higher in isolates from Pailin (median, 13.5%) than in those from Ratanakiri (median, 0.8%), while exposed mature stages were equally and highly susceptible (0.6% and 0.7%, respectively). Ring stages survived drug exposure by cell cycle arrest and resumed growth upon drug withdrawal. The reduced susceptibility to artemisinin in Pailin appears to be associated with an altered in vitro phenotype of ring stages from Pailin in the RSA. PMID:23208708

  1. Arsenic concentration in rice, fish, meat and vegetables in Cambodia: a preliminary risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Chen, Zhuo-Jia; Man, Yu-Bon; Du, Jun; Xing, Guang-Hua; Kim, Kyoung-Woong; Mohamed Yasin, Mohamed Salleh; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Wong, Ming-Hung

    2013-12-01

    To assess arsenic contaminations and its possible adverse health effects, food samples were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham in Cambodia. The highest and the lowest concentrations were observed in fish (mean 2,832 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kandal province and cattle stomach (1.86 ± 1.10 ng g(-1), ww) collected from Kratie, respectively. The daily intake of arsenic via food consumption was 604, 9.70 and 136 μg day(-1) in Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham, respectively. The arsenic dietary intake in Kandal ranked No. 1 among all the 17 compared countries or regions. Fish consumption contributed the greatest proportion of total arsenic daily intake in Kandal (about 63.0 %) and Kampong Cham (about 69.8 %). It is revealed to be a much more important exposure pathway than drinking water for residents in Kampong Cham. The results of risk assessment suggested that the residents in Cambodia, particularly for people in Kandal province, suffer high public health risks due to consuming arsenic-contaminated food.

  2. Intensive Circulation of Japanese Encephalitis Virus in Peri-urban Sentinel Pigs near Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Cappelle, Julien; Duong, Veasna; Pring, Long; Kong, Lida; Yakovleff, Maud; Prasetyo, Didot Budi; Peng, Borin; Choeung, Rithy; Duboz, Raphaël; Ong, Sivuth; Sorn, San; Dussart, Philippe; Tarantola, Arnaud; Buchy, Philippe; Chevalier, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased use of vaccination in several Asian countries, Japanese Encephalitis (JE) remains the most important cause of viral encephalitis in Asia in humans with an estimated 68,000 cases annually. Considered a rural disease occurring mainly in paddy-field dominated landscapes where pigs are amplifying hosts, JE may nevertheless circulate in a wider range of environment given the diversity of its potential hosts and vectors. The main objective of this study was to assess the intensity of JE transmission to pigs in a peri-urban environment in the outskirt of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. We estimated the force of JE infection in two cohorts of 15 sentinel pigs by fitting a generalised linear model on seroprevalence monitoring data observed during two four-month periods in 2014. Our results provide evidence for intensive circulation of JE virus in a periurban area near Phnom Penh, the capital and most populated city of Cambodia. Understanding JE virus transmission in different environments is important for planning JE virus control in the long term and is also an interesting model to study the complexity of vector-borne diseases. Collecting quantitative data such as the force of infection will help calibrate epidemiological model that can be used to better understand complex vector-borne disease epidemiological cycles. PMID:27926937

  3. Parents and Family Members in the Era of ART: Evidence from Cambodia and Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Knodel, John; Hak, Sochanny; Khuon, Chandore; So, Dane; McAndrew, John

    2011-01-01

    Ensuring treatment adherence is critical for the success of ART programs in developing countries. Enlisting NGOs or PLHA group members as treatment supporters is one common strategy. Less attention is given to family members and especially older-age parents. Yet ART patients often live with other family members who are highly motivated to ensure treatment success. This study examines the role of family members and especially parents in assisting adherence in Cambodia and Thailand among adult ART patients. Most have a living parent and many live with or near a parent. Family members including parents commonly remind patients to take medications, particularly if coresident in the same household. Parents also remind patients to get resupplies and accompany them to appointments. Some contrasts between Cambodia and Thailand emerged. Fewer Cambodian than Thai patients had a living parent. However, among those who did, equal shares lived with parents. Cambodian parents more commonly reminded patients to take medications and get resupplies and accompanied them when doing so. In both countries correct knowledge of ART among parents was associated with the amount of advice from program personnel. The results underscore both the need to more explicitly incorporate close family members, including parents, into efforts to promote adherence and need for PLHA peers and home based care teams to provide them with adequate information, training and resources to increase their effectiveness. PMID:21726159

  4. Long-term psychiatric consequences of exposure to trauma in Cambodia: a regional household survey.

    PubMed

    Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Jarl, Johan; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2014-12-01

    The long-term psychiatric consequences of exposure to war and/or mass conflict continue to be of great concern and particularly in Cambodia. The current cross-sectional study examined the relationship between history of trauma and current psychiatric and functional morbidity in 3200 randomly selected adults aged 18-60 in Cambodia. Structured interviews were conducted from November 2011 until May 2012 in two predominantly rural regions purposively selected for differing duration of exposure to the Khmer Rouge occupation. Information was also collected regarding ongoing daily stressors and intimate partner violence. Despite high prevalence rates of conflict/war-related trauma, current rates of psychiatric disorders (depression, post-traumatic stress disorder) were relatively low, suggesting that the effects of trauma and extreme hardship in civilian populations may be modified by contextual factors and/or the passage of time. Poor to fair physical health was, however, reported by nearly 60% of the sample. Daily stressors were more important for current morbidity levels than history of trauma, especially in the region with shorter Khmer Rouge occupation. The results suggest that a focus exclusively on past trauma may overlook the contribution of adverse daily life circumstances towards current levels of well-being in civilian populations affected by war and/or mass conflict.

  5. Accelerated deforestation driven by large-scale land acquisitions in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Yu, Kailiang; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Pichdara, Lonn; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2015-10-01

    Investment in agricultural land in the developing world has rapidly increased in the past two decades. In Cambodia, there has been a surge in economic land concessions, in which long-term leases are provided to foreign and domestic investors for economic development. More than two million hectares have been leased so far, sparking debate over the consequences for local communities and the environment. Here we combined official records of concession locations with a high-resolution data set of changes in forest cover to quantify the contribution of land concessions to deforestation between 2000 and 2012. We used covariate matching to control for variables other than classification as a concession that may influence forest loss. Nearly half of the area where concessions were granted between 2000 and 2012 was forested in 2000; this area then represented 12.4% of forest land cover in Cambodia. Within concessions, the annual rate of forest loss was between 29% and 105% higher than in comparable land areas outside concessions. Most of the deforestation within concessions occurred after the contract date, and whether an investor was domestic or foreign had no effect on deforestation rates. We conclude that land acquisitions can act as powerful drivers of deforestation.

  6. Forest plunder in Southeast Asia: an environmental security nexus in Burma and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Talbott, K; Brown, M

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the cycle of conversion, consumption, and corruption that undermines the environment and civil society in Cambodia and Burma (Myanmar). In these countries, forests are declining in patterns similar to other Southeast Asian deforestation. Illegal logging, prostitution, and heroin trafficking constitute the bulk of Cambodia's shadow economy. Revenues are used to provide financial support for political causes and build the private wealth of the elite. Major political and guerilla groups and the Cambodian military have been major beneficiaries of logging revenue, supported private sector forestry in many military zones, and facilitated logging and trade. About 40% of land goes to forest concessions granted to Southeast Asian companies, and revenues bypass the regular state budget. In Burma, the cease fire agreements in the early 1990s, led to remote border area forests being opened up to large, nonsustainable commercial timber mining. Land was divided into ethnic and government controlled areas. Timber profits were funneled into a business owned by members of the new ruling force, the SLORC, and used to launder drug exports and profits. Trading partners include Thailand, and most recently, China. It is speculated that deforested areas are replanted with opium poppies, and trade routes carry timber and heroin. The unregulated logging industry and the lack of financial accounting of the timber trade undermine the structures of civil society and good governance. Forest policies appear progressive but are in reality unenforced. Politics and agreements in both countries are closely tied to deforestation issues.

  7. Discovery of Opisthorchis viverrini metacercariae in freshwater fish in southern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Sarun; Komalamisra, Chalit; Radomyos, Prayong; Waikagul, Jitra

    2009-08-01

    Small liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverini, are fish-borne trematodes (FBTs) causing significant public health problems in Asia. While C. sinensis is distributing mainly in far east Asia, O. viverini is distributing in Indochina peninsula. Recently, however, the geographical distributions of those small liver flukes were proven to be far wider than expected. Nevertheless, little is known about the epidemiology of small liver flukes in Cambodia. The present study is, therefore, aimed at clarifying the status of small liver fluke infections in various species of freshwater fish in southern Cambodia. A total of 1479 freshwater fish, 1316 (89%) comprised of 20 different species of the cyprinoid family and 163 (11%) belonging to 8 families of non-cyprinoids, were collected during May 2007 and February 2008, and the presence of small liver fluke metacercariae was examined by the compression method. Small liver fluke metacercariae were found in 10 species of cyprinoids with the infection rate ranging 2.1-66.7% and the mean intensity of infection of 1.0-15.0 (range: 1-65). For the speciation, adult worms were obtained by experimental infection in hamsters. The small liver fluke found in this study were identified as Opisthorchis viverrini by the morphological features of adult worms, and this identification was confirmed by partial COI sequencing of the metacercariae.

  8. Deployment of dual-sensor ALIS for humanitarian demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Takahashi, K.

    2013-06-01

    We are in the process of developing a high-resolution landmine scanning system "ALIS" which produces horizontal slices of the shallow subsurface for visualization of buried explosives and inert clutter. As many AP mines contain minimum amounts of metal, metal detectors need to be combined with a complimentary subsurface imaging sensor. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is widely accepted for subsurface sensing in the fields of geology, archaeology and utility detection. The demining application requires real-time imaging results with centimetre resolution in a highly portable package. The key requirement for sharp images of the subsurface is the precise tracking of the geophysical sensor(s) during data collection. We should also notice that GPR system is a very wide band radar system, and equivalent to UWB radar, which has recently been developed for short-range high-accuracy radar. We are testing simplified but effective signal processing for imaging mines. We are currently testing a dual sensor ALIS which is a realtime sensor tracking system based on a CCD camera and image processing. In this paper we introduce the GPR systems which we have developed for detection of buried antipersonnel mines and small size explosives. ALIS has been deployed in Cambodia since 2009 and detected more than 70 mines in mine fields, and returned more than 13ha cleaned fields to local farmers. We also report the current status of ALIS in Cambodia.

  9. Subsurface Imaging by UWB Radar: Application to Humanitarian Demining in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki

    Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) has been widely used applications which include detection of subsurface facilities, concrete inspection and archaeology. Among these applications, humanitarian demining is still difficult task. Since 2002, we have developed a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor ALIS. ALIS is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR, and it has a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. ALIS can process the data and is used for image re-construction by migration processing. ALIS is the only one mine detection system in the world which can visualize the GPR image by hand scanning. We found that the migration processing can reduce the clutter and gives us clear images of buried mines. After several tests of ALIS in mine affected courtiers, operation of ALIS in mine fields in Cambodia started in summer 2009. Two sets of ALIS have been operated in Cambodia and more than 77 antipersonnel mines have been detected and 137,000m2 farmland was cleaned.

  10. Female garment factory workers in Cambodia: migration, sex work and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nishigaya, Kasumi

    2002-01-01

    Female garment factory workers in Cambodia are more exposed to HIV/AIDS than previously thought. Although HIV/AIDS epidemics are fast spreading in Cambodia, relatively little is known about the sexual health of women other than those perceived as commercial sex workers or married women of reproductive age. In-depth interviews with 20 unmarried female garment factory workers, who reported to have engaged in multi-partnered sex through direct or discretionary commercial sex occupations, demonstrate that they are exposed to HIV-risk created along the gradients of power. Low socioeconomic status (low education, meager factory wage and high dependency rate at their rural households) and obligations as daughters to provide for the family mainly determine their entry into sex work. At the location of sex work, they are subjected to physical violence, alcohol and drug use, both self-taken and forced, and receive meager wages. In a society where women are expected to be virtuous and obedient to parents and husbands, these workers are motivated to identify male sex partners in paid sex as "sweethearts" rather than "guests." These factors contribute to low consistency of condom use. This paper demonstrates the complex interrelationships between power, cultural definitions of intimacy and economic dependency, which structure sexual relationships and the risk of HIV/AIDS.

  11. A new species of Leptolalax (Anura: Megophryidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Jodi J L; Stuart, Bryan L; Neang, Thy; Hoang, Huy D; Dau, Vinh Q; Nguyen, Tao T; Emmett, David A

    2015-11-05

    We describe a new, medium-sized Leptolalax species from the Kon Tum Plateau of Vietnam and adjacent Cambodia. Leptolalax isos sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of an absence of distinct dark brown/black dorsolateral markings; toes with rudimentary webbing, wide lateral dermal fringes in males and weak or absent lateral dermal fringes in females; most males with wide lateral dermal fringes on Finger II, a body size of 23.7-27.9 mm in 38 adult males and 28.6-31.5 mm in 9 adult females, near immaculate white chest and belly; absence of white speckling on the dorsum; and a call consisting of 2-3 notes with a dominant frequency of 5.9-6.2 kHz (at 22.4-22.8º C). Uncorrected sequence divergences between L. isos sp. nov. and all homologous 16S rRNA sequences available are >10%. At present, the new species is known from montane evergreen forest between ~650-1100 m elevation in northeastern Cambodia and central Vietnam. Habitat within the range of the new species is threatened by deforestation and upstream hydroelectric dams.

  12. High prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in a riparian population in Takeo Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yong, Tai-Soon; Shin, Eun-Hee; Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Eom, Keeseon S; Lee, Dong-Min; Park, Keunhee; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Hoang, Eui-Hyug; Lee, Yoon-Hee; Woo, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Ji-Hwa; Kang, Sin-Il; Cha, Jae-Ku; Lee, Keon-Hoon; Yoon, Cheong-Ha; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2012-06-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini infection was found to be highly prevalent in 3 riverside villages (Ang Svay Chek A, B, and C) of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province. This area is located in the southern part of Cambodia, where the recovery of adult O. viverrini worms was recently reported. From May 2006 until May 2010, fecal examinations were performed on a total of 1,799 villagers using the Kato-Katz thick smear technique. In the 3 villages, the overall positive rate for helminth eggs ranged from 51.7 to 59.0% (av. 57.4%), and the percentage positive for O. viverrini was 46.4-50.6% (47.5%). Other helminths detected included hookworms (13.2%), echinostomes (2.9%), Trichuris trichiura (1.3%), Ascaris lumbricoides (0.6%), and Taenia spp. (0.06%). The prevalence of O. viverrini eggs appeared to reflect a lower infection in younger individuals (<20 years) than in the adult population (>20 years). Men (50.4%) revealed a significantly higher (P=0.02) prevalence than women (44.3%). The Ang Svay Chek villages of the Prey Kabas District, Takeo Province, Cambodia have been confirmed to be a highly endemic area for human O. viverrini infection.

  13. Prevalence of Opisthorchis viverrini infection in humans and fish in Kratie Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Yong, Tai-Soon; Eom, Keeseon S; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Mi Youn; Lim, Hyemi; Choe, Seongjun; Jeong, Hoo-Gn; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2012-12-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is a medically important foodborne parasite in the Indochina Peninsula. In Cambodia, the prevalence of this trematode has been reported in Takeo Province, but not in other areas. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of O. viverrini infection among people in seven riparian villages along the Mekong River, Kratie Province. We also examined the status of metacercarial infection in fish hosts. Fecal specimens were collected from 2101 residents and schoolchildren, and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The average O. viverrini egg positive rate was 4.6%, with the highest prevalence found in Roka Kandal A village (10.4%) followed by Talous village (5.9%). In these villages, adult residents showed higher prevalences (19.4% and 9.0%, respectively) than schoolchildren (6.4% and 1.4%, respectively). O. viverrini adult worms were recovered from 2 egg-positive cases (18 and 4 specimens) after praziquantel treatment and purgation. In addition, three of seven freshwater fish species caught near the villages were positive for O. viverrini metacercariae. A total of 367 metacercariae were harvested from 19 infected fish (metacercarial density; 19 per fish). The species of the metacercariae was confirmed through adult worm recovery by experimental infection to hamsters. The results provide evidence that the surveyed areas of Kratie Province, Cambodia, are endemic for O. viverrini infection.

  14. Cotinine Levels Among Betel Quid Users and Cigarette Smokers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramil N.; Natto, Zuhair; Saxena, Rituraj; Bannerjee, Hiya; Yel, Daravuth; Khieng, Sothy; Job, Jayakaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Smokeless tobacco use in the form of the betel quid is common in the Western Pacific Region, and yet few studies have determined the nicotine delivery of this habit. During a validation substudy, we randomly sampled 201 adults from a rural province of Cambodia and determined nonparametric (bootstrapped) confidence intervals (CIs) for salivary cotinine levels in tobacco users. We found that cotinine levels for daily betel quid use among women (95% CI = 218.6–350.0 ng/mL) were (1) similar to the levels for daily cigarette smoking in men (95% CI = 240.2–317.1 ng/mL) and (2) significantly higher than the levels for daily cigarette smoking in women (95% CI = 71.8–202.7 ng/mL). The 95% confidence range for these habits exceeded the threshold for addiction. Our findings from rural Cambodia indicate that the typical betel quid habit among women supports the same level of nicotine addiction as the typical cigarette habit in men. PMID:24092815

  15. Improving immunization equity through a public-private partnership in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, J. Brad; Bhushan, Indu

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects on immunization equity of the large-scale contracting of primary health-care services in rural areas of Cambodia. METHODS: Data were obtained pre-intervention and post-intervention from a large-scale quasi-experiment in contracting with nongovernmental organizations to provide primary health care in nine rural districts of Cambodia between 1999 and mid-2001. Coverage targets and equity targets for all primary health-care services, including immunization of children, were explicitly included in the contracts awarded in five of nine rural districts which together have a population of over 1.25 million people. The remaining four districts used the traditional government model for providing services and were given identical targets. FINDINGS: After the 2.5 years of the trial, bivariate and multivariate analyses of the results suggested that although there was a substantial increase in the proportion of children who were fully immunized in all districts, children in the poorest 50% of households in the districts served by contractors were more likely to be fully immunized than poor children living in similar circumstances in districts using the government's model, all other things being equal. CONCLUSION: The contracting approach described in this paper suggests a means of moving towards a more equitable distribution of immunization services in developing countries. PMID:15628203

  16. Closing the irrigation deficit in Cambodia: Implications for transboundary impacts on groundwater and Mekong River flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erban, Laura E.; Gorelick, Steven M.

    2016-04-01

    Rice production in Cambodia, essential to food security and exports, is largely limited to the wet season. The vast majority (96%) of land planted with rice during the wet season remains fallow during the dry season. This is in large part due to lack of irrigation capacity, increases in which would entail significant consequences for Cambodia and Vietnam, located downstream on the Mekong River. Here we quantify the extent of the dry season "deficit" area in the Cambodian Mekong River catchment, using a recent agricultural survey and our analysis of MODIS satellite data. Irrigation of this land for rice production would require a volume of water up to 31% of dry season Mekong River flow to Vietnam. However, the two countries share an aquifer system in the Mekong Delta, where irrigation demand is increasingly met by groundwater. We estimate expansion rates of groundwater-irrigated land to be >10% per year in the Cambodian Delta using LANDSAT satellite data and simulate the effects of future expansion on groundwater levels over a 25-year period. If groundwater irrigation continues to expand at current rates, the water table will drop below the lift limit of suction pump wells, used for domestic supply by >1.5 million people, throughout much of the area within 15 years. Extensive groundwater irrigation jeopardizes access for shallow domestic water supply wells, raises the costs of pumping for all groundwater users, and may exacerbate arsenic contamination and land subsidence that are already widespread hazards in the region.

  17. The Pastoral Care and Challenges of the People from Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tran, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Discusses responses of the Catholic church to the special needs of Indochinese refugees in the United States. Reviews the influence of Catholicism in Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, and describes activities of itinerant ministries to Catholic refugee communities across the U.S. The church's mission must be openness and hospitality toward newcomers.…

  18. Issues and Techniques in Translating Scientific Terms from English to Khmer for a University-Level Text in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quigley, Cassie; Oliviera, Alandeom W.; Curry, Alastair; Buck, Gayle

    2011-01-01

    Teachers and students spend much time interacting with written resources such as textbooks, tests, or worksheets during classroom instruction. What if no text is available, however, in the language of the learners? This case study describes the processes and techniques adopted by two university lecturers in Cambodia, as they translated an L1…

  19. The genus Danielithosia Dubatolov & Kishida, 2012 (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae) in Cambodia, with description of one new species.

    PubMed

    Bayarsaikhan, Ulziijargal; Dubatolov, Vladimir V; Bae, Yang-Seop

    2015-06-04

    Although the arctiine fauna of Cambodia remains poorly known, considerable progress has been made over the last seven years (Bucsek, 2012; Cerny & Pinratana, 2009; Bae et al., 2012; Dubatolov, 2012, 2013; Dubatolov et al., 2012, 2013). The genus Danielithosia (Arctiinae) was established by Dubatolov and Kishida (2012), with the type species Tigrioides aureolata Daniel, 1954 from Fujian, Sichuan, and Zhejiang, China. To date, this genus comprises 11 species in the world, most of which are distributed in the Palaearctic and Oriental Regions (Dubatolov, 2013). The genus Danielithosia can be recognized by the following characters: sacculus with a characteristic broadening subapically; juxta long, with a long sclerotized bifurcated process apically (Dubatolov et al., 2012). In Cambodia, only one species, D. hoenei Dubatolov, 2013, has been reported (Dubatolov, 2013), and we here describe one new species from Cambodia. Terminology in this paper follows Dubatolov et al. (2012), and the specimens used in this study are deposited in the collection of Incheon National University (INU), on indefinite loan from Cambodia.

  20. Trauma and Poor Mental Health in Relation to Economic Status: The Case of Cambodia 35 Years Later

    PubMed Central

    Jarl, Johan; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Chak, Thida; Sunbaunat, Ka; Larsson, Charlotte A

    2015-01-01

    Background Cambodia is one of the poorest countries in south-east Asia and is still emerging from the events of the Khmer Rouge reign. It has been suggested that the atrocities experienced by the Cambodian population can explain why Cambodia continues to lag behind its neighbours in economic outcomes. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether there is an association between exposure to past trauma and/or current poor mental health and current economic status in Cambodia. Method A newly conducted survey performed in two regions (north-west and south-east Cambodia) collected information on trauma exposure, psychiatric symptoms, self-rated health outcomes and socio-economic information for 3200 persons aged 18–60. Economic outcomes were measured as household debt and poverty status and whether the respondent was economically inactive. All models were analysed using logistic regression. Results No association was found between high exposure to conflict-related or civilian trauma and any economic outcomes save for a negative association between civilian trauma and poverty in the south-east. Current post-traumatic stress was related solely to poverty status. All other measures of current mental health status, however, were found to be strongly negatively associated with all measures of economic status. Thus, mental health interventions could potentially be utilised in poverty reduction strategies, but greater efficacy is likely to be achieved by targeting current mental health status rather than previous trauma exposure. PMID:26301591

  1. The Killing Fields on TV: A Critical Analysis of Network Coverage of Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ted J., III; Grassmick, David E.

    In an effort to determine the nature of American network television news coverage of the Khmer Rouge rule in Cambodia, a study examined the television evening news from April 16, 1975, the date on which the Lon Nol government first offered to capitulate to the Khmer Rouge, through January 8, 1979, when news of the fall of Phnom Penh to the…

  2. Private Tutoring and Mass Schooling in East Asia: Reflections of Inequality in Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines private tutoring systems in three East Asian countries (Japan, South Korea, and Cambodia) with the purpose of examining the relationship between those systems and formal education systems. The study of private tutoring systems in each nation can be used to reveal the inadequacies of the formal education system in meeting the…

  3. The Six Thinking Hat Model--A Tool for Participation in Community Development, the Experience of an NGO in Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, S.

    1996-01-01

    A nongovernmental organization involved in community development in Cambodia adapted De Bono's six thinking hat model to build staff capacity and develop a framework for open-ended conversations. It proved useful for comprehensive analysis of problems and preventing conflicts. (SK)

  4. Reevaluating the Relationship between Education and Child Labour Using the Capabilities Approach: Policy and Implications for Inequality in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluttz, Jenalee

    2015-01-01

    Cambodia has experienced rapid economic growth in the last two decades, improving living standards and diminishing poverty. Unfortunately, it has failed to do so evenly. Growth within the country has widened the gap between rich and poor and exacerbated the rural/urban divide. This inequality is mirrored in the school system. Inequality within the…

  5. Effectiveness of Bilingual Education in Cambodia: A Longitudinal Comparative Case Study of Ethnic Minority Children in Bilingual and Monolingual Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Scott; Watt, Ron; Frawley, Jack

    2015-01-01

    There is little research in the developing countries of South East Asia on the effectiveness of bilingual education programmes that use first language instruction for ethnic minority children. This study investigated the effectiveness of a bilingual education programme involving ethnic minority children in Cambodia by comparing their performance…

  6. Distortions and Dichotomies in Inclusive Education for Children with Disabilities in Cambodia in the Context of Globalisation and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyanpur, Maya

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the consequences of transferring technical information on disability and inclusive education from the North to the South within the context of international development. Based on data from the author's experiences as a US-trained Indian international consultant in Cambodia, it analyses how problems with translation and…

  7. Sex work and HIV in Cambodia: trajectories of risk and disease in two cohorts of high-risk young women in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen; Sansothy, Neth; Evans, Jennifer; Couture, Marie-Claude; Sichan, Keo; Cockroft, Melissa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Kaldor, John; Maher, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Objectives HIV prevalence among Cambodian female sex workers (FSW) is among the highest in Southeast Asia. We describe HIV prevalence and associated risk exposures in FSW sampled serially in Phnom Penh, Cambodia (Young Women's Health Study (YWHS)), before and after the implementation of a new law designed to combat human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Design Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from two prospective cohorts. Setting Community-based study in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Participants Women aged 15–29 years, reporting ≥2 sexual partners in the last month and/or engaged in transactional sex in the last 3 months, were enrolled in the studies in 2007 (N=161; YWHS-1), and 2009 (N=220; YWHS-2) following information sessions where 285 and 345 women attended. Primary outcomes HIV prevalence, sexual risk behaviour, amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) and alcohol use, and work-related factors were compared in the two groups, enrolled before and after implementation of the new law. Results Participants in the two cohorts were similar in age (median 25 years), but YWHS-2 women reported fewer sex partners, more alcohol use and less ATS use. A higher proportion of YWHS-2 compared with YWHS-1 women worked in entertainment-based venues (68% vs 31%, respectively). HIV prevalence was significantly lower in the more recently sampled women: 9.2% (95% CI 4.5% to 13.8%) vs 23% (95% CI 16.5% to 29.7%). Conclusions Sex work context and risk have shifted among young FSW in Phnom Penh, following implementation of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking laws. While both cohorts were recruited using the same eligibility criteria, more recently sampled women had lower prevalence of sexual risk and HIV infection. Women engaging more directly in transactional sex have become harder to sample and access. Future prevention research and programmes need to consider how new policies and demographic changes in FSW impact HIV transmission. PMID:24022389

  8. The impact of the introduction of user fees at a district hospital in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bart; Price, Neil

    2004-09-01

    Proponents of user fees in the health sector in poor countries cite a number of often interrelated rationales, relating inter alia to cost recovery, improved equity and greater efficiency. Opponents argue that dramatic and sustained decreases in service utilization follow the introduction of user fees, highlighting evidence that user fees reduce service utilization when they fail to result in improved quality of care and/or when services are priced higher than those charged by private health care providers. Utilization of public health services in Cambodia is low. Supply-side factors are significant determinants of such low public sector utilization, including low official salaries of service providers (forcing many to seek additional income in the private sector), and operations budgets which are erratic and often insufficient to cover running costs of service delivery outlets. The Cambodia Ministry of Health (MOH) encourages user fee schemes at operational district level. By allowing revenue to be retained at the health facility level, the MOH aims to improve health care delivery--and consequently service utilization--through increased salaries to health facility staff and increases in operations budgets. This case study of the introduction of user fees at a district referral hospital in Kirivong Operational District in Cambodia, using the findings from empirical research, examines the impact of user fees on health-careseeking behaviour, ability to pay and consultation prices at private practitioners. The research showed that consultation fees charged by private providers increased in tandem with price increases introduced at the referral hospital. It further demonstrates--for the first time that we are aware of from the available literature--that the introduction and subsequent increase in user fees created a 'medical poverty trap', which has significant health and livelihood impact (including untreated morbidity and long-term impoverishment). Addressing the

  9. Achieving universal access and moving towards elimination of new HIV infections in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Vun, Mean Chhi; Fujita, Masami; Rathavy, Tung; Eang, Mao Tang; Sopheap, Seng; Sovannarith, Samreth; Chhorvann, Chhea; Vanthy, Ly; Sopheap, Oum; Welle, Emily; Ferradini, Laurent; Sedtha, Chin; Bunna, Sok; Verbruggen, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In the mid-1990s, Cambodia faced one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics in Asia. For its achievement in reversing this trend, and achieving universal access to HIV treatment, the country received a United Nations millennium development goal award in 2010. This article reviews Cambodia’s response to HIV over the past two decades and discusses its current efforts towards elimination of new HIV infections. Methods A literature review of published and unpublished documents, including programme data and presentations, was conducted. Results and discussion Cambodia classifies its response to one of the most serious HIV epidemics in Asia into three phases. In Phase I (1991–2000), when adult HIV prevalence peaked at 1.7% and incidence exceeded 20,000 cases, a nationwide HIV prevention programme targeted brothel-based sex work. Voluntary confidential counselling and testing and home-based care were introduced, and peer support groups of people living with HIV emerged. Phase II (2001–2011) observed a steady decline in adult prevalence to 0.8% and incidence to 1600 cases by 2011, and was characterized by: expanding antiretroviral treatment (coverage reaching more than 80%) and continuum of care; linking with tuberculosis and maternal and child health services; accelerated prevention among key populations, including entertainment establishment-based sex workers, men having sex with men, transgender persons, and people who inject drugs; engagement of health workers to deliver quality services; and strengthening health service delivery systems. The third phase (2012–2020) aims to attain zero new infections by 2020 through: sharpening responses to key populations at higher risk; maximizing access to community and facility-based testing and retention in prevention and care; and accelerating the transition from vertical approaches to linked/integrated approaches. Conclusions Cambodia has tailored its prevention strategy to its own epidemic, established

  10. Access to artemisinin combination therapy for malaria in remote areas of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Van Damme, Wim; Socheat, Doung; White, Nicholas J; Mills, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Background Malaria-endemic countries are switching antimalarial drug policy to artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) and the global community are considering the setting up of a global subsidy mechanism in order to make them accessible and affordable. However, specific interventions may be needed to reach remote at-risk communities and to ensure that they are used appropriately. This analysis documents the coverage with ACTs versus artemisinin monotherapies, and the effectiveness of malaria outreach teams (MOTs) and Village Malaria Workers (VMWs) in increasing access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment with ACTs in Cambodia, the first country to switch national antimalarial drug policy to an ACT of artesunate and mefloquine (A+M) in 2000. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out in three different types of intervention area: with VMWs, MOTs and no specific interventions. Individuals with a history of fever in the last three weeks were included in the study and completed a questionnaire on their treatment seeking and drug usage behaviour. Blood was taken for a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and data on the household socio-economic status were also obtained. Results In areas without specific interventions, only 17% (42/251) of respondents received a biological diagnosis, 8% (17/206) of respondents who received modern drug did so from a public health facility, and only 8% of them (17/210) received A+M. Worryingly, 78% (102/131) of all artemisinin use in these areas was as a monotherapy. However, both the VMW scheme and MOT scheme significantly increased the likelihood of being seen by a trained provider (Adjusted Odds Ratios (AOR) of 148 and 4 respectively) and of receiving A+M (AORs of 2.7 and 7.7 respectively). Conclusion The coverage rates of appropriate diagnosis and treatment of malaria were disappointingly low and the use of artemisinin monotherapy alarmingly high. This reflects the fragmented nature of Cambodia's health system in remote areas and the

  11. Dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cambodia: a multisite prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Amaratunga, Chanaki; Lim, Pharath; Suon, Seila; Sreng, Sokunthea; Mao, Sivanna; Sopha, Chantha; Sam, Baramey; Dek, Dalin; Try, Vorleak; Amato, Roberto; Blessborn, Daniel; Song, Lijiang; Tullo, Gregory S; Fay, Michael P; Anderson, Jennifer M; Tarning, Joel; Fairhurst, Rick M

    2016-01-01

    Background Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum threatens to reduce the efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs), thus compromising global efforts to eliminate malaria. Recent treatment failures with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine, the current first-line ACT in Cambodia, suggest that piperaquine resistance may be emerging in this country. We explored the relation between artemisinin resistance and dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine failures, and sought to confirm the presence of piperaquine-resistant P falciparum infections in Cambodia. Methods In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled patients aged 2–65 years with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria in three Cambodian provinces: Pursat, Preah Vihear, and Ratanakiri. Participants were given standard 3-day courses of dihydroartemisinin–piperaquine. Peripheral blood parasite densities were measured until parasites cleared and then weekly to 63 days. The primary outcome was recrudescent P falciparum parasitaemia within 63 days. We measured piperaquine plasma concentrations at baseline, 7 days, and day of recrudescence. We assessed phenotypic and genotypic markers of drug resistance in parasite isolates. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01736319. Findings Between Sept 4, 2012, and Dec 31, 2013, we enrolled 241 participants. In Pursat, where artemisinin resistance is entrenched, 37 (46%) of 81 patients had parasite recrudescence. In Preah Vihear, where artemisinin resistance is emerging, ten (16%) of 63 patients had recrudescence and in Ratanakiri, where artemisinin resistance is rare, one (2%) of 60 patients did. Patients with recrudescent P falciparum infections were more likely to have detectable piperaquine plasma concentrations at baseline compared with non-recrudescent patients, but did not differ significantly in age, initial parasite density, or piperaquine plasma concentrations at 7 days. Recrudescent parasites had a higher prevalence of kelch13 mutations

  12. Geostatistical modelling of soil-transmitted helminth infection in Cambodia: do socioeconomic factors improve predictions?

    PubMed

    Karagiannis-Voules, Dimitrios-Alexios; Odermatt, Peter; Biedermann, Patricia; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Muth, Sinuon; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2015-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections are intimately connected with poverty. Yet, there is a paucity of using socioeconomic proxies in spatially explicit risk profiling. We compiled household-level socioeconomic data pertaining to sanitation, drinking-water, education and nutrition from readily available Demographic and Health Surveys, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys and World Health Surveys for Cambodia and aggregated the data at village level. We conducted a systematic review to identify parasitological surveys and made every effort possible to extract, georeference and upload the data in the open source Global Neglected Tropical Diseases database. Bayesian geostatistical models were employed to spatially align the village-aggregated socioeconomic predictors with the soil-transmitted helminth infection data. The risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection was predicted at a grid of 1×1km covering Cambodia. Additionally, two separate individual-level spatial analyses were carried out, for Takeo and Preah Vihear provinces, to assess and quantify the association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and socioeconomic indicators at an individual level. Overall, we obtained socioeconomic proxies from 1624 locations across the country. Surveys focussing on soil-transmitted helminth infections were extracted from 16 sources reporting data from 238 unique locations. We found that the risk of soil-transmitted helminth infection from 2000 onwards was considerably lower than in surveys conducted earlier. Population-adjusted prevalences for school-aged children from 2000 onwards were 28.7% for hookworm, 1.5% for Ascaris lumbricoides and 0.9% for Trichuris trichiura. Surprisingly, at the country-wide analyses, we did not find any significant association between soil-transmitted helminth infection and village-aggregated socioeconomic proxies. Based also on the individual-level analyses we conclude that socioeconomic proxies might not be good predictors at an

  13. Toxicity assessment for the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Ngy, Laymithuna; Yu, Chun-Fai; Takatani, Tomohiro; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we assessed the toxicity of the horseshoe crab Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda collected from Cambodia within two successive months during rainy (April-May) and dry (December-January) seasons, respectively. Toxicity assessments of the collected specimens by standard mouse bioassay showed marked individual variation, and their toxin profiles by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) revealed tetrodotoxin (TTX) was the main toxin while no paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) were detected. All specimens were toxic and the highest toxicity values were 315, 113, 60, 47, 44 and 38 mouse units (MU)/g in the tissues of hepatic caecum, egg, viscera, muscle, intestine and testis, respectively. Although the current findings showed that the Cambodian C. rotundicauda was a moderately toxic species, they are not suitable for human consumption due to their toxicity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first scientific study on toxic marine seafood ever investigated in Cambodian territorial waters.

  14. The tyranny of taste: the case of organic rice in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Thavat, Maylee

    2011-01-01

    Fair-trade and organic products are often sold at price premiums justified by smaller production volumes that are associated with greater social and environmental responsibility. The consumption of these products confers on the consumer a greater sense of morality – and usually a claim to better taste. This paper tells the story of attempts to promote organic/fair-trade rice production by de facto organic Cambodian farmers for export to North American and European markets in order to assist poor farmers to trade their way out of poverty. It demonstrates that instead of promoting sustainable agriculture and fair trade between developed and developing markets, organic/fair-trade projects may impose First World consumer ideals and tastes that are out of step with the larger realities of agrarian transition in Cambodia and the wider region of developing Southeast Asia.

  15. Climate as a contributing factor in the demise of Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Brendan M.; Anchukaitis, Kevin J.; Penny, Daniel; Fletcher, Roland; Cook, Edward R.; Sano, Masaki; Nam, Le Canh; Wichienkeeo, Aroonrut; Minh, Ton That; Hong, Truong Mai

    2010-01-01

    The “hydraulic city” of Angkor, the capitol of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia, experienced decades-long drought interspersed with intense monsoons in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries that, in combination with other factors, contributed to its eventual demise. The climatic evidence comes from a seven-and-a-half century robust hydroclimate reconstruction from tropical southern Vietnamese tree rings. The Angkor droughts were of a duration and severity that would have impacted the sprawling city’s water supply and agricultural productivity, while high-magnitude monsoon years damaged its water control infrastructure. Hydroclimate variability for this region is strongly and inversely correlated with tropical Pacific sea surface temperature, indicating that a warm Pacific and El Niño events induce drought at interannual and interdecadal time scales, and that low-frequency variations of tropical Pacific climate can exert significant influence over Southeast Asian climate and society. PMID:20351244

  16. Negotiation for safer sex among married women in Cambodia: the role of women's autonomy.

    PubMed

    Ung, Mengieng; Boateng, Godfred O; Armah, Frederick A; Amoyaw, Jonathan A; Luginaah, Isaac; Kuuire, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Negotiating safer sex among married women has been identified as an important determinant of vulnerability or resilience to new HIV infections. Using the Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey data of 2010, this paper examined negotiation for safer sex among 11,218 married women in the context of Cambodia's highly touted reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence. The results from a complementary log-log regression model indicate that wealthier and highly educated married women were more likely to report that they can refuse sexual intercourse and ask their husbands to use a condom. Interestingly, while women who were fully involved in decision-making on their own health care were 19% more likely to refuse sex, they were 14% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom, compared with their counterparts who were not involved in this decision-making. Women who were partially involved in decision-making on family visits were 17% less likely to be able to ask their husbands to use a condom compared with those who were not involved. In this context, involvement in decision-making may have translated into trust and risk compensation. Those who believed in HIV transmission myths were less likely to negotiate safer sex relative to their counterparts who did not hold such myths to be true. Women's ability to negotiate for safer sex is, therefore, a function of their autonomy in terms of their full participation in decision-making in health care, household expenditure and mobility. Policy implications of the capacity of women to negotiate for safer sex are delineated.

  17. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  18. A Novel Experimental Apparatus (PDL) and Its Application in Higher Education in Japan and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sou, K.; Kato, T.; Oto, K.; Sakurai, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Omosa, E.; Tozaki, K.

    2010-07-01

    Low cost and attractive equipment for use in experimental higher physics education has been desired by teachers, especially those in developing world. A system of novel experimental apparatus named Personal Desk Lab (PDL) was developed [1]. Each apparatus is miniaturized to one-fifth of the conventional one or less, and built on a steel plate; therefore, it is portable and can be used on a classroom desk. Each set is constructed by some parts divided according to their functions, and some of the parts are used in a number of experiments; which saves material, cost, and storage space. All parts are designed to be easy to make, maintain and repair. Almost all apparatus are battery driven [2]. After ICPE 2006, we have improved the system continuously; consequently, the experimental themes cover the field of mechanics, electromagnetism and optics. The number of these themes in use exceeds ten. The performance of PDL has been tested at Chiba University, Japan and Royal University of Phnom Penh (RUPP), Cambodia. In Chiba University, physics education with PDL is currently conducted individually to 80(max.) students in a classroom at the same time, and to more than 900 students per year. Experiment class using PDL in Cambodia started on October 2008 with 120 students of physics department, RUPP. They were divided into three classes, and conducted four experimental themes in pairs. The advantages confirmed from the practices at two universities are as follows: (1) the use of PDL arouses learner's interest, promotes their deep understanding extensively, and inspires to learn further; and (2) costs for introduction and running of PDL system are fairly small compared to the traditional one. Furthermore, the instruction for distant learners having PDL on each hand was conducted successfully through internet.

  19. Unfitness to stand trial decision-making in the extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Freckelton, Ian; Karagiannakis, Magda

    2014-06-01

    In the small number of trials for matters such as genocide and crimes against humanity that have taken place before the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, by 2014 three occasions had arisen in which the fitness of the accused persons to participate in their trials had become contentious. This is hardly surprising given that the key period of Khmer Rouge government occurred a very long while ago--between 1975 and 1979. The accused persons are all aged. In two instances, the Trial Chamber of the Courts of its own motion sought expert evaluations of the accused persons' fitness to stand trial and, promptly, upon receipt of such reports, determined them to be fit by reference to criteria utilised by the Appeal Chamber of the International Criminal Court for the Former Yugoslavia (the ICTY). In the other instance an accused person, leng Thirith, was found unfit to stand trial and a range of important issues was traversed as to the measures that can properly be taken to try to render a person fit for trial and how legitimate the imposition of detention for that purpose is, and then how legitimate encroachments on a person's civil liberties are to monitor them if there is only a remote possibility that their mental state might improve. It is likely that the balance adopted by the Supreme Court Chamber in the Courts of Cambodia in making significant efforts to render an accused person fit for trial and then in continuing to monitor their mental state when such efforts do not bear fruit, instead of simply releasing them back into the community, will stand as an important precedent for future occasions under international criminal law when issues of fitness to stand trial and how they should be handled arise.

  20. Nutritional and Micronutrient Status of Female Workers in a Garment Factory in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Makurat, Jan; Friedrich, Hanna; Kuong, Khov; Wieringa, Frank T.; Chamnan, Chhoun; Krawinkel, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Concerns about the nutritional status of Cambodian garment workers were raised years ago but data are still scarce. The objectives of this study are to examine the nutritional, hemoglobin and micronutrient status of female workers in a garment factory in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and to assess if body mass index is associated with hemoglobin and/or micronutrient status. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 223 female workers (nulliparous, non-pregnant) at a garment factory in Phnom Penh. Anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were taken to obtain results on hemoglobin, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B12 and inflammation status (hemoglobinopathies not determined). Bivariate correlations were used to assess associations. Results: Overall, 31.4% of workers were underweight, 26.9% showed anemia, 22.1% showed iron deficiency, while 46.5% had marginal iron stores. No evidence of vitamin A or vitamin B12 deficiency was found. Body mass index was associated with serum ferritin (negative) and serum retinol-binding protein (positive) concentrations, but not strongly. A comparison between underweight and not underweight workers resulted in distinctions for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia, with a higher prevalence among not underweight. Conclusions: The prevalence of underweight, anemia and poor iron status was high. Young and nulliparous female garment workers in Cambodia might constitute a group with elevated risk for nutritional deficiencies. Strategies need to be developed for improving their nutritional, micronutrient and health status. The poor iron status seems to contribute to the overall prevalence of anemia. Low hemoglobin and iron deficiency affected both underweight and those not underweight. Despite the fact that body mass index was negatively associated with iron stores, true differences in iron status between underweight and not underweight participants cannot be confirmed. PMID:27827854

  1. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia.

  2. Assessment of hand hygiene compliance after hand hygiene education among health care workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Sansam, Sim; Yamamoto, Eiko; Srun, Sok; Sinath, Yin; Moniborin, Mey; Bun Sim, Kheang; Reyer, Joshua A.; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Health care-associated infection (HCAI) is the most frequent adverse event for hospitalized patients. Hand hygiene is a simple and effective solution to protect patients from HCAI. This study aimed to introduce hand hygiene to health care workers based on the World Health Organization guideline for reducing HCAI in Cambodia and to assess their behavioral patterns on hand hygiene. All health care workers at Kampong Cham provincial hospital had lectures and practice on hand hygiene in January 2012. The surveys for hand hygiene compliance (HHC) were performed after 6 months, 1 year and 2 years, respectively. The number of surgical site infections (SSI) was counted in 2011 and 2014. Our analysis used the data of 58 workers, who were observed at all three points, although 139 workers were observed during the study period. The average of HHC at 6 months, 1 year and 2 years were 62.37%, 85.76% and 80.36%, respectively. The improved group (HHC 2 years/1 year≧1) had 32 workers, whereas the worsened group (HHC 2 years/1 year<1) had 26. There was a significant difference in departments of the two groups (P=0.011) but not in sex, age or occupations. The improved group had more workers of General (31.2% vs. 19.2%), Surgical (25.0% vs. 11.5%) and Infection (21.9% vs. 11.5%) categories compared to the worsened group. The incidence of SSI was improved from 32.26% in 2011 to 0.97% in 2014. Our results suggest that the education and the survey on hand hygiene are effective for reducing HCAI in Cambodia. PMID:27303102

  3. Genetic diversity of coronaviruses in bats in Lao PDR and Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Audrey; Duong, Veasna; Hul, Vibol; San, Sorn; Davun, Hull; Omaliss, Keo; Chea, Sokha; Hassanin, Alexandre; Theppangna, Watthana; Silithammavong, Soubanh; Khammavong, Kongsy; Singhalath, Sinpakone; Greatorex, Zoe; Fine, Amanda E; Goldstein, Tracey; Olson, Sarah; Joly, Damien O; Keatts, Lucy; Dussart, Philippe; Afelt, Aneta; Frutos, Roger; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-03-01

    South-East Asia is a hot spot for emerging zoonotic diseases, and bats have been recognized as hosts for a large number of zoonotic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS), responsible for acute respiratory syndrome outbreaks. Thus, it is important to expand our knowledge of the presence of viruses in bats which could represent a risk to humans. Coronaviruses (CoVs) have been reported in bat species from Thailand, China, Indonesia, Taiwan and the Philippines. However no such work was conducted in Cambodia or Lao PDR. Between 2010 and 2013, 1965 bats were therefore sampled at interfaces with human populations in these two countries. They were tested for the presence of coronavirus by consensus reverse transcription-PCR assay. A total of 93 samples (4.7%) from 17 genera of bats tested positive. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of potentially 37 and 56 coronavirus belonging to alpha-coronavirus (αCoV) and beta-CoV (βCoV), respectively. The βCoVs group is known to include some coronaviruses highly pathogenic to human, such as SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV. All coronavirus sequences generated from frugivorous bats (family Pteropodidae) (n=55) clustered with other bat βCoVs of lineage D, whereas one coronavirus from Pipistrellus coromandra fell in the lineage C of βCoVs which also includes the MERS-CoV. αCoVs were all detected in various genera of insectivorous bats and clustered with diverse bat αCoV sequences previously published. A closely related strain of PEDV, responsible for severe diarrhea in pigs (PEDV-CoV), was detected in 2 Myotis bats. We highlighted the presence and the high diversity of coronaviruses circulating in bats from Cambodia and Lao PDR. Three new bat genera and species were newly identified as host of coronaviruses, namely Macroglossus sp., Megaerops niphanae and Myotis horsfieldii.

  4. Women's nutrient intakes and food-related knowledge in rural Kandal province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lauren J; Summerlee, Alastair J S; Dewey, Cate E; Hak, Chantharith; Hall, Ann; Charles, Christopher V

    2014-01-01

    In Cambodia, both anaemia and vitamin A deficiency are serious health problems. Despite this, few comprehensive nutritional surveys have been completed to date. This study evaluates the adequacy of iron and vitamin A intakes, as well as women's nutritional knowledge in rural Kandal province. Twenty-four hour recalls, pile sort activities, socioeconomic surveys, focus groups, and market surveys were carried out with 67 women from 5 villages in rural Kandal Province. Ninety seven percent of women did not meet their daily-recommended intake of iron, while 70% did not meet their daily-recommended intake of vitamin A. Although many women consume vitamin A-rich and iron rich-foods daily, they do not consume large enough quantities of these foods. Results suggest that both the cost of foods as well as the extent of health knowledge is linked to nutritional practice. Most animal-source iron and vitamin A-rich foods are considered expensive; however, small fish, and several plant-source vitamin A-rich foods are inexpensive and easy to access. Despite health education, food restrictions lead some healthy foods to be considered to be harmful to women. Ultimately, this study demonstrates the importance of developing comprehensive nutritional interventions in Cambodia. Health programming must provide women with not only suggestions to include low-cost nutrient-rich foods, but also advise them about the quantities that are likely to have an impact on nutritional status. Programs should take a community-based, inter-sectoral approach that simultaneously combines culturally informed health education with initiatives that combat poverty and increase access to nutrient rich foods.

  5. Impact of health financing policies in Cambodia: A 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Tim; Chhun, Chhim; Kimsun, Ton; McPake, Barbara; Edoka, Ijeoma

    2017-03-01

    Improving financial access to services is an essential part of extending universal health coverage in low resource settings. In Cambodia, high out of pocket spending and low levels of utilisation have impeded the expansion of coverage and improvement in health outcomes. For twenty years a series of health financing policies have focused on mitigating costs to increase access particularly by vulnerable groups. Demand side financing policies including health equity funds, vouchers and community health insurance have been complemented by supply side measures to improve service delivery incentives through contracting. Multiple rounds of the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey are used to investigate the impact of financing policies on health service utilisation and out of pocket payments both over time using commune panel data from 1997 to 2011 and across groups using individual data from 2004 and 2009. Policy combinations including areas with multiple interventions were examined against controls using difference-in-difference and panel estimation. Widespread roll-out of financing policies combined with user charge formalisation has led to a general reduction in health spending by the poor. Equity funds are associated with a reduction in out of pocket payments although the effect of donor schemes is larger than those financed by government. Vouchers, which are aimed only at reproductive health services, has a more modest impact that is enhanced when combined with other schemes. At the aggregate level changes are less pronounced although there is evidence that policies take a number of years to have substantial effect. Health financing policies and the supportive systems that they require provide a foundation for more radical extension of coverage already envisaged by a proposed social insurance system. A policy challenge is how disparate mechanisms can be integrated to ensure that vulnerable groups remain protected.

  6. Molecular Epidemiology and Genetic Diversity of Norovirus in Young Children in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Nakjarung, Kaewkanya; Neesanant, Pimmnapar; Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Sethabutr, Orntipa; Vansith, Ket; Meng, Chhour Y.; Swierczewski, Brett E.; Mason, Carl J.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the genetic diversity of noroviruses identified from a previous surveillance study conducted at the National Pediatric Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from 2004 to 2006. In the previous study, 926 stool samples were collected from children aged 3–60 months with acute diarrhea (cases) and without diarrhea (controls) with reported 6.7% of cases and 3.2% of controls being positive for norovirus. The initial norovirus diagnostic assay was performed with real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT PCR) which also distinguished between genogroups I and II (GI and GII). Norovirus infection was most commonly detected in children aged 12–23 months in both cases and controls. Norovirus Genotyping Tool and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the 3′ end of the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRp) and the capsid domain region were employed to assign genotypes of the norovirus strains. GII.4 was the most predominant capsid genotype detected at 39.5% followed by GII.6 at 14.9%. The GII.4 Hunter 2004 variant was the predominant strain detected. Six RdRP/capsid recombinants including GII.P7/GII.6, GII.P7/GII.14, GII.P7/GII.20, GII.P12/GII.13, GII.P17/GII.16, and GII.P21/GII.3 were also identified. This study of norovirus infection in young children in Cambodia suggests genetic diversity of norovirus as reported worldwide. PMID:28115947

  7. Prevalence and risk factors of Strongyloides stercoralis in Takeo Province, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The threadworm Strongyloides stercoralis, the most neglected helminth, affects an estimated 30-100 million people worldwide. Information on S. stercoralis infection is scarce in tropical and sub-tropical resource poor countries, including Cambodia. We determined S. stercoralis infection prevalence and risk factors for infection in the general population in Southern Cambodia. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out between January and April 2011 among 2,861 participants living in 60 villages of Takeo province, using Koga-agar plate culture, the Baermann technique and the Kato-Katz technique on a single stool sample. Results Eight intestinal helminth species were diagnosed. Hookworm (31.4%) and S. stercoralis (21.0%) occurred most frequently. Prevalence of S. stercoralis infection increased with age. In all age groups a higher prevalence was found among males than among females (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.4 – 2.0; P < 0.001). Participants who had a latrine at home were significantly less frequently infected with S. stercoralis than those who did not (OR: 0.7; 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.8; P = 0.003). Muscle pain (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0 – 1.6; P = 0.028) and urticaria (OR: 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1 – 1.8; P = 0.001) were significantly associated with S. stercoralis infection. Conclusions S. stercoralis is highly prevalent among the general Cambodian population and should no longer be neglected. Access to adequate diagnosis and treatment is urgently needed. PMID:24886763

  8. The village/commune safety policy and HIV prevention efforts among key affected populations in Cambodia: finding a balance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Village/Commune Safety Policy was launched by the Ministry of Interior of the Kingdom of Cambodia in 2010 and, due to a priority focus on “cleaning the streets”, has created difficulties for HIV prevention programs attempting to implement programs that work with key affected populations including female sex workers and people who inject drugs. The implementation of the policy has forced HIV program implementers, the UN and various government counterparts to explore and develop collaborative ways of delivering HIV prevention services within this difficult environment. The following case study explores some of these efforts and highlights the promising development of a Police Community Partnership Initiative that it is hoped will find a meaningful balance between the Village/Commune Safety Policy and HIV prevention efforts with key affected populations in Cambodia. PMID:22770267

  9. A new species of wolf snake (Colubridae: Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826) from Phnom Samkos Wildlife Sanctuary, Cardamom Mountains, southwest Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Neang, Thy; Hartmann, Timo; Hun, Seiha; Souter, Nicholas J; Furey, Neil M

    2014-06-06

    A new species of the genus Lycodon Fitzinger, 1826 is described from the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia. Lycodon zoosvictoriae distinctly differs from all other species of Lycodon in Southeast Asia by a combination of its morphometric characters and unique coloration. The new species has 17 dorsal scales at midbody; 2+2 temporals; 8 supralabials; 10 infralabials; loreal separated from internasal and orbit; 213 ventrals; 85 subcaudals; pale tan brown ground color; irregular dark brown blotches on anterior part, 31 transverse blotches on posterior part of body and 26 blotches on tail. Given its submontane type locality, the new species could prove to be endemic to the Cardamom Mountains of southwest Cambodia and probably Southeast Thailand.

  10. Point‐of‐sale promotion of breastmilk substitutes and commercially produced complementary foods in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Catherine; Sweet, Lara; Khin, Mengkheang; Ndiaye Coly, Aminata; Sy Gueye, Ndeye Yaga; Adhikary, Indu; Dhungel, Shrid; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth; Huffman, Sandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In order to assess the prevalence of point‐of‐sale promotions of infant and young child feeding products in Phnom Penh, Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; Dakar Department, Senegal; and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, approximately 30 retail stores per site, 121 in total, were visited. Promotional activity for breastmilk substitutes (BMS) and commercially produced complementary foods in each site were recorded. Point‐of‐sale promotion of BMS occurred in approximately one‐third of sampled stores in Phnom Penh and Dakar Department but in 3.2% and 6.7% of stores in Kathmandu Valley and Dar es Salaam, respectively. Promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was highly prevalent in Dakar Department with half of stores having at least one promotion, while promotions for these products occurred in 10% or less of stores in the other three sites. While promotion of BMS in stores is legal in Senegal, it is prohibited in Cambodia without prior permission of the Ministry of Health/Ministry of Information and prohibited in both Nepal and Tanzania. Strengthening legislation in Senegal and enforcing regulations in Cambodia could help to prevent such promotion that can negatively affect breastfeeding practices. Key messages Even in countries such as Cambodia, Nepal and Tanzania where point‐of‐sale promotion is restricted, promotions of BMS were observed (in nearly one‐third of stores in Phnom Penh and less than 10% in Dar es Salaam and Kathmandu).Limited promotion of commercially produced complementary foods was evident (less than 10% of stores had a promotion for such foods), except in Dakar Department, where promotions were found in half of stores.Efforts are needed to strengthen monitoring, regulation and enforcement of restrictions on the promotion of BMS.Manufacturers and distributors should take responsibility for compliance with national regulations and global policies pertaining to the promotion of breastmilk substitutes. PMID:27061961

  11. The need for family planning and safe abortion services among women sex workers seeking STI care in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Delvaux, Thérèse; Crabbé, François; Seng, Sopheap; Laga, Marie

    2003-05-01

    In Cambodia, clinics established for the prevention and management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in women sex workers do not address other reproductive health services. The aim of this study was to assess the need for more comprehensive sexual and reproductive health services for women sex workers in Cambodia. In January 2000, relevant documents were reviewed, interviews with key informants carried out and group interviews with women sex workers conducted. Medical records from women sex workers were also reviewed and some data collected prospectively in one government STI clinic. Interviews with the women and data from the government clinic indicated that excluding condoms, a very low proportion of women sex workers were currently using a modern contraceptive method--5% of 38 women and 1.6% of 632 women, respectively. Induced abortion was widely used but was perceived to be risky and costly. Data from a mobile team intervention and the government clinic respectively showed that 25.5% (n = 1744) and 21.9% (n = 588) of women sex workers reported at least one previous induced abortion. These findings reveal the need for accessible contraception and safe abortion services among sex workers in Cambodia, and raise the issue of the reproductive rights and reproductive health needs of women sex workers in general.

  12. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W

    2016-02-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages.

  13. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  14. Infant and Young Child Feces Management and Enabling Products for Their Hygienic Collection, Transport, and Disposal in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Miller-Petrie, Molly K.; Voigt, Lindsay; McLennan, Lyn; Cairncross, Sandy; Jenkins, Marion W.

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, children's feces are rarely disposed of in an improved sanitation facility. This study examines current practices and the role that enabling products may play in increasing hygienic management of infant and young child (IYC) feces in households with access to improved sanitation. A survey was conducted with the primary caregiver of a child under 5 years of age in 130 homes with an improved latrine in 21 villages across two provinces in Cambodia. Two focus group discussions per province were conducted after the survey to obtain caregiver feedback on new enabling products for hygienic management. Among caregivers, 63% reported child feces disposal in an improved latrine but only 36% reported doing so consistently. Besides child age, years of latrine ownership, caregiver age, consistency of adult latrine use, and presence of child feces management tools in the latrine were associated with hygienic disposal. The youngest caretakers with the newest latrines and youngest children were least likely to dispose of IYC feces hygienically, representing a key target group for interventions to improve hygienic disposal in Cambodia. Reusable diapers, child-friendly potties, and possibly latrine seats, that offer child safety, time and cost savings, and easy disposal and cleaning could potentially facilitate hygienic disposal for these ages. PMID:26598568

  15. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  16. Is importing second-hand products a good thing? The cases of computers and tires in Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Chanthy, Lay Nitivattananon, Vilas

    2011-04-15

    Is importing second-hand products (SHPs) good for Cambodia? To answer this question, one must seriously consider environmental and social effects. The main objective of this study is to identify and assess the economic, social, and environmental impacts of imported SHPs to determine whether or not Cambodia benefits. Imported second-hand computers (SHPCs) and second-hand tires (SHTs) were selected as cases for the study. The study used a scaling checklist to identify significant impacts of these two imported items. Significant impacts were ranked and rated into a single value (score) for integration. Integrated impact assessment showed that imported SHPCs create a very small positive impact (+ 0.1 of + 5) and imported SHTs generate a large negative impact (- 2.83 of - 5). These scores are mainly the result of environmental impact, predominantly waste issues. Thus, current imports of SHPCs and SHTs do not really benefit Cambodia, but instead cause serious environmental problems from their waste issues. The import serves as a channel to transfer waste into developing countries.

  17. Crop Species Recognition and Discrimination Paddy-Rice from Reaped-Fields by the Radar Vegetation Index (rvi) of ALOS-2/PALSAR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The Japanese ALOS-2 satellite was launched on May 24th, 2014. It has the L-band SAR, PALSAR-2. Kim,Y. and van Zyl, J.J. proposed a kind of Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) as RVI = 8 * σ0hv / (σ0hh + σ0vv + 2* σ0hv) by L-band full-polarimetric radar data. Kim, Y. and Jackson, T.J., et al. applied the equation into rice and soybean by multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer above 4.16 meters from the ground. Their report showed the L-band was the most promising wave length for estimating LAI and NDVI from RVI. The author tried to apply the analysis to the actual paddy field areas, both Inashiki region and Miyagi region in the eastern main island, "Honshu", areas of Japan by ALOS-2/PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data in the summer season, the main crop growing time, of 2015. Judging from conventional methods, it will be possible to discriminate paddy rice growing fields from reaped fields or the other crops growing fields by the PALSAR-2 data. But the RVI value is vaguely related to such land use or biomass at the present preliminary experiment. The continuous research by the additional PALSAR-2 full-polarimetry data should be desired.

  18. When social networking is not working: individuals with low self-esteem recognize but do not reap the benefits of self-disclosure on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Forest, Amanda L; Wood, Joanne V

    2012-03-01

    The popular media have publicized the idea that social networking Web sites (e.g., Facebook) may enrich the interpersonal lives of people who struggle to make social connections. The opportunity that such sites provide for self-disclosure-a necessary component in the development of intimacy--could be especially beneficial for people with low self-esteem, who are normally hesitant to self-disclose and who have difficulty maintaining satisfying relationships. We suspected that posting on Facebook would reduce the perceived riskiness of self-disclosure, thus encouraging people with low self-esteem to express themselves more openly. In three studies, we examined whether such individuals see Facebook as a safe and appealing medium for self-disclosure, and whether their actual Facebook posts enabled them to reap social rewards. We found that although people with low self-esteem considered Facebook an appealing venue for self-disclosure, the low positivity and high negativity of their disclosures elicited undesirable responses from other people.

  19. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project.

    PubMed

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

    2012-01-01

    The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianaesp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioidessp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similarissp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpigersp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamellasp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoirisp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilussp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius varisp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilissp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species.

  20. Indiscriminate Fisheries: Understanding the Foodweb of the Great Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannah, L.; Kaufman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Indiscriminate fisheries target multiple species with multiple gear types. In contrast to well-studied, industrialized single-species, single-gear fisheries, little theory and little but growing literature on practice exists for indiscriminate fisheries. Indiscriminate fisheries are disproportionately important in low-income countries, providing most of the animal protein intake in countries such as Cambodia and Bangladesh. Indiscriminate fisheries may be either freshwater or marine, but here we focus on what may be the largest freshwater indiscriminate fishery in the world. Cambodia's freshwater fishery stands out because it provides the majority of animal protein to over 3 million people living in poverty. The fishery of the Tonle Sap lake is one of the largest, if not the largest contributor to this freshwater fish take, and is perhaps the largest freshwater fishery in the world. In contrast to its importance, very little is known about the foodweb ecology of this system, or how community management which now governs the entire fishery, interacts with biological and physical factors such as climate change.The foodweb of the Tonle Sap has changed dramatically due to high fishing pressure. A system that once harbored giant catfish, barbs and stingrays is now dominated by fish under 20cm in length. The simplification of the system may not have reduced its productivity. Theory of indiscriminate fisheries suggests that r-selected species may be favored and that biomass available for harvest may be maximized, while being more sensitive to environmental fluctuations such as climate change due to food web simplification. The r-selection and size predictions of theory have been confirmed by observations of the Tonle Sap. Early model results suggest sensitivity to environmental stochasticity. The interaction of these ecological changes with social systems will be tested in the Tonle Sap. Fisheries management across the lake has been transferred to community management

  1. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice field with rice straw management in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vibol, S; Towprayoon, S

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the greenhouse gas emissions from paddy fields of Cambodia, the methodology of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines, IPCC coefficients, and emission factors from the experiment in Thailand and another country were used. Total area under rice cultivation during the years 2005-2006 was 2,048,360 ha in the first crop season and 298,529 ha in the second crop season. The emission of methane from stubble incorporation with manure plus fertilizer application areas in the first crop season was estimated to be 192,783.74 ton higher than stubble with manure, stubble with fertilizer, and stubble without fertilizer areas. The fields with stubble burning emitted the highest emission of methane (75,771.29 ton) followed by stubble burning with manure (22,251.08 ton), stubble burning with fertilizer (13,213.27 ton), and stubble burning with fertilizer application areas (3,222.22 ton). The total emission of methane from rice field in Cambodia for the years 2005-2006 was approximately 342,649.26 ton (342.65 Gg) in the first crop season and 36,838.88 ton (36.84 Gg) in the second crop season. During the first crop season in the years 2005-2006, Battambang province emitted the highest amount of CH(4) (38,764.48 ton) and, in the second crop season during the years 2005-2006, the highest emission (8,262.34 ton) was found in Takeo province (8,262.34 ton). Nitrous oxide emission was between 2.70 and 1,047.92 ton in the first crop season and it ranged from 0 to 244.90 ton in the second crop season. Total nitrous oxide emission from paddy rice field was estimated to be 9,026.28 ton in the first crop season and 1,091.93 ton in the second crop season. Larger area under cultivation is responsible for higher emission of methane and nitrous oxide. Total emission of nitrous oxide by using IPCC default emission coefficient was approximately 2,328.85 ton. The total global warming potential of Cambodian paddy rice soil is 11,723,217.03 ton (11,723 Gg

  2. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia

    SciTech Connect

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-02-15

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300–500 μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50–300 μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93 μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22 μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08 μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57–4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93 µg/g among those from the highly

  3. Mobile phone use among female entertainment workers in Cambodia: an observation study

    PubMed Central

    Tatomir, Brent; Sovannary, Tuot; Pal, Khuondyla; Mengsrun, Song; Dionosio, Jennifer; Luong, Minh-Anh; Yi, Siyan

    2017-01-01

    Background Text or voice messages containing health behavior change content may be an inexpensive, discreet, sustainable and scalable way to reach populations at high risk for HIV. In Cambodia, one of the important high-risk populations is female entertainment workers (FEWs). This ethnographic study aims to explore typical phone use, examining patterns and behaviors that may influence the design of future mHealth interventions. Methods The study consisted of one 8-hour non-participant observation session for 15 randomly sampled FEWs. Observations focused on capturing normal daily use of mobile devices. Observation checklists were populated by observers during the observations and a post-observation survey was conducted. Findings were discussed with Cambodian HIV outreach workers and HIV research fellows and their interpretations are summarized below. Results In this ethnographic study, all 15 participants made calls, checked the time and received research-related texts. More than half (n=8) of the participants engaged in texting to a non-research recipient. About half (n=7) went on Facebook (FB) and some (n=5) listened to music and looked at their FB newsfeed. Fewer played a mobile game, posted a photo to FB, went on YouTube, used FB chat/messenger, watched a video on FB, played a game on FB, used FB call/voice chat, looked at their phone’s background or used the LINE app. Fewer still shared their phones, left them unattended, added airtime or changed their SIM cards. When participants received a research text message, most did not share the text message with anyone, did not ask for help deciphering the message and did not receive help composing a response. Notable themes from observer notes, HIV outreach workers and researchers include reasons why phone calls were the most frequent mode of communication, examples of how cell phone company text messages are used as a form of behavior change, literacy as a persistent barrier for some FEWs, and FEWs’ high

  4. Selling sex in unsafe spaces: sex work risk environments in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The risk environment framework provides a valuable but under-utilised heuristic for understanding environmental vulnerability to HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among female sex workers. Brothels have been shown to be safer than street-based sex work, with higher rates of consistent condom use and lower HIV prevalence. While entertainment venues are also assumed to be safer than street-based sex work, few studies have examined environmental influences on vulnerability to HIV in this context. Methods As part of the Young Women's Health Study, a prospective observational study of young women (15-29 years) engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, we conducted in-depth interviews (n = 33) to explore vulnerability to HIV/STI and related harms. Interviews were conducted in Khmer by trained interviewers, transcribed and translated into English and analysed for thematic content. Results The intensification of anti-prostitution and anti-trafficking efforts in Cambodia has increased the number of women working in entertainment venues and on the street. Our results confirm that street-based sex work places women at risk of HIV/STI infection and identify significant environmental risks related to entertainment-based sex work, including limited access to condoms and alcohol-related intoxication. Our data also indicate that exposure to violence and interactions with the police are mediated by the settings in which sex is sold. In particular, transacting sex in environments such as guest houses where there is little or no oversight in the form of peer or managerial support or protection, may increase vulnerability to HIV/STI. Conclusions Entertainment venues may also provide a high risk environment for sex work. Our results indicate that strategies designed to address HIV prevention among brothel-based FSWs in Cambodia have not translated well to street and entertainment-based sex work venues in which increasing numbers of women are working. There is an urgent

  5. Characteristics of bedrock-alluvial anastomosed rivers: the Mekong River in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov. V.; Carling, Paul. A.

    2010-05-01

    The Mekong River is the 12th largest river in the world in terms of its length and mean annual discharge and yet it is poorly investigated. In the north eastern regions of Cambodia the Mekong River develops a multichannel pattern. It is characterised by a complex of intersecting bedrock channels, well vegetated alluvial and seasonally inundated islands, various types of sand bars, numerous bedrock exposures, rapids, waterfalls and deep bedrock pools which can be classified as a large mixed bedrock-alluvial anastomosed river of a tropical monsoonal climate zone. In order to complete a portrait of the river at the high level of details new data on morphology, geology and sediments were obtained during field surveys of a 120 km river section in Cambodia and combined with information from published literature and interpretation of available remote sensing images. This process has enabled to update and clarify knowledge on morphology of observed islands and floodplain, comprehensive geology and tectonic structures, hydrological regime and land cover. Complex analyses of the collected data have distinguished several geomorphological zones accordingly to frequency of morphological elements, the planview configuration of channels and vertical profile characteristics. The occurrence of each zone is a subject of variable controlling factors such as local topography, channel gradient, structural and tectonic elements and intercalating geological units. Evolution of the channel pattern has been considered at both short- and long term time scales. Historical cartographic and remote sensing materials were applied to determine planform channel changes over the last 50 years revealing the channels stability and cases of occasional, local erosion and deposition. The channel network was extracted from vector layers to examine channels and islands width and length parameters, bifurcation angles at the upstream end of islands and to obtain main channel network indices such as braiding

  6. Neurobehavioral effects of arsenic exposure among secondary school children in the Kandal Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Vibol, Sao; Hashim, Jamal Hisham; Sarmani, Sukiman

    2015-02-01

    The research was carried out at 3 study sites with varying groundwater arsenic (As) levels in the Kandal Province of Cambodia. Kampong Kong Commune was chosen as a highly contaminated site (300-500μg/L), Svay Romiet Commune was chosen as a moderately contaminated site (50-300μg/L) and Anlong Romiet Commune was chosen as a control site. Neurobehavioral tests on the 3 exposure groups were conducted using a modified WHO neurobehavioral core test battery. Seven neurobehavioral tests including digit symbol, digit span, Santa Ana manual dexterity, Benton visual retention, pursuit aiming, trail making and simple reaction time were applied. Children's hair samples were also collected to investigate the influence of hair As levels on the neurobehavioral test scores. The results from the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses of hair samples showed that hair As levels at the 3 study sites were significantly different (p<0.001), whereby hair samples from the highly contaminated site (n=157) had a median hair As level of 0.93μg/g, while the moderately contaminated site (n=151) had a median hair As level of 0.22μg/g, and the control site (n=214) had a median hair As level of 0.08μg/g. There were significant differences among the 3 study sites for all the neurobehavioral tests scores, except for digit span (backward) test. Multiple linear regression clearly shows a positive significant influence of hair As levels on all the neurobehavioral test scores, except for digit span (backward) test, after controlling for hair lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and cadmium (Cd). Children with high hair As levels experienced 1.57-4.67 times greater risk of having lower neurobehavioral test scores compared to those with low hair As levels, after adjusting for hair Pb, Mn and Cd levels and BMI status. In conclusion, arsenic-exposed school children from the Kandal Province of Cambodia with a median hair As level of 0.93µg/g among those from the highly contaminated study

  7. 'A preferred consultant and partner to the Royal Government, NGOs, and the community': British American Tobacco's access to policy-makers in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2017-04-01

    British American Tobacco Cambodia (BATC) has dominated the country's tobacco market since its launch in 1996. Aggressive marketing in a weak regulatory environment and strategies to influence tobacco control policy have contributed to an emerging tobacco-related public health crisis. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, issues of BATC's in-house newsletter, civil society reports and media demonstrate that BATC officials have successfully sought to align the company with Cambodia's increasingly controversial political and business leadership that is centred around the Cambodian People's Party with the aim of gaining access to policy-makers and influencing the policy process. Connections to the political elite have resulted in official recognition of the company's ostensible contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development and, more significantly, provided BATC with opportunities to petition policy-makers and to dilute tobacco control regulation. Corporate promotion of its contribution to Cambodia's economic and social development is at odds with its determined efforts to thwart public health regulation and Cambodia's compliance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  8. Characterisation of the water quality from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bennett, H B; Shantz, A; Shin, G; Sampson, M L; Meschke, J S

    2010-01-01

    An 8 month investigation into the quality of water from open and rope-pump shallow wells in rural Cambodia was conducted. Wells were analysed for indicators of the health (arsenic, fluoride, manganese, nitrate, total coliforms, E. coli, male-specific coliphage) and aesthetic (iron, chloride, conductivity, total dissolved solids, hardnesss, turbidity, pH) quality of the water, and referenced to the Cambodian Drinking Water Standard when available. The shallow aquifer was chemically less of a health risk than the deep aquifer; however, microbial contamination was considerable for both shallow well types with mean E. coli loads of 10(3) CFU/100 mL and male-specific coliphage contamination of 10(2) PFU/eluate. Temporal variation in microbial contamination was significant (p<0.05), with overall loads decreasing during the dry season. The aesthetic quality of the water was poor for all samples, but worsened during the dry season. No significant difference was observed in the quality of water from open and rope-pump wells, despite their classification as unimproved and improved respectively by the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme. Contaminants present in both well types may readily be removed by simple water treatment, suggesting that household treatment may be more beneficial to rural Cambodian households than shallow aquifer source improvements.

  9. The Epidemiology of Pediatric Bone and Joint Infections in Cambodia, 2007–11

    PubMed Central

    Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E.; Soeng, Sona; Hor, PutChhat; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Kumar, Varun; Khan, Sophy; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

    2013-01-01

    There are limited data on osteoarticular infections from resource-limited settings in Asia. A retrospective study of patients presenting to the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia, January 2007–July 2011, identified 81 cases (28% monoarticular septic arthritis, 51% single-limb osteomyelitis and 15% multisite infections). The incidence was 13.8/100 000 hospital attendances. The median age was 7.3 years, with a male/female ratio of 1.9:1; 35% presented within 5 days of symptom onset (median 7 days). Staphylococcus aureus was cultured in 29 (36%) cases (52% of culture-positive cases); one isolate was methicillin-resistant (MRSA). Median duration of antimicrobial treatment was 29 days (interquartile range 21–43); rates of surgical intervention were 96%, and 46% of children had sequelae, with one fatality. In this setting osteoarticular infections are relatively common with high rates of surgical intervention and sequelae. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest culturable cause, but methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not a major problem, unlike in other Asian centers. PMID:22977206

  10. Parental styles in the intergenerational transmission of trauma stemming from the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Field, Nigel P; Muong, Sophear; Sochanvimean, Vannavuth

    2013-10-01

    The impact of parental styles in intergenerational transmission of trauma among mothers who survived the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia, in power from 1975 to 1979, and their teenaged children was examined in 2 studies. In Study 1, 46 Cambodian female high school students and their mothers were recruited. Each daughter completed anxiety and depression measures as well as assessment of her mother's role-reversing, overprotective, and rejecting parental styles, whereas the mothers completed measures of their trauma exposure during the Khmer Rouge regime and PTSD symptoms. In support of trauma transmission, the mother's PTSD symptoms were predictive of her daughter's anxiety. Moreover, the mother's role-reversing parental style was shown to mediate the relationship between her own and her daughter's symptoms. In support of their generalizability, the results were replicated in Study 2 in a Cambodian-American refugee sample comparing 15 mental health treatment-seeking mothers and their teenaged children with 17 nontreatment-seeking mother-child pairs. The implications of the findings within the larger literature on intergenerational trauma transmission stemming from genocide are discussed.

  11. Cross-sectional study on risk factors of HIV among female commercial sex workers in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Ohshige, K.; Morio, S.; Mizushima, S.; Kitamura, K.; Tajima, K.; Ito, A.; Suyama, A.; Usuku, S.; Saphonn, V.; Heng, S.; Hor, L. B.; Tia, P.; Soda, K.

    2000-01-01

    To describe epidemiological features on HIV prevalence among female commercial sex workers (CSWs), a cross-sectional study on sexual behaviour and serological prevalence was carried out in Cambodia. The CSWs were interviewed on their demographic characters and behaviour and their blood samples were taken for testing on sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis, syphilis, and hepatitis B. Associations between risk factors and HIV seropositivity were analysed. High seroprevalence of HIV and Chlamydia trachomatis IgG antibody (CT-IgG-Ab) was shown among the CSWs (54 and 81.7%, respectively). Univariate logistic regression analyses showed an association between HIV seropositivity and age, duration of prostitution, the number of clients per day and CT-IgG-Ab. Especially, high-titre chlamydial seropositivity showed a strong significant association with HIV prevalence. In multiple logistic regression analyses, CT-IgG-Ab with higher titre was significantly independently related to HIV infection. These suggest that existence of Chlamydia trachomatis is highly related to HIV prevalence. PMID:10722142

  12. Boiling as household water treatment in Cambodia: a longitudinal study of boiling practice and microbiological effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joseph; Sobsey, Mark D

    2012-09-01

    This paper focuses on the consistency of use and microbiological effectiveness of boiling as it is practiced in one study site in peri-urban Cambodia. We followed 60 randomly selected households in Kandal Province over 6 months to collect longitudinal data on water boiling practices and effectiveness in reducing Escherichia coli in household drinking water. Despite > 90% of households reporting that they used boiling as a means of drinking water treatment, an average of only 31% of households had boiled water on hand at follow-up visits, suggesting that actual use may be lower than self-reported use. We collected 369 matched untreated and boiled water samples. Mean reduction of E. coli was 98.5%; 162 samples (44%) of boiled samples were free of E. coli (< 1 colony-forming unit [cfu]/100 mL), and 270 samples (73%) had < 10 cfu/100 mL. Storing boiled water in a covered container was associated with safer product water than storage in an uncovered container.

  13. Characterizing Types of Human Mobility to Inform Differential and Targeted Malaria Elimination Strategies in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Gryseels, Charlotte; Dierickx, Susan; Bannister-Tyrrell, Melanie; Trienekens, Suzan; Uk, Sambunny; Phoeuk, Pisen; Suon, Sokha; Set, Srun; Gerrets, René; Hoibak, Sarah; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Tho, Sochantha; Durnez, Lies; Sluydts, Vincent; d’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Erhart, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Human population movements currently challenge malaria elimination in low transmission foci in the Greater Mekong Subregion. Using a mixed-methods design, combining ethnography (n = 410 interviews), malariometric data (n = 4996) and population surveys (n = 824 indigenous populations; n = 704 Khmer migrants) malaria vulnerability among different types of mobile populations was researched in the remote province of Ratanakiri, Cambodia. Different structural types of human mobility were identified, showing differential risk and vulnerability. Among local indigenous populations, access to malaria testing and treatment through the VMW-system and LLIN coverage was high but control strategies failed to account for forest farmers’ prolonged stays at forest farms/fields (61% during rainy season), increasing their exposure (p = 0.002). The Khmer migrants, with low acquired immunity, active on plantations and mines, represented a fundamentally different group not reached by LLIN-distribution campaigns since they were largely unregistered (79%) and unaware of the local VMW-system (95%) due to poor social integration. Khmer migrants therefore require control strategies including active detection, registration and immediate access to malaria prevention and control tools from which they are currently excluded. In conclusion, different types of mobility require different malaria elimination strategies. Targeting mobility without an in-depth understanding of malaria risk in each group challenges further progress towards elimination. PMID:26593245

  14. Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. (Digenea: Heterophyidae) from experimental hamsters infected with metacercariae in mullets from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Woon-Mok; Kim, Deok-Gyu; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Cho, Jaeeun; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2016-01-01

    Pygidiopsis cambodiensis n. sp. is described based on adult flukes recovered from Syrian golden hamsters experimentally infected with metacercariae from mullets (Liza macrolepis) purchased at a local fish market in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The specimens were examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. Among the 13 species so far assigned to Pygidiopsis, the new species belongs to the summa-type (including Pygidiopsis pelecani, Pygidiopsis phalacrocoracis, Pygidiopsis piclaumoreli, Pygidiopsis plana, and Pygidiopsis summa) which lack circumoral spines and have vitelline follicles extending posteriorly from the level of the ovary some distance into the post-testicular space and the uterus not exceeding the acetabulum anteriorly. The new species differs from the other five species of the summa-type particularly in the morphology of the ventrogenital complex, including the genital sac, gonotyl, and gonotyl spines (= rodlets). The genital sac is well developed, sucker-like, slightly larger than the ventral sucker, muscular, and equipped with two gonotyls on the ventral side of the sac. Gonotyls are protruding pad-like, and the number of rodlets on the left gonotyl is four to five and that on the right gonotyl is 10-11 in two rows. This is the fifth Pygidiopsis species reported in Asia, following P. summa (Japan, Korea, and Vietnam), P. phalacrocorasis (Japan), P. pelecani (China), and Pygidiopsis marivillai (Philippines).

  15. Microbiological effectiveness of locally produced ceramic filters for drinking water treatment in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D

    2010-03-01

    Low-cost options for the treatment of drinking water at the household level are being explored by the Cambodian government and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) working in Cambodia, where many lack access to improved drinking water sources and diarrhoeal diseases are the most prevalent cause of death in children under 5 years of age. The ceramic water purifier (CWP), a locally produced, low-cost ceramic filter, is now being implemented by several NGOs, and an estimated 100,000+households in the country now use them for drinking water treatment. Two candidate filters were tested for the reduction of bacterial and viral surrogates for waterborne pathogens using representative Cambodian drinking water sources (rainwater and surface water) spiked with Escherichia coli and bacteriophage MS2. Results indicate that filters were capable of reducing key microbes in the laboratory with mean reductions of E. coli of approximately 99% and mean reduction of bacteriophages of 90-99% over >600 litres throughput. Increased effectiveness was not observed in filters with an AgNO3 amendment. At under US$10 per filter, locally produced ceramic filters may be a promising option for drinking water treatment and safe storage at the household level.

  16. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N.; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A.; Var, Chivorn

    2016-01-01

    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming. PMID:28009812

  17. Condom negotiation and use among female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thanh Cong; Markham, Christine M; Tran, Ly T H; Beasley, R Palmer; Ross, Michael W

    2013-02-01

    We examined condom-use negotiation strategies and condom use among 81 female sex workers (FSWs) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Percentages of FSWs who did not negotiate condom use or could not describe a negotiation strategy with native clients, foreign clients, and non-paying partners were 15.0, 29.0 and 67.6 %, respectively. The most common negotiation strategy used was "provision of risk information" for native clients (43.8 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %), and "direct request" for foreign clients (39.5 %). About half could not describe more than one negotiation strategy. Consistent condom use was high with native clients (98.8 %), yet comparatively lower with foreign clients (86.9 %) and non-paying partners (26.5 %). FSWs who did not negotiate or did not know how to negotiate condom use were less likely to report condom use with non-paying regular partners. Future interventions should enhance condom negotiation strategies between FSWs and all partner types.

  18. The evaluation test of hand-held dual-sensor ALIS in Croatia and Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Motoyuki; Takahashi, Kazunori

    2007-04-01

    We are developing a new hand-held land mine detection dual-sensor (ALIS) which is equipped with a metal detector and a GPR. ALIS is equipped with a sensor tracking system, which can record the GPR and Metal detector signal with its location. It makes possible to process the data after the data was acquired, including migration. The migration processing drastically increases the quality of the images of the buried objects. Evaluation test of ALIS has been conducted in several test sites. In February 2006, a one-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia, and in October- December 2006, a two-month evaluation test was conducted in Croatia. Since the dual-sensor is a new landmine detection sensor, and the conventional evaluation procedure developed for metal detectors cannot directly be applied for the dual sensor. In Croatia, the detection probability was comparable to that by a metal detector operated by local deminers. In addition, we showed that ALIS provides image of buried objects by GPR, which can be used for identification. Therefore, their performances were sufficiently high. Then the test was also conducted in Cambodia. The test was carried out by 2 local deminers independently, which allows studying the influence of different operators and increases the statistical value of the results.

  19. Poverty, economic growth, deprivation, and water: the cases of Cambodia and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Varis, Olli

    2008-05-01

    Poverty reduction decorates all development agendas, but the complexity of the poverty issue is too often hidden behind simplistic indicators and development goals. Here, a closer look is taken at the concepts of "deprivation" and "vulnerability" as outcomes of poverty. Deprivation leads typically to social exclusion and marginalization; such groups are particularly weak in getting themselves out of poverty by "self-help," and economic growth does not trickle down to these people. When looking at the connections between poverty reduction and economic growth, special emphasis should be put on the differences between modern and more traditional sectors: development of the modern sector should not marginalize and exclude those dependent on more traditional livelihoods. Two case studies--The Tonle Sap area, Cambodia, and the Mekong Delta, Vietnam--reveal that investment in education, empowerment of small-scale entrepreneurship and other means of microeconomic environment, along with good governance, infrastructure, and income distribution can ensure that economic growth includes the poorer echelons of society.

  20. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today.

    PubMed

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-05-16

    The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies.

  1. Evidence of an ‘invitation’ effect in feeding sylvatic Stegomyia albopicta from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Orientation of haematophagous insects towards a potential host is largely mediated by kairomones that, in some groups or species may include chemicals produced during feeding by the insects themselves, the so called ‘invitation’ effect. Methods The ‘invitation’ effect in blood-feeding diurnally active Stegomyia albopicta was investigated over 33 days in secondary forest in Mondolkiri Province, Cambodia. Two human volunteers sitting inside a shelter collected mosquitoes and noted where and when they landed. A 10% emanator of a synthetic pyrethroid with high vapour action was in use on alternate days. Results Overall, 2726 mosquitoes were collected, 1654 of which had the landing site recorded. The heads of the volunteers were the locations with the highest density of landings per surface area whilst the knees and elbows accounted for most of the landings received on the arms and legs. Landings recorded within three minutes of each other on a collector were about 2.5 times more likely to be on the same body part than on a random body part, weighted for landing site preference. This preference did not vary with collector or pyrethroid. Conclusions The ‘invitation’ effect may be due to a semio-chemical produced early in the feeding process. Incorporation of such a chemical into traps designed to control this important vector of dengue and chikungunya viruses might potentially improve their attractiveness. PMID:25015104

  2. A comprehensive archaeological map of the world's largest preindustrial settlement complex at Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Evans, Damian; Pottier, Christophe; Fletcher, Roland; Hensley, Scott; Tapley, Ian; Milne, Anthony; Barbetti, Michael

    2007-09-04

    The great medieval settlement of Angkor in Cambodia [9th-16th centuries Common Era (CE)] has for many years been understood as a "hydraulic city," an urban complex defined, sustained, and ultimately overwhelmed by a complex water management network. Since the 1980s that view has been disputed, but the debate has remained unresolved because of insufficient data on the landscape beyond the great temples: the broader context of the monumental remains was only partially understood and had not been adequately mapped. Since the 1990s, French, Australian, and Cambodian teams have sought to address this empirical deficit through archaeological mapping projects by using traditional methods such as ground survey in conjunction with advanced radar remote-sensing applications in partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Here we present a major outcome of that research: a comprehensive archaeological map of greater Angkor, covering nearly 3,000 km2, prepared by the Greater Angkor Project (GAP). The map reveals a vast, low-density settlement landscape integrated by an elaborate water management network covering>1,000 km2, the most extensive urban complex of the preindustrial world. It is now clear that anthropogenic changes to the landscape were both extensive and substantial enough to have created grave challenges to the long-term viability of the settlement.

  3. Municipal solid waste management in Phnom Penh, capital city of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Kaneko, Hidehiro; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an overview of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for both technical and regulatory arrangements in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia. Problems with the current MSWM are identified, and challenges and recommendations for future improvement are also given in this paper. MPP is a small city with a total area of approximately 374 km(2) and an urban population of about 1.3 million in 2008. For the last 14 years, average annual municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in MPP has increased rapidly from 0.136 million tons in 1995 to 0.361 million tons in 2008. The gross generation rate of MSW per capita was 0.74 kg day(-1). However, the per capita household waste generation was 0.487 kg day(- 1). At 63.3%, food waste is the predominant portion of generated waste, followed by plastics (15.5%), grass and wood (6.8%), and paper and cardboard (6.4%). The remaining waste, including metals, glass, rubber/leather, textiles, and ceramic/ stone, accounted for less than 3%. Waste recycling through informal sectors is very active; recycled waste accounted for about 9.3% of all waste generated in 2003. Currently, the overall technical arrangement, including storage and discharge, collection and transport, and disposal, is still in poor condition, which leads to environmental and health risks. These problems should be solved by improving legislation, environmental education, solid waste management facilities, and management of the waste scavengers.

  4. Persistent Inequalities in Child Undernutrition in Cambodia from 2000 until Today

    PubMed Central

    Greffeuille, Valérie; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Gauthier, Ludovic; Hong, Rathmony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Dijkhuizen, Marjoleine; Wieringa, Frank; Berger, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    The study assessed the trends of nutritional status of children under age five in Cambodia over four DHS surveys from 2000 to 2014 and the contribution of socioeconomic and demographic factors to its changes. Undernutrition was a public health problem in all surveys. Despite consistent improvement over the years, stunting still affected 32.5% of children in 2014. Wasting prevalence did not improve since 2005 and affected 9.6% of children under five in 2014. Low wealth and mother education; and rural residence contributed to undernutrition. In 2014; wealth status was the main socioeconomic factor associated with undernutrition and the nutritional status of children was strongly related to that of their mothers. Anemia prevalence was high and after a decrease between 2000 and 2005 remained at 45%. The prevalence of overweight was less than 10% and did not change over the years despite an increasing trend in the richest households of urban areas. Persistent inequalities in child undernutrition call for action, giving priority to the most vulnerable households to ensure availability and access to nutrient-rich foods for women and children through nutrition-sensitive and nutrition-specific programs. The recent increase of overweight in the richest populations must also be considered in Cambodian health policies. PMID:27196924

  5. Sustained use of a household-scale water filtration device in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Proum, S; Sobsey, M D

    2009-09-01

    The effectiveness of point-of-use water treatment may be limited by declining use over time, particularly when water treatment is introduced via targeted intervention programmes. In order to evaluate the long-term uptake and use of locally produced ceramic water filters in rural Cambodia, we visited households that had received filters as part of NGO-subsidized distribution programmes over a 4 year period from 2002 to 2006. Of the more than 2,000 filters distributed, we visited 506 randomly selected households in 13 villages spanning three provinces to assess filter time in use and to collect data on factors potentially correlated with long-term use. Results indicate that filter use declined at the rate of approximately 2% per month after implementation, largely owing to breakages, and that, controlling for time since implementation, continued filter use over time was most closely positively associated with: related water, sanitation and hygiene practices in the home; cash investment in the technology by the household; and use of surface water as a primary drinking water source.

  6. Biodiversity Monitoring at the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia: A Comparative Assessment of Local Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seak, Sophat; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich; Thapa, Gopal B.

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses local biodiversity monitoring methods practiced in the Tonle Sap Lake of Cambodia. For the assessment we used the following criteria: methodological rigor, perceived cost, ease of use (user friendliness), compatibility with existing activities, and effectiveness of intervention. Constraints and opportunities for execution of the methods were also considered. Information was collected by use of: (1) key informant interview, (2) focus group discussion, and (3) researcher's observation. The monitoring methods for fish, birds, reptiles, mammals and vegetation practiced in the research area have their unique characteristics of generating data on biodiversity and biological resources. Most of the methods, however, serve the purpose of monitoring biological resources rather than biodiversity. There is potential that the information gained through local monitoring methods can provide input for long-term management and strategic planning. In order to realize this potential, the local monitoring methods should be better integrated with each other, adjusted to existing norms and regulations, and institutionalized within community-based organization structures.

  7. Arsenic Concentrations in Rice and Associated Health Risks Along the Upper Mekong Delta, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barragan, L.; Seyfferth, A.; Fendorf, S.

    2011-12-01

    The consumption of arsenic contaminated food, such as rice, can be a significant portion of daily arsenic exposure, even for populations already exposed through drinking water. While arsenic contamination of rice grains has been documented in parts of Southern Asia, (e.g. Bangladesh), little research has been conducted on arsenic contamination of Cambodian-grown rice. We collected rice plant samples at various locations within the upper Mekong River Delta near Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and we analyzed total arsenic concentrations in plant digests of grains, husk, and straw. In addition, we used CaCl2-, DTPA-, and oxalate-extractable arsenic to define plant-available soil pools. We found variability of arsenic concentration in the plants, with grain arsenic ranging from 0.046 to 0.214 μg g-1; other researchers have shown that concentrations higher than 0.1 μg g-1 could be a concern for human health. Although more extensive sampling is needed to assess the risk of arsenic exposure from rice consumption on a country-wide basis, our work clearly illustrates the risk within regions of the Mekong Delta.

  8. Newborn Care in the Home and Health Facility: Formative Findings for Intervention Research in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Taub, Leah; Oberhelman, Richard A; Var, Chivorn

    2016-12-21

    Global coverage and scale up of interventions to reduce newborn mortality remains low, though progress has been achieved in improving newborn survival in many low-income settings. An important factor in the success of newborn health interventions, and moving to scale, is appropriate design of community-based programs and strategies for local implementation. We report the results of formative research undertaken to inform the design of a newborn health intervention in Cambodia. Information was gathered on newborn care practices over a period of three months using multiple qualitative methods of data collection in the primary health facility and home setting. Analysis of the data indicated important gaps, both at home and facility level, between recommended newborn care practices and those typical in the study area. The results of this formative research have informed strategies for behavior change and improving referral of sick infants in the subsequent implementation study. Collection and dissemination of data on newborn care practices from settings such as these can contribute to efforts to advance survival, growth and development of newborns for intervention research, and for future newborn health programming.

  9. Reaching out and reaching up - developing a low cost drug treatment system in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cambodia, confronted by the spread of drug misuse among young people, requested support from international agencies to develop a drug treatment programme in 2000. The initial plan developed by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime was to set up a number of conventional drug treatment centres in urban areas. During the planning phase, however, the project was redesigned as a community based outreach programme. Ten Community Counselling Teams have been formed and trained in pilot areas, and within the first year of operation 462 drug and alcohol users contacted. Comprising former drug users, family members affected by drug use and health care staff, they have drug scene credibility, local knowledge and connectivity, and a rudimentary level of medical competence. Crucially, they enjoy the support of village elders, who are involved in the planning and reporting stages. While the Community Counselling Teams with their basic training in addiction counselling are in no position as yet to either provide or refer clients to treatment, they can provide brief interventions, organise self help groups, and most importantly provide an alternative to law enforcement. By taking a development centred approach, with emphasis on community, empowerment and inclusion, it provides a constructive and inclusive alternative to medical approaches and the compulsory drug treatment centres. The paper is based on an evaluation involving interviews with a range of stakeholders and a review of project documents. PMID:22410105

  10. Respondent-driven sampling on the Thailand-Cambodia border. II. Knowledge, perception, practice and treatment-seeking behaviour of migrants in malaria endemic zones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Population movements along the Thailand-Cambodia border, particularly among highly mobile and hard-to-access migrant groups from Cambodia and Myanmar, are assumed to play a key role in the spread of artemisinin resistance. Data on treatment-seeking behaviours, knowledge and perceptions about malaria, and use of preventive measures is lacking as characteristics of this population prevent them from being represented in routine surveillance and the lack of a sampling frame makes reliable surveys challenging. Methods A survey of migrant populations from Cambodia and Myanmar was implemented in five selected rural locations in Thailand along the Thai-Cambodian border using respondent driven sampling (RDS) to determine demographic characteristics of the population, migratory patterns, knowledge about malaria, and health-care -seeking behaviours. Results The majority of migrants from Myanmar are long-term residents (98%) with no plans to move back to Myanmar, understand spoken Thai (77%) and can therefore benefit from health messages in Thai, have Thai health insurance (99%) and accessed public health services in Thailand (63%) for their last illness. In comparison, the majority of Cambodian migrants are short-term (72%). Of the short-term Cambodian migrants, 92% work in agriculture, 18% speak Thai, 3.4% have Thai health insurance, and the majority returned to Cambodia for treatment (45%), self-treated (11%), or did not seek treatment for their last illness (27%). Conclusion Most highly mobile migrants along the Thai-Cambodia border are not accessing health messages or health treatment in Thailand, increasing their risk of malaria and facilitating the spread of potentially resistant Plasmodium falciparum as they return to Cambodia to seek treatment. Reaching out to highly mobile migrants with health messaging they can understand and malaria diagnosis and treatment services they can access is imperative in the effort to contain the spread of artemisinin

  11. Effect of a mobile phone-based intervention on post-abortion contraception: a randomized controlled trial in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Thoai D; Gold, Judy; Edwards, Phil; Vannak, Uk; Sokhey, Ly; Machiyama, Kazuyo; Slaymaker, Emma; Warnock, Ruby; McCarthy, Ona; Free, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effect of a mobile phone-based intervention (mHealth) on post-abortion contraception use by women in Cambodia. Methods The Mobile Technology for Improved Family Planning (MOTIF) study involved women who sought safe abortion services at four Marie Stopes International clinics in Cambodia. We randomly allocated 249 women to a mobile phone-based intervention, which comprised six automated, interactive voice messages with counsellor phone support, as required, whereas 251 women were allocated to a control group receiving standard care. The primary outcome was the self-reported use of an effective contraceptive method, 4 and 12 months after an abortion. Findings Data on effective contraceptive use were available for 431 (86%) participants at 4 months and 328 (66%) at 12 months. Significantly more women in the intervention than the control group reported effective contraception use at 4 months (64% versus 46%, respectively; relative risk, RR: 1.39; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.17–1.66) but not at 12 months (50% versus 43%, respectively; RR: 1.16; 95% CI: 0.92–1.47). However, significantly more women in the intervention group reported using a long-acting contraceptive method at both follow-up times. There was no significant difference between the groups in repeat pregnancies or abortions at 4 or 12 months. Conclusion Adding a mobile phone-based intervention to abortion care services in Cambodia had a short-term effect on the overall use of any effective contraception, while the use of long-acting contraceptive methods lasted throughout the study period. PMID:26668436

  12. DETECTION OF PUTATIVE ANTIMALARIAL-RESISTANT PLASMODIUM VIVAX IN ANOPHELES VECTORS AT THAILAND-CAMBODIA AND THAILAND-MYANMAR BORDERS.

    PubMed

    Rattaprasert, Pongruj; Chaksangchaichot, Panee; Wihokhoen, Benchawan; Suparach, Nutjaree; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa

    2016-03-01

    Monitoring of multidrug-resistant (MDR)falciparum and vivax malaria has recently been included in the Global Plan for Artemisinin Resistance Containment (GPARC) of the Greater Mekong Sub-region, particularly at the Thailand-Cambodia and Thailand-Myanmar borders. In parallel to GPARC, monitoring MDR malaria parasites in anopheline vectors is an ideal augment to entomological surveillance. Employing Plasmodium- and species-specific nested PCR techniques, only P. vivax was detected in 3/109 salivary gland DNA extracts of anopheline vectors collected during a rainy season between 24-26 August 2009 and 22-24 September 2009 and a dry season between 29-31 December 2009 and 16-18 January 2010. Indoor and out- door resting mosquitoes were collected in Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province (border of Thailand-Myanmar) and Bo Rai District, Trat Province (border of Thailand-Cambodia): one sample from Anopheles dirus at the Thailand-Cambodia border and two samples from An. aconitus from Thailand-Myanmar border isolate. Nucleotide sequencing of dihydrofolate reductase gene revealed the presence in all three samples of four mutations known to cause high resistance to antifolate pyrimethamine, but no mutations were found in multidrug resistance transporter 1 gene that are associated with (falciparum) resistance to quinoline antimalarials. Such findings indicate the potential usefulness of this approach in monitoring the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria parasites in geographically regions prone to the development of drug resistance and where screening of human population at risk poses logistical and ethical problems. Keywords: Anopheles spp, Plasmodium vivax, antimalarial resistance, Greater Mekong Sub-region, nested PCR, vector surveillance

  13. Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) in Cambodia: Discovery of Metacercariae in Mullets and Recovery of Adult Flukes in an Experimental Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Jong-Yil; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk; Jeoung, Hoo-Gn; Sinuon, Muth; Socheat, Duong

    2016-01-01

    Stellantchasmus falcatus (Digenea: Heterophyidae) is first reported from Cambodia through recovery of the metacercariae from mullet fish and adult flukes from an experimentally infected hamster. We purchased 7 mullets, Chelon macrolepis, in a local market of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and each of them was examined by the artificial digestion method on May 2010. The metacercariae of S. falcatus were detected in all mullets (100%) examined, and their average density was 177 per fish. They were elliptical, 220×168 μm in average size. They were orally infected to an hamster to obtain adult flukes. Adults recovered at day 10 post infection were observed with a light microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM). They were small, 450×237 μm in average size, had a small oral sucker (41×50 μm), subglobular pharynx (29×21 μm), slender esophagus (57 μm), long and thick-walled expulsor (119×32 μm), spherical ovary (58×69 μm), and 2 ovoid testes (right: 117×74 μm; left: 114×63 μm). Eggs were small, yellow, and 23×12 μm in average size. In SEM observations, tegumental spines were densely distributed on the whole tegument, and single small type I sensory papillae were distributed around the lip of oral sucker. The small ventral sucker was dextrally located and had 8 type I sensory papillae on the left margin. It has been first confirmed in the present study that the mullet, C. macrolepis, is playing the role of a second intermediate host of S. falcatus in Cambodia. PMID:27658608

  14. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    PubMed Central

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-01-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective. PMID:27597658

  15. Combining Statistical Tools and Ecological Assessments in the Study of Biodeterioration Patterns of Stone Temples in Angkor (Cambodia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caneva, G.; Bartoli, F.; Savo, V.; Futagami, Y.; Strona, G.

    2016-09-01

    Biodeterioration is a major problem for the conservation of cultural heritage materials. We provide a new and original approach to analyzing changes in patterns of colonization (Biodeterioration patterns, BPs) by biological agents responsible for the deterioration of outdoor stone materials. Here we analyzed BPs of four Khmer temples in Angkor (Cambodia) exposed to variable environmental conditions, using qualitative ecological assessments and statistical approaches. The statistical analyses supported the findings obtained with the qualitative approach. Both approaches provided additional information not otherwise available using one single method. Our results indicate that studies on biodeterioration can benefit from integrating diverse methods so that conservation efforts might become more precise and effective.

  16. Linking Hydrologic Drivers to Arsenic Contamination in Asia, Results From a Field Site in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, S. G.; Polizzotto, M. L.; Kocar, B. D.; Sampson, M.; Fendorf, S.

    2008-12-01

    Attempts to resolve the specific release mechanisms associated with arsenic contamination on the deltas of Asia have been hampered, especially in Bangladesh, by the difficulty of linking geochemical mechanisms with hydrologic drivers. At an arsenic-contaminated (100-1200 ug/L) aquifer in Cambodia, where pumping for irrigation is limited and the hydrologic system is much less complex than in Bangladesh, we have developed a conceptual model of arsenic behavior that integrates the system hydrology and depositional history, providing strong evidence that arsenic release is sensitive to human activities. Specifically, the hydrogeologic regime is dominated by seasonally-variable head gradients between the river and adjacent wetland basins but the net annual flow is from the wetlands downwards into the aquifer (0.04-0.4 m/a) followed by discharge to the river (1-13 m/a). These flow rates produce aquifer residence times on the order of 100-1000 years. When coupled with elevated concentrations throughout the aquifer, this indicates that arsenic contamination predates recent human activities. Within this flow regime, it is possible to track spatial changes in arsenic concentrations along specific flow lines: The greatest increases in dissolved arsenic concentrations (150 ug/L/m) occur in shallow sediments along the first 2-10 m of the flow path, consistent with the depth at which reducing conditions are no longer seasonally disrupted by fluctuating water levels. Estimates of arsenic delivery to the wetlands by flood deposition (1,300,000 kg/a) are of a similar magnitude to the estimated flux, via groundwater, out of the aquifer (1,000,000 kg/a), indicating that arsenic delivery, release, and transport are in approximate steady-state. Given the dependency of arsenic release and transport on hydrologic drivers, human activities that alter the hydrology (inclusive of pumping for irrigation, soil excavation, and upstream river damming) will likely also alter arsenic behavior.

  17. Monitoring of biophysical parameters of cashew plants in Cambodia using ALOS/PALSAR data.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-02-01

    An accurate estimation of a plant's age is required for the prediction of yield and management practices. This study demonstrates the relationship between backscattering properties (σ°) of Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) dual polarimetric data with cashew plants' biophysical parameters (height, age, crown diameter, diameter at breast height, basal area, tree density, and biomass) in Cambodia. PALSAR σ° has shown a positive correlation with the biophysical parameters of cashew plants. The value of σ° increases with the age of cashew plants. At a young stage, the cashew plants show a higher rate of an increase in σ° compared to that at the mature stage. The σ° horizontal polarization transmitted and vertical received (HV) shows higher sensitivity to the plant's growth than σ° horizontal polarization transmitted and received (HH). High backscattering and low variations were observed at mature stage (8-12 years) of cashew plantation. Saturation in backscattering has shown from the age of about 13 years. The validation results indicate strong coefficient of determination (R(2) = 0.86 and 0.88) for PALSAR-predicted age and biomass of cashew plants with root mean square error = 1.8 years and 16.3 t/ha for age and biomass, respectively. The correlations of σ° (HH) with biophysical parameters observed in the dry season were better than those of the rainy season because soil moisture interferes with backscattering in the rainy season. Biomass accumulation rate of cashew plants has been predicted that would be useful for selection of plants species to enhance carbon sequestration. This study provides an insight to use PALSAR for the monitoring of growth stages of plants at the regional level.

  18. Anticipated stigma in chronic illness patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and relationship of anticipated chronic illness stigma among patients diagnosed with a variety of chronic diseases in three Southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4,803 adult chronic disease patients (mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Overall, the results indicate that 20.7% of patients reported that for any of the 12 stigma items, they anticipated they were likely or very likely to experience chronic disease stigma. A multivariate analysis of sociodemographics revealed the following were associated with anticipated chronic disease stigma: older versus younger age, OR (odds ratio) = 0.71; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.58, 0.87]; higher versus lower education, OR = 2.23; 95% CI [1.81, 2.75]; origin from Myanmar or Vietnam, being single, divorced or widowed, rural residence, and health status (having three or more chronic conditions versus having one chronic condition), OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.58, 2.35]; lower versus higher quality of life, OR = 0.73; 95% CI [0.63, 0.85]); health risk behavior (physical inactivity, poor diet, current smoking, and problem drinking) and low versus medium or high medication adherence (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55,0.86]). This study demonstrated the possible consequences of anticipated stigma on the health and behavior of people living with chronic diseases, and several factors for chronic disease stigma were identified that can help guide interventions to reduce chronic illness stigma in this population. PMID:28008198

  19. Using microfinance to facilitate household investment in sanitation in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Geissler, Kimberley H; Goldberg, Jeffrey; Leatherman, Sheila

    2016-11-01

    Improved sanitation access is extremely low in rural Cambodia. Non-governmental organizations have helped build local supply side latrine markets to promote household latrine purchase and use, but households cite inability to pay as a key barrier to purchase. To examine the extent to which microfinance can be used to facilitate household investment in sanitation, we applied a two-pronged assessment: (1) to address the gap between interest in and use of microfinance, we conducted a pilot study to assess microfinance demand and feasibility of integration with a sanitation marketing program and (2) using a household survey (n = 935) at latrine sales events in two rural provinces, we assessed attitudes about microfinance and financing for sanitation. We found substantial stated intent to use a microfinance institution (MFI) loan to purchase a latrine (27%). Five percent of current owners used an MFI loan for latrine purchase. Credit officers attended 159 events, with 4761 individuals attending. Actual loan applications were low, with 4% of sales events attendees applying for a loan immediately following the event (mean = 1.7 loans per event). Ongoing coordination was challenging, requiring management commitment from the sanitation marketing program and commitment to social responsibility from the MFI. Given the importance of improving sanitation coverage and concomitant health impacts, linking functional sanitation markets to already operational finance markets has the potential to give individuals and households more financial flexibility. Further product research and better integration of private vendors and financing modalities are necessary to create a scalable microfinance option for sanitation markets.

  20. Nesting phenology and clutch characteristics of captive Siamese crocodiles (Crocodylus siamensis) in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Platt, Steven G; Monyrath, Vuthy; Sovannara, Heng; Kheng, Long; Rainwater, Thomas R

    2012-01-01

    The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis) is considered one of the least studied and most critically endangered crocodilians in the world. Although few wild populations remain, more than 700,000 C. siamensis are held on commercial crocodile farms in Southeast Asia. Despite conservation concerns, many aspects of C. siamensis life history remain poorly known, particularly with regards to its reproductive biology. We studied nesting phenology, clutch characteristics, and other aspects of C. siamensis reproductive biology on crocodile farms in Cambodia during 2000 and 2001. Oviposition among captive crocodiles began in February and continued into early June. The mean (±1 SD) oviposition date based on pooled data from 2000 and 2001 was 5 April ± 24 days. Mean oviposition date differed significantly between 2000 and 2001, possibly as a result of annual variability among nesting cues. The mean incubation period was 72 ± 3 days and eggs hatched from 5 May to 18 August. Mean clutch size (25.0 ± 8.8 eggs; n = 183) differed significantly between years, possibly resulting from the >2.5-fold increase in sample size during 2001. There was no correlation between clutch size and oviposition date during either 2000 or 2001. A single female produced two clutches during 2001, complimenting previous reports of double-clutching among C. siamensis. The mean length and width of 515 eggs were 78.2 ± 4.9 and 48.1 ± 2.5 mm, respectively; mean egg mass was 90.8 ± 16.5 g (n = 471). One unpipped egg contained a set of twins.

  1. Scenario analysis of the benefit of municipal organic-waste composting over landfill, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Seng, Bunrith; Hirayama, Kimiaki; Katayama-Hirayama, Keiko; Ochiai, Satoru; Kaneko, Hidehiro

    2013-01-15

    This paper presents insight into the benefits of organic waste recycling through composting over landfill, in terms of landfill life extension, compost product, and mitigation of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Future waste generation from 2003 to 2020 was forecast, and five scenarios of organic waste recycling in the municipality of Phnom Penh (MPP), Cambodia, were carried out. Organic waste-specifically food and garden waste-was used for composting, and the remaining waste was landfilled. The recycling scenarios were set based on organic waste generated from difference sources: households, restaurants, shops, markets, schools, hotels, offices, and street sweeping. Through the five scenarios, the minimum volume reductions of waste disposal were about 56, 123, and 219 m(3) d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, whereas the maximum volume reductions in these years were about 325, 643, and 1025 m(3) d(-1). These volume reductions reflect a landfill life extension of a minimum of half a year and a maximum of about four years. Compost product could be produced at a minimum of 14, 30, and 54 tons d(-1) in 2003, 2012, and 2020, respectively, and at a maximum in those years of about 80, 158, and 252 tons d(-1). At the same time benefit is gained in compost product, GHG emissions could be reduced by a minimum of 12.8% and a maximum of 65.0% from 2003 to 2020. This means about 3.23 (minimum) and 5.79 million tons CO(2)eq (maximum) contributed to GHG mitigation. In this regard, it is strongly recommended that MPP should try to initiate an organic-waste recycling strategy in a best fit scenario.

  2. Bloodstream Infection among Adults in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Key Pathogens and Resistance Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Vlieghe, Erika R.; Phe, Thong; De Smet, Birgit; Chhun Veng, Heng; Kham, Chun; Lim, Kruy; Koole, Olivier; Lynen, Lut; Peetermans, Willy E.; Jacobs, Jan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Bloodstream infections (BSI) cause important morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Cambodia, no surveillance data on BSI are available so far. Methods From all adults presenting with SIRS at Sihanouk Hospital Centre of HOPE (July 2007–December 2010), 20 ml blood was cultured. Isolates were identified using standard microbiological techniques; antibiotic susceptibilities were assessed using disk diffusion and MicroScan®, with additional E-test, D-test and double disk test where applicable, according to CLSI guidelines. Results A total of 5714 samples from 4833 adult patients yielded 501 clinically significant organisms (8.8%) of which 445 available for further analysis. The patients’ median age was 45 years (range 15–99 y), 52.7% were women. HIV-infection and diabetes were present in 15.6% and 8.8% of patients respectively. The overall mortality was 22.5%. Key pathogens included Escherichia coli (n = 132; 29.7%), Salmonella spp. (n = 64; 14.4%), Burkholderia pseudomallei (n = 56; 12.6%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 53; 11.9%). Methicillin resistance was seen in 10/46 (21.7%) S. aureus; 4 of them were co-resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin and sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). We noted combined resistance to amoxicillin, SMX-TMP and ciprofloxacin in 81 E. coli isolates (62.3%); 62 isolates (47.7%) were confirmed as producers of extended spectrum beta-lactamase. Salmonella isolates displayed high rates of multidrug resistance (71.2%) with high rates of decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (90.0%) in Salmonella Typhi while carbapenem resistance was observed in 5.0% of 20 Acinetobacter sp. isolates. Conclusions BSI in Cambodian adults is mainly caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens. These data urge for microbiological capacity building, nationwide surveillance and solid interventions to contain antibiotic resistance. PMID:23555777

  3. National Malaria Prevalence in Cambodia: Microscopy Versus Polymerase Chain Reaction Estimates.

    PubMed

    Lek, Dysoley; Popovici, Jean; Ariey, Frederic; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Meek, Sylvia; Bruce, Jan; Taylor, Walter R J; Socheat, Duong; Menard, Didier; Rogers, William O

    2016-09-07

    Accurate information regarding malaria prevalence at national level is required to design and assess malaria control/elimination efforts. Although many comparisons of microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods have been conducted, there is little published literature covering such comparisons in southeast Asia especially at the national level. Both microscopic examination and PCR detection were performed on blood films and dried blood spots samples collected from 8,067 individuals enrolled in a nationwide, stratified, multistage, cluster sampling malaria prevalence survey conducted in Cambodia in 2007. The overall malaria prevalence and prevalence rates of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae infections estimated by microscopy (N = 8,067) were 2.74% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.39-3.12%), 1.81% (95% CI: 1.53-2.13%), 1.14% (95% CI: 0.92-1.40%), and 0.01% (95% CI: 0.003-0.07%), respectively. The overall malaria prevalence based on PCR detection (N = 7,718) was almost 2.5-fold higher (6.31%, 95% CI: 5.76-6.89%, P < 0.00001). This difference was significantly more pronounced for P. falciparum (4.40%, 95% CI: 3.95-4.90%, P < 0.00001) compared with P. vivax (1.89%, 95% CI: 1.60-2.22%, P < 0.001) and P. malariae infections (0.22%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.35%, P < 0.0001). The significant proportion of microscopy-negative but PCR-positive individuals (289/7,491, 3.85%) suggest microscopic examination frequently underestimated malaria infections and that active case detection based on microscopy may miss a significant reservoir of infection, especially in low-transmission settings.

  4. Influenza A Virus in Backyard Pigs and Poultry in Rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Osbjer, K; Berg, M; Sokerya, S; Chheng, K; San, S; Davun, H; Magnusson, U; Olsen, B; Zohari, S

    2016-08-02

    Surveillance of influenza virus in humans and livestock is critical, given the worldwide public health threats and livestock production losses. Livestock farming involving close proximity between humans, pigs and poultry is often practised by smallholders in low-income countries and is considered an important driver of influenza virus evolution. This study determined the prevalence and genetic characteristics of influenza A virus (IAV) in backyard pigs and poultry in Cambodia. A total of 751 animals were tested by matrix gene-based rRT-PCR, and influenza virus was detected in 1.5% of sampled pigs, 1.4% of chickens and 1.0% of ducks, but not in pigeons. Full-length genome sequencing confirmed triple reassortant H3N2 in all IAV-positive pigs and various low pathogenic avian influenza subtypes in poultry. Phylogenetic analysis of the swine influenza viruses revealed that these had haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes originating from human H3N2 viruses previously isolated in South-East Asia. Phylogenetic analysis also revealed that several of the avian influenza subtypes detected were closely related to internal viral genes from highly pathogenic H5N1 and H9N2 formerly sequenced in the region. High sequence homology was likewise found with influenza A viruses circulating in pigs, poultry and wild birds in China and Vietnam, suggesting transboundary introduction and cocirculation of the various influenza subtypes. In conclusion, highly pathogenic subtypes of influenza virus seem rare in backyard poultry, but virus reassortment, involving potentially zoonotic and pandemic subtypes, appears to occur frequently in smallholder pigs and poultry. Increased targeted surveillance and monitoring of influenza circulation on smallholdings would further improve understanding of the transmission dynamics and evolution of influenza viruses in humans, pigs and poultry in the Mekong subregion and could contribute to limit the influenza burden.

  5. Consumption of animal source foods and dietary diversity reduce stunting in children in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition in children is a major public health concern. This study aimed to determine the association between dietary diversity and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea and that between consumption of each specific food group and these nutritional and health outcomes among children. Methods A nationally representative household survey of 6209 children aged 12 to 59 months was conducted in Cambodia. We examined the consumption of food in the 24 hours before the survey and stunting, underweight, wasting, and diarrhea that had occurred in the preceding 2 weeks. A food variety score (ranging from 0 to 9) was calculated to represent dietary diversity. Results Stunting was negatively associated with dietary diversity (adjusted odd ratios [ORadj] 0.95, 95% confident interval [CI] 0.91-0.99, P = 0.01) after adjusting for socioeconomic and geographical factors. Consumption of animal source foods was associated with reduced risk of stunting (ORadj 0.69, 95% CI 0.54-0.89, P < 0.01) and underweight (ORadj 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96, P = 0.03). On the other hand, the higher risk of diarrhea was significantly associated with consumption of milk products (ORadj 1.46, 95% CI 1.10-1.92, P = 0.02) and it was significantly pronounced among children from the poorer households (ORadj 1.85, 95% CI 1.17-2.93, P < 0.01). Conclusions Consumption of a diverse diet was associated with a reduction in stunting. In addition to dietary diversity, animal source food was a protective factor of stunting and underweight. Consumption of milk products was associated with an increase in the risk of diarrhea, particularly among the poorer households. Both dietary diversity and specific food types are important considerations of dietary recommendation. PMID:23866682

  6. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  7. Entrenched Geographical and Socioeconomic Disparities in Child Mortality: Trends in Absolute and Relative Inequalities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Soto, Eliana; Durham, Jo; Hodge, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Cambodia has made considerable improvements in mortality rates for children under the age of five and neonates. These improvements may, however, mask considerable disparities between subnational populations. In this paper, we examine the extent of the country's child mortality inequalities. Methods Mortality rates for children under-five and neonates were directly estimated using the 2000, 2005 and 2010 waves of the Cambodian Demographic Health Survey. Disparities were measured on both absolute and relative scales using rate differences and ratios, and where applicable, slope and relative indices of inequality by levels of rural/urban location, regions and household wealth. Findings Since 2000, considerable reductions in under-five and to a lesser extent in neonatal mortality rates have been observed. This mortality decline has, however, been accompanied by an increase in relative inequality in both rates of child mortality for geography-related stratifying markers. For absolute inequality amongst regions, most trends are increasing, particularly for neonatal mortality, but are not statistically significant. The only exception to this general pattern is the statistically significant positive trend in absolute inequality for under-five mortality in the Coastal region. For wealth, some evidence for increases in both relative and absolute inequality for neonates is observed. Conclusion Despite considerable gains in reducing under-five and neonatal mortality at a national level, entrenched and increased geographical and wealth-based inequality in mortality, at least on a relative scale, remain. As expected, national progress seems to be associated with the period of political and macroeconomic stability that started in the early 2000s. However, issues of quality of care and potential non-inclusive economic growth might explain remaining disparities, particularly across wealth and geography markers. A focus on further addressing key supply and demand side

  8. Where mother knows best. In Cambodia's highlands, women play a key role.

    PubMed

    1993-09-22

    Phnom Penh businessmen wanted to convert a hillside near Ban Lung, the provincial capital of Ratanakiri in northeast Cambodia, into a resort for senior government officials and businessmen. The resort was to lead treks into the hills so the men could stare at the topless women of the Khmer Loeu tribes. The tribes' views on marriage, sex, birth control, abortion, and courtship are quite progressive. Until just recently, unmarried daughters lived in small houses connected to the family house so they could have sexual relationships with prospective mates. The custom stopped because many of the women conceived before marriage and many of the fathers were married men. Nevertheless, young women still have as much sexual freedom as do young men. Neither punishment nor disgrace befall unmarried pregnant women. If a married man impregnates a woman, he pays her family with 4 buffalo, some pigs, a few chickens, and rice wine. If the man is single and does not want to marry the pregnant woman, he reimburses her and attends to her throughout the pregnancy. Childbirth ends his obligation. Women may divorce an abusive husband. Any man that abuses a woman, married or not, is severely punished. Only women can make decisions about childbirth. They often induce abortion after having 4-5 children, generally using herbs. Women are spiritual healers. Priestesses are the only medium through which ancestral spirits impart blessings and messages to tribe members. these powers affect male and female relations greatly. Women rise at 4 am to do chores. They usually make breakfast and clean the house before boys awake. Women and the tribe value men, largely because few survived the Khmer Rouge massacres. Khmer Loeu women are beginning to want to be like other women, such as wearing shirts. These modern attitudes are more likely to change the tribe's culture than did the widespread killing by the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s.

  9. Assessment of Flood Disaster Impacts in Cambodia: Implications for Rapid Disaster Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahamed, Aakash; Bolten, John; Doyle, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Disaster monitoring systems can provide near real time estimates of population and infrastructure affected by sudden onset natural hazards. This information is useful to decision makers allocating lifesaving resources following disaster events. Floods are the world's most common and devastating disasters (UN, 2004; Doocy et al., 2013), and are particularly frequent and severe in the developing countries of Southeast Asia (Long and Trong, 2001; Jonkman, 2005; Kahn, 2005; Stromberg, 2007; Kirsch et al., 2012). Climate change, a strong regional monsoon, and widespread hydropower construction contribute to a complex and unpredictable regional hydrodynamic regime. As such, there is a critical need for novel techniques to assess flood impacts to population and infrastructure with haste during and following flood events in order to enable governments and agencies to optimize response efforts following disasters. Here, we build on methods to determine regional flood extent in near real time and develop systems that automatically quantify the socioeconomic impacts of flooding in Cambodia. Software developed on cloud based, distributed processing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used to demonstrate spatial and numerical estimates of population, households, roadways, schools, hospitals, airports, agriculture and fish catch affected by severe monsoon flooding occurring in the Cambodian portion of Lower Mekong River Basin in 2011. Results show modest agreement with government and agency estimates. Maps and statistics generated from the system are intended to complement on the ground efforts and bridge information gaps to decision makers. The system is open source, flexible, and can be applied to other disasters (e.g. earthquakes, droughts, landslides) in various geographic regions.

  10. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010–1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  11. Quaternary Morphodynamics for two large rivers: the Fly River, PNG, and the Mekong River, Cambodia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aalto, R. E.; Lauer, J. W.; Darby, S. E.; Goni, M. A.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    During glacial marine transgressions, sediment & carbon are deposited due to the infilling of lowland fluvial systems, material that is then largely removed during ensuing regressions. Measuring & modelling these processes would help quantify the amount, timing, & preservation of these materials, providing insight into the morphodynamics of lowland fluvial systems in response to sea level change. We investigated the infilling dynamics of the Fly and Strickland Rivers, Papua New Guinea. Field data include: 14C dated deep cores recording base level evolution over the Holocene, sonar imaging of floodbasin stratigraphy, and the observations of blocked valley lakes and weathered erosional remnants from LGM conditions. Similar research was conducted on the Mekong River, Cambodia, where we have imaged basin fill stratigraphy and recorded the extent of blocked valley lakes. Such field data provide tantalizing empirical glimpses into the landscapes & flux buffering exhibited by large tropical rivers during glacial-interglacial transitions. We upscale our observations by modelling river system evolution, employing a GpU Lowland Landscape Evolution Model (GULLEM) to predict the evolution of the entire basin. A novel & powerful (>10 Tflops on an inexpensive computer) simulator, GULLEM models morphodynamics and estimates the accommodation space subsequently infilled during marine transgressions by representing a range of geomorphic processes, including: river & tributary incision, non-linear diffusion, sea level and isostatic change, hydraulic geometry, tectonic deformation, sediment production, transport & deposition, & tracking of the resulting stratigraphy. GULLEM's vectorized approach allows for massively parallel operation on GPUs (Graphics Processing Unit), making it practical to model coupled fluvial-landscape evolution for complex lowland river systems over large temporal and spatial scales. Our combined approach affords estimates for the timing and budgets of sediment

  12. An Efficient Acoustic Density Estimation Method with Human Detectors Applied to Gibbons in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kidney, Darren; Rawson, Benjamin M.; Borchers, David L.; Stevenson, Ben C.; Marques, Tiago A.; Thomas, Len

    2016-01-01

    Some animal species are hard to see but easy to hear. Standard visual methods for estimating population density for such species are often ineffective or inefficient, but methods based on passive acoustics show more promise. We develop spatially explicit capture-recapture (SECR) methods for territorial vocalising species, in which humans act as an acoustic detector array. We use SECR and estimated bearing data from a single-occasion acoustic survey of a gibbon population in northeastern Cambodia to estimate the density of calling groups. The properties of the estimator are assessed using a simulation study, in which a variety of survey designs are also investigated. We then present a new form of the SECR likelihood for multi-occasion data which accounts for the stochastic availability of animals. In the context of gibbon surveys this allows model-based estimation of the proportion of groups that produce territorial vocalisations on a given day, thereby enabling the density of groups, instead of the density of calling groups, to be estimated. We illustrate the performance of this new estimator by simulation. We show that it is possible to estimate density reliably from human acoustic detections of visually cryptic species using SECR methods. For gibbon surveys we also show that incorporating observers’ estimates of bearings to detected groups substantially improves estimator performance. Using the new form of the SECR likelihood we demonstrate that estimates of availability, in addition to population density and detection function parameters, can be obtained from multi-occasion data, and that the detection function parameters are not confounded with the availability parameter. This acoustic SECR method provides a means of obtaining reliable density estimates for territorial vocalising species. It is also efficient in terms of data requirements since since it only requires routine survey data. We anticipate that the low-tech field requirements will make this method

  13. Late Quaternary floodplain development along the Stung Sen River in the Lower Mekong Basin, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagumo, Naoko; Sugai, Toshihiko; Kubo, Sumiko

    2013-09-01

    The Stung Sen River, the biggest tributary to Lake Tonle Sap in the Lower Mekong Basin in Cambodia, is characterized by large seasonal changes of water discharge under the Asian monsoon climate and seasonal changes in water level that reach at least 7 m and are controlled by the water level of the lake. The Stung Sen River floodplain consists of two geomorphic units: meander belt along the river channel and backmarsh. Coupled observations of outcrops along the river channel and arrays of sediment cores across the floodplain north of Kampong Chheuteal village and Kampong Thom City, c. 150 km and c. 70 km, respectively, reveal that floodplain environmental changes at c. 11 ka were possibly associated with the Holocene onset of the southeast Asian monsoon and probably with the emergence of Lake Tonle Sap. These observations also show that the present backmarsh-meander belt system was established about 5.5 ka along with the unique Mekong-Tonle Sap connection, characterized by a reversal in flow direction during the monsoon season. The meander belt materials are replaced as the river channel shifts on a decadal to centennial timescale. Backmarsh sediments at sites Kampong Chheuteal and Kampong Thom had a constant accumulation rate of about 0.5 mm/y during the Holocene, contrasting with rates of 0.1 mm/y during the late Pleistocene. At around 11 ka, a sand layer was deposited over all of the valley around Kampong Chheuteal, while wetlands enlarged around Kampong Thom, probably because of increased rainfall triggered by an enhancement of the Asian summer monsoon. This 11 ka horizon has since been covered by clayey sediments keeping pace with the accumulation of lacustrine sediments in Lake Tonle Sap.

  14. Anticipated stigma in chronic illness patients in Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and relationship of anticipated chronic illness stigma among patients diagnosed with a variety of chronic diseases in three Southeast Asian countries (Cambodia, Myanmar and Vietnam). A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 4,803 adult chronic disease patients (mean age 49.3 years; SD=16.5) recruited systematically from health facilities. Overall, the results indicate that 20.7% of patients reported that for any of the 12 stigma items, they anticipated they were likely or very likely to experience chronic disease stigma. A multivariate analysis of sociodemographics revealed the following were associated with anticipated chronic disease stigma: older versus younger age, OR (odds ratio) = 0.71; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [0.58, 0.87]; higher versus lower education, OR = 2.23; 95% CI [1.81, 2.75]; origin from Myanmar or Vietnam, being single, divorced or widowed, rural residence, and health status (having three or more chronic conditions versus having one chronic condition), OR = 1.93; 95% CI [1.58, 2.35]; lower versus higher quality of life, OR = 0.73; 95% CI [0.63, 0.85]); health risk behavior (physical inactivity, poor diet, current smoking, and problem drinking) and low versus medium or high medication adherence (OR = 0.69; 95% CI [0.55,0.86]). This study demonstrated the possible consequences of anticipated stigma on the health and behavior of people living with chronic diseases, and several factors for chronic disease stigma were identified that can help guide interventions to reduce chronic illness stigma in this population.

  15. Water-supply options in arsenic-affected regions in Cambodia: targeting the bottom income quintiles.

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Jim F; Sabatini, David A

    2014-08-01

    In arsenic-affected regions of Cambodia, rural water committees and planners can choose to promote various arsenic-avoidance and/or arsenic-removal water supply systems. Each of these has different costs of providing water, subsequently born by the consumer in order to be sustainable. On a volumetric basis ($/m3-yr) and of the arsenic-avoidance options considered, small-scale public water supply - e.g., treated water provided to a central tap stand - is the most expensive option on a life-cycle cost basis. Rainwater harvesting, protected hand dug wells, and vendor-supplied water are the cheapest with a normalized present worth value, ranging from $2 to $10 per cubic meter per year of water delivered. Subsidization of capital costs is needed to make even these options affordable to the lowest (Q5) quintile. The range of arsenic-removal systems considered here, using adsorptive media, is competitive with large-scale public water supply and deep tube well systems. Both community level and household-scale systems are in a range that is affordable to the Q4 quintile, though more research and field trials are needed. At a target cost of $5.00/m3, arsenic removal systems will compete with the OpEx costs for most of the arsenic-safe water systems that are currently available. The life-cycle cost approach is a valuable method for comparing alternatives and for assessing current water supply practices as these relate to equity and the ability to pay.

  16. Reap around the State: "Best of Reap" Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana State Dept. of Education, Indianapolis. Learning Resources Unit.

    This booklet presents selected activities from elementary, middle, junior high, and senior high schools In Indiana, intended to encourage students to read. It offers ideas for 11 community activities (including guest readers, nursing home reading, and a young author celebration), 14 continuous activities (such as the great book graffiti wall and…

  17. Optimizing SIEM Throughput on the Cloud Using Parallelization

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Masoom; Ihsan, Asif; Javaid, Qaisar; Khan, Abid; Manzoor, Jawad; Akhundzada, Adnan; Khan, M Khurram; Farooq, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Processing large amounts of data in real time for identifying security issues pose several performance challenges, especially when hardware infrastructure is limited. Managed Security Service Providers (MSSP), mostly hosting their applications on the Cloud, receive events at a very high rate that varies from a few hundred to a couple of thousand events per second (EPS). It is critical to process this data efficiently, so that attacks could be identified quickly and necessary response could be initiated. This paper evaluates the performance of a security framework OSTROM built on the Esper complex event processing (CEP) engine under a parallel and non-parallel computational framework. We explain three architectures under which Esper can be used to process events. We investigated the effect on throughput, memory and CPU usage in each configuration setting. The results indicate that the performance of the engine is limited by the number of events coming in rather than the queries being processed. The architecture where 1/4th of the total events are submitted to each instance and all the queries are processed by all the units shows best results in terms of throughput, memory and CPU usage. PMID:27851762

  18. Optimizing SIEM Throughput on the Cloud Using Parallelization.

    PubMed

    Alam, Masoom; Ihsan, Asif; Khan, Muazzam A; Javaid, Qaisar; Khan, Abid; Manzoor, Jawad; Akhundzada, Adnan; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Farooq, Sajid

    2016-01-01

    Processing large amounts of data in real time for identifying security issues pose several performance challenges, especially when hardware infrastructure is limited. Managed Security Service Providers (MSSP), mostly hosting their applications on the Cloud, receive events at a very high rate that varies from a few hundred to a couple of thousand events per second (EPS). It is critical to process this data efficiently, so that attacks could be identified quickly and necessary response could be initiated. This paper evaluates the performance of a security framework OSTROM built on the Esper complex event processing (CEP) engine under a parallel and non-parallel computational framework. We explain three architectures under which Esper can be used to process events. We investigated the effect on throughput, memory and CPU usage in each configuration setting. The results indicate that the performance of the engine is limited by the number of events coming in rather than the queries being processed. The architecture where 1/4th of the total events are submitted to each instance and all the queries are processed by all the units shows best results in terms of throughput, memory and CPU usage.

  19. Issues in access to safe drinking water and basic hygiene for persons with physical disabilities in rural Cambodia.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Marin; Pann, Mala; Cantwell, Ray; Moore, Spencer

    2014-12-01

    An estimated 1.6 million people die from diarrheal diseases each year due to lack of access to safe water and sanitation, and persons with physical disabilities face additional barriers. In Cambodia, approximately 5% of the population is disabled, presenting substantial obstacles in accessing these basic services. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to identify the challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in accessing safe household water and basic hygiene in rural Cambodia; and, second, to use these results to generate policy and practice recommendations for the water and sanitation hygiene sector implementing water treatment system interventions in rural settings. Fifteen field interviews were conducted with persons with physical disabilities. Thematic analysis was used to identify six main themes. The results indicated that environmental barriers to access were greater in the workplace than household settings and those persons with disabilities had greater awareness about safe drinking water compared to basic hygiene. Additionally, lack of physical strength, distance to water, and lack of financial means were noted as common access barriers. The findings support ongoing research and offer insight into the particular challenges facing persons with physical disabilities in rural areas in accessing safe drinking water and basic hygiene.

  20. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-07-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual's capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method's applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions.

  1. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  2. Poverty, user fees and ability to pay for health care for children with suspected dengue in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Khun, Sokrin; Manderson, Lenore

    2008-01-01

    User fees were introduced in public health facilities in Cambodia in 1997 in order to inject funds into the health system to enhance the quality of services. Because of inadequate health insurance, a social safety net scheme was introduced to ensure that all people were able to attend the health facilities. However, continuing high rates of hospitalization and mortality from dengue fever among infants and children reflect the difficulties that women continue to face in finding sufficient cash in cases of medical emergency, resulting in delays in diagnosis and treatment. In this article, drawing on in-depth interviews conducted with mothers of children infected with dengue in eastern Cambodia, we illustrate the profound economic consequences for households when a child is ill. The direct costs for health care and medical services, and added indirect costs, deterred poor women from presenting with sick children. Those who eventually sought care often had to finance health spending through out-of-pocket payments and loans, or sold property, goods or labour to meet the costs. Costs were often catastrophic, exacerbating the extreme poverty of those least able to afford it. PMID:18439268

  3. PALSAR 50 m Mosaic Data Based National Level Biomass Estimation in Cambodia for Implementation of REDD+ Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (σo) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR σo HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R2 = 0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R2 = 0.61 with RMSE  = 21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level. PMID:24116012

  4. PALSAR 50 m mosaic data based national level biomass estimation in Cambodia for implementation of REDD+ mechanism.

    PubMed

    Avtar, Ram; Suzuki, Rikie; Takeuchi, Wataru; Sawada, Haruo

    2013-01-01

    Tropical countries like Cambodia require information about forest biomass for successful implementation of climate change mitigation mechanism related to Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+). This study investigated the potential of Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar Fine Beam Dual (PALSAR FBD) 50 m mosaic data to estimate Above Ground Biomass (AGB) in Cambodia. AGB was estimated using a bottom-up approach based on field measured biomass and backscattering (σ(o)) properties of PALSAR data. The relationship between the PALSAR σ(o) HV and HH/HV with field measured biomass was strong with R(2) = 0.67 and 0.56, respectively. PALSAR estimated AGB show good results in deciduous forests because of less saturation as compared to dense evergreen forests. The validation results showed a high coefficient of determination R(2) = 0.61 with RMSE  = 21 Mg/ha using values up to 200 Mg/ha biomass. There were some uncertainties because of the uncertainty in the field based measurement and saturation of PALSAR data. AGB map of Cambodian forests could be useful for the implementation of forest management practices for REDD+ assessment and policies implementation at the national level.

  5. Testimony ceremonies in Asia: Integrating spirituality in testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Agger, Inger; Igreja, Victor; Kiehle, Rachel; Polatin, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the therapeutic implications of including culturally adapted spiritual ceremonies in the process of testimonial therapy for torture survivors in India, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, and the Philippines. Data were collected through an action research process with Asian mental health and human rights organizations, during which the testimonial method was reconceptualized and modified to include four sessions. In the first two sessions, community workers assist survivors in the writing of their testimony, which is their narrative about the human rights violations they have suffered. In the third session, survivors participate in an honour ceremony in which they are presented with their testimony documents. In the fourth session, the community workers meet with the survivors for a reevaluation of their well-being. The honour ceremonies developed during the action research process came to employ different kinds of symbolic language at each site: human rights (India), religious/Catholic (Sri Lanka), religious/Buddhist (Cambodia), and religious/Moslem (Philippines). They all used embodied spirituality in various forms, incorporating singing, dancing, and religious purification rituals in a collective gathering. We suggest that these types of ceremonies may facilitate an individual’s capacity to contain and integrate traumatic memories, promote restorative self-awareness, and engage community support. Additional research is needed to determine the method’s applicability in other sociopolitical contexts governed by more Western-oriented medical traditions. PMID:22637721

  6. Disease externalities and net nutrition: Evidence from changes in sanitation and child height in Cambodia, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sangita; Kov, Phyrum; Smets, Susanna; Spears, Dean

    2016-12-01

    Child height is an important indicator of human capital and human development, in large part because early life health and net nutrition shape both child height and adult economic productivity and health. Between 2005 and 2010, the average height of children under 5 in Cambodia significantly increased. What contributed to this improvement? Recent evidence suggests that exposure to poor sanitation - and specifically to widespread open defecation - can pose a critical threat to child growth. We closely analyze the sanitation height gradient in Cambodia in these two years. Decomposition analysis, in the spirit of Blinder-Oaxaca, suggests that the reduction in children's exposure to open defecation can statistically account for much or all of the increase in average child height between 2005 and 2010. In particular, we see evidence of externalities, indicating an important role for public policy: it is the sanitation behavior of a child's neighbors that matters more for child height rather than the household's sanitation behavior by itself. Moving from an area in which 100% of households defecate in the open to an area in which no households defecate in the open is associated with an average increase in height-for-age z-score of between 0.3 and 0.5. Our estimates are quantitatively robust and comparable with other estimates in the literature.

  7. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging. PMID:25561669

  8. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-05-14

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a "consequence model" to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia's efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings.

  9. Tetanus Immunity among Women Aged 15 to 39 Years in Cambodia: a National Population-Based Serosurvey, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen A.; Sørensen, Charlotte; Kannarath, Chheng; Jenks, M. Harley; Moss, Delynn M.; Priest, Jeffrey W.; Soeung, Sann Chan; Deming, Michael S.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Gregory, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor progress toward maternal and neonatal tetanus elimination (MNTE) in Cambodia, we conducted a nationwide serosurvey of tetanus immunity in 2012. Multistage cluster sampling was used to select 2,154 women aged 15 to 39 years. Tetanus toxoid antibodies in serum samples were measured by gold-standard double-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAE) and a novel multiplex bead assay (MBA). Antibody concentrations of ≥0.01 IU/ml by DAE or the equivalent for MBA were considered seroprotective. Estimated tetanus seroprotection was 88% (95% confidence interval [CI], 86 to 89%); 64% (95% CI, 61 to 67%) of women had antibody levels of ≥1.0 IU/ml. Seroprotection was significantly lower (P < 0.001) among women aged 15 to 19 years (63%) and 20 to 24 years (87%) than among those aged ≥25 years (96%), among nulliparous women than among parous women (71 versus 97%), and among those living in the western region than among those living in other regions (82 versus 89%). The MBA showed high sensitivity (99% [95% CI, 98 to 99%]) and specificity (92% [95% CI, 88 to 95%]) compared with DAE. Findings were compatible with MNTE in Cambodia (≥80% protection). Tetanus immunity gaps should be addressed through strengthened routine immunization and targeted vaccination campaigns. Incorporating tetanus testing in national serosurveys using MBAs, which can measure immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously, may be beneficial for monitoring MNTE. PMID:27053629

  10. Effects of logging and recruitment on community phylogenetic structure in 32 permanent forest plots of Kampong Thom, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Toyama, Hironori; Kajisa, Tsuyoshi; Tagane, Shuichiro; Mase, Keiko; Chhang, Phourin; Samreth, Vanna; Ma, Vuthy; Sokh, Heng; Ichihashi, Ryuji; Onoda, Yusuke; Mizoue, Nobuya; Yahara, Tetsukazu

    2015-02-19

    Ecological communities including tropical rainforest are rapidly changing under various disturbances caused by increasing human activities. Recently in Cambodia, illegal logging and clear-felling for agriculture have been increasing. Here, we study the effects of logging, mortality and recruitment of plot trees on phylogenetic community structure in 32 plots in Kampong Thom, Cambodia. Each plot was 0.25 ha; 28 plots were established in primary evergreen forests and four were established in secondary dry deciduous forests. Measurements were made in 1998, 2000, 2004 and 2010, and logging, recruitment and mortality of each tree were recorded. We estimated phylogeny using rbcL and matK gene sequences and quantified phylogenetic α and β diversity. Within communities, logging decreased phylogenetic diversity, and increased overall phylogenetic clustering and terminal phylogenetic evenness. Between communities, logging increased phylogenetic similarity between evergreen and deciduous plots. On the other hand, recruitment had opposite effects both within and between communities. The observed patterns can be explained by environmental homogenization under logging. Logging is biased to particular species and larger diameter at breast height, and forest patrol has been effective in decreasing logging.

  11. Pathways of Thriving and Resilience: Growth Responses to Adversity and Trauma in Two Cambodian Communities: A Comparative Study between Lowell, Massachusetts and Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Cheryl D.

    This qualitative study investigated individual, contextual, and cultural factors that promote trauma-related resilience and positive growth among Cambodian survivors of the Pol Pot regime who reside in Phnom Penh, Cambodia and Lowell, Massachusetts. A thriving paradigm framed semi-structured interviews that were conducted with 21 Cambodians in…

  12. Situation Report--Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua & New Guinea, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti, Tonga.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in fourteen foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Australia, Burundi, Cambodia, Mexico, Montserrat, Nicaragua, Papua and New Guines, Republic of Vietnam, Sabah, Sarawak, Sierra Leone, Tahiti (French Polynesia), and Tonga. Information is provided under two…

  13. Whose Education Policies in Aid-Receiving Countries? A Critical Discourse Analysis of Quality and Normative Transfer through Cambodia and Laos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    Critical discourse analysis of policy contexts and documents has been employed in this research to analyze the role of language in promoting normative positions affecting the quality of education in Cambodia and Laos. The article examines the ways institutional normative influences at multiple levels within the Education for All (EFA) program have…

  14. Exposure, metabolism, and health effects of arsenic in residents from arsenic-contaminated groundwater areas of Vietnam and Cambodia: a review.

    PubMed

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Kubota, Reiji; Inoue, Suguru; Fujihara, Junko; Minh, Tu Binh; Ha, Nguyen Ngoc; Tu, Nguyen Phuc Cam; Trang, Pham Thi Kim; Chamnan, Chhoun; Takeshita, Haruo; Iwata, Hisato; Tuyen, Bui Cach; Viet, Pham Hung; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on exposure, metabolism, and health effects of arsenic (As) in residents from As-contaminated groundwater areas of Vietnam and Cambodia based on our findings from 2000 and other studies. The health effects of As in humans include severe gastrointestinal disorders, hepatic and renal failure, cardiovascular disturbances, skin pigmentation, hyperkeratosis, and cancers in the lung, bladder, liver, kidney, and skin. Arsenic contamination in groundwater is widely present at Vietnam and Cambodia and the highest As levels are frequently found in groundwater from Cambodia. Sand filter system can reduce As concentration in raw groundwater. The results of hair and urine analyses indicate that residents from these As-contaminated areas are exposed to As. In general, sex, age, body mass index, and As exposure level are significantly associated with As metabolism. Genetic polymorphisms in arsenic (+III) methyltransferase and glutathione-S-transferase isoforms may be influenced As metabolism and accumulation in a Vietnamese population. It is suggested oxidative DNA damage is caused by exposure to As in groundwater from residents in Cambodia. An epidemiologic study on an association of As exposure with human health effects is required in these areas.

  15. Regenerative Engine Analysis Program (REAP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    were con- sidered in an effort to identify promising concepts for heli- copter applications. The aero/ thermodynamic characteristics of heat exchangers...AiResearch for small engines. The program, entitled WATE (Weight Analysis of Turbine Engines) accepts as inputs the geometric, thermodynamic ...Military Airplane Development; NASA-Lewis Research Center CR159431, Jan- uary 1979. 27 INPUT: - CONFIGURATION DATA - THERMODYNAMIC DATA - MECHANICAL AND

  16. How Do Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) Plantations Cope with Seasonal Drought in Northern Thailand and Central Cambodia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; Giambelluca, T. W.

    2014-12-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantaitons are rapidly expanding throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing the exchange characteristics. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) - potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in the season when actual tree water use deficit (P - ET) was negative (DJF and MAM), the deficit was compensated with soil water from the previous season at a depth of 0-2 m at the Thailand site, and from a depth of 0-3 m at CRRI. Two ecophysiological parameters, the reference value of gs (gsref) and the sensitivity of gs to atmospheric demand (m), as well as their proportionality (m/gsref), were derived from the logarithmic response curve of gs to vapor pressure deficit (D) for each season and each site. In both sites, gsref and m appeared to be less in DJF and MAM than each in the other three month periods (seasons). On average in a whole year, m/gsref was less than 0.6 at SS and almost 0.6 at the CRRI site, suggesting that there was less sufficient stomatal regulation at SS, where there might be little risk of water stress-induced hydraulic failure because of much

  17. Community action for preventing HIV in Cambodia: evaluation of a 3-year project.

    PubMed

    Sopheab, Heng; Fylkesnes, Knut; Lim, Yi; Godwin, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The 'Community Action for Preventing HIV/AIDS Project' was implemented in four provinces in Cambodia (2001-04) to support a comprehensive set of HIV prevention efforts. Implementation was strictly monitored in terms of inputs, outputs and outcomes. We examine changes in these variables during the project period to assess the extent to which they were related to the project. Inputs and outputs were monitored regularly by supervision and quarterly project reports. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted on 10 target groups to measure changes in outcome indicators related to sexual risk behaviours, uses of HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT), self-reported sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other indicators. The analyses use data from surveys and from project monitoring. Spending on HIV-related work at provincial level increased markedly, including investments in VCT, STI facilities and staff training. Yearly expenditure increased about 7-fold compared with years immediately preceding the project. VCT centres increased from 3 to 12, numbers of counsellors from 10 to 27, and numbers of client visits more than doubled. STI laboratory facilities increased from 0 to 6 with coverage of STI check-ups among sex workers increasing from 70% to 93% and a decline in men attending STI clinics. The survey results indicate significant changes in a number of major outcome indicators such as consistent condom use related to sex work (>80%), HIV testing and counselling after HIV tests, especially among police (42 to 72%, P < 0.001) and brothel-based sex workers (48 to 89%, P < 0.001). Self-reported STIs declined in most groups. Finally, the programmatic systems for planning, managing and monitoring implementation of activities at both central and provincial level, as well as technical guidelines, developed under the project have become the standard for the national programme. In conclusion, the project appears to have been comprehensive and a number of favourable

  18. Increased Case Notification through Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis among Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Morishita, Fukushi; Eang, Mao Tan; Nishikiori, Nobuyuki; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Background Globally, there has been growing evidence that suggests the effectiveness of active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) in high-risk populations. However, the evidence is still insufficient as to whether ACF increases case notification beyond what is reported in the routine passive case finding (PCF). In Cambodia, National TB Control Programme has conducted nationwide ACF with Xpert MTB/RIF that retrospectively targeted household and neighbourhood contacts alongside routine PCF. This study aims to investigate the impact of ACF on case notifications during and after the intervention period. Methods Using a quasi-experimental cluster randomized design with intervention and control arms, we compared TB case notification during the one-year intervention period with historical baseline cases and trend-adjusted expected cases, and estimated additional cases notified during the intervention period (separately for Year 1 and Year 2 implementation). The proportion of change in case notification was compared between intervention and control districts for Year 1. The quarterly case notification data from all intervention districts were consolidated, aligning different implementation quarters, and separately analysed to explore the additionality. The effect of the intervention on the subsequent case notification during the post-intervention period was also assessed. Results In Year 1, as compared to expected cases, 1467 cases of all forms (18.5%) and 330 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (9.6%) were additionally notified in intervention districts, whereas case notification in control districts decreased by 2.4% and 2.3%, respectively. In Year 2, 2737 cases of all forms (44.3%) and 793 bacteriologically-confirmed cases (38%) were additionally notified as compared to expected cases. The proportions of increase in case notifications from baseline cases and expected cases to intervention period cases were consistently higher in intervention group than in control

  19. Patterns of ecosystem metabolism in the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia with links to capture fisheries.

    PubMed

    Holtgrieve, Gordon W; Arias, Mauricio E; Irvine, Kim N; Lamberts, Dirk; Ward, Eric J; Kummu, Matti; Koponen, Jorma; Sarkkula, Juha; Richey, Jeffrey E

    2013-01-01

    The Tonle Sap Lake in Cambodia is a dynamic flood-pulsed ecosystem that annually increases its surface area from roughly 2,500 km(2) to over 12,500 km(2) driven by seasonal flooding from the Mekong River. This flooding is thought to structure many of the critical ecological processes, including aquatic primary and secondary productivity. The lake also has a large fishery that supports the livelihoods of nearly 2 million people. We used a state-space oxygen mass balance model and continuous dissolved oxygen measurements from four locations to provide the first estimates of gross primary productivity (GPP) and ecosystem respiration (ER) for the Tonle Sap. GPP averaged 4.1±2.3 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) with minimal differences among sites. There was a negative correlation between monthly GPP and lake level (r = 0.45) and positive correlation with turbidity (r = 0.65). ER averaged 24.9±20.0 g O2 m(-3) d(-1) but had greater than six-fold variation among sites and minimal seasonal change. Repeated hypoxia was observed at most sampling sites along with persistent net heterotrophy (GPP

  20. Ivermectin Treatment and Sanitation Effectively Reduce Strongyloides stercoralis Infection Risk in Rural Communities in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schindler, Christian; Schär, Fabian; Marti, Hanspeter; Char, Meng Chuor; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Strongyloides stercoralis is the only soil-transmitted helminth with the ability to replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and its worldwide prevalence has recently been estimated to be at least half that of hookworm. Information on the epidemiology of S. stercoralis remains scarce and modalities for its large-scale control are yet to be determined. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based two-year cohort study was conducted among the general population in a rural province in North Cambodia. At each survey, participants infected with S. stercoralis were treated with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW). Diagnosis was performed using a combination of the Baermann method and Koga agar plate culture on two stool samples. The cohort included participants from eight villages who were either positive or negative for S. stercoralis at baseline. Mixed logistic regression models were employed to assess risk factors for S. stercoralis infection at baseline and re-infection at follow-up. A total of 3,096 participants were examined at baseline, revealing a S. stercoralis prevalence of 33.1%. Of these participants, 1,269 were followed-up over two years. Re-infection and infection rates among positive and negative participants at baseline were 14.4% and 9.6% at the first and 11.0% and 11.5% at the second follow-up, respectively. At follow-up, all age groups were at similar risk of acquiring an infection, while infection risk significantly decreased with increasing village sanitation coverage. Conclusions/Significance Chemotherapy-based control of S. stercoralis is feasible and highly beneficial, particularly in combination with improved sanitation. The impact of community-based ivermectin treatment on S. stercoralis was high, with over 85% of villagers remaining negative one year after treatment. The integration of S. stercoralis into existing STH control programs should be considered

  1. Escherichia coli in household drinking water and diarrheal disease risk: evidence from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Brown, J M; Proum, S; Sobsey, M D

    2008-01-01

    Escherichia coli counts in household drinking water may or may not reliably indicate the presence of diarrheogenic pathogens originating in feces. The extent to which a bacterial indicator like E. coli predicts risks from all classes of pathogens (viruses and parasites as well as bacteria), especially in tropical waters, is uncertain. To investigate the association between E. coli in household drinking water and diarrheal diseases in Cambodia, we conducted a 22 week cohort study in a rural village in Kandal Province. Episodes of diarrhea (all) and bloody diarrhea (dysentery), water quality, water sources, and other covariates were monitored biweekly in 180 households. Households used a variety of water treatment, storage, and handling practices.Results suggest a weak but positive association between E. coli counts in household drinking water and diarrhea and for diarrhea with blood (dysentery), after adjusting for clustering within households and within individuals over time. Compared to households with <1 E. coli/100 ml in drinking water, there was no observed increased risk for having 1-10 E. coli/100 ml (LPR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.81-1.2 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.36-1.6 for dysentery). Households with measured E. coli of 11-100/100 ml did report increased diarrhea (LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.3 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8 for dysentery), as did those with 101-1,000 E. coli/100 ml (LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.2-1.3 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.4 for dysentery) and those with >1,000 E. coli per 100 ml sample (LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.1-1.2 for diarrheal disease; LPR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.0-1.3 for dysentery). Unlike the results of some previous studies, diarrheal disease risks did not increase progressively in magnitude with increasing concentration of E. coli in drinking water.

  2. Seasonal Influences on Ground-Surface Water Interactions in an Arsenic-Affected Aquifer in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, L. A.; Magnone, D.; Van Dongen, B.; Bryant, C.; Boyce, A.; Ballentine, C. J.; Polya, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Millions of people in South and Southeast Asia consume drinking water daily which contains dangerous levels of arsenic exceeding health-based recommendations [1]. A key control on arsenic mobilization in aquifers in these areas has been controversially identified as the interaction of 'labile' organic matter contained in surface waters with groundwaters and sediments at depth [2-4], which may trigger the release of arsenic from the solid- to aqueous-phase via reductive dissolution of iron-(hyr)oxide minerals [5]. In a field site in Kandal Province, Cambodia, which is an arsenic-affected area typical to others in the region, there are strong seasonal patterns in groundwater flow direction, which are closely related to monsoonal rains [6] and may contribute to arsenic release in this aquifer. The aim of this study is to explore the implications of the high susceptibility of this aquifer system to seasonal changes on potential ground-surface water interactions. The main objectives are to (i) identify key zones where there are likely ground-surface water interactions, (ii) assess the seasonal impact of such interactions and (iii) quantify the influence of interactions using geochemical parameters (such as As, Fe, NO3, NH4, 14C, 3T/3He, δ18O, δ2H). Identifying the zones, magnitude and seasonal influence of ground-surface water interactions elucidates new information regarding potential locations/pathways of arsenic mobilization and/or transport in affected aquifers and may be important for water management strategies in affected areas. This research is supported by NERC (NE/J023833/1) to DP, BvD and CJB and a NERC PhD studentship (NE/L501591/1) to DM. References: [1] World Health Organization, 2008. [2] Charlet & Polya (2006), Elements, 2, 91-96. [3] Harvey et al. (2002), Science, 298, 1602-1606. [4] Lawson et al. (2013), Env. Sci. Technol. 47, 7085 - 7094. [5] Islam et al. (2004), Nature, 430, 68-71. [6] Benner et al. (2008) Appl. Geochem. 23(11), 3072 - 3087.

  3. Hydrogeologic reconnaissance of the Mekong Delta in South Vietnam and Cambodia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Henry R.

    1978-01-01

    The present report describes the results of a hydrogeologic reconnaissance in the Mekong Delta region by the writer, a hydrogeologist of the U.S. Geological Survey, while on assignment as an adviser to the Vietnamese Directorate of Water Supply from October 1968 to April 1970 under the auspices of the U.s. Agency for International Development. The delta of the Mekong River, comprising an area of about 70,000 square kilometres in South Vietnam and Cambodia, is an almost featureless plain rising gradually from sea level to about 5 metres above sea level at its apex 300 kilometres inland. Most of the shallow ground water in the Holocene Alluvium of the delta in Vietnam is brackish or saline down to depths of 50 to 100 metres. Moreover, in the Dong Thap Mu?oi (Plain of Reeds) the shallow ground water is alum-bearing. Locally, however, perched bodies of fresh ground water occur in ancient beach and dune ridges and are tapped by shallow dug wells or pits for village and domestic water supply. The Old Alluvium beneath the lower delta contains freshwater in some areas, notably in the Ca Mau Peninsula and adjacent areas, in the viciniy of Bau Xau near Saigon, and in the Tinh Long An area. Elsewhere in the lower delta both the Holocene and Old Alluvium may contain brackish or saline water from the land surface to depths of as much as 568 metres, as for example in Tinh Vinh Binh. Ground water in the outcrop area of Old Alluvium northwest of Saigon is generally fresh and potable, but high iron and low pH are locally troublesome. Although considerable exploratory drilling for ground water down to depths of as much as 568 metres has already been completed, large areas of the delta remain yet to be explored before full development of the ground-water potential can be realized. With careful development and controlled management to avoid saltwater contamination, however, it is estimated that freshwater aquifers could provide approximately 80 percent of existing needs for village

  4. Factors associated with sex work among at-risk female youth in Cambodia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary; Chhea, Chhorvann; Saphonn, Vonthanak; Yi, Siyan

    2016-01-01

    In Cambodia, despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV in the general population, reducing new HIV infections among young at-risk women remains a challenge. This study was designed to examine the prevalence of risky behaviors of sexually active female youth in Cambodia and to explore risk factors associated with engagement in transactional sex. We surveyed sexually active female youth aged 10-24 enrolled at risk "hotspots" in eight provinces in Cambodia. We collected data on demographic factors, sexual behavior, and factors hypothesized to be associated with transactional sex. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify associations between demographic and sexual behavior and transactional sex. Of the 280 respondents, the mean age was 21.2, and 48.1% had been paid for sex in the past year. After adjustment, at-risk females who were never have been married (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.65-6.97), have completed less than 6 years of school (AOR 3.26, 95% CI = 1.60-6.66), have 1 or more parents who had died (AOR 4.34, 95% CI = 2.00-9.38), be a heavy alcohol drinker (AOR 3.58, 95% CI = 1.78-7.18), have used a condom with their boyfriend during last sexual encounter (AOR 3.50, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32), and have ever had an HIV test (AOR 3.51, 95% CI = 1.68-7.32) were more likely to engage in sex work. Our findings suggest that prevention strategies for female youth at risk of engagement in sex work should include upstream structural interventions that aim to encourage girls' education and empowerment. In addition, tailored sex education and behavior change messaging about the risks of heavy drinking, condom use with romantic partners, and the importance of frequent HIV testing for at-risk youth and sex workers should be designed and delivered to youth currently engaging in sex work.

  5. A decade of improvements in equity of access to reproductive and maternal health services in Cambodia, 2000–2010

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Despite encouraging reductions in global maternal mortality rates, Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5 on reducing maternal mortality and achieving universal access to reproductive health remains the most off-track of all MDGs. Furthermore a preoccupation with aggregate coverage statistics masks extensive disparities in health improvements between societal groups. Recent national health indicators for Cambodia highlight impressive improvements, for example, in maternal, infant and child mortality, whilst substantial government commitments have been made since 2000 to address health inequities. It is therefore timely to explore the extent of equity in access to key reproductive and maternal health services in Cambodia and how this has changed over time. Methods Analysis was conducted on three rounds of Demographic and Health Survey data from 2000, 2005 and 2010. Outcome variables comprised utilisation of six reproductive and maternal health services – antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, facility-based delivery, postnatal care, met need for family planning and abortion by skilled provider. Four equity measures were calculated – equity gaps, equity ratios, concentration curves and concentration indices. Household assets were used to create the social-stratification variable, using principal components analysis. Results Coverage levels of all six services improved over the decade. Coverage improvements were greatest amongst wealthier quintiles of the population, although poorer quintiles also increased use of services. Critically, inequity in service use of all services dramatically reduced over time, except for postnatal care where inequity increased slightly. However, in 2010 inequity in service use remained favouring wealthier quintiles, greatest in use of skilled birth attendance and facility-based delivery, though the magnitude of inequity was substantially reduced compared to 2000. Met need for family planning was almost perfectly equitable

  6. The prevalence and psychological costs of household violence by family members against women with disabilities in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Jill; Walji, Fareen

    2014-11-01

    Women with disabilities (WWDs) are at triple jeopardy due to the combined risks associated with gender, disability, and violence. Not only are WWDs marginalized socially but the violence against them in their own homes is largely neglected in domestic violence research. Evidence from developing countries is particularly sparse. A cross-sectional survey conducted in Cambodia found rates of violence by household members besides intimate partners were significantly higher among WWDs than non-disabled women. This violence engendered increased levels of psychological distress and higher rates of physical injury but low rates of disclosure to health workers and other formal sources of potential support. Community-based strategies are recommended to radically change social and cultural attitudes, beliefs, and responses to WWDs who are victims of household violence to reduce negative social reactions toward them and to make it safer for them to disclose and receive psychosocial, legal, and other necessary support for this underreported type of violence.

  7. Simulation of a rubber plantation productivity in central Cambodia using the individual-based dynamic vegetation model SEIB-DGVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, T.; SATO, H.; Shinjiro, Ph. D., F.

    2013-12-01

    To provide a useful tool for building strategy of forest plantation management, we developed the Spatially Explicit Individual-Based (SEIB) Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (DGVM) applicable to simulate productivity of tree plantations (SEIB-PP). Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers that are being replaced. Describing both primary and latex productivities in rubber plantations via SEIB-PP is, therefore, important to understanding the climatic impacts on productive processes. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia, and here, we show some examples of projections: the rubber plantation production under future climate change conditions.

  8. Quality of antimalarials at the epicenter of antimalarial drug resistance: results from an overt and mystery client survey in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L S; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D; Fernandez, Facundo M; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-06-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources.

  9. Weekly iron and folic acid supplementation as a tool to reduce anemia among primary school children in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Longfils, Philippe; Heang, Ung Kim; Soeng, Hay; Sinuon, Muth

    2005-12-01

    The prevalence of anemia decreased from 62% to 12% and from 57% to 26% in children 5 to 11 years of age in two rural primary schools in Kampot Province, Cambodia, after oral weekly supplementation with iron-folic acid tablets for 20 weeks and with vitamin A and mebendazole twice per year. In 12- to 15-year-old children, success was less marked. The prevalence of hookworm infestation did not change, but the number of eggs in the stool decreased drastically. The intervention had no significant influence on stunting and wasting. An integrated community approach including mass deworming, health education, and multi-micronutrient supplementation was very effective in reducing anemia in Cambodian schoolchildren and should be adopted on a larger scale.

  10. Pervasive promotion of breastmilk substitutes in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high usage by mothers for infant and young child feeding

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In 2005, Cambodia passed the Sub‐Decree on Marketing of Products for Infant and Young Child Feeding (no. 133) to regulate promotion of commercial infant and young child food products, including breastmilk substitutes. Helen Keller International assessed mothers' exposure to commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes and use of these products through a cross‐sectional survey among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age. Eighty‐six per cent of mothers reported observing commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes, 19.0% reported observing infant and young child food product brands/logos on health facility equipment and 18.4% reported receiving a recommendation from a health professional to use a breastmilk substitute. Consumption of breastmilk substitutes was high, occurring among 43.1% of children 0–5 months and 29.3% of children 6–23 months of age. Findings also indicated a need to improve breastfeeding practices among Phnom Penh mothers. Only 36.1% of infants 0–5 months of age were exclusively breastfed, and 12.5% of children 20–23 months of age were still breastfed. Children that received a breastmilk substitute as a prelacteal feed were 3.9 times more likely to be currently consuming a breastmilk substitute than those who did not. Despite restriction of commercial promotions for breastmilk substitutes without government approval, occurrence of promotions is high and use is common among Phnom Penh mothers. In a country with high rates of child malnutrition and pervasive promotions in spite of restrictive national law, full implementation of Cambodia's Sub‐Decree 133 is necessary, as are policies and interventions to support exclusive and continued breastfeeding. Key messages Despite prohibition without specific approval by the national government, companies are pervasively promoting breast‐milk substitutes in Phnom Penh, particularly on television and at points of sale.Strengthened implementation and enforcement

  11. Migrant beer promoters' experiences accessing reproductive health care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: lessons for planners and providers.

    PubMed

    Webber, Gail C; Spitzer, Denise L; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2015-03-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services.

  12. The dental caries experience, oral hygiene and dietary practices of preschool children of factory workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Todd, R V; Durward, C S; Chot, C; So, P K; Im, P

    1994-09-01

    Two hundred and thirty-seven children attending four Ministry of Industry nursery schools in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, were examined. Dental caries experience, oral cleanliness and soft tissue abnormalities were determined. 149 mothers of these children were interviewed and information was gathered about infant-feeding practices, weaning age, diet after weaning, toothbrushing and dental attendance. Dental caries experience was high, and only 36% of children aged 1-4 years and 4% of those aged 5-6 years were caries free. Only 15% of mothers reported bottle-feeding, but 70% of these used sweetened canned milk in the bottle. Oral hygiene was rated as poor in 80% of children and only 10% were reported to use a toothbrush. 43% of children were reported to have experienced toothache, but only 5% had been to a dentist.

  13. Migrant Beer Promoters’ Experiences Accessing Reproductive Health Care in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam: Lessons for Planners and Providers

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Gail C.; Spitzer, Denise L.; Somrongthong, Ratana; Dat, Truong Cong; Kounnavongsa, Somphone

    2014-01-01

    Migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam were surveyed to determine their experiences in accessing reproductive health care services in the cities of Phnom Penh, Vientiane, Bangkok, and Hanoi. A total of 7 health care institutions were chosen as popular with migrant beer promoters. Staff at these institutions provided information on the institution, and 390 beer promoters were surveyed about their experiences while accessing services. There were discrepancies between findings from the staff interviews and the experiences of the beer promoters. In general, the migrant women were satisfied with the cost, location, friendliness of the health care providers, and knowledge and skills of the providers. They were less positive about confidentiality and waiting times, though many still agreed that these were not an issue. Health care planners and providers should take note of the issues affecting access to reproductive health care services for migrant women when they design and implement services. PMID:22743859

  14. From subjects to relations: Bioethics and the articulation of postcolonial politics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    Controversies about global clinical trials, particularly HIV trials, tend to be framed in terms of ethics. In this article, I explore debates about ethics in the Cambodia Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial, which was designed to test the safety and efficacy of tenofovir as a prevention for HIV infection. Bringing together studies of public participation in science with studies of bioethics, I show how activists around the Cambodian Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis trial circulated and provoked debates about standards of research ethics, as opposed to research methodology. This postcolonial bioethics was configured through the circulation of and debate about ethics guidelines, and historically and culturally specific relations of vulnerability and responsibility between foreigners and Cambodians and between Cambodian leaders and Cambodian subjects. I argue that this shift in the object of ethical concern, from the experimental human subject to the relation between subjects and researchers, illustrates how a postcolonial field of articulation reformulates classical bioethics.

  15. Frequent infection of Hylobates pileatus (pileated gibbon) with species-associated variants of hepatitis B virus in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Sall, A A; Starkman, S; Reynes, J M; Lay, S; Nhim, T; Hunt, M; Marx, N; Simmonds, P

    2005-02-01

    As well as being distributed widely in human populations, hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections occur frequently in chimpanzee, gibbon and other ape populations in sub-Saharan Africa and South-East Asia. To investigate the frequency and genetic relationships of HBV infecting gibbons in Cambodia, pileated gibbons (Hylobates pileatus) that were originally wild-caught were screened for surface antigen. Twelve of 26 (46 %) were positive, of which 11 were positive for HBV DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of complete genome sequences revealed two distinct genetic groups in the gibbon/orangutan clade. Three were similar to previously described variants infecting H. pileatus in Thailand and eight formed a distinct clade, potentially representing distinct strains of HBV circulating in geographically separated populations in South-East Asia. Because of the ability of HBV to cross species barriers, large reservoirs of infection in gibbons may hamper ongoing attempts at permanent eradication of HBV infection from human populations in South-East Asia through immunization.

  16. Quality of Antimalarials at the Epicenter of Antimalarial Drug Resistance: Results from an Overt and Mystery Client Survey in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Shunmay; Lawford, Harriet L. S.; Tabernero, Patricia; Nguon, Chea; van Wyk, Albert; Malik, Naiela; DeSousa, Mikhael; Rada, Ouk; Boravann, Mam; Dwivedi, Prabha; Hostetler, Dana M.; Swamidoss, Isabel; Green, Michael D.; Fernandez, Facundo M.; Kaur, Harparkash

    2015-01-01

    Widespread availability of monotherapies and falsified antimalarials is thought to have contributed to the historical development of multidrug-resistant malaria in Cambodia. This study aimed to document the quality of artemisinin-containing antimalarials (ACAs) and to compare two methods of collecting antimalarials from drug outlets: through open surveyors and mystery clients (MCs). Few oral artemisinin-based monotherapies and no suspected falsified medicines were found. All 291 samples contained the stated active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of which 69% were considered good quality by chemical analysis. Overall, medicine quality did not differ by collection method, although open surveyors were less likely to obtain oral artemisinin-based monotherapies than MCs. The results are an encouraging indication of the positive impact of the country's efforts to tackle falsified antimalarials and artemisinin-based monotherapies. However, poor-quality medicines remain an ongoing challenge that demands sustained political will and investment of human and financial resources. PMID:25897063

  17. Monitoring Forest Degradation for a Case Study in Cambodia: Comparison of Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langner, Andreas; Miettinen, Jukka; Stibig, Hans-Jurgen

    2016-08-01

    We use a Normalized Burned Ratio (NBR) differential approach for detecting forest canopy disturbance caused by selective logging in evergreen tropical moist forests of central Cambodia. The general disturbance pattern obtained from Landsat 8 (30 m) imagery is largely compatible to Sentinel-2 (10 m), showing good conformity to high resolution RapidEye reference data. However, the 10 m spatial resolution of Sentinel-2 provides notably higher spatial detail and purer pixel values, increasing the potential for detecting fine and subtle forest canopy changes as indicators for potential forest degradation. We can expect further improvement for detecting short-lived disturbance signals in tropical forest canopies due to an increased revisit frequency (5 days) after the Sentinel-2B launch.

  18. Border Malaria Associated with Multidrug Resistance on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia Borders: Transmission Dynamic, Vulnerability, and Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Bhumiratana, Adisak; Intarapuk, Apiradee; Sorosjinda-Nunthawarasilp, Prapa; Maneekan, Pannamas; Koyadun, Surachart

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review elaborates the concepts and impacts of border malaria, particularly on the emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistance (MDR) malaria on Thailand-Myanmar and Thailand-Cambodia borders. Border malaria encompasses any complex epidemiological settings of forest-related and forest fringe-related malaria, both regularly occurring in certain transmission areas and manifesting a trend of increased incidence in transmission prone areas along these borders, as the result of interconnections of human settlements and movement activities, cross-border population migrations, ecological changes, vector population dynamics, and multidrug resistance. For regional and global perspectives, this review analyzes and synthesizes the rationales pertaining to transmission dynamics and the vulnerabilities of border malaria that constrain surveillance and control of the world's most MDR falciparum and vivax malaria on these chaotic borders. PMID:23865048

  19. Arsenic contamination in the food chain and its risk assessment of populations residing in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kongkea; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Heng, Savoeun; Phan, Samrach; Huoy, Laingshun; Wong, Ming Hung; Kim, Kyoung-Woong

    2013-11-15

    In the present study, we investigated the potential arsenic exposure of Cambodian residents from their daily food consumption. Environmental and ecological samples such as paddy soils, paddy rice (unhusked), staple rice (uncooked and cooked), fish and vegetables were collected from Kandal, Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia. After acid-digestion, digestates were chemically analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results revealed that the means of total arsenic concentration ([As]tot) in paddy soils and paddy rice from Kandal were significantly higher than those from Kampong Cham province (t-test, p<0.05). Moreover, a significant positive correlation between the [As]tot in paddy soils and paddy rice was found (r(14) = 0.826, p<0.01). Calculations of arsenic intake from food consumption indicated that the upper end of the range of the daily dose of inorganic arsenic for Kandal residents (0.089-8.386 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.) was greater than the lower limits on the benchmark dose for a 0.5% increased incidence of lung cancer (BMDL0.5 is equal to 3.0 μg d(-1) kg(-1) body wt.). The present study suggests that the residents in Kandal are at risk of arsenic intake from their daily food consumption. However, the residents in Kratie and Kampong Cham provinces are less likely to be exposed to arsenic through their daily dietary intake. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report estimating the daily intake and daily dose of inorganic arsenic from food consumption in the Mekong River basin of Cambodia.

  20. Molecular demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi DNA in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Milocco, C; Kamyingkird, K; Desquesnes, M; Jittapalapong, S; Herbreteau, V; Chaval, Y; Douangboupha, B; Morand, S

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular evidence of Trypanosoma evansi in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand. Between November 2007 and June 2009, 1664 rodents were trapped at eight sites representative of various ecological habitats. Of those animals, 94 were tested by direct microscopic blood examination, 633 using the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomes (CATT/T. evansi) and 145 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers: TRYP1 (amplifying ITS1 of ribosomal DNA of all trypanosomes) and TBR (amplifying satellite genomic DNA of Trypanozoon parasites). Using TRYP1, based on the size of the PCR products, 15 samples from the three countries were positive for Trypanosoma lewisi (two were confirmed by sequencing), and three were positive for Trypanozoon (one was confirmed by sequencing and three by TBR primers); the specificity of the primers failed as rodent DNA was amplified in some cases. Using TBR, six samples were positive for Trypanozoon (one was confirmed by sequencing); as T. evansi is the only species of the Trypanozoon sub-genus possibly present in Asian rodents, these results confirmed its presence in rodents from Thailand (Rattus tanezumi) and Cambodia (R. tanezumi, Niviventer fulvescens & Maxomys surifer). Further investigations are necessary to establish the situation in Lao PDR. None of the 16 samples most strongly positive to the CATT proved to be positive for Trypanozoon by PCR. The merits of the CATT for such studies were not confirmed. Studying the urban and rural circulation of these parasites in rodents will enable an evaluation of human exposure and infection risk, as human infections by T. evansi were recently described in India and by T. lewisi in India and Thailand. As sequencing PCR products is expensive, the development of new molecular and serological tools for rodents would be very useful.

  1. From reaching every district to reaching every community: analysis and response to the challenge of equity in immunization in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Chan Soeung, Sann; Grundy, John; Duncan, Richard; Thor, Rasoka; Bilous, Julian B

    2013-08-01

    BACKGROUND An international review of the Cambodian Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 2010 and other data show that despite immunization coverage increases and vaccine preventable diseases incidence reductions, inequities in access to immunization services exist. Utilizing immunization and health systems literature, analysis of global health databases and the EPI review findings, this paper examines the characteristics of immunization access and outcome inequities, and describes proposed longer-term strategic and operational responses to these problems. Findings The national programme has evolved from earlier central and provincial level planning to strengthening routine immunization coverage through the District level 'Reaching Every District Strategy'. However, despite remarkable improvements, the review found over 20% of children surveyed were not fully immunized, primarily from communities where inequities of both access and impact persist. These inequities relate mainly to socio-economic exposures including wealth and education level, population mobility and ethnicity. To address these problems, a shift in strategic and operational response is proposed that will include (a) a re-focus of planning on facility level to detect disadvantaged communities, (b) establishment of monitoring systems to provide detailed information on community access and utilization, (c) development of communication strategies and health networks that enable providers to adjust service delivery according to the needs of vulnerable populations, and (d) securing financial, management and political commitment for 'reaching every community'. CONCLUSIONS For Cambodia to achieve its immunization equity objectives and disease reduction goals, a shift of emphasis to health centre and community is needed. This approach will maximize the benefits of new vaccine introduction in the coming 'Decade of Vaccines', plus potentially extend the reach of other life-saving maternal and child

  2. Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three Demographic and Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Irie, Yuki; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010. Methods A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators. Findings Child stunting was associated with the child’s sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents’ education, maternal tobacco use and mother’s birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use. Conclusion Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition. PMID:23678197

  3. Identifying Conservation Successes, Failures and Future Opportunities; Assessing Recovery Potential of Wild Ungulates and Tigers in Eastern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    O'Kelly, Hannah J.; Evans, Tom D.; Stokes, Emma J.; Clements, Tom J.; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H. B.; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate

  4. Access to Treatment for Diabetes and Hypertension in Rural Cambodia: Performance of Existing Social Health Protection Schemes

    PubMed Central

    Bigdeli, Maryam; Jacobs, Bart; Men, Chean Rithy; Nilsen, Kristine; Van Damme, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases (NCD) pose challenges to Cambodia’s health system. Medicines for NCD are on the National Essential Medicines List but no clinical guidelines support their utilization. Two social health protection schemes aimed at the informal sector population exist (Health Equity Funds and Insurance) together with two disease-specific interventions (a Peer Educator Network and Chronic Diseases Clinics) targeted at NCD patients. This study examines performance of these various schemes in relation to NCD. Methods Cross-sectional household survey among 709 individuals self-reporting diabetes and/or hypertension in three geographical locations in rural Cambodia using a structured questionnaire investigating diagnostic and treatment pathways, health seeking behaviour, health expenditures, and financial coping mechanisms. Results Two third of respondents with NCD were female and 55% did not belong to any scheme. The majority (59%) were diagnosed in the private sector and only 56% were on allopathic treatment that was mainly sought in the private sector (49%). Outpatient treatment cost was higher in the private sector and when using multiple providers of care. The majority were indebted, 11% due to health-related expenses. Contrary to social health protection schemes, disease-specific interventions offered better access to allopathic treatment and provided medicines in accordance with NEML. Conclusion The benefit packages of existing social health protection schemes and services in the public health sector should be adjusted to cater for the needs of people living with NCD in rural Cambodia. Initiatives that offer active disease management strategies and promote patients and community participation appear more successful in increasing treatment adherence and decreasing the risk of financial hardship. PMID:26815916

  5. Identifying conservation successes, failures and future opportunities; assessing recovery potential of wild ungulates and tigers in Eastern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    O'Kelly, Hannah J; Evans, Tom D; Stokes, Emma J; Clements, Tom J; Dara, An; Gately, Mark; Menghor, Nut; Pollard, Edward H B; Soriyun, Men; Walston, Joe

    2012-01-01

    Conservation investment, particularly for charismatic and wide-ranging large mammal species, needs to be evidence-based. Despite the prevalence of this theme within the literature, examples of robust data being generated to guide conservation policy and funding decisions are rare. We present the first published case-study of tiger conservation in Indochina, from a site where an evidence-based approach has been implemented for this iconic predator and its prey. Despite the persistence of extensive areas of habitat, Indochina's tiger and ungulate prey populations are widely supposed to have precipitously declined in recent decades. The Seima Protection Forest (SPF), and broader Eastern Plains Landscape, was identified in 2000 as representing Cambodia's best hope for tiger recovery; reflected in its designation as a Global Priority Tiger Conservation Landscape. Since 2005 distance sampling, camera-trapping and detection-dog surveys have been employed to assess the recovery potential of ungulate and tiger populations in SPF. Our results show that while conservation efforts have ensured that small but regionally significant populations of larger ungulates persist, and density trends in smaller ungulates are stable, overall ungulate populations remain well below theoretical carrying capacity. Extensive field surveys failed to yield any evidence of tiger, and we contend that there is no longer a resident population within the SPF. This local extirpation is believed to be primarily attributable to two decades of intensive hunting; but importantly, prey densities are also currently below the level necessary to support a viable tiger population. Based on these results and similar findings from neighbouring sites, Eastern Cambodia does not currently constitute a Tiger Source Site nor meet the criteria of a Global Priority Tiger Landscape. However, SPF retains global importance for many other elements of biodiversity. It retains high regional importance for ungulate

  6. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  7. Mapping and characterizing selected canopy tree species at the Angkor World Heritage site in Cambodia using aerial data.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia's tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman's rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables.

  8. Prevalence and correlates of perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior among school-going adolescents in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Tepirou, Chher; Pengpid, Supa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study was to investigate perceived teeth health status and oral health behavior, as well as their correlates, among adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3806 Cambodian school children (mean age 15.7 years, SD=1.8 years) who took part in the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2013. Overall, 7.8% of the students reported poor perceived teeth status, 18.0% had missed school in the past year because of a toothache, 26.7% engaged in combined oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often = 79.8%, using fluoride toothpaste = 59.9%, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day = 53.6%), and 59.9% had never visited a dentist for a routine examination or other dental work. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, older age, being female, missing school because of a toothache, having a toothache in the past 12 months, poor oral health behavior and sedentary leisure time were associated with poor perceived teeth status. Older age, good perceived teeth status, having had a dental check-up, washing hands before eating and after toilet use, and not eating fast food were associated with a positive oral health behavior (brushing teeth twice daily or more often, using fluoride toothpaste, and drinking soft drinks less than once a day). Significant proportions of poor perceived teeth status and poor oral health behavior were found among school children in Cambodia. Various risk factors (sociodemographic, dental variables, general health risk behaviors) for perceived poor teeth status, oral health behavior and never having had a dental check-up were identified, which can be utilized for intervention programs. PMID:28008205

  9. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails.

    PubMed

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies.

  10. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis Broadly Overlap in Thailand, Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar: A Molecular Survey of Larvae in Land Snails

    PubMed Central

    Rodpai, Rutchanee; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sanpool, Oranuch; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Laymanivong, Sakhone; Aung, Win Papa; Phosuk, Issarapong; Laummaunwai, Porntip

    2016-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a zoonotic nematode parasite causing human eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) worldwide. A closely related species, Angiostrongylus malaysiensis, might also be a human pathogen. Larvae were obtained from land snails in Lao PDR, Cambodia, Myanmar and Thailand. We sequenced two nuclear gene regions (nuclear ribosomal ITS2 and SSU rRNA) and a portion of one mitochondrial gene (COI) from these larvae. Angiostrongylus cantonensis and A. malaysiensis were identified. This is the first report of the molecular identification of the two Angiostrongylus species in Lao PDR, Cambodia and Myanmar. The regional distributions of the two species broadly overlap. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred including data from Angiostrongylus species deposited in public databases. All the gene regions we sequenced have potential value in distinguishing between species of Angiostrongylus. The COI gene exhibited the greatest intraspecific variation in the study region (five haplotypes in A. cantonensis and four in A. malaysiensis) and might be suitable for more detailed phylogeographic studies. PMID:27513930

  11. Unsafe abortion as a birth control method: maternal mortality risks among unmarried cambodian migrant women on the Thai-Cambodia border.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Shalika; Hoban, Elizabeth; Nevill, Annemarie

    2012-11-01

    Reproductive health research and policies in Cambodia focus on safe motherhood programs particularly for married women, ignoring comprehensive fertility regulation programs for unmarried migrant women of reproductive age. Maternal mortality risks arising due to unsafe abortion methods practiced by unmarried Cambodian women, across the Thai-Cambodia border, can be considered as a public health emergency. Since Thailand has restrictive abortion laws, Cambodian migrant women who have irregular migration status in Thailand experimented with unsafe abortion methods that allowed them to terminate their pregnancies surreptitiously. Unmarried migrant women choose abortion as a preferred birth control method seeking repeat "unsafe" abortions instead of preventing conception. Drawing on the data collected through surveys, in-depth interviews, and document analysis in Chup Commune (pseudonym), Phnom Penh, and Bangkok, the authors describe the public health dimensions of maternal mortality risks faced by unmarried Cambodian migrant women due to various unsafe abortion methods employed as birth control methods.

  12. Therapeutic efficacy of fixed dose artesunate-mefloquine for the treatment of acute, uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kampong Speu, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cambodia stopped using co-blistered, non-fixed, artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ) in 2008 when treatment failure rates approximated 20%. Fixed dose combination (FDC) ASMQ is efficacious against acute uncomplicated, drug resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia but has not been tested in Cambodia. Methods A 42-day WHO therapeutic efficacy study (TES) was conducted in 2010 in Oral, Kampong Speu province, south-west Cambodia, in patients with acute uncomplicated P. falciparum. Daily administered FDC ASMQ for three days was dosed by age. Genotyping of isolates at day 0 and day of recrudescence by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) classified post-treatment recurrent falciparum parasitaemia. Ex vivo drug sensitivity testing ([3H] hypoxanthine method) was performed on baseline parasites and reported as the drug concentration inhibiting 50% parasite growth vs no drug (IC50). Results Recruited patients numbered 45; five aged <15 years. On day 3, five of 45 [11.1 (3.7-24.05)] % patients were still parasite-positive; one of whom later failed treatment on day 21. There were 5/45 (11.1%) late treatment failures on day 21, 28 and 35; all were PCR diagnosed recrudescent infections. The day 0 MQ IC50s ranged from 11.5-238.9 (median 58.6) nM. Conclusions This TES demonstrated reasonable efficacy in an area of possible reduced artemisinin sensitivity and high MQ IC50s. Efficacy testing of FDC ASMQ should continue in Cambodia and be considered for reintroduction if efficacy returns. PMID:24060207

  13. Seroprevalence and Transmission of Human Influenza A(H5N1) Virus before and after Virus Reassortment, Cambodia, 2006–2014

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Sowath; Horwood, Paul; Chan, Malen; Rith, Sareth; Sorn, Sopheak; Oeung, Kunthea; Nguon, Kunthy; Chan, Siam; Y, Phalla; Parry, Amy; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Ly, Sovann; Richner, Beat; Laurent, Denis; Vong, Sirenda; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Thirty-five human influenza A(H5N1) cases were reported in Cambodia during 2013–2014 after emergence of a clade 1.1.2 reassortant virus. We tested 881 villagers and found 2 cases of pauci- or asymptomatic infection. Seroprevalence after emergence of the reassortant strain (0.2%) was lower than the aggregate seroprevalence of 1.3% reported in earlier studies. PMID:28098551

  14. Elusive retributive justice in post-Khmer Rouge Cambodia: Challenges of using ECCC Victim Information Forms as a victim participatory rights mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nou, Leakhena

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the procedural challenges of using the Victim Information Forms (VIFs) to analyze survivors' experiences with the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), commonly known as the Khmer Rouge Tribunal. The paper takes a systematic public/medical sociology approach to examining the VIF as a participatory rights mechanism for victims wishing to pursue justice for themselves and their loved ones who experienced the Khmer Rouge atrocities, torture, forced relocation, starvation, forced labor, rape, robbery, and other physical and psychological torment, firsthand. It provides the first comparative, critical analysis of both the original VIF and the revised form issued midway through the submission period; both forms appear as appendices to the paper. Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made by the researcher based on the firsthand collection and submission of the largest group of VIFs from any single source around the world (outside of Cambodia itself), as well as on support work with victims/survivors during the ECCC proceedings in Phnom Penh, Cambodia in 2013.

  15. Quantitative assessment of a spatial multicriteria model for highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 in Thailand, and application in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Mathilde C.; Goutard, Flavie L.; Roulleau, Floriane; Holl, Davun; Thanapongtharm, Weerapong; Roger, François L.; Tran, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    The Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1 (HPAI) virus is now considered endemic in several Asian countries. In Cambodia, the virus has been circulating in the poultry population since 2004, with a dramatic effect on farmers’ livelihoods and public health. In Thailand, surveillance and control are still important to prevent any new H5N1 incursion. Risk mapping can contribute effectively to disease surveillance and control systems, but is a very challenging task in the absence of reliable disease data. In this work, we used spatial multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) to produce risk maps for HPAI H5N1 in poultry. We aimed to i) evaluate the performance of the MCDA approach to predict areas suitable for H5N1 based on a dataset from Thailand, comparing the predictive capacities of two sources of a priori knowledge (literature and experts), and ii) apply the best method to produce a risk map for H5N1 in poultry in Cambodia. Our results showed that the expert-based model had a very high predictive capacity in Thailand (AUC = 0.97). Applied in Cambodia, MCDA mapping made it possible to identify hotspots suitable for HPAI H5N1 in the Tonlé Sap watershed, around the cities of Battambang and Kampong Cham, and along the Vietnamese border. PMID:27489997

  16. Correlations between Maternal, Breast Milk, and Infant Vitamin B12 Concentrations among Mother–Infant Dyads in Vancouver, Canada and Prey Veng, Cambodia: An Exploratory Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chebaya, Philip; Karakochuk, Crystal D.; March, Kaitlin M.; Chen, Nancy N.; Stamm, Rosemary A.; Kroeun, Hou; Sophonneary, Prak; Borath, Mam; Shahab-Ferdows, Setareh; Hampel, Daniela; Barr, Susan I.; Lamers, Yvonne; Houghton, Lisa A.; Allen, Lindsay H.; Green, Tim J.; Whitfield, Kyly C.

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 plays an essential role in fetal and infant development. In regions where animal source food consumption is low and perinatal supplementation is uncommon, infants are at risk of vitamin B12 deficiency. In this secondary analysis, we measured total vitamin B12 concentrations in maternal and infant serum/plasma and breast milk among two samples of mother–infant dyads in Canada (assessed at 8 weeks post-partum) and in Cambodia (assessed between 3–27 weeks post-partum). Canadian mothers (n = 124) consumed a daily vitamin B12-containing multiple micronutrient supplement throughout pregnancy and lactation; Cambodian mothers (n = 69) were unsupplemented. The maternal, milk, and infant total vitamin B12 concentrations (as geometric means (95% CI) in pmol/L) were as follows: in Canada, 698 (648,747), 452 (400, 504), and 506 (459, 552); in Cambodia, 620 (552, 687), 317 (256, 378), and 357 (312, 402). The majority of participants were vitamin B12 sufficient (serum/plasma total B12 > 221 pmol/L): 99% and 97% of mothers and 94% and 84% of infants in Canada and Cambodia, respectively. Among the Canadians, maternal, milk, and infant vitamin B12 were all correlated (p < 0.05); only maternal and infant vitamin B12 were correlated among the Cambodians (p < 0.001). PMID:28287490

  17. AIDS-Related Stigma and Mental Disorders among People Living with HIV: A Cross-Sectional Study in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Siyan; Chhoun, Pheak; Suong, Samedy; Thin, Kouland; Brody, Carinne; Tuot, Sovannary

    2015-01-01

    Background AIDS-related stigma and mental disorders are the most common conditions in people living with HIV (PLHIV). We therefore conducted this study to examine the association of AIDS-related stigma and discrimination with mental disorders among PLHIV in Cambodia. Methods A two-stage cluster sampling method was used to select 1,003 adult PLHIV from six provinces. The People Living with HIV Stigma Index was used to measure stigma and discrimination, and a short version of general health questionnaire (GHQ-12) was used to measure mental disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results The reported experiences of discrimination in communities in the past 12 months ranged from 0.8% for reports of being denied health services to 42.3% for being aware of being gossiped about. Internal stigma was also common ranging from 2.8% for avoiding going to a local clinic and/or hospital to 59.6% for deciding not to have (more) children. The proportions of PLHIV who reported fear of stigma and discrimination ranged from 13.9% for fear of being physically assaulted to 34.5% for fear of being gossiped about. The mean score of GHQ-12 was 3.2 (SD = 2.4). After controlling for several potential confounders, higher levels of mental disorders (GHQ-12≥ 4) remained significantly associated with higher levels of experiences of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4–2.6), higher levels of internal stigma (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.2–2.3), and higher levels of fear of stigma and discrimination in family and communities (AOR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.1–2.2). Conclusions AIDS-related stigma and discrimination among PLHIV in Cambodia are common and may have potential impacts on their mental health conditions. These findings indicate a need for community-based interventions to reduce stigma and discrimination in the general public and to help PLHIV to cope with this situation. PMID:25806534

  18. Associations of alcohol use with mental health and alcohol exposure among school-going students in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Peltzer, Karl; Pengpid, Supa; Tepirou, Chher

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine the associations of alcohol use with sociodemographic factors, mental health and alcohol exposure among school-going adolescents in Cambodia. The analysis included 3,806 school children, mean age 15.7 years (SD=1.8), from Cambodia who participated in the “Global School-based Student Health Survey” (GSHS) in 2013. The results indicate that overall, 10.0% of the students reported current alcohol use, 10.8% lifetime drunkenness, and 2.8% problem drinking. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, sociodemographic factors (older age and being male), mental health and other variables (bullying victimization, OR (odds ratio) = 1.99; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.50, 2.65] and OR = 2.15; 95% CI [1.58, 3.21], respectively; having attempted suicide, OR = 2.04; 95% CI [1.35, 3.08] and OR = 2.06; 95% CI [1.29, 3.28], respectively and illicit drug use, OR = 4.97; 95% CI [2.41, 10.24] OR = 5.05; 95% CI [2.14, 11.98], respectively) and alcohol exposure variables (peer influence on drinking alcohol, OR = 6.68; 95% CI [4.75, 9.39] and OR = 7.83; 95% CI [5.73, 10.66], respectively and daily or almost daily to alcohol advertising in the past 30 days OR = 1.61; 95% CI [1.03, 2.51] and OR = 2.30; 95% CI [1.40, 3.77], respectively) were significantly positively associated with current alcohol use and drunkenness. Moreover, older age, being male, bullying victimization, having close friends, suicide attempt, drug use, father or male guardian drinks alcohol and peer influence were associated with problem drinking. There is a need to implement public health interventions with a special focus on the determinants of alcohol consumption, including exposure to alcohol advertising, in this age group. PMID:28008197

  19. Socially-marketed rapid diagnostic tests and ACT in the private sector: ten years of experience in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Whilst some populations have recently experienced dramatic declines in malaria, the majority of those most at risk of Plasmodium falciparum malaria still lack access to effective treatment with artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) and others are already facing parasites resistant to artemisinins. In this context, there is a crucial need to improve both access to and targeting of ACT through greater availability of good quality ACT and parasitological diagnosis. This is an issue of increasing urgency notably in the private commercial sector, which, in many countries, plays an important role in the provision of malaria treatment. The Affordable Medicines Facility for malaria (AMFm) is a recent initiative that aims to increase the provision of affordable ACT in public, private and NGO sectors through a manufacturer-level subsidy. However, to date, there is little documented experience in the programmatic implementation of subsidized ACT in the private sector. Cambodia is in the unique position of having more than 10 years of experience not only in implementing subsidized ACT, but also rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) as part of a nationwide social marketing programme. The programme includes behaviour change communication and the training of private providers as well as the sale and distribution of Malarine, the recommended ACT, and Malacheck, the RDT. This paper describes and evaluates this experience by drawing on the results of household and provider surveys conducted since the start of the programme. The available evidence suggests that providers' and consumers' awareness of Malarine increased rapidly, but that of Malacheck much less so. In addition, improvements in ACT and RDT availability and uptake were relatively slow, particularly in more remote areas. The lack of standardization in the survey methods and the gaps in the data highlight the importance of establishing a clear system for monitoring and evaluation for similar initiatives. Despite these limitations, a

  20. Determining barriers to creating an enabling environment in Cambodia: results from a baseline study with key populations and police

    PubMed Central

    Schneiders, Mira L; Weissman, Amy

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cambodian law enforcement's limited acceptance of harm reduction has hindered HIV program effectiveness. With funding from the Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade, FHI 360 supported the Ministry of Interior to implement the Police Community Partnership Initiative (PCPI) in Cambodia's capital Phnom Penh. To guide this, FHI 360 conducted a baseline study examining police and key populations’ attitudes and practices towards one another, including fear and occurrence of arrest. Methods Between December 2012 and January 2013, a cross-sectional survey of 199 police post officers, 199 people who use drugs (PWUD) including people who inject drugs (PWID), 199 men who have sex with men (MSM), 200 transgender women (TGW) and 200 female entertainment workers (FEW) was conducted in five Phnom Penh districts. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, members of a key population from selected hotspots or police officers, deputy chiefs or chiefs. Results Key populations’ median age was 25 years (IQR: 22–30); 40% had completed only primary school. Police were male (99.5%), with median age 43 years (IQR: 30 to 47), and 45 and 25% high school and university completion rates, respectively. Key populations feared arrest for carrying needles and syringes (67%), condoms (23%) and 19% felt afraid to access health services. Close to 75% of police reported body searching and 58% arresting key populations in the past six months for using drugs (64%), selling or distributing drugs (36%) or being violent (13%). Self-reported arrests (23% PWUD, 6% MSM, 6% TGW, 12% FEW; p<0.05), being verbally threatened (45% PWUD, 21% MSM, 25% TGW, 27% FEW; p<0.001) and body searched (44% PWUD, 28% MSM, 23% TGW, 8% FEW; p<0.001) was significantly higher among PWUD than other key populations. The majority (94%) of police believed arrest was an appropriate solution to reduce HIV and drug use and reported selling sex (88%) and carrying needles and syringes (55%) as valid reasons for

  1. Bacterial Communities in Pigmented Biofilms Formed on the Sandstone Bas-Relief Walls of the Bayon Temple, Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Kusumi, Asako; Li, Xianshu; Osuga, Yu; Kawashima, Arata; Gu, Ji-Dong; Nasu, Masao; Katayama, Yoko

    2013-01-01

    The Bayon temple in Angkor Thom, Cambodia has shown serious deterioration and is subject to the formation of various pigmented biofilms. Because biofilms are damaging the bas-reliefs, low reliefs engraved on the surface of sandstone, information about the microbial community within them is indispensable to control biofilm colonization. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of biofilm samples from the pigmented sandstone surfaces showed that the bacterial community members in the biofilms differed clearly from those in the air and had low sequence similarity to database sequences. Non-destructive sampling of biofilm revealed novel bacterial groups of predominantly Rubrobacter in salmon pink biofilm, Cyanobacteria in chrome green biofilm, Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in signal violet biofilm, Chloroflexi in black gray biofilm, and Deinococcus-Thermus, Cyanobacteria, and Rubrobacter in blue green biofilm. Serial peeling-off of a thick biofilm by layers with adhesive sheets revealed a stratified structure: the blue–green biofilm, around which there was serious deterioration, was very rich in Cyanobacteria near the surface and Chloroflexi in deep layer below. Nitrate ion concentrations were high in the blue–green biofilm. The characteristic distribution of bacteria at different biofilm depths provides valuable information on not only the biofilm formation process but also the sandstone weathering process in the tropics. PMID:24334526

  2. Comparing the microbial risks associated with household drinking water supplies used in peri-urban communities of Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K; McBean, E; Shantz, A; Murphy, H M

    2015-03-01

    Most Cambodians lack access to a safe source of drinking water. Piped distribution systems are typically limited to major urban centers in Cambodia, and the remaining population relies on a variety of surface, rain, and groundwater sources. This study examines the household water supplies available to Phnom Penh's resettled peri-urban residents through a case-study approach of two communities. A quantitative microbial risk assessment is performed to assess the level of diarrheal disease risk faced by community members due to microbial contamination of drinking water. Risk levels found in this study exceed those associated with households consuming piped water. Filtered and boiled rain and tank water stored in a kettle, bucket/cooler, bucket with spigot or a 500 mL bottle were found to provide risk levels within one order-of-magnitude to the piped water available in Phnom Penh. Two primary concerns identified are the negation of the risk reductions gained by boiling due to prevailing poor storage practices and the use of highly contaminated source water.

  3. A responsive evaluation of mental health treatment in Cambodia: Intentionally addressing poverty to increase cultural responsiveness in therapy.

    PubMed

    Seponski, Desiree M; Lewis, Denise C; Megginson, Maegan C

    2014-01-01

    Mental health issues are significant contributors to the global burden of disease with the highest incidence in resource poor countries; 90% of those in need of mental health treatment reside in low resource countries but receive only 10% of the world's resources. Cambodia, the eighth least developed country in the world, serves as one example of the need to address mental health concerns in low-income, resource poor countries. The current study utilises responsive evaluation methodology to explore how poverty-stricken Cambodian clients, therapists and supervisors experience Western models of therapy as culturally responsive to their unique needs. Quantitative and qualitative data were triangulated across multiple stakeholders using numerous methods including a focus group, interviews, surveys, case illustrations and live supervision observation and analysed using constant comparative analysis. Emerging findings suggest that poverty, material needs, therapy location and financial situations greatly impact the daily lives and mental health conditions of Cambodians and hinder clients' therapeutic progress. The local community needs and context of poverty greatly hinder clients' therapeutic progress in therapy treatment and when therapy does not directly address the culture of poverty, clients did not experience therapy as valuable despite some temporary decreases in mental health symptoms.

  4. Condom negotiation across different relationship types by young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Phlong, Pisith; Couture, Marie-Claude; Kien, Serey Phal; Stein, Ellen; Bates, Anna Juong; Sansothy, Neth; Page, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    Cambodia's 100% Condom Use Programme is credited with an increase in consistent condom use in commercial sexual interactions and a decrease in HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs). There has been little improvement in condom use between FSWs and non-commercial partners, prompting calls for more innovative approaches to increasing condom use in these relationships. To understand why condoms are used or not used in sexual interactions involving FSWs, we examined condom negotiation across different types of relationships. We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with young (15 to 29 years) women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh. There was an important interplay between the meanings of condom use and the meanings of women's relationships. Commercial relationships were characterised as inherently risky and necessitated condom use. Despite a similar lack of sexual fidelity, sweetheart relationships were rarely construed as risky and typically did not involve condom use. Husbands and wives constructed their sexual interactions with each other differently, making agreement on condom use difficult. The lack of improvement in condom use in FSWs' non-commercial sexual relationships needs to be understood in relation to both sex work and the broader Cambodian sexual culture within which these relationships are embedded.

  5. The Economic Burden of Malnutrition in Pregnant Women and Children under 5 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Silo, Sok; Laillou, Arnaud; Wieringa, Frank; Hong, Rathamony; Hong, Rathavuth; Poirot, Etienne; Bagriansky, Jack

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition is locked in a vicious cycle of increased mortality, poor health, impaired cognitive development, slow physical growth, reduced learning capacity, inferior performance, and ultimately lower adult work performance and productivity. The consensus of global scientific evidence indicates that lowering the rates of malnutrition will be an indispensable component of any successful program to raise the quality of human capital and resources. This study used a “consequence model” to apply the coefficient risk-deficit on economic losses, established in the global scientific literature, to Cambodian health, demographic, and economic data to develop a national estimate of the value of economic losses due to malnutrition. The impact of the indicators of malnutrition analyzed represent a burden to the national economy of Cambodia estimated at 266 million USD annually (1.7% of GDP). Stunting is reducing the Cambodian economic output by more than 120 million USD, and iodine deficiency disorders alone by 57 million USD. This economic burden is too high in view of Cambodia’s efforts to drive economic development. The government should rapidly expand a range of low-cost effective nutrition interventions to break the current cycle of increased mortality, poor health and ultimately lower work performance, productivity, and earnings. PMID:27187462

  6. Estimating Suicide Rates in Developing Nations: A Low-Cost Newspaper Capture-Recapture Approach in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Harris, Keith M; Thandrayen, Joanne; Samphoas, Chien; Se, Pros; Lewchalermwongse, Boontriga; Ratanashevorn, Rattanakorn; Perry, Megan L; Britts, Choloe

    2016-04-01

    This study tested a low-cost method for estimating suicide rates in developing nations that lack adequate statistics. Data comprised reported suicides from Cambodia's 2 largest newspapers. Capture-recapture modeling estimated a suicide rate of 3.8/100 000 (95% CI = 2.5-6.7) for 2012. That compares to World Health Organization estimates of 1.3 to 9.4/100 000 and a Cambodian government estimate of 3.5/100 000. Suicide rates of males were twice that of females, and rates of those <40 years were twice that of those ≥40 years. Capture-recapture modeling with newspaper reports proved a reasonable method for estimating suicide rates for countries with inadequate official data. These methods are low-cost and can be applied to regions with at least 2 newspapers with overlapping reports. Means to further improve this approach are discussed. These methods are applicable to both recent and historical data, which can benefit epidemiological work, and may also be applicable to homicides and other statistics.

  7. Prevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Toxocara vitulorum Infections in Buffalo and Cattle Calves in Three Provinces of Central Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Dorny, Pierre; Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Stoliaroff, Valérie; Sothy, Meas; Chea, Rortana; Chea, Bunthon; Sourloing, Hor; Samuth, Sum; Kong, Seth; Nguong, Koemseang; Sorn, San; Holl, Davun; Vercruysse, Jozef

    2015-04-01

    The prevalence and associated risk factors of Toxocara vitulorum infection in buffalo and cattle calves was studied in 3 provinces in central Cambodia. Fecal samples were collected from 517 calves between the age of 1-15 weeks and processed for nematode egg counts by a modified McMaster method. A total of 64 calves were found to excrete T. vitulorum eggs in their feces (12.4%; 95% exact CI: 9.7-15.5). The mean fecal egg count was 2,798 EPG (SD=16,351; range=0-224,400). A multivariable generalized linear mixed model showed higher odds of T. vitulorum infection for buffalo versus cattle, for animals aged 4-8 weeks versus younger and older ones, and for animals with strongyle infection. There was no association with fecal consistency. Farmers should be aware of the potential impact of T. vitulorum , and treat their calves at the age of 2-3 weeks with anthelmintics such as benzimidazoles or pyrantel.

  8. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A; Friess, Daniel A; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests.

  9. Reasons for routine episiotomy: A mixed-methods study in a large maternity hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schantz, Clémence; Sim, Kruy Leang; Ly, Ek Meng; Barennes, Hubert; Sudaroth, So; Goyet, Sophie

    2015-05-01

    First documented in 1741, the practice of episiotomy substantially increased worldwide during the 20th century. However, research shows that episiotomy is not effective in reducing severe perineal trauma and may be harmful. Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted a study in 2013-14 on why obstetricians and midwives in a large maternity hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, still do routine episiotomies. The study included the extent of the practice, based on medical records; a retrospective analysis of the delivery notes of a random sample of 365 patients; and 22 in-depth interviews with obstetricians, midwives and recently delivered women. Of the 365 women, 345 (94.5%, 95% CI: 91.7-96.6) had had an episiotomy. Univariate analysis showed that nulliparous women underwent episiotomy more frequently than multiparous women (OR 7.1, 95% CI 2.0-24.7). The reasons given for this practice by midwives and obstetricians were: fear of perineal tears, the strong belief that Asian women have a shorter and harder perineum than others, lack of time in overcrowded delivery rooms, and the belief that Cambodian women would be able to have a tighter and prettier vagina through this practice. A restrictive episiotomy policy and information for pregnant women about birthing practices through antenatal classes should be implemented as soon as possible.

  10. High use of commercial food products among infants and young children and promotions for these products in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Pries, Alissa M; Huffman, Sandra L; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    Despite national improvements in child survival, 40% of Cambodian children less than 5 years of age are stunted. Commercially produced complementary foods could be nutritionally beneficial for young children in Cambodia if fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other nutrient-poor commercially produced snack foods may be detrimental to young child feeding by displacing consumption of other nutritious foods. This study assessed consumption of commercial food products among infants and young children and their mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Of children 6-23 months of age, 55.0% consumed a commercially produced snack food product on the prior day, and 80.6% had consumed one in the prior week. Only 12 (5.4%) children 6-23 months of age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food. Almost all mothers (96.9%) had observed a promotion for a commercially produced snack food product, and 29.3% reported observation of a promotion for a commercial complementary food. Only one-third (32.9%) of children 6-23 months of age achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Findings indicate that there is a need to improve infant and young child feeding practices among children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Nutritious options should be promoted, and consumption of unhealthy commercially produced snack food products should be discouraged.

  11. High use of commercial food products among infants and young children and promotions for these products in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Sandra L.; Mengkheang, Khin; Kroeun, Hou; Champeny, Mary; Roberts, Margarette; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite national improvements in child survival, 40% of Cambodian children less than 5 years of age are stunted. Commercially produced complementary foods could be nutritionally beneficial for young children in Cambodia if fortified and of optimal nutrient composition. However, other nutrient‐poor commercially produced snack foods may be detrimental to young child feeding by displacing consumption of other nutritious foods. This study assessed consumption of commercial food products among infants and young children and their mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. A cross‐sectional survey was conducted among 294 mothers of children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Of children 6‐23 months of age, 55.0% consumed a commercially produced snack food product on the prior day, and 80.6% had consumed one in the prior week. Only 12 (5.4%) children 6‐23 months of age had consumed a commercially produced complementary food. Almost all mothers (96.9%) had observed a promotion for a commercially produced snack food product, and 29.3% reported observation of a promotion for a commercial complementary food. Only one‐third (32.9%) of children 6‐23 months of age achieved a minimum acceptable diet. Findings indicate that there is a need to improve infant and young child feeding practices among children less than 24 months of age living in Phnom Penh. Nutritious options should be promoted, and consumption of unhealthy commercially produced snack food products should be discouraged. PMID:27061956

  12. Can economic incentives enhance adoption and use of a household energy technology? Evidence from a pilot study in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, Faraz; Steele, Jason; Jeuland, Marc

    2017-03-01

    While much work has examined approaches to increase uptake of a variety of household environmental, health and energy technologies, researchers and policymakers alike have struggled to ensure long-term use. Drawing on a pilot-scale experiment conducted in rural Cambodia, this study evaluates whether economic incentives enhance continued use of—and fuel savings from—improved cookstoves (ICS). Capital-cost subsidies that have been traditionally employed to enhance ICS adoption were augmented with rebates linked to stated and objectively measured use in order to investigate impacts on both initial and sustained adoption in the treatment group. Results show that households do respond to these rebates by adopting the intervention ICS at significantly higher rates, and by using it more frequently and for longer periods. Consistent with these stove-use patterns, solid-fuel use and time spent collecting or preparing fuels also decline. However, this effect appears to diminish over time. Thus, while economic inducements may significantly increase adoption and use of new environmental health technologies, corresponding reductions in environmental or livelihood burdens are not guaranteed. Additional research on the design and implementation of incentive-based interventions targeting households directly—such as carbon financing or other forms of results-based financing (RBF) for improved cookstoves—therefore seems warranted prior to wider implementation of such solutions.

  13. Injections, Cocktails and Diviners: Therapeutic Flexibility in the Context of Malaria Elimination and Drug Resistance in Northeast Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Gryseels, Charlotte; Uk, Sambunny; Erhart, Annette; Gerrets, René; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Muela Ribera, Joan; Hausmann Muela, Susanna; Menard, Didier; Heng, Somony; Sochantha, Tho; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Coosemans, Marc; Peeters Grietens, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Background Adherence to effective malaria medication is extremely important in the context of Cambodia’s elimination targets and drug resistance containment. Although the public sector health facilities are accessible to the local ethnic minorities of Ratanakiri province (Northeast Cambodia), their illness itineraries often lead them to private pharmacies selling “cocktails” and artemether injections, or to local diviners prescribing animal sacrifices to appease the spirits. Methods The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, combining qualitative (in-depth interviews and participant observation) and quantitative methods (household and cross-sectional survey). Results Three broad options for malaria treatment were identified: i) the public sector; ii) the private sector; iii) traditional treatment based on divination and ceremonial sacrifice. Treatment choice was influenced by the availability of treatment and provider, perceived side effects and efficacy of treatments, perceived etiology of symptoms, and patient-health provider encounters. Moreover, treatment paths proved to be highly flexible, changing mostly in relation to the perceived efficacy of a chosen treatment. Conclusions Despite good availability of anti-malarial treatment in the public health sector, attendance remained low due to both structural and human behavioral factors. The common use and under-dosage of anti-malaria monotherapy in the private sector (single-dose injections, single-day drug cocktails) represents a threat not only for individual case management, but also for the regional plan of drug resistance containment and malaria elimination. PMID:24244678

  14. A matter of good taste: Investigating preferences for in-house water treatment in peri-urban communities in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeuland, M. A.; Orgill, J.; Brown, J.; Shaheed, A.

    2012-12-01

    It is commonly argued that low demand for in-house water treatment technologies is not simply due to their cost, but also results from their other unfavorable features, notably distaste or convenience problems. This research considers household preferences for in-house water treatment in two peri-urban communes around Phnom Penh, Cambodia, with a particular focus on taste. In an effort to measure sensitivity to taste problems, respondents from more than 900 households were given water samples treated with randomly assigned levels of chlorine, as well as a bottled water placebo, and were asked to compare their favorite samples with their existing drinking water source. Households were also asked to complete a series of conjoint tasks in which they selected their preferred drinking water alternative among options that varied in terms of cost, taste, effectiveness against diarrheal disease and quantity of water treated. Our findings suggest that households do perceive distaste for water treated with chlorine products, and that taste is an important feature of their selection of water treatment alternatives. Better understanding of the taste preferences of households in communities without access to safe water is thus critical to interventions seeking to promote in-house water treatment.

  15. Local drinking water filters reduce diarrheal disease in Cambodia: a randomized, controlled trial of the ceramic water purifier.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joe; Sobsey, Mark D; Loomis, Dana

    2008-09-01

    A randomized, controlled intervention trial of two household-scale drinking water filters was conducted in a rural village in Cambodia. After collecting four weeks of baseline data on household water quality, diarrheal disease, and other data related to water use and handling practices, households were randomly assigned to one of three groups of 60 households: those receiving a ceramic water purifier (CWP), those receiving a second filter employing an iron-rich ceramic (CWP-Fe), and a control group receiving no intervention. Households were followed for 18 weeks post-baseline with biweekly follow-up. Households using either filter reported significantly less diarrheal disease during the study compared with a control group of households without filters as indicated by longitudinal prevalence ratios CWP: 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.41-0.63); CWP-Fe: 0.58 (95% CI: 0.47-0.71), an effect that was observed in all age groups and both sexes after controlling for clustering within households and within individuals over time.

  16. Incorporating Canopy Cover for Airborne-Derived Assessments of Forest Biomass in the Tropical Forests of Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Coomes, David A.; Friess, Daniel A.; Suy Tan, Boun; Samean Nin, Chan

    2016-01-01

    This research examines the role of canopy cover in influencing above ground biomass (AGB) dynamics of an open canopied forest and evaluates the efficacy of individual-based and plot-scale height metrics in predicting AGB variation in the tropical forests of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. The AGB was modeled by including canopy cover from aerial imagery alongside with the two different canopy vertical height metrics derived from LiDAR; the plot average of maximum tree height (Max_CH) of individual trees, and the top of the canopy height (TCH). Two different statistical approaches, log-log ordinary least squares (OLS) and support vector regression (SVR), were used to model AGB variation in the study area. Ten different AGB models were developed using different combinations of airborne predictor variables. It was discovered that the inclusion of canopy cover estimates considerably improved the performance of AGB models for our study area. The most robust model was log-log OLS model comprising of canopy cover only (r = 0.87; RMSE = 42.8 Mg/ha). Other models that approximated field AGB closely included both Max_CH and canopy cover (r = 0.86, RMSE = 44.2 Mg/ha for SVR; and, r = 0.84, RMSE = 47.7 Mg/ha for log-log OLS). Hence, canopy cover should be included when modeling the AGB of open-canopied tropical forests. PMID:27176218

  17. High resolution profile of inorganic aqueous geochemistry and key redox zones in an arsenic bearing aquifer in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Laura A; Magnone, Daniel; Sovann, Chansopheaktra; Kong, Chivuth; Uhlemann, Sebastian; Kuras, Oliver; van Dongen, Bart E; Ballentine, Christopher J; Polya, David A

    2017-07-15

    Arsenic contamination of groundwaters in South and Southeast Asia is a major threat to public health. In order to better understand the geochemical controls on the mobility of arsenic in a heavily arsenic-affected aquifer in northern Kandal Province, Cambodia, key changes in inorganic aqueous geochemistry have been monitored at high vertical and lateral resolution along dominant groundwater flow paths along two distinct transects. The two transects are characterized by differing geochemical, hydrological and lithological conditions. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater are highly heterogenous, and are broadly positively associated with iron and negatively associated with sulfate and dissolved oxygen. The observed correlations are generally consistent with arsenic mobilization by reductive-dissolution of iron (hydr)oxides. Key redox zones, as identified using groupings of the PHREEQC model equilibrium electron activity of major redox couples (notably ammonium/nitrite; ammonium/nitrate; nitrite/nitrate; dissolved oxygen/water) have been identified and vary with depth, site and season. Mineral saturation is also characterized. Seasonal changes in groundwater chemistry were observed in areas which were (i) sandy and of high permeability; (ii) in close proximity to rivers; and/or (iii) in close proximity to ponds. Such changes are attributed to monsoonal-driven surface-groundwater interactions and are consistent with the separate provenance of recharge sources as identified using stable isotope mixing models.

  18. Factors associated with use of improved water sources and sanitation among rural primary schoolchildren in Pursat Province, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    En, Wee Liang; Gan, Goh Lee

    2011-07-01

    Access to improved water supplies and sanitation generally reduces childhood diarrhea incidence. Using a cross-sectional stratified cluster sampling design, interviews were conducted among grade 4-6 primary schoolchildren from 10 primary schools in highland and lowland districts of Pursat Province, Cambodia, in both June (rainy season) and December (dry season) 2009 to determine the demographics and water sources/sanitation used. Parents also recorded any incidents of diarrhea in their children over those months. We explored the sociodemographic factors associated with use of improved water sources/sanitation, using mixed effect modelling. Participation was 84.7% (1,101/1,300). About half exclusively used improved water sources but less than 25% had access to improved sanitation during both seasons. Adjusting for clustering within households and within individuals over time, exclusive use of improved water sources and sanitation were associated with the following: dry season, more permanent housing type, family size < 8 members, and higher levels of education. Exclusive use of improved sanitation was associated with good hygiene practices and exclusive use of improved water sources was associated with male gender. Access to improved water sources and sanitation among rural Cambodian primary schoolchildren can be improved, particularly in those with lower socio-economic status. Programs to promote use of improved water sources/sanitation need to target less educated parents.

  19. Orthogonius species and diversity in Thailand (Coleoptera, Caraboidea, Orthogoniini), a result from the TIGER project

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry; Felix, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay is treated, based mainly on materials collected in Thailand through the TIGER project (the Thailand Inventory Group for Entomological Research). Among 290 specimens, 20 species are identified in total, 10 of them are new species: Orthogonius taghavianae sp. n. (Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius coomanioides sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius similaris sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park), Orthogonius setosopalpiger sp. n. (Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius gracililamella sp. n. (Loei: Phu Kradueng National Park; Chaiyaphum: Tat Tone National Park), Orthogonius pseudochaudoiri sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park), Orthogonius constrictus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius pinophilus sp. n. (Phetchabum: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park), Orthogonius vari sp. n. (Cambodia: Siem Reap; Thailand: Ubon Ratchathani: Pha Taem National Park; Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park) and Orthogonius variabilis sp. n. (Thailand: Phetchabun: Thung Salaeng Luang National Park; Nakhon Nayok: Khao Yai National Park; Phetchabun: Nam Nao National Park; China: Yunnan). In addition, Orthogonius mouhoti Chaudoir, 1871 and Orthogonius kirirom Tian & Deuve, 2008 are recorded in Thailand for the first time. In total, 30 species of Orthogonius have been recorded from Thailand, indicating that Thailand holds one of the richest Orthogonius faunas in the world. A provisional key to all Thai species is provided. A majority of Thai Orthogonius species are endemic. Among the ten national parks in which orthogonine beetles were collected, Thung Salaeng Luang holds the richest fauna, including 16 species. PMID:22328852

  20. How well are infant and young child World Health Organization (WHO) feeding indicators associated with growth outcomes? An example from Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Bernadette P; White, Alan J; Hadden, Louise; Davies, Jayne C; Wallingford, John C

    2010-10-01

    We assessed eight World Health Organization (WHO) core child feeding indicators for their association with stunting and underweight in Cambodia in 2000 and 2005. We compared the feeding data from the Cambodian Demographic and Health Surveys for 2000 with 2005 for 0-24 months children using the WHO feeding indicators, with stunting and underweight as outcomes. Prevalence of stunting and underweight was significantly less in 2005 than in 2000 among children aged 0-5 and 6-11 months, but stunting among children 18-23 months remained >50%. Prevalence of compliance with seven of the eight core healthy feeding indicators was higher in 2005. Exclusive breastfeeding among 0-5 months infants increased more than fivefold; among 6-11 and 12-17 months children, prevalence of feeding diversity and meeting a minimally acceptable diet, while improved, remained ≈25%. Modelling showed compliance with breastfeeding indicators was associated with reduced risk of underweight in 0-5 months infants, no association between compliance with feeding indicators and growth outcomes in other ages, and a significant association of higher relative wealth with growth outcomes overall. Between 2000 and 2005, Cambodia stabilized and focused resources on infant feeding. Prevalence of meeting the WHO feeding indicators improved, but modelling indicated that, in general, relative wealth, not feeding practices, was associated with improved growth outcomes. Yet, over 50% of children 18-23 months were stunted in 2005. Similar to the success with breastfeeding, focus on complementary feeding of 6-23 months children may reduce the risk of stunting in Cambodia.

  1. Testing for amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use to ascertain validity of self-reported ATS use among young female sex workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess concordance between self-reported amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use and toxicology results among young female sex workers (FSW) in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods Cross-sectional data from the Young Women’s Health Study-2 (YWHS-2), a prospective study of HIV and ATS use among young (15 to 29 years) FSW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, was analyzed. The YWHS-2 assessed sociodemographic characteristics, HIV serology, HIV risk, and ATS use by self-report and urine toxicology testing at each quarterly visit, the second of which provided data for this assessment. Outcomes include sensitivity, specificity, positive- and negative predictive values (overall and stratified by age), sex-work setting, and HIV status. Results Among 200 women, prevalence of positive toxicology screening for ATS use was 14% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2, 18.9%) and concurrent prevalence of self-reported ATS was 15.5% (95% CI, 10.4, 20.6%). The sensitivity and specificity of self-reported ATS use compared to positive toxicology test results was 89.3% (25/28), and 96.5% (166/172), respectively. The positive predictive value of self-reported ATS use was 80.6% (25/31); the negative predictive value was 98.2% (166/169). Some differences in concordance between self-report and urine toxicology results were noted in analyses stratified by age group and sex-work setting but not by HIV status. Conclusion Results indicate a high prevalence of ATS use among FSW in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, and high concordance between self-reported and toxicology-test confirmed ATS use. PMID:23186171

  2. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella enterica isolated from broiler chickens, pigs and meat products in Thailand-Cambodia border provinces.

    PubMed

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkititrakul, Sunpetch; Tuttle, R Emerson; Poungseree, Jiratchaya; Padungtod, Pawin; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella isolates from broiler chickens, pigs and their associated meat products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. A total of 941 samples were collected from pigs and broiler chickens at slaughter houses and from carcasses at local fresh markets in Sa Kaeo, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) in 2014 and 2015. From these samples, 345 Salmonella isolates were collected from Sa Keao (n = 145; 23%) and Banteay Meanchey (n = 200; 47%) and assayed for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes. Serovars Typhimurium (29%) and Rissen (29%) were the most common serotypes found in Thai and Cambodian isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in 34% and 52% of isolates from Sa Keao and Banteay Meanchey, respectively. The majority of the Thai isolates were resistant to ampicillin (72.4%), whereas most Cambodian isolates were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (71%). Eleven isolates from Sa Keao and 44 from Banteay Meanchey carried class 1 integrons comprising resistance gene cassettes. The most common gene cassette array was dfrA12-aadA2 (61.1%). Six isolates were ESBL producers. The β-lactamase genes found included blaTEM-1 , blaCTX-M-55 and blaCMY-2 . Some of these class 1 integrons and ESBL genes were located on conjugative plasmid. In conclusion, multidrug-resistant Salmonella are common in pigs, chickens and their products in the Thailand-Cambodia border provinces. Our findings indicate that class 1 integrons play a role in spread of AMR in the strains in this study.

  3. Cicada genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) from Vietnam and Cambodia, with a new species, a new record, and a key to the species.

    PubMed

    Pham, Hong-Thai; Lee, Young June; Constant, Jerome

    2015-03-03

    The genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 from Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed . Pomponia brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov. is described from Vietnam. Pomponia backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009 is added to the Cambodian cicada fauna. A key to the seven Vietnamese and Cambodian species of the genus Pomponia Stål, 1866 is provided: P. linearis (Walker, 1850), P. backanensis Pham & Yang, 2009, P. brevialata Lee & Pham, sp. nov., P. subtilita Lee, 2009, P. piceata Distant, 1905, P. daklakensis Sanborn, 2009, and P. orientalis (Distant, 1912). Synonymic lists, information on geographical distributions, and material examined for the Vietnamese and Cambodian species of Pomponia are provided.

  4. Description and DNA barcoding of Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new closely related species from Cambodia and Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Hosoishi, Shingo; Ogata, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new species, C. chhangi sp. n. and C. simboloni sp. n., are described from Cambodia and Indonesia, respectively. DNA sequences were generated for C. fraxarix and the two newly described species using 3 amplications of two regions of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 1129 bp. The mean interspecific divergences are 9.4% and 23.5% for C. fraxatrix vs. C. chhangi, C. simboloni, respectively. DNA sequences reveal that C. simboloni is found to be genetically distinct from the other two species, but C. chhangi is not distinct from C. fraxatrix.

  5. Description and DNA barcoding of Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new closely related species from Cambodia and Indonesia (Hymenoptera, Formicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Hosoishi, Shingo; Ogata, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Crematogaster fraxatrix Forel, 1911 and two new species, C. chhangi sp. n. and C. simboloni sp. n., are described from Cambodia and Indonesia, respectively. DNA sequences were generated for C. fraxarix and the two newly described species using 3 amplications of two regions of the mitochondrial gene COI with a total of 1129 bp. The mean interspecific divergences are 9.4% and 23.5% for C. fraxatrix vs. C. chhangi, C. simboloni, respectively. DNA sequences reveal that C. simboloni is found to be genetically distinct from the other two species, but C. chhangi is not distinct from C. fraxatrix. PMID:24493965

  6. Safety of a topical insect repellent (picaridin) during community mass use for malaria control in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Somony; Sluydts, Vincent; Durnez, Lies; Mean, Vanna; Polo, Koh; Tho, Sochantha; Coosemans, Marc; van Griensven, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Background While community distribution of topical repellents has been proposed as an additional malaria control intervention, the safety of this intervention at the population level remains poorly evaluated. We describe the safety of mass distribution of the picaridin repellent during a cluster-randomised trial in rural Cambodia in 2012–2013. Methods The repellent was distributed among 57 intervention villages with around 25,000 inhabitants by a team of village distributors. Information on individual adverse events, reported by phone by the village distributors, was obtained through home visits. Information on perceived side effects, reported at the family level, was obtained during two-weekly bottle exchange. Adverse events were classified as adverse reactions (events likely linked to the repellent), cases of repellent abuse and events not related to the repellent use, and classified as per Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. Findings Of the 41 adverse events notified by phone by the village distributors, there were 22 adverse reactions, 11 cases of repellent abuse (6 accidental, 5 suicide attempts) and 8 non-related events. All adverse reactions were mild, occurred in the first few months of use, and mainly manifested as skin conditions. Of the 11 cases of abuse, 2 were moderate and 2 life-threatening. All cases with adverse reactions and repellent abuse recovered completely. 20% of families reported perceived side effects, mainly itching, headache, dizziness and bad smell, but few discontinued repellent use. Conclusions Adverse reactions and abuse during mass use of picaridin were uncommon and generally mild, supporting the safety of the picaridin repellent for malaria control. PMID:28339462

  7. Expression profile of hepatic genes in cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia, China, and Indonesia: implications for cytochrome P450 genes.

    PubMed

    Ise, Ryota; Nakanishi, Yasuharu; Kohara, Sakae; Yamashita, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Tsuyoshi; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Nagata, Ryoichi; Fukuzaki, Koichiro; Utoh, Masahiro; Nakamura, Chika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Cynomolgus macaques, frequently used in drug metabolism studies, are bred mainly in the countries of Asia; however, comparative studies of drug metabolism between cynomolgus macaques bred in these countries have not been conducted. In this study, hepatic gene expression profiles of cynomolgus macaques bred in Cambodia (mfCAM), China (mfCHN), and Indonesia (mfIDN) were analyzed. Microarray analysis revealed that expression of most hepatic genes, including drug-metabolizing enzyme genes, was not substantially different between mfCAM, mfCHN, and mfIDN; only 1.1% and 3.0% of all the gene probes detected differential expression (>2.5-fold) in mfCAM compared with mfCHN and mfIDN, respectively. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression levels of 14 cytochromes P450 (P450s) important for drug metabolism did not differ (>2.5-fold) in mfCAM, mfCHN, and mfIDN, validating the microarray data. In contrast, expression of CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 differed (>2.5-fold, p < 0.05) between cynomolgus (mfCAM, mfCHN, or mfIDN) and rhesus macaques, indicating greater differences in expression of P450 genes between the two lineages. Moreover, metabolic activities measured using 14 P450 substrates did not differ substantially (<1.5-fold) between mfCAM and mfCHN. These results suggest that gene expression profiles, including drug-metabolizing enzyme genes such as P450 genes, are similar in mfCAM, mfCHN, and mfIDN.

  8. Amphetamine-type stimulant use and HIV/STI risk behaviour among young female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Maher, L; Phlong, P; Mooney-Somers, J; Keo, S; Stein, E; Page, K

    2011-01-01

    Background Use of amphetamine-type substances (ATS) has been linked to increased risk of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) worldwide. In Cambodia, recent ATS use is independently associated with incident STI infection among young female sex workers (FSW). Methods We conducted 33 in-depth interviews with women (15–29 years old) engaged in sex work to explore ATS use and vulnerability to HIV/STI. Results Participants reported that ATS, primarily methamphetamine in pill and crystalline forms (yama), were cheap, widely available and commonly used. Yama was described as a “power drug” (thnam kamlang) which enabled women to work long hours and serve more customers. Use of ATS by clients was also common, with some providing drugs for women and/or encouraging their use, often resulting in prolonged sexual activity. Requests for unprotected sex were also more common among intoxicated clients and strategies typically employed to negotiate condom use were less effective. Conclusion ATS use was highly functional for young women engaged in sex work, facilitating a sense of power and agency and highlighting the occupational significance and normalization of ATS in this setting. This highly gendered dynamic supports the limited but emerging literature on women’s use of ATS, which to date has been heavily focused on men. Results indicate an urgent need to increase awareness of the risks associated with ATS use, to provide women with alternative and sustainable options for income generation, to better regulate the conditions of sex work, and to work with FSWs and their clients to develop and promote culturally appropriate harm reduction interventions. PMID:21316935

  9. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-02-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households' ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people.

  10. Impacts on rural livelihoods in Cambodia following adoption of best practice health and husbandry interventions by smallholder cattle farmers.

    PubMed

    Young, J R; O'Reilly, R A; Ashley, K; Suon, S; Leoung, I V; Windsor, P A; Bush, R D

    2014-08-01

    To better understand how smallholder farmers whom own the majority of Cambodian cattle can contribute to efforts to address food security needs in the Mekong region, a five-year research project investigating methods to improve cattle health and husbandry practices was conducted. Cattle production in Cambodia is constrained by transboundary animal diseases (TADs) including foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) plus poor nutrition, reproduction and marketing knowledge. The project worked in six villages in Kandal, Takeo and Kampong Cham province during 2007-12. Farmers from three 'high intervention' (HI) villages incrementally received a participatory extension programme that included FMD and HS vaccination, forage development and husbandry training. Evaluation of project impacts on livelihoods was facilitated by comparison with three 'low intervention' (LI) villages where farmers received vaccinations only. Results of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) and socio-economic surveys conducted in 2012 of 120 participating farmers identified that farmer knowledge in the HI project sites exceeded LI sites on the topics of biosecurity, internal parasites, nutrition and reproduction. HI farmers adopted biosecurity practices including a willingness to vaccinate for FMD and HS at their own cost, separate sick from healthy cattle, grow and feed forages and displayed awareness of the benefits of building fattening pens. HI farmers that grew forages observed time savings exceeding two hours per day each for men, women and children, enabling expansion of farm enterprises, secondary employment and children's schooling. Logistic regression analysis revealed that farmers in the HI group significantly increased annual household income (P < 0.001), with 53% reporting an increase of 100% or more. We conclude that improving smallholder KAP of cattle health and production can lead to improved livelihoods. This strategy should be of interest to policymakers

  11. The geomorphological characteristics of the Mekong River in northern Cambodia: A mixed bedrock-alluvial multi-channel network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshkova, Liubov V.; Carling, Paul A.

    2012-04-01

    The controls on the development of channel morphology of bedrock-constrained rivers are poorly known. The relative importance of lithological and structural control on channel alignment and character in comparison with the role of hydraulic erosion of the substratum is unclear. In addition, bedrock rivers often have a variable sediment fill and can be described as mixed bedrock-alluvial systems. The Mekong River in northern Cambodia is an anastomosed mixed bedrock-alluvial channel, but little and poorly researched. In this paper information has been gathered from diverse literature sources; digital data sets showing topography, hydrology, geology and land cover; past aerial photographs; and maps. Such data, together with field survey, provide a clear picture of the Mekong River in this region. The channels may be classified into three types: primary, secondary, cross channels. The varying characteristics of these three help towards understanding the evolution of the modern Mekong. Similarly the two-fold classification of the islands reveals the relationship between island inundation characteristics and the annual monsoon flood cycle. The associated riparian vegetation ecotones include a rare and unusual seasonally-inundated forest. Spatial variations in lithology and structure, when combined with maps of river networks, reveals that the channel alignments locally reflect the geological factors that cause the regional topographical gradient. Fault-line constraints on the local slopes of the channel may induce backwater effects and consequent sedimentation patterns (alluvial overprints) or alternatively, steepening of the channels with concomitant reduction in sedimentation. These structural constraints, taken together, lead to the identification of a mixed bedrock-alluvial five-fold geomorphological zonation within the study area. The general absence of paleochannels, and terraces close to the modern river, indicates that the Mekong is laterally stable with a

  12. Sexual behaviour and sexually transmitted diseases in Dutch marines and naval personnel on a United Nations mission in Cambodia.

    PubMed Central

    Hopperus Buma, A P; Veltink, R L; van Ameijden, E J; Tendeloo, C H; Coutinho, R A

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To determine the sexual risk behaviour and the incidence of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among Dutch marines and naval personnel during a United Nations (UN) deployment. METHODS--Surveillance by post deployment questionnaire, administered to 2289 persons in three successive battalions who served for 6 months on a UN deployment in Cambodia during June 1992-November 1993. On site the medical history of all individuals was kept up to date in a database. All personnel received extra education on STD prevention prior to deployment. Condoms were freely obtainable during deployment. RESULTS--1885 persons (82%) handed in the questionnaire of whom 842 (45%) reported to have had sexual contacts with prostitutes or local population. Being younger and single were independent risk factors for having contact. Out of these 842 persons, 750 (89.1%) reported condom use at all times, while 82 (9.7%) reported inconsistent use and 10 persons (1.2%) reported not to have used condoms. Risk factors for inconsistent and non use were being 40 years or older and a higher number of contacts. From the 832 (750 + 82) condom users, 248 (30%) reported condom failure. Risk factors for failure were: inconsistent condom use, having had more than six contacts and being in the second battalion. The patient recording database showed 43 STD cases registered in the total population of 2289 persons (1.9%). CONCLUSIONS--A low STD incidence was found despite a considerable number of reported sexual contacts. The reported condom use was high but the failure rate was considerable and needs further attention. PMID:7635494

  13. How to reach the poor? Surveillance in low-income countries, lessons from experiences in Cambodia and Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Goutard, F L; Binot, A; Duboz, R; Rasamoelina-Andriamanivo, H; Pedrono, M; Holl, D; Peyre, M I; Cappelle, J; Chevalier, V; Figuié, M; Molia, S; Roger, F L

    2015-06-01

    Surveillance of animal diseases in developing countries faces many constraints. Innovative tools and methods to enhance surveillance in remote and neglected areas should be defined, assessed and applied in close connection with local farmers, national stakeholders and international agencies. The authors performed a narrative synthesis of their own publications about surveillance in Madagascar and Cambodia. They analysed the data in light of their fieldwork experiences in the two countries' very challenging environments. The burden of animal and zoonotic diseases (e.g. avian influenza, African swine fever, Newcastle disease, Rift Valley fever) is huge in both countries which are among the poorest in the world. Being poor countries implies a lack of human and financial means to ensure effective surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases. Several recent projects have shown that new approaches can be proposed and tested in the field. Several advanced participatory approaches are promising and could be part of an innovative method for improving the dialogue among different actors in a surveillance system. Thus, participatory modelling, developed for natural resources management involving local stakeholders, could be applied to health management, including surveillance. Data transmission could benefit from the large mobile-phone coverage in these countries. Ecological studies and advances in the field of livestock surveillance should guide methods for enhancing wildlife monitoring and surveillance. Under the umbrella of the One Health paradigm, and in the framework of a risk-based surveillance concept, a combination of participatory methods and modern technologies could help to overcome the constraints present in low-income countries. These unconventional approaches should be merged in order to optimise surveillance of emerging and endemic diseases in challenging environments.

  14. Mapping and Characterizing Selected Canopy Tree Species at the Angkor World Heritage Site in Cambodia Using Aerial Data

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Minerva; Evans, Damian; Tan, Boun Suy; Nin, Chan Samean

    2015-01-01

    At present, there is very limited information on the ecology, distribution, and structure of Cambodia’s tree species to warrant suitable conservation measures. The aim of this study was to assess various methods of analysis of aerial imagery for characterization of the forest mensuration variables (i.e., tree height and crown width) of selected tree species found in the forested region around the temples of Angkor Thom, Cambodia. Object-based image analysis (OBIA) was used (using multiresolution segmentation) to delineate individual tree crowns from very-high-resolution (VHR) aerial imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Crown width and tree height values that were extracted using multiresolution segmentation showed a high level of congruence with field-measured values of the trees (Spearman’s rho 0.782 and 0.589, respectively). Individual tree crowns that were delineated from aerial imagery using multiresolution segmentation had a high level of segmentation accuracy (69.22%), whereas tree crowns delineated using watershed segmentation underestimated the field-measured tree crown widths. Both spectral angle mapper (SAM) and maximum likelihood (ML) classifications were applied to the aerial imagery for mapping of selected tree species. The latter was found to be more suitable for tree species classification. Individual tree species were identified with high accuracy. Inclusion of textural information further improved species identification, albeit marginally. Our findings suggest that VHR aerial imagery, in conjunction with OBIA-based segmentation methods (such as multiresolution segmentation) and supervised classification techniques are useful for tree species mapping and for studies of the forest mensuration variables. PMID:25902148

  15. Inter- and intra-annual variations of transpiration at a rubber stand in lowland of central Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Nakako; Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Tateishi, Makiko; Tiva, Lim Khan; Mudd, Ryan; Giambelluca, Thomas; Song, Yin

    2013-04-01

    In Southeast Asia, rubber plantation is rapidly expanding, and thus understanding the level of water consumption and tree physiology is a matter of importance to know the impacts on the local hydrology. Intra- and inter-annual variations in transpiration rate (Et) at a rubber stand, growing in lowland of central Cambodia, were examined during two years based on sap flow measurements. As for seasonality, Et was generally large in the rainy season and small in the dry season, showing sharp short-time drop in synchronization with the shedding in late January. Daily stand Et was ~ 2.0 mm day-1 in 2010 and ~ 2.4 mm day-1 in 2011 at the maximum. An analysis of non-linear multiple regression for the canopy conductance (gc) in the two years showed that the stomatal response of rubber trees was well explained by the changes in solar radiation, vapour pressure deficit, soil moisture availability, leaf area, and tree diameter. Sensitivity of gc to the atmospheric drought indicates isohydric behavior of rubber trees, while the same analysis for each year showed possibility of change in leaf characteristics due to tree maturity and/or initiation of latex tapping. The best fit model also predicted relatively small sensitivity of gc to the soil moisture deficit and rapid decrease in gc under extreme drought conditions. Annual stand Et estimated with the gc obtained in the present analysis was 469 mm yr-1 in 2010, while it increased up to 658 mm yr-1 in 2011. To find out the most important environmental variables, we examined the effect of each variable by keeping the others unchanged. This hypothesis analysis showed that in the young rubber stand which were growing very rapidly, inter-annual change of stand Et was determined mainly by the tree growth rate, not by the change of surrounding environments in the air and the soil.

  16. Precise Visualization Method for Cultural Heritage-The Case of High-Resolution Read Relief Image Map Used for Study of Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, T.; Shimoda, I.; Haraguchi, T.; Shimoda, M.

    2016-06-01

    To precisely visualize the Royal City of Angkor Thom, Cambodia, we used a new method in field of cultural heritage study. Read Relief Image Map (RRIM, Chiba et al., 2008) is a powerful method which has been used for geomorphological studies. In this study, using the LiDAR data conducted at the Angkor Archaeological Park in Cambodia in April 2012 (Evans et al., 2013), we visualized the Royal City of Angkor Thom and its vicinity (Shimoda et al., 2016). The RRIM provided a new visualization method of localizing, minute topographical changes in regions with large undulations over a wide area. It has proved to be effective in mapping, on a single wide-area map, the numerous buried remains that exist as comparable height differences or minute undulations measuring less than 1 meter in height, and provides a unique aerial view of their widespread distribution. Based on the RRIM map, past archaeological studies were referenced to reconstruct the layout of the water channel network system. Past studies revealed that a large number of ponds had been dug inside Angkor Thom. The RRIM expanded the investigation and revealed the existence of many ponds outside the royal capital indicating that a residential community had flourished outside the moat surrounded capital city.

  17. Immunity to polio, measles and rubella in women of child-bearing age and estimated congenital rubella syndrome incidence, Cambodia, 2012.

    PubMed

    Mao, B; Chheng, K; Wannemuehler, K; Vynnycky, E; Buth, S; Soeung, S C; Reef, S; Weldon, W; Quick, L; Gregory, C J

    2015-07-01

    Significant gaps in immunity to polio, measles, and rubella may exist in adults in Cambodia and threaten vaccine-preventable disease (VPD) elimination and control goals, despite high childhood vaccination coverage. We conducted a nationwide serological survey during November-December 2012 of 2154 women aged 15-39 years to assess immunity to polio, measles, and rubella and to estimate congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) incidence. Measles and rubella antibodies were detected by IgG ELISA and polio antibodies by microneutralization testing. Age-structured catalytic models were fitted to rubella serological data to predict CRS cases. Overall, 29.8% of women lacked immunity to at least one poliovirus (PV); seroprevalence to PV1, PV2 and PV3 was 85.9%, 93.4% and 83.3%, respectively. Rubella and measles antibody seroprevalence was 73.3% and 95.9%, respectively. In the 15-19 years age group, 48.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 42.4-54.1] were susceptible to either PV1 or PV3, and 40.3% (95% CI 33.0-47.5) to rubella virus. Based on rubella antibody seroprevalence, we estimate that >600 infants are born with CRS in Cambodia annually. Significant numbers of Cambodian women are still susceptible to polio and rubella, especially those aged 15-19 years, emphasizing the need to include adults in VPD surveillance and a potential role for vaccination strategies targeted at adults.

  18. Gamma-rays attenuation of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa at different energies: A new technique for identifying the origin of gemstone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limkitjaroenporn, P.; Kaewkhao, J.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, the gamma-rays interaction properties of zircons from Cambodia and South Africa have been studied. The densities of Cambodian and South African's zircons are 4.6716±0.0040 g/cm3 and 4.5505±0.0018 g/cm3, respectively. The mass attenuation coefficient and the effective atomic number of gemstones were measured with the gamma-ray in energies range 223-662 keV using the Compton scattering technique. The mass attenuation coefficients of both zircons decreased with the increasing of gamma-rays energies. The different mass attenuation coefficients between the two zircons observed at gamma-ray energies below 400 keV are attributed to the differences in the photoelectric interaction. The effective atomic number of zircons was decreased with the increasing of gamma-ray energies and showed totally different values between the Cambodia and South Africa sources. The origins of the two zircons could be successfully identified by the method based on gamma-rays interaction with matter with advantage of being a non-destructive testing.

  19. What health service support do families need for optimal breastfeeding? An in-depth exploration of young infant feeding practices in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Oberhelman, Richard A; Potts, Kaitlin Storck; Taub, Leah D; Var, Chivorn

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate and timely breastfeeding practices markedly improve lifelong health outcomes for newborns, children, and mothers. Exclusive breastfeeding is reported to be widely practiced in Cambodia, and important progress has been made toward achieving improved child health outcomes, but newborn mortality has been slow to reduce and breastfeeding practices remain suboptimal. Methods Formative research was conducted in Takeo province, Cambodia to describe the practical, cultural, and social factors underlying current breastfeeding behaviors to inform the design of a newborn survival intervention that may improve breastfeeding. In-depth interviews, observations, a collection of visual media, and focus groups were employed to gather qualitative data. Results The results revealed knowledge and practice gaps in behavior that likely contribute to breastfeeding barriers, particularly in the areas of infant latch, milk production, feeding frequency, and the use of breast milk substitutes. The predominant theme identified in the research was a dearth of detailed information, advice, and counseling for mothers beyond the message to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months. Conclusion Future newborn survival interventions and postnatal care counseling in this area must go beyond the exclusive breastfeeding message. To achieve further impact, it will be necessary to disseminate comprehensive and locally appropriate information on breastfeeding and to improve counseling in order to support successful breastfeeding and to contribute to population-level health gains. PMID:25733931

  20. Toward a typology of health-related informal credit: an exploration of borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Borrowing money is a common strategy to cope with health care costs. The impact of borrowing on households can be severe, leading to indebtedness and further impoverishment. However, the available literature on borrowing practices for health is limited. We explore borrowing practices for paying for health care by the poor in Cambodia and provide a typology, associated conditions, and the extent of the phenomenon. Methods In addition to a semi-structured literature review, in-depth interviews were conducted with representatives of 47 households with health-related debt and 19 managers of formal or informal credit schemes. Results A large proportion of Cambodians, especially the poor, resort to borrowing to meet the cost of health care. Because of limited cash flow and access to formal creditors, the majority take out loans with high interest rates from informal money lenders. The most common type of informal credit is locally known as Changkar and consists of five kinds of loans: short-term loans, medium-term loans, seasonal loans, loans for an unspecified period, and loans with repayment in labour, each with different lending and repayment conditions and interest rates. Conclusion This study suggests the importance of informal credit for coping with the cost of treatment and its potentially negative impact on the livelihood of Cambodian people. We provide directions for further studies on financial protection interventions to mitigate harmful borrowing practices to pay for health care in Cambodia. PMID:23134845

  1. Conflicting Rights: How the Prohibition of Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation Infringes the Right to Health of Female Sex Workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Dixon, Thomas; Phlong, Pisith; Mooney-Somers, Julie; Stein, Ellen; Page, Kimberly

    2015-06-11

    While repressive laws and policies in relation to sex work have the potential to undermine HIV prevention efforts, empirical research on their interface has been lacking. In 2008, Cambodia introduced antitrafficking legislation ostensibly designed to suppress human trafficking and sexual exploitation. Based on empirical research with female sex workers, this article examines the impact of the new law on vulnerability to HIV and other adverse health outcomes. Following the introduction of the law, sex workers reported being displaced to streets and guesthouses, impacting their ability to negotiate safe sex and increasing exposure to violence. Disruption of peer networks and associated mobility also reduced access to outreach, condoms, and health care. Our results are consistent with a growing body of research which associates the violation of sex workers' human rights with adverse public health outcomes. Despite the successes of the last decade, Cambodia's AIDS epidemic remains volatile and the current legal environment has the potential to undermine prevention efforts by promoting stigma and discrimination, impeding prevention uptake and coverage, and increasing infections. Legal and policy responses which seek to protect the rights of the sexually exploited should not infringe the right to health of sex workers.

  2. Appropriate Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference Cutoff for Overweight and Central Obesity among Adults in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    An, Yom; Yi, Siyan; Fitzpatrick, Annette; Gupta, Vinay; Prak, Piseth Raingsey; Oum, Sophal; LoGerfo, James P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) are used in risk assessment for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) worldwide. Within a Cambodian population, this study aimed to identify an appropriate BMI and WC cutoff to capture those individuals that are overweight and have an elevated risk of vascular disease. Methodology/Principal Findings We used nationally representative cross-sectional data from the STEP survey conducted by the Department of Preventive Medicine, Ministry of Health, Cambodia in 2010. In total, 5,015 subjects between age 25 and 64 years were included in the analyses. Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test and Student t-test, and multiple logistic regression were performed. Of total, 35.6% (n = 1,786) were men, and 64.4% (n = 3,229) were women. Mean age was 43.0 years (SD = 11.2 years) and 43.6 years (SD = 10.9 years) for men and women, respectively. Significant association of subjects with hypertension and hypercholesterolemia was found in those with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 and with WC >80.0 cm in both sexes. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) from Receiver Operating Characteristic curves was significantly greater in both sexes (all p-values <0.001) when BMI of 23.0 kg/m2 was used as the cutoff point for overweight compared to that using WHO BMI classification for overweight (BMI ≥25.0 kg/m2) for detecting the three cardiovascular risk factors. Similarly, AUC was also significantly higher in men (p-value <0.001) when using WC of 80.0 cm as the cutoff point for central obesity compared to that recommended by WHO (WC ≥94.0 cm in men). Conclusion Lower cutoffs for BMI and WC should be used to identify of risks of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia for Cambodian aged between 25 and 64 years. PMID:24205019

  3. [Do reproductive health care practices create a risk of HIV, HVB, and HVC transmission? Case studies in Cambodia].

    PubMed

    Petitet, Pascale Hancart

    2010-01-01

    The processes involved in nosocomial transmission of HIV, HBV, and HCV nosocomial transmission have not been studied at a global level; little is known about them or about the underlying social and cultural logic that contributes to this transmission. Hospital hygiene has mainly been studied from a biological perspective until now. However, hospital hygiene is shaped by norms and sociocultural representations, and the increase or limitation of disease transmission always takes place within social relations. We need to analyse the practices related to hygiene from a cultural perspective, especially since norms are interpreted at the local level according to social and symbolic logic. Our paper aims to investigate these issues in the context of reproductive health care practices in Cambodia. We describe various perceptions, attitudes and roles of both medical and non-medical caregivers and show how they determine practices, as well as how sanitary, social and institutional contexts shape practices. Since 1995, public health institutions have provided contraceptive methods (condoms, oral or injectable contraceptives, contraceptive implants, intrauterine devices, and emergency contraception). Except for the free distribution of condoms, particularly by NGOs as part of HIV prevention programs, access to contraception is not free. Private clinics and local and international NGOs provide many of these services. Many women in both urban and rural areas seek reproductive health care in the informal sector, from caregivers who may or may not be trained. We thus wonder if these practices, as implemented in the formal and informal care sectors, create a risk for the transmission of HIV, HVB, and HVC. We analyse those issues in considering especially the injection of Depo-Provera, insertion of intrauterine devices, vaginal cleaning practices, and surgical abortion. This investigation of the sociocultural dimension of hygiene in the field of reproductive health care underlines

  4. A prospective study on the incidence of dog bites and management in a rural Cambodian, rabies-endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Ponsich, Aurelia; Goutard, Flavie; Sorn, San; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    Rabies circulates intensely in Cambodia, mainly affecting rural populations. We conducted a prospective study to estimate the baseline incidence of potentially infective dog bites in rural villages of Siem Reap province, Cambodia. The study was conducted in a convenience sample of 844 families totaling 1779 persons in four villages. The study collected data in a total of 802.3 person-years. Trained village health workers (VHW) exhaustively documented consecutive dog bites at the end of each month. Between May 15th and November 15th, 2011, a total of 40 attacks (43 bites; 1.07 bites per attack) were notified by 39 persons (50% female; one suffered two distinct incidents) to VHW. The all-age attack rate for bites over this 6-month period was 2.3% (CI95%: 1.7-3.1%), with a global incidence rate estimated at 4.84 bites/100 person-years (CI95%: 3.5-6.6). The mean age in bite victims was 20.8±18.9years (median 12.5; interquartile range 6-36; range 1-63). The dog was identified in 39 (97.5%) of cases, being the household dog in 9 (22.5%) of cases. Bites were classified as severe (WHO Category III-broken skin with bleeding) in 33 (82.5%) of cases with a severe dog bites incidence estimated at 4/100 person-years (CI95%: 2.8-5.6). The bites involved the hand or face in 1 (2.5%) case each (both Category III). In 20 incidents (50%), only rice was applied to the wounds. There were no suspected or confirmed human rabies deaths during the study period but one dog died after biting (2 others were lost to follow-up and 14 were put down by their owner). Our study documented an extremely high incidence of dog bites in of rural Cambodian adults and children. Adapted control policies for canine vaccination are urgently needed.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 at the origin of an epidemic of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Eloit, Marc; Zhu, Huachen; Danet, Lucie; Huang, Zhong; Zou, Gang; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cheval, Justine; Perot, Philippe; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ky, Santy; Heng, Sothy; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; van Doorn, Rogier; Tan Tran, Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy J; Wentworth, David E; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Delpeyroux, Francis; Guan, Yi; Altmeyer, Ralf; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 circulates in many countries and has caused large epidemics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, since 1997. In April 2012, an undiagnosed fatal disease with neurological involvement and respiratory distress occurred in young children admitted to the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Most died within a day of hospital admission, causing public panic and international concern. In this study, we describe the enterovirus (EV) genotypes that were isolated during the outbreak in 2012 and the following year. From June 2012 to November 2013, 312 specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients and tested by generic EV and specific EV-A71 reverse transcription PCR. EV-A71 was detected in 208 clinical specimens while other EVs were found in 32 patients. The VP1 gene and/or the complete genome were generated. Our phylogenetic sequencing analysis demonstrated that 80 EV-A71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenotype and 3 EV-A71 strains belonged to the B5 genotype. Furthermore, some lineages of EV-A71 were found to have appeared in Cambodia following separate introductions from neighboring countries. Nineteen EV A (CV-A6 and CV-A16), 9 EV B (EV-B83, CV-B3, CV-B2, CV-A9, E-31, E-2 and EV-B80) and 4 EV C (EV-C116, EV-C96, CV-A20 and Vaccine-related PV-3) strains were also detected. We found no molecular markers of disease severity. We report here that EV-A71 genotype C4 was the main etiological agent of a large outbreak of HFMD and particularly of severe forms associated with central nervous system infections. The role played by other EVs in the epidemic could not be clearly established. PMID:27651091

  6. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): a PCR-based strategy to detect malaria parasite carriers and contain drug resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D; Menard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named "Focused Screening and Treatment" (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as "high risk" and "low risk" based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow.

  7. Focused Screening and Treatment (FSAT): A PCR-Based Strategy to Detect Malaria Parasite Carriers and Contain Drug Resistant P. falciparum, Pailin, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Stefan; Nguon, Sokomar; Kim, Saorin; Habib, Najibullah; Khim, Nimol; Sum, Sarorn; Christophel, Eva-Maria; Bjorge, Steven; Thomson, Andrew; Kheng, Sim; Chea, Nguon; Yok, Sovann; Top, Samphornarann; Ros, Seyha; Sophal, Uth; Thompson, Michelle M.; Mellor, Steve; Ariey, Frédéric; Witkowski, Benoit; Yeang, Chhiang; Yeung, Shunmay; Duong, Socheat; Newman, Robert D.; Menard, Didier

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites in Pailin province, along the border between Thailand and Cambodia, have become resistant to artemisinin derivatives. To better define the epidemiology of P. falciparum populations and to assess the risk of the possible spread of these parasites outside Pailin, a new epidemiological tool named “Focused Screening and Treatment” (FSAT), based on active molecular detection of asymptomatic parasite carriers was introduced in 2010. Cross-sectional malariometric surveys using PCR were carried out in 20 out of 109 villages in Pailin province. Individuals detected as P. falciparum carriers were treated with atovaquone-proguanil combination plus a single dose of primaquine if the patient was non-G6PD deficient. Interviews were conducted to elicit history of cross-border travel that might contribute to the spread of artemisinin-resistant parasites. After directly observed treatment, patients were followed up and re-examined on day 7 and day 28. Among 6931 individuals screened, prevalence of P. falciparum carriers was less than 1%, of whom 96% were asymptomatic. Only 1.6% of the individuals had a travel history or plans to go outside Cambodia, with none of those tested being positive for P. falciparum. Retrospective analysis, using 2010 routine surveillance data, showed significant differences in the prevalence of asymptomatic carriers discovered by FSAT between villages classified as “high risk” and “low risk” based on malaria incidence data. All positive individuals treated and followed-up until day 28 were cured. No mutant-type allele related to atovaquone resistance was found. FSAT is a potentially useful tool to detect, treat and track clusters of asymptomatic carriers of P. falciparum along with providing valuable epidemiological information regarding cross-border movements of potential malaria parasite carriers and parasite gene flow. PMID:23049687

  8. Correlates of amphetamine-type stimulants use and associations with HIV-related risks among young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Couture, Marie-Claude; Evans, Jennifer L.; Sothy, Neth San; Stein, Ellen S.; Sichan, Keo; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Background Amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use has increased in Cambodia and emerged as a significant problem among female sex workers (FSWs), potentially contributing to increased risk of HIV. We examined the prevalence of ATS use and its effect on sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted infections (STI) among FSWs in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Methods A one-year prospective study among young women engaged in sex work in brothels, entertainment establishments and on a freelance basis. Socio-demographics, sexual risks, and recent ATS use were assessed by self-report. Blood and urine samples were collected to detect HIV, Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (GC). Bivariate and multivariate longitudinal analyses were conducted to assess the effects of ATS use on number of sex partners, inconsistent condom use with paying partners and incident STI. Results ATS use was higher among women working freelance (35.6%) and in brothels (34.8%) compared to women working in entertainment establishments (17.7%) or in multiple venues (14.8%). ATS users reported more sex partners and days drunk in the previous month. In multivariate longitudinal analysis, ATS use was associated with having a higher number of sex partners (Adjusted Risk Ratio 1.49; 95% CI: 1.00–2.21) and incident STI (Adjusted Odds Ratio 5.41; 95% CI: 1.15–25.48), but not inconsistent condom use with paying partner. Conclusion ATS users had more sex partners, high level of alcohol use, and were at increased risk of STI. Our findings underscore ATS use as an important emerging risk exposure that should be integrated into HIV prevention interventions targeting this population. PMID:21820251

  9. Are Text Messages a Feasible and Acceptable Way to Reach Female Entertainment Workers in Cambodia with Health Messages? A Cross-Sectional Phone Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite great achievements in reducing the prevalence of HIV, eliminating new HIV infections remains a challenge in Cambodia. Entertainment venues such as restaurants, karaoke bars, beer gardens, cafes, pubs, and massage parlors are now considered important venues for HIV prevention efforts and other health outreach interventions. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore phone use and texting practices of female entertainment workers (FEWs) in order to determine if text messaging is a feasible and acceptable way to link FEWs to health services. Methods This cross-sectional phone survey was conducted in May 2015 with 97 FEWs aged 18–35 years and currently working at an entertainment venue in Phnom Penh. Results Of the 96 respondents, 51% reported sending text messages daily; of them, 47% used Khmer script and 45% used Romanized Khmer. Younger FEWs were more likely to report daily texting (P<.001). Most FEWs (98%) in this study reported feeling comfortable receiving private health messages despite the fact that 39% were sharing their phone with others. Younger FEWs were less likely to share their phone with others (P=.02). Of all of the FEWs, 47% reported owning a smartphone, and younger women were more likely to own a smartphone than were older women (P=.08). Conclusions The findings from this study support the development of mHealth interventions targeting high-risk groups in urban areas of Cambodia. Our data suggest that mHealth interventions using texting may be a feasible way of reaching FEWs in Phnom Penh. PMID:27207374

  10. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus 71 at the origin of an epidemic of fatal hand, foot and mouth disease cases in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Duong, Veasna; Mey, Channa; Eloit, Marc; Zhu, Huachen; Danet, Lucie; Huang, Zhong; Zou, Gang; Tarantola, Arnaud; Cheval, Justine; Perot, Philippe; Laurent, Denis; Richner, Beat; Ky, Santy; Heng, Sothy; Touch, Sok; Sovann, Ly; van Doorn, Rogier; Tan Tran, Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy J; Wentworth, David E; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude; Delpeyroux, Francis; Guan, Yi; Altmeyer, Ralf; Buchy, Philippe

    2016-09-21

    Human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). EV-A71 circulates in many countries and has caused large epidemics, especially in the Asia-Pacific region, since 1997. In April 2012, an undiagnosed fatal disease with neurological involvement and respiratory distress occurred in young children admitted to the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Most died within a day of hospital admission, causing public panic and international concern. In this study, we describe the enterovirus (EV) genotypes that were isolated during the outbreak in 2012 and the following year. From June 2012 to November 2013, 312 specimens were collected from hospitalized and ambulatory patients and tested by generic EV and specific EV-A71 reverse transcription PCR. EV-A71 was detected in 208 clinical specimens while other EVs were found in 32 patients. The VP1 gene and/or the complete genome were generated. Our phylogenetic sequencing analysis demonstrated that 80 EV-A71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenotype and 3 EV-A71 strains belonged to the B5 genotype. Furthermore, some lineages of EV-A71 were found to have appeared in Cambodia following separate introductions from neighboring countries. Nineteen EV A (CV-A6 and CV-A16), 9 EV B (EV-B83, CV-B3, CV-B2, CV-A9, E-31, E-2 and EV-B80) and 4 EV C (EV-C116, EV-C96, CV-A20 and Vaccine-related PV-3) strains were also detected. We found no molecular markers of disease severity. We report here that EV-A71 genotype C4 was the main etiological agent of a large outbreak of HFMD and particularly of severe forms associated with central nervous system infections. The role played by other EVs in the epidemic could not be clearly established.

  11. Rigor and Vigor: Three Schools Reap Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Marnie

    1999-01-01

    Describes the challenging, award-winning programs at high schools: Sussex Technical High School in Georgetown, Delaware; William H. Turner Technical Arts High School in Miami; and Michael E. DeBakey High School for the Health Professions in Houston. Explains how they combine rigorous academic coursework with career and technical education. (JOW)

  12. Local Area Networks: Reaping the Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raymond, Chadwick; Anderson, Charles

    1987-01-01

    Description of the planning and implementation of a microcomputer-based local area network in the Northbrook (Illinois) Public Library highlights: (1) applying for a grant; (2) network design; (3) the bidding process; (4) installation; (5) implementing the network; and (6) problems and cautions. (MES)

  13. Focus: who reaps the benefits of biodiversity?

    PubMed Central

    Karasov, C

    2001-01-01

    The search for wild plant and animal products of potential value to medicine, agriculture, and other uses has been going on for hundreds, possibly thousands, of years. Many commonly prescribed medicines in the United States include ingredients derived from natural products, and roughly 80% of the world's people rely on natural products for their primary medical needs. Until the past decade, all of these natural products were collected without compensating the source countries. But the rules of collecting changed in 1992 with the establishment of the Convention on Biological Diversity, which offers financial compensation for natural products and seeks to conserve biological diversity, use natural products sustainably, and fairly share products made from gene stocks. Questions remain, however, as to how to share the benefits of biodiversity equitably, as well as whether the lack of both U.S. support for the agreement and enforceability render the convention impotent. PMID:11748021

  14. Reaping the Benefits of Parent Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haakmat, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Martha Haakmat writes in this article that in some ways she understands why parents might have a harder time understanding why Montessori is education at its best, especially as their children progress past preschool. Haakmat goes on to say that the learning path at Montessori schools is more proactive. Montessori schools ask that parents partner…

  15. Renewable Energy Applied Partnerships (REAP) Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Hirono, Mazie K. [D-HI-2

    2011-01-12

    02/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. The genus Anarsia in Cambodia and the Northern Vietnam (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), with descriptions of ten new species and a catalogue of the genus in the Central-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Bae, Yang-Seop; Shin, Young-Min; Na, Sol-Moon; Park, Kyu-Tek

    2016-01-07

    The genus Anarsia Zeller in Vietnam and Cambodia is reviewed, with 19 species including 10 new species: A. deuterodes Park, sp. nov., Anarsia diversiola Park, sp. nov., A. porthmista Park, sp. nov., A. melanodes Park, sp. nov., A. gryphodes Park, sp. nov., A. campestra Park, sp. nov., A. similicampa Park, sp. nov., A. kepensis Park, sp. nov., A. pusillidia Park, sp. nov., and A. houhunlii Park, sp. nov. Nine previously described species, namely A. tricornis Meyrick, A. choana Park, A. isogona Meyrick, A. paraisogona Meyrick, A. incerta Ueda, A. acerata Meyrick, A. didymopa Meyrick, A. phortica Meyrick, and A. patulella (Walker), are reported for the first time from Vietnam or Cambodia. Anarsia magnibimaculata Li & Zheng, 1998 is newly synonymized with A. bimaculata Ponomarenko, 1989. A tentative check list of the genus in the Central and East Asia (including Indochina, China, Russian Far East, Korea, and Japan) is given.

  17. Impact of payments for environmental services and protected areas on local livelihoods and forest conservation in northern Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Tom; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2015-01-01

    The potential impacts of payments for environmental services (PES) and protected areas (PAs) on environmental outcomes and local livelihoods in developing countries are contentious and have been widely debated. The available evidence is sparse, with few rigorous evaluations of the environmental and social impacts of PAs and particularly of PES. We measured the impacts on forests and human well-being of three different PES programs instituted within two PAs in northern Cambodia, using a panel of intervention villages and matched controls. Both PES and PAs delivered additional environmental outcomes relative to the counterfactual: reducing deforestation rates significantly relative to controls. PAs increased security of access to land and forest resources for local households, benefiting forest resource users but restricting households’ ability to expand and diversify their agriculture. The impacts of PES on household well-being were related to the magnitude of the payments provided. The two higher paying market-linked PES programs had significant positive impacts, whereas a lower paying program that targeted biodiversity protection had no detectable effect on livelihoods, despite its positive environmental outcomes. Households that signed up for the higher paying PES programs, however, typically needed more capital assets; hence, they were less poor and more food secure than other villagers. Therefore, whereas the impacts of PAs on household well-being were limited overall and varied between livelihood strategies, the PES programs had significant positive impacts on livelihoods for those that could afford to participate. Our results are consistent with theories that PES, when designed appropriately, can be a powerful new tool for delivering conservation goals whilst benefiting local people. El Impacto de los Pagos por Servicios Ambientales y Áreas Protegidas sobre la Subsistencia Local y la Conservación del Bosque en el Norte de Camboya Resumen Los impactos

  18. Integrating child health services into malaria control services of village malaria workers in remote Cambodia: service utilization and knowledge of malaria management of caregivers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Malaria and other communicable diseases remain major threats in developing countries. In Cambodia, village malaria workers (VMWs) have been providing malaria control services in remote villages to cope with the disease threats. In 2009, the VMW project integrated child health services into the original malaria control services. However, little has been studied about the utilization of VMWs’ child health services. This study aimed to identify determinants of caregivers’ VMW service utilization for childhood illness and caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 36 VMW villages of Kampot and Kampong Thom provinces in July-September 2012. An equal number of VMW villages with malaria control services only (M) and those with malaria control plus child health services (M+C) were selected from each province. Using structured questionnaires, 800 caregivers of children under five and 36 VMWs, one of the two VMWs who was providing VMW services in each study village were interviewed. Results Among the caregivers, 23% in M villages and 52% in M+C villages utilized VMW services for childhood illnesses. Determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs in M villages included their VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 11.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 4.46-31.19) and VMWs’ service quality (AOR = 2.04, CI = 1.01-4.11). In M+C villages, VMWs’ length of experience (AOR = 2.44, CI = 1.52-3.94) and caregivers’ wealth index (AOR = 0.35, CI = 0.18-0.68) were associated with VMW service utilization. Meanwhile, better service quality of VMWs (AOR = 3.21, CI = 1.34-7.66) and caregivers’ literacy (AOR = 9.91, CI = 4.66-21.05) were positively associated with caregivers’ knowledge of malaria management. Conclusions VMWs’ service quality and length of experience are important determinants of caregivers’ utilization of VMWs’ child health services and their knowledge of malaria management. Caregivers are

  19. Virological Failure and HIV-1 Drug Resistance Mutations among Naive and Antiretroviral Pre-Treated Patients Entering the ESTHER Program of Calmette Hospital in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Limsreng, Setha; Him, Sovanvatey; Nouhin, Janin; Hak, Chanroeurn; Srun, Chanvatey; Viretto, Gerald; Ouk, Vara; Delfraissy, Jean Francois; Ségéral, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In resource limited settings, patients entering an antiretroviral therapy (ART) program comprise ART naive and ART pre-treated patients who may show differential virological outcomes. Methods This retrospective study, conducted in 2010–2012 in the HIV clinic of Calmette Hospital located in Phnom Penh (Cambodia) assessed virological failure (VF) rates and patterns of drug resistance of naive and pre-treated patients. Naive and ART pre-treated patients were included when a Viral Load (VL) was performed during the first year of ART for naive subjects or at the first consultation for pre-treated individuals. Patients showing Virological failure (VF) (>1,000 copies/ml) underwent HIV DR genotyping testing. Interpretation of drug resistance mutations was done according to 2013 version 23 ANRS algorithms. Results On a total of 209 patients, 164 (78.4%) were naive and 45 (21.5%) were ART pre-treated. Their median initial CD4 counts were 74 cells/mm3 (IQR: 30–194) and 279 cells/mm3 (IQR: 103–455) (p<0.001), respectively. Twenty seven patients (12.9%) exhibited VF (95% CI: 8.6–18.2%), including 10 naive (10/164, 6.0%) and 17 pre-treated (17/45, 37.8%) patients (p<0.001). Among these viremic patients, twenty-two (81.4%) were sequenced in reverse transcriptase and protease coding regions. Overall, 19 (86.3%) harbored ≥1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) whereas 3 (all belonging to pre-treated patients) harbored wild-types viruses. The most frequent DRMs were M184V (86.3%), K103N (45.5%) and thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) (40.9%). Two (13.3%) pre-treated patients harbored viruses that showed a multi-nucleos(t)ide resistance including Q151M, K65R, E33A/D, E44A/D mutations. Conclusion In Cambodia, VF rates were low for naive patients but the emergence of DRMs to NNRTI and 3TC occurred relatively quickly in this subgroup. In pre-treated patients, VF rates were much higher and TAMs were relatively common. HIV genotypic assays before ART initiation and for

  20. Integration of Multiplex Bead Assays for Parasitic Diseases into a National, Population-Based Serosurvey of Women 15-39 Years of Age in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Jeffrey W.; Jenks, M. Harley; Moss, Delynn M.; Mao, Bunsoth; Buth, Sokhal; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Soeung, Sann Chan; Lucchi, Naomi W.; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Gregory, Christopher J.; Huy, Rekol; Muth, Sinuon; Lammie, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Collection of surveillance data is essential for monitoring and evaluation of public health programs. Integrated collection of household-based health data, now routinely carried out in many countries through demographic health surveys and multiple indicator surveys, provides critical measures of progress in health delivery. In contrast, biomarker surveys typically focus on single or related measures of malaria infection, HIV status, vaccination coverage, or immunity status for vaccine-preventable diseases (VPD). Here we describe an integrated biomarker survey based on use of a multiplex bead assay (MBA) to simultaneously measure antibody responses to multiple parasitic diseases of public health importance as part of a VPD serological survey in Cambodia. A nationally-representative cluster-based survey was used to collect serum samples from women of child-bearing age. Samples were tested by MBA for immunoglobulin G antibodies recognizing recombinant antigens from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax, Wuchereria bancrofti, Toxoplasma gondii, Taenia solium, and Strongyloides stercoralis. Serologic IgG antibody results were useful both for generating national prevalence estimates for the parasitic diseases of interest and for confirming the highly focal distributions of some of these infections. Integrated surveys offer an opportunity to systematically assess the status of multiple public health programs and measure progress toward Millennium Development Goals. PMID:27136913

  1. Poverty does not limit tobacco consumption in Cambodia: quantitative estimate of tobacco use under conditions of no income and adult malnutrition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pramil N; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S

    2013-09-01

    Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco.

  2. A study of the genetic variability of human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) in Cambodia reveals the existence of a new HRSV group B genotype.

    PubMed

    Arnott, Alicia; Vong, Sirenda; Mardy, Sek; Chu, Simon; Naughtin, Monica; Sovann, Ly; Buecher, Carole; Beauté, Julien; Rith, Sareth; Borand, Laurence; Asgari, Nima; Frutos, Roger; Guillard, Bertrand; Touch, Sok; Deubel, Vincent; Buchy, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is the leading cause of hospitalization of children aged <5 years due to respiratory illness in industrialized countries, and pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality among children aged <5 years worldwide. Although HRSV was first identified in 1956, a preventative vaccine has yet to be developed. Here we report the results of the first study to investigate the circulation and genetic diversity of HRSV in Cambodia among an all-ages population over 5 consecutive years. The incidences of HRSV infection among all-ages outpatient and hospitalized populations were equivalent, at 9.5% and 8.2%, respectively. Infection was most prevalent among children aged <5 years, with bronchiolitis being the most frequently observed clinical syndrome in the same age group. Circulation of HRSV was seasonal, typically coinciding with the rainy season between July and November annually. Strains belonging to HRSV groups A and B were detected with equivalent frequencies; however, we observed a potentially biennial shift in the predominant circulating HRSV genotype. The majority of HRSV group B strains belonged to the recently described BA genotype, with the exception of 10 strains classified as belonging to a novel HRSV group B genotype, SAB4, first reported here.

  3. Occurrence and molecular characteristics of antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli from broilers, pigs and meat products in Thailand and Cambodia provinces.

    PubMed

    Trongjit, Suthathip; Angkittitrakul, Sunpetch; Chuanchuen, Rungtip

    2016-09-01

    Nine hundred and forty-one samples were collected in Sa Keao, Thailand (n = 554) and Banteay Meanchey, Cambodia (n = 387) from July 2014 to January 2015. A total of 667 Escherichia coli isolates (381 isolates from Sa Keao and 286 isolates from Banteay Meanchey) were obtained and examined for antimicrobial susceptibility, class 1 integrons, ESBL genes and horizontal transfer of resistance determinants. Prevalence of E. coli in pig and broiler carcass samples from slaughterhouses and fresh markets was 36-85% in Sa Keao and 11-69% in Banteay Meanchey. The majority of these isolates were multidrug resistant (75.3%). Class 1 integrons were common in both Thai (47%) and Cambodian (62%) isolates, of which four resistance gene cassette arrays including aadA1, dfrA1-aadA1, dfrA12-aadA2 and aadA2-linF were identified. Class 1 integrons in two broiler isolates from Sa Keao (dfrA12-aadA2) and one broiler isolate from Banteay Meanchey (dfrA1-aadA1) were horizontally transferable. Sixteen isolates were confirmed to be ESBL-producing strains with ESBL gene blaCTX-M-15 , broad spectrum β-lactamase gene blaTEM-1 and the AmpC gene blaCMY-2 being detected. The blaTEM-1 gene was most prevalent and located on a conjugative plasmid.

  4. Simulation of Canopy CO2/H2O Fluxes for a Rubber (Hevea Brasiliensis) Plantation in Central Cambodia: The Effect of the Regular Spacing of Planted Trees

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Liu, Wen; Giambelluca, Thomas; Kobayashi, N.; Lim, Tiva Khan; Jomura, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Kazuho; Huang, Maoyi; Chen, Qi; Ziegler, Alan; Yin, Song

    2013-09-10

    We developed a soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) model applicable to simulating CO2 and H2O fluxes from the canopies of rubber plantations, which are characterized by distinct canopy clumping produced by regular spacing of plantation trees. Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) plantations, which are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially change the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with traditional land covers it is replacing. Describing the biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations via SVAT modeling is therefore essential to understanding the impacts on environmental processes. The regular spacing of plantation trees creates a peculiar canopy structure that is not well represented in most SVAT models, which generally assumes a non-uniform spacing of vegetation. Herein we develop a SVAT model applicable to rubber plantation and an evaluation method for its canopy structure, and examine how the peculiar canopy structure of rubber plantations affects canopy CO2 and H2O exchanges. Model results are compared with measurements collected at a field site in central Cambodia. Our findings suggest that it is crucial to account for intensive canopy clumping in order to reproduce observed rubber plantation fluxes. These results suggest a potentially optimal spacing of rubber trees to produce high productivity and water use efficiency.

  5. Poverty Does Not Limit Tobacco Consumption in Cambodia: Quantitative Estimate of Tobacco Use Under Conditions of No Income and Adult Malnutrition

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pramil N.; Washburn, Dawn; Yel, Daravuth; Kheam, They; Job, Jayakaran S.

    2014-01-01

    Current data indicate that under conditions of poverty, tobacco is consumed at the expense of basic needs. In a large national sample from Cambodia, we sought to determine whether tobacco consumption declines under extreme conditions of no income and malnutrition. Our major findings are as follows: (1) Among men, there was no significant difference in the number of cigarettes smoked for no income (425, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 395-456) versus >US$2 per day (442, 95% CI = 407-477); (2) among women, there was no significant difference in the amount of loose tobacco (ie, betel quid) consumed for no income (539 g, 95% CI = 441-637) versus >US$2 per day (558 g, 95% CI = 143-973); (3) for the contrast of no income + malnutrition versus >US$2 per day + no malnutrition in a linear model, there was no significant difference for men who smoked (462 vs 517 cigarettes/month, P = .82) or women who chewed (316 vs 404 g tobacco/month, P = .34), adjusting for confounders. Among the poorest and malnourished Cambodian adults, lack of resources did not appear to prevent them from obtaining smoked or smokeless tobacco. PMID:23666843

  6. From public to private and back again: sustaining a high service-delivery level during transition of management authority: a Cambodia case study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Bart; Thomé, Jean-Marc; Overtoom, Rob; Sam, Sam Oeun; Indermühle, Lorenz; Price, Neil

    2010-05-01

    Contracting non-governmental organizations (NGOs) has been shown to increase health service delivery output considerably over relatively short time frames in low-income countries, especially when applying performance-related pay as a stimulus. A key concern is how to manage the transition back to government-operated systems while maintaining health service delivery output levels. In this paper we describe and analyse the transition from NGO-managed to government-managed health services over a 3-year period in a health district in Cambodia with a focus on the level of health service delivery. Data are derived from four sources, including cross-sectional surveys and health management and financial information systems. The transition was achieved by focusing on all the building blocks of the health care system and ensuring an acceptable financial remuneration for the staff members of contracted health facilities. The latter was attained through performance subsidies derived from financial commitment by the central government, and revenue from user fees. Performance management had a crucial role in the gradual handover of responsibilities. Not all responsibilities were handed back to government over the case study period-notably the development of performance indicators and targets and the performance monitoring.

  7. [Incidence of HIV infection in consultants reviewed after a first negative test in an anonymous and free screening center at the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia, 1996-1999].

    PubMed

    Kruy, S L; Glaziou, P; Flye Sainte Marie, F; Buisson, Y

    2001-12-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine the incidence of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the voluntary testing and counselling centre of the Institut Pasteur of Cambodia as well as factors associated with HIV seroconversion. From 1996 to 1999, 5541 repeat consultants were selected for the study. Exclusion criteria included being aged under 15 years, having initially tested positive or inconclusive and a time span of fewer than 30 days since the last test. In all, 276 persons had seroconverted to HIV, giving an incidence rate of 5.56 per 100 person-years. The seroconversion rate declined from 8.46% in 1996, to 3.06% in 1999 (chi 2 test for trend, p = 10(-5)). Among the risk factors analysed, 3 were significantly associated with lack of seroconversion: being a student (RR = 0.53, p = 0.032) or a civil servant (RR = 0.63, p = 0.012) and systematic condom use with causal partners (RR = 0.37, p = 10(-5)). The decline of HIV seroconversion among repeat consultants attending the VCT centre over the study period may reflect changes in risk behaviour and the beneficial impact of counselling.

  8. Pre-packing of cost effective antibiotic cement beads for the treatment of traumatic osteomyelitis in the developing world - an in-vitro study based in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Noor, S; Gilson, A; Kennedy, K; Swanson, A; Vanny, V; Mony, K; Chaudhry, T; Gollogly, J

    2016-04-01

    The developing world often lacks the resources to effectively treat the most serious injuries including osteomyelitis following open fractures or surgical fracture treatment. Antibiotic cement beads are a widely accepted method of delivering antibiotics locally to the infected area following trauma. This study is based in Cambodia, a low income country struggling to recover from a recent genocide. The study aims to test the effectiveness of locally made antibiotic beads and analyse their effectiveness after being gas sterilised, packaged and kept in storage Different antibiotic beads were manufactured locally using bone cement and tested against MRSA bacteria grown from a case of osteomyelitis. Each antibiotic was tested before and after a process of gas sterilisation as well as later being tested after storage in packaging up to 42 days. The gentamicin, vancomycin, amikacin and ceftriaxone beads all inhibited growth of the MRSA on the TSB and agar plates, both before and after gas sterilisation. All four antibiotics continued to show similar zones of inhibition after 42 days of storage. The results show significant promise to produce beads with locally obtainable ingredients in an austere environment and improve cost effectiveness by storing them in a sterilised condition.

  9. Protocol of a cluster randomised stepped-wedge trial of behavioural interventions targeting amphetamine-type stimulant use and sexual risk among female entertainment and sex workers in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Page, Kimberly; Stein, Ellen S; Carrico, Adam W; Evans, Jennifer L; Sokunny, Muth; Nil, Ean; Ngak, Song; Sophal, Chhit; McCulloch, Charles; Maher, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction HIV risk among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW) remains high and use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) significantly increases this risk. We designed a cluster randomised stepped wedge trial (The Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study) to test sequentially delivered behavioural interventions targeting ATS use. Methods and analysis The trial combines a 12-week Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) intervention with 4 weeks of cognitive-behavioural group aftercare (AC) among FESW who use ATS. The primary goal is to reduce ATS use and unprotected sex among FESW. The CCT+AC intervention is being implemented in 10 provinces where order of delivery was randomised. Outcome assessments (OEs) including biomarkers and self-reported measures of recent sexual and drug use behaviours are conducted prior to implementation, and at three 6-month intervals after completion. Consultation with multiple groups and stakeholders on implementation factors facilitated acceptance and operationalisation of the trial. Statistical power and sample size calculations were based on expected changes in ATS use and unprotected sex at the population level as well as within subjects. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approvals were granted by the Cambodia National Ethics Committee; University of New Mexico; University of California, San Francisco; and FHI360. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. Dissemination of process indicators during the multiyear trial is carried out through annual in-country Stakeholder Meetings. Provincial ‘Close-Out’ forums are held at the conclusion of data collection in each province. When analysis is completed, dissemination meetings will be held in Cambodia with stakeholders, including community-based discussion sessions, policy briefs and results published and presented in the HIV prevention scientific journals and conferences. Conclusions CIPI is the first trial of an intervention to reduce ATS use

  10. Outbreak of Burkholderia cepacia bloodstream infections traced to the use of Ringer lactate solution as multiple-dose vial for catheter flushing, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    De Smet, B; Veng, C; Kruy, L; Kham, C; van Griensven, J; Peeters, C; Ieng, S; Phe, T; Vlieghe, E; Vandamme, P; Jacobs, J

    2013-09-01

    The Burkholderia cepacia complex is a group of Gram-negative bacteria known as respiratory pathogens in cystic fibrosis patients, but also increasingly reported as a cause of healthcare associated infections. We describe an outbreak of B. cepacia bloodstream infections in a referral hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Over a 1.5-month period, blood cultures from eight adult patients grew B. cepacia. Bloodstream infection occurred after a median of 2.5 days of hospitalisation. Three patients died: 7, 10 and 17 days after blood cultures were sampled. As part of the outbreak investigation, patient files were reviewed and environmental sampling was performed. All patients had peripheral venous catheters that were flushed with Ringer lactate drawn from a 1 L bag, used as multiple-dose vial at the ward. Cultures of unopened Ringer lactate and disinfectants remained sterile but an in-use bag of Ringer lactate solution and the dispensing pin grew B. cepacia. The isolates from patients and flushing solution were identified as B. cepacia by recA gene sequence analysis, and random amplified polymorphic DNA typing confirmed clonal relatedness. The onset of the outbreak had coincided with the introduction of a dispensing pin with a screw fit that did not allow proper disinfection. Re-enforcement of aseptic procedures with sterile syringe and needle has ended the outbreak. Growth of B. cepacia should alert the possibility of healthcare associated infection also in tropical resource-limited settings. The use of multiple-dose vials should be avoided and newly introduced procedures should be assessed for infection control risks.

  11. Establishing seasonal and alert influenza thresholds in Cambodia using the WHO method: implications for effective utilization of influenza surveillance in the tropics and subtropics

    PubMed Central

    Ly, Sovann; Arashiro, Takeshi; Ieng, Vanra; Tsuyuoka, Reiko; Parry, Amy; Horwood, Paul; Heng, Seng; Hamid, Sarah; Vandemaele, Katelijn; Chin, Savuth; Sar, Borann

    2017-01-01

    Objective To establish seasonal and alert thresholds and transmission intensity categories for influenza to provide timely triggers for preventive measures or upscaling control measures in Cambodia. Methods Using Cambodia’s influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza surveillance data from 2009 to 2015, three parameters were assessed to monitor influenza activity: the proportion of ILI patients among all outpatients, proportion of ILI samples positive for influenza and the product of the two. With these parameters, four threshold levels (seasonal, moderate, high and alert) were established and transmission intensity was categorized based on a World Health Organization alignment method. Parameters were compared against their respective thresholds. Results Distinct seasonality was observed using the two parameters that incorporated laboratory data. Thresholds established using the composite parameter, combining syndromic and laboratory data, had the least number of false alarms in declaring season onset and were most useful in monitoring intensity. Unlike in temperate regions, the syndromic parameter was less useful in monitoring influenza activity or for setting thresholds. Conclusion Influenza thresholds based on appropriate parameters have the potential to provide timely triggers for public health measures in a tropical country where monitoring and assessing influenza activity has been challenging. Based on these findings, the Ministry of Health plans to raise general awareness regarding influenza among the medical community and the general public. Our findings have important implications for countries in the tropics/subtropics and in resource-limited settings, and categorized transmission intensity can be used to assess severity of potential pandemic influenza as well as seasonal influenza.

  12. Bacterial Larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis Strain AM 65-52 Water Dispersible Granule Formulation Impacts Both Dengue Vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) Population Density and Disease Transmission in Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Socheat, Doung

    2016-01-01

    A multi-phased study was conducted in Cambodia from 2005–2011 to measure the impact of larviciding with the bacterial larvicide, Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), a water dispersible granule (WG) formulation on the vector, Aedes aegypti (L.) and the epidemiology. In our studies, all in-use containers were treated at 8 g/1000 L, including smaller containers and animal feeders which were found to contribute 23% of Ae aegypti pupae. The treated waters were subjected to routine water exchange activities. Pupal production was suppressed by an average 91% for 8 weeks. Pupal numbers continued to remain significantly lower than the untreated commune (UTC) for 13 weeks post treatment in the peak dengue vector season (p<0.05). Suppression of pupal production was supported by very low adult numbers in the treated commune. An average 70% of the household harbored 0–5 Ae aegypti mosquitoes per home for 8 weeks post treatment, but in the same period of time >50% of the household in the UTC harbored ≥11 mosquitoes per home. The adult population continued to remain at significantly much lower numbers in the Bti treated commune than in the UTC for 10–12 weeks post treatment (p<0.05). In 2011, a pilot operational program was evaluated in Kandal Province, a temephos resistant site. It was concluded that 2 cycles of Bti treatment in the 6 months monsoon season with complete coverage of the target districts achieved an overall dengue case reduction of 48% in the 6 treated districts compared to the previous year, 2010. Five untreated districts in the same province had an overwhelming increase of 352% of dengue cases during the same period of time. The larvicide efficacy, treatment of all in-use containers at the start of the monsoon season, together with treatment coverage of entire districts interrupted disease transmission in the temephos resistant province. PMID:27627758

  13. Acute lower respiratory infections in ≥5 year -old hospitalized patients in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country: clinical characteristics and pathogenic etiology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few data exist on viral and bacterial etiology of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) in ≥5 year –old persons in the tropics. Methods We conducted active surveillance of community-acquired ALRI in two hospitals in Cambodia, a low-income tropical country. Patients were tested for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) by direct sputum examination, other bacteria by blood and/or sputum cultures, and respiratory viruses using molecular techniques on nasopharyngeal/throat swabs. Pulmonologists reviewed clinical/laboratory data and interpreted chest X-rays (CXR) to confirm ALRI. Results Between April 2007 - December 2009, 1,904 patients aged ≥5 years were admitted with acute pneumonia (50.4%), lung sequelae-associated ALRI (24.3%), isolated pleural effusions (8.9%) or normal CXR-related ALRI (17.1%); 61 (3.2%) died during hospitalization. The two former diagnoses were predominantly due to bacterial etiologies while viral detection was more frequent in the two latter diagnoses. AFB-positive accounted for 25.6% of acute pneumonia. Of the positive cultures (16.8%), abscess-prone Gram-negative bacteria (39.6%) and Haemophilus influenzae (38.0%) were most frequent, followed by Streptococcus pneumoniae (17.7%). Of the identified viruses, the three most common viruses included rhinoviruses (49.5%), respiratory syncytial virus (17.7%) and influenza viruses (12.1%) regardless of the diagnostic groups. Wheezing was associated with viral identification (31.9% vs. 13.8%, p < 0.001) independent of age and time-to-admission. Conclusions High frequency of H. influenzae and S. pneumoniae infections support the need for introduction of the respective vaccines in the national immunization program. Tuberculosis was frequent in patients with acute pneumonia, requiring further investigation. The relationship between respiratory viruses and wheezing merits further studies. PMID:23432906

  14. Stability of Vitamin A, Iron and Zinc in Fortified Rice during Storage and Its Impact on Future National Standards and Programs--Case Study in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Kuong, Khov; Laillou, Arnaud; Chea, Chantum; Chamnan, Chhoun; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T

    2016-01-16

    Fortified rice holds great potential for bringing essential micronutrients to a large part of the world population. The present study quantified the losses of three different micronutrients (vitamin A, iron, zinc) in fortified rice that were produced using three different techniques (hot extrusion, cold extrusion, and coating) and stored at two different environments (25 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 60% and 40 ± 5 °C at a humidity of 75%) for up to one year. Fortified rice premix from the different techniques was mixed with normal rice in a 1:100 ratio. Each sample was analyzed in triplicate. The study confirmed the high stability of iron and zinc during storage while the retention of vitamin A was significantly affected by storage and the type of techniques used to make rice premix. Losses for iron and zinc were typically <10% for any type of rice premix. After 12 months at mild conditions (25 °C and humidity of 60%), losses for vitamin A ranged from 20% for cold extrusion, 30% for hot extruded rice 77% for coated rice premix. At higher temperatures and humidity, losses of vitamin A were 40%-50% for extruded premix and 93% for coated premix after 6 months. We conclude that storage does lead to a major loss of vitamin A and question whether rice is a suitable food vehicle to fortify with vitamin A. For Cambodia, fortification of rice with iron and zinc could be an effective strategy to improve the micronutrient status of the population if no other food vehicles are available.

  15. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  16. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  17. Fine-Scale Mapping by Spatial Risk Distribution Modeling for Regional Malaria Endemicity and Its Implications under the Low-to-Moderate Transmission Setting in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Okami, Suguru; Kohtake, Naohiko

    2016-01-01

    The disease burden of malaria has decreased as malaria elimination efforts progress. The mapping approach that uses spatial risk distribution modeling needs some adjustment and reinvestigation in accordance with situational changes. Here we applied a mathematical modeling approach for standardized morbidity ratio (SMR) calculated by annual parasite incidence using routinely aggregated surveillance reports, environmental data such as remote sensing data, and non-environmental anthropogenic data to create fine-scale spatial risk distribution maps of western Cambodia. Furthermore, we incorporated a combination of containment status indicators into the model to demonstrate spatial heterogeneities of the relationship between containment status and risks. The explanatory model was fitted to estimate the SMR of each area (adjusted Pearson correlation coefficient R2 = 0.774; Akaike information criterion AIC = 149.423). A Bayesian modeling framework was applied to estimate the uncertainty of the model and cross-scale predictions. Fine-scale maps were created by the spatial interpolation of estimated SMRs at each village. Compared with geocoded case data, corresponding predicted values showed conformity [Spearman’s rank correlation r = 0.662 in the inverse distance weighed interpolation and 0.645 in ordinal kriging (95% confidence intervals of 0.414–0.827 and 0.368–0.813, respectively), Welch’s t-test; Not significant]. The proposed approach successfully explained regional malaria risks and fine-scale risk maps were created under low-to-moderate malaria transmission settings where reinvestigations of existing risk modeling approaches were needed. Moreover, different representations of simulated outcomes of containment status indicators for respective areas provided useful insights for tailored interventional planning, considering regional malaria endemicity. PMID:27415623

  18. Assessment of corporate compliance with guidance and regulations on labels of commercially produced complementary foods sold in Cambodia, Nepal, Senegal and Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Lara; Pereira, Catherine; Ford, Rosalyn; Feeley, Alison B; Mengkheang, Khin; Adhikary, Indu; Gueye, Ndèye Yaga Sy; Coly, Aminata Ndiaye; Makafu, Cecilia; Zehner, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract National legislation and global guidance address labelling of complementary foods to ensure that labels support optimal infant and young child feeding practices. This cross‐sectional study assessed the labels of commercially produced complementary foods (CPCF) sold in Phnom Penh (n = 70), Cambodia; Kathmandu Valley (n = 22), Nepal; Dakar Department (n = 84), Senegal; and Dar es Salaam (n = 26), Tanzania. Between 3.6% and 30% of products did not provide any age recommendation and 8.6−20.2% of products, from all sites, recommended an age of introduction of <6 months. Few CPCF products provided a daily ration (0.0−8.6%) and 14.5−55.6% of those that did exceeded the daily energy recommendation for complementary foods for a breastfed child from 6 to 8.9 months of age. Only 3.6−27.3% of labels provided accurate and complete messages in the required language encouraging exclusive breastfeeding, and almost none (0.0−2.9%) provided accurate and complete messages regarding the appropriate introduction of complementary foods together with continued breastfeeding. Between 34.3% and 70.2% of CPCF manufacturers also produced breastmilk substitutes and 41.7−78.0% of relevant CPCF products cross‐promoted their breastmilk substitutes products. Labelling practices of CPCF included in this study do not fully comply with international guidance on their promotion and selected aspects of national legislation, and there is a need for more detailed normative guidance on certain promotion practices in order to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding. PMID:27061960

  19. Increasing Uptake of Long-Acting Reversible Contraceptives in Cambodia Through a Voucher Program: Evidence From a Difference-in-Differences Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bajracharya, Ashish; Veasnakiry, Lo; Rathavy, Tung; Bellows, Ben

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: This article evaluates the use of modern contraceptives among poor women exposed to a family planning voucher program in Cambodia, with a particular focus on the uptake of long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs). Methods: We used a quasi-experimental study design and data from before-and-after intervention cross-sectional household surveys (conducted in 2011 and 2013) in 9 voucher program districts in Kampong Thom, Kampot, and Prey Veng provinces, as well as 9 comparison districts in neighboring provinces, to evaluate changes in use of modern contraceptives and particularly LARCs in the 12 months preceding each survey. Survey participants in the analytical sample were currently married, non-pregnant women ages 18 to 45 years (N = 1,936 at baseline; N = 1,986 at endline). Difference-in-differences (DID) analyses were used to examine the impact of the family planning voucher. Results: Modern contraceptive use increased in both intervention and control areas between baseline and endline: in intervention areas, from 22.4% to 31.6%, and in control areas, from 25.2% to 31.0%. LARC use also increased significantly between baseline and endline in both intervention (from 1.4% to 6.7%) and control (from 1.9% to 3.5%) areas, but the increase in LARC use was 3.7 percentage points greater in the intervention area than in the control area (P = .002), suggesting a positive and significant association of the voucher program with LARC use. The greatest increases occurred among the poorest and least educated women. Conclusion: A family planning voucher program can increase access to and use of more effective long-acting methods among the poor by reducing financial and information barriers. PMID:27540118

  20. Comparative analysis of genetic diversity of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) from Vietnam and Cambodia using agro-morphological and molecular markers.

    PubMed

    Pham, Toan Duc; Geleta, Mulatu; Bui, Tri Minh; Bui, Tuyen Cach; Merker, Arnulf; Carlsson, Anders S

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to comparatively analyze the genetic diversity of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using agro-morphological and molecular markers. Twelve sesame populations collected from three regions in Cambodia and Vietnam were used in this study. A high genetic variation was revealed both by agro-morphological and RAPD markers within and among the 12 sesame populations. The range of agro-morphological trait based average taxonomic distance among populations (0.02 to 0.47) was wider than that of RAPD based genetic distance (0.06 to 0.27). The mean distance revealed by agro-morphological markers (0.23) and RAPD markers (0.22) was similar. RAPD based analysis revealed a relatively higher genetic diversity in populations from South Vietnam as compared to the other two regions. Interestingly, populations from this region also had higher values for yield related traits such as number of capsules per plant, number of seeds per capsule, and seed yield per plant suggesting positive correlation between the extent of genetic variation within population and yield related traits in sesame. A highly significant positive correlation (r = 0.88, P < 0.001) was found between agro-morphological and RAPD markers in estimating the genetic distance between populations. Both methods suggested the existence of a substantial amount of genetic diversity both in the Vietnamese and Cambodian populations. Although both agro-morphological and RAPD markers were found to be useful in genetic diversity analysis in sesame, their combined use would give superior results.

  1. Climate change adaptation options in rainfed upland cropping systems in the wet tropics: A case study of smallholder farms in North-West Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Touch, Van; Martin, Robert John; Scott, Jeannette Fiona; Cowie, Annette; Liu, De Li

    2016-11-01

    While climate change is confirmed to have serious impacts on agricultural production in many regions worldwide, researchers have proposed various measures that farmers can apply to cope with and adapt to those changes. However, it is often the case that not every adaptation measure would be practical and adoptable in a specific region. Farmers may have their own ways of managing and adapting to climate change that need to be taken into account when considering interventions. This study aimed to engage with farmers to: (1) better understand small-holder knowledge, attitudes and practices in relation to perceived or expected climate change; and (2) document cropping practices, climate change perceptions, constraints to crop production, and coping and adaptation options with existing climate variability and expected climate change. This study was conducted in 2015 in Sala Krau village near Pailin (12°52'N, 102°45'E) and Samlout (12°39'N, 102°36'E) of North-West Cambodia. The methods used were a combination of focus group discussions and one-on-one interviews where 132 farming households were randomly selected. We found that farmers were conscious of changes in climate over recent years, and had a good understanding of likely future changes. While farmers are aware of some practices that can be modified to minimize risk and cope with anticipated changes, they are reluctant to apply them. Furthermore; there are no government agricultural extension services provided at the village level and farmers have relied on each other and other actors in the value chain network for information to support their decision-making. There is a lack of knowledge of the principles of conservation agriculture that urgently require agricultural extension services in the region to build farmer ability to better cope and adapt to climate change.

  2. Challenges from Tuberculosis Diagnosis to Care in Community-Based Active Case Finding among the Urban Poor in Cambodia: A Mixed-Methods Study

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Shelly; Koeut, Pichenda; Thai, Sopheak; Khun, Kim Eam; Colebunders, Robert; Lynen, Lut

    2015-01-01

    Background While community-based active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) holds promise for increasing early case detection among hard-to-reach populations, limited data exist on the acceptability of active screening. We aimed to identify barriers and explore facilitators on the pathway from diagnosis to care among TB patients and health providers. Methods Mixed-methods study. We administered a survey questionnaire to, and performed in-depth interviews with, TB patients identified through ACF from poor urban settlements in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Additionally, we conducted focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with community and public health providers involved in ACF, respectively. Results Acceptance of home TB screening was strong among key stakeholders due to perceived reductions in access barriers and in direct and indirect patient costs. Privacy and stigma were not an issue. To build trust and facilitate communication, the participation of community representatives alongside health workers was preferred. Most health providers saw ACF as complementary to existing TB services; however, additional workload as a result of ACF was perceived as straining operating capacity at public sector sites. Proximity to a health facility and disease severity were the strongest determinants of prompt care-seeking. The main reasons reported for delays in treatment-seeking were non-acceptance of diagnosis, high indirect costs related to lost income/productivity and transportation expenses, and anticipated side-effects from TB drugs. Conclusions TB patients and health providers considered home-based ACF complementary to facility-based TB screening. Strong engagement with community representatives was believed critical in gaining access to high risk communities. The main barriers to prompt treatment uptake in ACF were refusal of diagnosis, high indirect costs, and anticipated treatment side-effects. A patient-centred approach and community involvement were essential

  3. The social determinants of health and health service access: an in depth study in four poor communities in Phnom Penh Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Increasing urbanization and population density, and persisting inequities in health outcomes across socioeconomic groupings have raised concerns internationally regarding the health of the urban poor. These concerns are also evident in Cambodia, which prompted the design of a study to identify and describe the main barriers to access to health services by the poor in the capital city, Phnom Penh. Sources and Methods Main sources of data were through a household survey, followed by in-depth qualitative interviews with mothers, local authorities and health centre workers in four very poor communities in Phnom Penh. Main findings Despite low incomes and education levels, the study communities have moderate levels of access to services for curative and preventive care. However, qualitative findings demonstrate that households contextualize poor health and health access in terms of their daily living conditions, particularly in relation to environmental conditions and social insecurity. The interactions of low education, poor living conditions and high food costs in the context of low and irregular incomes reinforce a pattern of “living from moment to moment” and results in a cycle of disadvantage and ill health in these communities. There were three main factors that put poor communities at a health disadvantage; these are the everyday living conditions of communities, social and economic inequality and the extent to which a society assesses and acts on inequities in their health care access. Conclusions In order to improve access to health and health services for the urban poor, expansion of public health functions and capacities will be required, including building partnerships between health providers, municipal authorities and civil society. PMID:22900888

  4. Facilitators and barriers to accessing reproductive health care for migrant beer promoters in Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam: A mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of the research was to assess access to sexual and reproductive health services for migrant women who work as beer promoters. This mixed methods research was conducted in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, Bangkok, Thailand, Vientiane, Laos, and Hanoi, Vietnam during 2010 to 2011. Methods Focus groups were held with beer promoters and separate focus groups or interviews with key informants to explore the factors affecting beer promoters’ access to health care institutions for reproductive health care. The findings of the focus groups were used to develop a survey for beer promoters. This survey was conducted in popular health institutions for these women in each of the four Asian cities. Results Several common themes were evident. Work demands prevented beer promoters from accessing health care. Institutional factors affecting care included cost, location, environmental factors (e.g. waiting times, cleanliness and confidentiality) and service factors (e.g. staff attitudes, clinic hours, and availability of medications). Personal factors affecting access were shyness and fear, lack of knowledge, and support from family and friends. The survey of the beer promoters confirmed that cost, location and both environmental and service factors impact on access to health care services for beer promoters. Many beer promoters are sexually active, and a significant proportion of those surveyed rely on sex work to supplement their income. Many also drink with their clients. Despite a few differences amongst the surveyed population, the findings were remarkably similar across the four research sites. Conclusions Recommendations from the research include the provision of evening and weekend clinic hours to facilitate access, free or low cost clinics, and health insurance through employer or government plans which are easy to access for migrants. Other improvements that would facilitate the access of beer promoters to these services include increased funding to hire

  5. Biomarker validation of recent unprotected sexual intercourse in a prospective study of young women engaged in sex work in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Jennifer L.; Couture, Marie-Claude; Stein, Ellen S.; Sansothy, Neth; Maher, Lisa; Page, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Summary A study of female sex workers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia found self-reported condom use to be of questionable validity, particularly among amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) users and those with multiple partners. Background Accurate measurement of unprotected sex is essential in HIV prevention research. Since 2001, the 100% Condom Use Program targeting female sex workers (FSW) has been a central element of the Cambodian National HIV/AIDS Strategy. We sought to assess the validity of self-reported condom use using the rapid prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test among Cambodian FSW. Methods From 2009 to 2010 we enrolled 183 FSW in Phnom Penh in a prospective study of HIV risk behavior. PSA test results from the OneStep ABAcard® were compared to self-reported condom use in the past 48 hours at quarterly follow-up visits. Results Among women positive for seminal fluid at the first follow-up visit, 42% reported only protected sex or no sex in the detection period. Discordant results were more likely among brothel and street-based FSW vs. entertainment (56% vs. 17%), recent (last 3 months) ATS users (53% vs. 20%), and those with >5 partners in the past month (58% vs. 13%). In multivariable regression models, positive PSA results were associated with recent ATS use (Adjusted Risk Ratio (ARR) = 1.5; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.1 – 2.2), having a non-paying last sex partner (ARR=1.7; CI:1.2 – 2.5), and sex work venue (ARR=3.0; CI:1.4 – 6.5). Correspondingly, women with a non-paying last sex partner were more likely to report unprotected sex (ARR=1.5; CI:1.1 – 2.2), but no associations were found with sex work venue or ATS use. Conclusions Results confirm the questionable validity of self-reported condom use among FSW. The PSA biomarker assay is an important monitoring tool in HIV/STI research including prevention trials. PMID:23680902

  6. How do rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations behave under seasonal water stress in northeastern Thailand and central Cambodia?

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, Tomo'omi; Mudd, Ryan G.; Giambelluca, Thomas W.; Kobayashi, Nakako; Miyazawa, Yoshiyuki; Lim, Tiva Khan; Liu, Wen; Huang, Maoyi; Fox, Jefferson M.; Ziegler, Alan D.; Yin, Song; Mak, Sophea Veasna; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-11-01

    Plantation rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Müll. Arg.) is a viable economic resource for Southeast Asian countries. Consequently, rubber plantations are rapidly expanding into both climatically optimal and sub-optimal environments throughout mainland Southeast Asia, potentially changing the partitioning of water, energy, and carbon at multiple scales, compared with the traditional land covers they are replacing. Delineating the characteristics of biosphere-atmosphere exchange in rubber plantations is therefore important to understanding the impacts of such land use change on environmental processes. We have conducted eddy flux measurements in two rubber plantation sites: (1) Som Sanuk (SS), located northern Thailand; and (2) Cambodian Rubber Research Institute (CRRI), central Cambodia. Both sites have a distinct dry season. Measurements were made over a 3-year period. We used combination of actual evapotranspiration (ET) flux measurements and an inversed version of a simple 2-layer ET model for estimating the mean canopy stomatal conductances (gs), which is among the most effective measures for describing water and energy exchanges and tree water use characteristics. A main novelty in this analysis is that the rubber canopy conductance can be extracted from total surface conductance (including the canopy and the vegetation floor effects) and hence environmental and biological controls on rubber tree gs are explicitly compared at each site in different seasons and years. It is demonstrated how each studied rubber plantation copes with each strong seasonal drought via tree water use strategies. Potential tree water use deficit (precipitation (P) – potential evaporation (ET_POT)) for each season (i.e., December-February: DJF, March-May: MAM, June-August: JJA, and September-November: SON) revealed in which season and how the water use should be controlled. We found that in seasons when actual tree water use deficit (P

  7. Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of “immediate ex vivo” (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission. Methods Using the HRP-2 and MSF methods, the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values against a panel of malaria drugs were determined for P. falciparum reference clones (W2, D6, 3D7 and K1) and 41 IEV clinical isolates from an area of multidrug resistance in Cambodia. Comparison of the IC50 values from the two methods was made using Wilcoxon matched pair tests and Pearson’s correlation. The lower limit of parasitaemia detection for both methods was determined for reference clones and IEV isolates. Since human white blood cell (WBC) DNA in clinical samples is known to reduce MSF assay sensitivity, SYBR Green I fluorescence linearity of P. falciparum samples spiked with WBCs was evaluated to assess the relative degree to which MSF sensitivity is reduced in clinical samples. Results IC50 values correlated well between the HRP-2 and MSF methods when testing either P. falciparum reference clones or IEV isolates against 4-aminoquinolines (chloroquine, piperaquine and quinine) and the quinoline methanol mefloquine (Pearson r = 0.85-0.99 for reference clones and 0.56-0.84 for IEV isolates), whereas a weaker IC50 value correlation between methods was noted when testing artemisinins against reference clones and lack of correlation when testing IEV isolates. The HRP-2 ELISA produced a higher overall success rate (90% for producing IC50 best-fit sigmoidal curves), relative to only a 40% success rate for the

  8. Evaluation of parasite subpopulations and genetic diversity of the msp1, msp2 and glurp genes during and following artesunate monotherapy treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Western Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite widespread coverage of the emergence of artemisinin resistance, relatively little is known about the parasite populations responsible. The use of PCR genotyping around the highly polymorphic Plasmodium falciparum msp1, msp2 and glurp genes has become well established both to describe variability in alleles within a population of parasites, as well as classify treatment outcome in cases of recurrent disease. The primary objective was to assess the emergence of minority parasite clones during seven days of artesunate (AS) treatment in a location with established artemisinin resistance. An additional objective was to investigate whether the classification of clinical outcomes remained valid when additional genotyping was performed. Methods Blood for parasite genotyping was collected from 143 adult patients presenting with uncomplicated falciparum malaria during a clinical trial of AS monotherapy in Western Cambodia. Nested allelic type-specific amplification of the genes encoding the merozoite surface proteins 1 and 2 (msp1 and msp2) and the glutamate-rich protein (glurp) was performed at baseline, daily during seven days of treatment, and again at failure. Allelic variants were analysed with respect to the size of polymorphisms using Quantity One software to enable identification of polyclonal infections. Results Considerable variation of msp2 alleles but well-conserved msp1 and glurp were identified. At baseline, 31% of infections were polyclonal for one or more genes. Patients with recurrent malaria were significantly more likely to have polyclonal infections than patients without recurrence (seven of nine versus 36 of 127, p = 0.004). Emergence of minority alleles during treatment was detected in only one of twenty-three cases defined as being artemisinin resistant. Moreover, daily genotyping did not alter the final outcome classification in any recurrent cases. Conclusions The parasites responsible for artemisinin-resistant malaria in a

  9. Reap the benefits of a cooperative approach. Understanding interdisciplinary teamwork.

    PubMed

    Barr, O

    1993-04-01

    1. For a variety of people, teamwork is effective for nursing interaction. 2. Teamwork can benefit patients and staff if careful planning of team policies is undertaken. 3. Teamwork requires agreed values, aims and objectives together with commitment of members. 4. Lack of commitment to teamwork reduces quality care, is wasteful of resources and contradicts the UKCC Code of Professional Conduct.

  10. School Yard Gardening Reaps Harvest of Learning and Lettuce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brasgalla, June

    1989-01-01

    Describes the experiences of a kindergarten class that conducted an extensive outdoor vegetable gardening project with the help of parent volunteers. The article presents seven steps to assist PTAs in establishing such a project and notes the value of school gardens in developing student skills. (SM)

  11. Automate your supply chain and reap the benefits.

    PubMed

    Page, Douglas

    2011-05-01

    Web-based materials management saves hospitals money by making the process more efficient. It also aids in contract negotiations with vendors and even helps boost quality of care by freeing up clinical staff time.

  12. Boys, Masculinity and School Violence: Reaping What We Sow

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Sandy White

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the author explores the relationship between masculinity and violence. She begins by pointing out that although all of the recent school shootings in the US have been perpetrated by boys, very few are associating the acts with the gender of the offenders. Perhaps this connection is not made because society is so conditioned to the…

  13. Sowing Modern SEAD: Reaping Success or Changing Strains

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    air forces located Iraqi 58“Success from the Air,” Jane’s Defence Weekly, 6 April 1991, 530. 59 Christopher Bolkcom, Military Suppression of Enemy...60 Maj Gen Walter Buchanan, “Air Force Current Operations,” briefing to Congressional Air Power Caucus, Bolling AFB, 12 March 2001, in Christopher ...tactics raised system costs and sustained performance lent SEAD 67 Christopher Bolkcom, Military Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses (SEAD): Assessing

  14. Drug packaging in 2013: small changes would reap big benefits.

    PubMed

    2014-05-01

    Drug packaging is important both in protecting and informing patients. Some improvements were made in 2013, but many of the products examined by Prescrire still had poor-quality or even dangerous packaging. Problem packaging is a major concern for patients who are more vulnerable to adverse effects, particularly children and pregnant women. Several problems were noted with products intended for self-medication (umbrella brands), oral solutions sold with dosing devices, and injectable drugs. Looking back at 20 years of Red Cards that Prescrire has issued to products with dangerous packaging reveals several improvements, but too many dangers persist. Urgent action needs to be taken by regulatory agencies and drug companies: patient leaflets must be more explicit with regard to adverse effects, especially those of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs during pregnancy; accidental ingestion by children must be prevented; and companies must design safer dosing devices. Healthcare professionals and patients must remain vigilant and report all packaging issues to the relevant authorities.

  15. Hydrological change: reaping prosperity and pain in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunin, F. X.; Smith, C. J.; Denmead, O. T.

    2007-01-01

    The adage: “There is no such thing as a free lunch”, is relevant to land-use hydrology in Australia. Changes in land use to achieve greater productivity of food and fibre may have an adverse effect on the water balance and hence on the natural resource capital of a catchment. An altered regime of catchment outflow accompanies those land-use changes which, together with land degradation, impairs available water resources in quantity and quality and threatens enterprise sustainability, notwithstanding the initial improvement in productivity. Central to any hydrological change is an altered pattern of seasonal and annual water use by vegetation that has become modified in function with an amended transpiration fraction of daily evapotranspiration. In Australia, since measurement of evapotranspiration became feasible, the hydrological consequences of changes in land use have been determined, allowing the benefits in terms of plant productivity achieved through enhanced water use efficiency to be weighed against changed catchment outflows, diminished in either quantity or quality. Four case studies are presented as examples of ecological and hydrological changes: two deal with the upland forest environment and two with arable lowlands. In an upland eucalypt forest, following wildfire with subsequent regeneration from natural seedling establishment, substantial reduction in water yield occurred throughout a 50-year period of succession in the even-aged stand. In comparison, the effect of converting eucalypt forest to pine plantations was less detrimental to the yield of water from the catchments, with substantial growth increases over 30 years. In the lowlands, agricultural productivity, both as annual pasture and as crop, far exceeds that of natural perennial grassland and woodland. This increase in productivity comes not so much from any change to the yield of total water outflow but at the expense of water quality, compromised with increased material transport in suspension and solution resulting from accelerated erosion in association with outbreaks of soil salinity and acidity. The present study is aimed at optimising management to give plant production outcomes that ensure environmental protection through resource conservation. In the uplands, harvesting of water is the dominant consideration so that conservative management with limited plant productivity is sought. In the lowlands, the objective is to devise novel ecosystems with profitable plant production that exercises due control on outflow in maintaining the chemical and physical integrity of the edaphic environment.

  16. Mentors Have Consequences and Reap Returns in Academic Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, Robert; Long, J. Scott

    This paper explores the possible measurable effects of mentors (major professors) on the subsequent productivity of the mentor's students. Also asked is whether there are benefits to the productive scientist who acts as a mentor. Analysis is based on a population of male biochemists (N=66) who obtained their doctorates in 1957, 1958, 1962, and…

  17. Are Universities Reaping the Available Benefits Internship Programs Offer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weible, Rick

    2010-01-01

    Many research studies have examined the benefits student internships offer students and employers, but few looked at the benefits internships might lend to educational institutions. A survey instrument was developed and sent to 619 deans of all U.S. business programs. In all, 29% replied. The results indicate some institutions are gaining the…

  18. Cambodia: Background and U.S. Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-30

    Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 APR 2009 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2009...ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 18 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a . REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c

  19. Education Reforms in Cambodia: Issues and Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Charlene

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the key issues and concerns in the Cambodian government's efforts to implement three priority education policies for 2006-2010: ensure equitable access to education; increase quality and efficiency of the education services; and promote institutional development and capacity building for decentralisation. This paper identifies…

  20. Domestic Violence against Married Women in Cambodia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yount, Kathryn M.; Carrera, Jennifer S.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the effects of marital resources and early-life experiences on recent domestic violence and attitudes about wife abuse among 2,074 married Cambodian women. Household standard of living was negatively associated with physical domestic violence. Women with 8-13 fewer years of schooling than their husbands more often experienced physical…

  1. Area Handbook Series: Cambodia: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    the late 1960s. Sihanouk’s highly personal ruling style made him immensely popular with the people, especially in rural villages. Although the Sangkum...indoctrination, the separation of children from parents , and exe- cutions; however, they were generally allowed to remain in their native villages. Because...the torture of animals. Having lost parents , sib- lings, and friends in the war and lacking the Buddhist values of their elders, the Khmer Rouge

  2. Cambodia: Analysis of U.S. Military Assistance to Cambodia, 1970-1975.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-03

    Corporation was awarded the contract and as of 1 September 1971, operated the 29,000 foot Long Binh warehouse; the 4,000 square foot Tan Son Nhut...to be hired by the GKR under a contractual arrange- ment with the Vinnell Corporation . This would provide TCN’s under MEDTC/Vinnell control to assist...0 1 1 Mobile Support Base (MSB) 1 2 2 Infantry Landing Ship (LSIL/LCI) 2 2 2 Patrol Craft ( YTL ) 2 2 2 Yard Tug Light ( YTL ) 2 2 3 Drydock 1 1 1 Total

  3. Reaping the space investment. [Shuttle era geosynchronous satellite based technological trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calio, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    By 1999 operational space systems will be implemented routinely on a worldwide scale in many areas vital to human survival and life quality. Geosynchronous-based monitoring and observation will be extensively used. The Shuttle era will bring in the capability to allow monitoring and identifying pollution sources which fail to stay within required limits. Remotely sensed data over land masses will provide needed facts on renewable and nonrenewable earth resources. New instruments and techniques will have been developed to provide geologists with clues to the declining number of deposits of fuels and minerals. Also, practical methods for predicting earthquakes will have been elaborated by 1999. Communications will see implementation of many of the technological goals of 1978.

  4. Reaping the wind: How mechanical wizards, visionaries, and profiteers helped shape our energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Asmus, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the book, journalist Peter Asmus tells the fascinating and convoluted history of commercial wind power in the United States. He introduces readers to maverick scientists and technologists who labored in obscurity, to entrepreneurs and visionary capitalists who believed that a centuries-old idea could be made feasible in the modern world, and to enterprising financial advisers and investors who sought to exploit the last great tax shelter in federal history. Beginning with the early pioneers, from William Heronemus, a former US Navy captain who dreamt of huge floating wind farms off the coast of New England, to the $40 million success story of Jim Dehlsen of Zond, he offers an animated narrative that profiles the colorful cast of characters involved with the development of the American wind power industry.

  5. Reaping the benefits of task conflict in teams: the critical role of team psychological safety climate.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Bret H; Postlethwaite, Bennett E; Klotz, Anthony C; Hamdani, Maria R; Brown, Kenneth G

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance. Using evidence from 117 project teams, the present research found that psychological safety climate moderates the relationship between task conflict and performance. Specifically, task conflict and team performance were positively associated under conditions of high psychological safety. The results support the conclusion that psychological safety facilitates the performance benefits of task conflict in teams. Theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  6. Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

  7. Rare Earth Aluminophosphosilicate Glass Precursors for Ceramic-Matrix-Composites (REAPS CMC’s)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-11

    time. The homogeneous level of single phase 50M gel was similar to cluster size of the acid catalyzed silica gels prepared from silicon alkoxides...phase gel and the diphasic gel. The appearance of the LaAlnO](< phase is due to the phosphorous loss during the high temperature melting as proven by...begins as residual organics react and reduce phosphorous , which then expands due to its high vapor pressure. Subsequent to this, the larger pores break

  8. New Light Through Old Windows - Reaping the Benefits of a Palaeotsunami Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. R.; Chague-Goff, C.

    2015-12-01

    The New Zealand palaeotsunami database was first established in 2008 and has continued to grow in a somewhat ad hoc manner since then. While ostensibly a geological database, it has grown markedly through the addition of geomorphological, archaeological, anthropological and ecological data. The main tsunami research focus in New Zealand has tended to be along those coastlines either adjacent to a local subduction zone or exposed to events generated by similar distant sources; in this case - the eastern shores of New Zealand. Examining the database, we unexpectedly identified at least two large events within the past 700 years on the western shores. Event 1 occurred between 1470 and 1510AD and Event 2 between 1320 and 1450AD. Once the probable extent of these events was defined we were able to then propose a range of potential tsunamigenic sources including non-subduction fault ruptures and several slope failure mechanisms. While numerous sites with contemporaneously-aged evidence along the eastern shores point to significant probable subduction zone tsunamis, at least one anomalously high elevation data point stands out. The ~60 masl site at Korapuke Island fits comfortably within the timing of a probable 15th century palaeotsunami but evidence from neighbouring sites along 10s of kms of coastline range from only 0-10 masl. A subsequent reassessment of the site identified no unusual characteristics that might amplify runup and no local tsunamigenic source. However, a similar nearby site has high elevation (~45 m) deposits laid down in 1996 by a waterspout and it seems increasing likely that Korapuke Island may have the first reported palaeo-waterspout deposit. This adds an interesting wrinkle to the palaeotsunami-palaeostorm deposit debate, but also reveals the value of a palaeotsunami database. There are probably similar anomalies (and errors) in the database, but without the context of related data it is unlikely that they would be exposed to such scrutiny.

  9. Reaping the Whirlwind: "The Wind that Shakes the Barley", Liberation and after in the Movies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Popular culture includes stories that define and justify the existence of groups and nations. Among those stories are creation accounts, especially stories of the forming of nations through struggles for liberation from oppression. The useful liberation myths are exemplified by two recent films: "V for Vendetta" and "Children of…

  10. A Time to Reap, a Time to Sow: Mitophagy and Biogenesis in Cardiac Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Andres, Allen M.; Stotland, Aleksandr; Queliconi, Bruno B.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis is essential for maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria and cellular homeostasis. Coordinated interplay between these two forces that govern mitochondrial turnover plays an important role as an adaptive response against various cellular stresses that can compromise cell survival. Failure to maintain the critical balance between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis or homeostatic turnover of mitochondria results in a population of dysfunctional mitochondria that contribute to various disease processes. In this review we outline the mechanics and relationships between mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis, and discuss the implications of a disrupted balance between these two forces, with an emphasis on cardiac physiology. PMID:25444712

  11. We Cannot Blindly Reap the Benefits of a Globalized ICT Supply Chain!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    management strategy into other government organizations (and their suppliers) and the country’s wider Critical Infrastructure Protection initiatives... Infrastructure Protection DHS SCRM DHS Software Assurance Joe Jarzombek − joe.jarzombek@hq.dhs.gov ISO Standards and Harmonization CS1 ICT SCRM Ad hoc...Allen Hamilton Abstract. Information and Communication Technology ( ICT ) Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM) seeks to manage and mitigate cyber and supply

  12. The Weatherby Processing plant reaps big benefits from state-of-the-art technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Bratton, R.C.; Raines, J.

    2006-10-15

    In the fall of 2003, the Weatherby Processing plant in Kanawha County, WV, USA launched a program to evaluate the overall operation and efficiency of its two heavy-medium cyclones circuits processing 2-inch x 0 raw coal with the intention of reducing coal losses misplaced to refuse. A plant sampling program was developed and conducted that provided the basis for the plant upgrade, which included the installation of a raw coal sizing screen, the establishment of coarse and fine heavy-medium cyclones circuits, a compound spirals circuit, and a column flotation circuit. The upgraded flowsheet resulted in a major improvement in separation efficiency as well as a significant reduction in magnetite consumption. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. USDA Biochar Research: Land Application Advances to Reap Its Multifunctional Abilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ippolito, J.; Spokas, K.; Novak, J.; Lentz, R. D.; Stromberger, M.; Ducey, T.; Johnson, M.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar is the solid byproduct from the pyrolysis of agricultural crop residues, manures, green wastes and wood-based materials. Pyrolyzing biomass causes inorganic and organic compounds to be concentrated within the carbonized remains of the original lignin and cellulose structure. It is through this complex mixture of organic aromatic structures and inorganic elements that potentially imparts biochars with special multi-functional capabilities. Our current research has focused on developing biochar to simultaneously sequester soil carbon and remediate degraded soils. This is accomplished by directly improving soil nutrient and moisture contents, sorbing pollutants, as well as altering microbial signaling. Maintaining these improvements needs to account for biochar physical degradation, which may be overcome by biochar-mineral associations. Additional research is focused on biochar use that minimizes soil microorganism population shifts in order to maintain current ecosystem services. Future USDA research involves more evaluations to understand the multifunctional role of biochar in the agricultural and environmental sectors (e.g., USEPA superfund locations). This presentation will provide highlights of current and future coordinated biochar research efforts from several key laboratory locations across the US.

  14. VentureStar(trademark) Reaping the Benefits of the X-33 Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, J.; Lane, C.

    1998-01-01

    Major X-33 flight hardware has been delivered, and assembly of the vehicle is well underway in anticipation of its flight test program commencing in the summer of 1999. Attention has now turned to the operational VentureStar(trademark), the first single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launch vehicle. Activities are grouped under two broad categories: (1) vehicle development and (2) market/business planning, each of which is discussed. The mission concept is presented for direct payload delivery to the International Space Station and to low Earth orbit, as well as payload delivery with an upper stage to Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) and other high energy orbits. System requirements include flight segment and ground segment. Vehicle system sizing and design status is provided including the application of X-33 traceability and lessons learned. Technology applications to the VentureStar(trademark) are described including the structure, propellant tanks, thermal protection system, aerodynamics, subsystems, payload bay and propulsion. Developing a market driven low cost launch services system for the 21 st Century requires traditional and non-traditional ways of being able to forecast the evolution of the potential market. The challenge is balancing both the technical and financial assumptions of the market. This involves the need to provide a capability to meet market segments that in some cases are very speculative, while at the same time providing the financial community with a credible revenue stream.

  15. Reaping the harvest: nursing student service involvement with a campus gardening project.

    PubMed

    Ahonen, Kathleen; Lee, Carolyn; Daker, Emily

    2012-01-01

    The authors describe the development and incorporation of a multidisciplinary community garden as a service project in a baccalaureate nursing cohort in an urban university. The concepts of professional ethics and service, application of nutritional theory to a community cohort, and competencies in community health nursing are briefly discussed and applied to this service project.

  16. Reap & Sow: A Mind Consist of Opinions Waiting to Emerge from Rejection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The American education system is a complicated form of traditional biases that restrain personal interest to pursue an equal education. Our children cannot endure the public scrutiny that is failing in educational institutions, but should be replaced with a provision of hope.

  17. Student Action Research: Reaping the Benefits for Students and School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Beth C.; Jones, Makeba

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a proliferation of student action research both nationally and internationally. Going by various names--participatory research, action research, participatory evaluation--student action research is research that (a) is conducted by youth, within or outside of schools and classrooms, with the goal of informing and affecting…

  18. Weed 'Em and Reap: The Art of Weeding to Avoid Criticism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Today media centers provide students the opportunity to learn and explore subjects of their interest in depth. The media center is the largest classroom in the school providing service to every student and every teacher in all curricular areas. The library should be a place to encourage students' interests and a place to broaden their horizons by…

  19. Reaping the Return on Agricultural Research and Education in Virginia. Information Series 93-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, George W.; Paczkowski, Remi

    This report focuses upon the economic and other contributions that agricultural research and education have made to Virginia over the past 40 years. Agricultural research, extension, and classroom instruction contribute in the following ways to Virginia's citizens: increased supplies and reduced costs, improved competitiveness, multiplier effects…

  20. Effect of storage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds from reaping time on turbidity removal.

    PubMed

    Golestanbagh, M; Ahamad, I S; Idris, A; Yunus, R

    2011-09-01

    Moringa oleifera is an indigenous plant to Malaysia whose seeds are used for water purification. Many studies on Moringa oleifera have shown that it is highly effective as a natural coagulant for turbidity removal. In this study, two different methods for extraction of Moringa's active ingredient were investigated. Results of sodium chloride (NaCl) and distilled water extraction of Moringa oleifera seeds showed that salt solution extraction was more efficient than distilled water in extracting Moringa's active coagulant ingredient. The optimum dosage of shelled Moringa oleifera seeds extracted by the NaCl solution was comparable with that of the conventional chemical coagulant alum. Moreover, the turbidity removal efficiency was investigated for shelled Moringa oleifera seeds before drying in the oven under different storage conditions (i.e. open and closed containers at room temperature, 27 °C) and durations (fresh, and storage for 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks from the time the seeds were picked from the trees). Our results indicate that there are no significant differences in coagulation efficiencies and, accordingly, turbidity removals between the examined storage conditions and periods.